Science.gov

Sample records for air cell administration

  1. Air cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, Okiyoshi; Wakasa, Masayuki; Tamanoi, Yoshihito

    1991-04-01

    The present invention relates to an air cell. This air cell provides a compact light-weight power source for model aircraft permitting them to fly for an extended period so that they may be used for such practical purposes as crop dusting, surveying, and photographing. The cell is comprised of a current collector so disposed between a magnesium, zinc, or aluminum alloy cathode and a petroleum graphite anode that it is in contact with the anode. The anode is formed by adding polytetrafluoroethylene dispersion liquid in a mixture of active carbon and graphite powder, pouring the mixture into a mold and heating it to form the anode. It is fabricated by a plurality of anode sections and is formed with at least one hole so that it can provide a cell which is compact in size and light in weight yet is capable of generating a high output. The anode, the cathode, and a separator are wetted by an electrolytic liquid. The electrolyte is continuously supplied through the life of the cell.

  2. Word Processing: The Air Force Administrators’ Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    LEYEL > WORD PROCESSING ERRORCOP Qis 4 pL THE? ~ AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATOR$.! ’--s..HANDBOOK 400 Zi LUPRED F~ Fiir [rLT The views and opinions...INSTRUCTIONSBEFORE COMPLETING FORM I. REPORT NUMBER .O.Vk Er.;. NO. R CIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. ’TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED WORD ...Accession No. ADB 040882 L 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse aide it necessary and identify by block number) Administration / / Administrative Systems

  3. Lithium-Air Cell Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Dobley, Arthur; Seymour, Frasier W.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-air (Li-air) primary batteries have a theoretical specific capacity of 11,400 Wh/kg, the highest of any common metal-air system. NASA is developing Li-air technology for a Mobile Oxygen Concentrator for Spacecraft Emergencies, an application which requires an extremely lightweight primary battery that can discharge over 24 hours continuously. Several vendors were funded through the NASA SBIR program to develop Li-air technology to fulfill the requirements of this application. New catalysts and carbon cathode structures were developed to enhance the oxygen reduction reaction and increase surface area to improve cell performance. Techniques to stabilize the lithium metal anode surface were explored. Experimental results for prototype laboratory cells are given. Projections are made for the performance of hypothetical cells constructed from the materials that were developed.

  4. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on air quality and noise

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, K.C.; Chang, Y.S.; Rabchuk, J.A.

    1995-05-01

    The Western Area Power Administration, which is responsible for marketing electricity produced at the hydroelectric power-generating facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation on the Upper Colorado River, has proposed changes in the levels of its commitment (sales) of long-term firm capacity and energy to its customers. This report describes (1) the existing conditions of air resources (climate and meteorology, ambient air quality, and acoustic environment) of the region potentially affected by the proposed action and (2) the methodology used and the results of analyses conducted to assess the potential impacts on air resources of the proposed action and the commitment-level alternatives. Analyses were performed for the potential impacts of both commitment-level alternatives and supply options, which include combinations of electric power purchases and different operational scenarios of the hydroelectric power-generating facilities.

  5. 32 CFR 806.29 - Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA... FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.29 Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests. (a) This section is a checklist format of processing steps and...

  6. 32 CFR 806.29 - Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA... FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.29 Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests. (a) This section is a checklist format of processing steps and...

  7. 32 CFR 806.29 - Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA... FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.29 Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests. (a) This section is a checklist format of processing steps and...

  8. 32 CFR 806.29 - Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA... FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.29 Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests. (a) This section is a checklist format of processing steps and...

  9. 32 CFR 806.29 - Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA... FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.29 Administrative processing of Air Force FOIA requests. (a) This section is a checklist format of processing steps and...

  10. Air-cooled, hydrogen-air fuel cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelekhin, Alexander B. (Inventor); Bushnell, Calvin L. (Inventor); Pien, Michael S. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An air-cooled, hydrogen-air solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell with a membrane electrode assembly operatively associated with a fluid flow plate having at least one plate cooling channel extending through the plate and at least one air distribution hole extending from a surface of the cathode flow field into the plate cooling channel.

  11. Fuel cell stack with passive air supply

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2006-01-17

    A fuel cell stack has a plurality of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) where each PEFC includes a rectangular membrane electrode assembly (MEA) having a fuel flow field along a first axis and an air flow field along a second axis perpendicular to the first axis, where the fuel flow field is long relative to the air flow field. A cathode air flow field in each PEFC has air flow channels for air flow parallel to the second axis and that directly open to atmospheric air for air diffusion within the channels into contact with the MEA.

  12. 40 CFR 23.3 - Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act. 23.3 Section 23.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.3 Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air...

  13. 40 CFR 23.3 - Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act. 23.3 Section 23.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.3 Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air...

  14. 40 CFR 23.3 - Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act. 23.3 Section 23.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.3 Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air...

  15. 40 CFR 23.3 - Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act. 23.3 Section 23.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.3 Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air...

  16. 40 CFR 23.3 - Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act. 23.3 Section 23.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.3 Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air...

  17. Politics and Quality in Administrator Evaluation. AIR Forum 1981 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, John Y.

    Issues concerning administrator evaluation at the University of Toledo, including internal political realities and the need to incorporate qualitative dimensions, were evaluated. The overall framework for the analysis of administrator evaluation at Toledo was based on the political model of J. Victor Baldridge (1971), complemented by Bacharach and…

  18. Air breathing direct methanol fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Xiaoming

    2002-01-01

    An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source.

  19. Air breathing direct methanol fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2002-01-01

    An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source. Water loss from the cell is minimized by making the conductive cathode assembly hydrophobic and the conductive anode assembly hydrophilic.

  20. MICROBIOLOGICAL SCREENING OF THE INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN THE POLK COUNTY ADMINISTRATION BUILDING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a microbiological screening of the indoor air quality in the Polk County (Bartow, FL) Administration Building (PCAB), a large, negatively pressured building not known to be biocontaminated. The microbiological screening included bioaerosol, bulk materi...

  1. Leadership in Middle Administration. AIR 1990 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, James R.

    Leadership and the need for middle-level administrators in colleges and universities to develop and hone their leadership skills in order to success are addressed. The nature of leadership is analyzed from the observation that most people aspire to influence, or, more directly, to power. A two-dimensional leadership grid is provided to help…

  2. FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) Air Traffic Activity FY 1986.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-30

    AIRPORTS WITH FAA-3PSRATEO TRAFIC CONTROL TVWERS RY STATE (CONTINUED) STAT? AND LOCATION U AIR AI6 GENERAL LOCATION NAME IENTIFIPR 8 TOTAL CARRISR...0 0 0 LINUE "I 1 ZM4 3497 1273 99 74 251 LIMA ALLEN COUNTY 31 N ZI0 17 0 2 15 3LINCNFIELO IL N iC 4 0 0 4 2 LINCOLN LOGAN COUNTY IL S I S*I 9 0 0 9 0...VIRGINIA LENISBURG GREENBRIER ELWIS N 2100. %v TABLE n FISCAL YEAR 196 OPEIRATIONS AT AtFPORTS WITN CONTIRACTOR-3PERATED TRAFIC C0N11)L VtflERS BY STATE

  3. 77 FR 52322 - McClellan Air Force Base Superfund Site Proposed Notice of Administrative Order on Consent

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... AGENCY McClellan Air Force Base Superfund Site Proposed Notice of Administrative Order on Consent AGENCY... given that a proposed administrative order on consent concerning portions of the McClellan Air Force...''), the U.S. Air Force is performing the CERCLA response actions for the Site; however, the FFA...

  4. Fuel Cell Electrodes for Hydrogen-Air Fuel Cell Assemblies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report describes the design and evaluation of a hydrogen-air fuel cell module for use in a portable hydrid fuel cell -battery system. The fuel ... cell module consists of a stack of 20 single assemblies. Each assembly contains 2 electrically independent cells with a common electrolyte compartment

  5. Air breathing lithium power cells

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2014-07-15

    A cell suitable for use in a battery according to one embodiment includes a catalytic oxygen cathode; a stabilized zirconia electrolyte for selective oxygen anion transport; a molten salt electrolyte; and a lithium-based anode. A cell suitable for use in a battery according to another embodiment includes a catalytic oxygen cathode; an electrolyte; a membrane selective to molecular oxygen; and a lithium-based anode.

  6. TODAY: Secretary Kerry and EPA Administrator McCarthy to Launch International Air Quality Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON- Today, Secretary of State John Kerry and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Gina McCarthy will meet at 2 p.m. EST in the U.S. Department of State's Treaty Room for a signing ceremony to launch a joint air quality p

  7. EPA Administrator Promotes Clean-Diesel Grants and Improved Air Quality at Port of Houston

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (April 24, 2015) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Gina McCarthy visited the Port of Houston today to highlight grants aimed at improving air quality. The port will receive about $900,000 in funding as part of EPA's D

  8. 40 CFR 22.34 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air Act. 22.34 Section 22.34 Protection of... Clean Air Act. (a) Scope. This section shall apply, in conjunction with §§ 22.1 through 22.32, in...) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7413(d), 7524(c), 7545(d), and 7547(d))....

  9. 40 CFR 22.34 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air Act. 22.34 Section 22.34 Protection of... Clean Air Act. (a) Scope. This section shall apply, in conjunction with §§ 22.1 through 22.32, in...) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7413(d), 7524(c), 7545(d), and 7547(d))....

  10. 40 CFR 22.34 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air Act. 22.34 Section 22.34 Protection of... Clean Air Act. (a) Scope. This section shall apply, in conjunction with §§ 22.1 through 22.32, in...) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7413(d), 7524(c), 7545(d), and 7547(d))....

  11. 40 CFR 22.34 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air Act. 22.34 Section 22.34 Protection of... Clean Air Act. (a) Scope. This section shall apply, in conjunction with §§ 22.1 through 22.32, in...) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7413(d), 7524(c), 7545(d), and 7547(d))....

  12. High performance zinc air fuel cell stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Pucheng; Ma, Ze; Wang, Keliang; Wang, Xizhong; Song, Mancun; Xu, Huachi

    2014-03-01

    A zinc air fuel cell (ZAFC) stack with inexpensive manganese dioxide (MnO2) as the catalyst is designed, in which the circulation flowing potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte carries the reaction product away and acts as a coolant. Experiments are carried out to investigate the characteristics of polarization, constant current discharge and dynamic response, as well as the factors affecting the performance and uniformity of individual cells in the stack. The results reveal that the peak power density can be as high as 435 mW cm-2 according to the area of the air cathode sheet, and the influence factors on cell performance and uniformity are cell locations, filled state of zinc pellets, contact resistance, flow rates of electrolyte and air. It is also shown that the time needed for voltages to reach steady state and that for current step-up or current step-down are both in milliseconds, indicating the ZAFC can be excellently applied to vehicles with rapid dynamic response demands.

  13. Annual committee reports on significant legislative, judicial and administrative developments in 1983: Air-Quality Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Congress passed no significant amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA) in 1983. Under judicial developments, the committee describes seven categories of cases concerning: nonattainment areas under CAA section 107, the adequacy and appropriateness of state implementation plans and regulation of interstate air pollution, new source-permitting cases, regulation of hazardous air pollutants, enforcement and attorneys fees and the scope of section 304 and 307 of the CAA, sections 120 and 123 of the CAA, and 1983 Title II cases. Administration developments included new steps under Titles I and II of the CAA taken by the Environmental Protection Agency to promulgate final regulation on nonattainment sanctions and new source standards and to revise hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide standards for heavy-duty engines and for vehicles at high altitudes. 264 references.

  14. 40 CFR 22.34 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air Act. 22.34 Section 22.34 Protection of... ADMINISTRATIVE ASSESSMENT OF CIVIL PENALTIES AND THE REVOCATION/TERMINATION OR SUSPENSION OF PERMITS Supplemental Rules § 22.34 Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under...

  15. Systemic IL-12 Administration Alters Hepatic Dendritic Cell Stimulation Capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Tim; Back, Timothy C.; Subleski, Jeffrey J.; Weiss, Jonathan M.; Ortaldo, John R.; Wiltrout, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    The liver is an immunologically unique organ containing tolerogenic dendritic cells (DC) that maintain an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Although systemic IL-12 administration can improve responses to tumors, the effects of IL-12-based treatments on DC, in particular hepatic DC, remain incompletely understood. In this study, we demonstrate systemic IL-12 administration induces a 2–3 fold increase in conventional, but not plasmacytoid, DC subsets in the liver. Following IL-12 administration, hepatic DC became more phenotypically and functionally mature, resembling the function of splenic DC, but differed as compared to their splenic counterparts in the production of IL-12 following co-stimulation with toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists. Hepatic DCs from IL-12 treated mice acquired enhanced T cell proliferative capabilities similar to levels observed using splenic DCs. Furthermore, IL-12 administration preferentially increased hepatic T cell activation and IFNγ expression in the RENCA mouse model of renal cell carcinoma. Collectively, the data shows systemic IL-12 administration enables hepatic DCs to overcome at least some aspects of the inherently suppressive milieu of the hepatic environment that could have important implications for the design of IL-12-based immunotherapeutic strategies targeting hepatic malignancies and infections. PMID:22428016

  16. Exposure of Mammalian Cells to Air-Pollutant Mixtures at the Air-Liquid Interface

    EPA Science Inventory

    It has been widely accepted that exposure of mammalian cells to air-pollutant mixtures at the air-liquid interface is a more realistic approach than exposing cell under submerged conditions. The VITROCELL systems, are commercially available systems for air-liquid interface expo...

  17. Combustor air flow control method for fuel cell apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Clingerman, Bruce J.; Mowery, Kenneth D.; Ripley, Eugene V.

    2001-01-01

    A method for controlling the heat output of a combustor in a fuel cell apparatus to a fuel processor where the combustor has dual air inlet streams including atmospheric air and fuel cell cathode effluent containing oxygen depleted air. In all operating modes, an enthalpy balance is provided by regulating the quantity of the air flow stream to the combustor to support fuel cell processor heat requirements. A control provides a quick fast forward change in an air valve orifice cross section in response to a calculated predetermined air flow, the molar constituents of the air stream to the combustor, the pressure drop across the air valve, and a look up table of the orifice cross sectional area and valve steps. A feedback loop fine tunes any error between the measured air flow to the combustor and the predetermined air flow.

  18. Pressurized solid oxide fuel cell integral air accumular containment

    DOEpatents

    Gillett, James E.; Zafred, Paolo R.; Basel, Richard A.

    2004-02-10

    A fuel cell generator apparatus contains at least one fuel cell subassembly module in a module housing, where the housing is surrounded by a pressure vessel such that there is an air accumulator space, where the apparatus is associated with an air compressor of a turbine/generator/air compressor system, where pressurized air from the compressor passes into the space and occupies the space and then flows to the fuel cells in the subassembly module, where the air accumulation space provides an accumulator to control any unreacted fuel gas that might flow from the module.

  19. Stem Cell Therapy and Administration Routes After Stroke.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Frutos, Berta; Otero-Ortega, Laura; Gutiérrez-Fernández, María; Fuentes, Blanca; Ramos-Cejudo, Jaime; Díez-Tejedor, Exuperio

    2016-10-01

    Cell-based therapy has demonstrated safety and efficacy in experimental animal models of stroke, as well as safety in stroke patients. However, various questions remain regarding the therapeutic window, dosage, route of administration, and the most appropriate cell type and source, as well as mechanisms of action and immune-modulation to optimize treatment based on stem cell therapy. Various delivery routes have been used in experimental stroke models, including intracerebral, intraventricular, subarachnoid, intra-arterial, intraperitoneal, intravenous, and intranasal routes. From a clinical point of view, it is necessary to demonstrate which is the most feasible, safest, and most effective for use with stroke patients. Therefore, further experimental studies concerning the safety, efficacy, and mechanisms of action involved in these therapeutic effects are required to determine their optimal clinical use.

  20. Air pollutant production by algal cell cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, F.; Funkhouser, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    The production of phytotoxic air pollutants by cultures of Chlorella vulgaris and Euglena gracilis is considered. Algal and plant culture systems, a fumigation system, and ethylene, ethane, cyanide, and nitrogen oxides assays are discussed. Bean, tobacco, mustard green, cantaloupe and wheat plants all showed injury when fumigated with algal gases for 4 hours. Only coleus plants showed any resistance to the gases. It is found that a closed or recycled air effluent system does not produce plant injury from algal air pollutants.

  1. Aire knockdown in medullary thymic epithelial cells affects Aire protein, deregulates cell adhesion genes and decreases thymocyte interaction.

    PubMed

    Pezzi, Nicole; Assis, Amanda Freire; Cotrim-Sousa, Larissa Cotrim; Lopes, Gabriel Sarti; Mosella, Maritza Salas; Lima, Djalma Sousa; Bombonato-Prado, Karina F; Passos, Geraldo Aleixo

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate that even a partial reduction of Aire mRNA levels by siRNA-induced Aire knockdown (Aire KD) has important consequences to medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs). Aire knockdown is sufficient to reduce Aire protein levels, impair its nuclear location, and cause an imbalance in large-scale gene expression, including genes that encode cell adhesion molecules. These genes drew our attention because adhesion molecules are implicated in the process of mTEC-thymocyte adhesion, which is critical for T cell development and the establishment of central self-tolerance. Accordingly, we consider the following: 1) mTECs contribute to the elimination of self-reactive thymocytes through adhesion; 2) Adhesion molecules play a crucial role during physical contact between these cells; and 3) Aire is an important transcriptional regulator in mTECs. However, its role in controlling mTEC-thymocyte adhesion remains unclear. Because Aire controls adhesion molecule genes, we hypothesized that the disruption of its expression could influence mTEC-thymocyte interaction. To test this hypothesis, we used a murine Aire(+) mTEC cell line as a model system to reproduce mTEC-thymocyte adhesion in vitro. Transcriptome analysis of the mTEC cell line revealed that Aire KD led to the down-modulation of more than 800 genes, including those encoding for proteins involved in cell adhesion, i.e., the extracellular matrix constituent Lama1, the CAM family adhesion molecules Vcam1 and Icam4, and those that encode peripheral tissue antigens. Thymocytes co-cultured with Aire KD mTECs had a significantly reduced capacity to adhere to these cells. This finding is the first direct evidence that Aire also plays a role in controlling mTEC-thymocyte adhesion.

  2. EPA Regional Administrator to kick off Run for Clean Air as part of Philadelphia Earth Day festivities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PHILADELPHIA, Pa. (April 17, 2015) - EPA Mid-Atlantic Regional Administrator Shawn M. Garvin will get regional Earth Day festivities started Saturday morning as he opens ceremonies for the Run for Clean Air presented by Toyota Hybrids in front of th

  3. Fabrication of VB2/Air Cells for Electrochemical Testing

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Jessica; Lopez, Ruben; Lau, Jason; Li, Xuguang; Waje, Mahesh; Mullings, Matthew; Rhodes, Christopher; Licht, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    A technique to investigate the properties and performance of new multi-electron metal/air battery systems is proposed and presented. A method for synthesizing nanoscopic VB2 is presented as well as step-by-step procedure for applying a zirconium oxide coating to the VB2 particles for stabilization upon discharge. The process for disassembling existing zinc/air cells is shown, in addition construction of the new working electrode to replace the conventional zinc/air cell anode with a the nanoscopic VB2 anode. Finally, discharge of the completed VB2/air battery is reported. We show that using the zinc/air cell as a test bed is useful to provide a consistent configuration to study the performance of the high-energy high capacity nanoscopic VB2 anode. PMID:23962835

  4. Fabrication of VB2/air cells for electrochemical testing.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Jessica; Lopez, Ruben; Lau, Jason; Li, Xuguang; Waje, Mahesh; Mullings, Matthew; Rhodes, Christopher; Licht, Stuart

    2013-08-05

    A technique to investigate the properties and performance of new multi-electron metal/air battery systems is proposed and presented. A method for synthesizing nanoscopic VB2 is presented as well as step-by-step procedure for applying a zirconium oxide coating to the VB2 particles for stabilization upon discharge. The process for disassembling existing zinc/air cells is shown, in addition construction of the new working electrode to replace the conventional zinc/air cell anode with a the nanoscopic VB2 anode. Finally, discharge of the completed VB2/air battery is reported. We show that using the zinc/air cell as a test bed is useful to provide a consistent configuration to study the performance of the high-energy high capacity nanoscopic VB2 anode.

  5. Metal-air cell with ion exchange material

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, Cody A.; Wolfe, Derek; Johnson, Paul Bryan

    2015-08-25

    Embodiments of the invention are related to anion exchange membranes used in electrochemical metal-air cells in which the membranes function as the electrolyte material, or are used in conjunction with electrolytes such as ionic liquid electrolytes.

  6. Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    DOEpatents

    Ren; Xiaoming

    2003-07-22

    A method for activating a membrane electrode assembly for a direct methanol fuel cell is disclosed. The method comprises operating the fuel cell with humidified hydrogen as the fuel followed by running the fuel cell with methanol as the fuel.

  7. Annular feed air breathing fuel cell stack

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    1996-01-01

    A stack of polymer electrolyte fuel cells is formed from a plurality of unit cells where each unit cell includes fuel cell components defining a periphery and distributed along a common axis, where the fuel cell components include a polymer electrolyte membrane, an anode and a cathode contacting opposite sides of the membrane, and fuel and oxygen flow fields contacting the anode and the cathode, respectively, wherein the components define an annular region therethrough along the axis. A fuel distribution manifold within the annular region is connected to deliver fuel to the fuel flow field in each of the unit cells. In a particular embodiment, a single bolt through the annular region clamps the unit cells together. In another embodiment, separator plates between individual unit cells have an extended radial dimension to function as cooling fins for maintaining the operating temperature of the fuel cell stack.

  8. A review on air cathodes for zinc-air fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neburchilov, Vladimir; Wang, Haijiang; Martin, Jonathan J.; Qu, Wei

    This paper reviews the compositions, design and methods of fabrication of air cathodes for alkali zinc-air fuel cells (ZAFCs), one of the few successfully commercialized fuel cells. The more promising compositions for air cathodes are based on individual oxides, or mixtures of such, with a spinel, perovskite, or pyrochlore structure: MnO 2, Ag, Co 3O 4, La 2O 3, LaNiO 3, NiCo 2O 4, LaMnO 3, LaNiO 3, etc. These compositions provide the optimal balance of ORR activity and chemical stability in an alkali electrolyte. The sol-gel and reverse micelle methods supply the most uniform distribution of the catalyst on carbon and the highest catalyst BET surface area. It is shown that the design of the air cathode, including types of carbon black, binding agents, current collectors, Teflon membranes, thermal treatment of the GDL, and catalyst layers, has a strong effect on performance.

  9. DIRECT AMMONIA-AIR FUEL CELL.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Experimental runs were conducted on direct ammonia fuel cells . Effects of temperature, composition, as well as run effect and block effect were...cells and to electrode flooding are discussed. Data on performance of complete laboratory direct ammonia-oxygen fuel cells are presented and discussed. (Author)

  10. Fuel Cells Utilizing Oxygen From Air at Low Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cisar, Alan; Boyer, Chris; Greenwald, Charles

    2006-01-01

    A fuel cell stack has been developed to supply power for a high-altitude aircraft with a minimum of air handling. The fuel cell is capable of utilizing oxygen from ambient air at low pressure with no need for compression. For such an application, it is advantageous to take oxygen from the air (in contradistinction to carrying a supply of oxygen onboard), but it is a challenging problem to design a fuel-cell stack of reasonable weight that can generate sufficient power while operating at reduced pressures. The present fuel-cell design is a response to this challenge. The design features a novel bipolar plate structure in combination with a gas-diffusion structure based on a conductive metal core and a carbon gas-diffusion matrix. This combination makes it possible for the flow fields in the stack to have a large open fraction (ratio between open volume and total volume) to permit large volumes of air to flow through with exceptionally low backpressure. Operations at reduced pressure require a corresponding increase in the volume of air that must be handled to deliver the same number of moles of oxygen to the anodes. Moreover, the increase in the open fraction, relative to that of a comparable prior fuel-cell design, reduces the mass of the stack. The fuel cell has been demonstrated to operate at a power density as high as 105 W/cm2 at an air pressure as low as 2 psia (absolute pressure 14 kPa), which is the atmospheric pressure at an altitude of about 50,000 ft ( 15.2 km). The improvements in the design of this fuel cell could be incorporated into designs of other fuel cells to make them lighter in weight and effective at altitudes higher than those of prior designs. Potential commercial applications for these improvements include most applications now under consideration for fuel cells.

  11. Effect of hormonal manipulation and doxorubicin administration on cell cycle kinetics of human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bontenbal, M.; Sieuwerts, A. M.; Klijn, J. G.; Peters, H. A.; Krijnen, H. L.; Sonneveld, P.; Foekens, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    Dual-parameter flow cytometry, following bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) incorporation and propidium iodide (PI) uptake into DNA, was used to study the effects of oestradiol and/or insulin on cell cycle kinetics of human breast cancer cells in vitro. After a lag-period of 6-12 h, an optimum in the percentage of S-phase cells was reached between 18 and 24 h after hormone administration. A 1 h pulse of oestradiol was as effective as the continuous presence of oestradiol in pushing the cells from quiescent growing cultures into the cell cycle. A 1 h pulse of insulin was less effective than continuous administration. The addition of doxorubicin resulted in an accumulation of the cells in the late S/G2M-phases. It is concluded that dual-parameter flow cytometry allows accurate assessment of the effects of hormones and chemotherapy on the cell cycle. Therefore this method is very suitable for studying the interaction of hormones and chemotherapy on cell growth. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:2679851

  12. Annular feed air breathing fuel cell stack

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Neutzler, Jay K.

    1997-01-01

    A stack of polymer electrolyte fuel cells is formed from a plurality of unit cells where each unit cell includes fuel cell components defining a periphery and distributed along a common axis, where the fuel cell components include a polymer electrolyte membrane, an anode and a cathode contacting opposite sides of the membrane, and fuel and oxygen flow fields contacting the anode and the cathode, respectively, wherein the components define an annular region therethrough along the axis. A fuel distribution manifold within the annular region is connected to deliver fuel to the fuel flow field in each of the unit cells. The fuel distribution manifold is formed from a hydrophilic-like material to redistribute water produced by fuel and oxygen reacting at the cathode. In a particular embodiment, a single bolt through the annular region clamps the unit cells together. In another embodiment, separator plates between individual unit cells have an extended radial dimension to function as cooling fins for maintaining the operating temperature of the fuel cell stack.

  13. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  14. A methanol/air fuel cell system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asher, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    High power-density, self-regulating fuel cell develops electrical power from catalyzed reaction between methanol and atmospheric oxygen. Cells such as these are of particular interest, because they may one day offer an emission-free, extremely efficient alternative to internal-combustion engines as power source.

  15. Targeting cancer cells with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generated by atmospheric-pressure air plasma.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hak Jun; Kim, Kang Il; Hoan, Nguyen Ngoc; Kim, Churl Ho; Moon, Eunpyo; Choi, Kyeong Sook; Yang, Sang Sik; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2014-01-01

    The plasma jet has been proposed as a novel therapeutic method for cancer. Anticancer activity of plasma has been reported to involve mitochondrial dysfunction. However, what constituents generated by plasma is linked to this anticancer process and its mechanism of action remain unclear. Here, we report that the therapeutic effects of air plasma result from generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) including H2O2, Ox, OH-, •O2, NOx, leading to depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial ROS accumulation. Simultaneously, ROS/RNS activate c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase. As a consequence, treatment with air plasma jets induces apoptotic death in human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Pretreatment of the cells with antioxidants, JNK and p38 inhibitors, or JNK and p38 siRNA abrogates the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and impairs the air plasma-induced apoptotic cell death, suggesting that the ROS/RNS generated by plasma trigger signaling pathways involving JNK and p38 and promote mitochondrial perturbation, leading to apoptosis. Therefore, administration of air plasma may be a feasible strategy to eliminate cancer cells.

  16. DIRECT AMMONIA-AIR FUEL CELL.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    fuel cell was investigated. This cell is based on the use of a non-aqueous fused hydroxide electrolyte matrix, and operates in the intermediate temperature range of 180-300 C. Studies have been carried out to determine the nature of the ratecontrolling step in the kinetics of the anodic oxidation of ammonia. A new type of Ni/NiOOH reference electrode was developed for the measurement of single electrode potentials in experimental galvanic fuel cells employing this type of matrix electrolyte. In addition to various exploratory studies, two statistical analysis

  17. WEDNESDAY: EPA ADMINISTRATOR IN PORTLAND, OR TO FOCUS ON AIR QUALITY AND CLEAN WATER

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - This Wednesday, EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy will be in Portland, Oregon to award a Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) grant to the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) and speak at the Craft Brewers Conference about t

  18. TOMORROW: EPA ADMINISTRATOR IN PORTLAND, OREGON, TO FOCUS ON AIR QUALITY AND CLEAN WATER

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - This Wednesday, EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy will be in Portland, Oregon to award a Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) grant to the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) and speak at the Craft Brewers Conference about t

  19. Low-friction coatings for air bearings in fuel cell air compressors

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, O. O.; Fenske, G. R.; Erdemir, A.; Woodford, J.; Sitts, J.; Elshot, K.; Griffey, K.

    2000-01-06

    In an effort to reduce fuel consumption and emissions, hybrid vehicles incorporating fuel cell systems are being developed by automotive manufacturers, their suppliers, federal agencies (specifically, the US Department of Energy) and national laboratories. The fuel cell system will require an air management subsystem that includes a compressor/expander. Certain components in the compressor will require innovative lubrication technology in order to reduce parasitic energy losses and improve their reliability and durability. One such component is the air bearing for air turbocompressors designed and fabricated by Meruit, Inc. Argonne National Laboratory recently developed a carbon-based coating with low friction and wear attributes; this near-frictionless-carbon (NFC) coating is a potential candidate for use in turbocompressor air bearings. The authors present here an evaluation of the Argonne coating for air compressor thrust bearings. With two parallel 440C stainless steel discs in unidirectional sliding contact, the NFC reduced the frictional force four times and the wear rate by more than two orders of magnitude. Wear mechanism on the uncoated surface involved oxidation and production of iron oxide debris. Wear occurred on the coated surfaces primarily by a polishing mechanism.

  20. The California fuel cell partnership: an avenue to clean air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Alan C.

    The California Fuel Cell Partnership presently consists of eight private companies, two state agencies and a federal government representative that will attempt to demonstrate the feasibility of fuel cell cars and buses. California has attempted to advance the commercialization of zero-emission vehicles for much of the past decade to help the state reduce its high levels of air pollution. A special advisory panel convened by the California Air Resources Board concluded last year that fuel cell technology could meet the key requirements for automobiles. The successful commercialization of fuel cell vehicles would help to reduce the levels of ozone, fine particles and toxic air contaminants that pose health risks to California's population. This technology can also help to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. California regulations now encourage the development of zero and near-zero emission vehicle technologies, including fuel cells. The Fuel Cell Partnership will operate approximately 50 fuel cell cars and buses until the year 2003 in order to produce important information on the vehicles and fueling infrastructure needed to support them.

  1. National Air Transportation Inspection Program, Federal Aviation Administration, March 4 - June 5, 1984.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    or two cases surrendered their operating authority. Other air carriers revised record keeping methods, operational and airworthiness procedures...reviewed for consistency and uniform application of inspection techniques . The airworthiness handbook, which previously consisted of different...for standard application of requirements. The course will also familiarize inspectors with the latest techniques and procedures needed in light of

  2. Fuel cell cathode air filters: Methodologies for design and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Daniel M.; Cahela, Donald R.; Zhu, Wenhua H.; Westrom, Kenneth C.; Nelms, R. Mark; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells experience performance degradation, such as reduction in efficiency and life, as a result of poisoning of platinum catalysts by airborne contaminants. Research on these contaminant effects suggests that the best possible solution to allowing fuel cells to operate in contaminated environments is by filtration of the harmful contaminants from the cathode air. A cathode air filter design methodology was created that connects properties of cathode air stream, filter design options, and filter footprint, to a set of adsorptive filter parameters that must be optimized to efficiently operate the fuel cell. Filter optimization requires a study of the trade off between two causal factors of power loss: first, a reduction in power production due to poisoning of the platinum catalyst by chemical contaminants and second, an increase in power requirements to operate the air compressor with a larger pressure drop from additional contaminant filtration. The design methodology was successfully applied to a 1.2 kW fuel cell using a programmable algorithm and predictions were made about the relationships between inlet concentration, breakthrough time, filter design, pressure drop, and compressor power requirements.

  3. Oxide modified air electrode surface for high temperature electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Prabhakar; Ruka, Roswell J.

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical cell is made having a porous cermet electrode (16) and a porous lanthanum manganite electrode (14), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) between them, where the lanthanum manganite surface next to the electrolyte contains a thin discontinuous layer of high surface area cerium oxide and/or praseodymium oxide, preferably as discrete particles (30) in contact with the air electrode and electrolyte.

  4. Ultrastructural Changes in Murine Peritoneal Cells Following Cyclophosphamide Administration

    PubMed Central

    Chin, K. N.; Hudson, G.

    1974-01-01

    Peritoneal cells were studied at intervals of between 6 h and 30 days following a single intravenous injection of a sublethal dose of cyclophosphamide. With the electron microscope, evidence of cell damage and death could be seen at 6 h, and by 12 h large numbers of dead cells were noted, either lying free or within the cytoplasm of macrophages. Most of the damaged cells were lymphocytes but degenerating blast cells, eosinophils, neutrophils and mast cells were also identified. Nuclei were seen in which margination of chromatin had occurred but nuclei of uniform density were also prominent and showed irregular shape and lobulation. Macrophages exhibited all stages of phagocytosis and digestion and a few phagocytes of atypical appearance were noted. By 24 h most of the dead cells lay within the cytoplasm of macrophages which showed many phagocytic inclusions as well as lipid droplets. By 6 days, the peritoneal cells had regained normal appearances although the proportion of lymphoid cells was still reduced. By the 18th day, all features were indistinguishable from normal. The changes observed showed a general similarity to those noted previously in the lymphoreticular cells of the Peyer's patch; they provide no evidence that the environment of the peritoneal cavity protects cells against the action of cyclophosphamide. ImagesFigs. 4-6Figs. 7-9Figs. 10-12Figs. 1-3 PMID:4447790

  5. Development of an Inventory of Fiscal Competencies for Colorado Postsecondary Academic Administrators. AIR Forum Paper 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Joseph J.

    A survey, designed to assist in the development of an inventory of fiscal competencies that academic administrators perceive to be needed if they are to be effective contributors to the budgetary process and to seek answers to the question of the existence of a widespread need for the development of in-service training programs for academic…

  6. Evaluation of Administrators by Subordinates: A Cafeteria Approach. AIR 1986 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budig, Jeanne E.

    The use and refinement of an innovative administrative evaluation system that has been operational at Vincennes University Junior College (Indiana) for 5 years are described. All professional university employees are annually given the opportunity to evaluate all personnel with supervisory responsibility who are above them in the chain of command.…

  7. 75 FR 48627 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Administrative and Non...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ...; Administrative and Non-Substantive Changes to Existing Delaware SIP Regulations AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA proposes to approve the State Implementation Plan (SIP... Implementation Plan (SIP). In the Final Rules section of this Federal Register, EPA is approving the State's...

  8. The Role of Institutional Research in Data Administration and Management. AIR 1986 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Richard L.; And Others

    New roles for college institutional researchers in the area of data administration and management that have resulted from developments in computer technology are reviewed. These developments include easily accessed databases, user-friendly software, and powerful and inexpensive hardware. The growing demand for data, combined with a general lack of…

  9. Aluminum-air power cell research and development. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.

    1984-02-22

    An aluminum-air battery is under development with the objective of providing an electric vehicle with the range, acceleration and rapid refueling capability of common automobiles. From tested refuelable cell designs, a wedge-shaped cell was chosen for mechanical simplicity and for its capability of full anode utilization and rapid partial- or full-recharge. The cell uses tin-plated copper tracks to maintain a constant interelectrode separation and to collect anodic current. Rectangular slabs of aluminum enter the cell under gravity feed and gradually assume the wedge shape during dissolution. The feed is constant and continuous and tin/aluminum junction losses are 7 mV at 2 kA/m/sup 2/. A second generation wedge cell has been developed which incorporates air- and electrolyte-manifolding into individually-replaceable air-cathode cassettes. A prototype wedge cell using replaceable cassettes was operated simultaneously with a crystallizer, which stabilized aluminate concentration and produced a granular aluminum-trihydroxide reaction product. Electrolyte was circulated between cell and fluidized-bed crystallizer, and particles of sizes greater than 0.015 mm were retained within the crystallizer using a hydrocyclone. Air electrodes have been tested over simulated vehicle drive cycles. Electrodes using advanced sintering and wet-proofing techniques and catalyzed with a non-noble metal catalyst (CoTMPP) have been operated for over 1400 drive-cycles. Fuel costs of $1.72/kg-Al (installed) were estimated on the basis of model alloy production and distribution costs, leading to a projected operating cost of 8-10 cents/mile, depending on alloy and vehicle drive-train efficiencies. Unalloyed aluminum yields a peak of 4.5 kWh/kg, while an advanced industrial Hall Process and the pilot-plant Alcoa Smelting Process have electrical energy consumptions of 11.3- and 8.3 kWh/kg, respectively.

  10. Sclerostin Antibody Administration Converts Bone Lining Cells Into Active Osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Wan; Lu, Yanhui; Williams, Elizabeth A; Lai, Forest; Lee, Ji Yeon; Enishi, Tetsuya; Balani, Deepak H; Ominsky, Michael S; Ke, Hua Zhu; Kronenberg, Henry M; Wein, Marc N

    2016-11-14

    Sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) increases osteoblast activity, in part through increasing modeling-based bone formation on previously quiescent surfaces. Histomorphometric studies have suggested that this might occur through conversion of bone lining cells into active osteoblasts. However, direct data demonstrating Scl-Ab-induced conversion of lining cells into active osteoblasts are lacking. Here, we used in vivo lineage tracing to determine if Scl-Ab promotes the conversion of lining cells into osteoblasts on periosteal and endocortical bone surfaces in mice. Two independent, tamoxifen-inducible lineage-tracing strategies were used to label mature osteoblasts and their progeny using the DMP1 and osteocalcin promoters. After a prolonged "chase" period, the majority of labeled cells on bone surfaces assumed a thin, quiescent morphology. Then, mice were treated with either vehicle or Scl-Ab (25 mg/kg) twice over the course of the subsequent week. After euthanization, marked cells were enumerated, their thickness quantified, and proliferation and apoptosis examined. Scl-Ab led to a significant increase in the average thickness of labeled cells on periosteal and endocortical bone surfaces, consistent with osteoblast activation. Scl-Ab did not induce proliferation of labeled cells, and Scl-Ab did not regulate apoptosis of labeled cells. Therefore, direct reactivation of quiescent bone lining cells contributes to the acute increase in osteoblast numbers after Scl-Ab treatment in mice. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  11. Aluminum-air power cell research and development progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.

    1984-12-01

    The wedge-shaped cell design, of the aluminum-air battery being developed, is mechanically simple and capable of full anode utilization and rapid full or partial recharge. To maintain constant interelectrode separation and to collect anodic current, the cell uses tin-coated copper tracks mounted on removable cassettes. Under gravity feed, slabs of aluminum enter the cell at a continuous and constant rate and gradually assume the wedge shape as they dissolve. Voltage losses at this tin-aluminum junction are 7 mV at 2 kA/m/sup 2/. A second-generation wedge cell incorporates air and electrolyte manifolding into individually replaceable air-cathode cassettes. Prototype wedge cells of one design were operated simultaneously with a fluidized-bed crystallizer, which stabilized aluminate concentration and produced a granular aluminum-trihydroxide reaction product. Electrolyte was circulated between the cell and crystallizer, and a hydrocyclone was used to retain particles larger than 0.015 mm within the crystallizer. Air electrodes were tested over simulated vehicle drive systems that include a standby phase in cold, supersaturated electrolyte. Electrodes using advanced sintering and wet-proofing techniques and catalyzed with a nonnoble metal catalyst have been operated over 1500 cycles (a two-year drive life). The fuel costs of aluminum were estimated on the basis of model alloy production and distribution costs, leading to a projected operating cost of 8 to 10 cents per mile, depending on alloy and vehicle drive-train efficiencies. While unalloyed aluminum has a peak electrical energy consumption of 4.5 kWh/kg, the Hall and Alcoa processes consume 11.3 and 8.3 kWh/kg, respectively. The significance of these and other energy-use estimates for the 1990s and beyond is discussed.

  12. A pound of prevention: Air pollution and the fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.L.; Rose, R.

    1996-12-31

    The expanded use of fuel cells in transportation and power generation is an exciting proposition for public health officials because of the potential of this technology to help reduce air pollution levels around the globe. Such work is about prevention -- prevention of air emissions of hazardous substances. Prevention is a key concept in public health. An example is quarantine, which aims to prevent the spread of a disease-causing organism. In the environmental arena, prevention includes cessation of pollution. Air pollution prevention policies also have a practical impact. Sooner or later ideas on technology, especially new technology, must be sold to policy makers, legislators, and eventually the public. Advocating technologies that will improve human health and welfare can be an effective marketing strategy.

  13. Air electrode composition for solid oxide fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Kuo, L.; Ruka, R.J.; Singhal, S.C.

    1999-08-03

    An air electrode composition for a solid oxide fuel cell is disclosed. The air electrode material is based on lanthanum manganite having a perovskite-like crystal structure ABO{sub 3}. The A-site of the air electrode composition comprises a mixed lanthanide in combination with rare earth and alkaline earth dopants. The B-site of the composition comprises Mn in combination with dopants such as Mg, Al, Cr and Ni. The mixed lanthanide comprises La, Ce, Pr and, optionally, Nd. The rare earth A-site dopants preferably comprise La, Nd or a combination thereof, while the alkaline earth A-site dopant preferably comprises Ca. The use of a mixed lanthanide substantially reduces raw material costs in comparison with compositions made from high purity lanthanum starting materials. The amount of the A-site and B-site dopants is controlled in order to provide an air electrode composition having a coefficient of thermal expansion which closely matches that of the other components of the solid oxide fuel cell. 3 figs.

  14. Air electrode composition for solid oxide fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Kuo, Lewis; Ruka, Roswell J.; Singhal, Subhash C.

    1999-01-01

    An air electrode composition for a solid oxide fuel cell is disclosed. The air electrode material is based on lanthanum manganite having a perovskite-like crystal structure ABO.sub.3. The A-site of the air electrode composition comprises a mixed lanthanide in combination with rare earth and alkaline earth dopants. The B-site of the composition comprises Mn in combination with dopants such as Mg, Al, Cr and Ni. The mixed lanthanide comprises La, Ce, Pr and, optionally, Nd. The rare earth A-site dopants preferably comprise La, Nd or a combination thereof, while the alkaline earth A-site dopant preferably comprises Ca. The use of a mixed lanthanide substantially reduces raw material costs in comparison with compositions made from high purity lanthanum starting materials. The amount of the A-site and B-site dopants is controlled in order to provide an air electrode composition having a coefficient of thermal expansion which closely matches that of the other components of the solid oxide fuel cell.

  15. Aluminum-air power cell, a progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Maimoni, A.

    1985-03-01

    We are developing the Aluminum-Air Power Cell as a power source for general purpose electric vehicles. Program developments since the 1983 IECEC meeting and more recent reviews are summarized. Estimates of its energy efficiency, using coal as the primary energy source, indicate it is substantially better than the internal combustion engine using synthetic fuels derived from coal. With improved materials it is likely to approach the overall energy efficiency of rechargeable battery systems. Three experiments involving a 600-cm/sup 2/ wedge cell coupled to a crystallizer and a hydrocyclone are described. Substantial progress has been made in the development of the air cathode and aluminum anode materials. The status of various system components is summarized. Crystallization experiments indicate secondary nucleation of small particles can be controlled by operation of the crystallizer at 80/sup 0/C and agglomeration of fine particles occurs readily under low shear conditions.

  16. Impact of Public Law 98-369 on Air Force Logistics Command (AFLC) Contract Administrative Leadtime.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    AF8 AL t U C L A S IF E D K EDG S E AL . AP R 8 5 AC5C- 8 5 -i ii 5 F/ G 1 5 / 5 N ’- 2 1" O 12 .3.2 �_1. 111L.25 .4 .6 MICROCOPY...369 ON AIR FORCE LOGISTICS C Of,11iA NF ( AFLC) CONTRACT ADMI1NI STRATI VE LEADTI lyE AUTHOR(S) ilAJ UR DIN D i K . 11. mU:;A F ’AJ OR AJFRI,’i.) VAC...nareir E Cn ompet i t ion in the R.’ui s1 i "on cro esE . wm or i no th-e vrccedu-ai chang~es ox PL 9 C ~e tc0 ~a S -. * , -s : - d Cr-iLT imoa: t was

  17. 60-WATT HYDRAZINE-AIR FUEL CELL SYSTEM.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    fuel cell system as presented in our Design Plan. Prior to preparation of the Design Plan, a systems analysis of the basic electrochemical system was made. From the results of this analysis, the operating parameters of the support equipment were defined and an initial selection of components made. System components defined were: the cell stack, electrolyte tank, hydrazine feed system, cooling and chemical air blowers, voltage regulator, and thermal control system. A package design was then made for these components and the final detail design completed.

  18. Metal-air cell with performance enhancing additive

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, Cody A; Buttry, Daniel

    2015-11-10

    Systems and methods drawn to an electrochemical cell comprising a low temperature ionic liquid comprising positive ions and negative ions and a performance enhancing additive added to the low temperature ionic liquid. The additive dissolves in the ionic liquid to form cations, which are coordinated with one or more negative ions forming ion complexes. The electrochemical cell also includes an air electrode configured to absorb and reduce oxygen. The ion complexes improve oxygen reduction thermodynamics and/or kinetics relative to the ionic liquid without the additive.

  19. High-Altitude Air Mass Zero Calibration of Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodyard, James R.; Snyder, David B.

    2005-01-01

    Air mass zero calibration of solar cells has been carried out for several years by NASA Glenn Research Center using a Lear-25 aircraft and Langley plots. The calibration flights are carried out during early fall and late winter when the tropopause is at the lowest altitude. Measurements are made starting at about 50,000 feet and continue down to the tropopause. A joint NASA/Wayne State University program called Suntracker is underway to explore the use of weather balloon and communication technologies to characterize solar cells at elevations up to about 100 kft. The balloon flights are low-cost and can be carried out any time of the year. AMO solar cell characterization employing the mountaintop, aircraft and balloon methods are reviewed. Results of cell characterization with the Suntracker are reported and compared with the NASA Glenn Research Center aircraft method.

  20. Nucleotide Analog Prodrug, Tenofovir Disoproxil, Enhances Lymphoid Cell Loading Following Oral Administration in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Durand-Gasselin, Lucie; Van Rompay, Koen K.A.; Vela, Jennifer E.; Henne, Ilana N.; Lee, William A.; Rhodes, Gerry R.; Ray, Adrian S.

    2009-01-01

    The antiviral drug tenofovir (TFV) is orally administered as the fumarate salt of its disoproxil prodrug (TFV disoproxil fumarate (TDF)). TFV is a di-anion at physiological pH and, as a result, has poor lipid membrane permeability. Administration of the lipophilic and cell permeable prodrug, TFV disoproxil, enhances the oral absorption of TFV. In order to determine if oral administration of TDF also increases distribution to sites of viral infection, the plasma and circulating lymphoid cell pharmacokinetics of TFV and its phosphorylated metabolites were assessed following a single oral TDF or subcutaneous TFV administration at doses yielding equivalent plasma exposures to TFV in macaques. Despite TFV disoproxil’s lack of plasma stability and undetectable levels in the first plasma samples taken, oral administration of TDF resulted in 7.9-fold higher peripheral blood mononuclear cell exposures to the active metabolite, TFV-diphosphate. The apparent plasma terminal half-life (t1/2) of TFV was also longer following oral TDF relative to subcutaneous TFV administration (median t1/2 of 15.3 and 3.9 h, respectively), suggesting broader distribution to cells and tissues outside of the central plasma compartment. In conclusion, the disoproxil pro-moiety not only enhances the oral absorption of TFV but also tissue and lymphoid cell loading. These results illustrate that administration of even a fleeting prodrug can increase target tissue loading and gives valuable insight for future prodrug development. PMID:19545170

  1. Apoptosis of rat kidney cells after 241-americium administration.

    PubMed

    Labéjof, L; Berry, J P; Duchambon, P; Poncy, J L; Galle, P

    1998-01-01

    Tumors induction by americium is well known but there are no data on the biological effects of this radionucleide at subcellular level. In order to study the possible ultrastructural lesions induced by this element, a group of rats were injected with 241-Americium-citrate (9 kBq), once a week for five weeks and sacrificed 7 days after the last injection. We describe the alterations observed in the cortex kidney using cytochemical (TUNEL reaction) and histochemical (PAS staining) methods for light microscopy as well as electron microscopy techniques. Various types of lesions were detected: condensation of nuclear chromatine, fragmentation of the nuclei, swollen mitochondria, disappearance of mitochondrial crests and skrinking of the cytoplasm. This study clearly demonstrated the induction of apoptosis by americium in rat cortex kidney cells.

  2. Zinc/air fuel cell for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Cherepy, N. J.; Krueger, R.; Cooper, J. F.

    1999-01-01

    We are conducting tests of an advanced zinc/air fuel cell design to determine effectiveness in various commercial applications. Our 322-cm2 cell uses gravity-fed zinc pellets as the anode, 12 M KOH electrolyte, and an air cathode catalyzed by a cobalt-porphyrin complex on carbon black. A single 322 cm2 cell runs at a standard operating power of 38 W (1200 W/m2) at 39 A (1245 A/m2) and 0.96 V with a power density of 2400 W/m2 at 0.67 V. With improved current collection hardware, already demonstrated in the laboratory, power generation increases to -3600 W/m2 at 1V. We conducted a 50-hour test in which a cell generated 587 Ah and 569 Wh. The power that may be generated increases by a factor of 2.5 between T = 28 °C and 52 °C. Electrolyte capacity, without stabilization additives, was measured at 147 Ah/L

  3. An improved bifunctional oxygen (air) electrode for reversible alkaline fuel cell systems and for rechargeable metal-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordesch, K.; Steininger, K.-H.; Tomantschger, K.

    1988-10-01

    Electrodes with a nickel layer of dual pore structure on the electrolyte side and a PTFE-bonded carbon layer on the oxygen (air) side are discussed, with application to space energy storage. During the electrolyis stage, the oxygen fills the large pores of the porous Ni structure with gas. During the discharge cycle, the iron/air or zinc/air cell of the carbon layer operates as a regular oxygen electrode.

  4. Childhood Exposure to Ambient Air Pollutants and the Onset of Asthma: An Administrative Cohort Study in Québec

    PubMed Central

    Tétreault, Louis-Francois; Doucet, Marieve; Gamache, Philippe; Fournier, Michel; Brand, Allan; Kosatsky, Tom; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although it is well established that air pollutants can exacerbate asthma, the link with new asthma onset in children is less clear. Objective: We assessed the association between the onset of childhood asthma with both time of birth and time-varying exposures to outdoor air pollutants. Method: An open cohort of children born in the province of Québec, Canada, was created using linked medical–administrative databases. New cases of asthma were defined as one hospital discharge with a diagnosis of asthma or two physician claims for asthma within a 2 year period. Annual ozone (O3) levels were estimated at the child’s residence for all births 1999–2010, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels during 1996–2006 were estimated for births on the Montreal Island. Satellite based concentrations of fine particles (PM2.5) were estimated at a 10 km × 10 km resolution and assigned to residential postal codes throughout the province (1996–2011). Hazard ratios (HRs) were assessed with Cox models for the exposure at the birth address and for the time-dependent exposure. We performed an indirect adjustment for secondhand smoke (SHS). Results: We followed 1,183,865 children (7,752,083 person-years), of whom 162,752 became asthmatic. After controlling for sex and material and social deprivation, HRs for an interquartile range increase in exposure at the birth address to NO2 (5.45 ppb), O3 (3.22 ppb), and PM2.5 (6.50 μg/m3) were 1.04 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.05), 1.11 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.12), and 1.31 (95% CI: 1.28, 1.33), respectively. Effects of O3 and PM2.5 estimated with time-varying Cox models were similar to those estimated using exposure at birth, whereas the effect of NO2 was slightly stronger (HR = 1.07; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.09). Conclusions: Asthma onset in children appears to be associated with residential exposure to PM2.5, O3 and NO2. Citation: Tétreault LF, Doucet M, Gamache P, Fournier M, Brand A, Kosatsky T, Smargiassi A. 2016. Childhood exposure to ambient air

  5. Elimination of progressive mammary cancer by repeated administrations of chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells.

    PubMed

    Globerson-Levin, Anat; Waks, Tova; Eshhar, Zelig

    2014-05-01

    Continuous oncogenic processes that generate cancer require an on-going treatment approach to eliminate the transformed cells, and prevent their further development. Here, we studied the ability of T cells expressing a chimeric antibody-based receptor (CAR) to offer a therapeutic benefit for breast cancer induced by erbB-2. We tested CAR-modified T cells (T-bodies) specific to erbB-2 for their antitumor potential in a mouse model overexpressing a human erbB-2 transgene that develops mammary tumors. Comparing the antitumor reactivity of CAR-modified T cells under various therapeutic settings, either prophylactic, prior to tumor development, or therapeutically. We found that repeated administration of CAR-modified T cells is required to eliminate spontaneously developing mammary cancer. Systemic, as well as intratumoral administered CAR-modified T cells accumulated at tumor sites and eventually eliminated the malignant cells. Interestingly, within a few weeks after a single CAR T cells' administration, and rejection of primary lesion, tumors usually relapsed both in treated mammary gland and at remote sites; however, repeated injections of CAR-modified T cells were able to control the secondary tumors. Since spontaneous tumors can arise repeatedly, especially in the case of syndromes characterized by specific susceptibility to cancer, multiple administrations of CAR-modified T cells can serve to control relapsing disease.

  6. Severe Hypoxemia in a Healthy Donor for Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation after Only the First Administration of Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Keita; Doki, Noriko; Senoo, Yasushi; Najima, Yuho; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Kakihana, Kazuhiko; Haraguchi, Kyoko; Okuyama, Yoshiki; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Ohashi, Kazuteru

    2016-01-01

    Background Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is widely used to mobilize peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) in healthy donors. A few reports have shown that some healthy donors developed acute respiratory distress syndrome or capillary leak syndrome after more than several rounds of G-CSF administration or leukapheresis. Case Report We report the case of a healthy donor for allogeneic stem cell transplantation who developed severe hypoxemia 1 h after only the first administration of G-CSF. The donor was administered 10 μg/kg G-CSF (lenograstim) subcutaneously for PBSC mobilization. 1 h after the first administration of G-CSF, the donor suddenly presented with dry cough and dyspnea. The oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (SpO2) in the room air was 88%. An electrocardiogram and chest radiography revealed no abnormalities. We excluded other causes of severe hypoxemia and diagnosed the donor with hypoxemia due to G-CSF administration, which was subsequently terminated. The donor was administered 2 l/min oxygen via a nasal cannula and 100 mg hydrocortisone intravenously. He subsequently recovered, and SpO2 in the room air returned to 98% 10 h after hypoxemia. Conclusion These respiratory symptoms might be related to anaphylactoid or hypersensitivity reaction. The donors should be observed for at least 1 h after the first administration of G-CSF. PMID:27994532

  7. Dithionite/air direct ion liquid fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, Jens; Tübke, Jens; Pinkwart, Karsten

    2015-07-01

    The feasibility of an alkaline S2O42-/air-fuel cell was evaluated at room temperature, using a cell with an anion exchange membrane and a platinum oxygen reduction reaction catalyst. The tests performed were open circuit voltage analysis, linear sweep voltammetry, discharge analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with registration of anode half-cell potential. With 0.85 M Na2S2O4 in 2 M KOH, the cell achieved a maximum power density of 2 mW cm-2, and the open circuit cell voltage was about 0.9 V. In a potentiostatic discharging at 0.2 V cell voltage, an energy efficiency of 12.3% was achieved at an energy density of 8.6 Wh L-1. The low power density was mainly due to the low reaction kinetics of dithionite oxidation at graphite electrodes. The low energy efficiency was mainly caused by a low cathode potential, which probably resulted from mixed potential formation and the low anode kinetics.

  8. Stack air-breathing membraneless glucose microfluidic biofuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo-de-la-Rosa, J.; Moreno-Zuria, A.; Vallejo-Becerra, V.; Arjona, N.; Guerra-Balcázar, M.; Ledesma-García, J.; Arriaga, L. G.

    2016-11-01

    A novel stacked microfluidic fuel cell design comprising re-utilization of the anodic and cathodic solutions on the secondary cell is presented. This membraneless microfluidic fuel cell employs porous flow-through electrodes in a “V”-shape cell architecture. Enzymatic bioanodic arrays based on glucose oxidase were prepared by immobilizing the enzyme onto Toray carbon paper electrodes using tetrabutylammonium bromide, Nafion and glutaraldehyde. These electrodes were characterized through the scanning electrochemical microscope technique, evidencing a good electrochemical response due to the electronic transference observed with the presence of glucose over the entire of the electrode. Moreover, the evaluation of this microfluidic fuel cell with an air-breathing system in a double-cell mode showed a performance of 0.8951 mWcm-2 in a series connection (2.2822mAcm-2, 1.3607V), and 0.8427 mWcm-2 in a parallel connection (3.5786mAcm-2, 0.8164V).

  9. Treatment of Uveitis by In Situ Administration of Ex Vivo-Activated Polyclonal Regulatory T Cells.

    PubMed

    Grégoire, Sylvie; Terrada, Céline; Martin, Gaelle H; Fourcade, Gwladys; Baeyens, Audrey; Marodon, Gilles; Fisson, Sylvain; Billiard, Fabienne; Lucas, Bruno; Tadayoni, Ramin; Béhar-Cohen, Francine; Levacher, Béatrice; Galy, Anne; LeHoang, Phuc; Klatzmann, David; Bodaghi, Bahram; Salomon, Benoît L

    2016-03-01

    CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cell therapy is a promising approach for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. To be effective, Treg cells should be in an activated state in the target tissue. This can be achieved by systemic administration of Ag-specific Treg cells, which are difficult to produce in conditions that can be translated to the clinic. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach consisting of in situ injection of preactivated polyclonal Treg cells that would exert bystander suppression in the target tissue. We show that polyclonal Treg cells suppressed uveitis in mice as efficiently as Ag-specific Treg cells but only when preactivated and administered in the vitreous. Uveitis control was correlated with an increase of IL-10 and a decrease of reactive oxygen species produced by immune cell infiltrates in the eye. Thus, our results reveal a new mechanism of Treg cell-mediated suppression and a new Treg cell therapy approach.

  10. Simultaneous Exposure to Multiple Air Pollutants Influences Alveolar Epithelial Cell Ion Transport

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose. Air pollution sources generally release multiple pollutants simultaneously and yet, research has historically focused on the source-to-health linkages of individual air pollutants. We recently showed that exposure of alveolar epithelial cells to a combination of particul...

  11. U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy to Award - Marine Corps Air Station Miramar for Energy Conservation, Tour state-of-the-art green facilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    LOS ANGELES - On Wednesday, May 20th U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy will join Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Miramar officials to present the 2015 EPA Federal Green Challenge award for Energy. The base is being recognized for having the great

  12. Air quality analysis and related risk assessment for the Bonneville Power Administration's Resource Program Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, C S; Burk, K W; Driver, C J; Liljegren, J C; Neitzel, D A; Schwartz, M N; Dana, M T; Laws, G L; Mahoney, L A; Rhoads, K

    1992-04-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is considering 12 different alternatives for acquiring energy resources over the next 20 years. Each of the alternatives utilizes a full range of energy resources (e.g., coal, cogeneration, conservation, and nuclear); however, individual alternatives place greater emphases on different types of power-producing resources and employ different timetables for implementing these resources. The environmental impacts that would result from the implementation of each alternative and the economic valuations of these impacts, will be an important consideration in the alternative selection process. In this report we discuss the methods used to estimate environmental impacts from the resource alternatives. We focus on pollutant emissions rates, ground-level air concentrations of basic criteria pollutants, the acidity of rain, particulate deposition, ozone concentrations, visibility attenuation, global warming, human health effects, agricultural and forest impacts, and wildlife impacts. For this study, pollutant emission rates are computed by processing BPA data on power production and associated pollutant emissions. The assessment of human health effects from ozone indicated little variation between the resource alternatives. Impacts on plants, crops, and wildlife populations from power plant emissions are projected to be minimal for all resource alternatives.

  13. Promotion or suppression of experimental metastasis of B16 melanoma cells after oral administration of lapachol

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, Masayo; Murakami, Manabu; Takegami, Tsutomu; Ota, Takahide

    2008-06-01

    Lapachol [2-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone] is a vitamin K antagonist with antitumor activity. The effect of lapachol on the experimental metastasis of murine B16BL6 melanoma cells was examined. A single oral administration of a high toxic dose of lapachol (80-100 mg/kg) 6 h before iv injection of tumor cells drastically promoted metastasis. This promotion of metastasis was also observed in T-cell-deficient mice and NK-suppressed mice. In vitro treatment of B16BL6 cells with lapachol promoted metastasis only slightly, indicating that lapachol promotes metastasis primarily by affecting host factors other than T cells and NK cells. A single oral administration of warfarin, the most commonly used vitamin K antagonist, 6 h before iv injection of tumor cells also drastically promoted the metastasis of B16BL6 cells. The promotion of metastasis by lapachol and warfarin was almost completely suppressed by preadministration of vitamin K3, indicating that the promotion of metastasis by lapachol was derived from vitamin K antagonism. Six hours after oral administration of lapachol or warfarin, the protein C level was reduced maximally, without elongation of prothrombin time. These observations suggest that a high toxic dose of lapachol promotes metastasis by inducing a hypercoagulable state as a result of vitamin K-dependent pathway inhibition. On the other hand, serial oral administration of low non-toxic doses of lapachol (5-20 mg/kg) weakly but significantly suppressed metastasis by an unknown mechanism, suggesting the possible use of lapachol as an anti-metastatic agent.

  14. Application of AirCell Cellular AMPS Network and Iridium Satellite System Dual Mode Service to Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.

    2004-01-01

    The AirCell/Iridium dual mode service is evaluated for potential applications to Air Traffic Management (ATM) communication needs. The AirCell system which is largely based on the Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) technology, and the Iridium FDMA/TDMA system largely based on the Global System for Mobile Communications(GSM) technology, can both provide communication relief for existing or future aeronautical communication links. Both have a potential to serve as experimental platforms for future technologies via a cost effective approach. The two systems are well established in the entire CONUS and globally hence making it feasible to utilize in all regions, for all altitudes, and all classes of aircraft. Both systems have been certified for air usage. The paper summarizes the specifications of the AirCell/Iridium system, as well as the ATM current and future links, and application specifications. the paper highlights the scenarios, applications, and conditions under which the AirCell/Iridium technology can be suited for ATM Communication.

  15. Progress in Assessing Air Pollutant Risks from In Vitro Exposures: Matching Ozone Dose and Effect in Human Air Way Cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vitro exposures to air pollutants could, in theory, facilitate a rapid and detailed assessment of molecular mechanisms of toxicity. However, it is difficult to ensure that the dose of a gaseous pollutant to cells in tissue culture is similar to that of the same cells during in...

  16. CNT Sheet Air Electrode for the Development of Ultra-High Cell Capacity in Lithium-Air Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Akihiro; Ito, Kimihiko; Kubo, Yoshimi

    2017-01-01

    Lithium-air batteries (LABs) are expected to provide a cell with a much higher capacity than ever attained before, but their prototype cells present a limited areal cell capacity of no more than 10 mAh cm−2, mainly due to the limitation of their air electrodes. Here, we demonstrate the use of flexible carbon nanotube (CNT) sheets as a promising air electrode for developing ultra-high capacity in LAB cells, achieving areal cell capacities of up to 30 mAh cm−2, which is approximately 15 times higher than the capacity of cells with lithium-ion battery (LiB) technology (~2 mAh cm−2). During discharge, the CNT sheet electrode experienced enormous swelling to a thickness of a few millimeters because of the discharge product deposition of lithium peroxide (Li2O2), but the sheet was fully recovered after being fully charged. This behavior results from the CNT sheet characteristics of the flexible and fibrous conductive network and suggests that the CNT sheet is an effective air electrode material for developing a commercially available LAB cell with an ultra-high cell capacity. PMID:28378746

  17. Aluminum-Air Power Cell: the M4-cell assembly and initial tests

    SciTech Connect

    Maimoni, A.; Muelder, S.A.; Hui, W.C.

    1985-10-03

    We fabricated, assembled, and tested the modular, wedge-shaped M4 Aluminum-Air Power Cell in a system with a fluidized-bed crystallizer and hydrocyclone separator. Two M4-cell experiments validated the design premises and indicated predictable performance. The combined duration of the M4-1 and M4-2 experiments was almost 9 h. Conductive epoxy bonds are inadequate for bonding the air-cathode metal screen to current collectors; soldered joints using low melting (93/sup 0/C) Indium solder performed satisfactorily. Both experiments were terminated because of problems directly traceable to metallic tin deposited by the stannate corrosion inhibitor. Apart from problems caused by metallic tin, the M4-2 test system performed very satisfactorily. Individual cell pods are readily assembled into single or multicell stacks; it is easy to disassemble the cells after a run to determine cell condition. Air-cathode assembly is the most cumbersome aspect of the M4 cell. We obtained valuable information regarding the evolution of particle-size distribution. We did not observe substantial agglomeration of the smaller crystals. A simple model of secondary nucleation gave a reasonably good fit to the secondary nucleation observed in the M3-3 experiment.

  18. Mechanically refuelable zinc/air electric vehicle cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noring, J.; Gordon, S.; Maimoni, A.; Spragge, M.; Cooper, J. F.

    1992-12-01

    Refuelable zinc/air batteries have long been considered for motive as well as stationary power because of a combination of high specific energy, low initial cost, and the possibility of mechanical recharge by electrolyte exchange and additions of metallic zinc. In this context, advanced slurry batteries, stationary packed bed cells, and batteries offering replaceable cassettes have been reported recently. The authors are developing self-feeding, particulate-zinc/air batteries for electric vehicle applications. Emissionless vehicle legislation in California motivated efforts to consider a new approach to providing an electric vehicle with long range (400 km), rapid refueling (10 minutes) and highway safe acceleration - factors which define the essential functions of common automobiles. Such an electric vehicle would not compete with emerging secondary battery vehicles in specialized applications (commuting vehicles, delivery trucks). Rather, different markets would be sought where long range or rapid range extension are important. Examples are: taxis, continuous-duty fork-lift trucks and shuttle busses, and general purpose automobiles having modest acceleration capabilities. In the long range, a mature fleet would best use regional plants to efficiently recover zinc from battery reaction products. One option would be to use chemical/thermal reduction to recover the zinc. The work described focuses on development of battery configurations which efficiently and completely consume zinc particles, without clogging or changing discharge characteristics.

  19. Mechanically refuelable zinc/air electric vehicle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Noring, J.; Gordon, S.; Maimoni, A.; Spragge, M.; Cooper, J.F.

    1992-12-01

    Refuelable zinc/air batteries have long been considered for motive as well as stationary power because of a combination of high specific energy, low initial cost, and the possibility of mechanical recharge by electrolyte exchange and additions of metallic zinc. In this context, advanced slurry batteries, stationary packed bed cells and batteries offering replaceable cassettes have been reported recently. The authors are developing self-feeding, particulate-zinc/air batteries for electric vehicle applications. Emissionless vehicle legislation in California motivated efforts to consider a new approach to providing an electric vehicle with long range (400 km), rapid refueling (10 minutes) and highway safe acceleration -- factors which define the essential functions of common automobiles. Such a electric vehicle would not compete with emerging secondary battery vehicles in specialized applications (commuting vehicles, delivery trucks). Rather, different markets would be sought where long range or rapid range extension are important. Examples are: taxis, continuous-duty fork-lift trucks and shuttle busses, and general purpose automobiles having modest acceleration capabilities. In the long range, a mature fleet would best use regional plants to efficiently recover zinc from battery reaction products. One option would be to use chemical/thermal reduction to recover the zinc. The work described in this report focuses on development of battery configurations which efficiently and completely consume zinc particles, without clogging or changing discharge characteristics.

  20. Prevalence of Zygomatic Air Cell Defect using Orthopantomogram

    PubMed Central

    Panat, Sunil R.; Kishore, Abhinav; Aggarwal, Ashish; Upadhyay, Nitin; Agarwal, Nupur

    2015-01-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence, radiographic appearance, variations, characteristics and establishing dominant location and type of zygomatic air cell defect (ZACD) among the North Indian population. Materials and Methods The panoramic radiographs of 2500 dental clinic outpatients were examined for the presence of ZACD for estimating the prevalence and characteristics of the ZACD. Results ZACD was found in 63 patients with a prevalence of 2.5% with male predominance. Unilateral (70%) and unilocular appearance (78%) of ZACD were the dominant patterns. Patients with ZACD had a mean age of 37.4 years and a range of 19-78 years. Conclusion The prevalence of ZACD among the Indian population is in accordance with the other studies carried out in other populations of the world. So it is important for surgeons to assess location of ZACD before planning any surgical procedure in order to avoid intraoperative complications. PMID:26501003

  1. Intrapericardial administration of mesenchymal stem cells in a large animal model: a bio-distribution analysis.

    PubMed

    Blázquez, Rebeca; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco Miguel; Crisóstomo, Verónica; Báez, Claudia; Maestre, Juan; García-Lindo, Mónica; Usón, Alejandra; Álvarez, Verónica; Casado, Javier G

    2015-01-01

    The appropriate administration route for cardiovascular cell therapy is essential to ensure the viability, proliferative potential, homing capacity and implantation of transferred cells. At the present, the intrapericardial administration of pharmacological agents is considered an efficient method for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, only a few reports have addressed the question whether the intrapericardial delivery of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) could be an optimal administration route. This work firstly aimed to analyze the pericardial fluid as a cell-delivery vehicle. Moreover, the in vivo biodistribution pattern of intrapericardially administered MSCs was evaluated in a clinically relevant large animal model. Our in vitro results firstly showed that, MSCs viability, proliferative behavior and phenotypic profile were unaffected by exposure to pericardial fluid. Secondly, in vivo cell tracking by magnetic resonance imaging, histological examination and Y-chromosome amplification clearly demonstrated the presence of MSCs in pericardium, ventricles (left and right) and atrium (left and right) when MSCs were administered into the pericardial space. In conclusion, here we demonstrate that pericardial fluid is a suitable vehicle for MSCs and intrapericardial route provides an optimal retention and implantation of MSCs.

  2. Intrapericardial Administration of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Large Animal Model: A Bio-Distribution Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Crisóstomo, Verónica; Báez, Claudia; Maestre, Juan; García-Lindo, Mónica; Usón, Alejandra; Álvarez, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    The appropriate administration route for cardiovascular cell therapy is essential to ensure the viability, proliferative potential, homing capacity and implantation of transferred cells. At the present, the intrapericardial administration of pharmacological agents is considered an efficient method for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, only a few reports have addressed the question whether the intrapericardial delivery of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) could be an optimal administration route. This work firstly aimed to analyze the pericardial fluid as a cell-delivery vehicle. Moreover, the in vivo biodistribution pattern of intrapericardially administered MSCs was evaluated in a clinically relevant large animal model. Our in vitro results firstly showed that, MSCs viability, proliferative behavior and phenotypic profile were unaffected by exposure to pericardial fluid. Secondly, in vivo cell tracking by magnetic resonance imaging, histological examination and Y-chromosome amplification clearly demonstrated the presence of MSCs in pericardium, ventricles (left and right) and atrium (left and right) when MSCs were administered into the pericardial space. In conclusion, here we demonstrate that pericardial fluid is a suitable vehicle for MSCs and intrapericardial route provides an optimal retention and implantation of MSCs. PMID:25816232

  3. Intermittent parathyroid hormone administration converts quiescent lining cells to active osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Wan; Pajevic, Paola Divieti; Selig, Martin; Barry, Kevin J; Yang, Jae-Yeon; Shin, Chan Soo; Baek, Wook-Young; Kim, Jung-Eun; Kronenberg, Henry M

    2012-10-01

    Intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases bone mass, at least in part, by increasing the number of osteoblasts. One possible source of osteoblasts might be conversion of inactive lining cells to osteoblasts, and indirect evidence is consistent with this hypothesis. To better understand the possible effect of PTH on lining cell activation, a lineage tracing study was conducted using an inducible gene system. Dmp1-CreERt2 mice were crossed with ROSA26R reporter mice to render targeted mature osteoblasts and their descendents, lining cells and osteocytes, detectable by 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-d-galactopyranoside (X-gal) staining. Dmp1-CreERt2(+):ROSA26R mice were injected with 0.25 mg 4-OH-tamoxifen (4-OHTam) on postnatal days 3, 5, 7, 14, and 21. The animals were euthanized on postnatal day 23, 33, or 43 (2, 12, or 22 days after the last 4-OHTam injection). On day 43, mice were challenged with a subcutaneous injection of human PTH (1-34, 80 µg/kg) or vehicle once daily for 3 days. By 22 days after the last 4-OHTam injection, most X-gal (+) cells on the periosteal surfaces of the calvaria and the tibia were flat. Moreover, bone formation rate and collagen I(α1) mRNA expression were decreased at day 43 compared to day 23. After 3 days of PTH injections, the thickness of X-gal (+) cells increased, as did their expression of osteocalcin and collagen I(α1) mRNA. Electron microscopy revealed X-gal-associated chromogen particles in thin cells prior to PTH administration and in cuboidal cells following PTH administration. These data support the hypothesis that intermittent PTH treatment can increase osteoblast number by converting lining cells to mature osteoblasts in vivo.

  4. Single administration of butylparaben induces spermatogenic cell apoptosis in prepubertal rats.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mohammad Shah; Ohsako, Seiichiroh; Kanai, Yoshiakira; Kurohmaru, Masamichi

    2014-04-01

    Parabens are p-hydroxybenzoic acid ester compounds widely used as preservatives in foods, cosmetics, toiletries and pharmaceuticals. Some parabens, including butylparaben, exert an estrogenic activity as determined by in vitro estrogen receptor assay and in vivo uterotrophic assay, and adversely affect endocrine secretion and male reproductive function. We conducted a research study to evaluate the acute effects of butylparaben on testicular tissues of prepubertal rats. Three-week-old male rats (n=8) were given a single dose of 1000mg/kg butylparaben. The rats were sacrificed under anesthesia at 3, 6 and 24h after administration, and their testes were collected for histopathological examination. The study revealed progressive detachment and sloughing of spermatogenic cells into the lumen of the seminiferous tubules at 3h, and this effect was enhanced at 6h after administration. Thin seminiferous epithelia and wide tubular lumina were seen at 24h in the butylparaben-treated group, compared to the control. In order to clarify whether sloughed spermatogenic cells underwent apoptosis, TUNEL assay was carried out. We found a significant increase in the number of apoptotic spermatogenic cells in all the treated groups, compared to the controls and a maximal number of apoptotic cells were detected at 6h after administration. In semithin sections, apoptotic cells were easily detected by their prominent basophilia and condensed chromatin, mainly found in spermatocytes. Ultrastructurally, the condensed chromatin and shrunken cytoplasm and nucleus, hallmarks of apoptotic cell death, were observed in butylparaben-treated groups. These observations lead us to postulate that butylparaben, similar to other estrogenic compounds, also induces spermatogenic cell apoptosis.

  5. Generation of regulatory dendritic cells and CD4+Foxp3+ T cells by probiotics administration suppresses immune disorders.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ho-Keun; Lee, Choong-Gu; So, Jae-Seon; Chae, Chang-Suk; Hwang, Ji-Sun; Sahoo, Anupama; Nam, Jong Hee; Rhee, Joon Haeng; Hwang, Ki-Chul; Im, Sin-Hyeog

    2010-02-02

    The beneficial effects of probiotics have been described in many diseases, but the mechanism by which they modulate the immune system is poorly understood. In this study, we identified a mixture of probiotics that up-regulates CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). Administration of the probiotics mixture induced both T-cell and B-cell hyporesponsiveness and down-regulated T helper (Th) 1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines without apoptosis induction. It also induced generation of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs from the CD4(+)CD25(-) population and increased the suppressor activity of naturally occurring CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs. Conversion of T cells into Foxp3(+) Tregs is directly mediated by regulatory dendritic cells (rDCs) that express high levels of IL-10, TGF-beta, COX-2, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Administration of probiotics had therapeutical effects in experimental inflammatory bowel disease, atopic dermatitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. The therapeutical effect of the probiotics is associated with enrichment of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs in the inflamed regions. Collectively, the administration of probiotics that enhance the generation of rDCs and Tregs represents an applicable treatment of inflammatory immune disorders.

  6. Nasal submucosal administration of antigen-presenting cells induces effective immunological responses in cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Fujikawa, Akira; Kurosaki, Motoyoshi; Yamasaki, Kazuki; Sakurai, Daijyu; Horiguchi, Shigetoshi; Nakayama, Toshinori

    2011-01-01

    Human NKT cells are known to have strong antitumor activities and to be activated by specific ligand, α-galactosylceramide (αGelCer). We examined the migration pattern of αGalCer-pulsed DCs and the immune responses after administration by different routes. DCs injected into nasal submucosa quickly migrated to the lateral neck lymph rather than the lateral lymph nodes. The absolute number of NKT cells and the IFN-γ-producing cells increased in peripheral blood after injection of the DCs into nasal submucosa. We conducted a phase I study with αGalCer-pulsed DCs administered in nasal submucosa of patients with head and neck cancer, and evaluated safety and feasibility. The results showed that nasal submucosal administration of α-GalCer-pulsed DCs was safe and a smaller number of these DCs could exhibit significant immune responses and some positive clinical effects. In additional study, the use of the intra-arterial infusion of activated NKT cells and the submucosal injection of α-GalCer-pulsed DCs has been shown to induce significant antitumor immunity and had beneficial clinical effects in the management of advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The NKT cell-based cancer immunotherapy may be helpful in management of head and neck cancer and needs to be explored in further detail.

  7. Performance of PEM Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol-Air Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    A direct methanol-air fuel cell operating at near atmospheric pressure, low-flow rate air, and at temperatures close to 60oC would tremendously enlarge the scope of potential applications. While earlier studies have reported performance with oxygen, the present study focuses on characterizing the performance of a PEM liquid feed direct methanol-air cell consisting of components developed in house. These cells employ Pt-Ru catalyst in the anode, Pt at the cathode and Nafion 117 as the PEM. The effect of pressure, flow rate of air and temperature on cell performance has been studied. With air, the performance level is as high as 0.437 V at 300 mA/cm2 (90oC, 20 psig, and excess air flow) has been attained. Even more significant is the performance level at 60oC, 1 atm and low flow rates of air (3-5 times stoichiometric), which is 0.4 V at 150 mA/cm2. Individual electrode potentials for the methanol and air electrode have been separated and analyzed. Fuel crossover rates and the impact of fuel crossover on the performance of the air electrode have also been measured. The study identifies issues specific to the methanol-air fuel cell and provides a basis for improvement strategies.

  8. Cre-inducible human CD59 mediates rapid cell ablation after intermedilysin administration

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Dechun; Dai, Shen; Liu, Fengming; Ohtake, Yosuke; Zhou, Zhou; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Yonggang; Kearns, Alison; Peng, Xiao; Zhu, Faliang; Hayat, Umar; Li, Man; He, Yong; Xu, Mingjiang; Zhao, Chunling; Cheng, Min; Zhang, Lining; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiaofeng; Ju, Cynthia; Bryda, Elizabeth C.; Gordon, Jennifer; Khalili, Kamel; Hu, Wenhui; Li, Shuxin; Qin, Xuebin

    2016-01-01

    Cell ablation is a powerful tool for studying cell lineage and/or function; however, current cell-ablation models have limitations. Intermedilysin (ILY), a cytolytic pore-forming toxin that is secreted by Streptococcus intermedius, lyses human cells exclusively by binding to the human complement regulator CD59 (hCD59), but does not react with CD59 from nonprimates. Here, we took advantage of this feature of ILY and developed a model of conditional and targeted cell ablation by generating floxed STOP-CD59 knockin mice (ihCD59), in which expression of human CD59 only occurs after Cre-mediated recombination. The administration of ILY to ihCD59+ mice crossed with various Cre-driver lines resulted in the rapid and specific ablation of immune, epithelial, or neural cells without off-target effects. ILY had a large pharmacological window, which allowed us to perform dose-dependent studies. Finally, the ILY/ihCD59-mediated cell-ablation method was tested in several disease models to study immune cell functionalities, hepatocyte and/or biliary epithelial damage and regeneration, and neural cell damage. Together, the results of this study demonstrate the utility of the ihCD59 mouse model for studying the effects of cell ablation in specific organ systems in a variety of developmental and disease states. PMID:27159394

  9. Reporter gene expression in dendritic cells after gene gun administration of plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Craig; Hopkins, John; Harkiss, Gordon

    2005-07-21

    Dendritic cells (DC) play an integral role in plasmid DNA vaccination. However, the interaction between plasmid DNA and DC in vivo is incompletely understood. In this report, we utilise the sheep pseudoafferent cannulation model to examine the interaction between plasmid DNA encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (pEGFP) and afferent lymph DC (ALDC) following gene gun administration. The results show that peaks of fluorescent ALDC tended to appear around days 1-4 and 9-13, then erratically thereafter for up to 2 months. Phenotypic analysis showed that EGFP+ ALDC expressed MHC class II, WC6, CD1b, and SIRPalpha markers. Plasmid, detected by PCR, was found in lymph cells and cell-free plasma on a daily basis, and was present variably for up to 2 months. Plasmid was also detected in purified CD1b+ ALDC, but the presence of plasmid did not correlate with EGFP expression by ALDC. Free EGFP in afferent lymph plasma was detectable by luminometry only after three administrations of the plasmid. The results show that gene gun administered pEGFP persisted for extended periods after a single administration, leeching out of skin on a daily basis. The plasmid was associated with both the cellular and fluid components of afferent lymph. EGFP protein appeared in afferent lymph in a pulsatile manner, but associated only with ALDC.

  10. Bone marrow hypoplasia and intestinal crypt cell necrosis associated with fenbendazole administration in five painted storks.

    PubMed

    Weber, Martha A; Terrell, Scott P; Neiffer, Donald L; Miller, Michele A; Mangold, Barbara J

    2002-08-01

    Five painted storks were treated with fenbendazole for 5 days for internal parasitism. Four birds died following treatment. Profound heteropenia was a consistent finding in all samples evaluated; additionally, the 1 surviving bird had progressive anemia. Consistent necropsy findings in the 4 birds that died were small intestinal crypt cell necrosis and severe bone marrow depletion and necrosis. Fenbendazole has been associated with bone marrow hypoplasia and enteric damage in mammals and other species of birds. The dosages of fenbendazole used in birds are often substantially higher than those recommended for mammals, which may contribute to bone marrow hypoplasia and intestinal crypt cell necrosis associated with fenbendazole administration in birds.

  11. United States Food and Drug Administration Regulation of Gene and Cell Therapies.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Alexander M; Arcidiacono, Judith; Benton, Kimberly A; Taraporewala, Zenobia; Winitsky, Steve

    2015-01-01

    The United States (US) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is a regulatory agency that has oversight for a wide range of products entering the US market, including gene and cell therapies. The regulatory approach for these products is similar to other medical products within the United States and consists of a multitiered framework of statutes, regulations, and guidance documents. Within this framework, there is considerable flexibility which is necessary due to the biological and technical complexity of these products in general. This chapter provides an overview of the US FDA regulatory oversight of gene and cell therapy products.

  12. Administration route-dependent vaccine efficiency of murine dendritic cells pulsed with antigens

    PubMed Central

    Okada, N; Tsujino, M; Hagiwara, Y; Tada, A; Tamura, Y; Mori, K; Saito, T; Nakagawa, S; Mayumi, T; Fujita, T; Yamamoto, A

    2001-01-01

     Dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with tumour antigens have been successfully used to induce protective tumour immunity in murine models and human trials. However, it is still unclear which DC administration route elicits a superior therapeutic effect. Herein, we investigated the vaccine efficiency of DC2.4 cells, a murine dendritic cell line, pulsed with ovalbumin (OVA) in the murine E.G7-OVA tumour model after immunization via various routes. After a single vaccination using 1 × 106OVA-pulsed DC2.4 cells, tumour was completely rejected in the intradermally (i.d.; three of four mice), subcutaneously (s.c.; three of four mice), and intraperitoneally (i.p.; one of four mice) immunized groups. Double vaccinations enhanced the anti-tumour effect in all groups except the intravenous (i.v.) group, which failed to achieve complete rejection. The anti-tumour efficacy of each immunization route was correlated with the OVA-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity evaluated on day 7 post-vaccination. Furthermore, the accumulation of DC2.4 cells in the regional lymph nodes was detected only in the i.d.-and s.c.-injected groups. These results demonstrate that the administration route of antigen-loaded DCs affects the migration of DCs to lymphoid tissues and the magnitude of antigen-specific CTL response. Furthermore, the immunization route affects vaccine efficiency. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11384109

  13. Central Administration of Galanin Receptor 1 Agonist Boosted Insulin Sensitivity in Adipose Cells of Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenwen; Fang, Penghua; He, Biao; Guo, Lili; Runesson, Johan; Langel, Ülo; Shi, Mingyi; Zhu, Yan; Bo, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies testified the beneficial effect of central galanin on insulin sensitivity of type 2 diabetic rats. The aim of the study was further to investigate whether central M617, a galanin receptor 1 agonist, can benefit insulin sensitivity. The effects of intracerebroventricular administration of M617 on insulin sensitivity and insulin signaling were evaluated in adipose tissues of type 2 diabetic rats. The results showed that central injection of M617 significantly increased plasma adiponectin contents, glucose infusion rates in hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp tests, GLUT4 mRNA expression levels, GLUT4 contents in plasma membranes, and total cell membranes of the adipose cells but reduced the plasma C-reactive protein concentration in nondiabetic and diabetic rats. The ratios of GLUT4 contents were higher in plasma membranes to total cell membranes in both nondiabetic and diabetic M617 groups than each control. In addition, the central administration of M617 enhanced the ratios of pAkt/Akt and pAS160/AS160, but not phosphorylative cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB)/CREB in the adipose cells of nondiabetic and diabetic rats. These results suggest that excitation of central galanin receptor 1 facilitates insulin sensitivity via activation of the Akt/AS160 signaling pathway in the fat cells of type 2 diabetic rats. PMID:27127795

  14. Chronic hypothyroidism only marginally affects adult-type Leydig cell regeneration after EDS administration.

    PubMed

    Rijntjes, Eddy; van Kesteren-Buiting, Anita; Keijer, Jaap; Teerds, Katja J

    2010-02-01

    Chronic prenatally induced dietary hypothyroidism delays adult-type Leydig cell development, but does not block this process. Using a chemical model to induce hypothyroidism, it was suggested that development of a new population of Leydig cells was completely inhibited following the addition of the cytotoxic compound ethane-1,2-dimethyl sulphonate (EDS). In this study, we used a dietary approach to induce hypothyroidism and reinvestigated the regeneration of the Leydig cell population following EDS administration. Eighty-four day old euthyroid and chronically hypothyroid rats received an injection of EDS and were killed directly before or at regular intervals up to 77 days after EDS. In some control and hypothyroid animals, the first progenitor-type Leydig cells were observed at day 12 after EDS. At day 16, Leydig cell progenitors were present in all rats. The percentage of proliferating Leydig cells peaked in the euthyroid animals at day 21 after EDS. In the hypothyroid testis such a peak was not observed, although the percentage of proliferating regenerating Leydig cells was significantly higher from days 35 to 56 compared with the controls. This suggested that the wave of Leydig cell proliferation was delayed in the hypothyroid animals as compared with the euthyroid controls. On the day of EDS injection, the Leydig/Sertoli cell ratio was 37% lower in the hypothyroid rats compared with the controls. The Leydig/Sertoli cell ratio remained lower in the EDS-treated hypothyroid animals compared with the controls at all time points investigated. At day 77 after EDS, the Leydig cell population had returned to its pre-treatment size in both groups. Plasma testosterone production was reduced to below detectable levels immediately after EDS injection, and started to increase again on day 16, reaching pre-treatment values on day 21 in both groups. Taken together, severely reduced thyroid hormone levels did not block the regeneration of the adult-type Leydig cell population

  15. Cathodes for lithium-air battery cells with acid electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Yangchuan; Huang, Kan; Li, Yunfeng

    2016-07-19

    In various embodiments, the present disclosure provides a layered metal-air cathode for a metal-air battery. Generally, the layered metal-air cathode comprises an active catalyst layer, a transition layer bonded to the active catalyst layer, and a backing layer bonded to the transition layer such that the transition layer is disposed between the active catalyst layer and the backing layer.

  16. Air humidity and water pressure effects on the performance of air-cathode microbial fuel cell cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Yongtae; Zhang, Fang; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-02-01

    To better understand how air cathode performance is affected by air humidification, microbial fuel cells were operated under different humidity conditions or water pressure conditions. Maximum power density decreased from 1130 ± 30 mW m-2 with dry air to 980 ± 80 mW m-2 with water-saturated air. When the cathode was exposed to higher water pressures by placing the cathode in a horizontal position, with the cathode oriented so it was on the reactor bottom, power was reduced for both with dry (1030 ± 130 mW m-2) and water-saturated (390 ± 190 mW m-2) air. Decreased performance was partly due to water flooding of the catalyst, which would hinder oxygen diffusion to the catalyst. However, drying used cathodes did not improve performance in electrochemical tests. Soaking the cathode in a weak acid solution, but not deionized water, mostly restored performance (960 ± 60 mW m-2), suggesting that there was salt precipitation in the cathode that was enhanced by higher relative humidity or water pressure. These results showed that cathode performance could be adversely affected by both flooding and the subsequent salt precipitation, and therefore control of air humidity and water pressure may need to be considered for long-term MFC operation.

  17. The administration of multipotent stromal cells at precancerous stage precludes tumor growth and epithelial dedifferentiation of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bruna, Flavia; Arango-Rodríguez, Martha; Plaza, Anita; Espinoza, Iris; Conget, Paulette

    2017-01-01

    Multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) are envisioned as a powerful therapeutic tool. As they home into tumors, secrete trophic and vasculogenic factors, and suppress immune response their role in carcinogenesis is a matter of controversy. Worldwide oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the fifth most common epithelial cancer. Our aim was to determine whether MSC administration at precancerous stage modifies the natural progression of OSCC. OSCC was induced in Syrian hamsters by topical application of DMBA in the buccal pouch. At papilloma stage, the vehicle or 3×10(6) allogenic bone marrow-derived MSCs were locally administered. Four weeks later, the lesions were studied according to: volume, stratification (histology), proliferation (Ki-67), apoptosis (Caspase 3 cleaved), vasculature (ASMA), inflammation (Leukocyte infiltrate), differentiation (CK1 and CK4) and gene expression profile (mRNA). Tumors found in individuals that received MSCs were smaller than those presented in the vehicle group (87±80 versus 54±62mm(3), p<0.05). The rate of proliferation was two times lower and the apoptosis was 2.5 times higher in lesions treated with MSCs than in untreated ones. While the laters presented dedifferentiated cells, the former maintained differentiated cells (cytokeratin and gene expression profile similar to normal tissue). Thus, MSC administration at papilloma stage precludes tumor growth and epithelial dedifferentiation of OSCC.

  18. Systemic Administration of Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cells Does Not Halt Osteoporotic Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuxin; Lin, Sien; Gu, Weidong; Liu, Yamei; Zhang, Jinfang; Chen, Lin; Li, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have innate ability to self-renew and immunosuppressive functions, and differentiate into various cell types. They have become a promising cell source for treating many diseases, particular for bone regeneration. Osteoporosis is a common metabolic bone disorder with elevated systemic inflammation which in turn triggers enhanced bone loss. We hypothesize that systemic infusion of MSCs may suppress the elevated inflammation in the osteoporotic subjects and slow down bone loss. The current project was to address the following two questions: (1) Will a single dose systemic administration of allogenic MSCs have any effect on osteoporotic bone loss? (2) Will multiple administration of allogenic MSCs from single or multiple donors have similar effect on osteoporotic bone loss? 18 ovariectomized (OVX) rats were assigned into 3 groups: the PBS control group, MSCs group 1 (receiving 2x106 GFP-MSCs at Day 10, 46, 91 from the same donor following OVX) and MSCs group 2 (receiving 2x106 GFP-MSCs from three different donors at Day 10, 46, 91). Examinations included Micro-CT, serum analysis, mechanical testing, immunofluorescence staining and bone histomorphometry analysis. Results showed that BV/TV at Day 90, 135, BMD of TV and trabecular number at Day 135 in the PBS group were significantly higher than those in the MSCs group 2, whereas trabecular spacing at Day 90, 135 was significantly smaller than that in MSCs group 2. Mechanical testing data didn’t show significant difference among the three groups. In addition, the ELISA assay showed that level of Rantes in serum in MSCs group 2 was significantly higher than that of the PBS group, whereas IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly lower than those of the PBS group. Bone histomorphometry analysis showed that Oc.S/BS and Oc.N/BS in the PBS group were significant lower than those in MSCs group 2; Ob.S/BS and Ob.N/BS did not show significant difference among the three groups. The current study

  19. Intracerebral Stem Cell Administration Inhibits Relapse-like Alcohol Drinking in Rats.

    PubMed

    Israel, Yedy; Ezquer, Fernando; Quintanilla, María Elena; Morales, Paola; Ezquer, Marcelo; Herrera-Marschitz, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Study describes the blockade of relapse-like alcohol drinking by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). High alcohol-intake bred rats consumed alcohol for 3 months and were subjected to repeated alcohol deprivations for 7-14 days, followed by alcohol reaccess. Upon reaccess, animals consumed 2.2 g alcohol/kg in 60 minutes. A single intra-cerebroventricular MSC administration inhibited relapse-like drinking up to 80-85% for 40 days (P < 0.001). An alcohol-use-disorder was prevented.

  20. Combinatorial electrochemical cell array for high throughput screening of micro-fuel-cells and metal/air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Rongzhong

    2007-07-01

    An electrochemical cell array was designed that contains a common air electrode and 16 microanodes for high throughput screening of both fuel cells (based on polymer electrolyte membrane) and metal/air batteries (based on liquid electrolyte). Electrode materials can easily be coated on the anodes of the electrochemical cell array and screened by switching a graphite probe from one cell to the others. The electrochemical cell array was used to study direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), including high throughput screening of electrode catalysts and determination of optimum operating conditions. For screening of DMFCs, there is about 6% relative standard deviation (percentage of standard deviation versus mean value) for discharge current from 10to20mA/cm2. The electrochemical cell array was also used to study tin/air batteries. The effect of Cu content in the anode electrode on the discharge performance of the tin/air battery was investigated. The relative standard deviations for screening of metal/air battery (based on zinc/air) are 2.4%, 3.6%, and 5.1% for discharge current at 50, 100, and 150mA/cm2, respectively.

  1. Combinatorial electrochemical cell array for high throughput screening of micro-fuel-cells and metal/air batteries.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Rongzhong

    2007-07-01

    An electrochemical cell array was designed that contains a common air electrode and 16 microanodes for high throughput screening of both fuel cells (based on polymer electrolyte membrane) and metal/air batteries (based on liquid electrolyte). Electrode materials can easily be coated on the anodes of the electrochemical cell array and screened by switching a graphite probe from one cell to the others. The electrochemical cell array was used to study direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), including high throughput screening of electrode catalysts and determination of optimum operating conditions. For screening of DMFCs, there is about 6% relative standard deviation (percentage of standard deviation versus mean value) for discharge current from 10 to 20 mAcm(2). The electrochemical cell array was also used to study tin/air batteries. The effect of Cu content in the anode electrode on the discharge performance of the tin/air battery was investigated. The relative standard deviations for screening of metal/air battery (based on zinc/air) are 2.4%, 3.6%, and 5.1% for discharge current at 50, 100, and 150 mAcm(2), respectively.

  2. TLR-2 IS INVOLVED IN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELL RESPONE TO AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Primary cultures of normal human airway epithelial cells (NHBE) respond to ambient air pollution particulate matter (PM) by increased production of the cytokine IL-8, and the induction of a number of oxidant stress response genes. Components of ambient air PM responsible for stim...

  3. Optimization of solar cells for air mass zero operation and a study of solar cells at high temperatures, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovel, H.; Woodall, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Crystal growth procedures, fabrication techniques, and theoretical analysis were developed in order to make GaAlAs-GaAs solar cell structures which exhibit high performance at air mass 0 illumination and high temperature conditions.

  4. Proinflammatory cytokines differentially influence adult hippocampal cell proliferation depending upon the route and chronicity of administration.

    PubMed

    Seguin, Julie Anne; Brennan, Jordan; Mangano, Emily; Hayley, Shawn

    2009-01-01

    Disturbances of hippocampal plasticity, including impaired dendritic branching and reductions of neurogenesis, are provoked by stressful insults and may occur in depression. Although corticoids likely contribute to stressor-induced reductions of neurogenesis, other signaling messengers, including pro-inflammatory cytokines might also be involved. Accordingly, the present investigation assessed whether three proinflammatory cytokines, namely interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) (associated with depression) influenced cellular proliferation within the hippocampus. In this regard, systemic administration of TNF-alpha reduced 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling within the hippocampus, whereas IL-1beta and IL-6 had no such effect. However, repeated but not a single intra-hippocampal infusion of IL-6 and IL-1beta actually increased cellular proliferation and IL-6 infusion also enhanced microglial staining within the hippocampus. Yet, no changes in doublecortin expression were apparent, suggesting that the cytokine did not influence the birth of cells destined to become neurons. Essentially, the route of administration and chronicity of cytokine administration had a marked influence upon the nature of hippocampal alterations provoked, suggesting that cytokines may differentially regulate hippocampal plasticity in neuropsychiatric conditions.

  5. Photodynamic therapy by topical meso-tetraphenylporphinesulfonate tetrasodium salt administration in superficial basal cell carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, O.; Bandieramonte, G.; Melloni, E.; Marchesini, R.; Zunino, F.; Lepera, P.; De Palo, G. )

    1990-08-01

    The efficacy of an originally developed photodynamic approach, using topical administration of tetraphenylporphinesulfonate as the photosensitizer, was evaluated in a series of 292 basal cell carcinoma lesions (less than 2-mm thick) in 50 treated patients. The lack of indication for conventional therapies was the main selection criterion. The photosensitizing agent (2% solution) was topically applied at 0.1 ml/cm2, followed by light irradiation with a dye laser emitting at 645 nm (120 or 150 J/cm2). After initial treatment, all lesions responded, with 273 (93.5%) complete responses. Recurrences were observed in 29 (10.6%). A second application of photoradiation was performed in 15 persistent lesions and 11 relapsed lesions, producing 19/26 complete responses. Our results suggest that this technique can be considered a promising alternative treatment modality in selected cases of superficial basal cell carcinomas.

  6. The susceptibility of Aire(-/-) mice to experimental myasthenia gravis involves alterations in regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Aricha, Revital; Feferman, Tali; Scott, Hamish S; Souroujon, Miriam C; Berrih-Aknin, Sonia; Fuchs, Sara

    2011-02-01

    The autoimmune regulator (Aire) is involved in the prevention of autoimmunity by promoting thymic expression of tissue restricted antigens which leads to elimination of self-reactive T cells. We found that Aire knockout (KO) mice as well as mouse strains that are susceptible to experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) have lower thymic expression of acetylcholine receptor (AChR- the main autoantigen in MG), compared to wild type (WT) mice and EAMG-resistant mouse strains, respectively. We demonstrated that Aire KO mice have a significant and reproducible lower frequency of CD4+Foxp3+ cells and a higher expression of Th17 markers in their thymus, compared to wild type (WT) mice. These findings led us to expect that Aire KO mice would display increased susceptibility to EAMG. Surprisingly, when EAMG was induced in young (2 month-old) mice, EAMG was milder in Aire KO than in WT mice for several weeks until the age of about 5 months. However, when EAMG was induced in relatively aged (6 month-old) mice, Aire KO mice presented higher disease severity than WT controls. This age-related change in susceptibility to EAMG correlated with an elevated proportion of Treg cells in the spleens of young but not old KO, compared to WT mice, suggesting a role for peripheral Treg cells in the course of disease. Our observations point to a possible link between Aire and Treg cells and suggest an involvement for both in the pathogenesis of myasthenia.

  7. 76 FR 13851 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... hazardous air pollutant emission standards reflecting the application of the maximum achievable control...), we established that the application of measurement technology to mercury cell rooms is not... requirements, determines is achievable through application of measures, processes, methods, systems...

  8. Fact Sheet: CERCLA/EPCRA Administrative Reporting Exemption for Air Releases of Hazardous Substances from Animal Waste at Farms

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The final rule exempts all farms with these air releases that meet or exceed their reportable quantity from reporting under CERCLA section 103. It also exempts them from reporting under EPCRA section 304 if they do not exceed a specified number of animals.

  9. AIRE polymorphism, melanoma antigen-specific T cell immunity, and susceptibility to melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Conteduca, Giuseppina; Fenoglio, Daniela; Parodi, Alessia; Battaglia, Florinda; Kalli, Francesca; Negrini, Simone; Tardito, Samuele; Ferrera, Francesca; Salis, Annalisa; Millo, Enrico; Pasquale, Giuseppe; Barra, Giusi; Damonte, Gianluca; Indiveri, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    AIRE is involved in susceptibility to melanoma perhaps regulating T cell immunity against melanoma antigens (MA). To address this issue, AIRE and MAGEB2 expressions were measured by real time PCR in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) from two strains of C57BL/6 mice bearing either T or C allelic variant of the rs1800522 AIRE SNP. Moreover, the extent of apoptosis induced by mTECs in MAGEB2-specific T cells and the susceptibility to in vivo melanoma B16F10 cell challenge were compared in the two mouse strains. The C allelic variant, protective in humans against melanoma, induced lower AIRE and MAGEB2 expression in C57BL/6 mouse mTECs than the T allele. Moreover, mTECs expressing the C allelic variant induced lower extent of apoptosis in MAGEB2-specific syngeneic T cells than mTECs bearing the T allelic variant (p < 0.05). Vaccination against MAGEB2 induced higher frequency of MAGEB2-specific CTL and exerted higher protective effect against melanoma development in mice bearing the CC AIRE genotype than in those bearing the TT one (p < 0.05). These findings show that allelic variants of one AIRE SNP may differentially shape the MA-specific T cell repertoire potentially influencing susceptibility to melanoma. PMID:27563821

  10. The Impact of a Chief Planning Officer on the Administrative Environment for Planning. AIR 1991 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Peter J.; Peterson, Marvin W.

    In the interest of understanding the role of Chief Planning Officers (CPO) in gaining broad support for planning within an institution of higher education, this paper used a national survey of administrators to examine that role. This study, conducted by the National Center for Postsecondary Governance and Finance, involved a survey of 3,333…

  11. Attitudes of School Administrators and Teachers towards the "Smoke-Free Air Zone" Policy in Turkish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banoglu, Köksal

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Schools are likely to be better able to achieve compliance with smoke-free regulations if principals and teachers perceive the importance of a smoke-free policy. The purpose of this study was to measure teacher and administrator attitudes towards the smoke-free policy in Turkish schools, which promotes a total smoking ban. Method: The…

  12. Influence of lithium salts on the discharge chemistry of Li-air cells

    SciTech Connect

    Veith, Gabriel M; Nanda, Jagjit; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Dudney, Nancy J

    2012-01-01

    In this work we show that the use of a high boiling point ether solvent (tetraglyme) promotes the formation of Li2O2 in a lithium-air cell. In addition, another major constituent in the discharge product of a Li-air cell contains halides, from the lithium salt, and the tetraglyme used as the solvent. This information is critical to the development of Li-air electrolytes which are stable and promote the formation of the desired Li2O2 products.

  13. Air feed tube support system for a solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Doshi, Vinod B.; Ruka, Roswell J.; Hager, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator (12), containing tubular fuel cells (36) with interior air electrodes (18), where a supporting member (82) containing a plurality of holes (26) supports oxidant feed tubes (51), which pass from an oxidant plenum (52") into the center of the fuel cells, through the holes (26) in the supporting member (82), where a compliant gasket (86) around the top of the oxidant feed tubes and on top (28) of the supporting member (82) helps support the oxidant feed tubes and center them within the fuel cells, and loosen the tolerance for centering the air feed tubes.

  14. Systemic Administration of Interleukin 2 Enhances the Therapeutic Efficacy of Dendritic Cell-Based Tumor Vaccines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, K.; Fields, R. C.; Giedlin, M.; Mule, J. J.

    1999-03-01

    We have reported previously that murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with whole tumor lysates can mediate potent antitumor immune responses both in vitro and in vivo. Because successful therapy was dependent on host immune T cells, we have now evaluated whether the systemic administration of the T cell stimulatory/growth promoting cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) could enhance tumor lysate-pulsed DC-based immunizations to further promote protective immunity toward, and therapeutic rejection of, syngeneic murine tumors. In three separate approaches using a weakly immunogenic sarcoma (MCA-207), the systemic administration of non-toxic doses of recombinant IL-2 (20,000 and 40,000 IU/dose) was capable of mediating significant increases in the potency of DC-based immunizations. IL-2 could augment the efficacy of tumor lysate-pulsed DC to induce protective immunity to lethal tumor challenge as well as enhance splenic cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and interferon-γ production in these treated mice. Moreover, treatment with the combination of tumor lysate-pulsed DC and IL-2 could also mediate regressions of established pulmonary 3-day micrometastases and 7-day macrometastases as well as established 14- and 28-day s.c. tumors, leading to either significant cure rates or prolongation in overall survival. Collectively, these findings show that nontoxic doses of recombinant IL-2 can potentiate the antitumor effects of tumor lysate-pulsed DC in vivo and provide preclinical rationale for the use of IL-2 in DC-based vaccine strategies in patients with advanced cancer.

  15. Atmospheric-pressure air microplasma jets in aqueous media for the inactivation of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xianhui; Yang, Si-ze; Liu, Dongping; Song, Ying; Sun, Yue

    2013-05-15

    The hollow fiber-based cold air microplasma jet array running at atmospheric pressure has been designed to inactivate Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) cells in vitro in aqueous media. The influences of electrode configurations, air flow rate, and applied voltage on the discharge characteristics of the single microplasma jet operating in aqueous media are presented, and the bactericidal efficiency of the hollow fibers-based and large-volume microplasma jet array is reported. Optical emission spectroscopy is utilized to identify excited species during the antibacterial testing of plasma in solutions. These well-aligned and rather stable air microplasma jets containing a variety of short-lived species, such as OH and O radicals and charged particles, are in direct contact with aqueous media and are very effective in killing P. fluorescens cells in aqueous media. This design shows its potential application for atmospheric pressure air plasma inactivation of bacteria cells in aqueous media.

  16. Extracellular vesicle in vivo biodistribution is determined by cell source, route of administration and targeting.

    PubMed

    Wiklander, Oscar P B; Nordin, Joel Z; O'Loughlin, Aisling; Gustafsson, Ylva; Corso, Giulia; Mäger, Imre; Vader, Pieter; Lee, Yi; Sork, Helena; Seow, Yiqi; Heldring, Nina; Alvarez-Erviti, Lydia; Smith, C I Edvard; Le Blanc, Katarina; Macchiarini, Paolo; Jungebluth, Philipp; Wood, Matthew J A; Andaloussi, Samir El

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as important mediators of intercellular communication in a diverse range of biological processes. For future therapeutic applications and for EV biology research in general, understanding the in vivo fate of EVs is of utmost importance. Here we studied biodistribution of EVs in mice after systemic delivery. EVs were isolated from 3 different mouse cell sources, including dendritic cells (DCs) derived from bone marrow, and labelled with a near-infrared lipophilic dye. Xenotransplantation of EVs was further carried out for cross-species comparison. The reliability of the labelling technique was confirmed by sucrose gradient fractionation, organ perfusion and further supported by immunohistochemical staining using CD63-EGFP probed vesicles. While vesicles accumulated mainly in liver, spleen, gastrointestinal tract and lungs, differences related to EV cell origin were detected. EVs accumulated in the tumour tissue of tumour-bearing mice and, after introduction of the rabies virus glycoprotein-targeting moiety, they were found more readily in acetylcholine-receptor-rich organs. In addition, the route of administration and the dose of injected EVs influenced the biodistribution pattern. This is the first extensive biodistribution investigation of EVs comparing the impact of several different variables, the results of which have implications for the design and feasibility of therapeutic studies using EVs.

  17. [Changes of biogenic amines in the thymus cell system after T-activin administration].

    PubMed

    Iastrebova, S A; Sergeeva, V E; Spirin, I V

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the dynamics of the neurotransmitter (cateholamine, serotonin, histamine) content in the thymic structures, as well as of heparin maturation degree and degranulation in the thymic mast cells population by means of Falck, Cross and Unna luminescent-histochemical methods 1-30 days following daily T-activinum injections. Concentration of the neurotransmitters in all the bioamine-containing thymic structures was found to fall by day 7, but after day 14 it began to increase, reaching a high level by day 30 that significantly exceeded the initial values. The degree of heparin maturation in mast cells was increased at days 21 and 30. Long-term T-activinum administration (for more than 7 days) is not justified, since an excessive increase in bioamine and heparin content suppresses immune reactions. Degranulating mast cells, surrounded by the zones of microenvironment, that were saturated with the bioamines capable of suppressing thymocytes, were found to predominate at the late stages of an experiment with T-activinum injections.

  18. Extracellular vesicle in vivo biodistribution is determined by cell source, route of administration and targeting

    PubMed Central

    Wiklander, Oscar P. B.; Nordin, Joel Z.; O’Loughlin, Aisling; Gustafsson, Ylva; Corso, Giulia; Mäger, Imre; Vader, Pieter; Lee, Yi; Sork, Helena; Seow, Yiqi; Heldring, Nina; Alvarez-Erviti, Lydia; Smith, CI Edvard; Le Blanc, Katarina; Macchiarini, Paolo; Jungebluth, Philipp; Wood, Matthew J. A.; Andaloussi, Samir EL

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as important mediators of intercellular communication in a diverse range of biological processes. For future therapeutic applications and for EV biology research in general, understanding the in vivo fate of EVs is of utmost importance. Here we studied biodistribution of EVs in mice after systemic delivery. EVs were isolated from 3 different mouse cell sources, including dendritic cells (DCs) derived from bone marrow, and labelled with a near-infrared lipophilic dye. Xenotransplantation of EVs was further carried out for cross-species comparison. The reliability of the labelling technique was confirmed by sucrose gradient fractionation, organ perfusion and further supported by immunohistochemical staining using CD63-EGFP probed vesicles. While vesicles accumulated mainly in liver, spleen, gastrointestinal tract and lungs, differences related to EV cell origin were detected. EVs accumulated in the tumour tissue of tumour-bearing mice and, after introduction of the rabies virus glycoprotein-targeting moiety, they were found more readily in acetylcholine-receptor-rich organs. In addition, the route of administration and the dose of injected EVs influenced the biodistribution pattern. This is the first extensive biodistribution investigation of EVs comparing the impact of several different variables, the results of which have implications for the design and feasibility of therapeutic studies using EVs. PMID:25899407

  19. Optimal administration routes for adipose-derived stem cells therapy in ischaemic flaps.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Won; Jeon, Yeo Reum; Cho, Eul Je; Kang, Jong Hwa; Lew, Dae Hyun

    2014-08-01

    Improvement of flap survival represents an ongoing challenge in reconstructive surgery. The angiogenic potential of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) offers a promising approach to improve the viability of random pattern flaps. Recently, to maximize the therapeutic effects of ASCs, increasing focus is being placed on how to deliver the stem cells to target lesions. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of different administration routes of ASCs to improve the viability of the random pattern skin flap. ASCs labelled with PKH26 were applied via four methods to the cranially-based random pattern skin flaps of rats: (a) intravenous injection; (b) subcutaneous injection; (c) application with collagen sponge seeding; and (d) application with fibrin glue seeding. ASCs led to a significant increase in flap viability in the subcutaneous injection group and the collagen sponge group. Cutaneous blood flow was increased in the intravenous injection, subcutaneous injection and collagen sponge groups. Capillary density in the intravenous injection group and collagen sponge group was significantly greater than in the control group (no treatment). PKH26-positive cells via the collagen sponge were distributed more densely within the flap than in other groups. This study demonstrated that the collagen sponge method delivered ASCs most effectively within the flap and increased flap vascularity. The clinical therapeutic effects of ASCs can therefore be maximized when the optimal delivery route is chosen.

  20. Air pollution effects on the guard cells of the injury resistant leaf of Laurus nobilis L

    SciTech Connect

    Christodoulakis, N.S. )

    1993-09-01

    The need for cleaner air has led to detailed investigations not only on the sources and types of air pollutants but also on the effect that these compounds have on various life forms. The plants are the first [open quotes]victims[close quotes] of the air pollutants. Extensive literature exists on the structural damages and functional problems that plants suffer after being exposed to air pollutants. Many investigators prefer to deal with damages, caused to various organs, in plants growing in non polluted environments, after being fumigated with certain air pollutants. Others investigate the problems in plants growing in polluted areas thus being subject to long-term exposure to air pollutants. Generally it seems that primary producers suffer injuries, most of the time serious, that finally lead to the suppression of photosynthesis with all the undesirable consequences that this situation has for the ecosystem. Unfortunately Athens is not only the most polluted city in Greece but also an example to be avoided among the most polluted cities in the world. Serious problems occur in plants living in this environment. One exception is Laurus nobilis, introduced as an injury resistant species. These researchers studied the plant cells and the structure of their organelles, focusing on the guard cells of the leaves. They occur on the underside of leaves and they are directly affected by polluted air. Studies show that the air pollution injury resistance of Laurus is genetic. 25 refs., 21 figs

  1. Intravenous administration of puppy deciduous teeth stem cells in degenerative valve disease

    PubMed Central

    Petchdee, Soontaree; Sompeewong, Sarunya

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study is to investigate the improvement of heart function in dogs with chronic valvular heart disease after puppy deciduous teeth stem cells (pDSCs) administration. Materials and Methods: 20 client-owned dogs with degenerative valvular heart disease underwent multiple intravenous injections of allogeneic pDSCs. Dogs were randomly assigned to two groups: (i) Control group (n=10) with standard treatment for heart failure and (ii) group with standard treatment and multiple administrations of pDSCs (n=10). Electrocardiography, complete transthoracic echocardiography, thoracic radiography, and blood pressure were recorded before and after pDSCs injections for 15, 30 and 60 days. Results: Post pDSCs injection showed measurable improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction, American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) functional class significantly improved and improved quality of life scores were observed. In the control group, there were no significant enhancements in heart function or ACVIM class. Conclusions: This finding suggests that pDSCs could be a supplement for valvular heart disease treatment. PMID:28096616

  2. Modeling and optimization of the air system in polymer exchange membrane fuel cell systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Cheng; Ouyang, Minggao; Yi, Baolian

    Stack and air system are the two most important components in the fuel cell system (FCS). It is meaningful to study their properties and the trade-off between them. In this paper, a modified one-dimensional steady-state analytical fuel cell model is used. The logarithmic mean of the inlet and the outlet oxygen partial pressure is adopted to avoid underestimating the effect of air stoichiometry. And the pressure drop model in the grid-distributed flow field is included in the stack analysis. Combined with the coordinate change preprocessing and analog technique, neural network is used to treat the MAP of compressor and turbine in the air system. Three kinds of air system topologies, the pure screw compressor, serial booster and exhaust expander are analyzed in this article. A real-code genetic algorithm is programmed to obtain the global optimum air stoichiometric ratio and the cathode outlet pressure. It is shown that the serial booster and expander with the help of exhaust recycling, can improve more than 3% in the FCS efficiency comparing to the pure screw compressor. As the net power increases, the optimum cathode outlet pressure keeps rising and the air stoichiometry takes on the concave trajectory. The working zone of the proportional valve is also discussed. This presented work is helpful to the design of the air system in fuel cell system. The steady-state optimum can also be used in the dynamic control.

  3. Retrieval of air temperatures from crowd-sourced battery temperatures of cell phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overeem, Aart; Robinson, James; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Horn, Berthold K. P.

    2013-04-01

    Accurate air temperature observations are important for urban meteorology, for example to study the urban heat island and adverse effects of high temperatures on human health. The number of available temperature observations is often relatively limited. A new development is presented to derive temperature information for the urban canopy from an alternative source: cell phones. Battery temperature data were collected by users of an Android application for cell phones (opensignal.com). The application automatically sends battery temperature data to a server for storage. In this study, battery temperatures are averaged in space and time to obtain daily averaged battery temperatures for each city separately. A regression model, which can be related to a physical model, is employed to retrieve daily air temperatures from battery temperatures. The model is calibrated with observed air temperatures from a meteorological station of an airport located in or near the city. Time series of air temperatures are obtained for each city for a period of several months, where 50% of the data is for independent verification. Results are presented for Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Mexico City, Moscow, Rome, and Sao Paulo. The evolution of the retrieved air temperatures often correspond well with the observed ones. The mean absolute error of daily air temperatures is less than 2 degrees Celsius, and the bias is within 1 degree Celsius. This shows that monitoring air temperatures employing an Android application holds great promise. Since 75% of the world's population has a cell phone, 20% of the land surface of the earth has cellular telephone coverage, and 500 million devices use the Android operating system, there is a huge potential for measuring air temperatures employing cell phones. This could eventually lead to real-time world-wide temperature maps.

  4. Air sparging for prevention of antibody disulfide bond reduction in harvested CHO cell culture fluid.

    PubMed

    Mun, Melissa; Khoo, Stefanie; Do Minh, Aline; Dvornicky, James; Trexler-Schmidt, Melody; Kao, Yung-Hsiang; Laird, Michael W

    2015-04-01

    During the scale-up of several Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell monoclonal antibody production processes, significant reduction of the antibody interchain disulfide bonds was observed. The reduction was correlated with excessive mechanical cell shear during the harvest operations. These antibody reduction events resulted in failed product specifications and the subsequent loss of the drug substance batches. Several methods were recently developed to prevent antibody reduction, including modifying the cell culture media, using pre- and post-harvest chemical additions to the cell culture fluid (CCF), lowering the pH, and air sparging of the harvested CCF (HCCF). The work described in this paper further explores the option of HCCF air sparging for preventing antibody reduction. Here, a small-scale model was developed using a 3-L bioreactor to mimic the conditions of a manufacturing-scale harvest vessel and was subsequently employed to evaluate several air sparging strategies. In addition, these studies enabled further understanding of the relationships between cell lysis levels, oxygen consumption, and antibody reduction. Finally, the effectiveness of air sparging for several CHO cell lines and the potential impact on product quality were assessed to demonstrate that air sparging is an effective method in preventing antibody reduction.

  5. Adolescent nicotine administration alters serotonin receptors and cell signaling mediated through adenylyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z; Seidler, F J; Cousins, M M; Slikker, W; Slotkin, T A

    2002-10-04

    Nicotine is a neuroteratogen that targets synaptic function during critical developmental stages and recent studies indicate that CNS vulnerability extends into adolescence, the age at which smoking typically commences. We administered nicotine to adolescent rats via continuous minipump infusions from PN30 to PN47.5, using 6 mg/kg/day, a dose rate that replicates the plasma nicotine levels found in smokers, and examined 5HT receptors and related cell signaling during nicotine administration (PN45) and in the post-treatment period (PN50, 60, 75). Adolescent nicotine decreased 5HT(2) receptor binding in brain regions containing 5HT projections (hippocampus and cerebral cortex), with selectivity for females in the cerebral cortex; regions containing 5HT cell bodies showed either an increase (midbrain in males) or no change (brainstem). In contrast, there were no significant changes in 5HT(1A) receptors; however, the ability of the receptors to signal through adenylyl cyclase (AC) showed a switch from stimulatory to inhibitory effects in females during the post-treatment period. There were also transient alterations in AC responses to beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation, as well as pronounced induction of the AC response to the non-receptor-mediated stimulant, forskolin. Our results indicate that adolescent nicotine exposure alters the concentrations and functions of postsynaptic 5HT receptors in a manner commensurate with impaired 5HT synaptic function. The direction of change, emergence of defects after the cessation of nicotine administration, and sex-preference for effects in females, all support a relationship of impaired 5HT function to the higher incidence of depression seen in adolescent smokers.

  6. Microglia activation and cell death in response to diethyl-dithiocarbamate acute administration.

    PubMed

    Zucconi, Gigliola Grassi; Laurenzi, Maria Assunta; Semprevivo, Massimo; Torni, Federica; Lindgren, Jan Ake; Marinucci, Eva

    2002-04-29

    An increasing body of evidence suggests a role for activated microglia in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Hence, it would be useful to have a better understanding of the significance of microglial activation for neuronal damage. Unfortunately, most models of microglial activation use invasive or long-lasting insults, which make it difficult to evaluate the role played by microglia. We have instead developed a model for microglial activation by using brief exposure to the widely available neurotoxin diethyl-dithiocarbamate (DDTC). Despite evidence for the neurotoxic nature of this substance, microglia involvement has not been hitherto investigated. After acute i.p. administration of DDTC at two different doses, microglia were already activated in selected areas of the rat brain (hippocampal dentate gyrus, entorhinal-pyriform cortex and hypothalamus) after 1 hour, reaching a peak at 3-6 hours and subsided within 6-48 hours, depending on the brain region. Microglia activation was associated with interleukin-1 beta immunopositivity between 3 and 6 hours and with up-regulation of major histocompatibility complex class II expression between 24 and 48 hours. No significant changes in astrocyte immunostaining were detected between 6 hours and 6 days. The TUNEL procedure revealed the death of a limited number of cells in the above-mentioned structures that peaked at 6h and then declined rapidly. Cell death was detected in sites with major, minor, or no microglial activation, indicating that these two events can occur concomitantly or independently. The study shows that the administration of DDTC provides a useful model for studying the implications of region-specific reactivity of microglia and its differential interaction with neuronal damage.

  7. Pressurized air cathodes for enhanced stability and power generation by microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Weihua; Yang, Wulin; Tian, Yushi; Zhu, Xiuping; Liu, Jia; Feng, Yujie; Logan, Bruce E.

    2016-11-01

    Large differences between the water and air pressure in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can deform and damage cathodes. To avoid deformation, the cathode air pressure was controlled to balance pressure differences between the air and water. Raising the air pressures from 0 to 10 kPa at a set cathode potential of -0.3 V (versus Ag/AgCl) enhanced cathode performance by 17%, but pressures ≥25 kPa decreased current and resulted in air leakage into the solution. Matching the air pressure with the water pressure avoided cathode deformation and improved performance. The maximum power density increased by 15%, from 1070 ± 20 to 1230 ± 70 mW m-2, with balanced air and water pressures of 10-25 kPa. Oxygen partial pressures ≥12.5 kPa in the cathode compartment maintained the oxygen reduction rate to be within 92 ± 1% of that in ambient air. The use of pressurized air flow through the cathode compartments can enable closer spacing of the cathodes compared to passive gas transfer systems, which could make the reactor design more compact. The energy cost of pressurizing the cathodes was estimated to be smaller than the increase in power that resulted from the use of pressurized cathodes.

  8. Prophylactic steroid administration for strictures after endoscopic resection of large superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kadota, Tomohiro; Yano, Tomonori; Kato, Tomoji; Imajoh, Maomi; Noguchi, Masaaki; Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Osera, Shozo; Yoda, Yusuke; Oono, Yasuhiro; Ikematsu, Hiroaki; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Kaneko, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: One of the major complications after endoscopic resection (ER) for large superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is benign esophageal stricture, which can reduce quality of life even if ESCC achieves a cure without organ resection. Recently, steroid administration has been reported as a prophylactic treatment to prevent esophageal strictures. This retrospective study evaluated the stricture rate according to the different width of mucosal defects due to ER and compared it to that seen with prophylactic steroid administration. Patients and methods: Between June 2007 and December 2013, we enrolled patients with ESCC who had 3/4 or larger circumferential mucosal defects due to ER. In December 2009, steroid injections (triamcinolone acetonide 50 mg) into the ulcer bed due to ER were introduced. Beginning in November 2012, we commenced oral steroid administration (prednisolone 30 mg/day, tapered gradually for 8 weeks) in addition to steroid injection. Patients were classified into 3 groups according to the width of mucosal defect after ER (Group A, ≥ 3/4 and < 7/8; Group B, ≥ 7/8 and less than the entire circumference; and Group C, the entire circumference). We retrospectively evaluated the stricture rate by comparing no treatment, steroid injection, or steroid injection followed by oral steroid according to the width of mucosal defect. Results: A total of 115 patients met the selection criteria. In Group B, no treatment had a significantly higher stricture rate (100 %, vs. steroid injection: 56 % P = 0.015; vs steroid injection followed by oral steroid: 20 % P < 0.001). Conversely, in Group C, the stricture rate was high, regardless of treatment (no treatment: 100 %; steroid injection: 100 %; steroid injection followed by oral steroid: 71 %). Conclusions: Although prophylactic steroid administration is effective to prevent strictures for 7/8 circumference or larger mucosal defects, it is

  9. Metal-air cell comprising an electrolyte with a room temperature ionic liquid and hygroscopic additive

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, Cody A.; Krishnan, Ramkumar; Tang, Toni; Wolfe, Derek

    2014-08-19

    An electrochemical cell comprising an electrolyte comprising water and a hydrophobic ionic liquid comprising positive ions and negative ions. The electrochemical cell also includes an air electrode configured to absorb and reduce oxygen. A hydrophilic or hygroscopic additive modulates the hydrophobicity of the ionic liquid to maintain a concentration of the water in the electrolyte is between 0.001 mol % and 25 mol %.

  10. Air-bubbling, hollow-fiber reactor with cell bleeding and cross-flow filtration.

    PubMed

    Nishii, K; Sode, K; Karube, I

    1990-05-01

    Continuous asymmetric reduction of dyhydrooxoisophorone (DOIP) to 4-hydroxy-2,2,6-trimethylcyclo-hexanone (4-HTMCH) was achieved by a thermophilic bacterium Bacillus stearothermophilus NK86-0151. Three reactors were used: an air-bubbling hollow-fiber reactor with cell bleeding and cross-flow filtration, an air-lift reactor, and a CSTR with PAA immobilized cells. The maximum cell concentration of 11.1 g dry wt L(-1) was obtained in an air-bubbling hollow-fiber reactor, while in the other reactors the cell densities were between 3.5 and 4.1 g dry wt L(-1) The optimum bleed ratio was 0.1 at the dilution rate 0.3 h(-1) in the hollow-fiber reactor. The highest viable cell concentration was maintained in the dilution range of 0.4-0.7 h(-1) by a combination of proper cell bleeding and cross-flow filtration. The maximum volumetric productivity of 4-HTMCH reached 826 mg L(-1) h(-1) at the dilution rate 0.54 h(-1). This value was 4 and 2 times higher than those in the air-lift reactor and CSTR, respectively. The increasing viable cell concentration increased the volumetric productivity of 4-HTMCH. A cell free product solution was continuously obtained by cross-flow filtration.

  11. A balloon ozone measurement utilizing an optical absorption cell and an ejector air sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, E.; Ashenfelter, T. E.

    1976-01-01

    Stratospheric ozone was measured from a balloon utilizing an ultraviolet absorption cell. The ambient air was sampled by means of an aspirator attached to the output end of the optical cell. A nominal ozone distribution was obtained from 16 km to the float altitude of 38 km.

  12. A review of Air Force high efficiency cascaded multiple bandgap solar cell research and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahilly, W. P.

    1979-01-01

    At the time of their conception, the cell stack systems to be discussed represent the best semiconductor materials combinations to achieve Air Force program goals. These systems are investigated thoroughly and the most promising systems, from the standpoint of high efficiency, are taken for further development with large area emphasized (at least 4 sq cm). The emphasis in the Air Force cascaded cell program is placed on eventual nonconcentrator application. This use of the final cell design considerably relieves the low resistance requirements for the tunnel junction. In a high concentration application the voltage drop across the tunnel junction can be a very serious problem.

  13. Modulation and the Underlying Mechanism of T Cells in Thymus of Mice by Oral Administration of Sodium Fluoride.

    PubMed

    Yin, Songna; Wu, Haibo; Song, Chao; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Yong

    2016-03-01

    The underlying mechanism of thymic T cell regulation has been a hot topic of research in recent years. Fluoride is toxic at high concentrations and fluoride toxicity to thymic T cells was assessed in our study. To explore T cell responses to excess fluoride, different concentrations of fluoride were uptake by mice for 6 weeks. The expression of genes, including Foxn1, Cbx4, DLL4, and IL-7 gene, associated with the development and differentiation of T cells in thymic epithelial cells(TECs) was lower in the experimental groups than that in the control group. The percentages of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that decreased with the fluoride administration were confirmed by flow cytometry. The mRNA levels of immunoregulatory cytokines IL-2 and IL-10, which participate in T cell proliferation, also declined in the experimental groups as compared with the control group. Expression of the T cell function-related genes CD2, PTPRC, CD69, and CD101, which are involved in thymic function in mice, decreased with the fluoride administration. Our findings suggest that the administration of high concentrations of fluoride to mice induces a decrease in CD4(+) and CD8(+) thymus T cells by harming TECs leading to the dysfunction of the thymus by altering the expression of T cell function-related genes and immunoregulatory cytokine production.

  14. Remote ischemic postconditioning enhances cell retention in the myocardium after intravenous administration of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qin; Song, Peng; Wang, Enshi; Li, Jun; Hu, Shengshou; Zhang, Hao

    2013-03-01

    Efficacy of intravenous administration of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for myocardial infarction (MI) is limited by low cell retention in the damaged myocardium. Previous studies indicated that remote ischemic conditioning could protect against ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury by release of various cytokines including stromal cell derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1α). However, whether remote ischemic postconditioning (RIPostC) can also enhance the retention of infused cells in the myocardium by activating MSC homing is unclear. In this study, RIPostC was induced with 4cycles of 5min occlusion and reperfusion of the abdominal aorta in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats which underwent ligation of the coronary artery 1week previously. Cytokine levels in serum and myocardium were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at 1, 6, 24 and 48h after RIPostC. Then, a total of 4×10(6) male MSCs were infused intravenously at 24h after RIPostC. The number of survived cells in the myocardium was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis for Y chromosome and the heart function was evaluated by echocardiography at 1month after cell infusion. Furthermore, 10μg/kg rabbit anti-rat CXCR4 polyclonal antibody was injected intraperitoneally to prove the role of SDF-1α for RIPostC. RIPostC induced an increase in SDF-1α in serum at 1h and enhanced SDF-1α transcription and protein synthesis in the myocardium at 24h after the procedure. 1month after cell transplantation, RIPostC significantly increased MSC myocardial retention by 79.1±12.3% and thereby contributed to enhanced cardiac function in comparison with cell transplantation without RIPostC. Furthermore, blockade with a CXCR4-specific antibody after RIPostC markedly attenuated the enhancement of therapeutic efficacy. We conclude that RIPostC activated SDF-1α expression and enhanced retention of the infused MSCs in the injured myocardium. Priming of the heart with RIPostC might be a novel

  15. Sampling, storage, and analysis of C2-C7 non-methane hydrocarbons from the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Cooperative Air Sampling Network glass flasks.

    PubMed

    Pollmann, Jan; Helmig, Detlev; Hueber, Jacques; Plass-Dülmer, Christian; Tans, Pieter

    2008-04-25

    An analytical technique was developed to analyze light non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), including ethane, propane, iso-butane, n-butane, iso-pentane, n-pentane, n-hexane, isoprene, benzene and toluene from whole air samples collected in 2.5l-glass flasks used by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division (NOAA ESRL GMD, Boulder, CO, USA) Cooperative Air Sampling Network. This method relies on utilizing the remaining air in these flasks (which is at below-ambient pressure at this stage) after the completion of all routine greenhouse gas measurements from these samples. NMHC in sample aliquots extracted from the flasks were preconcentrated with a custom-made, cryogen-free inlet system and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection (FID). C2-C7 NMHC, depending on their ambient air mixing ratios, could be measured with accuracy and repeatability errors of generally < or =10-20%. Larger deviations were found for ethene and propene. Hexane was systematically overestimated due to a chromatographic co-elution problem. Saturated NMHC showed less than 5% changes in their mixing ratios in glass flask samples that were stored for up to 1 year. In the same experiment ethene and propene increased at approximately 30% yr(-1). A series of blank experiments showed negligible contamination from the sampling process and from storage (<10 pptv yr(-1)) of samples in these glass flasks. Results from flask NMHC analyses were compared to in-situ NMHC measurements at the Global Atmospheric Watch station in Hohenpeissenberg, Germany. This 9-months side-by-side comparison showed good agreement between both methods. More than 94% of all data comparisons for C2-C5 alkanes, isoprene, benzene and toluene fell within the combined accuracy and precision objectives of the World Meteorological Organization Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO-GAW) for NMHC measurements.

  16. Air Force development of thin GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masloski, K.

    1982-01-01

    The advantages of gallium arsenide (GaAs) over silicon (Si) type solar cells are well documented. However, two major disadvantages are weight and cost. Several ideas have recently surfaced that, if successful, will diminish these disadvantages. The CLEFT peeled film technique and the galicon cell are two of the more promising approaches. Low weight, low cost, high efficiency GaAs solar cell research is summarized.

  17. U. S. (United States) Air Force Fuel Cell Application Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    FUEL CELL POWER UNIT PARAMETERS FOR UNATTENDED REMOTE UNIT - ETHANOL FUELED. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3 4-2 FUEL CELL POWER UNIT...4-20 4-4 STATE POINTS - 23 kW ETHANOL - FUELED FCPU. . . ...... 4-23 4 4-5 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS MX POWER UNIT - DESIGN POINT SELECTION 4...DATA SUMMARY SHEET ETHANOL FUEL CELL POWER UNIT . .... 4-31 4-9 MAJOR COMPONENT DESIGN PARAMETERS - ETHANOL FCPU ........ 4-32 4-10 MAJOR CONTROL

  18. Planar solid oxide fuel cell with staged indirect-internal air and fuel preheating and reformation

    DOEpatents

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A; Williams, Mark C

    2003-10-21

    A solid oxide fuel cell arrangement and method of use that provides internal preheating of both fuel and air in order to maintain the optimum operating temperature for the production of energy. The internal preheat passes are created by the addition of two plates, one on either side of the bipolar plate, such that these plates create additional passes through the fuel cell. This internal preheat fuel cell configuration and method reduce the requirements for external heat exchanger units and air compressors. Air or fuel may be added to the fuel cell as required to maintain the optimum operating temperature through a cathode control valve or an anode control valve, respectively. A control loop comprises a temperature sensing means within the preheat air and fuel passes, a means to compare the measured temperature to a set point temperature and a determination based on the comparison as to whether the control valves should allow additional air or fuel into the preheat or bypass manifolds of the fuel cell.

  19. Effect of vitamin C administration on hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity in periodontal ligament cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenlei; Yang, Nanfei; Feng, Xiujing; Sun, Tingzhe; Shen, Pingping; Sun, Weibin

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is a disease, which is associated with chronic inflammation and leads to significant destruction of periodontal tissues. Periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) constitute the largest cell population in PDL tissues and a considerable body of evidence has demonstrated an association between oxidative stress and the progression of periodontitis. However, the effects on PDLCs exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the molecular mechanisms by which H2O2 affects periodontitis remain to be elucidated. In the present study, the potential cytotoxic effect of H2O2 and the antioxidative function of vitamin C (Vc) in PDLCs were investigated. The results demonstrated that H2O2 treatment decreased the viability of PDLCs. The decreased PDLC viability was primarily induced by apoptosis, which was evidenced by cleaved caspases-3, caspases-9 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Following optimal Vc addition, the proapoptotic effects of H2O2 were partially antagonized. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that H2O2 primarily induced the apoptosis of PDLCs and that these adverse effects were partially rescued following treatment with Vc. These results revealed how H2O2 promotes the progression of periodontitis and provide an improved understanding of the reversal effect of antioxidant treatment. Therefore, optimal Vc administration may provide a potentially effective technique in periodontal therapy.

  20. In vivo administration of artificial antigen-presenting cells activates low-avidity T cells for treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    Ugel, Stefano; Zoso, Alessia; De Santo, Carmela; Li, Yu; Marigo, Ilaria; Zanovello, Paola; Scarselli, Elisa; Cipriani, Barbara; Oelke, Mathias; Schneck, Jonathan P; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2009-12-15

    The development of effective antitumor immune responses is normally constrained by low-avidity, tumor-specific CTLs that are unable to eradicate the tumor. Strategies to rescue antitumor activity of low-avidity melanoma-specific CTLs in vivo may improve immunotherapy efficacy. To boost the in vivo effectiveness of low-avidity CTLs, we immunized mice bearing lung melanoma metastases with artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPC), made by covalently coupling (pep)MHC-Ig dimers and B7.1-Ig molecules to magnetic beads. aAPC treatment induced significant tumor reduction in a mouse telomerase antigen system, and complete tumor eradication in a mouse TRP-2 antigen system, when low-avidity CTLs specific for these antigens were adoptively transferred. In addition, in an in vivo treatment model of subcutaneous melanoma, aAPC injection also augmented the activity of adoptively transferred CTLs and significantly delayed tumor growth. In vivo tumor clearance due to aAPC administration correlated with in situ proliferation of the transferred CTL. In vitro studies showed that aAPC effectively stimulated cytokine release, enhanced CTL-mediated lysis, and TCR downregulation in low-avidity CTLs. Therefore, in vivo aAPC administration represents a potentially novel approach to improve cancer immunotherapy.

  1. Lumped element modeling of air-coupled capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers with annular cell geometry.

    PubMed

    Na, Shuai; Wong, Lawrence L P; Chen, Albert I H; Li, Zhenhao; Macecek, Mirek; Yeow, John T W

    2017-04-01

    Air-coupled capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) based on annular cell geometry have recently been reported. Finite element analysis and experimental studies have demonstrated their significant improvement in transmit efficiency compared with the conventional circular-cell CMUTs. Extending the previous work, this paper proposed a lumped element model of annular-cell CMUTs. Explicit expressions of the resonance frequency, modal vector, and static displacement of a clamped annular plate under uniform pressure were first derived based on the plate theory and curve fitting method. The lumped model of an annular CMUT cell was then developed by adopting the average displacement as the spatial variable. Using the proposed model, the ratio of average-to-maximum displacement was derived to be 8/15. Experimental and simulation studies on a fabricated annular CMUT cell verified the effectiveness of the lumped model. The proposed model provides an effective and efficient way to analyze and design air-coupled annular-cell CMUTs.

  2. The controversial experiments on the intravenous administration of drugs (and air!) during the cholera epidemic of 1867 in Italy.

    PubMed

    Cascella, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Cholera ravaged many American and European cities in the nineteenth century. Likewise, Italy was struck by six epidemics since the morbus first appeared in 1835-1837. After the International Sanitary Conferences held in Paris in 1851, there was a decrease of the cases due to consolidation of the city in terms of public and private health. Nevertheless, due to the lack of alternative and innovative remedies, the mortality remained unchanged, affecting more than 60 percent of patients. The city of Brescia in Northern Italy was severely hit by the epidemic of 1867. Not being able to implement effective therapeutic strategies, the administration of drugs like quinine and strychnine was proposed to be done intravenously. The results of intravenous injections were ominous, and all the patients died of "‘sudden death"’. Although the academic authorities forbade further experiments, some physicians carried on a long trial using test animals and mental patients as ‘"guinea pigs"’.

  3. Site Evaluation for Application of Fuel Cell Technology, Nellis Air Force Base, NV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    participated in the development and application of advanced fuel cell technology since fiscal yea 1993 (FY93). CERL selected and evaluated application sites...feedback to manufacturers for 29 of 30 commercially available fuel cell power plants and their thermal interfaces installed at Department of Defense...DoD) locations. This report presents an overview of the information collected at Nellis Air Force Base, NV, along with a conceptual fuel cell installation

  4. Oral administration of Enterococcus faecalis FK-23 suppresses Th17 cell development and attenuates allergic airway responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bei; An, Jun; Shimada, Takashi; Liu, Shuang; Maeyama, Kazutaka

    2012-08-01

    Evidence is increasing that oral administration of probiotics can attenuate asthmatic responses both in murine models and clinical trials. T-helper 17 (Th17) cells, a subset of CD4+ T cells have been implicated as having an important role in the development of several allergic disorders, but the relationship between oral administration of probiotics and Th17 development has not been well studied. BALB/c mice were given lysed Enterococcus faecalis FK-23 (LFK) orally for 28 days. After sensitization by subcutaneous injection of ovalbumin (OVA) on Days 14 and 21 and 1% OVA inhalation on Days 25, 26 and 27, they were challenged with a 5% OVA aerosol on Day 28. Twenty-four hours later, airway resistance and accumulation of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissues were determined. Ιnterleukin (IL)-17-expressing CD4+ lymphocytes isolated from lung, spleen and lamina propria of the intestine were detected by flow cytometry. The expression of IL-6 and TGF-β mRNA was assessed by real-time PCR. Increases in airway hyperresponsiveness, and numbers of total leukocytes and mast cells in BALF induced by OVA challenge were significantly suppressed by oral administration of LFK. The increased percentage of IL-17-expressing CD4+ cells from lung, spleen and intestine in OVA-challenged mice was reduced following LFK treatment. We conclude that the oral administration of LFK suppresses the asthmatic response and that this is associated with attenuation of Th17 cell development.

  5. Air supply using an ionic wind generator in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Kilsung; Li, Longnan; Park, Byung Ho; Lee, Seung Jun; Kim, Daejoong

    2015-06-01

    A new air supply is demonstrated for a portable polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The air supply is an ionic wind generator (IWG) with a needle-to-cylinder configuration. The IWG supplies air to the portable PEMFC owing to momentum transfer to the air by charged molecules generated by the corona discharge from a high applied potential. There is no difference in the performance of the PEMFC when compressed air and the IWG are used as the air supply. For the varying interelectrode distance, IWG performance is varied and measured in terms of the flow rate and current. At the interelectrode distance of 9.0 mm, the air flow rate is a suitable for the portable PEMFC with low power consumption. When the IWG is used to supply air to the portable PEMFC, it is found that the flow rate per unit power consumed decreases with the applied voltage, the gross power generation monotonously increases with the applied voltage, and the highest net power (268 mW) is obtained at the applied voltage of 8.5 kV. The parasitic power ratio reaches a minimum value of ∼0.06 with the applied IWG voltage of 5.5 kV.

  6. Air Entrainment in a Liquid Cell due to Fiber Drawing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpkins, P. G.; Kuck, V. J.

    1997-11-01

    Preliminary observations of air entrainment into a liquid bath of viscous Newtonian fluid are described. The motion generated by an optical fiber moving vertically through the bath gives rise to a free surface that is cusp-like. Photomicrographs of the contact region, however, illustrate that the free surface profile becomes conical with a small included angle that is draw speed dependent. There is some evidence to suggest that tip-streaming ( Taylor, G. I. 1934 The Formation of Emulsions in Definable Fields of Flow. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A146, 501-523.) footnote Sherwood, J. D. 1984 Tip Streaming from Slender Drops in a Nonlinear Extensional Flow. J. Fluid Mech. 144, 281-295. filaments of air emanate from the contact zone to give rise to minute ( 10mm) bubbles via Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Continuous operation after the onset of tip-streaming results in the creation of larger bubbles from the small ones via coalescence during recirculation in the bath. Eventually the occurrence of very large bubbles can lead to break out and the absence of any coating on the fiber.

  7. Three-wheel air turbocompressor for PEM fuel cell systems

    DOEpatents

    Rehg, Tim; Gee, Mark; Emerson, Terence P.; Ferrall, Joe; Sokolov, Pavel

    2003-08-19

    A fuel cell system comprises a compressor and a fuel processor downstream of the compressor. A fuel cell stack is in communication with the fuel processor and compressor. A combustor is downstream of the fuel cell stack. First and second turbines are downstream of the fuel processor and in parallel flow communication with one another. A distribution valve is in communication with the first and second turbines. The first and second turbines are mechanically engaged to the compressor. A bypass valve is intermediate the compressor and the second turbine, with the bypass valve enabling a compressed gas from the compressor to bypass the fuel processor.

  8. Air stable organic-inorganic nanoparticles hybrid solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Lei; Yang, Jihua; Xue, Jiangeng; Holloway, Paul H.

    2015-09-29

    A solar cell includes a low work function cathode, an active layer of an organic-inorganic nanoparticle composite, a ZnO nanoparticle layer situated between and physically contacting the cathode and active layers; and a transparent high work function anode that is a bilayer electrode. The inclusion of the ZnO nanoparticle layer results in a solar cell displaying a conversion efficiency increase and reduces the device degradation rate. Embodiments of the invention are directed to novel ZnO nanoparticles that are advantageous for use as the ZnO nanoparticle layers of the novel solar cells and a method to prepare the ZnO nanoparticles.

  9. 324 and 325 Building Hot Cell Cleanout Program: Air lock cover block refurbishment

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, Y.B.; Holton, L.K. Jr.; Gale, R.M.

    1989-05-01

    The high-density concrete cover blocks shielding the pipe trench in the hot-cell air lock of the 324 Building Radiochemical Engineering Cells had accumulated fixed radioactivity ranging from 1100 to 22, 000 mrad/hr. A corresponding increase in the radiation exposure to personnel entering the air lock, together with ALARA concerns, led to the removal of the contaminated concrete surface with a hydraulic spaller and the emplacement of a stainless steel covering over a layer of grout. The resultant saving in radiation exposure is estimated to be 7200 mrad for personnel completing burial box runs for the 324 and 325 Building Hot Cell Cleanout Program. Radiation exposure to all staff members entering the air lock is now at least 50% lower. 3 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Mesenchymal stem cell administration at coronary artery reperfusion in the rat by two delivery routes: a quantitative assessment

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Sharon L; Dai, Wangde; Dow, Joan S; Kloner, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    Aims Ideally, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) home to and/or remain at the site of damaged myocardium when administered after myocardial infarction. However, MSC may not remain in the heart, but instead relocate to other areas. We investigated quantitatively the distribution of labeled rat MSC, given by two routes after coronary artery occlusion/reperfusion in rats. Main Methods Rats were subjected to 45 minutes of coronary artery occlusion and 7 days of reperfusion. Before reperfusion rats received 2×106 MSC, labeled with europium, injected directly into the ischemic region of the heart (n=9) or intravenously (n = 8). After one week tissues were analyzed for label content together with a standard curve of known quantities of labeled MSC. Key Findings In rats receiving cells injected directly into the myocardium, 15% of labeled cells were retained in the heart. When the cells were administered intravenously, no MSC were detected in the heart. The route of administration did not affect distribution to other organs, as the number of MSC in liver, spleen and lung was similar with both routes of delivery. Significance Even with direct intramyocardial injection, only a small proportion of the cells are retained in the heart, instead traveling to other organs. With intravenous injection there was no evidence that cells "homed" to the damaged heart. Although cell delivery to the heart was significantly affected by the route of administration, the distribution of cells to other organs was similar with both routes of administration. PMID:18755200

  11. The 2006 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Range Reference Atmosphere Model Validation Study and Sensitivity Analysis to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Lee; Merry, Carl; Decker, Ryan; Harrington, Brian

    2008-01-01

    The 2006 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) Range Reference Atmosphere (RRA) is a statistical model summarizing the wind and thermodynamic atmospheric variability from surface to 70 kin. Launches of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Shuttle from Kennedy Space Center utilize CCAFS RRA data to evaluate environmental constraints on various aspects of the vehicle during ascent. An update to the CCAFS RRA was recently completed. As part of the update, a validation study on the 2006 version was conducted as well as a comparison analysis of the 2006 version to the existing CCAFS RRA database version 1983. Assessments to the Space Shuttle vehicle ascent profile characteristics were performed to determine impacts of the updated model to the vehicle performance. Details on the model updates and the vehicle sensitivity analyses with the update model are presented.

  12. The 2006 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Range Reference Atmosphere Model Validation Study and Sensitivity Analysis to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Ryan K.; Burns, Lee; Merry, Carl; Harrington, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric parameters are essential in assessing the flight performance of aerospace vehicles. The effects of the Earth's atmosphere on aerospace vehicles influence various aspects of the vehicle during ascent ranging from its flight trajectory to the structural dynamics and aerodynamic heatmg on the vehicle. Atmospheric databases charactenzing the wind and thermodynamic environments, known as Range Reference Atmospheres (RRA), have been developed at space launch ranges by a governmental interagency working group for use by aerospace vehicle programs. The National Aeronantics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Shuttle Program (SSP), which launches from Kennedy Space Center, utilizes atmosphenc statistics derived from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Range Reference Atmosphere (CCAFS RRA) database to evaluate environmental constraints on various aspects of the vehlcle during ascent.

  13. DNA damage and mitochondria dysfunction in cell apoptosis induced by nonthermal air plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, G. J.; Lee, J. K.; Kim, W.; Kim, K. T.

    2010-01-11

    Nonthermal plasma is known to induce animal cell death but the mechanism is not yet clear. Here, cellular and biochemical regulation of cell apoptosis is demonstrated for plasma treated cells. Surface type nonthermal air plasma triggered apoptosis of B16F10 mouse melanoma cancer cells causing DNA damage and mitochondria dysfunction. Plasma treatment activated caspase-3, apoptosis executioner. The plasma treated cells also accumulated gamma-H2A.X, marker for DNA double strand breaks, and p53 tumor suppressor gene as a response to DNA damage. Interestingly, cytochrome C was released from mitochondria and its membrane potential was changed significantly.

  14. Vitamin E alters alveolar type II cell phospholipid synthesis in oxygen and air

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, K.A.; Snyder, J.M.; Stenzel, W.; Saito, K.; Warshaw, J.B. )

    1990-11-01

    Newborn rats were injected with vitamin E or placebo daily until 6 days after birth. The effect of vitamin E pretreatment on in vitro surfactant phospholipid synthesis was examined in isolated type II cells exposed to oxygen or air form 24 h in vitro. Type II cells were also isolated from untreated 6-day-old rats and cultured for 24 h in oxygen or air with control medium or vitamin E supplemented medium. These cells were used to examine the effect of vitamin E exposure in vitro on type II cell phospholipid synthesis and ultrastructure. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis was reduced in cells cultured in oxygen as compared with air. This decrease was not prevented by in vivo pretreatment or in vitro supplementation with vitamin E. Vitamin E pretreatment increased the ratio of disaturated PC to total PC and increased phosphatidylglycerol synthesis. The volume density of lamellar bodies in type II cells was increased in cells maintained in oxygen. Vitamin E did not affect the volume density of lamellar bodies. We conclude that in vitro hyperoxia inhibits alveolar type II cell phosphatidylcholine synthesis without decreasing lamellar body volume density and that supplemental vitamin E does not prevent hyperoxia-induced decrease in phosphatidylcholine synthesis.

  15. Intravenous vs intraperitoneal mesenchymal stem cells administration: What is the best route for treating experimental colitis?

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Fabiany da Costa; Schneider, Natália; Pinto, Fernanda Otesbelgue; Meyer, Fabíola Schons; Visioli, Fernanda; Pfaffenseller, Bianca; Lopez, Patrícia Luciana da Costa; Passos, Eduardo Pandolfi; Cirne-Lima, Elizabeth Obino; Meurer, Luíse; Paz, Ana Helena

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplanted intraperitoneally and intravenously in a murine model of colitis. METHODS: MSCs were isolated from C57BL/6 mouse adipose tissue. MSC cultures were analyzed according to morphology, cellular differentiation potential, and surface molecular markers. Experimental acute colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by oral administration of 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water ad libitum from days 0 to 7. Colitis mice were treated with 1 × 106 MSCs via intraperitoneal or intravenous injection on days 2 and 5. The disease activity index was determined daily based on the following parameters: weight loss, stool consistency and presence of blood in the feces and anus. To compare morphological and functional differences in tissue regeneration between different MSC injection modalities, mice were euthanized on day 8, and their colons were examined for length, weight, and histopathological changes. Inflammatory responses were determined by measuring the levels of different serum cytokines using a CBA Th1/Th2/Th17 kit. Apoptotic rates were evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUDP-biotin nick end labeling assay. RESULTS: Intravenous infusion of MSCs was more effective than intraperitoneal treatment (P < 0.001) in reducing the clinical and histopathologic severity of colitis, which includes weight loss, diarrhea and inflammation. An histological evaluation demonstrated decreased colonic inflammation based on reduced crypt loss and reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells. This therapeutic effect was most likely mediated by the down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)]; and by the up-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-4). Intravenous transplantation also induced high levels of IFN that lead to activation of the immunosuppressive activity of the MSCs, which did not occur with

  16. Rechargeable Zn-air batteries: Progress in electrolyte development and cell configuration advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M.; Ivey, D. G.; Xie, Z.; Qu, W.

    2015-06-01

    Zn-air batteries, which are cost-effective and have high energy density, are promising energy storage devices for renewable energy and power sources for electric transportation. Nevertheless, limited charge and discharge cycles and low round-trip efficiency have long been barriers preventing the large-scale deployment of Zn-air batteries in the marketplace. Technology advancements for each battery component and the whole battery/cell assembly are being pursued, with some key milestones reached during the past 20 years. As an example, commercial Zn-air battery products with long lifetimes and high energy efficiencies are being considered for grid-scale energy storage and for automotive markets. In this review, we present our perspectives on improvements in Zn-air battery technology through the exploration and utilization of different electrolyte systems. Recent studies ranging from aqueous electrolytes to nonaqueous electrolytes, including solid polymer electrolytes and ionic liquids, as well as hybrid electrolyte systems adopted in Zn-air batteries have been evaluated. Understanding the benefits and drawbacks of each electrolyte, as well as the fundamental electrochemistry of Zn and air electrodes in different electrolytes, are the focus of this paper. Further consideration is given to detailed Zn-air battery configurations that have been studied and applied in commercial or nearing commercial products, with the purpose of exposing state-of-the-art technology innovations and providing insights into future advancements.

  17. Optimization of solar cells for air mass zero operation and a study of solar cells at high temperatures, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, A. E.; Hovel, H. J.; Woodall, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The etch-back epitaxy process is described for producing thin, graded composition GaAlAs layers. The palladium-aluminum contact system is discussed along with its associated problems. Recent solar cell results under simulated air mass zero light and at elevated temperatures are reported and the growth of thin polycrystalline GaAs films on foreign substrates is developed.

  18. Induction of cell proliferation in the rat liver by the short-term administration of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether.

    PubMed

    Kakehashi, Anna; Hagiwara, Akihiro; Imai, Norio; Wei, Min; Fukushima, Shoji; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, in continuation of our previous experiment in order to investigate the mode of action (MOA) of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) hepatotumorigenicity in rats, we aimed to examine alterations in cell proliferation, that are induced by short-term administration of ETBE. F344 rats were administered ETBE at doses of 0, and 1,000 mg/kg body weight twice a day by gavage for 3, 10, 17 and 28 days. It was found that the previously observed significant increase of P450 total content and hydroxyl radical levels after 7 days of ETBE administration, and 8-OHdG formation at day 14, accompanied by accumulation of CYP2B1/2B2, CYP3A1/3A2, CYP2C6, CYP2E1 and CYP1A1 and downregulation of DNA oxoguanine glycosylase 1, was preceded by induction of cell proliferation at day 3. Furthermore, we observed an increase in regenerative cell proliferation as a result of ETBE treatment at day 28, followed by induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by day 14. These results indicated that short-term administration of ETBE led to a significant early increase in cell proliferation activity associated with induction of oxidative stress, and to a regenerative cell proliferation as an adaptive response, which could contribute to the hepatotumorigenicity of ETBE in rats.

  19. Degradation mechanism of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells induced by exposure to air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishinaga, Jiro; Kamikawa, Yukiko; Koida, Takashi; Shibata, Hajime; Niki, Shigeru

    2016-07-01

    The degradation mechanism of unencapsulated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells upon exposure to air has been investigated. Exposure to air at room temperature slightly reduces the conversion efficiency of CIGS solar cells. However, this conversion efficiency decreases significantly under damp heat testing at 85 °C and a relative humidity of 85% for 15 h. The shunt resistance and conversion efficiency are completely recovered after removing the side edges of the CIGS solar cells by mechanical scribing. This result suggests that low-resistive layers are formed on the sidewalls of the solar cells during damp heat testing. In addition, alkaline solution etching has been confirmed to be an effective way of removing the low-resistive layers. The low-resistive layers on the sidewalls are identified to be molybdenum oxides and sodium molybdate by Auger electron spectroscopy. After etching the oxides on the sidewalls, the saturation current density and ideality factor are confirmed to be improved.

  20. Cigarette smoke exposure aggravates air space enlargement and alveolar cell apoptosis in Smad3 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Laszlo; Farkas, Daniela; Warburton, David; Gauldie, Jack; Shi, Wei; Stampfli, Martin R; Voelkel, Norbert F; Kolb, Martin

    2011-10-01

    The concept of genetic susceptibility factors predisposing cigarette smokers to develop emphysema stems from the clinical observation that only a fraction of smokers develop clinically significant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We investigated whether Smad3 knockout mice, which develop spontaneous air space enlargement after birth because of a defect in transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling, develop enhanced alveolar cell apoptosis and air space enlargement following cigarette smoke exposure. We investigated Smad3(-/-) and Smad3(+/+) mice at different adult ages and determined air space enlargement, alveolar cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Furthermore, laser-capture microdissection and real-time PCR were used to measure compartment-specific gene expression. We then compared the effects of cigarette smoke exposure on Smad3(-/-) and littermate controls. Smad3 knockout resulted in the development of air space enlargement in the adult mouse and was associated with decreased alveolar VEGF levels and activity and increased alveolar cell apoptosis. Cigarette smoke exposure aggravated air space enlargement and alveolar cell apoptosis. We also found increased Smad2 protein expression and phosphorylation, which was enhanced following cigarette smoke exposure, in Smad3-knockout animals. Double immunofluorescence analysis revealed that endothelial apoptosis started before epithelial apoptosis. Our data indicate that balanced TGF-β signaling is not only important for regulation of extracellular matrix turnover, but also for alveolar cell homeostasis. Impaired signaling via the Smad3 pathway results in alveolar cell apoptosis and alveolar destruction, likely via increased Smad2 and reduced VEGF expression and might represent a predisposition for accelerated development of emphysema due to cigarette smoke exposure.

  1. Intranasal administration of retinal antigens induces transient T cell activation and apoptosis within drainage lymph nodes but not spleen.

    PubMed

    Laliotou, B; Duncan, L; Dick, A D

    1999-05-01

    Mechanisms of mucosal tolerance induction, including anergy/deletion and active suppression are frequently described as mutually exclusive; dependent upon nature, dose and route of antigen administration. We have previously described induction of low-dose tolerance with administration of retinal autoantigens via the nasorespiratory tract which is antigen-specific, suppresses both cell mediated immunity and ultimately tissue destruction in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) and is mediated by splenic-derived regulatory cells. The present data further shows that splenocytes or fractionated splenic T cells, which secrete IL-4 and IL-10 when stimulated with retinal antigen in vitro, and not regional drainage lymph node cells transfer tolerance to naïve animals. Analysis of apparent mechanistic differences shows that during intranasal antigen administration, the proportion of CD4(+)T cells within drainage lymph nodes increases, concurrent with a burst of IFN-gamma. Following subsequent antigen challenge, T cells downregulate alphabetaTCR expression and undergo apoptosis in regional drainage lymph nodes. An increase in functional Th2 cytokine activity was noted in both Con-A and retinal antigen stimulated lymph node cultures in tolerized animals. T cells from tolerized animals secreted IL-4, whereas IL-10 was secreted predominantly by the non-T cell population present equally in control and tolerized animals. Therefore, spleen derived regulatory cells which suppress Th1 responses and T cell deletion/apoptosis in regional drainage lymph nodes are mechanisms which co-exist in tolerant rats. Th2 cytokine production after immunization appears consequential to tolerance-induced Th1 suppression.

  2. Effect of Mixture Pressure and Equivalence Ratio on Detonation Cell Size for Hydrogen-Air Mixtures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Detonation MAPE Mean Absolute Percent Error PDE Pulsed Detonation Engine RDE Rotating Detonation Engine ZND...1997. DeBarmore, Nick D., Paul King, Fred Schauer, and John Hoke, “Nozzle Guide Vane Integration into Rotating Detonation Engine,” 51st AIAA...initial mixture pressure and equivalence ratio. ^Hydrogen and air, detonation cell size, detonation , cell size, Rotating Detonation Engine, RDE U U U UU 129 Dr. Paul I. King, AFIT/ENY (937) 255-3636 x4628

  3. Metal-air cells comprising collapsible foam members and means for minimizing internal pressure buildup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, Glenn (Inventor); Putt, Ronald A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention provides a prismatic zinc-air cell including, in general, a prismatic container having therein an air cathode, a separator and a zinc anode. The container has one or more oxygen access openings, and the air cathode is disposed in the container in gaseous communication with the oxygen access openings so as to allow access of oxygen to the cathode. The separator has a first side in electrolytic communication with the air cathode and a second side in electrolytic communication with the zinc anode. The separator isolates the cathode and the zinc anode from direct electrical contact and allows passage of electrolyte therebetween. An expansion chamber adjacent to the zinc anode is provided which accommodates expansion of the zinc anode during discharge of the cell. A suitable collapsible foam member generally occupies the expansion space, providing sufficient resistance tending to oppose movement of the zinc anode away from the separator while collapsing upon expansion of the zinc anode during discharge of the cell. One or more vent openings disposed in the container are in gaseous communication with the expansion space, functioning to satisfactorily minimize the pressure buildup within the container by venting gasses expelled as the foam collapses during cell discharge.

  4. Cooling System Design for PEM Fuel Cell Powered Air Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-18

    simulated the airflow from a duct and fan. The surface radiator models relied on a flat plate Nusselt number correlation to predict the total heat... Nusselt number [1] for each cell, where ξ is the unheated starting length of the plate (see figures 23 and 24). 9 1 9.0 8.06.0 1RePr0287.0...x Nu xx  [14] The local Nusselt number was used in equation 14 to compute the local heat transfer coefficient hx at each

  5. Air electrode material for high temperature electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Ruka, Roswell J.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a solid solution with a perovskite-like crystal structure having the general formula La.sub.1-x-w (M.sub.L).sub.x (Ce).sub.w (M.sub.S1).sub.1-y (M.sub.S2).sub.y O.sub.3 where M.sub.L is Ca, Sr, Ba, or mixtures thereof, M.sub.S1 is Mn, Cr, or mixtures thereof and M.sub.S2 is Ni, Fe, Co, Ti, Al, In, Sn, Mg, Y, Nb, Ta, or mixtures thereof, w is about 0.05 to about 0.25, x+w is about 0.1 to about 0.7, and y is 0 to about 0.5. In the formula, M.sub.L is preferably Ca, w is preferably 0.1 to 0.2, x+w is preferably 0.4 to 0.7, and y is preferably 0. The solid solution can be used in an electrochemical cell where it more closely matches the thermal expansion characteristics of the support tube and electrolyte of the cell.

  6. Xanthosine administration does not affect the proportion of epithelial stem cells in bovine mammary tissue, but has a latent negative effect on cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Rauner, Gat; Barash, Itamar

    2014-10-15

    The challenge in manipulating the proportion of somatic stem cells lies in having to override tissue homeostasis. Xanthosine infusion via the teat canal has been reported to augment the number of label-retaining cells in the mammary gland of 3-month-old bovine calves. To further delineate xanthosine's effect on defined stem cells in the mammary gland of heifers—which are candidates for increased prospective milk production following such manipulation—bovine mammary parenchymal tissue was transplanted and integrated into the cleared mammary fat pad of immunodeficient mice. Xanthosine administration for 14 days did not affect the number of label-retaining cells after 10- and 11-week chases. No change in stem cell proportion, analyzed according to CD49f and CD24 expression, was noted. Clone formation and propagation rate of cultured cells, as well as expression of stem cell markers, were also unaffected. In contrast, a latent 50% decrease in bovine mammary cell proliferation rate was observed 11 weeks after xanthosine administration. Tumor development in mice was also limited by xanthosine administration. These effects may have resulted from an initial decrease in expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in guanine synthesis, IMPDH. The data indicate that caution should be exerted when considering xanthosine for stem cell manipulation. - Highlights: • Novel “bovinized“ mouse model for exogenous effects on bovine mammary gland. • Xanthosine did not affect stem cell number/function in bovine mammary gland. • Xanthosine caused an immediate decrease in IMPDH expression in bovine mammary gland. • Xanthosine had latent negative effect on cell proliferation in bovine mammary gland. • Xanthosine administration limited mammary tumor growth.

  7. Dual role of macrophages in the response of C26 colon carcinoma cells to 5-fluorouracil administration

    PubMed Central

    Patras, Laura; Sesarman, Alina; Licarete, Emilia; Luca, Lavinia; Alupei, Marius Costel; Rakosy-Tican, Elena; Banciu, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are pivotal players in tumor progression via modulation of tumor angiogenesis, inflammation, metastasis and oxidative stress, as well as of the response of cancer cells to cytotoxic drugs. Nevertheless, the role of TAMs in the prognosis of colorectal cancer remains controversial. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate how TAMs mediate the response of C26 colon carcinoma cells to the cytotoxic drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), upon TAM co-cultivation with these cancer cells in vitro. In this respect, 5-FU cytotoxicity was assessed in C26 cells in standard culture and in a co-culture with peritoneal macrophages, the production of NF-κB was determined by western blot analysis, and the production of angiogenic/inflammatory proteins in each experimental model was evaluated by protein array analysis. To gain further evidence of the effect of TAMs on oxidative stress, malondialdehyde was measured through high-performance liquid chromatography, and the total nonenzymatic antioxidant levels and the production of nitrites were measured through colorimetric assays. The results demonstrated that TAMs exerted a dual role in the response of C26 cells to 5-FU administration in the co-culture model. Thus, on one side, TAMs sensitized C26 cells to 5-FU administration through inhibition of the production of inflammatory and angiogenic proteins in these cancer cells; however, they also protected cancer cells against 5-FU-induced oxidative stress. Collectively, the present findings suggest that the combined administration of 5-FU with pharmacological agents that prevent TAMs to maintain the physiological range of tumor cell oxidative stress may highly improve the therapeutic potential of this drug. PMID:27446416

  8. The Necessity of Company-Grade Air Defense Artillery Officers in the Air Defense and Airspace Management Cells Within the Brigade Combat Team

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    the role of ADAM Cell OIC. Utilizing the Army design methodology, the study compares the current training and performance of Air Defense officers to...junior company-grade officers to fulfill the role of ADAM Cell OIC. Utilizing the Army design methodology, the study compares the current training...Page Figure 1. Army design methodology ...............................................................................34 Figure 2. The cross-walk

  9. Assessment of methanol electro-oxidation for direct methanol-air fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fritts, S.D.; Sen, R.K.

    1988-07-01

    The Office of Energy Storage and Distribution of the US Department of Energy (DOE) supports the development of a methanol-air fuel cell for transportation application. The approach used at Los Alamos National Laboratory converts the methanol fuel to a hydrogen-rich gas in a reformer, then operates the fuel cell on hydrogen and air. The reformer tends to be bulky (raising vehicle packaging problems), has a long startup period, and is not well suited for the transient operation required in a vehicle. Methanol, however, can be oxidized electrochemically in the fuel cell. If this process can be conducted efficiently, a direct methanol-air fuel cell can be used, which does not require a reformer. The objective of this study is to assess the potential of developing a suitable catalyst for the direct electrochemical oxidation of methanol. The primary conclusion of this study is that no acceptable catalysts exist can efficiently oxidize methanol electrochemically and have the desired cost and lifetime for vehicle applications. However, recent progress in understanding the mechanism of methanol oxidation indicates that a predictive base can be developed to search for methanol oxidation catalysts and can be used to methodically develop improved catalysts. Such an approach is strongly recommended. The study also recommends that until further progress in developing high-performance catalysts is achieved, research in cell design and testing is not warranted. 43 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Tolerance of non-platinum group metals cathodes proton exchange membrane fuel cells to air contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetenko, Tatyana; Serov, Alexey; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Matanovic, Ivana; Sarah Stariha; Atanassov, Plamen

    2016-08-01

    The effects of major airborne contaminants (SO2, NO2 and CO) on the spatial performance of Fe/N/C cathode membrane electrode assemblies were studied using a segmented cell system. The injection of 2-10 ppm SO2 in air stream did not cause any performance decrease and redistribution of local currents due to the lack of stably adsorbed SO2 molecules on Fe-Nx sites, as confirmed by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The introduction of 5-20 ppm of CO into the air stream also did not affect fuel cell performance. The exposure of Fe/N/C cathodes to 2 and 10 ppm NO2 resulted in performance losses of 30 and 70-75 mV, respectively. DFT results showed that the adsorption energies of NO2 and NO were greater than that of O2, which accounted for the observed voltage decrease and slight current redistribution. The cell performance partially recovered when the NO2 injection was stopped. The long-term operation of the fuel cells resulted in cell performance degradation. XPS analyses of Fe/N/C electrodes revealed that the performance decrease was due to catalyst degradation and ionomer oxidation. The latter was accelerated in the presence of air contaminants. The details of the spatial performance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results are presented and discussed.

  11. Provider practices in the primary care behavioral health (PCBH) model: an initial examination in the Veterans Health Administration and United States Air Force.

    PubMed

    Funderburk, Jennifer S; Dobmeyer, Anne C; Hunter, Christopher L; Walsh, Christine O; Maisto, Stephen A

    2013-12-01

    The goals of this study were to identify characteristics of both behavioral health providers (BHPs) and the patients seen in a primary care behavioral health (PCBH) model of service delivery using prospective data obtained from BHPs. A secondary objective was to explore similarities and differences between these variables within the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) and United States Air Force (USAF) primary care clinics. A total of 159 VHA and 23 USAF BHPs, representing almost every state in the United States, completed the study, yielding data from 403 patient appointments. BHPs completed a web-based questionnaire that assessed BHP and setting characteristics, and a separate questionnaire after each patient seen on one day of clinical service. Data demonstrated that there are many similarities between the VHA and USAF BHPs and practices. Both systems tend to use well-trained psychologists as BHPs, had systems that support the BHP being in close proximity to the primary care providers, and have seamless operational elements (i.e., shared record, one waiting room, same-day appointments, and administrative support for BHPs). Comorbid anxiety and depression was the most common presenting problem in both systems, but overall rates were higher in VHA clinics, and patients were significantly more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for mental health conditions. This study provides the first systematic, prospective examination of BHPs and practices within a PCBH model of service delivery in two large health systems with well over 5 years of experience with behavioral health integration. Many elements of the PCBH model were implemented in a manner consistent with the model, although some variability exists within both settings. These data can help guide future implementation and training efforts.

  12. Investigation of novel electrolyte systems for advanced metal/air batteries and fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hui

    It is a worldwide challenge to develop advanced green power sources for modern portable devices, transportation and stationary power generation. Metal/air batteries and fuel cells clearly stand out in view of their high specific energy, high energy efficiency and environment-friendliness. Advanced metal/air batteries based on metal ion conductors and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells operated at elevated temperatures (>120°C) can circumvent the limitations of current technologies and bring considerable advantages. The key is to develop suitable electrolytes to enable these new technologies. In this thesis research, investigation of novel electrolytes systems for advanced metal/air batteries and PEM fuel cells is conducted. Novel polymer gel electrolyte systems, [metal salt/ionic liquid/polymer] and [metal salt/liquid polyether/polymer] are prepared. Such systems contain no volatile solvents, conduct metal ions (Li+ or Zn 2+) with high ionic conductivity, possess wide electrochemical stability windows, and exhibit wide operating temperature ranges. They promise to enable non-aqueous, all-solid-state, thin-film Li/air batteries and Zn/air batteries. They are advantageous for application in other battery systems as well, such as rechargeable lithium and lithium ion batteries. In the case of proton exchange membranes, polymer gel electrolyte systems [acid/ionic liquid/polymer] are prepared. Especially, H3PO4/PMIH2PO 4/PBI is demonstrated as prospective proton exchange membranes for PEM fuel cells operating at elevated temperatures. Comprehensive electrochemical characterization, thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) and spectroscopy analysis (NMR and FTIR) are carried out to investigate these novel electrolyte systems and their ion transport mechanisms. The design and synthesis of novel ionic liquids and electrolyte systems based on them for advantageous application in various electrochemical power sources are highlighted in this work.

  13. Concise Review: Review and Perspective of Cell Dosage and Routes of Administration From Preclinical and Clinical Studies of Stem Cell Therapy for Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Golpanian, Samuel; Schulman, Ivonne H; Ebert, Ray F; Heldman, Alan W; DiFede, Darcy L; Yang, Phillip C; Wu, Joseph C; Bolli, Roberto; Perin, Emerson C; Moyé, Lem; Simari, Robert D; Wolf, Ariel; Hare, Joshua M

    2016-02-01

    An important stage in the development of any new therapeutic agent is establishment of the optimal dosage and route of administration. This can be particularly challenging when the treatment is a biologic agent that might exert its therapeutic effects via complex or poorly understood mechanisms. Multiple preclinical and clinical studies have shown paradoxical results, with inconsistent findings regarding the relationship between the cell dose and clinical benefit. Such phenomena can, at least in part, be attributed to variations in cell dosing or concentration and the route of administration (ROA). Although clinical trials of cell-based therapy for cardiovascular disease began more than a decade ago, specification of the optimal dosage and ROA has not been established. The present review summarizes what has been learned regarding the optimal cell dosage and ROA from preclinical and clinical studies of stem cell therapy for heart disease and offers a perspective on future directions. Significance: Preclinical and clinical studies on cell-based therapy for cardiovascular disease have shown inconsistent results, in part because of variations in study-specific dosages and/or routes of administration (ROA). Future preclinical studies and smaller clinical trials implementing cell-dose and ROA comparisons are warranted before proceeding to pivotal trials.

  14. Concise Review: Review and Perspective of Cell Dosage and Routes of Administration From Preclinical and Clinical Studies of Stem Cell Therapy for Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Golpanian, Samuel; Schulman, Ivonne H.; Ebert, Ray F.; Heldman, Alan W.; DiFede, Darcy L.; Yang, Phillip C.; Wu, Joseph C.; Bolli, Roberto; Perin, Emerson C.; Simari, Robert D.; Wolf, Ariel; Hare, Joshua M.

    2016-01-01

    An important stage in the development of any new therapeutic agent is establishment of the optimal dosage and route of administration. This can be particularly challenging when the treatment is a biologic agent that might exert its therapeutic effects via complex or poorly understood mechanisms. Multiple preclinical and clinical studies have shown paradoxical results, with inconsistent findings regarding the relationship between the cell dose and clinical benefit. Such phenomena can, at least in part, be attributed to variations in cell dosing or concentration and the route of administration (ROA). Although clinical trials of cell-based therapy for cardiovascular disease began more than a decade ago, specification of the optimal dosage and ROA has not been established. The present review summarizes what has been learned regarding the optimal cell dosage and ROA from preclinical and clinical studies of stem cell therapy for heart disease and offers a perspective on future directions. Significance Preclinical and clinical studies on cell-based therapy for cardiovascular disease have shown inconsistent results, in part because of variations in study-specific dosages and/or routes of administration (ROA). Future preclinical studies and smaller clinical trials implementing cell-dose and ROA comparisons are warranted before proceeding to pivotal trials. PMID:26683870

  15. Study of mouse spleen "natural cytotoxic" (NC) cell activity related to in vivo administration of B4 coxsackievirus.

    PubMed

    Voiculescu, C; Roşu, L; Rogoz, S

    1987-01-01

    By using A2G 40-day-old mice as responders, the influence of in vivo infection with a human strain of B4 coxsackievirus on "natural cytotoxic" (NC) cell activity was assayed, in relation to other immunomodulating treatments (beta-interferon, interleukin-1, or prostaglandin-E2). A significant increase of NC cell cytolysis was noticed in virus-infected mouse group, as compared to the control. The NC cell stimulation exerted by in vivo administration of beta-interferon or of interleukin-1 was not modified in virus-infected groups, but coxsackievirus was able to prevent the inhibitory effects of prostaglandin-E2 at the NC cell activity level when the cytotoxic assays were performed with 20:1 and 10:1 effector/"target" cell ratios, respectively. A possible extrapolation of results in the human medical practice is discussed.

  16. U.S. Air Force Installation Restoration Program. Phase 1. Records Search. Air National Guard, Camp Edwards (ARNG), U.S. Air Force and Veteran’s Administration Facilities at Massachusetts Military Reservation, Massachusetts. Task 6

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-11

    American Air Defense Command (NORAD) with the required number of aircraft and aircrews on a 24 hours/day, 365 days/yr basis to maintain peace- time...CU .0. U - 0 0 >. 0. 0) 0. ) 0 )0 .4) ’ 0) 0. 0. di 0 4). = ) 00 co w. 0. 0. M 0 7. o. g :..N. InI~ uV cc 0 ~ )- O 0 gravel containing trace...cated as potential cancer -causing agents in bacon and other meats pre- served with nitrites and nitrates. N-nitrosodimethylamine is degraded in the

  17. Influence mechanism on flow and heat transfer characteristics for air-cooled steam condenser cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wei Feng; Dai, Yi Ping; Li, Mao Qing; Ma, Qing Zhong

    2012-09-01

    Air-cooled steam condensers (ACSCs) have been extensively utilized to reject waste heat in power industry to save water resources. However, ACSC performance is so sensitive to ambient wind that almost all the air-cooled power plants in China are less efficient compared to design conditions. It is shown from previous research that the influence of ambient wind on the cell performance differs from its location in the condenser. As a result, a numerical model including two identical ACSC cells are established, and the different influence on the performance of the cells is demonstrated and analyzed through the computational fluid dynamics method. Despite the great influence from the wind speeds, similar cell performance is obtained for the two cells under both windless and wind speed conditions when the wind parallels to the steam duct. Fan volumetric effectiveness which characterizes the fan performance, as well as the exchanger heat transfer rate, drops obviously with the increasing wind speed, and performance difference between the exchanger pair in the same A-frame also rises continuously. Furthermore, different flow and heat transfer characteristics of the windward and leeward cell are obtained at different wind angles, and ambient wind enhances the performance of the leeward cell, while that of the windward one changes little.

  18. Oral administration of an immunodominant T-cell epitope downregulates Th1/Th2 cytokines and prevents experimental myasthenia gravis

    PubMed Central

    Baggi, Fulvio; Andreetta, Francesca; Caspani, Elisabetta; Milani, Monica; Longhi, Renato; Mantegazza, Renato; Cornelio, Ferdinando; Antozzi, Carlo

    1999-01-01

    The mucosal administration of the native antigen or peptide fragments corresponding to immunodominant regions is effective in preventing or treating several T cell–dependent models of autoimmune disease. No data are yet available on oral tolerance with immunodominant T-cell peptides in experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG), an animal model of B cell–dependent disease. We report that oral administration of the T-cell epitope α146-162 of the Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor (TAChR) α-subunit suppressed T-cell responses to AChR and ameliorated the disease in C57Bl/6 (B6) mice. Protection from EAMG was associated with reduced serum Ab’s to mouse AChR and reduced AChR loss in muscle. The effect of Tα146-162 feeding was specific; treatment with a control peptide did not affect EAMG manifestations. The protective effect induced by peptide Tα146-162 was mediated by reduced production of IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-10 by TAChR-reactive cells, suggesting T-cell anergy. TGF-β–secreting Th3 cells did not seem to be involved in tolerance induction. We therefore demonstrate that feeding a single immunodominant epitope can prevent an Ab-mediated experimental model of autoimmune disease. PMID:10545527

  19. Proliferative response of different exocrine pancreatic cell types to hormonal stimuli. I. Effects of long-term cerulein administration.

    PubMed

    Gasslander, T; Smeds, S; Blomqvist, L; Ihse, I

    1990-11-01

    The trophic effect on the exocrine pancreas of the cholecystokinin analogue cerulein was studied in a long-term experiment (20 or 160 micrograms/kg/24 h for 14 days) in mice by measuring changes in pancreatic weight and protein, amylase, and DNA content. Further, the selective cell growth stimulation exerted by various doses of cerulein (4, 20, 54, 160 micrograms/kg/24 h) on different exocrine pancreatic cell types was studied by continuous administration of 3H-thymidine. In the first experiment animals given 20 micrograms/kg/24 h of cerulein had increased pancreatic weight and amylase and protein content, whereas the animals given the higher dose had unchanged weight and a less pronounced increase in amylase and protein content. The pancreatic DNA content was unaffected in the 20-micrograms group but was clearly decreased by the higher dose. In the second experiment a statistically significant increase over controls was found in the fraction of labeled ductal cells when 20, 54, and 160 micrograms of cerulein was administered. However, in the acinar cell population an increase was measured only in the 160-micrograms group. A tendency to nadir in cell labeling was observed in both acinar and ductal cell groups at less stimulation. Labeling of centroacinar cells increased in all cerulein-treated groups. The results show that all cell types of the exocrine pancreas can be forced into proliferation by the cholecystokinin analogue used and that there is preferential cell growth stimulation in the ductal and centroacinar cell populations.

  20. Cell deformation at the air-liquid interface induces Ca2+-dependent ATP release from lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ramsingh, Ronaldo; Grygorczyk, Alexandra; Solecki, Anna; Cherkaoui, Lalla Siham; Berthiaume, Yves; Grygorczyk, Ryszard

    2011-04-01

    Extracellular nucleotides regulate mucociliary clearance in the airways and surfactant secretion in alveoli. Their release is exquisitely mechanosensitive and may be induced by stretch as well as airflow shear stress acting on lung epithelia. We hypothesized that, in addition, tension forces at the air-liquid interface (ALI) may contribute to mechanosensitive ATP release in the lungs. Local depletion of airway surface liquid, mucins, and surfactants, which normally protect epithelial surfaces, facilitate such release and trigger compensatory mucin and fluid secretion processes. In this study, human bronchial epithelial 16HBE14o(-) and alveolar A549 cells were subjected to tension forces at the ALI by passing an air bubble over the cell monolayer in a flow-through chamber, or by air exposure while tilting the cell culture dish. Such stimulation induced significant ATP release not involving cell lysis, as verified by ethidium bromide staining. Confocal fluorescence microscopy disclosed reversible cell deformation in the monolayer part in contact with the ALI. Fura 2 fluorescence imaging revealed transient intracellular Ca(2+) elevation evoked by the ALI, which did not entail nonspecific Ca(2+) influx from the extracellular space. ATP release was reduced by ∼40 to ∼90% from cells loaded with the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM and was completely abolished by N-ethylmalemide (1 mM). These experiments demonstrate that in close proximity to the ALI, surface tension forces are transmitted directly on cells, causing their mechanical deformation and Ca(2+)-dependent exocytotic ATP release. Such a signaling mechanism may contribute to the detection of local deficiency of airway surface liquid and surfactants on the lung surface.

  1. Enhanced Performance of non-PGM Catalysts in Air Operated PEM-Fuel Cells

    DOE PAGES

    Barkholtz, Heather M.; Chong, Lina; Kaiser, Zachary Brian; ...

    2016-10-13

    Here a non-platinum group metal (non-PGM) oxygen reduction catalyst was prepared from “support-free” zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) precursor and tested in the proton exchange membrane fuel cell with air as the cathode feed. The iron nitrogen and carbon composite (FeeNeC) based catalyst has high specific surface area decorated uniformly with active sites, which redefines the triple phase boundary (TPB) and requires re-optimization of the cathodic membrane electrode fabrication to ensure efficient mass and charge transports to the catalyst surface. This study reports an effort in optimizing catalytic ink formulation for the membrane electrode preparation and its impact to the fuelmore » cell performance under air. Through optimization, the fuel cell areal current density as high as 115.2 mA/cm2 at 0.8 V or 147.6 mA/cm2 at 0.8 ViR-free has been achieved under one bar air. We also investigated impacts on fuel cell internal impedance and the water formation.« less

  2. Pneumatization of Mastoid Air Cells, Temporal Bone, Ethmoid and Sphenoid Sinuses. Any Correlation?

    PubMed

    Hindi, Khalid; Alazzawi, Sarmad; Raman, Rajagopalan; Prepageran, Narayanan; Rahmat, Kartini

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the pneumatization of the paranasal sinuses (PNS) and other parts of temporal bone such as mastoid air cells and to investigate if there was any association between the aeration of these structures among the three major ethnic groups in Malaysia (Malay, Chinese, Indian) as this would be representative of Asia. A retrospective review of 150 computed tomography (CT) scans of PNS and temporal bones was done and analysed. The pneumatization of each area was obtained and compared using statistical analysis. Patients with a history of previous medical or surgical problems in the intended areas were excluded from the study. The pneumatization of the mastoid air cells and other temporal bone parts were noted to be symmetrical in more than 75 %. There was a positive correlation between the pneumatization of mastoid air cells and that of the sphenoid sinus. The prevalence of Agger nasi, Haller's and Onodi cells was observed to be significantly higher in the Chinese group. Preoperative assessment of the temporal bone and PNS with CT scan may be helpful in the evaluation of their anatomical landmark and decrease the possibility of surgical complications related to 3D structures.

  3. Enhanced Performance of non-PGM Catalysts in Air Operated PEM-Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Barkholtz, Heather M.; Chong, Lina; Kaiser, Zachary Brian; Xu, Tao; Liu, Di-Jia

    2016-10-13

    Here a non-platinum group metal (non-PGM) oxygen reduction catalyst was prepared from “support-free” zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) precursor and tested in the proton exchange membrane fuel cell with air as the cathode feed. The iron nitrogen and carbon composite (FeeNeC) based catalyst has high specific surface area decorated uniformly with active sites, which redefines the triple phase boundary (TPB) and requires re-optimization of the cathodic membrane electrode fabrication to ensure efficient mass and charge transports to the catalyst surface. This study reports an effort in optimizing catalytic ink formulation for the membrane electrode preparation and its impact to the fuel cell performance under air. Through optimization, the fuel cell areal current density as high as 115.2 mA/cm2 at 0.8 V or 147.6 mA/cm2 at 0.8 ViR-free has been achieved under one bar air. We also investigated impacts on fuel cell internal impedance and the water formation.

  4. A Rechargeable Li-Air Fuel Cell Battery Based on Garnet Solid Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiyang; Zhao, Ning; Li, Yiqiu; Guo, Xiangxin; Feng, Xuefei; Liu, Xiaosong; Liu, Zhi; Cui, Guanglei; Zheng, Hao; Gu, Lin; Li, Hong

    2017-01-24

    Non-aqueous Li-air batteries have been intensively studied in the past few years for their theoretically super-high energy density. However, they cannot operate properly in real air because they contain highly unstable and volatile electrolytes. Here, we report the fabrication of solid-state Li-air batteries using garnet (i.e., Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12, LLZTO) ceramic disks with high density and ionic conductivity as the electrolytes and composite cathodes consisting of garnet powder, Li salts (LiTFSI) and active carbon. These batteries run in real air based on the formation and decomposition at least partially of Li2CO3. Batteries with LiTFSI mixed with polyimide (PI:LiTFSI) as a binder show rechargeability at 200 °C with a specific capacity of 2184 mAh g(-1)carbon at 20 μA cm(-2). Replacement of PI:LiTFSI with LiTFSI dissolved in polypropylene carbonate (PPC:LiTFSI) reduces interfacial resistance, and the resulting batteries show a greatly increased discharge capacity of approximately 20300 mAh g(-1)carbon and cycle 50 times while maintaining a cutoff capacity of 1000 mAh g(-1)carbon at 20 μA cm(-2) and 80 °C. These results demonstrate that the use of LLZTO ceramic electrolytes enables operation of the Li-air battery in real air at medium temperatures, leading to a novel type of Li-air fuel cell battery for energy storage.

  5. A Rechargeable Li-Air Fuel Cell Battery Based on Garnet Solid Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jiyang; Zhao, Ning; Li, Yiqiu; Guo, Xiangxin; Feng, Xuefei; Liu, Xiaosong; Liu, Zhi; Cui, Guanglei; Zheng, Hao; Gu, Lin; Li, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Non-aqueous Li-air batteries have been intensively studied in the past few years for their theoretically super-high energy density. However, they cannot operate properly in real air because they contain highly unstable and volatile electrolytes. Here, we report the fabrication of solid-state Li-air batteries using garnet (i.e., Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12, LLZTO) ceramic disks with high density and ionic conductivity as the electrolytes and composite cathodes consisting of garnet powder, Li salts (LiTFSI) and active carbon. These batteries run in real air based on the formation and decomposition at least partially of Li2CO3. Batteries with LiTFSI mixed with polyimide (PI:LiTFSI) as a binder show rechargeability at 200 °C with a specific capacity of 2184 mAh g‑1carbon at 20 μA cm‑2. Replacement of PI:LiTFSI with LiTFSI dissolved in polypropylene carbonate (PPC:LiTFSI) reduces interfacial resistance, and the resulting batteries show a greatly increased discharge capacity of approximately 20300 mAh g‑1carbon and cycle 50 times while maintaining a cutoff capacity of 1000 mAh g‑1carbon at 20 μA cm‑2 and 80 °C. These results demonstrate that the use of LLZTO ceramic electrolytes enables operation of the Li-air battery in real air at medium temperatures, leading to a novel type of Li-air fuel cell battery for energy storage.

  6. A Rechargeable Li-Air Fuel Cell Battery Based on Garnet Solid Electrolytes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiyang; Zhao, Ning; Li, Yiqiu; Guo, Xiangxin; Feng, Xuefei; Liu, Xiaosong; Liu, Zhi; Cui, Guanglei; Zheng, Hao; Gu, Lin; Li, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Non-aqueous Li-air batteries have been intensively studied in the past few years for their theoretically super-high energy density. However, they cannot operate properly in real air because they contain highly unstable and volatile electrolytes. Here, we report the fabrication of solid-state Li-air batteries using garnet (i.e., Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12, LLZTO) ceramic disks with high density and ionic conductivity as the electrolytes and composite cathodes consisting of garnet powder, Li salts (LiTFSI) and active carbon. These batteries run in real air based on the formation and decomposition at least partially of Li2CO3. Batteries with LiTFSI mixed with polyimide (PI:LiTFSI) as a binder show rechargeability at 200 °C with a specific capacity of 2184 mAh g−1carbon at 20 μA cm−2. Replacement of PI:LiTFSI with LiTFSI dissolved in polypropylene carbonate (PPC:LiTFSI) reduces interfacial resistance, and the resulting batteries show a greatly increased discharge capacity of approximately 20300 mAh g−1carbon and cycle 50 times while maintaining a cutoff capacity of 1000 mAh g−1carbon at 20 μA cm−2 and 80 °C. These results demonstrate that the use of LLZTO ceramic electrolytes enables operation of the Li-air battery in real air at medium temperatures, leading to a novel type of Li-air fuel cell battery for energy storage. PMID:28117359

  7. Fungal spore concentrations in two haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) units containing distinct air control systems.

    PubMed

    Brun, C P; Miron, D; Silla, L M R; Pasqualotto, A C

    2013-04-01

    Invasive fungal diseases have emerged as important causes of morbidity and mortality in haematological patients. In this study air samples were collected in two haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) units, in which distinct air-control systems were in place. In hospital 1 no high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter was available whereas in hospital 2 HSCT rooms were equipped with HEPA filters, with positive air pressure in relation to the corridor. A total of 117 samples from rooms, toilets and corridors were obtained during December 2009 to January 2011, using a six-stage Andersen sampler. In both hospitals, the concentration of potentially pathogenic fungi in the air was reduced in patients' rooms compared to corridors (P < 0·0001). Despite the presence of a HEPA filter in hospital 2, rooms in both hospitals showed similar concentrations of potentially pathogenic fungi (P = 0·714). These findings may be explained by the implementation of additional protective measures in hospital 1, emphasizing the importance of such measures in protected environments.

  8. Air-cathode microbial fuel cell array: a device for identifying and characterizing electrochemically active microbes.

    PubMed

    Hou, Huijie; Li, Lei; de Figueiredo, Paul; Han, Arum

    2011-01-15

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have generated excitement in environmental and bioenergy communities due to their potential for coupling wastewater treatment with energy generation and powering diverse devices. The pursuit of strategies such as improving microbial cultivation practices and optimizing MFC devices has increased power generating capacities of MFCs. However, surprisingly few microbial species with electrochemical activity in MFCs have been identified because current devices do not support parallel analyses or high throughput screening. We have recently demonstrated the feasibility of using advanced microfabrication methods to fabricate an MFC microarray. Here, we extend these studies by demonstrating a microfabricated air-cathode MFC array system. The system contains 24 individual air-cathode MFCs integrated onto a single chip. The device enables the direct and parallel comparison of different microbes loaded onto the array. Environmental samples were used to validate the utility of the air-cathode MFC array system and two previously identified isolates, 7Ca (Shewanella sp.) and 3C (Arthrobacter sp.), were shown to display enhanced electrochemical activities of 2.69 mW/m(2) and 1.86 mW/m(2), respectively. Experiments using a large scale conventional air-cathode MFC validated these findings. The parallel air-cathode MFC array system demonstrated here is expected to promote and accelerate the discovery and characterization of electrochemically active microbes.

  9. Administration of a polyvalent mechanical bacterial lysate to elderly patients with COPD: Effects on circulating T, B and NK cells.

    PubMed

    Lanzilli, Giulia; Traggiai, Elisabetta; Braido, Fulvio; Garelli, Valentina; Folli, Chiara; Chiappori, Alessandra; Riccio, Anna Maria; Bazurro, Gyada; Agazzi, Alessia; Magnani, Alessandra; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Melioli, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The modifications of the subsets of circulating lymphocytes were evaluated in a group of patients with COPD undergoing treatment with a polyvalent mechanical bacterial lysate (PMBL), a drug that is able to significantly modify the natural history of these patients. Using multicolor immune-florescence and flow cytometry, T, B subsets and NK cells were extensively studied both in the group of treated patients and in a disease and age matched controls. Despite the age, in treated patients, T and NK cells were significantly increased in numbers of circulating cells, but not in percentages, while B cells remained unmodified. CD3+4+T cells were increased in treated patients, while CD3+CD8T cells were unmodified by the treatment. Activated T cells were increased but Treg, resulted reduced both in percentage than in absolute numbers. Transitional B cells resulted increased (in percentage and in absolute numbers) in their late maturation step (T3), while only early Naïve B cells were increased by the treatment, while other naïve subpopulations were unmodified. Memory B cells were reduced in percentage (but remained unmodified as absolute numbers), while the most immature form of memory B cells was significantly increased. Finally, both switch memory B cells and plasma cells resulted unmodified by the PMBL treatment. These results clearly indicated that the administration of the PMBL, even in elderly patients with COPD, was able to induce a significant immune-stimulation and these results, at cellular level, clearly support the evidence that the mechanism of action of PMBL is strictly related to a direct effect on immune-competent cells.

  10. Low cost stable air electrode material for high temperature solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Kuo, Lewis J. H.; Singh, Prabhakar; Ruka, Roswell J.; Vasilow, Theodore R.; Bratton, Raymond J.

    1997-01-01

    A low cost, lanthanide-substituted, dimensionally and thermally stable, gas permeable, electrically conductive, porous ceramic air electrode composition of lanthanide-substituted doped lanthanum manganite is provided which is used as the cathode in high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells and generators. The air electrode composition of this invention has a much lower fabrication cost as a result of using a lower cost lanthanide mixture, either a natural mixture or an unfinished lanthanide concentrate obtained from a natural mixture subjected to incomplete purification, as the raw material in place of part or all of the higher cost individual lanthanum. The mixed lanthanide primarily contains a mixture of at least La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, or at least La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in its lanthanide content, but can also include minor amounts of other lanthanides and trace impurities. The use of lanthanides in place of some or all of the lanthanum also increases the dimensional stability of the air electrode. This low cost air electrode can be fabricated as a cathode for use in high temperature, solid oxide fuel cells and generators.

  11. Low cost stable air electrode material for high temperature solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Kuo, L.J.H.; Singh, P.; Ruka, R.J.; Vasilow, T.R.; Bratton, R.J.

    1997-11-11

    A low cost, lanthanide-substituted, dimensionally and thermally stable, gas permeable, electrically conductive, porous ceramic air electrode composition of lanthanide-substituted doped lanthanum manganite is provided which is used as the cathode in high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells and generators. The air electrode composition of this invention has a much lower fabrication cost as a result of using a lower cost lanthanide mixture, either a natural mixture or an unfinished lanthanide concentrate obtained from a natural mixture subjected to incomplete purification, as the raw material in place of part or all of the higher cost individual lanthanum. The mixed lanthanide primarily contains a mixture of at least La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, or at least La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in its lanthanide content, but can also include minor amounts of other lanthanides and trace impurities. The use of lanthanides in place of some or all of the lanthanum also increases the dimensional stability of the air electrode. This low cost air electrode can be fabricated as a cathode for use in high temperature, solid oxide fuel cells and generators. 4 figs.

  12. Impacts of air bleeding on membrane degradation in polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaba, Minoru; Sugishita, Masashi; Wada, Junpei; Matsuzawa, Koichi; Yamada, Hirohisa; Tasaka, Akimasa

    A long-term accelerated test (4600 h) of a 25 cm 2 single cell with excess air bleeding (5%) was carried out to investigate the effects of air bleeding on membrane degradation in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. The rate of membrane degradation was negligibly low (fluoride-ion release rate = 1.3 × 10 -10 mol cm -2 h -1 in average) up to 2000 h. However, membrane degradation rate was gradually increased after 2000 h. The CO tolerance of the anode gradually dropped, which indicated that the anode catalyst was deteriorated during the test. The results of the rotating ring-disk electrode measurements revealed that deterioration of Pt-Ru/C catalyst by potential cycling greatly enhances H 2O 2 formation in oxygen reduction reaction in the anode potential range (∼0 V). Furthermore, membrane degradation rate of the MEA increased after the anode catalyst was forced to be deteriorated by potential cycling. It was concluded that excess air bleeding deteriorated the anode catalyst, which greatly enhanced H 2O 2 formation upon air bleeding and resulted in the increased membrane degradation rate after 2000 h.

  13. Two-phase flow and transport in the air cathode of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. H.; Wang, C. Y.; Chen, K. S.

    Two-phase flow and transport of reactants and products in the air cathode of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells is studied analytically and numerically. Single- and two-phase regimes of water distribution and transport are classified by a threshold current density corresponding to first appearance of liquid water at the membrane/cathode interface. When the cell operates above the threshold current density, liquid water appears and a two-phase zone forms within the porous cathode. A two-phase, multicomponent mixture model in conjunction with a finite-volume-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique is applied to simulate the cathode operation in this regime. The model is able to handle the situation where a single-phase region co-exists with a two-phase zone in the air cathode. For the first time, the polarization curve as well as water and oxygen concentration distributions encompassing both single- and two-phase regimes of the air cathode are presented. Capillary action is found to be the dominant mechanism for water transport inside the two-phase zone of the hydrophilic structure. The liquid water saturation within the cathode is predicted to reach 6.3% at 1.4 A cm -2 for dry inlet air.

  14. Room temperature, air crystallized perovskite film for high performance solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dubey, Ashish; Kantack, Nicholas; Adhikari, Nirmal; Reza, Khan Mamun; Venkatesan, Swaminathan; Kumar, Mukesh; Khatiwada, Devendra; Darling, Seth; Qiao, Qiquan

    2016-05-31

    For the first time, room temperature heating free growth and crystallization of perovskite films in ambient air without the use of thermal annealing is reported. Highly efficient perovskite nanorod-based solar cells were made using ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbI3 nanorods/PC60BM/rhodamine/Ag. All the layers except PEDOT:PSS were processed at room temperature thereby eliminating the need for thermal treatment. Perovskite films were spin coated inside a N-2 filled glovebox and immediately were taken outside in air having 40% relative humidity (RH). Exposure to humid air was observed to promote the crystallization process in perovskite films even at room temperature. Perovskite films kept for 5 hours in ambient air showed nanorod-like morphology having high crystallinity, with devices exhibiting the highest PCE of 16.83%, which is much higher than the PCE of 11.94% for traditional thermally annealed perovskite film based devices. Finally, it was concluded that moisture plays an important role in room temperature crystallization of pure perovskite nanorods, showing improved optical and charge transport properties, which resulted in high performance solar cells.

  15. Room temperature, air crystallized perovskite film for high performance solar cells

    DOE PAGES

    Dubey, Ashish; Kantack, Nicholas; Adhikari, Nirmal; ...

    2016-05-31

    For the first time, room temperature heating free growth and crystallization of perovskite films in ambient air without the use of thermal annealing is reported. Highly efficient perovskite nanorod-based solar cells were made using ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbI3 nanorods/PC60BM/rhodamine/Ag. All the layers except PEDOT:PSS were processed at room temperature thereby eliminating the need for thermal treatment. Perovskite films were spin coated inside a N-2 filled glovebox and immediately were taken outside in air having 40% relative humidity (RH). Exposure to humid air was observed to promote the crystallization process in perovskite films even at room temperature. Perovskite films kept for 5 hours inmore » ambient air showed nanorod-like morphology having high crystallinity, with devices exhibiting the highest PCE of 16.83%, which is much higher than the PCE of 11.94% for traditional thermally annealed perovskite film based devices. Finally, it was concluded that moisture plays an important role in room temperature crystallization of pure perovskite nanorods, showing improved optical and charge transport properties, which resulted in high performance solar cells.« less

  16. Morphology control of zinc regeneration for zinc-air fuel cell and battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Keliang; Pei, Pucheng; Ma, Ze; Xu, Huachi; Li, Pengcheng; Wang, Xizhong

    2014-12-01

    Morphology control is crucial both for zinc-air batteries and for zinc-air fuel cells during zinc regeneration. Zinc dendrite should be avoided in zinc-air batteries and zinc pellets are yearned to be formed for zinc-air fuel cells. This paper is mainly to analyze the mechanism of shape change and to control the zinc morphology during charge. A numerical three-dimensional model for zinc regeneration is established with COMSOL software on the basis of ionic transport theory and electrode reaction electrochemistry, and some experiments of zinc regeneration are carried out. The deposition process is qualitatively analyzed by the kinetics Monte Carlo method to study the morphological change from the electrocrystallization point of view. Morphological evolution of deposited zinc under different conditions of direct currents and pulse currents is also investigated by simulation. The simulation shows that parametric variables of the flowing electrolyte, the surface roughness and the structure of the electrode, the charging current and mode affect morphological evolution. The uniform morphology of deposited zinc is attained at low current, pulsating current or hydrodynamic electrolyte, and granular morphology is obtained by means of an electrode of discrete columnar structure in combination with high current and flowing electrolyte.

  17. Mechanisms of rapid sensory hair-cell death following co-administration of gentamicin and ethacrynic acid.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dalian; Jiang, Haiyan; Salvi, Richard J

    2010-01-01

    Concurrent administration of a high dose of gentamicin (GM; 125mg/kg IM) and ethacrynic acid (EA; 40mg/kg IV) results in rapid destruction of virtually all cochlear hair cells; however, the cell death signaling pathways underlying this rapid form of hair-cell degeneration are unclear. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying GM/EA-mediated cell death, several key cell death markers were assessed in the chinchilla cochlea during the early stages of degeneration. In the middle and basal turns of the cochlea, massive hair-cell loss including destruction of the stereocilia and cuticular plate occurred 12h after GM/EA treatment. Condensation and fragmentation of outer hair-cell nuclei, morphological features of apoptosis, were first observed 5-6h post-treatment in the basal turn of the cochlea. Metabolic function, reflected by succinate dehydrogenase histochemistry and mitochondrial staining, decreased significantly in the basal turn 4h following GM/EA treatment; these early changes were accompanied by the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol and intense expression of initiator caspase-9 and effector caspase-3. GM/EA failed to induce expression of extrinsic initiator caspase-8. These results suggest that the rapid loss of hair cells following GM/EA treatment involves cell death pathways mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction leading to the release of cytochrome c, activation of initiator caspase-9 and effector caspase-3.

  18. Interferometrically stable, enclosed, spinning sample cell for spectroscopic experiments on air-sensitive samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, Dmitry; Hill, Robert J.; Ryu, Jisu; Park, Samuel D.; Huerta-Viga, Adriana; Carollo, Alexa R.; Jonas, David M.

    2017-01-01

    In experiments with high photon flux, it is necessary to rapidly remove the sample from the beam and to delay re-excitation until the sample has returned to equilibrium. Rapid and complete sample exchange has been a challenge for air-sensitive samples and for vibration-sensitive experiments. Here, a compact spinning sample cell for air and moisture sensitive liquid and thin film samples is described. The principal parts of the cell are a copper gasket sealed enclosure, a 2.5 in. hard disk drive motor, and a reusable, chemically inert glass sandwich cell. The enclosure provides an oxygen and water free environment at the 1 ppm level, as demonstrated by multi-day tests with sodium benzophenone ketyl radical. Inside the enclosure, the glass sandwich cell spins at ≈70 Hz to generate tangential speeds of 7-12 m/s that enable complete sample exchange at 100 kHz repetition rates. The spinning cell is acoustically silent and compatible with a ±1 nm rms displacement stability interferometer. In order to enable the use of the spinning cell, we discuss centrifugation and how to prevent it, introduce the cycle-averaged resampling rate to characterize repetitive excitation, and develop a figure of merit for a long-lived photoproduct buildup.

  19. Interferometrically stable, enclosed, spinning sample cell for spectroscopic experiments on air-sensitive samples.

    PubMed

    Baranov, Dmitry; Hill, Robert J; Ryu, Jisu; Park, Samuel D; Huerta-Viga, Adriana; Carollo, Alexa R; Jonas, David M

    2017-01-01

    In experiments with high photon flux, it is necessary to rapidly remove the sample from the beam and to delay re-excitation until the sample has returned to equilibrium. Rapid and complete sample exchange has been a challenge for air-sensitive samples and for vibration-sensitive experiments. Here, a compact spinning sample cell for air and moisture sensitive liquid and thin film samples is described. The principal parts of the cell are a copper gasket sealed enclosure, a 2.5 in. hard disk drive motor, and a reusable, chemically inert glass sandwich cell. The enclosure provides an oxygen and water free environment at the 1 ppm level, as demonstrated by multi-day tests with sodium benzophenone ketyl radical. Inside the enclosure, the glass sandwich cell spins at ≈70 Hz to generate tangential speeds of 7-12 m/s that enable complete sample exchange at 100 kHz repetition rates. The spinning cell is acoustically silent and compatible with a ±1 nm rms displacement stability interferometer. In order to enable the use of the spinning cell, we discuss centrifugation and how to prevent it, introduce the cycle-averaged resampling rate to characterize repetitive excitation, and develop a figure of merit for a long-lived photoproduct buildup.

  20. Effects of air transient spark discharge and helium plasma jet on water, bacteria, cells, and biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Karol; Kučerová, Katarína; Tarabová, Barbora; Janda, Mário; Machala, Zdenko; Sano, Kaori; Mihai, Cosmin Teodor; Ciorpac, Mitică; Gorgan, Lucian Dragos; Jijie, Roxana; Pohoata, Valentin; Topala, Ionut

    2015-06-06

    Atmospheric pressure DC-driven self-pulsing transient spark (TS) discharge operated in air and pulse-driven dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet (PJ) operated in helium in contact with water solutions were used for inducing chemical effects in water solutions, and the treatment of bacteria (Escherichia coli), mammalian cells (Vero line normal cells, HeLa line cancerous cells), deoxyribonucleic acid (dsDNA), and protein (bovine serum albumin). Two different methods of water solution supply were used in the TS: water electrode system and water spray system. The effects of both TS systems and the PJ were compared, as well as a direct exposure of the solution to the discharge with an indirect exposure to the discharge activated gas flow. The chemical analysis of water solutions was performed by using colorimetric methods of UV-VIS absorption spectrophotometry. The bactericidal effects of the discharges on bacteria were evaluated by standard microbiological plate count method. Viability, apoptosis and cell cycle were assessed in normal and cancerous cells. Viability of cells was evaluated by trypan blue exclusion test, apoptosis by Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide assay, and cell cycle progression by propidium iodide/RNase test. The effect of the discharges on deoxyribonucleic acid and protein were evaluated by fluorescence and UV absorption spectroscopy. The results of bacterial and mammalian cell viability, apoptosis, and cell cycle clearly show that cold plasma can inactivate bacteria and selectively target cancerous cells, which is very important for possible future development of new plasma therapeutic strategies in biomedicine. The authors found that all investigated bio-effects were stronger with the air TS discharge than with the He PJ, even in indirect exposure.

  1. Genotoxicity to human cells induced by air particulates isolated during the Kuwait oil fires

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, K.T.; Xia, F.; Christiani, D.C.; Liber, H.L.; Spengler, J.D.; Dockery, D.W. ); Bodell, W.J. )

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to examine the potential of exposure to soot from the 1991 oil fires in the Kuwait desert for inducing genetic effects we studied the in vitro genotoxicity of this materials. Air particulates isolated near the Kuwait oil fires were studied using three assays. Dose-dependent increases were observed for both sister chromatid exchanges in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and mutation at the hprt locus in the metabolically competent human lymphoblast cell line AHH-1. Similar magnitudes of response were seen using these two assays when testing a standard air particulate sample which had been isolated from the Washington, DC, area. Using the [sup 32]P-postlabeling assay, no increase in DNA adduct formation was observed in AHH-1 cells treated with particulates isolated from sampling in Kuwait. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Antiproliferative effects on colon adenocarcinoma cells induced by co-administration of vitamin K1 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Antonella; Linsalata, Michele; Russo, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    Vitamin K (VK), an essential nutrient associated with the clotting cascade, has also been demonstrated to have anticancer properties in various cancer cells including colon cancer cells. Also probiotics have gained interest as potential anticancer agents. Among them, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (L.GG) has been shown to inhibit cell proliferation and polyamine biosynthesis as well as to induce apoptosis in different human gastrointestinal cancer cells. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms involved in these actions are not completely elucidated. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to evaluate in three differently graded human colon cancer cells (namely Caco-2, HT-29 and SW480) the effects of increasing VK1 concentrations, administered alone or in combination with viable L.GG, on the cell proliferation evaluated by MTT test, apoptosis investigated by Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and the percentage of the apoptotic cells, and the cell cycle evaluated by MUSE cell analyzer. Both VK1 and L.GG administered alone up to 72 h, caused inhibition of proliferation, induction of apoptosis and the cell cycle arrest in all the tested colon cancer cells. When VK1 and L.GG were co-administered, the addition of increasing VK1 concentrations potentiated the probiotic antiproliferative effect in a dose-dependent manner, being also related to the individual features of each cell line. The effect was more evident in Caco-2 and HT-29 cells compared to the less differentiated SW480. The enhanced antiproliferative efficacy due to co-administration of L.GG and VK1 could represent a suitable option in a functional food strategy for cancer growth inhibition and chemoprevention.

  3. Cigarette smoke alters primary human bronchial epithelial cell differentiation at the air-liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Schamberger, Andrea C; Staab-Weijnitz, Claudia A; Mise-Racek, Nikica; Eickelberg, Oliver

    2015-02-02

    The differentiated human airway epithelium consists of different cell types forming a polarized and pseudostratified epithelium. This is dramatically altered in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), characterized by basal and goblet cell hyperplasia, and squamous cell metaplasia. The effect of cigarette smoke on human bronchial epithelial cell (HBEC) differentiation remains to be elucidated. We analysed whether cigarette smoke extract (CSE) affected primary (p)HBEC differentiation and function. pHBEC were differentiated at the air-liquid interface (ALI) and differentiation was quantified after 7, 14, 21, or 28 days by assessing acetylated tubulin, CC10, or MUC5AC for ciliated, Clara, or goblet cells, respectively. Exposure of differentiating pHBEC to CSE impaired epithelial barrier formation, as assessed by resistance measurements (TEER). Importantly, CSE exposure significantly reduced the number of ciliated cells, while it increased the number of Clara and goblet cells. CSE-dependent cell number changes were reflected by a reduction of acetylated tubulin levels, an increased expression of the basal cell marker KRT14, and increased secretion of CC10, but not by changes in transcript levels of CC10, MUC5AC, or FOXJ1. Our data demonstrate that cigarette smoke specifically alters the cellular composition of the airway epithelium by affecting basal cell differentiation in a post-transcriptional manner.

  4. Modelling the effects of microgravity on the permeability of air interface respiratory epithelial cell layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Marlise A.; Bosquillon, Cynthia; Russomano, Thais; Sundaresan, Alamelu; Falcão, Felipe; Marriott, Christopher; Forbes, Ben

    2010-09-01

    Although it has been suggested that microgravity might affect drug absorption in vivo, drug permeability across epithelial barriers has not yet been investigated in vitro during modelled microgravity. Therefore, a cell culture/diffusion chamber was designed specifically to accommodate epithelial cell layers in a 3D-clinostat and allow epithelial permeability to be measured under microgravity conditions in vitro with minimum alteration to established cell culture techniques. Human respiratory epithelial Calu-3 cell layers were used to model the airway epithelium. Cells grown at an air interface in the diffusion chamber from day 1 or day 5 after seeding on 24-well polyester Transwell cell culture inserts developed a similar transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) to cells cultured in conventional cell culture plates. Confluent Calu-3 layers exposed to modelled microgravity in the 3D-clinostat for up to 48 h maintained their high TER. The permeability of the paracellular marker 14C-mannitol was unaffected after a 24 h rotation of the cell layers in the 3D-clinostat, but was increased 2-fold after 48 h of modelled microgravity. It was demonstrated that the culture/diffusion chamber developed is suitable for culturing epithelial cell layers and, when subjected to rotation in the 3D-clinostat, will be a valuable in vitro system in which to study the influence of microgravity on epithelial permeability and drug transport.

  5. Experimental investigation on a turbine compressor for air supply system of a fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, Masayasu; Tsuchiyama, Syozo

    1996-12-31

    This report covers part of a joint study on a PEFC propulsion system for surface ships, summarized in a presentation to this Seminar, entitled {open_quotes}Study on a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC) Propulsion System for Surface Ships{close_quotes}, and which envisages application to a 1,500 DWT cargo vessel. The aspect treated here concerns a study on the air supply system for the PEFC, with particular reference to system components.

  6. Phenylalkylamine Passivation of Organolead Halide Perovskites Enabling High-Efficiency and Air-Stable Photovoltaic Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Geng, Wei; Zhou, Yang; Fang, Hong-Hua; Tong, Chuan-Jia; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Liu, Li-Min; Zhao, Ni

    2016-12-01

    Benzylamine is introduced as a surface passivation molecule that improves the moisture-resistance of the perovskites while simultaneously enhancing their electronic properties. Solar cells based on benzylamine-modified formamidinium lead iodide perovskite films exhibit a champion efficiency of 19.2% and an open-circuit voltage of 1.12 V. The modified FAPbI3 films exhibit no degradation after >2800 h air exposure.

  7. [Insulin and glucocorticoid binding by blood cell receptors after hydrocortisone administration in rabbits].

    PubMed

    Tikhonova, N E; Tatarinova, G Sh

    1989-07-01

    Repeated i.v. administration of hydrocortisone (10 mg/kg) revealed an increase in the resistance against insulin although endogenous corticosterone was decreased in 33 male rabbits. The insulin- and dexamethasone-binding receptors of erythrocytes and mononuclear leucocytes. changed after 3-7 hydrocortisone injections, the binding increasing for insulin and diminishing for dexamethasone.

  8. Stable operation of air-blowing direct methanol fuel cells with high performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jun-Young; Lee, Jin-Hwa; Kim, Jirae; Han, Sangil; Song, Inseob

    A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) that is a combination of a catalyst-coated membrane (CCM) for the anode and a catalyst-coated substrate (CCS) for the cathode is studied under air-blower conditions for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Compared with MEAs prepared by only the CCS method, the performance of DMFC MEAs employing the combination method is significantly improved by 30% with less methanol crossover. This feature can be attributed to an enhanced electrode|membrane interface in the anode side and significantly higher catalyst efficiency. Furthermore, DMFC MEAs designed by the combination method retain high power density without any degradation, while the CCM-type cell shows a downward tendency in electrochemical performance under air-blower conditions. This may be due to MEAs with CCM have a much more difficult structure of catalytic active sites in the cathode to eliminate the water produced by electrochemical reaction. In addition, DMFCs produced via combination methods exhibit a lower water crossover flux than CCS alternatives, due to the comparatively dense structure of the CCM anode. Hence, DMFCs with a combination MEA structure demonstrate the feasibility of a small fuel cell system employing the low noise of a fan, instead of a noisy and large capacity air pump, for portable electronic devices.

  9. Multiple Intravenous Administrations of Human Umbilical Cord Blood Cells Benefit in a Mouse Model of ALS

    PubMed Central

    Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana; Rodrigues, Maria C. O.; Mirtyl, Santhia; Turner, Shanna; Mitha, Shazia; Sodhi, Jasmine; Suthakaran, Subatha; Eve, David J.; Sanberg, Cyndy D.; Kuzmin-Nichols, Nicole; Sanberg, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    Background A promising therapeutic strategy for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the use of cell-based therapies that can protect motor neurons and thereby retard disease progression. We recently showed that a single large dose (25×106 cells) of mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood (MNC hUCB) administered intravenously to pre-symptomatic G93A SOD1 mice is optimal in delaying disease progression and increasing lifespan. However, this single high cell dose is impractical for clinical use. The aim of the present pre-clinical translation study was therefore to evaluate the effects of multiple low dose systemic injections of MNC hUCB cell into G93A SOD1 mice at different disease stages. Methodology/Principal Findings Mice received weekly intravenous injections of MNC hUCB or media. Symptomatic mice received 106 or 2.5×106 cells from 13 weeks of age. A third, pre-symptomatic, group received 106 cells from 9 weeks of age. Control groups were media-injected G93A and mice carrying the normal hSOD1 gene. Motor function tests and various assays determined cell effects. Administered cell distribution, motor neuron counts, and glial cell densities were analyzed in mouse spinal cords. Results showed that mice receiving 106 cells pre-symptomatically or 2.5×106 cells symptomatically significantly delayed functional deterioration, increased lifespan and had higher motor neuron counts than media mice. Astrocytes and microglia were significantly reduced in all cell-treated groups. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate that multiple injections of MNC hUCB cells, even beginning at the symptomatic disease stage, could benefit disease outcomes by protecting motor neurons from inflammatory effectors. This multiple cell infusion approach may promote future clinical studies. PMID:22319620

  10. Hydroponics gel as a new electrolyte gelling agent for alkaline zinc-air cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, R.; Basirun, W. J.; Yahaya, A. H.; Arof, A. K.

    The viability of hydroponics gel as a new alkaline electrolyte gelling agent is investigated. Zinc-air cells are fabricated employing 12 wt.% KOH electrolyte immobilised with hydroponics gel. The cells are discharged at constant currents of 5, 50 and 100 mA. XRD and SEM analysis of the anode plates after discharge show that the failure mode is due to the formation of zinc oxide insulating layers and not due to any side reactions between the gel and the plate or the electrolyte.

  11. Administrators: Nursing Home Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Anne

    1976-01-01

    Responsibilities, skills needed, training needed, earnings, employment outlook, and sources of additional information are outlined for the administrator who holds the top management job in a nursing home. (JT)

  12. Administration of cells with thermosensitive hydrogel enhances the functional recovery in ischemic rat heart

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Satoshi; Forrester, James S; Li, Chuan; Sato, Mitsuru; Li, Zhengqing; Guo, Xiaolei; Guan, Jianjun; Amano, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    The lack of cell retention clearly represents a potentially serious limitation for therapeutic efficacy of stem cells. To enhance the efficacy, we developed a novel hydrogel that is thermosensitive and biodegradable and possesses desirable stiffness in a solid form. Immediately after induction of myocardial infarction of male rat, cardiac outgrowth cells embedded in hydrogel (HG) or saline (CO) were injected directly into the peri-infarct area. Left ventricular ejection fraction, cell retention rate, and a spectrum of biochemical markers were measured to evaluate the effect of the treatment. Left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly higher in the cell-injected groups (HG and CO) than in the control group at 1 week after treatment. This functional benefit was continued only in the HG group, accompanied with more retained cells. Furthermore, the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 was significantly higher in the HG group with less progression of cell apoptosis. PMID:27213036

  13. Activated air produced by shielded sliding discharge plasma mediates plasmid DNA delivery to mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Edelblute, Chelsea M; Heller, Loree C; Malik, Muhammad A; Heller, Richard

    2015-12-01

    Cold plasma is emerging as a potential method for medical applications. The current study assessed the efficacy of a novel cold plasma reactor based on shielded sliding discharge producing cathode-directed streamers generated in ambient air for the delivery of plasmid DNA. Experiments were performed with mouse melanoma cells (B16F10) and human keratinocyte cells (HaCaT) inoculated with plasmid DNA encoding luciferase. Quantitative results measured over a 72-h period displayed luciferase expression levels as high as 5-fold greater in cells exposed to plasma-activated air (PAA) than levels obtained from the inoculation of plasmid DNA alone (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). No effect on cell viability was observed. Delivery of plasmid encoding GFP to HaCaT cells seeded on polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds was confirmed by immunostaining. The use of cold plasma for DNA delivery is attractive as it provides a non-viral, non-invasive method where the electrode or the plasma itself never directly contacts the exposed site. The current device design provides localized DNA transfer using a novel technology. Our report suggests PAA warrants further exploration as an alternative or supplemental approach for DNA transfer.

  14. From the Field to the Laboratory: Air Pollutant-Induced Genomic Effects in Lung Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vizuete, William; Sexton, Kenneth G.; Nguyen, Hang; Smeester, Lisa; Aagaard, Kjersti Marie; Shope, Cynthia; Lefer, Barry; Flynn, James H.; Alvarez, Sergio; Erickson, Mathew H.; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2015-01-01

    Current in vitro studies do not typically assess cellular impacts in relation to real-world atmospheric mixtures of gases. In this study, we set out to examine the feasibility of measuring biological responses at the level of gene expression in human lung cells upon direct exposures to air in the field. This study describes the successful deployment of lung cells in the heavily industrialized Houston Ship Channel. By examining messenger RNA (mRNA) levels from exposed lung cells, we identified changes in genes that play a role as inflammatory responders in the cell. The results show anticipated responses from negative and positive controls, confirming the integrity of the experimental protocol and the successful deployment of the in vitro instrument. Furthermore, exposures to ambient conditions displayed robust changes in gene expression. These results demonstrate a methodology that can produce gas-phase toxicity data in the field. PMID:26917966

  15. Epithelial cells, the "switchboard" of respiratory immune defense responses: effects of air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Müller, Loretta; Jaspers, Ilona

    2012-07-31

    "Epimmunome", a term introduced recently by Swamy and colleagues, describes all molecules and pathways used by epithelial cells (ECs) to instruct immune cells. Today, we know that ECs are among the first sites within the human body to be exposed to pathogens (such as influenza viruses) and that the release of chemokine and cytokines by ECs is influenced by inhaled agents. The role of the ECs as a switchboard to initiate and regulate immune responses is altered through air pollutant exposure, such as ozone, tobacco smoke and diesel exhaust emissions. The details of the interplay between ECs and immune cells are not yet fully understood and need to be investigated further. Co-culture models, cell specific genetically-modified mice and the analysis of human biopsies provide great tools to gain knowledge about potential mechanisms. Increasing our understanding about the role of ECs in respiratory immunity may yield novel therapeutic targets to modulate downstream diseases.

  16. Zinc air refuelable battery: alternative zinc fuel morphologies and cell behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Krueger, R.

    1997-01-01

    Multicell zinc/air batteries have been tested previously in the laboratory and as part of the propulsion system of an electric bus; cut zinc wire was used as the anode material. This battery is refueled by a hydraulic transport of 0.5-1 mm zinc particles into hoppers above each cell. We report an investigation concerning alternative zinc fuel morphologies, and energy losses associated with refueling and with overnight or prolonged standby. Three types of fuel pellets were fabricated, tested and compared with results for cut wire: spheres produced in a fluidized bed electrolysis cell; elongated particles produced by gas-atomization; and pellets produced by chopping 1 mm porous plates made of compacted zinc fines. Relative sizes of the particles and cell gap dimensions are critical. All three types transported within the cell 1553 and showed acceptable discharge characteristics, but a fluidized bed approach appears especially attractive for owner/user recovery operations.

  17. Cell immobilization on polymer by air atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Kwon, Jae-Sung; Om, Ji-yeon; Kim, Yong-Hee; Choi, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2014-08-01

    The study of cell immobilization on delicate polymer by an air atmospheric pressure plasma jet (AAPPJ) is required for its medical application. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether AAPPJ treatment induce cell immobilization effect on delicate polymers without significant change of surface roughness by AAPPJ treatment. After surface roughness, dynamic contact angle, and chemical characteristics were investigated, the immobilization effect was evaluated with the mouse fibroblast L929 cell line. Surface roughness change was not observed (P > 0.05) in either delicate dental wax or polystyrene plate (PSP) as advancing and receding contact angles significantly decreased (P < 0.05), thanks to decreased hydrocarbon and formation of oxygen-related functional groups in treated PSP. Adherent L929 cells with elongated morphology were found in treated PSP along with the formation of immobilization markers vinculin and actin cytoskeleton. Increased PTK2 gene expression upregulated these markers on treated PSP.

  18. Egg incubation position affects toxicity of air cell administered PCB 126 (3,3?4,4?,5- pentachlorobiphenyl) in chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKernan, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.; Hale, R.C.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    The avian egg is used extensively for chemical screening and determining the relative sensitivity of species to environmental contaminants (e.g., metals, pesticides, polyhalogenated compounds). The effect of egg incubation position on embryonic survival, pipping, and hatching success was examined following air cell administration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl [PCB 126]; 500?2,000 pg/g egg) on day 4 of development in fertile chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Depending on dose, toxicity was found to be up to nine times greater in vertically versus horizontally incubated eggs. This may be due to enhanced embryonic exposure to the injection bolus in vertically incubated eggs compared to more gradual uptake in horizontally incubated eggs. Following air cell administration of PCB 126, horizontal incubation of eggs may more closely approximate uptake and toxicity that has been observed with naturally incorporated contaminants. These data have implications for chemical screening and use of laboratory data for ecological risk assessments.

  19. Intraarterial route increases the risk of cerebral lesions after mesenchymal cell administration in animal model of ischemia.

    PubMed

    Argibay, Bárbara; Trekker, Jesse; Himmelreich, Uwe; Beiras, Andrés; Topete, Antonio; Taboada, Pablo; Pérez-Mato, María; Vieites-Prado, Alba; Iglesias-Rey, Ramón; Rivas, José; Planas, Anna M; Sobrino, Tomás; Castillo, José; Campos, Francisco

    2017-01-16

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising clinical therapy for ischemic stroke. However, critical parameters, such as the most effective administration route, remain unclear. Intravenous (i.v.) and intraarterial (i.a.) delivery routes have yielded varied outcomes across studies, potentially due to the unknown MSCs distribution. We investigated whether MSCs reached the brain following i.a. or i.v. administration after transient cerebral ischemia in rats, and evaluated the therapeutic effects of both routes. MSCs were labeled with dextran-coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cell tracking, transmission electron microscopy and immunohistological analysis. MSCs were found in the brain following i.a. but not i.v. administration. However, the i.a. route increased the risk of cerebral lesions and did not improve functional recovery. The i.v. delivery is safe but MCS do not reach the brain tissue, implying that treatment benefits observed for this route are not attributable to brain MCS engrafting after stroke.

  20. Intraarterial route increases the risk of cerebral lesions after mesenchymal cell administration in animal model of ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argibay, Bárbara; Trekker, Jesse; Himmelreich, Uwe; Beiras, Andrés; Topete, Antonio; Taboada, Pablo; Pérez-Mato, María; Vieites-Prado, Alba; Iglesias-Rey, Ramón; Rivas, José; Planas, Anna M.; Sobrino, Tomás; Castillo, José; Campos, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising clinical therapy for ischemic stroke. However, critical parameters, such as the most effective administration route, remain unclear. Intravenous (i.v.) and intraarterial (i.a.) delivery routes have yielded varied outcomes across studies, potentially due to the unknown MSCs distribution. We investigated whether MSCs reached the brain following i.a. or i.v. administration after transient cerebral ischemia in rats, and evaluated the therapeutic effects of both routes. MSCs were labeled with dextran-coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cell tracking, transmission electron microscopy and immunohistological analysis. MSCs were found in the brain following i.a. but not i.v. administration. However, the i.a. route increased the risk of cerebral lesions and did not improve functional recovery. The i.v. delivery is safe but MCS do not reach the brain tissue, implying that treatment benefits observed for this route are not attributable to brain MCS engrafting after stroke.

  1. Intraarterial route increases the risk of cerebral lesions after mesenchymal cell administration in animal model of ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Argibay, Bárbara; Trekker, Jesse; Himmelreich, Uwe; Beiras, Andrés; Topete, Antonio; Taboada, Pablo; Pérez-Mato, María; Vieites-Prado, Alba; Iglesias-Rey, Ramón; Rivas, José; Planas, Anna M.; Sobrino, Tomás; Castillo, José; Campos, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising clinical therapy for ischemic stroke. However, critical parameters, such as the most effective administration route, remain unclear. Intravenous (i.v.) and intraarterial (i.a.) delivery routes have yielded varied outcomes across studies, potentially due to the unknown MSCs distribution. We investigated whether MSCs reached the brain following i.a. or i.v. administration after transient cerebral ischemia in rats, and evaluated the therapeutic effects of both routes. MSCs were labeled with dextran-coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cell tracking, transmission electron microscopy and immunohistological analysis. MSCs were found in the brain following i.a. but not i.v. administration. However, the i.a. route increased the risk of cerebral lesions and did not improve functional recovery. The i.v. delivery is safe but MCS do not reach the brain tissue, implying that treatment benefits observed for this route are not attributable to brain MCS engrafting after stroke. PMID:28091591

  2. Oral Administration of Blueberry Inhibits Angiogenic Tumor Growth and Enhances Survival of Mice with Endothelial Cell Neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Huiqing; Khanna, Savita; Harper, Justin; Phillips, Gary; Sen, Chandan K.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Endothelial cell neoplasms are the most common soft tissue tumor in infants. Subcutaneous injection of spontaneously transformed murine endothelial (EOMA) cells results in development of hemangioendothelioma (HE). We have previously shown that blueberry extract (BBE) treatment of EOMA cells in vitro prior to injection in vivo can significantly inhibit the incidence and size of developing HE. In this study, we sought to determine whether oral BBE could be effective in managing HE and to investigate the mechanisms through which BBE exerts its effects on endothelial cells. A dose-dependent decrease in HE tumor size was observed in mice receiving daily oral gavage feeds of BBE. Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed significantly enhanced survival for mice with HE tumors given BBE, compared to control. BBE treatment of EOMA cells inhibited both c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and NF-κB signaling pathways that culminate in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression required for HE development. Antiangiogenic effects of BBE on EOMA cells included decreased proliferation by BrdU assay, decreased sprouting on Matrigel, and decreased transwell migration. Thus, this work provides first evidence demonstrating that BBE can limit tumor formation through antiangiogenic effects and inhibition of JNK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Oral administration of BBE represents a potential therapeutic antiangiogenic strategy for treating endothelial cell neoplasms in children. Antioxid Redox Signal 11, 47–58. PMID:18817478

  3. Intravenous Administration of Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells Overexpressing Integrin β1 Augments Angiogenesis in Ischemic Legs.

    PubMed

    Goto, Kazuko; Takemura, Genzou; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Okada, Hideshi; Kanamori, Hiromitsu; Kawamura, Itta; Watanabe, Takatomo; Morishita, Kentaro; Tsujimoto, Akiko; Miyazaki, Nagisa; Ushikoshi, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Masanori; Mikami, Atsushi; Kosai, Ken-ichiro; Minatoguchi, Shinya

    2016-02-01

    When injected directly into ischemic tissue in patients with peripheral artery disease, the reparative capacity of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) appears to be limited by their poor survival. We, therefore, attempted to improve the survival of transplanted EPCs through intravenous injection and gene modification. We anticipated that overexpression of integrin β1 will enable injected EPCs to home to ischemic tissue, which abundantly express extracellular matrix proteins, the ligands for integrins. In addition, integrin β1 has an independent angiogenesis-stimulating function. Human endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs; late-outgrowth EPCs) were transduced using a lentiviral vector encoding integrin β1 (ITGB1) or enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP). We then locally or systemically injected phosphate-buffered saline or the genetically modified ECFCs (GFP-ECFCs or ITGB1-ECFCs; 1 × 10(5) cells each) into NOD/Shi-scid, IL-2Rγnull mice whose right femoral arteries had been occluded 24 hours earlier. Upregulation of extracellular matrix proteins, including fibronectin, was apparent in the ischemic legs. Four weeks later, blood perfusion of the ischemic limb was significantly augmented only in the ITGB1-ECFC group. Scanning electron microscopy of vascular casts revealed increases in the perfused blood vessels in the ischemic legs of mice in the ITGB1-ECFC group and significant increases in the density of both capillaries and arterioles. Transplanted ECFC-derived vessels accounted for 28% ± 4.2% of the vessels in the ITGB1-ECFC group, with no cell fusion. Intravenous administration of ECFCs engineered to home to ischemic tissue appears to efficiently mediate therapeutic angiogenesis in a mouse model of peripheral artery disease. Significance: The intravenous administration of endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) genetically modified to overexpress integrin β1 effectively stimulated angiogenesis in ischemic mouse hindlimbs. Transplanted ECFCs were

  4. Intravenous Administration of Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells Overexpressing Integrin β1 Augments Angiogenesis in Ischemic Legs

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Kazuko; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Okada, Hideshi; Kanamori, Hiromitsu; Kawamura, Itta; Watanabe, Takatomo; Morishita, Kentaro; Tsujimoto, Akiko; Miyazaki, Nagisa; Ushikoshi, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Masanori; Mikami, Atsushi; Kosai, Ken-ichiro; Minatoguchi, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    When injected directly into ischemic tissue in patients with peripheral artery disease, the reparative capacity of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) appears to be limited by their poor survival. We, therefore, attempted to improve the survival of transplanted EPCs through intravenous injection and gene modification. We anticipated that overexpression of integrin β1 will enable injected EPCs to home to ischemic tissue, which abundantly express extracellular matrix proteins, the ligands for integrins. In addition, integrin β1 has an independent angiogenesis-stimulating function. Human endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs; late-outgrowth EPCs) were transduced using a lentiviral vector encoding integrin β1 (ITGB1) or enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP). We then locally or systemically injected phosphate-buffered saline or the genetically modified ECFCs (GFP-ECFCs or ITGB1-ECFCs; 1 × 105 cells each) into NOD/Shi-scid, IL-2Rγnull mice whose right femoral arteries had been occluded 24 hours earlier. Upregulation of extracellular matrix proteins, including fibronectin, was apparent in the ischemic legs. Four weeks later, blood perfusion of the ischemic limb was significantly augmented only in the ITGB1-ECFC group. Scanning electron microscopy of vascular casts revealed increases in the perfused blood vessels in the ischemic legs of mice in the ITGB1-ECFC group and significant increases in the density of both capillaries and arterioles. Transplanted ECFC-derived vessels accounted for 28% ± 4.2% of the vessels in the ITGB1-ECFC group, with no cell fusion. Intravenous administration of ECFCs engineered to home to ischemic tissue appears to efficiently mediate therapeutic angiogenesis in a mouse model of peripheral artery disease. Significance The intravenous administration of endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) genetically modified to overexpress integrin β1 effectively stimulated angiogenesis in ischemic mouse hindlimbs. Transplanted ECFCs were observed

  5. UCB Transplant of Inherited Metabolic Diseases With Administration of Intrathecal UCB Derived Oligodendrocyte-Like Cells

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-03

    Adrenoleukodystrophy; Batten Disease; Mucopolysaccharidosis II; Leukodystrophy, Globoid Cell; Leukodystrophy, Metachromatic; Neimann Pick Disease; Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease; Sandhoff Disease; Tay-Sachs Disease; Brain Diseases, Metabolic, Inborn

  6. Lanthanum manganite-based air electrode for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Ruka, R.J.; Kuo, L.; Li, B.

    1999-06-29

    An air electrode material for a solid oxide fuel cell is disclosed. The electrode material is based on lanthanum manganite having a perovskite-like crystal structure ABO[sub 3]. The A-site of the air electrode material preferably comprises La, Ca, Ce and at least one lanthanide selected from Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Y and Nd. The B-site of the electrode material comprises Mn with substantially no dopants. The ratio of A:B is preferably slightly above 1. A preferred air electrode composition is of the formula La[sub w]Ca[sub x]Ln[sub y]Ce[sub z]MnO[sub 3], wherein Ln comprises at least one lanthanide selected from Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Y and Nd, w is from about 0.55 to about 0.56, x is from about 0.255 to about 0.265, y is from about 0.175 to about 0.185, and z is from about 0.005 to about 0.02. The air electrode material possesses advantageous chemical and electrical properties as well as favorable thermal expansion and thermal cycle shrinkage characteristics. 10 figs.

  7. Lanthanum manganite-based air electrode for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Kuo, Lewis; Li, Baozhen

    1999-01-01

    An air electrode material for a solid oxide fuel cell is disclosed. The electrode material is based on lanthanum manganite having a perovskite-like crystal structure ABO.sub.3. The A-site of the air electrode material preferably comprises La, Ca, Ce and at least one lanthanide selected from Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Y and Nd. The B-site of the electrode material comprises Mn with substantially no dopants. The ratio of A:B is preferably slightly above 1. A preferred air electrode composition is of the formula La.sub.w Ca.sub.x Ln.sub.y Ce.sub.z MnO.sub.3, wherein Ln comprises at least one lanthanide selected from Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Y and Nd, w is from about 0.55 to about 0.56, x is from about 0.255 to about 0.265, y is from about 0.175 to about 0.185, and z is from about 0.005 to about 0.02. The air electrode material possesses advantageous chemical and electrical properties as well as favorable thermal expansion and thermal cycle shrinkage characteristics.

  8. Oral administration of banana lectin modulates cytokine profile and abundance of T-cell populations in mice.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Ana Claudia Miranda Brito; Sansone, Marcelo; Dos Santos Dias, Carlos Tadeu; Oliveira do Nascimento, João Roberto

    2016-08-01

    Banana lectin (BanLec) is a dimeric protein occurring in fruit pulp that modulates immune cell functioning in vitro. In order to assess the immune response in vivo, BanLec from ripe banana (Musa acuminata) fruit was purified and orally given to mice for seven days. The analysis of cytokines in the mice peripheral blood revealed increased IL-10, IL-17 and TNFα, and a reduction of IFNγ and IL-6. In the thymus, an increase of CD4+ and a decrease of CD8+ T-cells were observed after oral administration of BanLec. The modulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and T-cells in the peripheral blood and thymus of mice demonstrated the immunomodulatory properties of natural BanLec in vivo. This research brings new data on a protein from a fresh fruit consumed worldwide that may act as an immunomodulator, potentially affecting the host response to infections, immune diseases and cancer.

  9. Interstitial pneumonia following administration of pegfilgrastim during carboplatin and etoposide chemotherapy for small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shirasawa, Masayuki; Nakahara, Yoshiro; Niwa, Hideyuki; Harada, Shinya; Ozawa, Takahiro; Kusuhara, Seiichiro; Kasajima, Masashi; Hiyoshi, Yasuhiro; Sasaki, Jiichiro; Masuda, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Pegfilgrastim is a long-acting granulocyte colony-stimulating factor formulation that has been approved for the prevention of febrile neutropenia. We herein report a case of interstitial pneumonia following administration of pegfilgrastim. A 65-year-old man with stage IV small-cell lung cancer was treated with carboplatin and etoposide as third-line chemotherapy. Pegfilgrastim was administered during the second cycle of chemotherapy. On the day after the administration of pegfilgrastim, interstitial pneumonia developed. The respiratory condition improved with pulse steroid therapy; however, the patient eventually succumbed to cancer progression. In conclusion, interstitial pneumonia due to pegfilgrastim is rare; however, physicians should be aware of the possibility of this adverse effect. PMID:28105350

  10. B-Cell Responses to Intramuscular Administration of a Bivalent Virus-like Particle Human Norovirus Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ramani, Sasirekha; Neill, Frederick H; Ferreira, Jennifer; Treanor, John J; Frey, Sharon E; Topham, David J; Goodwin, Robert R; Borkowski, Astrid; Baehner, Frank; Mendelman, Paul M; Estes, Mary K; Atmar, Robert L

    2017-03-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. A virus-like particle (VLP) candidate vaccine induces the production of serum histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) blocking antibodies, the first identified correlate of protection from HuNoV gastroenteritis. Recently, virus-specific IgG memory B-cells were identified as another potential correlate of protection against HuNoV gastroenteritis. We assessed B-cell responses following intramuscular administration of a bivalent (GI.1/GII.4) VLP vaccine using protocols identical to those used to evaluate cellular immunity following experimental HuNoV infection. The kinetics and magnitude of cellular immunity to G1.1 infection versus VLP vaccination were compared. Intramuscular immunization with bivalent VLP vaccine induces the production of antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) and memory B-cells. ASC responses peaked at day 7 post 1st dose of vaccine and returned to nearly baseline levels by day 28. Minimal increases in ASCs were seen after a second vaccine dose at day 28. Antigen-specific IgG memory B-cells persist at day 180 post-vaccination for both GI.1 and GII.4 VLPs. The overall trends in B-cell responses to vaccination were similar to infection, where there was a greater bias of ASC response towards IgA and memory B-cell response to IgG. The magnitude of ASC and memory B-cell responses to the GI.1 VLP component of the vaccine were also comparable to responses following GI.1 infection. The production of IgG memory B-cells and persistence at day 180 is a key finding and underscores the need for future studies to determine if IgG memory B-cells are a correlate of protection following vaccination.

  11. Passive cathodic water/air management device for micro-direct methanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hsien-Chih; Chen, Po-Hon; Chen, Hung-Wen; Chieng, Ching-Chang; Yeh, Tsung-Kuang; Pan, Chin; Tseng, Fan-Gang

    A high efficient passive water/air management device (WAMD) is proposed and successfully demonstrated in this paper. The apparatus consists of cornered micro-channels and air-breathing windows with hydrophobicity arrangement to regulate liquids and gases to flow on their predetermined pathways. A high performance water/air separation with water removal rate of about 5.1 μl s -1 cm -2 is demonstrated. The performance of the proposed WAMD is sufficient to manage a cathode-generated water flux of 0.26 μl s -1 cm -2 in the micro-direct methanol fuel cells (μDMFCs) which are operated at 100 mW cm -2 or 400 mA cm -2. Furthermore, the condensed vapors can also be collected and recirculated with the existing micro-channels which act as a passive water recycling system for μDMFCs. The durability testing shows that the fuel cells equipped with WAMD exhibit improved stability and higher current density.

  12. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers based on annular cell geometry for air-coupled applications.

    PubMed

    Na, Shuai; Chen, Albert I H; Wong, Lawrence L P; Li, Zhenhao; Macecek, Mirek; Yeow, John T W

    2016-09-01

    A novel design of an air-coupled capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) with annular cell geometry (annular CMUT) is proposed. Finite element analysis shows that an annular cell has a ratio of average-to-maximum displacement (RAMD) of 0.52-0.58 which is 58-76% higher than that of a conventional circular cell. The increased RAMD leads to a larger volume displacement which results in a 48.4% improved transmit sensitivity and 127.3% improved power intensity. Single-cell annular CMUTs were fabricated with 20-μm silicon plates on 13.7-μm deep and 1.35-mm wide annular cavities using the wafer bonding technique. The measured RAMD of the fabricated CMUTs is 0.54. The resonance frequency was measured to be 94.5kHz at 170-V DC bias. The transmit sensitivity was measured to be 33.83Pa/V and 25.85Pa/V when the CMUT was excited by a continuous wave and a 20-cycle burst, respectively. The receive sensitivity at 170-V DC bias was measured to be 7.7mV/Pa for a 20-cycle burst, and 15.0mV/Pa for a continuous incident wave. The proposed annular CMUT design demonstrates a significant improvement in transmit efficiency, which is an important parameter for air-coupled ultrasonic transducers.

  13. Efficient and stable perovskite solar cells prepared in ambient air irrespective of the humidity

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Qidong; You, Peng; Sang, Hongqian; Liu, Zhike; Hu, Chenglong; Chan, Helen L. W.; Yan, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Poor stability of organic–inorganic halide perovskite materials in humid condition has hindered the success of perovskite solar cells in real applications since controlled atmosphere is required for device fabrication and operation, and there is a lack of effective solutions to this problem until now. Here we report the use of lead (II) thiocyanate (Pb(SCN)2) precursor in preparing perovskite solar cells in ambient air. High-quality CH3NH3PbI3−x(SCN)x perovskite films can be readily prepared even when the relative humidity exceeds 70%. Under optimized processing conditions, we obtain devices with an average power conversion efficiency of 13.49% and the maximum efficiency over 15%. In comparison with typical CH3NH3PbI3-based devices, these solar cells without encapsulation show greatly improved stability in humid air, which is attributed to the incorporation of thiocyanate ions in the crystal lattice. The findings pave a way for realizing efficient and stable perovskite solar cells in ambient atmosphere. PMID:27033249

  14. Development of a porous PLGA-based scaffold for mastoid air cell regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Toby W. A.; Birchall, John P.; Mallick, Ali S.; Alliston, Tamara; Lustig, Lawrence R.; Shakesheff, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a porous, biodegradable scaffold for mastoid air cell regeneration. Study Design In vitro development of a temperature-sensitive poly(DL-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)/poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA/PEG) scaffold tailored for this application. Methods Human mastoid bone microstructure and porosity was investigated using micro-computed tomography. PLGA/PEG-alginate scaffolds were developed and scaffold porosity was assessed. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) were cultured on the scaffolds in vitro. Scaffolds were loaded with ciprofloxacin and release of ciprofloxacin over time in vitro was assessed. Results Porosity of human mastoid bone was measured at 83% with an average pore size of 1.3mm. PLGA/PEG-alginate scaffold porosity ranged from 43–78% depending on the alginate bead content. hBM-MSCs proliferate on the scaffolds in vitro, and release of ciprofloxacin from the scaffolds was demonstrated over 7–10 weeks. Conclusion The PLGA/PEG-alginate scaffolds developed in this study demonstrate similar structural features to human mastoid bone, support cell growth and display sustained antibiotic release. These scaffolds may be of potential clinical use in mastoid air cell regeneration. Further in vivo studies to assess the suitability of PLGA/PEG-alginate scaffolds for this application are required. PMID:23670365

  15. Effect of Th1/Th2 cytokine administration on proinflammatory SKOV-3 cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Sikora, Justyna; Kondera-Anasz, Zdzisława; Mickiewicz, Patrycja; Mickiewicz, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Interleukin(IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 might associate with inflammatory processes in a tumor progression and create a specific microenvironment for tumor growth. The aim of the study was to assess whether the Th1 and Th2 type cytokines, such as IL-2 and IL-10, affect ovarian carcinoma continuous cell line (SKOV-3) pro-inflammatory activation. Material and methods SKOV-3 ovarian cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated by IL-2 and IL-10. Additionally, SKOV-3 ovarian cells and PBMCs were co-cultured together. Proinflammatory activation of cancer cells was evaluated by measurement of IL-1β and IL-6 levels in culture fluid after 72 h of incubation. Results SKOV-3 cells and PBMCs secreted IL-1β and IL-6. After stimulation by IL-2 and IL-10, secretion of studied parameters was changed in a dose-dependent manner. The addition of a higher IL-2 level gave rise to an increase of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 secretion in SKOV-3 cells. Stimulation by IL-10 increased only IL-1β secretion in SKOV-3 cells. However, IL-6 secretion decreased after stimulation with 25 ng/ml IL-10. Activatory effects of IL-2 and inhibitory effects of IL-10 in co-culture of SKOV-3 and PBMCs were observed. Conclusions Our results suggested that Th1/Th2 type of cytokines might influence pro-inflammatory activation of SKOV-3 ovarian cells. Co-cultures of SKOV-3 and PBMCs showed significant changes in cross-talk between cancer and immune cells. PMID:27904527

  16. Repetitive busulfan administration after hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy associated with a dominant HDAC7 clone in a nonhuman primate.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jianjun; Larochelle, Andre; Maric, Irina; Faulhaber, Marion; Donahue, Robert E; Dunbar, Cynthia E

    2010-06-01

    The risk of genotoxicity of retroviral vector-delivered gene therapy targeting hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) has been highlighted by the development of clonal dominance and malignancies in human and animal gene therapy trials. Large-animal models have proven invaluable to test the safety of retroviral vectors, but the detection of clonal dominance may require years of follow-up. We hypothesized that hematopoietic stress may accelerate the proliferation and therefore the detection of abnormal clones in these models. We administered four monthly busulfan (Bu) infusions to induce hematopoietic stress in a healthy rhesus macaque previously transplanted with CD34+ cells transduced with retroviral vectors carrying a simple marker gene. Busulfan administration resulted in significant cytopenias with each cycle, and prolonged pancytopenia after the final cycle with eventual recovery. Before busulfan treatment there was highly polyclonal marking in all lineages. After Bu administration clonal diversity was markedly decreased in all lineages. Unexpectedly, we found no evidence of selection of the MDS1/EVI1 clones present before Bu administration, but a clone with a vector integration in intron 1 of the histone deacetylase-7 (HDAC7) gene became dominant in granulocytes over time after Bu administration. The overall marking level in the animal was increased significantly after Bu treatment and coincident with expansion of the HDAC7 clone, suggesting an in vivo advantage for this clone under stress. HDAC7 expression was upregulated in marrow progenitors containing the vector. Almost 5 years after Bu administration, the animal developed progressive cytopenias, and at autopsy the marrow showed complete lack of neutrophil or platelet maturation, with a new population of approximately 20% undifferentiated blasts. These data suggest that chemotherapeutic stress may accelerate vector-related clonal dominance, even in the absence of drug resistance genes expressed by the vector

  17. The expression of cyclic adenosine monophosphate responsive element modulator in rat sertoli cells following seminal extract administration

    PubMed Central

    Akmal, Muslim; Siregar, Tongku Nizwan; Wahyuni, Sri; Hamny; Nasution, Mustafa Kamal; Indriati, Wiwik; Panjaitan, Budianto; Aliza, Dwinna

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to determine the effect of seminal vesicle extract on cyclic adenosine monophosphate responsive element modulator (CREM) expression in rat Sertoli cells. Materials and Methods: This study examined the expression of CREM on 20 male rats (Rattus norvegicus) at 4 months of age, weighing 250-300 g. The rats were divided into four groups: K0, KP1, KP2, and KP3. K0 group was injected with 0.2 ml normal saline; KP1 was injected with 25 mg cloprostenol (Prostavet C, Virbac S. A); KP2 and KP3 were injected with 0.2 and 0.4 ml seminal vesicle extract, respectively. The treatments were conducted 5 times within 12-day interval. At the end of the study, the rats were euthanized by cervical dislocation; then, the testicles were necropsied and processed for histology observation using immunohistochemistry staining. Results: CREM expression in rat Sertoli cells was not altered by the administration of either 0.2 or 0.4 ml seminal vesicle extract. Conclusion: The administration of seminal vesicle extract is unable to increase CREM expression in rat Sertoli cells. PMID:27733803

  18. Induction of regulatory T cells in Th1-/Th17-driven experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by zinc administration.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, Eva; Maywald, Martina; Hilgers, Ralf-Dieter; Brieger, Anne; Clarner, Tim; Kipp, Markus; Plümäkers, Birgit; Meyer, Sören; Schwerdtle, Tanja; Rink, Lothar

    2016-03-01

    The essential trace element zinc is indispensable for proper immune function as zinc deficiency accompanies immune defects and dysregulations like allergies, autoimmunity and an increased presence of transplant rejection. This point to the importance of the physiological and dietary control of zinc levels for a functioning immune system. This study investigates the capacity of zinc to induce immune tolerance. The beneficial impact of physiological zinc supplementation of 6 μg/day (0.3mg/kg body weight) or 30 μg/day (1.5mg/kg body weight) on murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis with a Th1/Th17 (Th, T helper) cell-dominated immunopathogenesis, was analyzed. Zinc administration diminished EAE scores in C57BL/6 mice in vivo (P<.05), reduced Th17 RORγT(+) cells (P<.05) and significantly increased inducible iTreg cells (P<.05). While Th17 cells decreased systemically, iTreg cells accumulated in the central nervous system. Cumulatively, zinc supplementation seems to be capable to induce tolerance in unwanted immune reactions by increasing iTreg cells. This makes zinc a promising future tool for treating autoimmune diseases without suppressing the immune system.

  19. [Use of perfluorocarbon emulsions for administration of photosensitizing preparations into bone marrow stem cells].

    PubMed

    Temnov, A A; Sklifas, A N; Tereshchenko, A V; Belyĭ, Iu A; Lyskov, N B; Kukushkin, N I

    2010-01-01

    It has been shown that, upon incubation of mouse bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) in vitro with the nanoparticles of perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsion stabilized by proxanol 268, these nanoparticles penetrate into cells and stay there for a long time (up to 20 days of observation). It has been found that, under in vitro conditions, mouse BMSC loaded with the nanoparticles of both the original emulsion and the emulsion preliminarily incubated with radachlorine do not differ from control stem cells in the rate of division, stretching on a plastic support, and the formation of a monolayer. It has been shown that the exposure to laser radiation of BMSC incubated with the nanoparticles of a PFC emulsion preliminarily incubated with radachlorine under in vitro conditions leads to the death of these cells due to the destruction of the cell membrane. The treatment with laser radiation of BMSC incubated with the nanoparticles of the starting PFC emulsion (without preliminarily incubation with radachlorine) causes no death of these cells. It has been shown in in vivo experiments that, when transplanted to the organism of a recipient mouse, BMSC of a donor mouse incubated with the nanoparticles of a PFC emulsion preliminarily incubated with radachlorine retain their functional activity, in particular the ability to migrate in the animal body. In this case, radachlorine contained in these stem cells retains its major function, to induce the death of stem cells by the action of laser radiation due to the destruction of the cell membrane. The observation period after the transplantation was 5-7 days.

  20. Inhibition of effector antigen-specific T cells by intradermal administration of heme oxygenase-1 inducers.

    PubMed

    Simon, Thomas; Pogu, Julien; Rémy, Séverine; Brau, Frédéric; Pogu, Sylvie; Maquigneau, Maud; Fonteneau, Jean-François; Poirier, Nicolas; Vanhove, Bernard; Blancho, Gilles; Piaggio, Eliane; Anegon, Ignacio; Blancou, Philippe

    2017-03-22

    Developing protocols aimed at inhibiting effector T cells would be key for the treatment of T cell-dependent autoimmune diseases including type 1 autoimmune diabetes (T1D) and multiple sclerosis (MS). While heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inducers are clinically approved drugs for non-immune-related diseases, they do have immunosuppressive properties when administered systemically in rodents. Here we show that HO-1 inducers inhibit antigen-specific effector T cells when injected intradermally together with the T cell cognate antigens in mice. This phenomenon was observed in both a CD8(+) T cell-mediated model of T1D and in a CD4(+) T cell-dependent MS model. Intradermal injection of HO-1 inducers induced the recruitment of HO-1(+) monocyte-derived dendritic cell (MoDCs) exclusively to the lymph nodes (LN) draining the site of intradermal injection. After encountering HO-1(+)MoDCs, effector T-cells exhibited a lower velocity and a reduced ability to migrate towards chemokine gradients resulting in impaired accumulation to the inflamed organ. Intradermal co-injection of a clinically approved HO-1 inducer and a specific antigen to non-human primates also induced HO-1(+) MoDCs to accumulate in dermal draining LN and to suppress delayed-type hypersensitivity. Therefore, in both mice and non-human primates, HO-1 inducers delivered locally inhibited effector T-cells in an antigen-specific manner, paving the way for repositioning these drugs for the treatment of immune-mediated diseases.

  1. Determining air quality and greenhouse gas impacts of hydrogen infrastructure and fuel cell vehicles.

    PubMed

    Stephens-Romero, Shane; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jacob; Dabdub, Donald; Samuelsen, Scott

    2009-12-01

    Adoption of hydrogen infrastructure and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) to replace gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles has been proposed as a strategy to reduce criteria pollutant and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector and transition to fuel independence. However, it is uncertain (1) to what degree the reduction in criteria pollutants will impact urban air quality, and (2) how the reductions in pollutant emissions and concomitant urban air quality impacts compare to ultralow emission gasoline-powered vehicles projected for a future year (e.g., 2060). To address these questions, the present study introduces a "spatially and temporally resolved energy and environment tool" (STREET) to characterize the pollutant and GHG emissions associated with a comprehensive hydrogen supply infrastructure and HFCVs at a high level of geographic and temporal resolution. To demonstrate the utility of STREET, two spatially and temporally resolved scenarios for hydrogen infrastructure are evaluated in a prototypical urban airshed (the South Coast Air Basin of California) using geographic information systems (GIS) data. The well-to-wheels (WTW) GHG emissions are quantified and the air quality is established using a detailed atmospheric chemistry and transport model followed by a comparison to a future gasoline scenario comprised of advanced ICE vehicles. One hydrogen scenario includes more renewable primary energy sources for hydrogen generation and the other includes more fossil fuel sources. The two scenarios encompass a variety of hydrogen generation, distribution, and fueling strategies. GHG emissions reductions range from 61 to 68% for both hydrogen scenarios in parallel with substantial improvements in urban air quality (e.g., reductions of 10 ppb in peak 8-h-averaged ozone and 6 mug/m(3) in 24-h-averaged particulate matter concentrations, particularly in regions of the airshed where concentrations are highest for the gasoline scenario).

  2. Fuel Cell Propulsion Systems for an All-electric Personal Air Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, Lisa L.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2003-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of fuel cells as a power source for all-electric aircraft propulsion as a means to substantially reduce or eliminate environmentally harmful emissions. Among the technologies under consideration for these concepts are advanced proton exchange membrane and solid oxide fuel cells, alternative fuels and fuel processing, and fuel storage. This paper summarizes the results of a first-order feasibility study for an all-electric personal air vehicle utilizing a fuel cell-powered propulsion system. A representative aircraft with an internal combustion engine was chosen as a baseline to provide key parameters to the study, including engine power and subsystem mass, fuel storage volume and mass, and aircraft range. The engine, fuel tank, and associated ancillaries were then replaced with a fuel cell subsystem. Various configurations were considered including: a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell with liquid hydrogen storage; a direct methanol PEM fuel cell; and a direct internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)/turbine hybrid system using liquid methane fuel. Each configuration was compared to the baseline case on a mass and range basis.

  3. Fuel Cell Propulsion Systems for an All-Electric Personal Air Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, Lisa L.

    2003-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of fuel cells as a power source for all-electric aircraft propulsion as a means to substantially reduce or eliminate environmentally harmful emissions. Among the technologies under consideration for these concepts are advanced proton exchange membrane and solid oxide fuel cells, alternative fuels and fuel processing, and fuel storage. This paper summarizes the results of a first-order feasibility study for an all-electric personal air vehicle utilizing a fuel cell-powered propulsion system. A representative aircraft with an internal combustion engine was chosen as a baseline to provide key parameters to the study, including engine power and subsystem mass, fuel storage volume and mass, and aircraft range. The engine, fuel tank, and associated ancillaries were then replaced with a fuel cell subsystem. Various configurations were considered including: a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell with liquid hydrogen storage; a direct methanol PEM fuel cell; and a direct internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)/turbine hybrid system using liquid methane fuel. Each configuration was compared to the baseline case on a mass and range basis.

  4. Performance/design formulation for a solid polymer based acid electrolyte hydrogen/air fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, S. S.; Fellner, J. P.

    Mathematical development of preliminary performance/design equations for a hydrogen/air, solid polymer acid electrolyte based fuel cell is presented. The development is based on the principles of transport phenomena, intrinsic electrochemical kinetics, and classical thermodynamics. The developed formulation is intended to quantitatively describe the mass fraction profiles of the chemical species, hydrogen and oxygen, in the cell anode and cathode diffusion and electrocatalytic reaction layers as a function of the distance in the proton transport direction at an axial distance parallel to the cell anode or cathode channel flow. Given the cell geometry, chemical species and charge transport, and intrinsic electrochemical kinetic parameters, the developed formulation can be employed to compute the species local mass fluxes and predict the cell anode and cathode cell overvoltages for a desired geometric current density. The presented single cell performance predictive formulation has also been linked to the formulation needed to predict the performance of a stack of a number of identical PEMFCs connected in series.

  5. Dissolved air flotation and centrifugation as methods for oil recovery from ruptured microalgal cells.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi Naghdi, Forough; Schenk, Peer M

    2016-10-01

    Solvent-free microalgal lipid recovery is highly desirable for safer, more sustainable and more economical microalgal oil production. Dispersed air flotation and centrifugation were evaluated for the ability to separate oil and debris from a slurry mixture of osmotically fractured Chaetoceros muelleri cells with and without utilizing collectors. Microalgal oil partially phase-separated as a top layer and partially formed an oil-in-water emulsion. Although collectors, such as sodium dodecyl sulphate enhanced selective flotation, by just adjusting the pH and cell concentration of the mixture, up to 78% of the lipids were recovered in the froth. Using centrifugation of fractured microalgal slurry resulted in removal of 60% cell debris and up to 68.5% of microalgal oil was present in the supernatant. Both methods, centrifugation and flotation provided options for separation of microalgal oil from C. muelleri slurry with similar fatty acid recoveries of 57% and 60%, respectively.

  6. Changes in mouse Leydig cells ultrastructure and testosterone secretion after diethylcarbamazine administration.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Karina Lidianne Alcântara; Silva, Valdemiro Amaro Da; Torres, Dilênia De Oliveira Cipriano; Donato, Mariana Aragão Matos; Peres, Newton Gil; Souza, José Roberto Botelho De; Peixoto, Christina Alves

    2008-07-01

    Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) has been proven to be highly effective against lymphatic filariasis, although its effect on vertebrate cells remains uncertain. Mice Leydig cells after treatment with 200mg/kg of DEC for 12 days showed numerous lipid droplets, degenerated mitochondria, residual bodies and several giant whorl-like smooth endoplasmic reticulum, some of them encircling large lipids droplets. Treatment with lower dosages showed similar alterations on Leydig cells and the morphological effects decreased directly proportional to the drug concentration. Serum testosterone levels were significantly lower only in 200 mg/kg DEC-treated group when compared to the controls. However, no significant changes were observed in the pregnancy rates and offspring number of DEC-treated male-mated female mice in any doses studied. The results obtained in the present study are consistent with the hypothesis that DEC has some effects on mice Leydig cells, although they were not sufficient enough to interfere with the rodent fertility.

  7. Evaluation of stem cell administration in a model of kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Léa Bueno Lucas; Palma, Patrícia Viana Bonini; Cury, Patrícia Maluf; Bueno, Valquiria

    2007-12-15

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury is a common early event in kidney transplantation and contributes to a delay in organ function. Acute tubular necrosis, impaired kidney function and organ leukocyte infiltration are the major findings. The therapeutic potential of stem cells has been the focus of recent research as these cells possess capabilities such as self-renewal, multipotent differentiation and aid in regeneration after organ injury. FTY720 is a new synthetic compound that has been associated with preferential migration of blood lymphocytes to peripheral lymph nodes instead of inflammatory sites. Bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) and/or FTY720 were used as therapy to promote recovery of tubule cells and avoid inflammation at the renal site, respectively. Mice were submitted to renal ischemia-reperfusion injury and were either treated with two doses of FTY720, 10x10(6) BMSC, or both in order to compare the therapeutic effect with non-treated and control animals. Renal function and structure were investigated as were cell numbers in peripheral blood and spleen. Activation and apoptosis markers were also evaluated in splenocytes using flow cytometry. We found that the combined therapy (FTY720+BMSC) was associated with more significant changes in renal function and structure after ischemia-reperfusion injury when compared with the other groups. Also a decrease at cell numbers and prevention of spleen cells activation and apoptosis was observed. In conclusion, in our model it was not possible to demonstrate the potential of stem cells alone or in combination with FTY720 to promote early kidney recovery after ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  8. Comparative evaluation of air cell and eggshell temperature measurement methodologies used in broiler hatching eggs during late incubation.

    PubMed

    Peebles, E D; Zhai, W; Gerard, P D

    2012-07-01

    The current study was conducted to compare and contrast the uses of 2 devices (temperature transponder or infrared thermometer) and their locations (inner air cell membrane or outer eggshell surface) in Ross × Ross 708 broiler hatching eggs. The air cells of 14 embryonated and 10 nonembryonated eggs were implanted with temperature transponders on d 13.5 of incubation. Likewise, for these same eggs, eggshell surface temperature was detected with the use of transponders and an infrared thermometer. Temperatures were recorded every 12 h between 14.5 and 18 d of incubation, and graphs and corresponding regression values were used to track the temperatures over these time periods. The temperature readings using all methods in embryonated and nonembryonated eggs were positively correlated. In nonembryonated eggs, temperatures in the air cell and on the eggshell surface using transponders were higher than those on the eggshell surface using an infrared thermometer. Mean air cell temperature readings of embryonated eggs using transponders were higher than those of the eggshell, as determined with the use of transponders or an infrared thermometer. Furthermore, the differences in air cell temperature using transponders and eggshell temperature using an infrared thermometer in embryonated eggs increased with embryonic age. These readings confirmed increased embryo heat production during the incubational period examined. It was further concluded that when compared with actual embryo body temperatures determined in previous studies, the use of transponders in the air cells of broiler hatching eggs detected a higher and closer temperature than eggshell surface temperature. It is suggested that the air cell transponders in embryonated eggs circumvented the confounding effects of the thermal barrier properties of the eggshell and the flow of air across its surface.

  9. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Administration in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: State of the Science.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shih-Lung; Lin, Ching-Hsiung; Yao, Chao-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have chronic, irreversible airway inflammation; currently, there is no effective or curative treatment and the main goals of COPD management are to mitigate symptoms and improve patients' quality of life. Stem cell based therapy offers a promising therapeutic approach that has shown potential in diverse degenerative lung diseases. Preclinical studies have demonstrated encouraging outcomes of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) therapy for lung disorders including emphysema, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, fibrosis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. This review summarizes available data on 15 studies currently registered by the ClinicalTrials.gov repository, which used different stem cell therapy protocols for COPD; these included bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs), bone marrow-derived MSCs, adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ADSCs), and adipose-derived MSCs. Published results of three trials indicate that administering BMMCs or MSCs in the setting of degenerative lung disease is safe and may improve patients' condition and quality of life; however, larger-scale studies are needed to evaluate efficacy. Results of another completed trial (NCT01872624) are not yet published, and eleven other studies are ongoing; these include MSCs therapy in emphysema, several studies of ADSCs in COPD, another in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and plerixafor mobilization of CD117 stem cells to peripheral blood.

  10. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Administration in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: State of the Science

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shih-Lung

    2017-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have chronic, irreversible airway inflammation; currently, there is no effective or curative treatment and the main goals of COPD management are to mitigate symptoms and improve patients' quality of life. Stem cell based therapy offers a promising therapeutic approach that has shown potential in diverse degenerative lung diseases. Preclinical studies have demonstrated encouraging outcomes of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) therapy for lung disorders including emphysema, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, fibrosis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. This review summarizes available data on 15 studies currently registered by the ClinicalTrials.gov repository, which used different stem cell therapy protocols for COPD; these included bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs), bone marrow-derived MSCs, adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ADSCs), and adipose-derived MSCs. Published results of three trials indicate that administering BMMCs or MSCs in the setting of degenerative lung disease is safe and may improve patients' condition and quality of life; however, larger-scale studies are needed to evaluate efficacy. Results of another completed trial (NCT01872624) are not yet published, and eleven other studies are ongoing; these include MSCs therapy in emphysema, several studies of ADSCs in COPD, another in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and plerixafor mobilization of CD117 stem cells to peripheral blood. PMID:28303154

  11. Quantification of carbon dioxide poisoning in air breathing alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewari, A.; Sambhy, V.; Urquidi Macdonald, M.; Sen, A.

    Carbon dioxide intolerance has impeded the development of alkaline fuel cells as an alternate source of power supply. The CO 2, in a fuel cell system, could come from the anode side (if "dirty" H 2 is used as fuel), from the cathode side (if air instead of pure O 2 is used as an oxidant) or from inside the electrolyte (if methanol is used as a fuel). In this work, an novel analytical approach is proposed to study and quantify the carbon dioxide poisoning problem. Accelerated tests were carried out in an alkaline fuel cell using methanol as a fuel with different electrical loads and varying the concentration of carbon dioxide in a mixture CO 2/O 2 used as oxidant. Two characteristic quantities, t max and R max, were specified which were shown to comprehensively define the nature and extent of carbon dioxide poisoning in alkaline fuel cells. The poisoning phenomenon was successfully quantified by determining the dependence of these characteristic quantities on the operating parameters, viz. atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and applied electrical load. Such quantification enabled the prediction of the output of a fuel cell operating in a carbon dioxide enriched atmosphere. In addition, static and dynamic analyses of electrolytes were carried out to determine the dependence of cell current on the electrolyte composition in a fuel cell undergoing poisoning. It was observed that there is a critical concentration of KOH in the electrolyte only below which the effect of carbon dioxide poisoning is reflected on the cell performance. Potentiostatic polarization tests confirmed that the underlying reason for the decreased cell performance because of carbon dioxide poisoning is the sluggish kinetics of methanol oxidation in the presence of potassium carbonate in the electrolyte. Moreover, the decreased conductivity of the electrolyte resulting from hydroxide to carbonate conversion was also shown to increase the ohmic loses in an alkaline fuel cell leading to lower

  12. Compromised recovery of natural interferon-alpha/beta-producing cells after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation complicated by acute graft-versus-host disease and glucocorticoid administration.

    PubMed

    Kitawaki, T; Kadowaki, N; Ishikawa, T; Ichinohe, T; Uchiyama, T

    2003-07-01

    Delayed recovery of the immune system is a major cause of post-transplant infection. Natural interferon (IFN)-alpha/beta-producing cells (IPC) appear to play a critical role in inducing effective immune responses to a variety of microbial pathogens by producing an enormous amount of IFN-alpha/beta and thereafter by differentiating into dendritic cells. Here, we examined the recovery of IPC as well as other immune cells in 28 patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in order to investigate the role of IPC in post-transplant immune reconstitution. In uncomplicated cases, IPC frequency recovered to the lower range of normal values within 30 days after transplantation, resembling the prompt recovery of other cell types in innate immunity. In contrast, the recovery of IPC was profoundly suppressed in the cases with acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and glucocorticoid administration. The patients with lower numbers of IPC were significantly more susceptible to viral infection. The prompt recovery of IPC in uncomplicated cases may contribute to establishing a first line of host defense at the early stage after allogeneic HSCT, whereas the marked suppression of IPC recovery accompanying acute GVHD and glucocorticoid administration may increase the risk of opportunistic infections.

  13. Darbepoetin-alfa and intravenous iron administration after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a prospective multicenter randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Beguin, Yves; Maertens, Johan; De Prijck, Bernard; Schots, Rik; Seidel, Laurence; Bonnet, Christophe; Hafraoui, Kaoutar; Willems, Evelyne; Vanstraelen, Gaetan; Servais, Sophie; Jaspers, Aurélie; Fillet, Georges; Baron, Frederic

    2013-12-01

    We conducted a randomized study analyzing the impact of darbepoetin alfa (DA) administration with or without intravenous (i.v.) iron on erythroid recovery after autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Patients were randomized between no DA (Arm 1), DA 300 μg every 2 weeks starting on Day 28 after HCT (Arm 2), or DA plus i.v. iron 200 mg on Days 28, 42, and 56 (Arm 3). The proportion achieving complete hemoglobin (Hb) response within 18 weeks (primary end point) was 21% in Arm 1 (n = 24), 79% in Arm 2 (n = 25), and 100% in Arm 3 (n = 23; P < 0.0001). Erythropoietic response was shown to be significantly higher in Arm 3 (n = 46) than in Arm 2 (n = 50; P = 0.008), resulting in lower DA use, reduced drug costs, and improved quality of life scores, but the effect on transfusions was not significant. In multivariate analysis, DA administration (P < 0.0001), i.v. iron administration (P = 0.0010), high baseline Hb (P < 0.0001), and low baseline creatinine (P = 0.0458) were independently associated with faster achievement of complete Hb response. In conclusion, DA is highly effective to ensure full erythroid reconstitution after autologous HCT when started on Day 28 post-transplant. I.v. iron sucrose further improves erythroid recovery.

  14. Effects of 3-methylcholanthrene and aspirin co-administration on ALDH3A1 in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Sotiropoulou, M; Pappas, P; Marselos, M

    2001-01-30

    The effects of two different protocols of 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) and aspirin co-administration were studied in a well-established human hepatoma cell line (HepG2). During this work, we have performed toxicity tests for cell viability/cell proliferation as well as studies on the expression of ALDH3A1 after exposure of HepG2 cells to 3MC or/and aspirin. For the evaluation of toxic concentrations of 3MC and aspirin, the WST-1 test was used. WST-1 is a reliable cytotoxicity test which is based on the cleavage of the tetrazolium salt WST-1 to formazan by mitochondrial enzymes of living cells. A broad range of drug concentrations for either 3MC (0.25-50.0 microM) or aspirin (0.05-10.0 mM) were used for cell exposure, in several periods of time. The expression of ALDH3A1 in HepG2 cells showed typical time- and dose-response curves of induction after application of 3MC (1-5 days, 1.5-5.0 microM, respectively). When cells were firstly exposed to 3MC (2.5 and 5.0 microM) and then to aspirin (0.25 mM), the induced ALDH3A1 activity was further enhanced in a statistically significant way (P<0.05). On the contrary, when aspirin application was preceded 3MC exposuring a statistically significant decrease in ALDH3A1 inducibility was observed, as compared with the application of 3MC alone.

  15. Solid oxide fuel cells, and air electrode and electrical interconnection materials therefor

    DOEpatents

    Bates, J.L.

    1992-09-01

    In one aspect of the invention, an air electrode material for a solid oxide fuel cell comprises Y[sub 1[minus]a]Q[sub a]MnO[sub 3], where Q is selected from the group consisting of Ca and Sr or mixtures thereof and a' is from 0.1 to 0.8. Preferably, a' is from 0.4 to 0.7. In another aspect of the invention, an electrical interconnection material for a solid oxide fuel cell comprises Y[sub 1[minus]b]Ca[sub b]Cr[sub 1[minus]c]Al[sub c]O[sub 3], where b' is from 0.1 to 0.6 and c' is from 0 to 9.3. Preferably, b' is from 0.3 to 0.5 and c' is from 0.05 to 0.1. A composite solid oxide electrochemical fuel cell incorporating these materials comprises: a solid oxide air electrode and an adjacent solid oxide electrical interconnection which commonly include the cation Y, the air electrode comprising Y[sub 1[minus]a]Q[sub a]MnO[sub 3], where Q is selected from the group consisting of Ca and Sr or mixtures thereof and a' is from 0.1 to 0.8, the electrical interconnection comprising Y[sub 1[minus]b]Ca[sub b]Cr[sub 1[minus]c]Al[sub c]O[sub 3], where b' is from 0.1 to 0.6 and c' is from 0.0 to 0.3; a yttrium stabilized solid electrolyte comprising (1[minus]d)ZrO[sub 2]-(d)Y[sub 2]O[sub 3] where d' is from 0.06 to 0.5; and a solid fuel electrode comprising X-ZrO[sub 2], where X' is an elemental metal. 5 figs.

  16. Solid oxide fuel cells, and air electrode and electrical interconnection materials therefor

    DOEpatents

    Bates, J. Lambert

    1992-01-01

    In one aspect of the invention, an air electrode material for a solid oxide fuel cell comprises Y.sub.1-a Q.sub.a MnO.sub.3, where "Q" is selected from the group consisting of Ca and Sr or mixtures thereof and "a" is from 0.1 to 0.8. Preferably, "a" is from 0.4 to 0.7. In another aspect of the invention, an electrical interconnection material for a solid oxide fuel cell comprises Y.sub.1-b Ca.sub.b Cr.sub.1-c Al.sub.c O.sub.3, where "b" is from 0.1 to 0.6 and "c" is from 0 to 9.3. Preferably, "b" is from 0.3 to 0.5 and "c" is from 0.05 to 0.1. A composite solid oxide electrochemical fuel cell incorporating these materials comprises: a solid oxide air electrode and an adjacent solid oxide electrical interconnection which commonly include the cation Y, the air electrode comprising Y.sub.1-a Q.sub.a MnO.sub.3, where "Q" is selected from the group consisting of Ca and Sr or mixtures thereof and "a" is from 0.1 to 0.8, the electrical interconnection comprising Y.sub.1-b Ca.sub.b Cr.sub.1-c Al.sub.c O.sub.3, where "b" is from 0.1 to 0.6 and "c" is from 0.0 to 0.3; a yttrium stabilized solid electrolyte comprising (1-d)ZrO.sub.2 -(d)Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 where "d" is from 0.06 to 0.5; and a solid fuel electrode comprising X-ZrO.sub.2, where "X" is an elemental metal.

  17. Administration of interleukin-7 increases CD4 T cells in idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Brian O.; DerSimonian, Rebecca; Kovacs, Stephen B.; Thompson, William L.; Perez-Diez, Ainhoa; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Roby, Gregg; Mican, JoAnn; Pau, Alice; Rupert, Adam; Adelsberger, Joseph; Higgins, Jeanette; Bourgeois, Jeffrey S.; Jensen, Stig M. R.; Morcock, David R.; Burbelo, Peter D.; Osnos, Leah; Maric, Irina; Natarajan, Ven; Croughs, Therese; Yao, Michael D.; Estes, Jacob D.; Sereti, Irini

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic CD4 lymphopenia (ICL) is a rare syndrome defined by low CD4 T-cell counts (<300/µL) without evidence of HIV infection or other known cause of immunodeficiency. ICL confers an increased risk of opportunistic infections and has no established treatment. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is fundamental for thymopoiesis, T-cell homeostasis, and survival of mature T cells, which provides a rationale for its potential use as an immunotherapeutic agent for ICL. We performed an open-label phase 1/2A dose-escalation trial of 3 subcutaneous doses of recombinant human IL-7 (rhIL-7) per week in patients with ICL who were at risk of disease progression. The primary objectives of the study were to assess safety and the immunomodulatory effects of rhIL-7 in ICL patients. Injection site reactions were the most frequently reported adverse events. One patient experienced a hypersensitivity reaction and developed non-neutralizing anti-IL-7 antibodies. Patients with autoimmune diseases that required systemic therapy at screening were excluded from the study; however, 1 participant developed systemic lupus erythematosus while on study and was excluded from further rhIL-7 dosing. Quantitatively, rhIL-7 led to an increase in the number of circulating CD4 and CD8 T cells and tissue-resident CD3 T cells in the gut mucosa and bone marrow. Functionally, these T cells were capable of producing cytokines after mitogenic stimulation. rhIL-7 was well tolerated at biologically active doses and may represent a promising therapeutic intervention in ICL. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00839436. PMID:26675348

  18. An approach to mineral particle-air bubble interaction in turbulent flow of flotation cell

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, S.; Song, S.; Gou, J.; Pan, Y.

    1995-12-31

    The calculated potential energies of interaction between hydrophobic particle of three minerals (rhodochrosite, quartz and talc) and air bubble show that the energy of hydrophobic interaction is the dominant factor for their attachment. An attachment rate equation, integrating particle-bubble collision and adhesion by introducing a capture efficiency, has been put forward. It was found that the hydrophobic particle-bubble aggregates can not be disconnected in the bulk zone of flotation cell, whereas in the impeller zone the breakup may occur, particularly for the coarser particles captured by bubble. Finally, the flotation rate constant was estimated theoretically and verified by experiments.

  19. Single-dose intracerebroventricular administration of galactocerebrosidase improves survival in a mouse model of globoid cell leukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wing C; Tsoi, Yuen K; Troendle, Frederick J; DeLucia, Michael W; Ahmed, Zeshan; Dicky, Chad A; Dickson, Dennis W; Eckman, Christopher B

    2007-08-01

    Globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD), also known as Krabbe disease, is a devastating, degenerative neurological disorder. It is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait caused by loss-of-function mutations in the galactocerebrosidase (GALC) gene. Previously, we have shown that peripheral injection of recombinant GALC, administered every other day, results in a substantial improvement in early clinical phenotype in the twitcher mouse model of GLD. While we did detect active enzyme in the brain following peripheral administration, most of the administered enzyme was localized to the periphery. Given the substantial central nervous system (CNS) involvement in this disease, we were interested in determining whether or not a single-dose administration of the recombinant enzyme directly to the CNS, which could potentially be achieved clinically, would result in any substantial improvement. Following intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of GALC we noted a significant, 16.5%, reduction in the GALC substrate psychosine, the abnormal accumulation of which is believed to play a pivotal role in the CNS pathology observed in this disease. Moreover, recombinant GALC was found not only in periventricular regions but also at sites distant to the injection such as the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Most importantly, animals receiving a single i.c.v. dose of the enzyme at postnatal day 20 survived up to 51 days, which compares favorably to the control twitcher animals, which normally only live to postnatal day 40/42. These results indicate that even a single i.c.v. administration of the recombinant enzyme can have significant clinical impact and suggests that other lysosomal storage disorders with significant CNS involvement may similarly benefit.

  20. Intratracheal Administration of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Modulates Tachykinin System, Suppresses Airway Remodeling and Reduces Airway Hyperresponsiveness in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Spaziano, Giuseppe; Piegari, Elena; Matteis, Maria; Cappetta, Donato; Esposito, Grazia; Russo, Rosa; Tartaglione, Gioia; De Palma, Raffaele; Rossi, Francesco; D’Agostino, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Background The need for new options for chronic lung diseases promotes the research on stem cells for lung repair. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can modulate lung inflammation, but the data on cellular processes involved in early airway remodeling and the potential involvement of neuropeptides are scarce. Objectives To elucidate the mechanisms by which local administration of MSCs interferes with pathophysiological features of airway hyperresponsiveness in an animal model. Methods GFP-tagged mouse MSCs were intratracheally delivered in the ovalbumin mouse model with subsequent functional tests, the analysis of cytokine levels, neuropeptide expression and histological evaluation of MSCs fate and airway pathology. Additionally, MSCs were exposed to pro-inflammatory factors in vitro. Results Functional improvement was observed after MSC administration. Although MSCs did not adopt lung cell phenotypes, cell therapy positively affected airway remodeling reducing the hyperplastic phase of the gain in bronchial smooth muscle mass, decreasing the proliferation of epithelium in which mucus metaplasia was also lowered. Decrease of interleukin-4, interleukin-5, interleukin-13 and increase of interleukin-10 in bronchoalveolar lavage was also observed. Exposed to pro-inflammatory cytokines, MSCs upregulated indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Moreover, asthma-related in vivo upregulation of pro-inflammatory neurokinin 1 and neurokinin 2 receptors was counteracted by MSCs that also determined a partial restoration of VIP, a neuropeptide with anti-inflammatory properties. Conclusion Intratracheally administered MSCs positively modulate airway remodeling, reduce inflammation and improve function, demonstrating their ability to promote tissue homeostasis in the course of experimental allergic asthma. Because of a limited tissue retention, the functional impact of MSCs may be attributed to their immunomodulatory response combined with the interference of neuropeptide

  1. Emerging Fuel Cell Technology Being Developed: Offers Many Benefits to Air Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James F.; Civinskas, Kestutis C.

    2004-01-01

    Fuel cells, which have recently received considerable attention for terrestrial applications ranging from automobiles to stationary power generation, may enable new aerospace missions as well as offer fuel savings, quiet operations, and reduced emissions for current and future aircraft. NASA has extensive experience with fuel cells, having used them on manned space flight systems over four decades. Consequently, the NASA Glenn Research Center has initiated an effort to investigate and develop fuel cell technologies for multiple aerospace applications. Two promising fuel cell types are the proton exchange membrane (PEM) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). PEM technology, first used on the Gemini spacecraft in the sixties, remained unutilized thereafter until the automotive industry recently recognized the potential. PEM fuel cells are low-temperature devices offering quick startup time but requiring relatively pure hydrogen fuel. In contrast, SOFCs operate at high temperatures and tolerate higher levels of impurities. This flexibility allows SOFCs to use hydrocarbon fuels, which is an important factor considering our current liquid petroleum infrastructure. However, depending on the specific application, either PEM or SOFC can be attractive. As only NASA can, the Agency is pursuing fuel cell technology for civil uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) because it offers enhanced scientific capabilities, including enabling highaltitude, long-endurance missions. The NASA Helios aircraft demonstrated altitudes approaching 100,000 ft using solar power in 2001, and future plans include the development of a regenerative PEM fuel cell to provide nighttime power. Unique to NASA's mission, the high-altitude aircraft application requires the PEM fuel cell to operate on pure oxygen, instead of the air typical of terrestrial applications.

  2. An Increase in CD3+CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cells after Administration of Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells during Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Yu-Hua; Tsai, Yi-Giien; Peng, Ching-Tien; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Chao, Wan-Ru; Lee, Maw-Sheng; Fu, Yun-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis remains an important cause of death worldwide, and vigorous immune responses during sepsis could be beneficial for bacterial clearance but at the price of collateral damage to self tissues. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been found to modulate the immune system and attenuate sepsis. In the present study, MSCs derived from bone marrow and umbilical cord were used and compared. With a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model, the mechanisms of MSC-mediated immunoregulation during sepsis were studied by determining the changes of circulating inflammation-associated cytokine profiles and peripheral blood mononuclear cells 18 hours after CLP-induced sepsis. In vitro, bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMMSCs) and umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UCMSCs) showed a similar morphology and surface marker expression. UCMSCs had stronger potential for osteogenesis but lower for adipogenesis than BMMSCs. Compared with rats receiving PBS only after CLP, the percentage of circulating CD3+CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and the ratio of Treg cells/T cells were elevated significantly in rats receiving MSCs. Further experiment regarding Treg cell function demonstrated that the immunosuppressive capacity of Treg cells from rats with CLP-induced sepsis was decreased, but could be restored by administration of MSCs. Compared with rats receiving PBS only after CLP, serum levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α were significantly lower in rats receiving MSCs after CLP. There were no differences between BMMSCs and UCMSCs. In summary, this work provides the first in vivo evidence that administering BMMSCs or UCMSCs to rats with CLP-induced sepsis could increase circulating CD3+CD4+CD25+ Treg cells and Treg cells/T cells ratio, enhance Treg cell suppressive function, and decrease serum levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, suggesting the immunomodulatory association of Treg cells and MSCs during sepsis. PMID:25337817

  3. Deletion of mineralocorticoid receptors in smooth muscle cells blunts renal vascular resistance following acute cyclosporine administration

    PubMed Central

    Amador, Cristian A.; Bertocchio, Jean-Philippe; Andre-Gregoire, Gwennan; Placier, Sandrine; Van Huyen, Jean-Paul Duong; El Moghrabi, Soumaya; Berger, Stefan; Warnock, David G.; Chatziantoniou, Christos; Jaffe, Iris Z.; Rieu, Philippe; Jaisser, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    Calcineurin inhibitors such as cyclosporine A (CsA) are still commonly used after renal transplantation, despite CsA–induced nephrotoxicity (CIN), which is partly related to vasoactive mechanisms. The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is now recognized as a key player in the control of vascular tone, and both endothelial cell- and vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC)-MR modulate the vasoactive responses to vasodilators and vasoconstrictors. Here we tested whether vascular MR is involved in renal hemodynamic changes induced by CsA. The relative contribution of vascular MR in acute CsA treatment was evaluated using mouse models with targeted deletion of MR in endothelial cell or SMC. Results indicate that MR expressed in SMC, but not in endothelium, contributes to the increase of plasma urea and creatinine, the appearance of isometric tubular vacuolization, and overexpression of a kidney injury biomarker (neutrophil gelatinase–associated lipocalin) after CsA treatment. Inactivation of MR in SMC blunted CsA–induced phosphorylation of contractile proteins. Finally, the in vivo increase of renal vascular resistance induced by CsA was blunted when MR was deleted from SMC cells, and this was associated with decreased L-type Ca2+ channel activity. Thus, our study provides new insights into the role of vascular MR in renal hemodynamics during acute CIN, and provides rationale for clinical studies of MR antagonism to manage the side effects of calcineurin inhibitors. PMID:26422501

  4. Air pollution effects on the ultrastructure of Phlomis fruticosa mesophyll cells

    SciTech Connect

    Psaras, G.K.; Christodoulakis, N.S.

    1987-04-01

    Plant physiologists and environmental scientists suggest that a basic effect of air pollution on plants leads towards the minimization of their productivity. On the other hand the action of individual pollutants on intact plants has been studied from biochemical as well as structural viewpoint. Thus the study of plant responses to SO/sub 2/ exposure revealed that this agent causes acute and chronic injury. Chronic injury results in chlorosis and subsequent necrosis due to destruction of chlorophylls and final chloroplast lysis. It has been documented that ultrastructural characteristics of leaves are affected prior to any visible injury. Electron microscope examination of SO/sub 2/ fumigated plant-attached leaves of Vicia faba revealed chloroplast thylakoids starting to swell whilst photosynthesis rate was drastically reduced. The first light microscope-detected effects of air pollution on the leaf structure of plants common in natural ecosystems of Athens metropolitan area, have been reported. A chlorosis phenomenon in Urginea maritima leaves as well as an indication of detrimental effects of Phlomis fruticosa mesophyll chloroplasts were documented. In this work further investigation has been undertaken in order to elucidate the precise effects of air pollution on the ultrastructure of the photosynthesizing mesophyll cells.

  5. Continuous flow membrane-less air cathode microbial fuel cell with spunbonded olefin diffusion layer.

    PubMed

    Tugtas, Adile Evren; Cavdar, Pelin; Calli, Baris

    2011-11-01

    The power production performance of a membrane-less air-cathode microbial fuel cell was evaluated for 53 days. Anode and cathode electrodes and the micro-fiber cloth separator were configured by sandwiching the separator between two electrodes. In addition, the air-facing side of the cathode was covered with a spunbonded olefin sheet instead of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coating to control oxygen diffusion and water loss. The configuration resulted in a low resistance of about 4Ω and a maximum power density of 750 mW/m2. However, as a result of a gradual decrease in the cathode potential, maximum power density decreased to 280 mW/m2. The declining power output was attributed to loss of platinum catalyst (8.26%) and biomass growth (38.44%) on the cathode. Coulombic efficiencies over 55% and no water leakage showed that the spunbonded olefin sheet covering the air-facing side of the cathode can be a cost-effective alternative to PTFE coating.

  6. Cell proliferation in mouse tissues after thymectomy and t-activin administration

    SciTech Connect

    Mamontov, S.G.; Arion, V.Y.; Brevsov, Y.N.; Kremli, S.M.

    1985-06-01

    Cell proliferation was studied in mouse tissues on a model of immunodeficiency, namely at different times after splenectomy, and also after immunocorrection with the thymus preparation T-Activin, which is known to restore many functions of the T system of immunity. Mice either received thymectomy, mock thymectomy, or were injected with T-Activin. Tritium-thymidine was injected before the mice were killed. The results of investigation of mitotic activity during the 24-h period in the corneal epithelium 9 days after thymectomy are presented. Thymectomy performed on adult animals leads to a decrease in the intensity of cell proliferation in the epithelial tissues and to a disturbance of the rhythm of proliferation soon after the operation. The experiments show that a lyphocyte function such as the regulation of proliferation remains sensitive to T-Activin, an immunoactive factor of the thymus.

  7. Antigen and Lymphopenia Driven Donor T cells are Differentially Diminished by Post-Transplant Administration of Cyclophosphamide Following Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Duncan; Jones, Monica; Komanduri, Krishna; Levy, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    Administration of cyclophosphamide following transplant (Post-transplant cyclophosphamide, PTC) has shown promise in the clinic as a prophylactic agent against graft vs. host disease. An important issue with regard to recipient immune function and reconstitution after PTC is the extent to which in addition to diminution of anti-host allo-reactive donor T cells, the remainder of the non-host allo-reactive donor T cell pool may be impacted. To investigate PTC’s effects on non-host reactive donor CD8 T cells, ova specific (OT-I) and gp100 specific Pmel-1 T cells were labeled with proliferation dyes and transplanted into syngeneic and allogeneic recipients. Notably, an intermediate dose (66mg/kg) of PTC which abrogated GVHD following allogeneic HSCT, did not significantly diminish these peptide specific donor T cell populations. Analysis of the rate of proliferation following transplant illustrated that lymphopenic driven donor non host reactive TCR Tg T cells in syngeneic recipients underwent slow division resulting in significant sparing of these donor populations. In contrast, following exposure to specific antigen at the time of transplant, these same T cells were significantly depleted by PTC demonstrating the global susceptibility of rapidly dividing T cells following encounter with cognate antigen. In total, our results employing both syngeneic and allogeneic minor antigen mismatched T cell replete models of transplantation, demonstrate a concentration of PTC that abrogates GVHD can preserve most cells that are dividing due to the accompanying lymphopenia following exposure. These findings have important implications with regard to immune function and reconstitution in recipients following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. PMID:23819914

  8. Water management in a planar air-breathing fuel cell array using operando neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coz, E.; Théry, J.; Boillat, P.; Faucheux, V.; Alincant, D.; Capron, P.; Gébel, G.

    2016-11-01

    Operando Neutron imaging is used for the investigation of a planar air-breathing array comprising multiple cells in series. The fuel cell demonstrates a stable power density level of 150 mW/cm2. Water distribution and quantification is carried out at different operating points. Drying at high current density is observed and correlated to self-heating and natural convection. Working in dead-end mode, water accumulation at lower current density is largely observed on the anode side. However, flooding mechanisms are found to begin with water condensation on the cathode side, leading to back-diffusion and anodic flooding. Specific in-plane and through-plane water distribution is observed and linked to the planar array design.

  9. Dependence on material choice of degradation of organic solar cells following exposure to humid air

    PubMed Central

    Glen, Tom S.; Scarratt, Nicholas W.; Yi, Hunan; Iraqi, Ahmed; Wang, Tao; Kingsley, James; Buckley, Alastair R.; Lidzey, David G.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Electron microscopy has been used to study the degradation of organic solar cells when exposed to humid air. Devices with various different combinations of commonly used organic solar cell hole transport layers and cathode materials have been investigated. In this way the ingress of water and the effect it has on devices could be studied. It was found that calcium and aluminum in the cathode both react with water, causing voids and delamination within the device. The use of poly(3,4‐ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) was found to increase the degradation by easing water ingress into the device. Replacing these materials removed these degradation features. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2016, 54, 216–224 PMID:27594763

  10. Effect of acute and prolonged alcohol administration on Mg(2+) homeostasis in cardiac cells.

    PubMed

    Romani, Andrea M P

    2015-05-01

    Alcoholic cardiomyopathy represents a major clinical complication in chronic alcoholics. Previous studies from our laboratory indicate that acute and chronic exposure of liver cells to ethanol results in a major loss of cellular Mg(2+) as a result of alcohol oxidation. We investigated whether exposure to ethanol induces a similar Mg(2+) loss in cardiac cells. The results indicate that chronic exposure to a 6% ethanol-containing diet depleted cardiac myocytes of >25% of their cellular Mg(2+) content. Acute ethanol exposure, instead, induced a time- and dose-dependent manner of Mg(2+) extrusion from perfused hearts and collagenase-dispersed cardiac ventricular myocytes. Pretreatment with chlormethiazole prevented ethanol-induced Mg(2+) loss to a large extent, suggesting a role of ethanol oxidation via cyP4502E1 in the process. Magnesium extrusion across the sarcolemma occurred via the amiloride-inhibited Na(+)/Mg(2+) exchanger. Taken together, our data indicate that Mg(2+) extrusion also occurs in cardiac cells exposed to ethanol as a result of alcohol metabolism by cyP4502E1. The extrusion, which is mediated by the Na(+)/Mg(2+) exchanger, only occurs at doses of ethanol ≥0.1%, and depends on ethanol-induced decline in cellular ATP. The significance of Mg(2+) extrusion for the onset of alcoholic cardiomyopathy remains to be elucidated.

  11. Second-line afatinib administration in an elderly patient with squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Steinheimer, Michael; Benhassen, Naim; Sardeli, Chrysanthi; Stalikas, Nikos; Toitou, Melpomeni; Huang, Haidong

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The majority of cases of lung cancer are still diagnosed at a late stage. At this stage, palliative therapeutic options including nonspecific cytotoxic drugs, targeted therapy, or immunotherapy can be utilized. In 2016, immunotherapy was approved in Europe for squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Moreover, afatinib was also approved as second-line therapy for squamous cell carcinoma. Case report This article presents a case of a 76-year-old male with squamous cell carcinoma who received nab-paclitaxel as first-line therapy, and his treatment was switched to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor afatinib (40 mg) after disease progression with left lung atelectasis. After receiving afatinib for only 28 days, the atelectasis resolved. No adverse effects were observed from the afatinib therapy. Discussion In this case, afatinib 40 mg proved to be an effective alternative treatment for an elderly patient. Treatment choice should be based on the performance status of the patient, cost-effectiveness, and drug treatment guidelines. PMID:28356747

  12. Cell death after co-administration of cisplatin and ethacrynic acid.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dalian; Jiang, Haiyan; Wang, Ping; Salvi, Richard

    2007-04-01

    Ethacrynic acid (EA) significantly enhances the ototoxic effects of cisplatin. To gain insights into the mechanisms underlying Cis/EA ototoxicity, cochleas were labeled with several apoptotic markers. Cis/EA treatment caused extensive outer hair cell (OHC) and inner hair cell (IHC) damage; OHC lesions decreased from the base towards apex of the cochlea whereas the IHC lesion was relatively constant (25-60%) along the length of the cochlea. Propidium iodide labeled OHC nuclei appeared relatively normal at 6h post-treatment, were condensed and fragmented at 12h post-treatment and were frequently missing 48 h post-treatment. Initiator caspase 8, associated with membrane death receptors, and TRADD, a protein that recruits caspase 8, were present in OHC at 6h post-treatment. Caspase 8 labeling increased from 6 to 24h, but was largely absent at 48 h post-treatment. Executioner caspase 3 and caspase 6, which lie downstream of caspase 8, were expressed in OHC 12-24h post-treatment. Initiator caspase 9, associated with mitochondrial damage, was only expressed at low levels at 48 h post-treatment. These results suggest that the rapid onset of Cis/EA induced programmed cell death is initiated by membrane death receptors associated with TRADD and caspase 8.

  13. Growth of human bronchial epithelial cells at an air-liquid interface alters the response to particle exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: We tested the hypothesis that relative to submerged cells, airway epithelial cells grown at an air-liquid interface would have an altered response to particle exposure. RNA for IL-8, IL-6, heme oxygenase 1 and cyclooxygenase 2 increased following exposure of submer...

  14. Human cord blood cells and myocardial infarction: effect of dose and route of administration on infarct size.

    PubMed

    Henning, Robert J; Burgos, Jose D; Vasko, Mark; Alvarado, Felipe; Sanberg, Cyndy D; Sanberg, Paul R; Morgan, Michael B

    2007-01-01

    There is no consensus regarding the optimal dose of stem cells or the optimal route of administration for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. Bone marrow cells, containing hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, in doses of 0.5 x 10(6) to >30 x 10(6) have been directly injected into the myocardium or into coronary arteries or infused intravenously in subjects with myocardial infarctions to reduce infarct size and improve heart function. Therefore, we determined the specific effects of different doses of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (HUCBC), which contain hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, on infarct size. In order to determine the optimal technique for stem cell administration, HUCBC were injected directly into the myocardium (IM), or into the LV cavity with the ascending aorta transiently clamped to facilitate coronary artery perfusion (IA), or injected intravenously (IV) in rats 1-2 h after the left anterior coronary artery was permanently ligated. Immune suppressive therapy was not given to any rat. One month later, the infarct size in control rat hearts treated with only Isolyte averaged 23.7 +/- 1.7% of the LV muscle area. Intramyocardial injection of HUCBC reduced the infarct size by 71% with 0.5 x 10(6) HUCBC and by 93% with 4 x 10(6) HUCBC in comparison with the controls (p < 0.001). Intracoronary injection reduced the infarction size by 47% with 0.5 x 10(6) HUCBC and by 80% with 4 x 10(6) HUCBC (p < 0.001), and IV HUCBC reduced infarct size by 51% with 0.5 x 10(6) and by 75-77% with 16-32 million HUCBC (p < 0.001) in comparison with control hearts. With 4 x 10(6) HUCBC, infarction size was 65% smaller with IM HUCBC than with IA HUCBC and 78% smaller than with IV HUCBC (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, IM, IA, and IV HUCBC all produced significant reductions in infarct size in comparison with Isolyte-treated infarcted hearts without requirements for host immune suppression. The present experiments demonstrate that the optimal dose

  15. Tennessee Valley Authority/Bonneville Power Administration Indoor Air Quality Study, Phase II : Final Report for Indoor Air Quality Studies Conducted by TVA During Winters 1983, 1984, and 1985.

    SciTech Connect

    Tennessee Valley Authority. Energy Use Test Facility Staff.

    1985-12-01

    This study expanded the existing data base on indoor-outdoor air quality and provided specific information on the use of wood-burning heaters in a weatherized home having a low air exchange rate. Through research efforts such as these, BPA continues to address the various concerns raised regarding environmental issues related to its conservtion programs.

  16. Errors in measurements of 222Rn in methane and carbon dioxide using scintillation cells calibrated for 222Rn in air.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Phillip H; Burkhart, James F; Camley, Robert E

    2014-03-01

    Scintillation cells are used typically for measuring the concentration of (222)Rn in air and are calibrated for that purpose. However, scintillation cells are sometimes used for measuring (222)Rn in natural gas or carbon dioxide. The counting efficiencies of scintillation cells for measurements of (222)Rn in these gases should be different from those for measuring (222)Rn in air because the ranges of alpha particles emitted by (222)Rn and its progeny are greater in methane and smaller in carbon dioxide than in air. If these effects are not taken into consideration, measurements of (222)Rn in natural gas will be biased high and in carbon dioxide will be biased low. The authors previously investigated the effects of barometric pressure on measurements of (222)Rn in air using scintillation cells. A modeling technique was used in a previous study to calculate theoretical errors that would result if atmospheric pressure were not considered. In the current study, the same modeling technique was used to calculate theoretical errors that would be made for measurements of (222)Rn in methane and carbon dioxide if the calibration for (222)Rn in air were used. Results are presented for four types of scintillation cells of varying geometries and for barometric pressures representative of four elevations ranging from sea level to 1,963 m (6,440 feet). These results indicate that the errors introduced by the ranges of the alpha particles in gases different from air can be significant. Depending on the type of cell and the local pressure, a measurement of (222)Rn in methane may be biased high by 2-7%, while a measurement of (222)Rn in CO2 may be biased low by 15-20% if the calibration for (222)Rn in air is used.

  17. Rhabdomyolysis due to Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Administration following a Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Augustyn, Alexander; Lisa Alattar, Mona; Naina, Harris

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis, a syndrome of muscle necrosis, is a life-threatening event. Here we describe the case of a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia who underwent a haploidentical stem cell transplant and subsequently developed rhabdomyolysis after beginning trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) prophylaxis therapy. Rechallenge with TMP/SMX resulted in a repeat episode of rhabdomyolysis and confirmed the association. Withdrawal of TMP/SMX led to sustained normalization of creatine kinase levels in the patient. A high index of suspicion is necessary to identify TMP/SMX as the cause of rhabdomyolysis in immunocompromised patients. PMID:26557399

  18. 40 CFR 86.162-03 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... initiative, the Administrator will approve a simulation of the environmental cell for air conditioning test... environmental cell test data for the range of vehicles to be covered by the simulation including items such as the tailpipe emissions, air conditioning compressor load, and fuel economy. (2) For any...

  19. Aire Downregulation Is Associated with Changes in the Posttranscriptional Control of Peripheral Tissue Antigens in Medullary Thymic Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Ernna H.; Macedo, Claudia; Collares, Cristhianna V.; Freitas, Ana Carolina; Donate, Paula Barbim; Sakamoto-Hojo, Elza T.; Donadi, Eduardo A.; Passos, Geraldo A.

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune regulator (Aire) is a transcriptional regulator of peripheral tissue antigens (PTAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that Aire also played a role as an upstream posttranscriptional controller in these cells and that variation in its expression might be associated with changes in the interactions between miRNAs and the mRNAs encoding PTAs. We demonstrated that downregulation of Aire in vivo in the thymuses of BALB/c mice imbalanced the large-scale expression of these two RNA species and consequently their interactions. The expression profiles of a large set of mTEC miRNAs and mRNAs isolated from the thymuses of mice subjected (or not) to small-interfering-induced Aire gene knockdown revealed that 87 miRNAs and 4,558 mRNAs were differentially expressed. The reconstruction of the miRNA–mRNA interaction networks demonstrated that interactions between these RNAs were under Aire influence and therefore changed when this gene was downregulated. Prior to Aire-knockdown, only members of the miR-let-7 family interacted with a set of PTA mRNAs. Under Aire-knockdown conditions, a larger set of miRNA families and their members established this type of interaction. Notably, no previously described Aire-dependent PTA interacted with the miRNAs, indicating that these PTAs were somehow refractory. The miRNA–mRNA interactions were validated by calculating the minimal free energy of the pairings between the miRNA seed regions and the mRNA 3′ UTRs and within the cellular milieu using the luciferase reporter gene assay. These results suggest the existence of a link between transcriptional and posttranscriptional control because Aire downregulation alters the miRNA–mRNA network controlling PTAs in mTEC cells. PMID:27933063

  20. Therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells in acute kidney injury is affected by administration timing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Cai, Jieru; Jiao, Xiaoyan; Yu, Xiaofang; Ding, Xiaoqiang

    2017-03-10

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation is a promising therapy for acute kidney injury; however, the efficacy is limited due to poor survival after transplantation. In this study, we investigated how MSC transplantation timing affected the survival and therapeutic potential of MSCs in the kidney ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury model. After kidney I/R injury, the inflammatory process and tissue damage were characterized over 1 week post-I/R, we found that inflammation peaked at 12-24 h post-I/R (h.p.i.), and urine  neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) measurements correlated highly with measures of inflammation. We cultured MSCs with supernatants from I/R injured kidney tissue homogenates collected at different time points and found that kidney homogenates from 12 and 24 h.p.i. were most toxic to MSCs, whereas homogenates from 1 h.p.i. were not as cytotoxic as those from 12 and 24 h.p.i. Compared with MSCs administered at 12, or 24 h.p.i., cells administered immediately after ischemia or 1 h.p.i. yielded the highest renoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. Our findings indicate that MSC treatment for acute kidney injury is most effective when applied prior to the development of a potent inflammatory microenvironment, and urine NGAL may be helpful for detecting inflammation and selecting MSC transplantation timing in I/R kidney injury.

  1. Administration of Hydrogen-Rich Saline in Mice with Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Lijuan; Chen, Xiaoping; Qian, Liren; Shen, Jianliang; Cai, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    Background Hydrogen, as a novel antioxidant, has been shown to selectively reduce the level of hydroxyl radicals and alleviate acute oxidative stress in many animal experiments. Hydrogen-rich saline provides a high concentration of hydrogen that can be easily and safely applied. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) has been the most curative therapy for hematological malignancies. However, acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is the main cause of death in post-transplantation patients. In this study, we examined whether hydrogen-rich saline would show favorable effects on acute GVHD in mice. Material/Methods After lethal irradiation, BALB/c mice received bone marrow transplantation from C57BL/6 mice. Hydrogen-rich saline (5 ml/kg) was given to recipient mice in the hydrogen group once a day by intraperitoneal injection, and saline (5 ml/kg) was given to recipient mice in the saline group. Survival rates were monitored, clinical and pathological scores of aGVHD were determined after bone marrow transplantation (BMT), and the serum cytokine levels were examined on the 7th day after BMT. Result This study proves that hydrogen-rich saline increased the survival rate, reduced clinical and histopathological scores of aGVHD, promoted the recovery of white blood cells, reduced the serum cytokine levels, and reversed tissue damage after transplantation in mice. Conclusions Hydrogen has potential as an effective and safe therapeutic agent in aGVHD. PMID:25763677

  2. Systemic Administration of Induced Neural Stem Cells Regulates Complement Activation in Mouse Closed Head Injury Models

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Mou; Dong, Qin; Yao, Hui; Lu, Yingzhou; Ji, Xinchao; Zou, Mingming; Yang, Zhijun; Xu, Minhui; Xu, Ruxiang

    2017-01-01

    Complement activation plays important roles in the pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Patients face neurological disorders due to the development of complement activation, which contributes to cell apoptosis, brain edema, blood-brain barrier dysfunction and inflammatory infiltration. We previously reported that induced neural stem cells (iNSCs) can promote neurological functional recovery in closed head injury (CHI) animals. Remarkably, we discovered that local iNSC grafts have the potential to modulate CNS inflammation post-CHI. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of systemically delivered iNSCs in complement activation following CNS injury. Our data showed that iNSC grafts decreased the levels of sera C3a and C5a and down-regulated the expression of C3d, C9, active Caspase-3 and Bax in the brain, kidney and lung tissues of CHI mice. Furthermore, iNSC grafts decreased the levels of C3d+/NeuN+, C5b-9+/NeuN+, C3d+/Map2+ and C5b-9+/Map2+ neurons in the injured cortices of CHI mice. Subsequently, we explored the mechanisms underlying these effects. With flow cytometry analysis, we observed a dramatic increase in complement receptor type 1-related protein y (Crry) expression in iNSCs after CHI mouse serum treatment. Moreover, both in vitro and in vivo loss-of-function studies revealed that iNSCs could modulate complement activation via Crry expression. PMID:28383046

  3. CLIMATE CHANGE FUEL CELL PROGRAM UNITED STATES COAST GUARD AIR STATION CAPE COD BOURNE, MASSACHUSETTS

    SciTech Connect

    John K. Steckel Jr

    2004-06-30

    This report covers the first year of operation of a fuel cell power plant, installed by PPL Spectrum, Inc. (PPL) under contract with the United States Coast Guard (USCG), Research and Development Center (RDC). The fuel cell was installed at Air Station Cape Cod in Bourne, MA. The project had the support of the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative (MTC), the Department of Energy (DOE), and Keyspan Energy. PPL selected FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) and its fuel cell model DFC{reg_sign}300 for the contract. Grant contributions were finalized and a contract between PPL and the USCG for the manufacture, installation, and first year's maintenance of the fuel cell was executed on September 24, 2001. As the prime contractor, PPL was responsible for all facets of the project. All the work was completed by PPL through various subcontracts, including the primary subcontract with FCE for the manufacture, delivery, and installation of the fuel cell. The manufacturing and design phases proceeded in a relatively timely manner for the first half of the project. However, during latter stages of manufacture and fuel cell testing, a variety of issues were encountered that ultimately resulted in several delivery delays, and a number of contract modifications. Final installation and field testing was completed in April and May 2003. Final acceptance of the fuel cell was completed on May 16, 2003. The fuel cell has operated successfully for more than one year. The unit achieved an availability rate of 96%, which exceeded expectations. The capacity factor was limited because the unit was set at 155 kW (versus a nameplate of 250 kW) due to the interconnection with the electric utility. There were 18 shutdowns during the first year and most were brief. The ability of this plant to operate in the island mode improved availability by 3 to 4%. Events that would normally be shutdowns were simply island mode events. The mean time between failure was calculated at 239 hours, or slightly less

  4. Post-autologous stem cell transplantation administration of rituximab improves the outcome of patients with aggressive B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Tsirigotis, Panagiotis; Dray, Liliane; Resnick, Igor B; Ackerstein, Aliza; Gesundheit, Benjamin; Elad, Sharon; Or, Reuven; Shapira, Michael-Yechiel

    2010-03-01

    The major cause of treatment failure following high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for aggressive B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is persistent disease or recurrence. We describe our experience with the administration of rituximab post-ASCT, either as maintenance therapy or for the treatment of relapsed disease in patients with aggressive B cell NHL. Fifty-six patients achieved complete remission post-transplant, and 19 of them received maintenance with rituximab. Maintenance with rituximab resulted in statistically significant superior outcome in terms of progression free (PFS; p = 0.002) and overall survival (OS; p = 0.011). The median PFS and OS of patients in the maintenance arm has not been reached yet, while the median PFS and OS of patients in the control arm were 29 and 42 months, respectively. Fifty-four patients had disease progression or relapsed post-ASCT, and 15 of them received rituximab in combination with chemo- and/or radiotherapy in order to achieve disease remission. Therapeutic administration of rituximab resulted in statistically significant prolongation of OS (p = 0.021). The median OS of patients treated with rituximab was 17 months, while median OS of patients in the control group was 10 months. We consider that the results of our study are promising but need to be verified within large randomized trials.

  5. Electrochemical characterization of Fe-air rechargeable oxide battery in planar solid oxide cell stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Qingping; Berger, Cornelius M.; Menzler, Norbert H.; Bram, Martin; Blum, Ludger

    2016-12-01

    Iron-air rechargeable oxide batteries (ROB) comprising solid oxide cells (SOC) as energy converters and Fe/metal-oxide redox couples were characterized using planar SOC stacks. The charge and discharge of the battery correspond to the operations in the electrolysis and fuel cell modes, respectively, but with a stagnant atmosphere consisting of hydrogen and steam. A novel method was employed to establish the stagnant atmosphere for battery testing during normal SOC operation without complicated modification to the test bench and stack/battery concept. Manipulation of the gas compositions during battery operation was not necessary, but the influence of the leakage current from the testing system had to be considered. Batteries incorporating Fe2O3/8YSZ, Fe2O3/CaO and Fe2O3/ZrO2 storage materials were characterized at 800 °C. A maximum charge capacity of 30.4 Ah per layer (with an 80 cm2 active cell area) with ∼0.5 mol Fe was reached with a current of 12 A. The charge capacity lost 11% after ∼130 ROB cycles due to the increased agglomeration of active materials and formation of a dense oxide layer on the surface. The round trip efficiencies of the tested batteries were ≤84% due to the large internal resistance. With state-of-the-art cells, the round trip efficiency can be further improved.

  6. Improved performance of air-cathode microbial fuel cell through additional Tween 80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Qing; Kong, Fanying; Ma, Fang; Ren, Yueming; Pan, Zhongcheng

    The ability of electron transfer from microbe cell to anode electrode plays a key role in microbial fuel cell (MFC). This study explores a new approach to improve the MFC performance and electron transfer rate through addition of Tween 80. Results demonstrate that, for an air-cathode MFC operating on 1 g L -1 glucose, when the addition of Tween 80 increases from 0 to 80 mg L -1, the maximum power density increases from 21.5 to 187 W m -3 (0.6-5.2 W m -2), the corresponding current density increases from 1.8 to 17 A m -2, and the resistance of MFC decreases from 27.0 to 5.7 Ω. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis suggests that the improvement of overall performance of the MFC can be attributed to the addition of Tween 80. The high power density achieved here may be due to the increase of permeability of cell membranes by addition of Tween 80, which reduces the electron transfer resistance through the cell membrane and increases the electron transfer rate and number, consequently enhances the current and power output. A promising way of utilizing surfactant to improve energy generation of MFC is demonstrated.

  7. Cubic PdNP-based air-breathing cathodes integrated in glucose hybrid biofuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faggion Junior, D.; Haddad, R.; Giroud, F.; Holzinger, M.; Maduro de Campos, C. E.; Acuña, J. J. S.; Domingos, J. B.; Cosnier, S.

    2016-05-01

    Cubic Pd nanoparticles (PdNPs) were synthesized using ascorbic acid as a reducing agent and were evaluated for the catalytic oxygen reduction reaction. PdNPs were confined with multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) dispersions to form black suspensions and these inks were dropcast onto glassy carbon electrodes. Different nanoparticle sizes were synthesized and investigated upon oxygen reduction capacities (onset potential and electrocatalytic current densities) under O2 saturated conditions at varying pH values. Strong evidence of O2 diffusion limitation was demonstrated. In order to overcome oxygen concentration and diffusion limitations in solution, we used a gas diffusion layer to create a PdNP-based air-breathing cathode, which delivered -1.5 mA cm-2 at 0.0 V with an onset potential of 0.4 V. This air-breathing cathode was combined with a specially designed phenanthrolinequinone/glucose dehydrogenase-based anode to form a complete glucose/O2 hybrid bio-fuel cell providing an open circuit voltage of 0.554 V and delivering a maximal power output of 184 +/- 21 μW cm-2 at 0.19 V and pH 7.0.Cubic Pd nanoparticles (PdNPs) were synthesized using ascorbic acid as a reducing agent and were evaluated for the catalytic oxygen reduction reaction. PdNPs were confined with multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) dispersions to form black suspensions and these inks were dropcast onto glassy carbon electrodes. Different nanoparticle sizes were synthesized and investigated upon oxygen reduction capacities (onset potential and electrocatalytic current densities) under O2 saturated conditions at varying pH values. Strong evidence of O2 diffusion limitation was demonstrated. In order to overcome oxygen concentration and diffusion limitations in solution, we used a gas diffusion layer to create a PdNP-based air-breathing cathode, which delivered -1.5 mA cm-2 at 0.0 V with an onset potential of 0.4 V. This air-breathing cathode was combined with a specially designed phenanthrolinequinone

  8. Strategy for Coordinated EPA/Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Implementation of the Chemical Accident Prevention Requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) share responsibility for prevention: OSHA has the Process Safety Management Standard to protect workers, and EPA the Risk Management Program to protect the general public and environment.

  9. Systemic and Local Administration of Allogeneic Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promotes Fracture Healing in Rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shuo; Xu, Liangliang; Zhang, Yifeng; Sun, Yuxin; Li, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are immune privileged and a cell source for tissue repair. Previous studies showed that there is systemic mobilization of osteoblastic precursors to the fracture site. We hypothesized that both systemic and local administration of allogeneic MSCs may promote fracture healing. Bone marrow-derived MSCs and skin fibroblasts were isolated from GFP Sprague-Dawley rats, cultured, and characterized. Closed transverse femoral fracture with internal fixation was established in 48 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were randomly assigned into four groups receiving PBS injection, MSC systemic injection, fibroblast systemic injection, and MSC fracture site injection; 2 × 10(6) cells were injected at 4 days after fracture. All animals were sacrificed at 5 weeks after fracture; examinations included weekly radiograph, micro-CT, mechanical testing, histology, immunohistochemistry, and double immunofluorescence. The callus size of MSC injection groups was significantly larger among all the groups. Radiographs and 3D reconstruction images showed that the fracture gaps united in the MSC injected groups, while gaps were still seen in the fibroblast and PBS injection groups. The mechanical properties were significantly higher in the MSC injection groups than those in the fibroblast and PBS groups, but no difference was found between the MSC local and systemic injection groups. Immunohistochemistry and double immunofluorescence demonstrated that GFP-positive MSCs were present in the callus in the MSC injection groups at 5 weeks after fracture, and some differentiated into osteoblasts. Quantitative analysis revealed the number of GFP-positive cells in the callus in the MSC systemic injection group was significantly lower than that of the MSC local injection group. The proportion of GFP osteoblasts in GFP-positive cells in the MSC systemic injection group was significantly lower than that of the MSC local injection group. These findings provide critical

  10. Intravenous Administration of Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Protein Extracts Improves Neurological Deficits in a Rat Model of Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kai; Li, Rui; Gu, Changcong; Liu, Long; Jia, Yulong; Guo, Xize; Zhang, Wanping; Pei, Chunying; Tian, Linlu; Li, Bo; Jia, Jianrong; Cheng, Huakun

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) substantially improves the neurological deficits during stroke by reducing neuronal injury, limiting proinflammatory immune responses, and promoting neuronal repair, which makes ADSC-based therapy an attractive approach for treating stroke. However, the potential risk of tumorigenicity and low survival rate of the implanted cells limit the clinical use of ADSC. Cell-free extracts from ADSC (ADSC-E) may be a feasible approach that could overcome these limitations. Here, we aim to explore the potential usage of ADSC-E in treating rat transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). We demonstrated that intravenous (IV) injection of ADSC-E remarkably reduces the ischemic lesion and number of apoptotic neurons as compared to other control groups. Although ADSC and ADSC-E treatment results in a similar degree of a long-term clinical beneficial outcome, the dynamics between two ADSC-based therapies are different. While the injection of ADSC leads to a relatively mild but prolonged therapeutic effect, the administration of ADSC-E results in a fast and pronounced clinical improvement which was associated with a unique change in the molecular signature suggesting that potential mechanisms underlying different therapeutic approach may be different. Together these data provide translational evidence for using protein extracts from ADSC for treating stroke. PMID:28265288

  11. Intravenous Administration of Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Protein Extracts Improves Neurological Deficits in a Rat Model of Stroke.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kai; Li, Rui; Gu, Changcong; Liu, Long; Jia, Yulong; Guo, Xize; Zhang, Wanping; Pei, Chunying; Tian, Linlu; Li, Bo; Jia, Jianrong; Cheng, Huakun; Xu, Hongwei; Li, Lixian

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) substantially improves the neurological deficits during stroke by reducing neuronal injury, limiting proinflammatory immune responses, and promoting neuronal repair, which makes ADSC-based therapy an attractive approach for treating stroke. However, the potential risk of tumorigenicity and low survival rate of the implanted cells limit the clinical use of ADSC. Cell-free extracts from ADSC (ADSC-E) may be a feasible approach that could overcome these limitations. Here, we aim to explore the potential usage of ADSC-E in treating rat transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). We demonstrated that intravenous (IV) injection of ADSC-E remarkably reduces the ischemic lesion and number of apoptotic neurons as compared to other control groups. Although ADSC and ADSC-E treatment results in a similar degree of a long-term clinical beneficial outcome, the dynamics between two ADSC-based therapies are different. While the injection of ADSC leads to a relatively mild but prolonged therapeutic effect, the administration of ADSC-E results in a fast and pronounced clinical improvement which was associated with a unique change in the molecular signature suggesting that potential mechanisms underlying different therapeutic approach may be different. Together these data provide translational evidence for using protein extracts from ADSC for treating stroke.

  12. U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval: vismodegib for recurrent, locally advanced, or metastatic basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Axelson, Michael; Liu, Ke; Jiang, Xiaoping; He, Kun; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Hong; Kufrin, Dubravka; Palmby, Todd; Dong, Zedong; Russell, Anne Marie; Miksinski, Sarah; Keegan, Patricia; Pazdur, Richard

    2013-05-01

    The data and regulatory considerations leading to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) January 30, 2012 approval of Erivedge (vismodegib) capsules for the treatment of patients with recurrent, locally advanced, or metastatic basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are described. The FDA's approval decision was based primarily on the results observed in a single-arm, parallel cohort, international trial of vismodegib, administered orally at 150 mg daily until disease progression, in patients with pathologically confirmed, recurrent, locally advanced basal cell carcinoma (laBCC) or metastatic basal cell carcinoma (mBCC). An independent review committee confirmed an overall response rate (ORR) of 30.3% [95% confidence interval (CI): 15.6-48.2] in 33 patients with mBCC and an ORR of 42.9% (95% CI: 30.5-56.0) in 63 patients with laBCC; median response durations were 7.6 months and 7.6 months for patients with mBCC and laBCC, respectively. The most common adverse reactions were muscle spasms, alopecia, dysgeusia, weight loss, fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, decreased appetite, constipation, cough, arthralgias, vomiting, headache, ageusia, insomnia, and upper respiratory tract infection. Animal toxicology studies confirmed that vismodegib is a potent teratogenic agent. Approval was based on durable objective tumor responses supported by knowledge of the pathologic role of Hedgehog signaling in BCC and acceptable toxicity in a population without effective alternative therapies.

  13. Calcium dependent and independent cytokine synthesis by air pollution particle-exposed human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Noriho; Hayashi, Shizu; Gosselink, John; Ishii, Hiroshi; Ishimatsu, Yuji; Mukae, Hiroshi; Hogg, James C.; Eeden, Stephan F. van

    2007-12-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution particles with a diameter of < 10 {mu}m (PM{sub 10}) has been associated with increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. We have shown that human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) exposed to PM{sub 10} produce pro-inflammatory mediators that contribute to a local and systemic inflammatory response. Changes in intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) have been demonstrated to regulate several functions of the airway epithelium including the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. The aim of the present study was to determine the nature and mechanism of calcium responses induced by PM{sub 10} in HBECs and its relationship to cytokine synthesis. Methods: Primary HBECs were exposed to urban air pollution particles (EHC-93) and [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} responses were measured using the fluoroprobe (Fura-2). Cytokine levels were measured at mRNA and protein levels using real-time PCR and ELISA. Results: PM{sub 10} increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in a dose-dependent manner. This calcium response was reduced by blocking the influx of calcium into cells (i.e. calcium-free medium, NiCl{sub 2}, LaCl{sub 3}). PM{sub 10} also decreased the activity of calcium pumps. PM{sub 10} increased the production of IL-1{beta}, IL-8, GM-CSF and LIF. Preincubation with intracellular calcium chelator (BAPTA-AM) attenuated IL-1{beta} and IL-8 production, but not GM-CSF and LIF production. Conclusion: We conclude that exposure to PM{sub 10} induces an increase in cytosolic calcium and cytokine production in bronchial epithelial cells. Our results also suggest that PM{sub 10} induces the production of pro-inflammatory mediators via either intracellular calcium-dependent (IL-1{beta}, IL-8) or -independent (GM-CSF, LIF) pathways.

  14. Intracoronary administration of cardiac stem cells in mice: a new, improved technique for cell therapy in murine models.

    PubMed

    Li, Qianhong; Guo, Yiru; Ou, Qinghui; Chen, Ning; Wu, Wen-Jian; Yuan, Fangping; O'Brien, Erin; Wang, Tao; Luo, Li; Hunt, Gregory N; Zhu, Xiaoping; Bolli, Roberto

    2011-09-01

    A model of intracoronary stem cell delivery that enables transgenesis/gene targeting would be a powerful tool but is still lacking. To address this gap, we compared intracoronary and intramyocardial delivery of lin(-)/c-kit(+)/GFP(+) cardiac stem cells (CSCs) in a murine model of reperfused myocardial infarction (MI). Lin(-)/c-kit(+)/GFP(+) CSCs were successfully expanded from GFP transgenic hearts and cultured with no detectable phenotypic change for up to ten passages. Intracoronary delivery of CSCs 2 days post-MI resulted in significant alleviation of adverse LV remodeling and dysfunction, which was at least equivalent, if not superior, to that achieved with intramyocardial delivery. Compared with intramyocardial injection, intracoronary infusion was associated with a more homogeneous distribution of CSCs in the infarcted region and a greater increase in viable tissue in this region, suggesting greater formation of new cardiomyocytes. Intracoronary CSC delivery resulted in improved function in the infarcted region, as well as in improved global LV systolic and diastolic function, and in decreased LV dilation and LV expansion index; the magnitude of these effects was similar to that observed after intramyocardial injection. We conclude that, in the murine model of reperfused MI, intracoronary CSC infusion is at least as effective as intramyocardial injection in limiting LV remodeling and improving both regional and global LV function. The intracoronary route appears to be superior in terms of uniformity of cell distribution, myocyte regeneration, and amount of viable tissue in the risk region. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report that intracoronary infusion of stem cells in mice is feasible and effective.

  15. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion following irinotecan-cisplatin administration as a treatment for recurrent ovarian clear cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Do Youn; Han, Gwan Hee; Ulak, Roshani; Ki, Kyung Do; Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Seon Kyung

    2017-01-01

    Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) has various causes including central nervous system disorders, pulmonary and endocrine diseases, paraneoplastic syndromes, and use of certain drugs. SIADH induced by chemotherapy with irinotecan-cisplatin is not a common complication. Here, we review a case of SIADH after treatment with irinotecan-cisplatin. A 45-year-old woman received adjuvant chemotherapy (paclitaxel-carboplatin) for ovarian clear cell carcinoma, but the cancer recurred within 9 months of chemotherapy. Subsequently, a second line of combination chemotherapy containing irinotecan-cisplatin was initiated. However, 5 days after chemotherapy administration, her general condition began to deteriorate; her hematological tests revealed hyponatremia. Therefore, it is imperative to consider the possibility of SIADH in patients being treated with irinotecan-cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Proper monitoring of serum sodium levels and assessment of clinical symptoms should be performed in such patients for early diagnosis and prompt management.

  16. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion following irinotecan-cisplatin administration as a treatment for recurrent ovarian clear cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Do Youn; Han, Gwan Hee; Ulak, Roshani; Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Seon Kyung

    2017-01-01

    Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) has various causes including central nervous system disorders, pulmonary and endocrine diseases, paraneoplastic syndromes, and use of certain drugs. SIADH induced by chemotherapy with irinotecan-cisplatin is not a common complication. Here, we review a case of SIADH after treatment with irinotecan-cisplatin. A 45-year-old woman received adjuvant chemotherapy (paclitaxel-carboplatin) for ovarian clear cell carcinoma, but the cancer recurred within 9 months of chemotherapy. Subsequently, a second line of combination chemotherapy containing irinotecan-cisplatin was initiated. However, 5 days after chemotherapy administration, her general condition began to deteriorate; her hematological tests revealed hyponatremia. Therefore, it is imperative to consider the possibility of SIADH in patients being treated with irinotecan-cisplatin–based chemotherapy. Proper monitoring of serum sodium levels and assessment of clinical symptoms should be performed in such patients for early diagnosis and prompt management. PMID:28217682

  17. Pharmacokinetics of amino acid ester prodrugs of acyclovir after oral administration: interaction with the transporters on Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Katragadda, Suresh; Jain, Ritesh; Kwatra, Deep; Hariharan, Sudharshan; Mitra, Ashim K

    2008-10-01

    In vivo systemic absorption of the amino acid prodrugs of acyclovir (ACV) after oral administration was evaluated in rats. Stability of the prodrugs, L-alanine-ACV (AACV), L-serine-ACV (SACV), L-isoleucine-ACV (IACV), gamma-glutamate-ACV (EACV) and L-valine-ACV (VACV) was evaluated in various tissues. Interaction of these prodrugs with the transporters on Caco-2 cells was studied. In vivo systemic bioavailability of these prodrugs upon oral administration was evaluated in jugular vein cannulated rats. The amino acid ester prodrugs showed affinity towards various amino acid transporters as well as the peptide transporter on the Caco-2 cells. In terms of stability, EACV was most enzymatically stable compared to other prodrugs especially in liver homogenate. In oral absorption studies, ACV and AACV showed high terminal elimination rate constants (lambda(z)). SACV and VACV exhibited approximately five-fold increase in area under the curve (AUC) values relative to ACV (p<0.05). C(max(T)) (maximum concentration) of SACV was observed to be 39+/-22 microM in plasma which is 2 times better than VACV and 15 times better than ACV. C(last(T)) (concentration at the last time point) of SACV was observed to be 0.18+/-0.06 microM in plasma which is two times better than VACV and three times better than ACV. Amino acid ester prodrugs of ACV were absorbed at varying amounts (C(max)) and eliminated at varying rates (lambda(z)) thereby leading to varying extents (AUC). The amino acid ester prodrug SACV owing to its enhanced stability, higher AUC and better concentration at last time point seems to be a promising candidate for the oral treatment of herpes infections.

  18. A high specific capacity membraneless aluminum-air cell operated with an inorganic/organic hybrid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Binbin; Leung, Dennis Y. C.; Xuan, Jin; Wang, Huizhi

    2016-12-01

    Aluminum-air cells have attracted a lot of interests because they have the highest volumetric capacity density in theory among the different metal-air systems. To overcome the self-discharge issue of aluminum, a microfluidic aluminum-air cell working with KOH methanol-based anolyte was developed in this work. A specific capacity up to 2507 mAh g-1 (that is, 84.1% of the theoretical value) was achieved experimentally. The KOH concentration and water content in the methanol-based anolyte were found to have direct influence on the cell performance. A possible mechanism of the aluminum reactions in KOH methanol-based electrolyte was proposed to explain the observed phenomenon.

  19. Air bubble contact with endothelial cells in vitro induces calcium influx and IP3-dependent release of calcium stores

    PubMed Central

    Sobolewski, Peter; Kandel, Judith; Klinger, Alexandra L.

    2011-01-01

    Gas embolism is a serious complication of decompression events and clinical procedures, but the mechanism of resulting injury remains unclear. Previous work has demonstrated that contact between air microbubbles and endothelial cells causes a rapid intracellular calcium transient and can lead to cell death. Here we examined the mechanism responsible for the calcium rise. Single air microbubbles (50–150 μm), trapped at the tip of a micropipette, were micromanipulated into contact with individual human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) loaded with Fluo-4 (a fluorescent calcium indicator). Changes in intracellular calcium were then recorded via epifluorescence microscopy. First, we confirmed that HUVECs rapidly respond to air bubble contact with a calcium transient. Next, we examined the involvement of extracellular calcium influx by conducting experiments in low calcium buffer, which markedly attenuated the response, or by pretreating cells with stretch-activated channel blockers (gadolinium chloride or ruthenium red), which abolished the response. Finally, we tested the role of intracellular calcium release by pretreating cells with an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor blocker (xestospongin C) or phospholipase C inhibitor (neomycin sulfate), which eliminated the response in 64% and 67% of cases, respectively. Collectively, our results lead us to conclude that air bubble contact with endothelial cells causes an influx of calcium through a stretch-activated channel, such as a transient receptor potential vanilloid family member, triggering the release of calcium from intracellular stores via the IP3 pathway. PMID:21633077

  20. Mixed cellulose ester filter as a separator for air-diffusion cathode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zejie; Lim, Bongsu

    2017-04-01

    Separator is important to prevent bio-contamination of the catalyst layer of air-diffusion cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Mixed cellulose ester filter (MCEF) was examined as a separator for an air-cathode MFC in the present study. The MCEF-MFC produced a maximum power density of 780.7 ± 18.7 mW/m(2), which was comparable to 770.9 ± 35.9 mW/m(2) of MFC with Nafion membrane (NFM) as a separator. Long-term examination demonstrated a more stable performance of the MCEF-MFC than NFM-MFC. After 25 cycles, the maximum voltage of the MCEF-MFC decreased by only 1.3% from 425.1 ± 4.3 mV (initial 5 cycles) to 419.5 ± 2.3 mV (last 5 cycles). However, it was decreased by 9.1% from 424.8 ± 5.7 to 386 ± 2.5 mV for the NFM-MFC. The coulombic efficiency (CE) of the MCEF-MFC did not change (from 3.11 ± 0.09% to 3.13 ± 0.02%), while it decreased by 9.12% from 3.18 ± 0.04% to 2.89 ± 0.02% for the NFM-MFC. The MCEF separator was with less biofouling than the NFM separator over 60 days' operation, which might be the reason for the more table long-term performance of the MCEF-MFC. The results demonstrated that MCEF was feasible as a separator to set up good-performing and cost-effective air-diffusion cathode MFC.

  1. Improved red blood cell survival after cardiac operations with administration of urea during cardiopulmonary bypass

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.; Bake, B.; William-Olsson, G.

    1985-01-01

    The plasma hemoglobin and red blood cell survival (half-life of /sup 51/Cr) was studied in 48 patients undergoing single valve replacement or coronary artery bypass graft. Urea or placebo was administered during cardiopulmonary bypass in a prospective, randomized, double-blind manner to test the potential effect on mechanical hemolysis. The mean plasma hemoglobin level at the end of extracorporeal circulation was significantly lower in the urea-treated groups (coronary artery bypass 342 mg/L; valve replacement 364 mg/L) than in the control groups (coronary artery bypass 635 mg/L, valve replacement 518 mg/L. The half-life of /sup 51/Cr was significantly longer in the urea-treated patients (coronary artery bypass 18 days; valve replacement 16 days) than in the control groups (coronary artery bypass 12.4 days; valve replacement 12.7 days) but still below the normal reference value (29 +/- 4 days). The plasma hemoglobin returned to near normal values (50 mg/L) the day after operation (day 1) and remained low with no differences between control and urea-treated groups. The total blood hemoglobin was followed for 2 weeks after operation and showed significantly less anemia in the urea-treated group. The lowest mean blood hemoglobin level was noted between days 5 and 9-114 (coronary artery bypass) and 107 (valve replacement) gm/L in the urea-treated patients compared to 92.3 gm/L in the control subjects. The reduction in the severity of the anemia led to less transfusion in the urea-treated patients (approximately 0.5 unit/patient) than in the control subjects (approximately 1 unit/patient) between days 3 and 14.

  2. Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells efficiently home to site of injury after intravenous administration and enhance diabetic wound healing by neoangiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xiaozhe; Lv, Gang; Huang, Jianhua; Min, Yongfen; Yang, Li; Lin, Pengnian Charles

    2014-06-01

    Vascularization is an important factor that affects diabetic wound healing. There is increasing evidence that myeloid cell lineages play a role in neovascularization. In this study, the efficiency of Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells to home to the site of injury and enhance diabetic wound healing by neoangiogenesis after intravenous administration was investigated. Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells were injected into tail vein after establishment of dorsal window chamber, hindlimb ischaemia and ear-punch injury in diabetic or non-diabetic mice. The Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells efficiently homed to the site of injury after intravenous administration and increased neoangiogenesis. The chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) is robustly expressed by Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells. Inhibition of CXCR4 decreases the homing ability of Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells to the site of injury, which indicates that the CXCR4/SDF-1 axis plays an important role in the homing of Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells to the site of injury. In addition, Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells were found to improve blood flow recovery of ischaemic limb and enhance wound healing in diabetic mice by neoangiogenesis after intravenous administration. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells may serve as a potential cell therapy for diabetic wound healing.

  3. Effects of hydraulic pressure on the performance of single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shaoan; Liu, Weifeng; Guo, Jian; Sun, Dan; Pan, Bin; Ye, Yaoli; Ding, Weijun; Huang, Haobin; Li, Fujian

    2014-06-15

    Scaling up of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) without losing power density requires a thorough understanding of the effect of hydraulic pressure on MFC performance. In this work, the performance of an activated carbon air-cathode MFC was evaluated under different hydraulic pressures. The MFC under 100 mmH2O hydraulic pressure produced a maximum power density of 1260 ± 24 mW m(-2), while the power density decreased by 24.4% and 44.7% as the hydraulic pressure increased to 500 mmH2O and 2000 mmH2O, respectively. Notably, the performance of both the anode and the cathode had decreased under high hydraulic pressures. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests of the cathode indicated that both charge transfer resistance and diffusion transfer resistance increased with the increase in hydraulic pressure. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA genes demonstrated that the similarity among anodic biofilm communities under different hydraulic pressures was ≥ 90%, and the communities of all MFCs were dominated by Geobacter sp. These results suggested that the reduction in power output of the single chamber air-cathode MFC under high hydraulic pressures can be attributed to water flooding of the cathode and suppression the metabolism of anodic exoelectrogenic bacteria.

  4. A comparison of air and hydrogen peroxide oxygenated microbial fuel cell reactors.

    PubMed

    Tartakovsky, B; Guiot, S R

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a two-compartment continuous flow microbial fuel cell (MFC) reactor was used to compare the efficiencies of cathode oxygenation by air and by hydrogen peroxide. The MFC reactor had neither a proton-selective membrane nor an electron transfer mediator. At startup, the cathodic compartment was continuously aerated and the anodic compartment was fed with a glucose solution. An increase of electrical power generation from 0.008 to 7.2 mW m(-2) of anode surface with a steady-state potential of 215-225 mV was observed within a period of 12 days. The performance of the air-oxygenated MFC reactor progressively declined over time because of biofilm proliferation in the cathodic compartment. Oxygenation of the cathodic compartment using 300 mL d(-1) of 0.3% hydrogen peroxide solution resulted in a power density of up to 22 mW m(-2) (68.2 mA m(-2)) of anode surface at a potential of 340-350 mV. The use of H2O2 for oxygenation was found to improve the long-term stability of the MFC reactor.

  5. Acoustical transmission-line model of the middle-ear cavities and mastoid air cells

    PubMed Central

    Keefe, Douglas H.

    2015-01-01

    An acoustical transmission line model of the middle-ear cavities and mastoid air cell system (MACS) was constructed for the adult human middle ear with normal function. The air-filled cavities comprised the tympanic cavity, aditus, antrum, and MACS. A binary symmetrical airway branching model of the MACS was constructed using an optimization procedure to match the average total volume and surface area of human temporal bones. The acoustical input impedance of the MACS was calculated using a recursive procedure, and used to predict the input impedance of the middle-ear cavities at the location of the tympanic membrane. The model also calculated the ratio of the acoustical pressure in the antrum to the pressure in the middle-ear cavities at the location of the tympanic membrane. The predicted responses were sensitive to the magnitude of the viscothermal losses within the MACS. These predicted input impedance and pressure ratio functions explained the presence of multiple resonances reported in published data, which were not explained by existing MACS models. PMID:25920840

  6. A single-chamber microbial fuel cell without an air cathode.

    PubMed

    Nimje, Vanita Roshan; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Chen, Hau-Ren; Chen, Chien-Yen; Tseng, Min-Jen; Cheng, Kai-Chien; Shih, Ruey-Chyuan; Chang, Young-Fo

    2012-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent a novel technology for wastewater treatment with electricity production. Electricity generation with simultaneous nitrate reduction in a single-chamber MFC without air cathode was studied, using glucose (1 mM) as the carbon source and nitrate (1 mM) as the final electron acceptor employed by Bacillus subtilis under anaerobic conditions. Increasing current as a function of decreased nitrate concentration and an increase in biomass were observed with a maximum current of 0.4 mA obtained at an external resistance (R(ext)) of 1 KΩ without a platinum catalyst of air cathode. A decreased current with complete nitrate reduction, with further recovery of the current immediately after nitrate addition, indicated the dependence of B. subtilis on nitrate as an electron acceptor to efficiently produce electricity. A power density of 0.0019 mW/cm(2) was achieved at an R(ext) of 220 Ω. Cyclic voltammograms (CV) showed direct electron transfer with the involvement of mediators in the MFC. The low coulombic efficiency (CE) of 11% was mainly attributed to glucose fermentation. These results demonstrated that electricity generation is possible from wastewater containing nitrate, and this represents an alternative technology for the cost-effective and environmentally benign treatment of wastewater.

  7. Absolute air refractive index measurement and tracking based on variable length vacuum cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiangzhi; Zhang, Tieli; Ellis, Jonathan D.

    2016-06-01

    A refractometer system using four modified Wu-type heterodyne interferometers with a variable length vacuum cell is presented. The proposed system has two working modes: (1) a moving mode for measuring the absolute air refractive index at the start of a measurement and (2) a static mode for monitoring the air refractive index fluctuation with the same bandwidth as a traditional displacement interferometer. The system requires no gas filling or pumping during the measurement and can be used for real-time refractive index compensation. Comparison experiments with empirical equations are conducted to investigate the feasibility and performance of the proposed system. The standard deviation of the measurement difference between the proposed system and empirical equation is 2.8 parts in 107, which is close to the uncertainty of our refractive index reference based on the accuracy of the environmental sensors. The relative refractive index tracking is a few parts in 108 with a bandwidth of 10 Hz, but high bandwidths are readily achievable.

  8. Glutathione administration reduces mitochondrial damage and shifts cell death from necrosis to apoptosis in ageing diabetic mice hearts during exercise

    PubMed Central

    Golbidi, S; Botta, A; Gottfred, S; Nusrat, A; Laher, I; Ghosh, S

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The effect of antioxidants on ageing type 2 diabetic (T2D) hearts during exercise is unclear. We hypothesized that GSH therapy during exercise reduces mitochondrial oxidative stress (mOXS) and cell death in ageing db/db mice hearts. Experimental Approach The effect of GSH on cardiac mOXS and cell death was evaluated both in vivo and in vitro. Key Results During exercise, GSH treatment protected db/db hearts from exaggerated mOXS without reducing total cell death. Despite similar cell death, investigations on apoptosis-specific single-stranded DNA breaks and necrosis-specific damage provided the first in vivo evidence of a shift from necrosis to apoptosis, with reduced fibrosis following GSH administration in exercised db/db hearts. Further support for a GSH-regulated ‘switch’ in death phenotypes came from NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and H9c2 cardiomyocytes treated with H2O2, a reactive oxygen species (ROS). Similar to in vivo findings, augmenting GSH by overexpressing glutamyl cysteine ligase (GCLc) protected fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes from necrosis induced by H2O2, but elevated caspase-3 and apoptosis instead. Similar to in vivo findings, where GSH therapy in normoglycaemic mice suppressed endogenous antioxidants and augmented caspase-3 activity, GCLc overexpression during staurosporine-induced death, which was not characterized by ROS, increased GSH efflux and aggravated death in fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes, confirming that oxidative stress is required for GSH-mediated cytoprotection. Conclusions and Implications While GSH treatment is useful for reducing mOXS and attenuating necrosis and fibrosis in ageing T2D hearts during exercise, such antioxidant treatment could be counterproductive in the healthy heart during exercise. PMID:25039894

  9. Endovenous administration of bone-marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells prevents renal failure in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Ezquer, Fernando; Ezquer, Marcelo; Simon, Valeska; Pardo, Fabian; Yañez, Alejandro; Carpio, Daniel; Conget, Paulette

    2009-11-01

    Twenty-five to 40% of diabetic patients develop diabetic nephropathy, a clinical syndrome that comprises renal failure and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. It represents the major cause of chronic kidney disease and is associated with premature morbimortality of diabetic patients. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) contribute to the regeneration of several organs, including acutely injured kidney. We sought to evaluate if MSC protect kidney function and structure when endovenously administered to mice with severe diabetes. A month after nonimmunologic diabetes induction by streptozotocin injection, C57BL/6 mice presented hyperglycemia, glycosuria, hypoinsulinemia, massive beta-pancreatic islet destruction, low albuminuria, but not renal histopathologic changes (DM mice). At this stage, one group of animals received the vehicle (untreated) and other group received 2 doses of 0.5 x 10(6) MSC/each (MSC-treated). Untreated DM mice gradually increased urinary albumin excretion and 4 months after diabetes onset, they reached values 15 times higher than normal animals. In contrast, MSC-treated DM mice maintained basal levels of albuminuria. Untreated DM mice had marked glomerular and tubular histopathologic changes (sclerosis, mesangial expansion, tubular dilatation, proteins cylinders, podocytes lost). However, MSC-treated mice showed only slight tubular dilatation. Observed renoprotection was not associated with an improvement in endocrine pancreas function in this animal model, because MSC-treated DM mice remained hyperglycemic and hypoinsulinemic, and maintained few remnant beta-pancreatic islets throughout the study period. To study MSC biodistribution, cells were isolated from isogenic mice that constitutively express GFP (MSC(GFP)) and endovenously administered to DM mice. Although at very low levels, donor cells were found in kidney of DM mice 3 month after transplantation. Presented preclinical results support MSC administration as a cell

  10. The granule cell density of the dentate gyrus following administration of Urtica dioica extract to young diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Fazeli, S A; Gharravi, A M; Ghafari, S; Jahanshahi, M; Golalipour, M J

    2008-08-01

    Urtica dioica L. Stinging nettle has long been known worldwide as a medicinal plant. To study the benefits of the nettle in diabetic encephalopathy, the granule cell density of the dentate gyrus of diabetic rats was studied following administration of Urtica dioica extract. A total of 24 male albino Wistar rats were allocated equally to normal, diabetic, preventive and treatment groups. Hyperglycaemia was induced by streptozotocin (80 mg/kg) in the animals of the diabetic and treatment groups. One week after injection of the streptozotocin the animals in the treatment group received a hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica (100 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks intraperitoneally. The rats of the preventive group received hydroalcoholic extract of U. dioica (100 mg/kg/day) IP for the first 5 days and an injection of streptozotocin (80 mg/kg) on the 6th day. After 5 weeks of study all the rats were sacrificed and coronal sections were taken from the dorsal hippocampal formation of the right cerebral hemispheres and stained with cresyl violet. The area densities of the granule cells were measured and compared in the four groups. The density was lower in the diabetic rats compared with the controls (p > 0.05). The preventive group showed lower cell density than the controls (p > 0.05). The densities in the treated rats were higher than in the diabetic rats (p > 0.05). Furthermore, the control and treated rats showed similar densities (p > 0.05). It seems that U. dioica extract can help compensate for granule cell loss in the diabetic rat dentate gyrus, which can ameliorate cognitive impairment in diabetes. However, preventive use of the extract showed no significant benefit.

  11. A dose-controlled system for air-liquid interface cell exposure and application to zinc oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Engineered nanoparticles are becoming increasingly ubiquitous and their toxicological effects on human health, as well as on the ecosystem, have become a concern. Since initial contact with nanoparticles occurs at the epithelium in the lungs (or skin, or eyes), in vitro cell studies with nanoparticles require dose-controlled systems for delivery of nanoparticles to epithelial cells cultured at the air-liquid interface. Results A novel air-liquid interface cell exposure system (ALICE) for nanoparticles in liquids is presented and validated. The ALICE generates a dense cloud of droplets with a vibrating membrane nebulizer and utilizes combined cloud settling and single particle sedimentation for fast (~10 min; entire exposure), repeatable (<12%), low-stress and efficient delivery of nanoparticles, or dissolved substances, to cells cultured at the air-liquid interface. Validation with various types of nanoparticles (Au, ZnO and carbon black nanoparticles) and solutes (such as NaCl) showed that the ALICE provided spatially uniform deposition (<1.6% variability) and had no adverse effect on the viability of a widely used alveolar human epithelial-like cell line (A549). The cell deposited dose can be controlled with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) over a dynamic range of at least 0.02-200 μg/cm2. The cell-specific deposition efficiency is currently limited to 0.072 (7.2% for two commercially available 6-er transwell plates), but a deposition efficiency of up to 0.57 (57%) is possible for better cell coverage of the exposure chamber. Dose-response measurements with ZnO nanoparticles (0.3-8.5 μg/cm2) showed significant differences in mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory (IL-8) and oxidative stress (HO-1) markers when comparing submerged and air-liquid interface exposures. Both exposure methods showed no cellular response below 1 μg/cm2 ZnO, which indicates that ZnO nanoparticles are not toxic at occupationally allowed exposure levels. Conclusion The ALICE

  12. Computational modeling of alkaline air-breathing microfluidic fuel cells with an array of cylinder anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Ding-Ding; Zhang, Biao; Zhu, Xun; Sui, Pang-Chieh; Djilali, Ned; Liao, Qiang

    2015-08-01

    A three-dimensional computational model is developed for an alkaline air-breathing microfluidic fuel cell (AMFC) with an array of cylinder anodes. The model is validated against experimental data from an in-house prototype AMFC. The distributions of fluid velocity, fuel concentration and current density of the fuel cell are analyzed in detail. The effect of reactant flow rate on the cell performance and electrode potentials is also studied. The model results suggest that fuel crossover is minimized by the fast electrolyte flow in the vicinity of the cathode. The current production of each anode is uneven and is well correlated with internal ohmic resistance. Fuel transfer limitation occurs at low flow rates (<100 μL min-1) but diminishes at high flow rates. The model results also indicate that cathode potential reversal takes place at combined low flow rate and high current density conditions, mainly due to the improved overpotential downstream where fuel starvation occurs. The anode reaction current distribution is found to be relatively uniform, which is a result of a compensating mechanism that improves the current production of the bottom anodes downstream.

  13. Open air biocathode enables effective electricity generation with microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Clauwaert, Peter; Van der Ha, David; Boon, Nico; Verbeken, Kim; Verhaege, Marc; Rabaey, Korneel; Verstraete, Willy

    2007-11-01

    The reduction of oxygen at the cathode is one of the major bottlenecks of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). While research so far has mainly focused on chemical catalysis of this oxygen reduction, here we present a continuously wetted cathode with microorganisms that act as biocatalysts for oxygen reduction. We combined the anode of an acetate oxidizing tubular microbial fuel cell with an open air biocathode for electricity production. The maximum power production was 83 +/- 11 W m(-3) MFC (0.183 L MFC) for batch-fed systems (20-40% Coulombic yield) and 65 +/- 5 W m(-3) MFC for a continuous system with an acetate loading rate of 1.5 kg COD m(-3) day(-1) (90 +/- 3% Coulombic yield). Electrochemical precipitation of manganese oxides on the cathodic graphite felt decreased the start-up period with approximately 30% versus a non-treated graphite felt. After the start-up period, the cell performance was similar for the pretreated and non-treated cathodic electrodes. Several reactor designs were tested, and it was found that enlargement of the 0.183 L MFC reactor by a factor 2.9-3.8 reduced the volumetric power output by 60-67%. Biocathodes alleviate the need to use noble or non-noble catalysts for the reduction of oxygen, which increases substantially the viability and sustainability of MFCs.

  14. NanoCapillary Network Proton Conducting Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen/Air Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pintauro, Peter

    2012-07-09

    The objective of this proposal is to fabricate and characterize a new class of NanoCapillary Network (NCN) proton conducting membranes for hydrogen/air fuel cells that operate under high temperature, low humidity conditions. The membranes will be intelligently designed, where a high density interconnecting 3-D network of nm-diameter electrospun proton conducting polymer fibers is embedded in an inert (uncharged) water/gas impermeable polymer matrix. The high density of fibers in the resulting mat and the high ion-exchange capacity of the fiber polymer will ensure high proton conductivity. To further enhance water retention, molecular silica will be added to the sulfonated polymer fibers. The uncharged matrix material will control water swelling of the high ion-exchange capacity proton conducting polymer fibers and will impart toughness to the final nanocapillary composite membrane. Thus, unlike other fuel cell membranes, the role of the polymer support matrix will be decoupled from that of the proton-conducting channels. The expected final outcome of this 5-year project is the fabrication of fuel cell membranes with properties that exceed the DOE’s technical targets, in particular a proton conductivity of 0.1 S/cm at a temperature less than or equal to120°C and 25-50% relative humidity.

  15. [Electricity generation using the short-arm air-cathode microbial fuel cell].

    PubMed

    Guo, Kun; Li, Ding-jie; Li, Hao-ran; Du, Zhu-wei

    2009-10-15

    The short-arm air-cathode microbial fuel cell (ACMFC) was constructed using a cramp to fix the proton exchange membrane (PEM) and carbon paper with 0.5 mg/cm2 onto the short-arm side of the anode chamber. Exoelectrogens on the surface of graphite rod were enriched by a sludge microbial fuel cell from the anaerobic digestion sludge. And the cyclic voltammetry result showed these microbes had electrochemical activities. Using the graphite rod covered by exoelectrogens as the anode and sodium acetate as the substrate, the short-arm ACMFC showed a maximal power density (Pm) of 738 mW/m2, internal resistance (Ri) of 280 omega and open circuit voltage (OCV) of 741 mV. Continuous sparging the anode chamber with nitrogen or removal of the proton exchange membrane enhance the Pm of the cell to 745 mW/m2 and 759 mW/m2 respectively. When both of the two measures were used together, the Pm reached up to 922 mW/m2. Under these three conditions the Ri of the cell was kept around 280 omega. When the substrate concentration was 12.62-100.96 mg/L and external resistance was 510 omega, the maximal voltage of the cell and the substrate concentration showed an obvious linear relation (R2 = 0.99). But when the concentration was above 100.96 mg/L, the maximal voltage stably kept around 302mV(the external resistance was 510 omega). However, the Coulombic efficiency of the short-arm ACMFC gradually increased with the increase of the substrate concentration, from 31.83% to 45.03%.

  16. Cleaning the air and improving health with hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, M Z; Colella, W G; Golden, D M

    2005-06-24

    Converting all U.S. onroad vehicles to hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles (HFCVs) may improve air quality, health, and climate significantly, whether the hydrogen is produced by steam reforming of natural gas, wind electrolysis, or coal gasification. Most benefits would result from eliminating current vehicle exhaust. Wind and natural gas HFCVs offer the greatest potential health benefits and could save 3700 to 6400 U.S. lives annually. Wind HFCVs should benefit climate most. An all-HFCV fleet would hardly affect tropospheric water vapor concentrations. Conversion to coal HFCVs may improve health but would damage climate more than fossil/electric hybrids. The real cost of hydrogen from wind electrolysis may be below that of U.S. gasoline.

  17. Filamentation of femtosecond light pulses in the air: Turbulent cells versus long-range clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Skupin, S.; Berge, L.; Mejean, G.; Yu, J.; Kasparian, J.; Salmon, E.; Wolf, J.P.; Rodriguez, M.; Woeste, L.; Bourayou, R.; Sauerbrey, R.

    2004-10-01

    The filamentation of ultrashort pulses in air is investigated theoretically and experimentally. From the theoretical point of view, beam propagation is shown to be driven by the interplay between random nucleation of small-scale cells and relaxation to long waveguides. After a transient stage along which they vary in location and in amplitude, filaments triggered by an isotropic noise are confined into distinct clusters, called 'optical pillars', whose evolution can be approximated by an averaged-in-time two-dimensional (2D) model derived from the standard propagation equations for ultrashort pulses. Results from this model are compared with space- and time-resolved numerical simulations. From the experimental point of view, similar clusters of filaments emerge from the defects of initial beam profiles delivered by the Teramobile laser facility. Qualitative features in the evolution of the filament patterns are reproduced by the 2D reduced model.

  18. Electrochemical studies on epoxidised natural rubber-based gel polymer electrolytes for lithium-air cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, S. N.; Johari, N. A.; Ali, A. M. M.; Harun, M. K.; Yahya, M. Z. A.

    Gel polymer electrolyte films comprised of 50% epoxidised natural rubber polymer host, lithium triflate salt (LiCF 3SO 3), and ethylene carbonate (EC) or propylene carbonate (PC) plasticizer are prepared using the solution-casting technique. AC impedance studies show that the electrical conductivity of the electrolytes is dependent on both the salt and plasticizer concentrations. The highest room temperature conductivity of 4.92 × 10 -4 S cm -1 is achieved when 10 wt.% propylene carbonate is introduced into the system containing 1.0 g 50% epoxidised natural rubber polymer doped with 35 wt.% LiCF 3SO 3. Conductivity studies of these polymer electrolytes are carried out at various temperatures and are found to obey the Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher (VTF) rule. The highest conducting plasticized sample is used as a gelled electrolyte for lithium-air cells.

  19. Investigation on the heavy-metal content of zinc-air button cells.

    PubMed

    Richter, Andrea; Richter, Silke; Recknagel, Sebastian

    2008-01-01

    Within the framework of a German government project (initiated by the Federal Environment Agency) to check the compliance of commercially available batteries with the German Battery Ordinance concerning their heavy metal contents, 18 different types of commercially available zinc-air button cells were analysed for their cadmium, lead and mercury contents. After microwave assisted dissolution with aqua regia, Cd and Pb were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and Hg was determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and atomic absorption spectrometry. Cd contents were found to be much lower than the permitted limits; Pb contents were also found to be below the limits. Hg contents were found to be near the limits, and in one case the limit was exceeded.

  20. Analysis of oxygen reduction and microbial community of air-diffusion biocathode in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zejie; Zheng, Yue; Xiao, Yong; Wu, Song; Wu, Yicheng; Yang, Zhaohui; Zhao, Feng

    2013-09-01

    Microbes play irreplaceable role in oxygen reduction reaction of biocathode in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this study, air-diffusion biocathode MFCs were set up for accelerating oxygen reduction and microbial community analysis. Linear sweep voltammetry and Tafel curve confirmed the function of cathode biofilm to catalyze oxygen reduction. Microbial community analysis revealed higher diversity and richness of community in plankton than in biofilm. Proteobacteria was the shared predominant phylum in both biofilm and plankton (39.9% and 49.8%) followed by Planctomycetes (29.9%) and Bacteroidetes (13.3%) in biofilm, while Bacteroidetes (28.2%) in plankton. Minor fraction (534, 16.4%) of the total operational taxonomic units (3252) was overlapped demonstrating the disproportionation of bacterial distribution in biofilm and plankton. Pseudomonadales, Rhizobiales and Sphingobacteriales were exoelectrogenic orders in the present study. The research obtained deep insight of microbial community and provided more comprehensive information on uncultured rare bacteria.

  1. Caffeine administration prevents retinal neuroinflammation and loss of retinal ganglion cells in an animal model of glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Madeira, Maria H.; Ortin-Martinez, Arturo; Nadal-Nícolas, Francisco; Ambrósio, António F.; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta; Santiago, Ana Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide, being characterized by progressive optic nerve damage and loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), accompanied by increased inflammatory response involving retinal microglial cells. The etiology of glaucoma is still unknown, and despite elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) being a major risk factor, the exact mechanisms responsible for RGC degeneration remain unknown. Caffeine, which is an antagonist of adenosine receptors, is the most widely consumed psychoactive drug in the world. Several evidences suggest that caffeine can attenuate the neuroinflammatory responses and afford protection upon central nervous system (CNS) injury. We took advantage of a well characterized animal model of glaucoma to investigate whether caffeine administration controls neuroinflammation and elicits neuroprotection. Caffeine or water were administered ad libitum and ocular hypertension (OHT) was induced by laser photocoagulation of the limbal veins in Sprague Dawley rats. Herein, we show that caffeine is able to partially decrease the IOP in ocular hypertensive animals. More importantly, we found that drinking caffeine prevented retinal microglia-mediated neuroinflammatory response and attenuated the loss of RGCs in animals with ocular hypertension (OHT). This study opens the possibility that caffeine or adenosine receptor antagonists might be a therapeutic option to manage RGC loss in glaucoma. PMID:27270337

  2. Association between ambient air pollution and proliferation of umbilical cord blood cells.

    PubMed

    Novack, L; Yitshak-Sade, M; Landau, D; Kloog, I; Sarov, B; Karakis, I

    2016-11-01

    It has been established as a common knowledge that ambient air pollution (AAP) has an adverse effect on human health. The pathophysiological mechanism of this impact is likely to be related to the oxidative stress. In the current study we estimate the association between AAP and cell proliferation (CP) of umbilical cord blood cells, representing maternal organism most proximal to the fetal body. Blood samples were tested for proliferation in 292 enrolled Arab-Bedouin women at delivery (July 2012-March 2013). The estimates of AAP were defined by a hybrid satellite based model predicting both PM2.5 (particles<2.5µm in diameter) and PM10 (particles<10µm in diameter) as well as monitoring stations for gaseous air pollutants. Risk estimates of pollution exposure were adjusted to medical history, household risk factors and meteorological factors on the day of delivery or one week prior. Ambient ozone (O3) levels on 1, 2, 3and 4 days prior to delivery were associated with lower CP (Prevalence ratio (PR)=0.92, 0.92, 0.93, 0.93, respectively). Increase in inter-quartile range (IOR) of PM2.5 one day before delivery was associated with 9% increase in CP levels (PR=1.09). The positive direction in association was changed to negative association with CP for PM2.5 levels measured at more distant time periods (PR=0.90 and 0.93 for lags 5 and 6 days, respectively). Investigation of PM10 levels indicated a similar pattern (PR=1.05 for pollution values recorded one day before delivery and 0.93 and 0.95 for lags of 5 and 6 days, respectively). Carbon monoxide (CO) levels were associated with lower CP on the day of delivery and 1day prior (PR=0.92 and PR=0.94). To conclude, the levels of cell proliferation of umbilical cord blood cells appear to be associated with the AAP. More studies are needed to support our findings.

  3. Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC) for Characterization of the 224-T Facility Process Cells

    SciTech Connect

    HOMAN, N.A.

    2001-03-14

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC) pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, for entering and characterizing the 224-T Facility process cells. The 224-T Facility is a small canyon building with six process cells separated from three levels of operating galleries by a 0.3-meter thick concrete wall. The original mission was to concentrate dilute solutions of plutonium received from the 221-T Plutonium Separation Facility from 1945 until 1956. Various shutdown activities were carried out including flushing the tanks and piping during the 1960s. During the second mission from 1975 to 1985, the operating gallery areas of the structure were converted into a storage area for plutonium-bearing scrap and liquids. The third and final mission converted the operating galleries for use as the 224-T Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility (224-T TRUSAF). All stored waste from the gallery areas was removed in the late 1990s. The process cells were not considered part of the waste storage areas and were isolated from storage activities. The 224-T Facility has been excessed with no anticipated plans for further missions. The purpose of the characterization effort is to determine the condition and contents of the cells, tanks, and vessels. This information is needed to update the Facility's Authorization Basis, maintain appropriate managing practices, and ensure there is no potential threat to the public or environment. The information also will be used to establish operational criteria for the decontamination and decommissioning of this facility. Using the currently approved unit dose conversion factors in HNF-3602, the estimated potential total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) resulting from the unabated, fugitive emissions from characterization of the 224-T process cells is 7

  4. Effects of atmospheric air plasma treatment of graphite and carbon felt electrodes on the anodic current from Shewanella attached cells.

    PubMed

    Epifanio, Monica; Inguva, Saikumar; Kitching, Michael; Mosnier, Jean-Paul; Marsili, Enrico

    2015-12-01

    The attachment of electrochemically active microorganisms (EAM) on an electrode is determined by both the chemistry and topography of the electrode surface. Pre-treatment of the electrode surface by atmospheric air plasma introduces hydrophilic functional groups, thereby increasing cell attachment and electroactivity in short-term experiments. In this study, we use graphite and carbon felt electrodes to grow the model EAM Shewanella loihica PV-4 at oxidative potential (0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl). Cell attachment and electroactivity are measured through electrodynamic methods. Atmospheric air plasma pre-treatment increases cell attachment and current output at graphite electrodes by 25%, while it improves the electroactivity of the carbon felt electrodes by 450%. Air plasma pre-treatment decreased the coulombic efficiency on both carbon felt and graphite electrodes by 60% and 80%, respectively. Microbially produced flavins adsorb preferentially at the graphite electrode, and air plasma pre-treatment results in lower flavin adsorption at both graphite and carbon felt electrodes. Results show that air plasma pre-treatment is a feasible option to increase current output in bioelectrochemical systems.

  5. Impact of ambient air pollution on the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Brüske, Irene; Hampel, Regina; Socher, Martin M; Rückerl, Regina; Schneider, Alexandra; Heinrich, Joachim; Oberdörster, Günter; Wichmann, H-Erich; Peters, Annette

    2010-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies report associations between particulate air pollution and increased mortality from pulmonary diseases. This study was performed to examine whether the exposure to ambient gaseous and particulate air pollution leads to an alteration of the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases like chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma. A prospective panel study was conducted in Erfurt, Eastern Germany, with 12 repeated differential white blood cell counts in 38 males with chronic pulmonary diseases. Hourly particulate and gaseous air pollutants and meteorological data were acquired. Mixed models with a random intercept adjusting for trend, meteorology, weekday, and other risk variables were used. In this explorative analysis, we found an immediate decrease of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in response to an increase of most gaseous and particulate pollutants. Lymphocytes increased within 24 h in association with all gaseous pollutants but showed only minor effects in regard to particulate air pollution. Monocytes showed an increase associated with ultrafine particles, and nitrogen monoxide. The effect had two peaks in time, one 0-23 h before blood withdrawal and a second one with a time lag of 48-71 h. The increase of particulate and gaseous air pollution was associated with multiple changes in the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases.

  6. Effects of intravenous administration of allogenic bone marrow- and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells on functional recovery and brain repair markers in experimental ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Stem cell therapy can promote good recovery from stroke. Several studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are safe and effective. However, more information regarding appropriate cell type is needed from animal model. This study was targeted at analyzing the effects in ischemic stroke of acute intravenous (i.v.) administration of allogenic bone marrow- (BM-MSC) and adipose-derived-stem cells (AD-MSC) on functional evaluation results and brain repair markers. Methods Allogenic MSC (2 × 106 cells) were administered intravenously 30 minutes after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) to rats. Infarct volume and cell migration and implantation were analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and immunohistochemistry. Function was evaluated by the Rogers and rotarod tests, and cell proliferation and cell-death were also determined. Brain repair markers were analyzed by confocal microscopy and confirmed by western blot. Results Compared to infarct group, function had significantly improved at 24 h and continued at 14 d after i.v. administration of either BM-MSC or AD-MSC. No reduction in infarct volume or any migration/implantation of cells into the damaged brain were observed. Nevertheless, cell death was reduced and cellular proliferation significantly increased in both treatment groups with respect to the infarct group. At 14 d after MSC administration vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), synaptophysin (SYP), oligodendrocyte (Olig-2) and neurofilament (NF) levels were significantly increased while those of glial fiibrillary acid protein (GFAP) were decreased. Conclusions i.v. administration of allogenic MSC - whether BM-MSC or AD-MSC, in pMCAO infarct was associated with good functional recovery, and reductions in cell death as well as increases in cellular proliferation, neurogenesis, oligodendrogenesis, synaptogenesis and angiogenesis markers at 14 days post-infarct. PMID:23356495

  7. Influence of antenatal synthetic glucocorticoid administration on pyramidal cell morphology and microtubule-associated protein type 2 (MAP2) in rat cerebrocortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Rodrigo; Cuevas, Isabel; Santander, Odra; Valencia, Martina

    2017-01-01

    Previous animal studies have indicated that excessive prenatal circulating glucocorticoid (GC) levels induced by the antenatal administration of synthetic GC (sGC) significantly alter neuronal development in the cerebellar and hippocampal neurons of the offspring. However, it is unknown whether antenatal sGC administration results in long-term neocortical pyramidal cell impairment. In the current study, we examined whether an equivalent therapeutic dose of antenatal betamethasone phosphate (BET) in pregnant rats alters the Golgi-stained basilar dendritic length and histochemical expression of dendritic microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) of neocortical pyramidal cells in infant, adolescent, and young adult offspring. The results obtained showed that in utero BET exposure resulted in a significant reduction in the basilar dendritic length per neuron and a transient reduction in histochemical MAP2 immunoreactivity. Consistent with previous hippocampal and cerebellar data, the present findings suggest that prenatal BET administration alters the dendritic growth of cerebrocortical pyramidal cells.

  8. Influence of antenatal synthetic glucocorticoid administration on pyramidal cell morphology and microtubule-associated protein type 2 (MAP2) in rat cerebrocortical neurons

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, Rodrigo; Cuevas, Isabel; Santander, Odra; Valencia, Martina

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. Previous animal studies have indicated that excessive prenatal circulating glucocorticoid (GC) levels induced by the antenatal administration of synthetic GC (sGC) significantly alter neuronal development in the cerebellar and hippocampal neurons of the offspring. However, it is unknown whether antenatal sGC administration results in long-term neocortical pyramidal cell impairment. In the current study, we examined whether an equivalent therapeutic dose of antenatal betamethasone phosphate (BET) in pregnant rats alters the Golgi-stained basilar dendritic length and histochemical expression of dendritic microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) of neocortical pyramidal cells in infant, adolescent, and young adult offspring. The results obtained showed that in utero BET exposure resulted in a significant reduction in the basilar dendritic length per neuron and a transient reduction in histochemical MAP2 immunoreactivity. Consistent with previous hippocampal and cerebellar data, the present findings suggest that prenatal BET administration alters the dendritic growth of cerebrocortical pyramidal cells. PMID:28203043

  9. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy Joins Senator Booker, Mayor Baraka and ICC to Visit Newarks Community Air Pollution Project Which Utilizes EPA Science

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (New York, N.Y.) Today, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Gina McCarthy joined Senator Cory Booker, Mayor Ras J. Baraka and Isella Ramirez of Ironbound Community Corporation at the Ironbound Community Corporation Family Success Center to v

  10. Prevention and treatment of colon cancer by peroral administration of HAMLET (human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumour cells)

    PubMed Central

    Puthia, Manoj; Storm, Petter; Nadeem, Aftab; Hsiung, Sabrina; Svanborg, Catharina

    2014-01-01

    Background Most colon cancers start with dysregulated Wnt/β-catenin signalling and remain a major therapeutic challenge. Examining whether HAMLET (human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumour cells) may be used for colon cancer treatment is logical, based on the properties of the complex and its biological context. Objective To investigate if HAMLET can be used for colon cancer treatment and prevention. ApcMin/+ mice, which carry mutations relevant to hereditary and sporadic human colorectal tumours, were used as a model for human disease. Method HAMLET was given perorally in therapeutic and prophylactic regimens. Tumour burden and animal survival of HAMLET-treated and sham-fed mice were compared. Tissue analysis focused on Wnt/β-catenin signalling, proliferation markers and gene expression, using microarrays, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Confocal microscopy, reporter assay, immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, ion flux assays and holographic imaging were used to determine effects on colon cancer cells. Results Peroral HAMLET administration reduced tumour progression and mortality in ApcMin/+ mice. HAMLET accumulated specifically in tumour tissue, reduced β-catenin and related tumour markers. Gene expression analysis detected inhibition of Wnt signalling and a shift to a more differentiated phenotype. In colon cancer cells with APC mutations, HAMLET altered β-catenin integrity and localisation through an ion channel-dependent pathway, defining a new mechanism for controlling β-catenin signalling. Remarkably, supplying HAMLET to the drinking water from the time of weaning also significantly prevented tumour development. Conclusions These data identify HAMLET as a new, peroral agent for colon cancer prevention and treatment, especially needed in people carrying APC mutations, where colon cancer remains a leading cause of death. PMID:23348960

  11. Prenatal administration of letrozole reduces SDN and SCN volume and cell number independent of partner preference in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Olvera-Hernández, Sandra; Tapia-Rodríguez, Miguel; Swaab, Dick F; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso

    2017-03-15

    During development, the exposure to testosterone, and its conversion to estradiol by an enzyme complex termed aromatase, appears to be essential in adult male rats for the expression of typical male sexual behavior and female-sex preference. Some hypothalamic areas are the supposed neural bases of sexual preference/orientation; for example, male-oriented rams have a reduced volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus (oSDN), while in homosexual men this nucleus does not differ from that of heterosexual men. In contrast, homosexual men showed a larger number of vasopressinergic cells in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Interestingly, male rats perinatally treated with an aromatase inhibitor, 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione (ATD), also showed bisexual preference and an increased number of vasopressinergic neurons in the SCN. However, this steroidal aromatase inhibitor has affinity for all three steroid receptors. Recently, we reported that the prenatal administration of the selective aromatase inhibitor, letrozole, produced a subpopulation of males with same-sex preference. The aim of this study was to compare the volume and number of cells of the SDN and SCN (the latter nucleus was immunohistochemically stained for vasopressin) between males treated with letrozole with same-sex preference, males treated with letrozole with female preference and control males with female preference. Results showed that all males prenatally treated with letrozole have a reduced volume and estimated cell number in the SDN and SCN, independent of their partner preference. These results indicate that the changes in these brain areas are not related to sexual preference, but rather to the effects of letrozole. The divergent results may be explained by species differences as well as by the critical windows during which the aromatase inhibitor was administered.

  12. [Biocatalysis using immobilized cells or enzymes as a method of water and air purification in habitable enclosed environment].

    PubMed

    Lebedeva, T E; Nazarov, N M; Siniak, Iu E

    1991-01-01

    This paper shows that the method of water and air purification using immobilized cells and enzymes can be applied in regenerative life support systems in a habitable enclosed environment. This method is based on selective and adaptive functions of enzymic systems of microorganisms to assimilate organic components of the medium to be eliminated. Advantages of biocatalysis are low energy requirements and mild temperatures of purification leading to practically complete elimination of the substrate. Due to immobilization, cells and enzymes constitute an independent component which can be added to any continuously operating system of purification without generating a specific interface which is crucially important in microgravity. This allows the process of purification to be controllable. The resulting water and air meet biological requirements because they are formed under the influence of living organisms as in natural biogeocenoses. The production of ecologically pure water and air is highly important for long-duration space missions, especially for flights to Mars.

  13. The effects of acute and chronic administration of phosphatidylserine on cell proliferation and survival in the dentate gyrus of adult and middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Maragno, Heloisa; Rodella, Patricia; Silva Freitas, Josiane da; Fernando Takase, Luiz

    2015-06-03

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) is an acidic phospholipid that is widely used as an alternative and/or complementary treatment of cognitive impairments. We hypothesize that these changes may be attributable, at least in part, to alterations in hippocampal neurogenesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute and chronic PS administration on hippocampal cell proliferation and survival in adult (5 months old) and middle-aged (12 months old) male Wistar rats. PS was injected daily (50mg/kg, i.p.) during 7 days (acute experiment) or 21 days (chronic experiment). To label newly generated cells, rats received a single BrdU injection (200mg/kg, i.p.) one day before PS treatment. The object recognition test was performed, and the rats were perfused. The brains were removed and processed with immunohistochemistry techniques for Ki-67 (cell proliferation) and BrdU (cell survival). The acute and chronic regimens were unable to promote cognitive improvement in either age group in the object recognition test. The analysis of cell proliferation showed a significant increase in the number of Ki-67-positive cells after acute and chronic PS administration in both age groups. The analysis of cell survival showed that acute and chronic PS administration increased the number of BrdU-positive cells only in adult animals.

  14. Composition of air pollution particles modifies oxidative stress in cells, tissues, and living systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate an association between increased levels of ambient air pollution particles and human morbidity and mortality. Production of oxidants, either directly by the air pollution particles or by the host response to the particles, appears to be fundame...

  15. Olive mill wastewater treatment in single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Bermek, Hakan; Catal, Tunc; Akan, S Süha; Ulutaş, Mehmet Sefa; Kumru, Mert; Özgüven, Mine; Liu, Hong; Özçelik, Beraat; Akarsubaşı, Alper Tunga

    2014-04-01

    Olive mill wastewaters create significant environmental issues in olive-processing countries. One of the most hazardous groups of pollutants in these wastewaters is phenolic compounds. Here, olive mill wastewater was used as substrate and treated in single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells. Olive mill wastewater yielded a maximum voltage of 381 mV on an external resistance of 1 kΩ. Notable decreases in the contents of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, tyrosol, gallic acid and p-coumaric acid were detected. Chemical oxygen demand removal rates were 65 % while removal of total phenolics by the process was lower (49 %). Microbial community analysis during the olive mill wastewater treating MFC has shown that both exoelectrogenic and phenol-degrading microorganisms have been enriched during the operation. Brevundimonas-, Sphingomonas- and Novosphingobium-related phylotypes were enriched on the anode biofilm, while Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteriodetes dominated the cathode biofilm. As one of the novel studies, it has been demonstrated that recalcitrant olive mill wastewaters could be treated and utilized for power generation in microbial fuel cells.

  16. Flexible inverted polymer solar cells fabricated in air at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwabara, Takayuki; Wang, Xiaofan; Kusumi, Takuji; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Taima, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Kohshin

    2016-08-01

    A series of modified indium tin oxide (ITO) materials, including sol-gel zinc-oxide-coated ITO (ITO/ZnO), ZnO nanoparticle-coated ITO (ITO/ZnO-NP), 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)piperazine (BAP)-modified ITO, and polyethylenimine ethoxylated (PEIE)-modified ITO, were used for electron-collection electrodes in inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs). The modified ITO electrodes were prepared in air at temperatures below 100 °C, using various ITO films on flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrates (PET-ITO) with sheet resistances ranging from 12 to 60 Ω sq-1. The PET-ITO (12 Ω sq-1)/ZnO-NP PSC exhibited an improved power conversion efficiency (PCE) (2.93%), and this PCE was ˜90% of that observed for a cell using glass-ITO/ZnO-NP (sheet resistance = 10 Ω sq-1 PCE = 3.28%). Additionally, we fabricated a flexible inverted ZnO-NP PSC using an indene-C60 bisadduct (ICBA) as the acceptor material in place of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and obtained a PCE of 4.18%.

  17. Effects of hydroxyurea administration on the body weight, body composition and exercise performance of patients with sickle-cell anaemia.

    PubMed

    Hackney, A C; Hezier, W; Gulledge, T P; Jones, S; Strayhorn, D; Busby, M; Hoffman, E; Orringer, E P

    1997-05-01

    1. As an ancillary study carried out during the recently completed Multicenter Study of Hydroxyurea, we examined the effect of hydroxyurea on the body weight, body composition and exercise capacity of adult patients with sickle-cell anaemia. 2. The subjects received either hydroxyurea (six males and four females) or placebo (eight males and six females). Data for each subject were generated during four separate 24 h admissions to the General Clinical Research Center. These admissions occurred at baseline and then at 6, 12 and 18 months after the start of study drug (hydroxyurea or placebo) administration. During each admission, body composition was measured by using a dual X-ray absorptiometer, and exercise testing was performed by cycle ergometry. Anaerobic performance was assessed according to a 'Wingate' protocol (20 s at maximal intensity against a cycling resistance of 7.5% body weight). Aerobic performance was examined using a steady state submaximal exercise protocol (10 min cycling time). 3. At baseline, no significant difference in any parameter was found between the hydroxyurea- and placebo-treated groups. At 18 months, the hydroxyurea-treated subjects exhibited an average weight gain of 3.16 kg. The mean weight gain in the placebo-treated subjects was 1.82 kg. Body composition analysis showed that the additional weight in both groups involved both lean and fat body mass components. In anaerobic performance, the subjects given hydroxyurea showed an increase in peak muscle power of 104.9 W. The placebo group also showed an increase, but theirs was a more modest gain of 57.7 W. The most marked improvement in anaerobic performance was observed in the hydroxyurea-treated men (P < 0.05). In aerobic performance, the hydroxyurea-treated subjects exhibited a decrease in peak heart rate response to a standardized workload of 15.2 beats/min, as compared with a decrease of only 4.3 beats/min in the placebo-treated patients. 4. Taken together, the overall weight gain

  18. IN VITRO EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER ON AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS ISOLATED FROM CONCENTRATED AIR PARTICLES-EXPOSED SPONTANEOUS HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vitro effects of particulate matter on airway epithelial cells isolated from concentrated air particles-exposed spontaneous hypertensive rats

    Ines Pagan, Urmila Kodavanti, Paul Evansky, Daniel L Costa and Janice A Dye. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, National...

  19. Relationship between Air Traffic Selection and Training (AT-SAT)) Battery Test Scores and Composite Scores in the Initial en Route Air Traffic Control Qualification Training Course at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Ronald Scott

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: This study focused on the development and use of the AT-SAT test battery and the Initial En Route Qualification training course for the selection, training, and evaluation of air traffic controller candidates. The Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was used to measure the linear relationship between the…

  20. Effects of short-term administration of G-CSF (filgrastim) on bone marrow progenitor cells: analysis of serial marrow samples from normal donors.

    PubMed

    Martínez, C; Urbano-Ispizua, A; Rozman, M; Rovira, M; Marín, P; Montfort, N; Carreras, E; Montserrat, E

    1999-01-01

    To determine the effect of G-CSF administration on both the total number of CD34+ cells and the primitive CD34+ subsets in bone marrow (BM), we have analyzed BM samples serially obtained from 10 normal donors in steady-state and during G-CSF treatment. Filgrastim was administered subcutaneously at a dosage of 10 microg/kg/day (n = 7) or 10 microg/kg/12 h (n = 3) for 4 consecutive days. Peripheral blood sampling and BM aspirates were performed on day 1 (just before G-CSF administration), day 3 (after 2 days of G-CSF), and day 5 (after 4 days of G-CSF). During G-CSF administration, a significant increase in the total number of BM nucleated cells was observed. The percentage (range) of CD34+ cells decreased in BM from a median of 0.88 (0.47-1.44) on day 1 to 0.57 (0.32-1.87), and to 0.42 (0.16-0.87) on days 3 and 5, respectively. We observed a slight increase in the total number of BM CD34+ cells on day 3 (0.66 x 10(9)/l (0.13-0.77)), and a decrease on day 5 (0.23 x 10(9)/l (0.06-1.23)) as compared with steady-state (0.40 x 10(9)/l (0.06-1.68)). The proportion of primitive BM hematopoietic progenitor cells (CD34+CD38-, CD34+HLA-DR-, CD34+CD117-) decreased during G-CSF administration. In parallel, a significant increase in the total number of CD34+ cells in peripheral blood was observed, achieving the maximum value on day 5. These results suggest that in normal subjects the administration of G-CSF for 5 days may reduce the number of progenitor cells in BM, particularly the most primitive ones.

  1. PEM fuel cell cathode carbon corrosion due to the formation of air/fuel boundary at the anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Hao; Qi, Zhigang; Ramani, Manikandan; Elter, John F.

    The impacts of unprotected start up and shut down on fuel cell performance degradation was investigated using both single cell and dual cell configurations. It was found that the air/fuel boundary developed at the anode side after a fuel cell shut down or during its restart caused extremely quick degradation of the cathode. The thickness, the electrochemical active surface area, and the performance of the cathode catalyst layer were significantly reduced. By using a dual cell configuration, cathode potential as high as two times of open circuit voltage was measured, and the corrosion current flowing externally between the two cells was detected and quantified. Carbon catalyst-support corrosion/oxidation at such a high potential was largely responsible for the accelerated fuel cell performance degradation.

  2. The use of air fuel cell cathodes to remove contaminants from spent chromium plating solutions.

    PubMed

    Huang, K L; Holsen, T M; Chou, T C; Yang, M C

    2004-01-01

    Results from experiments using an impregnation-reduction (I-R) Pt / Nafion membrane electrode assembly (MEA) in an air fuel cell cathode to remove contaminants (Cu(II), Ni(II), and Fe(III)) from spent chromium electroplating baths are presented in this study. A platinum-carbon (Pt-C) / Nafion MEA and a Pb planar cathode were also used for comparison. The average removal rates of Cu(II) and Ni(II) were almost the same (0.39 and 0.40 mM hr(-1) (or 0.117 and 0.12 mmol hr(-1)), respectively) but higher than that of Fe(III) (0.16 mM hr(-1), or 0.048 mmol hr(-1)) in accordance with the Nernst-Planck flux equation. The removal rates for the same cation were independent of the cathode used. The average removal rate of each impurity was approximately proportional to the product of its initial concentration and separator area/anolyte volume ratio using Pb cathodes. Under constant current conditions the system using the Pt-C / Nafion cathode needed the highest cell voltage, about 3 V more than needed for the system with the Pt / Nafion cathode. The cell voltage required using the Pt / Nafion cathode was similar to that using the conventional planar Pb cathode. Analyses of cathode deposits by SEM/EDS and XPS techniques indicated they were minimal on the Pb and Pt / Nafion cathode and more apparent on the Pt-C / Nafion cathode. The primary deposits on the Pb cathode were chromium oxides (e.g., Cr2O3) with minor amount of lead chromate (lead dichromate or lead trichromate) and other chromium solids (Cr black). As expected, the dominant deposit on the lead anode surface was PbO2.

  3. Effect of the photoperiod and administration of melatonin on folliculostellate cells of the pituitary pars distalis of adult male viscacha (Lagostomus maximus maximus).

    PubMed

    Acosta, Mariano; Mohamed, Fabian

    2011-10-01

    Numerous reports have shown the effect of photoperiod and melatonin administration on the different hormone secreting cell types in the pituitary pars distalis. The viscacha (Lagostomus maximus maximus) is a rodent with photoperiod-dependent seasonal reproduction. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of photoperiod seasonal variations and melatonin administration on the folliculostellate cells in pituitary pars distalis of viscacha. Immunohistochemistry and image analysis were used to measure the percentage of S-100-positive area (total, cellular and colloidal) and the number of folliculostellate cells. The S-100 protein was immunolocalized at intracellular (folliculostellate cells) and extracellular (follicular colloid) levels. The morphometric parameters analyzed exhibited seasonal variations with highest values in the summer (long photoperiod) and lowest values in the winter (short photoperiod). The administration of melatonin caused a significant decrease of immunostaining. Results suggest that the natural photoperiod might be the most important environmental signal causing the decrease in folliculostellate cells immunostaining observed in the winter. These findings agree with seasonal changes previously reported in endocrine cells and suggest that folliculostellate cells may be involved in the paracrine regulation of the secretory activity of pituitary pars distalis through S-100 protein production.

  4. Effects of nicotine administration on elemental concentrations in mouse granulosa cells, maturing oocytes and oviduct epithelium studied by X-ray microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Z; Jin, M; Nilsson, B O; Roomans, G M

    1998-10-01

    A normal maturation of the oocytes is dependent upon, among other things, normally functioning granulosa and corona radiata cells. Analyses performed during human in vitro fertilization programs have revealed that, in smokers, ovarian functions are affected and that smokers have a decreased fertilization rate. Further, animal studies have indicated that nicotine can reach the genital tractus, and that nicotine administration interferes with oocyte maturation, fertilization and early pregnancy. We applied X-ray microanalysis to monitor whether nicotine administration changed the ionic balance of cells in the reproductive tract (granulosa cells, oocytes and oviduct epithelial cells). The animals were given nicotine in the drinking water at a concentration of 108 mumol/l. After 15 days the animals were superovulated, ovaries and oviducts were frozen, and thick cryosections were prepared for energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. In the granulosa cells, the concentrations of Na and Cl increased after nicotine treatment, while the K concentrations decreased resulting in an increased Na/K ratio. The treated oocytes had a higher K concentration and a decreased Na/K ratio compared to the controls. In the epithelial cells of the oviduct, the concentrations of Na and K decreased after nicotine treatment without any changes in the Na/K ratio. Thus, heavy nicotine administration to mice causes significant changes in the ionic composition of the granulosa cells, the ovarian oocytes and the oviduct epithelium.

  5. Administrative Synergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  6. Intrathecal Administration of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Reduces the Reactive Oxygen Species and Pain Behavior in Neuropathic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, En Ji; Ko, Young Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Background Neuropathic pain induced by spinal or peripheral nerve injury is very resistant to common pain killers, nerve block, and other pain management approaches. Recently, several studies using stem cells suggested a new way to control the neuropatic pain. In this study, we used the spinal nerve L5 ligation (SNL) model to investigate whether intrathecal rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) were able to decrease pain behavior, as well as the relationship between rMSCs and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Methods Neuropathic pain of the left hind paw was induced by unilateral SNL in Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10 in each group). Mechanical sensitivity was assessed using Von Frey filaments at 3, 7, 10, 12, 14, 17, and 24 days post-ligation. rMSCs (10 µl, 1 × 105) or phosphate buffer saline (PBS, 10 µl) was injected intrathecally at 7 days post-ligation. Dihydroethidium (DHE), an oxidative fluorescent dye, was used to detect ROS at 24 days post-ligation. Results Tight ligation of the L5 spinal nerve induced allodynia in the left hind paw after 3 days post-ligation. ROS expression was increased significantly (P < 0.05) in spinal dorsal horn of L5. Intrathecal rMSCs significantly (P < 0.01) alleviated the allodynia at 10 days after intrathecal injection (17 days post-ligation). Intrathecal rMSCs administration significantly (P < 0.05) reduced ROS expression in the spinal dorsal horn. Conclusions These results suggest that rMSCs may modulate neuropathic pain generation through ROS expression after spinal nerve ligation. PMID:25031809

  7. Effects of Intracoronary Administration of Autologous Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells on Acute Myocardial Infarction in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Won; Park, Jong Ha; Kim, Bo Won; Ahn, Jinhee; Kim, Jin Hee; Park, Jin Sup; Oh, Jun-Hyok; Choi, Jung Hyun; Cha, Kwang Soo; Hong, Taek Jong; Park, Tae Sik; Kim, Sang-Pil; Song, Seunghwan; Kim, Ji Yeon; Park, Mi Hwa; Jung, Jin Sup

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are known to be potentially effective in regeneration of damaged tissue. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of intracoronary administration of ADSCs in reducing the infarction area and improving function after acute transmural myocardial infarction (MI) in a porcine model. Materials and Methods ADSCs were obtained from each pig's abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue by simple liposuction. After 3 passages of 14-days culture, 2 million ADSCs were injected into the coronary artery 30 min after acute transmural MI. At baseline and 4 weeks after the ADSC injection, 99mTc methoxyisobutylisonitrile-single photon emission computed tomography (MIBI-SPECT) was performed to evaluate the left ventricular volume, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF; %), and perfusion defects as well as the myocardial salvage (%) and salvage index. At 4 weeks, each pig was sacrificed, and the heart was extracted and dissected. Gross and microscopic analyses with specific immunohistochemistry staining were then performed. Results Analysis showed improvement in the perfusion defect, but not in the LVEF in the ADSC group (n=14), compared with the control group (n=14) (perfusion defect, -13.0±10.0 vs. -2.6±12.0, p=0.019; LVEF, -8.0±15.4 vs. -15.9±14.8, p=0.181). There was a tendency of reducing left ventricular volume in ADSC group. The ADSCs identified by stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) staining were well co-localized by von Willebrand factor and Troponin T staining. Conclusion Intracoronary injection of cultured ADSCs improved myocardial perfusion in this porcine acute transmural MI model. PMID:26446632

  8. The Relationship Between Left Ventricular Fractional Shortening and Intravenous Administration of Stem Cells in Laboratory Rabbits Presenting Chronic Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    POP, IONEL CIPRIAN; GRAD, OVIDIU; PALL, EMOKE; PESTEAN, COSMIN; MIRCEAN, MIRCEA; MIRONIUC, ION AUREL

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims The present study conducted from March 2012 to July 2013 aimed to evaluate from echocardiographic point of view the effects of peripheral intravenous administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in laboratory rabbits presenting 30 days old chronic myocardial infarction. Material and methods 30 days after the induction of an acute myocardial infarction in 40 laboratory rabbits by direct ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery at about 10 mm from the apex, we injected 1×106 MSCs in the auricular vein in a group of 30 rabbits, and a group of 10 rabbits were used as controls. 30 days after the injection of stem cells the left ventricular (LV) fractional shortening (FS) was evaluated by echocardiography and compared with the control rabbits. Results In control rabbits, echocardiography revealed akinesis of apex, interventricular septum kinetics was also impaired, FS being approximately 6%. In 80% (24 rabbits) of the injected rabbits the FS of the LV was significantly greater than in the witness group (26+/−2%, p<0.0001). At 13.3% (4 rabbits) of the injected rabbits the FS of the LV showed no improvement in comparison with the control group (6.5+/−1%). Conclusion An improvement of LV SF 30 days after MSCs were injected(p<0.0001) was noted. We have to further determine if this improvement of the LV function is correlated with any histopathological changes and if it is not lost in time. Also, further studies needs to evaluate if there is any significant change in the overall mortality. PMID:26528044

  9. Toward a lithium-"air" battery: the effect of CO2 on the chemistry of a lithium-oxygen cell.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyung-Kyu; Lim, Hee-Dae; Park, Kyu-Young; Seo, Dong-Hwa; Gwon, Hyeokjo; Hong, Jihyun; Goddard, William A; Kim, Hyungjun; Kang, Kisuk

    2013-07-03

    Lithium-oxygen chemistry offers the highest energy density for a rechargeable system as a "lithium-air battery". Most studies of lithium-air batteries have focused on demonstrating battery operations in pure oxygen conditions; such a battery should technically be described as a "lithium-dioxygen battery". Consequently, the next step for the lithium-"air" battery is to understand how the reaction chemistry is affected by the constituents of ambient air. Among the components of air, CO2 is of particular interest because of its high solubility in organic solvents and it can react actively with O2(-•), which is the key intermediate species in Li-O2 battery reactions. In this work, we investigated the reaction mechanisms in the Li-O2/CO2 cell under various electrolyte conditions using quantum mechanical simulations combined with experimental verification. Our most important finding is that the subtle balance among various reaction pathways influencing the potential energy surfaces can be modified by the electrolyte solvation effect. Thus, a low dielectric electrolyte tends to primarily form Li2O2, while a high dielectric electrolyte is effective in electrochemically activating CO2, yielding only Li2CO3. Most surprisingly, we further discovered that a high dielectric medium such as DMSO can result in the reversible reaction of Li2CO3 over multiple cycles. We believe that the current mechanistic understanding of the chemistry of CO2 in a Li-air cell and the interplay of CO2 with electrolyte solvation will provide an important guideline for developing Li-air batteries. Furthermore, the possibility for a rechargeable Li-O2/CO2 battery based on Li2CO3 may have merits in enhancing cyclability by minimizing side reactions.

  10. Degranulation, density, and distribution of mast cells in the rat thalamus: a light and electron microscopic study in basal conditions and after intracerebroventricular administration of nerve growth factor.

    PubMed

    Florenzano, F; Bentivoglio, M

    2000-09-04

    In the adult rat brain mast cells reside selectively in the thalamus. We investigated thalamic mast cells stained by acidic toluidine blue or pinacyanol, and with histamine immunocytochemistry, focusing on their state of activity revealed by degranulation. Mast cells exhibited perivascular prevalence and high quantitative variability, between cases and in different sections, with no asymmetry or topographical selectivity in thalamic nuclei. Pinacyanol, alone or with erythrosine, stained mast cells with higher sensitivity than toluidine blue. However, toluidine blue was highly predictive of pinacyanol staining and provided the best resolution of mast cell cytoplasmic features. Histamine immunocytochemistry labeled 61% of pinacyanol-stained mast cells. Intensely toluidine blue-stained granulated cells, as well as cells exhibiting different degrees of degranulation that paralleled lighter staining, were observed. The response of thalamic mast cells to intracerebroventricular administration of nerve growth factor (NGF) and control cytochrome-c injections was evaluated after 2, 24, and 72 hours. No obvious changes in mast cell number or distribution were found after treatment, but massive degranulation was frequently observed after NGF administration. Significant decrease of staining intensity of mast cells, supporting enhanced degranulation, was documented in NGF-treated animals by quantitative image analysis. Ultrastructural features of mast cell degranulation, with granule coalescence and matrix dissolution, were detected in untreated and NGF-treated cases. The findings point out that mast cells are active in the thalamus in basal conditions and that NGF has the potential to elicit long-lasting degranulation of thalamic mast cells in vivo, exerting a direct effect and/or priming these cells to react to endogenous stimuli.

  11. Ambient salinity modifies the action of triiodothyronine in the air-breathing fish Anabas testudineus Bloch: effects on mitochondria-rich cell distribution, osmotic and metabolic regulations.

    PubMed

    Peter, M C Subhash; Leji, J; Peter, Valsa S

    2011-04-01

    The hydromineral and metabolic actions of thyroid hormone on osmotic acclimation in fish is less understood. We, therefore, studied the short-term action of triiodothyronine (T(3)), the potent thyroid hormone, on the distribution and the function of gill mitochondria-rich (MR) cells and on the whole body hydromineral and metabolic regulations of air-breathing fish (Anabas testudineus) adapted to either freshwater (FW) or acclimated to seawater (SA; 30 g L(-1)). As expected, 24 h T(3) injection (100 ng g(-1)) elevated (P<0.05) plasma T(3) but classically reduced (P<0.05) plasma T(4). The higher Na(+), K(+)-ATPase immunoreactivity and the varied distribution pattern of MR cells in the gills of T(3)-treated FW and SA fish, suggest an action of T(3) on gill MR cell migration, though the density of these cells remained unchanged after T(3) treatment. The ouabain-sensitive Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity, a measure of hydromineral competence, showed increases (P<0.05) in the gills of both FW and SA fish after T(3) administration, but inhibited (P<0.05) in the kidney of the FW fish and not in the SA fish. Exogenous T(3) reduced glucose (P<0.05) and urea (P<0.05) in the plasma of FW fish, whereas these metabolites were elevated (P<0.05) in the SA fish, suggesting a modulatory effect of ambient salinity on the T(3)-driven metabolic actions. Our data identify gill MR cell as a target for T(3) action as it promotes the spatial distribution and the osmotic function of these cells in both fresh water and in seawater. The results besides confirming the metabolic and osmotic actions of T(3) in fish support the hypothesis that the differential actions of T(3) may be due to the direct influence of ambient salinity, a major environmental determinant that alters the osmotic and metabolic strategies of fish.

  12. Fuel Cell Transit Bus Evaluations: Joint Evaluation Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy and the Federal Transit Administration (Report and Appendix)

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2010-11-01

    This document describes the fuel cell transit bus evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration (FTA). This document provides a description of the demonstration sites, funding sources, and data collection activities for fuel cell transit bus evaluations currently planned from FY10 through FY12.

  13. Enzymatic Fuel Cells: Integrating Flow-Through Anode and Air-Breathing Cathode into a Membrane-Less Biofuel Cell Design (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    with poly- methylene green (poly-MG) catalyst for biofuel cell anode fabrication. A fungal laccase that catalyzes oxygen reduction via direct electron...enzyme, Poly- methylene green, Membrane-less U U U UU 6 Glenn R. Johnson Reset This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy...2011 Keywords: Biofuel cell Flow-through Air-breathing cathode NAD+-dependent enzyme Poly- methylene green Membrane-less a b s t r a c t One

  14. The 2006 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Range Reference Atmosphere Model Validation Study and Sensitivity Analysis to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Ryan; Burns, Lee; Merry, Carl; Harrington, Brian

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Space Shuttle utilizes atmospheric thermodynamic properties to evaluate structural dynamics and vehicle flight performance impacts by the atmosphere during ascent. Statistical characteristics of atmospheric thermodynamic properties at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) used in Space. Shuttle Vehicle assessments are contained in the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) Range Reference Atmosphere (RRA) Database. Database contains tabulations for monthly and annual means (mu), standard deviations (sigma) and skewness of wind and thermodynamic variables. Wind, Thermodynamic, Humidity and Hydrostatic parameters 1 km resolution interval from 0-30 km 2 km resolution interval 30-70 km Multiple revisions of the CCAFS RRA database have been developed since initial RRA published in 1963. 1971, 1983, 2006 Space Shuttle program utilized 1983 version for use in deriving "hot" and "cold" atmospheres, atmospheric density dispersions for use in vehicle certification analyses and selection of atmospheric thermodynamic profiles for use in vehicle ascent design and certification analyses. During STS-114 launch preparations in July 2005 atmospheric density observations between 50-80 kft exceeded density limits used for aerodynamic ascent heating constraints in vehicle certification analyses. Mission specific analyses were conducted and concluded that the density bias resulted in small changes to heating rates and integrated heat loading on the vehicle. In 2001, the Air Force Combat Climatology Center began developing an updated RRA for CCAFS.

  15. Harvesting hydrogen gas from air pollutants with an un-biased gas phase photo-electrochemical cell.

    PubMed

    Verbruggen, Sammy W; Van Hal, Myrthe; Bosserez, Tom; Rongé, Jan; Hauchecorne, Birger; Martens, Johan A; Lenaerts, Silvia

    2017-02-08

    The concept of an all-gas-phase photo-electrochemical cell (PEC) producing hydrogen gas from volatile organic contaminated gas and light is presented. Without applying any external bias, organic contaminants are degraded and hydrogen gas is produced in separate electrode compartments. The system works most efficiently with organic pollutants in inert carrier gas. In the presence of oxygen gas, the cell performs less efficiently but still significant photocurrents are generated, showing the cell can be run on organic contaminated air. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate new application opportunities of PEC technology and to encourage further advancement toward photo-electrochemical remediation of air pollution with the attractive feature of simultaneous energy recovery and pollution abatement.

  16. Retaining the 3D framework of zinc sponge anodes upon deep discharge in Zn-air cells.

    PubMed

    Parker, Joseph F; Nelson, Eric S; Wattendorf, Matthew D; Chervin, Christopher N; Long, Jeffrey W; Rolison, Debra R

    2014-11-26

    We fabricate three-dimensional zinc electrodes from emulsion-cast sponges of Zn powder that are thermally treated to produce rugged monoliths. This highly conductive, 3D-wired aperiodic scaffold achieves 740 mA h gZn(-1) when discharged in primary Zn-air cells (>90% of theoretical Zn capacity). We use scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction to monitor the microstructural evolution of a series of Zn sponges when oxidized in Zn-air cells to specific depths-of-discharge (20, 40, 60, 80% DOD) at a technologically relevant rate (C/40; 4-6 mA cm(-2)). The Zn sponges maintain their 3D-monolithic form factor at all DOD. The cell resistance remains low under all test conditions, indicating that an inner core of metallic Zn persists that 3D-electrically wires the electrode, even to deep DOD.

  17. Full cell simulation and the evaluation of the buffer system on air-cathode microbial fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Shiqi; Kashima, Hiroyuki; Aaron, Douglas S.; Regan, John M.; Mench, Matthew M.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a computational model of a single chamber, air-cathode MFC. The model considers losses due to mass transport, as well as biological and electrochemical reactions, in both the anode and cathode half-cells. Computational fluid dynamics and Monod-Nernst analysis are incorporated into the reactions for the anode biofilm and cathode Pt catalyst and biofilm. The integrated model provides a macro-perspective of the interrelation between the anode and cathode during power production, while incorporating microscale contributions of mass transport within the anode and cathode layers. Model considerations include the effects of pH (H+/OH- transport) and electric field-driven migration on concentration overpotential, effects of various buffers and various amounts of buffer on the pH in the whole reactor, and overall impacts on the power output of the MFC. The simulation results fit the experimental polarization and power density curves well. Further, this model provides insight regarding mass transport at varying current density regimes and quantitative delineation of overpotentials at the anode and cathode. Overall, this comprehensive simulation is designed to accurately predict MFC performance based on fundamental fluid and kinetic relations and guide optimization of the MFC system.

  18. Full cell simulation and the evaluation of the buffer system on air-cathode microbial fuel cell

    DOE PAGES

    Ou, Shiqi; Kashima, Hiroyuki; Aaron, Douglas S.; ...

    2017-02-23

    This paper presents a computational model of a single chamber, air-cathode MFC. The model considers losses due to mass transport, as well as biological and electrochemical reactions, in both the anode and cathode half-cells. Computational fluid dynamics and Monod-Nernst analysis are incorporated into the reactions for the anode biofilm and cathode Pt catalyst and biofilm. The integrated model provides a macro-perspective of the interrelation between the anode and cathode during power production, while incorporating microscale contributions of mass transport within the anode and cathode layers. Model considerations include the effects of pH (H+/OH– transport) and electric field-driven migration on concentrationmore » overpotential, effects of various buffers and various amounts of buffer on the pH in the whole reactor, and overall impacts on the power output of the MFC. The simulation results fit the experimental polarization and power density curves well. Further, this model provides insight regarding mass transport at varying current density regimes and quantitative delineation of overpotentials at the anode and cathode. Altogether, this comprehensive simulation is designed to accurately predict MFC performance based on fundamental fluid and kinetic relations and guide optimization of the MFC system.« less

  19. A comparative analysis of intraperitoneal versus intracerebroventricular administration of bromodeoxyuridine for the study of cell proliferation in the adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, M; Pérez-Martín, M; Grondona, J M; López-Ávalos, M D; Inagaki, N; Granados-Durán, P; Rivera, P; Fernández-Llebrez, P

    2011-10-15

    Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) is the most widely used marker to detect proliferative cells in the adult brain. Here we analyse whether the route of administration of the tracer influences the number of labelled cells. For the intraperitoneal (ip) administration of BrdU, we performed two daily injections during 7 days, and for an intracerebroventricular (icv) delivery, it was continuously infused into one lateral ventricle for a 7 days period as well. After ip administration, cells labelled with BrdU were seen in the subventricular zone of the striatal wall of the lateral ventricle, the hippocampus and the neurohemal circumventricular organs. Also, the habenula and large myelinated tracts, such as the fornix and the corpus callosum, showed many BrdU-positive nuclei. Labelled nuclei were scarce in the parenchymal regions of the rest of the brain. In contrast, a significant increase in the number of BrdU-positive nuclei was observed in the parenchyma of the periventricular zones after icv administration of the marker, thus showing a greater availability of the tracer when it was administered directly into the ventricular cerebrospinal fluid. We suggest that the availability of BrdU in the vicinity of proliferating cells may depend on the permeability of the brain vessels to nucleosides in each location. By using double immunocytochemistry we found that neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, tanycytes and microglia had incorporated the tracer, demonstrating their proliferation capacity.

  20. Influence of single and repeated cannabidiol administration on emotional behavior and markers of cell proliferation and neurogenesis in non-stressed mice.

    PubMed

    Schiavon, Angélica Pupin; Bonato, Jéssica Mendes; Milani, Humberto; Guimarães, Francisco Silveira; Weffort de Oliveira, Rúbia Maria

    2016-01-04

    Therapeutic effects of antidepressants and atypical antipsychotics may arise partially from their ability to stimulate neurogenesis. Cannabidiol (CBD), a phytocannabinoid present in Cannabis sativa, presents anxiolytic- and antipsychotic-like effects in preclinical and clinical settings. Anxiolytic-like effects of repeated CBD were shown in chronically stressed animals and these effects were parallel with increased hippocampal neurogenesis. However, antidepressant-like effects of repeated CBD administration in non-stressed animals have been scarcely reported. Here we investigated the behavioral consequences of single or repeated CBD administration in non-stressed animals. We also determined the effects of CBD on cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) and subventricular zone (SVZ). Single CBD 3mg/kg administration resulted in anxiolytic-like effect in mice submitted to the elevated plus maze (EPM). In the tail suspension test (TST), single or repeated CBD administration reduced immobility time, an effect that was comparable to those of imipramine (20 mg/kg). Moreover, repeated CBD administration at a lower dose (3 mg/kg) increased cell proliferation and neurogenesis, as seen by an increased number of Ki-67-, BrdU- and doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells in both in DG and SVZ. Despite its antidepressant-like effects in the TST, repeated CBD administration at a higher dose (30 mg/kg) decreased cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the hippocampal DG and SVZ. Our findings show a dissociation between behavioral and proliferative effects of repeated CBD and suggest that the antidepressant-like effects of CBD may occur independently of adult neurogenesis in non-stressed Swiss mice.

  1. Local administration of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor induces local accumulation of dendritic cells and antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and enhances dendritic cell cross-presentation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Jong; Song, Liwen; Yang, Ming-Chieh; Mao, Chih-Ping; Yang, Benjamin; Yang, Andrew; Jeang, Jessica; Peng, Shiwen; Wu, T-C; Hung, Chien-Fu

    2015-03-24

    Immunotherapy has emerged as a promising treatment strategy for the control of HPV-associated malignancies. Various therapeutic HPV vaccines have elicited potent antigen-specific CD8+ T cell mediated antitumor immune responses in preclinical models and are currently being tested in several clinical trials. Recent evidence indicates the importance of local immune activation, and higher number of immune cells in the site of lesion correlates with positive prognosis. Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) has been reported to posses the ability to induce migration of antigen presentation cells and CD8+ T cells. Therefore, in the current study, we employ a combination of systemic therapeutic HPV DNA vaccination with local GMCSF application in the TC-1 tumor model. We show that intramuscular vaccination with CRT/E7 DNA followed by GMCSF intravaginal administration effectively controls cervicovaginal TC-1 tumors in mice. Furthermore, we observe an increase in the accumulation of E7-specific CD8+ T cells and dendritic cells in vaginal tumors following the combination treatment. In addition, we show that GMCSF induces activation and maturation in dendritic cells and promotes antigen cross-presentation. Our results support the clinical translation of the combination treatment of systemic therapeutic vaccination followed by local GMCSF administration as an effective strategy for tumor treatment.

  2. Air-drying of cells, the novel conditions for stimulated synthesis of triacylglycerol in a Green Alga, Chlorella kessleri.

    PubMed

    Shiratake, Takuma; Sato, Atsushi; Minoda, Ayumi; Tsuzuki, Mikio; Sato, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Triacylglycerol is used for the production of commodities including food oils and biodiesel fuel. Microalgae can accumulate triacylglycerol under adverse environmental conditions such as nitrogen-starvation. This study explored the possibility of air-drying of green algal cells as a novel and simple protocol for enhancement of their triacylglycerol content. Chlorella kessleri cells were fixed on the surface of a glass fibre filter and then subjected to air-drying with light illumination. The dry cell weight, on a filter, increased by 2.7-fold in 96 h, the corresponding chlorophyll content ranging from 1.0 to 1.3-fold the initial one. Concomitantly, the triacylglycerol content remarkably increased to 70.3 mole% of fatty acids and 15.9% (w/w), relative to total fatty acids and dry cell weight, respectively, like in cells starved of nitrogen. Reduction of the stress of air-drying by placing the glass filter on a filter paper soaked in H2O lowered the fatty acid content of triacylglycerol to 26.4 mole% as to total fatty acids. Moreover, replacement of the H2O with culture medium further decreased the fatty acid content of triacylglycerol to 12.2 mole%. It thus seemed that severe dehydration is required for full induction of triacylglycerol synthesis, and that nutritional depletion as well as dehydration are crucial environmental factors. Meanwhile, air-drying of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells increased the triacylglycerol content to only 37.9 mole% of fatty acids and 4.8% (w/w), relative to total fatty acids and dry cell weight, respectively, and a marked decrease in the chlorophyll content, on a filter, of 33%. Air-drying thus has an impact on triacylglycerol synthesis in C. reinhardtii also, however, the effect is considerably limited, owing probably to instability of the photosynthetic machinery. This air-drying protocol could be useful for the development of a system for industrial production of triacylglycerol with appropriate selection of the algal species.

  3. Chronic sinusitis: defective T-cells responding to superantigens, treated by reduction of fungi in the nose and air.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Donald P

    2003-07-01

    fungal symptoms is a genetic defect at the variable beta chain helper T-cell receptor (TCR Vbeta) site which requires the presence of an antigen (fungus). Chronic sinusitis patients who have recurring exposure to environmental air that contains fungal concentrations in excess of 4 colonies per 1-hr agar plate exposure appear to have an increased risk of persistent chronic sinusitis and/or systemic symptoms, regardless of the medical treatment provided.

  4. Peroral administration of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine in drinking water is not a reliable method for labeling proliferating S-phase cells in rats.

    PubMed

    Ševc, Juraj; Matiašová, Anna; Smoleková, Ivana; Jendželovský, Rastislav; Mikeš, Jaromír; Tomášová, Lenka; Kútna, Viera; Daxnerová, Zuzana; Fedoročko, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In rodents, peroral (p.o.) administration of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) dissolved in drinking water is a widely used method for labeling newly formed cells over a prolonged time-period. Despite the broad applicability of this method, the pharmacokinetics of BrdU in rats or mice after p.o. administration remains unknown. Moreover, the p.o. route of administration may be limited by the relatively low amount of BrdU consumed over 24h and the characteristic drinking pattern of rats, with water intake being observed predominantly during the dark phase. Therefore, we investigated the reliability of staining proliferating S-phase cells with BrdU after p.o. administration (1mg/ml) to rats using both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Flow cytometric analysis of tumor cells co-cultivated with sera from experimental animals exposed to BrdU dissolved in drinking water or 25% orange juice revealed that the concentration of BrdU in the blood sera of rats throughout the day was below the detection limits of our assay. Ingested BrdU was only sufficient to label approximately 4.2±0.3% (water) or 4.2±0.3% (25% juice) of all S-phase cells. Analysis of data from in vivo conditions indicates that only 7.6±3.3% or 15.5±2.3% of all S-phase cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus was labeled in animals administered drinking water containing BrdU during the light and dark phases of the day. In addition, the intensity of BrdU-positive nuclei in animals receiving p.o. administration of BrdU was significantly lower than in control animals intraperitoneally injected with BrdU. Our data indicate that the conventional approach of p.o. administration of BrdU in the drinking water to rats provides strongly inaccurate information about the number of proliferating cells in target tissues. Therefore other administration routes, such as osmotic mini pumps, should be considered for labeling of proliferating cells over a prolonged time-period.

  5. Hydrogeology of the area near the J4 test cell, Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haugh, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force operates a major aerospace systems testing facility at Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) in Coffee County, Tennessee. Dewatering operations at one of the test facilities, the J4 test cell, has affected the local ground-water hydrology. The J4 test cell is approximately 100 feet in diameter, extends approximately 250 feet below land surface, and penetrates several aquifers. Ground water is pumped continuously from around the test cell to keep the cell structurally intact. Because of the test cell's depth, dewatering has depressed water levels in the aquifers surrounding the site. The depressions that have developed exhibit anisotropy that is controlled by zones of high permeability in the aquifers. Additionally, contaminants - predominately volatile organic compounds - are present in the ground-water discharge from the test cell and in ground water at several other Installation Restoration Program (IRP) sites within the AEDC facility. The dewatering activities at J4 are drawing these contaminants from the nearby sites. The effects of dewatering at the J4 test cell were investigated by studying the lithologic and hydraulic characteristics of the aquifers, investigating the anisotropy and zones of secondary permeability using geophysical techniques, mapping the potentiometric surfaces of the underlying aquifers, and developing a conceptual model of the ground-water-flow system local to the test cell. Contour maps of the potentiometric surfaces in the shallow, Manchester, and Fort Payne aquifers (collectively, part of the Highland Rim aquifer system) show anisotropic water-level depressions centered on the J4 test cell. This anisotropy is the result of features of high permeability such as chert-gravel zones in the regolith and fractures, joints, and bedding planes in the bedrock. The presence of these features of high permeability in the Manchester aquifer results in complex flow patterns in the Highland Rim aquifers near the J4 test cell

  6. Anolyte recirculation effects in buffered and unbuffered single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Zhu, Xun; Kashima, Hiroyuki; Li, Jun; Ye, Ding-ding; Liao, Qiang; Regan, John M

    2015-03-01

    Two identical microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with a floating air-cathode were operated under either buffered (MFC-B) or bufferless (MFC-BL) conditions to investigate anolyte recirculation effects on enhancing proton transfer. With an external resistance of 50 Ω and recirculation rate of 1.0 ml/min, MFC-BL had a 27% lower voltage (9.7% lower maximal power density) but a 64% higher Coulombic efficiency (CE) than MFC-B. MFC-B had a decreased voltage output, batch time, and CE with increasing recirculation rate resulting from more oxygen transfer into the anode. However, increasing the recirculation rate within a low range significantly enhanced proton transfer in MFC-BL, resulting in a higher voltage output, a longer batch time, and a higher CE. A further increase in recirculation rate decreased the batch time and CE of MFC-BL due to excess oxygen transfer into anode outweighing the proton-transfer benefits. The unbuffered MFC had an optimal recirculation rate of 0.35 ml/min.

  7. Multi-variable mathematical models for the air-cathode microbial fuel cell system

    DOE PAGES

    Ou, Shiqi; Kashima, Hiroyuki; Aaron, Douglas S.; ...

    2016-03-10

    This research adopted the version control system into the model construction for the single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) system, to understand the interrelation of biological, chemical, and electrochemical reactions. The anodic steady state model was used to consider the chemical species diffusion and electric migration influence to the MFC performance. In the cathodic steady state model, the mass transport and reactions in a multi-layer, abiotic cathode and multi-bacteria cathode biofilm were simulated. Transport of hydroxide was assumed for cathodic pH change. This assumption is an alternative to the typical notion of proton consumption during oxygen reduction to explainmore » elevated cathode pH. The cathodic steady state model provided the power density and polarization curve performance results that can be compared to an experimental MFC system. Another aspect we considered was the relative contributions of platinum catalyst and microbes on the cathode to the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). We found simulation results showed that the biocatalyst in a cathode that includes a Pt/C catalyst likely plays a minor role in ORR, contributing up to 8% of the total power calculated by the models.« less

  8. Continuous electricity generation in stacked air cathode microbial fuel cell treating domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeongdong; Ahn, Youngho

    2013-11-30

    This study examined the continuous performance of air cathode MFC stacks for domestic wastewater treatments at two different temperatures (23 ± 3 °C and 30 ± 1 °C) and organic loading rates to determine the effects of the electrode connection and hydraulic flow mode on the stack performance. The power density and process stability were affected significantly by the electrode connection type, flow mode, and operating parameters. The parallel electrode connection system (in series flow mode) had benefits of COD removal, Coulombic efficiency and maximal power density due to the higher stability of the ORP in overall cells. The highest power density of 420 mW/m(2) (12.8 W/m(3)) was achieved in series flow and parallel connection mode at an organic loading rate of 25.6 g COD/L-d (HRT of 0.33 h) under mesophilic conditions, achieving a COD removal of 44%. The results highlight the importance of prefermentation process in the application of a stacked MFC for an actual wastewater treatment.

  9. Multi-variable mathematical models for the air-cathode microbial fuel cell system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Shiqi; Kashima, Hiroyuki; Aaron, Douglas S.; Regan, John M.; Mench, Matthew M.

    2016-05-01

    This research adopted the version control system into the model construction for the single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) system, to understand the interrelation of biological, chemical, and electrochemical reactions. The anodic steady state model was used to consider the chemical species diffusion and electric migration influence to the MFC performance. In the cathodic steady state model, the mass transport and reactions in a multi-layer, abiotic cathode and multi-bacteria cathode biofilm were simulated. Transport of hydroxide was assumed for cathodic pH change. This assumption is an alternative to the typical notion of proton consumption during oxygen reduction to explain elevated cathode pH. The cathodic steady state model provided the power density and polarization curve performance results that can be compared to an experimental MFC system. Another aspect considered was the relative contributions of platinum catalyst and microbes on the cathode to the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Simulation results showed that the biocatalyst in a cathode that includes a Pt/C catalyst likely plays a minor role in ORR, contributing up to 8% of the total power calculated by the models.

  10. Multi-variable mathematical models for the air-cathode microbial fuel cell system

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, Shiqi; Kashima, Hiroyuki; Aaron, Douglas S.; Regan, John M.; Mench, Matthew M.

    2016-03-10

    This research adopted the version control system into the model construction for the single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) system, to understand the interrelation of biological, chemical, and electrochemical reactions. The anodic steady state model was used to consider the chemical species diffusion and electric migration influence to the MFC performance. In the cathodic steady state model, the mass transport and reactions in a multi-layer, abiotic cathode and multi-bacteria cathode biofilm were simulated. Transport of hydroxide was assumed for cathodic pH change. This assumption is an alternative to the typical notion of proton consumption during oxygen reduction to explain elevated cathode pH. The cathodic steady state model provided the power density and polarization curve performance results that can be compared to an experimental MFC system. Another aspect we considered was the relative contributions of platinum catalyst and microbes on the cathode to the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). We found simulation results showed that the biocatalyst in a cathode that includes a Pt/C catalyst likely plays a minor role in ORR, contributing up to 8% of the total power calculated by the models.

  11. Human middle-ear model with compound eardrum and airway branching in mastoid air cells

    PubMed Central

    Keefe, Douglas H.

    2015-01-01

    An acoustical/mechanical model of normal adult human middle-ear function is described for forward and reverse transmission. The eardrum model included one component bound along the manubrium and another bound by the tympanic cleft. Eardrum components were coupled by a time-delayed impedance. The acoustics of the middle-ear cleft was represented by an acoustical transmission-line model for the tympanic cavity, aditus, antrum, and mastoid air cell system with variable amounts of excess viscothermal loss. Model parameters were fitted to published measurements of energy reflectance (0.25–13 kHz), equivalent input impedance at the eardrum (0.25–11 kHz), temporal-bone pressure in scala vestibuli and scala tympani (0.1–11 kHz), and reverse middle-ear impedance (0.25–8 kHz). Inner-ear fluid motion included cochlear and physiological third-window pathways. The two-component eardrum with time delay helped fit intracochlear pressure responses. A multi-modal representation of the eardrum and high-frequency modeling of the middle-ear cleft helped fit ear-canal responses. Input reactance at the eardrum was small at high frequencies due to multiple modal resonances. The model predicted the middle-ear efficiency between ear canal and cochlea, and the cochlear pressures at threshold. PMID:25994701

  12. Performance and microbial ecology of air-cathode microbial fuel cells with layered electrode assemblies.

    PubMed

    Butler, Caitlyn S; Nerenberg, Robert

    2010-05-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can be built with layered electrode assemblies, where the anode, proton exchange membrane (PEM), and cathode are pressed into a single unit. We studied the performance and microbial community structure of MFCs with layered assemblies, addressing the effect of materials and oxygen crossover on the community structure. Four MFCs with layered assemblies were constructed using Nafion or Ultrex PEMs and a plain carbon cloth electrode or a cathode with an oxygen-resistant polytetrafluoroethylene diffusion layer. The MFC with Nafion PEM and cathode diffusion layer achieved the highest power density, 381 mW/m(2) (20 W/m(3)). The rates of oxygen diffusion from cathode to anode were three times higher in the MFCs with plain cathodes compared to those with diffusion-layer cathodes. Microsensor studies revealed little accumulation of oxygen within the anode cloth. However, the abundance of bacteria known to use oxygen as an electron acceptor, but not known to have exoelectrogenic activity, was greater in MFCs with plain cathodes. The MFCs with diffusion-layer cathodes had high abundance of exoelectrogenic bacteria within the genus Geobacter. This work suggests that cathode materials can significantly influence oxygen crossover and the relative abundance of exoelectrogenic bacteria on the anode, while PEM materials have little influence on anode community structure. Our results show that oxygen crossover can significantly decrease the performance of air-cathode MFCs with layered assemblies, and therefore limiting crossover may be of particular importance for these types of MFCs.

  13. Computational study of forced air-convection in open-cathode polymer electrolyte fuel cell stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasmito, A. P.; Lum, K. W.; Birgersson, E.; Mujumdar, A. S.

    A mathematical model for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) stack with an open-cathode manifold, where a fan provides the oxidant as well as cooling, is derived and studied. In short, the model considers two-phase flow and conservation of mass, momentum, species and energy in the ambient and PEFC stack, as well as conservation of charge and a phenomenological membrane and agglomerate model for the PEFC stack. The fan is resolved as an interfacial condition with a polynomial expression for the static pressure increase over the fan as a function of the fan velocity. The results suggest that there is strong correlation between fan power rating, the height of cathode flow-field and stack performance. Further, the placement of the fan - either in blowing or suction mode - does not give rise to a discernable difference in stack performance for the flow-field considered (metal mesh). Finally, it is noted that the model can be extended to incorporate other types of flow-fields and, most importantly, be employed for design and optimization of forced air-convection open-cathode PEFC stacks and adjacent fans.

  14. 46 CFR 296.50 - Administrative determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Scott Air Force Base, IL 62225-5357. (c) Process. The Administrator, or the Commander in the case of a... Administration or the Contracting Officer with respect to the administration of this part or any other dispute or... Contractor of the administrative determination of the Contracting Officer. Such an appeal should be...

  15. Investigation of low temperature solid oxide fuel cells for air-independent UUV applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moton, Jennie Mariko

    Unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) will benefit greatly from high energy density (> 500 Wh/L) power systems utilizing high-energy-density fuels and air-independent oxidizers. Current battery-based systems have limited energy densities (< 400 Wh/L), which motivate development of alternative power systems such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). SOFC-based power systems have the potential to achieve the required UUV energy densities, and the current study explores how SOFCs based on gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC) electrolytes with operating temperatures of 650°C and lower may operate in the unique environments of a promising UUV power plant. The plant would contain a H 2O2 decomposition reactor to supply humidified O2 to the SOFC cathode and exothermic aluminum/H2O combustor to provide heated humidified H2 fuel to the anode. To characterize low-temperature SOFC performance with these unique O2 and H2 source, SOFC button cells based on nickel/GDC (Gd0.1Ce0.9O 1.95) anodes, GDC electrolytes, and lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ or LSCF)/GDC cathodes were fabricated and tested for performance and stability with humidity on both the anode and the cathode. Cells were also tested with various reactant concentrations of H2 and O2 to simulate gas depletion down the channel of an SOFC stack. Results showed that anode performance depended primarily on fuel concentration and less on the concentration of the associated increase in product H2O. O 2 depletion with humidified cathode flows also caused significant loss in cell current density at a given voltage. With the humidified flows in either the anode or cathode, stability tests of the button cells at 650 °C showed stable voltage is maintained at low operating current (0.17 A/cm2) at up to 50 % by mole H2O, but at higher current densities (0.34 A/cm2), irreversible voltage degradation occurred at rates of 0.8-3.7 mV/hour depending on exposure time. From these button cell results, estimated average

  16. Effects of preset sequential administrations of sunitinib and everolimus on tumour differentiation in Caki-1 renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Santos, C D; Tijeras-Raballand, A; Serova, M; Sebbagh, S; Slimane, K; Faivre, S; de Gramont, A; Raymond, E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sunitinib (VEGFR/PDGFR inhibitor) and everolimus (mTOR inhibitor) are both approved for advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) as first-line and second-line therapy, respectively. In the clinics, sunitinib treatment is limited by the emergence of acquired resistance, leading to a switch to second-line treatment at progression, often based on everolimus. No data have been yet generated on programmed alternating sequential strategies combining alternative use of sunitinib and everolimus before progression. Such strategy is expected to delay the emergence of acquired resistance and improve tumour control. The aim of our study was to assess the changes in tumours induced by three different sequences administration of sunitinib and everolimus. Methods: In human Caki-1 RCC xenograft model, sunitinib was alternated with everolimus every week, every 2 weeks, or every 3 weeks. Effects on necrosis, hypoxia, angiogenesis, and EMT status were assessed by immunohisochemistry and immunofluorescence. Results: Sunitinib and everolimus programmed sequential regimens before progression yielded longer median time to tumour progression than sunitinib and everolimus monotherapies. In each group of treatment, tumour growth control was associated with inhibition of mTOR pathway and changes from a mesenchymal towards an epithelial phenotype, with a decrease in vimentin and an increase in E-cadherin expression. The sequential combinations of these two agents in a RCC mouse clinical trial induced antiangiogenic effects, leading to tumour necrosis. Conclusions: In summary, our study showed that alternate sequence of sunitinib and everolimus mitigated the development of mesenchymal phenotype compared with sunitinib as single agent. PMID:25422908

  17. Suppression of Medulloblastoma Lesions by Forced Migration of Preneoplastic Precursor Cells with Intracerebellar Administration of the Chemokine Cxcl3

    PubMed Central

    Ceccarelli, Manuela; Micheli, Laura; Tirone, Felice

    2016-01-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB), tumor of the cerebellum, remains a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in childhood. We previously showed, in a mouse model of spontaneous MB (Ptch1+/-/Tis21-/-), that a defect of the migration of cerebellar granule neuron precursor cells (GCPs) correlates with an increased frequency of MB. This occurs because GCPs, rather than migrating internally and differentiating, remain longer in the proliferative area at the cerebellar surface, becoming targets of transforming insults. Furthermore, we identified the chemokine Cxcl3 as responsible for the inward migration of GCPs. As it is known that preneoplastic GCPs (pGCPs) can still migrate and differentiate like normal GCPs, thus exiting the neoplastic program, in this study we tested the hypothesis that pGCPs within a MB lesion could be induced by Cxcl3 to migrate and differentiate. We observed that the administration of Cxcl3 for 28 days within the cerebellum of 1-month-old Ptch1+/-/Tis21-/- mice, i.e., when MB lesions are already formed, leads to complete disappearance of the lesions. However, a shorter treatment with Cxcl3 (2 weeks) was ineffective, suggesting that the suppression of MB lesions is dependent on the duration of Cxcl3 application. We verified that the treatment with Cxcl3 causes a massive migration of pGCPs from the lesion to the internal granular layer, where they differentiate. Thus, the induction of migration of pGCPs in MB lesions may open new ways to treat MB that exploit the plasticity of the pGCPs, forcing their differentiation. It remains to be tested whether this plasticity continues at advanced stages of MB. If so, these findings would set a potential use of the chemokine Cxcl3 as therapeutic agent against MB development in human preclinical studies. PMID:28018222

  18. Further study of the intrinsic safety of internally shorted lithium and lithium-ion cells within methane-air

    PubMed Central

    Dubaniewicz, Thomas H.; DuCarme, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) researchers continue to study the potential for lithium and lithium-ion battery thermal runaway from an internal short circuit in equipment for use in underground coal mines. Researchers conducted cell crush tests using a plastic wedge within a 20-L explosion-containment chamber filled with 6.5% CH4-air to simulate the mining hazard. The present work extends earlier findings to include a study of LiFePO4 cells crushed while under charge, prismatic form factor LiCoO2 cells, primary spiral-wound constructed LiMnO2 cells, and crush speed influence on thermal runaway susceptibility. The plastic wedge crush was a more severe test than the flat plate crush with a prismatic format cell. Test results indicate that prismatic Saft MP 174565 LiCoO2 and primary spiral-wound Saft FRIWO M52EX LiMnO2 cells pose a CH4-air ignition hazard from internal short circuit. Under specified test conditions, A123 systems ANR26650M1A LiFePO4 cylindrical cells produced no chamber ignitions while under a charge of up to 5 A. Common spiral-wound cell separators are too thin to meet intrinsic safety standards provisions for distance through solid insulation, suggesting that a hard internal short circuit within these cells should be considered for intrinsic safety evaluation purposes, even as a non-countable fault. Observed flames from a LiMnO2 spiral-wound cell after a chamber ignition within an inert atmosphere indicate a sustained exothermic reaction within the cell. The influence of crush speed on ignitions under specified test conditions was not statistically significant. PMID:26139958

  19. Repeated citalopram administration counteracts kainic acid-induced spreading of PSA-NCAM-immunoreactive cells and loss of reelin in the adult mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Jaako, Külli; Aonurm-Helm, Anu; Kalda, Anti; Anier, Kaili; Zharkovsky, Tamara; Shastin, Dmitri; Zharkovsky, Alexander

    2011-09-01

    Systemic or intracerebral administration of kainic acid in rodents induces neuronal death followed by a cascade of neuroplastic changes in the hippocampus. Kainic acid-induced neuroplasticity is evidenced by alterations in hippocampal neurogenesis, dispersion of the granule cell layer and re-organisation of mossy fibres. Similar abnormalities are observed in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and, therefore, kainic acid-induced hippocampal neuroplasticity might mimic pathological mechanisms leading to the formation of 'epileptic brain' in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Previous studies have demonstrated that selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor antidepressants might reduce the severity of seizures in epileptic patients and reduce neuronal death in laboratory animal models of kainic acid-induced neurotoxicity. In the present study, we investigated whether kainic acid-induced neuroplasticity in mice is modulated by the repeated administration of citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. We found that at the histopathological level, repeated citalopram treatment counteracted the kainic acid-induced neuronal loss and dispersion of young granule neurons expressing the polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule within the granule cell layer of the hippocampus. Citalopram also counteracted the downregulation of reelin on both mRNA and protein levels induced by kainic acid administration. Our findings indicate that repeated administration of citalopram is able to prevent kainic acid-induced abnormal brain plasticity and thereby prevent the formation of an epileptic phenotype.

  20. The role of Kupffer cells in glucan-induced granuloma formation in the liver of mice depleted of blood monocytes by administration of strontium-89

    SciTech Connect

    Naito, M.; Takahashi, K. )

    1991-05-01

    In order to elucidate the role of Kupffer cells in granuloma formation in the liver of mice under a condition of severe monocytopenia induced by administration of strontium-89, granulomas were produced by particulate glucan injection and examined histopathologically, immunohistochemically, by ({sup 3}H)thymidine autoradiography, and in culture experiments. Hepatic granulomas were smaller, less numerous, and more irregularly shaped in the monocytopenic mice than in the control mice. The granulomas were composed of multinuclear giant cells, epithelioid cells, Kupffer cells, and T lymphocytes, but not monocytes or granulocytes. Kupffer cells were heavily labeled with ({sup 3}H)thymidine in the monocytopenic mice, particularly just before the stage of granuloma formation, and then clustered in the liver sinusoids. At 8 days, they formed granulomas, transformed into epithelioid cells, and transformed further into multinuclear giant cells. Although the culture of liver cell suspensions prepared from the livers of monocytopenic mice sustained diffuse proliferation of macrophages on a monolayer of mouse stromal cell line (ST2), no monocyte/macrophage colonies were formed. From these results, it is reasonable to conclude that Kupffer cells alone are activated in a condition without a supply of monocytes from peripheral blood; proliferate and cluster in the hepatic sinusoids; transform into peroxidase-negative macrophages, epithelioid cells, and multinuclear giant cells; and participate in granuloma formation in loco together with T lymphocytes.

  1. Enhanced performance of an air-cathode microbial fuel cell with oxygen supply from an externally connected algal bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Kakarla, Ramesh; Kim, Jung Rae; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Min, Booki

    2015-11-01

    An algae bioreactor (ABR) was externally connected to air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to increase power generation by supplying a high amount of oxygen to cathode electrode. The MFC with oxygen fed from ABR produced maximum cell voltage and cathode potential at a fixed loading of 459 mV and 10 mV, respectively. During polarization analysis, the MFC displayed a maximum power density of 0.63 W/m(2) (at 2.06 A/m(2)) using 39.2% O2 from ABR, which was approximately 30% higher compared with use of atmospheric air (0.44 W/m(2), 20.8% O2,). The cyclic voltammogram analysis exhibited a higher reduction current of -137 mA with 46.5% O2 compared to atmospheric air (-115 mA). Oxygen supply by algae bioreactor to air-cathode MFC could also maintain better MFC performance in long term operation by minimizing cathode potential drop over time.

  2. Electronic modification of Pt via Ti and Se as tolerant cathodes in air-breathing methanol microfluidic fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiwei; Habrioux, Aurélien; Morais, Cláudia; Alonso-Vante, Nicolas

    2014-07-21

    We reported herein on the use of tolerant cathode catalysts such as carbon supported Pt(x)Ti(y) and/or Pt(x)Se(y) nanomaterials in an air-breathing methanol microfluidic fuel cell. In order to show the improvement of mixed-reactant fuel cell (MRFC) performances obtained with the developed tolerant catalysts, a classical Pt/C nanomaterial was used for comparison. Using 5 M methanol concentration in a situation where the fuel crossover is 100% (MRFC-mixed reactant fuel cell application), the maximum power density of the fuel cell with a Pt/C cathodic catalyst decreased by 80% in comparison with what is observed in the laminar flow fuel cell (LFFC) configuration. With Pt(x)Ti(y)/C and Pt(x)Se(y)/C cathode nanomaterials, the performance loss was only 55% and 20%, respectively. The evaluation of the tolerant cathode catalysts in an air-breathing microfluidic fuel cell suggests the development of a novel nanometric system that will not be size restricted. These interesting results are the consequence of the high methanol tolerance of these advanced electrocatalysts via surface electronic modification of Pt. Herein we used X-ray photoelectron and in situ FTIR spectroscopies to investigate the origin of the high methanol tolerance on modified Pt catalysts.

  3. The impacts of replacing air bubbles with microspheres for the clarification of algae from low cell-density culture.

    PubMed

    Ometto, Francesco; Pozza, Carlo; Whitton, Rachel; Smyth, Beatrice; Gonzalez Torres, Andrea; Henderson, Rita K; Jarvis, Peter; Jefferson, Bruce; Villa, Raffaella

    2014-04-15

    Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) is a well-known coagulation-flotation system applied at large scale for microalgae harvesting. Compared to conventional harvesting technologies DAF allows high cell recovery at lower energy demand. By replacing microbubbles with microspheres, the innovative Ballasted Dissolved Air Flotation (BDAF) technique has been reported to achieve the same algae cell removal efficiency, while saving up to 80% of the energy required for the conventional DAF unit. Using three different algae cultures (Scenedesmus obliquus, Chlorella vulgaris and Arthrospira maxima), the present work investigated the practical, economic and environmental advantages of the BDAF system compared to the DAF system. 99% cells separation was achieved with both systems, nevertheless, the BDAF technology allowed up to 95% coagulant reduction depending on the algae species and the pH conditions adopted. In terms of floc structure and strength, the inclusion of microspheres in the algae floc generated a looser aggregate, showing a more compact structure within single cell alga, than large and filamentous cells. Overall, BDAF appeared to be a more reliable and sustainable harvesting system than DAF, as it allowed equal cells recovery reducing energy inputs, coagulant demand and carbon emissions.

  4. Effects of the Oral Administration of Viable and Heat-Killed Streptococcus bovis HC5 Cells to Pre-Sensitized BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Aline D.; Fernandes, Kenner M.; Dias, Roberto S.; Rocha, Alípio S.; de Oliveira, Leandro L.; Neves, Clóvis A.; de Paula, Sérgio O.; Mantovani, Hilário C.

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides have been suggested as an alternative to classical antibiotics in livestock production and bacteriocin-producing bacteria could be added to animal feeds to deliver bacteriocins in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of ruminant and monogastric animals. In this study, viable (V) and heat-killed (HK) Streptococcus bovis HC5 cells were orally administered to pre-sensitized mice in order to assess the effects of a bacteriocin-producing bacteria on histological parameters and the immune response of the GI tract of monogastric animals. The administration of V and HK S. bovis HC5 cells during 58 days to BALB/c mice did not affect weight gain, but an increase in gut permeability was detected in animals receiving the HK cells. Viable and heat killed cells caused similar morphological alterations in the GI tract of the animals, but the most prominent effects were detected in the small intestine. The oral administration of S. bovis HC5 also influenced cytokine production in the small intestine, and the immune-mediated activity differed between V and HK cells. The relative expression of IL-12 and INF-γ was significantly higher in the small intestine of mice treated with V cells, while an increase in IL-5, IL-13 and TNF-α expression was only detected in mice treated with HK cells. Considering that even under a condition of severe challenge (pre-sensitization followed by daily exposure to the same bacterial immunogen) the general health of the animals was maintained, it appears that oral administration of S. bovis HC5 cells could be a useful route to deliver bacteriocin in the GI tract of livestock animals. PMID:23144752

  5. Effects of the oral administration of viable and heat-killed Streptococcus bovis HC5 cells to pre-sensitized BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Aline D; Fernandes, Kenner M; Dias, Roberto S; Rocha, Alípio S; de Oliveira, Leandro L; Neves, Clóvis A; de Paula, Sérgio O; Mantovani, Hilário C

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides have been suggested as an alternative to classical antibiotics in livestock production and bacteriocin-producing bacteria could be added to animal feeds to deliver bacteriocins in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of ruminant and monogastric animals. In this study, viable (V) and heat-killed (HK) Streptococcus bovis HC5 cells were orally administered to pre-sensitized mice in order to assess the effects of a bacteriocin-producing bacteria on histological parameters and the immune response of the GI tract of monogastric animals. The administration of V and HK S. bovis HC5 cells during 58 days to BALB/c mice did not affect weight gain, but an increase in gut permeability was detected in animals receiving the HK cells. Viable and heat killed cells caused similar morphological alterations in the GI tract of the animals, but the most prominent effects were detected in the small intestine. The oral administration of S. bovis HC5 also influenced cytokine production in the small intestine, and the immune-mediated activity differed between V and HK cells. The relative expression of IL-12 and INF-γ was significantly higher in the small intestine of mice treated with V cells, while an increase in IL-5, IL-13 and TNF-α expression was only detected in mice treated with HK cells. Considering that even under a condition of severe challenge (pre-sensitization followed by daily exposure to the same bacterial immunogen) the general health of the animals was maintained, it appears that oral administration of S. bovis HC5 cells could be a useful route to deliver bacteriocin in the GI tract of livestock animals.

  6. Administrative Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  7. Room-Temperature, Hydrochloride-Assisted, One-Step Deposition for Highly Efficient and Air-Stable Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jinlong; Mu, Cheng; Li, Qi; Li, Weizhen; Ma, Ding; Xu, Dongsheng

    2016-10-01

    Uniform perovskite films are achieved by HCl-assisted one-step spin-coating at room temperature. By this method, a highest power conversion efficiency of 17.9% is obtained for perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The devices retain ≈95% of their original efficiency after storage in air for two months. The highest efficiency obtained for large-area PSCs (0.86 cm(2) ) is 15.7%.

  8. Optical emission spectroscopy characterizations of micro-air plasma used for simulation of cell membrane poration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerrouki, A.; Motomura, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Jinno, M.; Yousfi, M.

    2016-07-01

    A micro-air corona discharge, which is one of the plasmas successfully used for gene transfection in terms of high transfection and cell viability rates, is characterized by optical emission spectroscopy. This non-equilibrium low temperature plasma is generated from the tip of a pulsed high voltage micro-tube (0.2 mm inner diameter and 0.7 mm for outer diameter) placed 2 mm in front of a petri dish containing deionized water and set on a grounded copper plate. The electron temperature, equal to about 6.75 eV near the electrode tip and decreased down to 3.4 eV near the plate, has been estimated, with an error bar of about 30%, from an interesting approach based on the experimental ratio of the closest nitrogen emission spectra of \\text{N}2+ (FNS) at 391.4 nm and N2(SPS) at 394.3 nm. This is based on one hand on a balance equation between creations and losses of the excited upper levels of these two UV spectra and on the other hand on the electron impact rates of the creation of these upper levels calculated from solution of the multi-term Boltzmann equation. Then using the measured Hα spectrum, electron density n e has been estimated from Stark broadening versus the inter-electrode position with an average error bar of about 50%. n e  ≈  1  ×  1015 cm-3 is near the tip coherent with the usual magnitude of electron density in the streamer head developed near the tip of the corona discharges. Rotational temperatures, estimated from comparison of synthetic and experimental spectra of OH(A  -  X), \\text{N}2+ (FNS) at 391.4 nm, and N2(SPS) at 337 nm are respectively equal to 2350 K, 2000 K and 700 K in the gap space. This clearly underlines a thermal non-equilibrium of the corresponding excited species generated inside the thin streamer filaments. But, due to the high dilution of these species in the background gas, these high rotational temperatures do not affect the mean gas temperature that remains close to 300

  9. Effect of Periodic Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Administration on Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Different Monocyte Subsets in Pediatric Patients with Muscular Dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Sienkiewicz, Dorota; Grubczak, Kamil; Okurowska-Zawada, Bożena; Paszko-Patej, Grażyna; Miklasz, Paula; Singh, Paulina; Radzikowska, Urszula; Kulak, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Muscular dystrophies (MD) are heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by progressive muscle dysfunction. There is a large body of evidence indicating that angiogenesis is impaired in muscles of MD patients. Therefore, induction of dystrophic muscle revascularization should become a novel approach aimed at diminishing the extent of myocyte damage. Recently, we and others demonstrated that administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) resulted in clinical improvement of patients with neuromuscular disorders. To date, however, the exact mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects of G-CSF have not been fully understood. Here we used flow cytometry to quantitate numbers of CD34+ cells, endothelial progenitor cells, and different monocyte subsets in peripheral blood of pediatric MD patients treated with repetitive courses of G-CSF administration. We showed that repetitive cycles of G-CSF administration induced efficient mobilization of above-mentioned cells including cells with proangiogenic potential. These findings contribute to better understanding the beneficial clinical effects of G-CSF in pediatric MD patients. PMID:26770204

  10. Hydrogen concentration in expired air analyzed with a new hydrogen sensor, plasma glucose rise, and symptoms of lactose intolerance after oral administration of 100 gram lactose.

    PubMed

    Berg, A; Eriksson, M; Bárány, F; Einarsson, K; Sundgren, H; Nylander, C; Lundström, I; Blomstrand, R

    1985-09-01

    A rapid breath hydrogen analyzer to detect lactose malabsorption is described. After ingestion of a lactose solution the patient expires into a mouthpiece attached to a hydrogen sensor at 30-min intervals for 3 1/2 h. The hydrogen of the expired air causes a voltage change that can be transformed into ppm from a calibration curve. A tolerance test with a load of 100 g lactose was performed in 43 consecutive patients with various gastrointestinal disturbances, referred to the laboratory for the commonly used lactose tolerance test based on plasma glucose measurements. Eleven patients developed symptoms of lactose intolerance during the test. Biopsy specimens from the distal duodenum or proximal jejunum showed partial villous atrophy in one, in whom celiac disease with lactose intolerance was diagnosed; the other 10 had normal specimens. In nine of them lactose intolerance was diagnosed and confirmed by observation for months on a lactose-poor diet. The 10th patient (H.P.L.) did not improve on such a diet. He also showed pronounced symptoms of intolerance during a test with monosaccharides (glucose + galactose). His intestinal disease remained undiagnosed. The 11 patients with symptoms of intolerance and 3 patients without symptoms during the lactose load showed a flat plasma glucose curve after drinking the lactose solution--that is, a maximum rise of the glucose concentration of 1.5 mmol/l. One of the symptom-free patients dropped out and could not be observed, another did not improve on a lactose-poor diet, and the third noticed a favorable effect of the diet on stool consistency but not on other abdominal symptoms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. 78 FR 49484 - Exchange of Air Force Real Property for Non-Air Force Real Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... Department of Air Force Exchange of Air Force Real Property for Non-Air Force Real Property SUMMARY: Notice identifies excess Federal real property under administrative jurisdiction of the United States Air Force it... under the administrative jurisdiction of the Air Force. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr....

  12. The impact of administration of tranexamic acid in reducing the use of red blood cells and other blood products in cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Vuylsteke, Alain; Saravanan, Palanikumar; Gerrard, Caroline; Cafferty, Fay

    2006-01-01

    Background To study the effect of administration of tranexamic acid on the use of blood and blood products, return to theatre for post-operative bleeding and the length of intensive care stay after primary cardiac surgery, data for 4191 patients, of all priorities, who underwent primary cardiac operation during the period between 30/10/00 and 21/09/04 were analysed. Methods Retrospective analysis of data collected prospectively during the study period. The main outcome measures were whether or not patients were transfused with red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma or any blood product, the proportion of patients returned to theatre for investigation for post-operative bleeding and length of stay in the intensive care unit. We performed univariate analysis to identify the factors influencing the outcome measures and multivariate analysis to identify the effect of administration of tranexamic acid on the outcome measures. Results Administration of tranexamic acid was an independent factor affecting the transfusion of red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma or any blood product. It was also an independent factor influencing the rate of return to theatre for exploration of bleeding. The odds of receiving a transfusion or returning to theatre for bleeding were significantly lower in patients receiving tranexamic acid. The administration of tranexamic acid also significantly decreased blood loss. We did not find any association between the administration of tranexamic acid and the length of intensive care stay. Conclusion Based on the analysis of 4191 patients who underwent a primary cardiac operation, administration of tranexamic acid decreased the number of patients exposed to a transfusion or returned to theatre for bleeding in our institute. PMID:16942621

  13. Repeated administrations of human umbilical cord blood cells improve disease outcomes in a mouse model of Sanfilippo syndrome type III B.

    PubMed

    Willing, Alison E; Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana N; Zayko, Olga; Derasari, Hiranya M; Rawls, Ashley E; James, Chris R; Mervis, Ron F; Sanberg, Cyndy D; Kuzmin-Nichols, Nicole; Sanberg, Paul R

    2014-01-01

    Sanfilippo syndrome type III B (MPS III B) is an inherited disorder characterized by a deficiency of α-N-acetylglucosaminidase (Naglu) enzyme leading to accumulation of heparan sulfate in lysosomes and severe neurological deficits. We have previously shown that a single administration of human umbilical cord mononuclear cells (hUCB MNCs) into Naglu knockout mice decreased behavioral abnormalities and tissue pathology. In this study, we tested whether repeated doses of hUCB MNCs would be more beneficial than a single dose of cells. Naglu mice at 3 months of age were randomly assigned to either a Media-only group or one of three hUCB MNC treatment groups--single low dose (3 × 10(6) cells), single high dose (1.8 × 10(7) cells), or multiple doses (3 × 10(6) cells monthly for 6 months) delivered intravenously; cyclosporine was injected intraperitoneally to immune suppress the mice for the duration of the study. An additional control group of wild-type mice was also used. We measured anxiety in an open field test and cognition in an active avoidance test prior to treatment and then at monthly intervals for 6 months. hUCB MNCs restored normal anxiety-like behavior in these mice (p < 0.001). The repeated cell administrations also restored hippocampal cytoarchitecture, protected the dendritic tree, decreased GM3 ganglioside accumulation, and decreased microglial activation, particularly in the hippocampus and cortex. These data suggest that the neuroprotective effect of hUCB MNCs can be enhanced by repeated cell administrations.

  14. Repeated Administrations of Human Umbilical Cord Blood Cells Improve Disease Outcomes in a Mouse Model of Sanfilippo Syndrome Type III B.

    PubMed

    Willing, Alison E; Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana N; Zayko, Olga; Derasari, Hiranya M; Rawls, Ashley E; James, Chris R; Mervis, Ron F; Sanberg, Cyndy D; Kuzmin-Nichols, Nicole; Sanberg, Paul R

    2013-12-30

    Sanfilippo syndrome type III B (MPS III B) is an inherited disorder characterized by a deficiency of ?-N-acetylglucosaminidase (Naglu) enzyme leading to accumulation of heparan sulfate in lysosomes and severe neurological deficits. We have previously shown that a single administration of human umbilical cord mononuclear cells (hUCB MNC) into Nagluknockout mice decreased behavioral abnormalities and tissue pathology. In this study, we tested whether repeated doses of hUCB MNCs would be more beneficial than a single dose of cells. Naglumice at 3 months of age were randomly assigned to either a Media only group, or one of three hUCB MNC treatment groups - single low dose (3x10(6) cells), single high dose (1.8x10(7) cells) or multiple doses (3x10(6) cells monthly for 6 months) delivered intravenously (i.v.); cyclosporine was injected i.p. to immune suppress the mice for the duration of the study. An additional control group of wild type mice was also used. We measured anxiety in an open field test and cognition inactive avoidance test prior to treatment and then at monthly intervals for 6 months. hUCB MNCs restored normal anxiety-like behavior in these mice (p < 0.001). The repeated cell administrations also restored hippocampal cytoarchitecture, protected the dendritic tree, decreased GM3 ganglioside accumulation and decreased microglial activation, particularly in hippocampus and cortex. These data suggest that the neuroprotective effect of hUCB MNCs can be enhanced by repeated cell administrations.

  15. Trade-off between oxygen and iron acquisition in bacterial cells at the air-liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Arai, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2011-07-01

    The air-liquid interface is a selectively advantageous niche for aerobes due to the accessibility to oxygen. Various species of aerobes form a biofilm-like structure at air-liquid interfaces, known as a pellicle. Although the pellicle is one of the major growth modes of microorganisms, the metabolic features of pellicle cells and the determinative factors for pellicle formation are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the factors affecting pellicle growth by the facultative aerobe Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and also examined the gene expression profiles of pellicle cells in order to characterize features of the pellicle lifestyle. A mutant strain deficient in the production of exopolysaccharides displayed poor pellicle-forming ability and a growth disadvantage under static conditions compared with the wild-type strain. Notably, supplementation of culture medium with an alternative electron acceptor, nitrate, led to diminished pellicle formation. Nitrate facilitated the growth of an anaerobic planktonic cell subpopulation that acted as a competitor for iron with the aerobic subpopulation, resulting in the observed pellicle reduction. Transcriptome analysis revealed that pellicle cells were under aerobic and iron-depleted states. Thus, although pellicle formation certainly confers a growth advantage under static conditions, pellicle cells face a nutritional trade-off between oxygen and iron acquisition.

  16. Ocular nerve growth factor administration counteracts the impairment of neural precursor cell viability and differentiation in the brain subventricular area of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tirassa, Paola; Maccarone, Mattia; Carito, Valentina; De Nicolò, Sara; Fiore, Marco

    2015-05-01

    The ocular administration of nerve growth factor (NGF) as eye drops (oNGF) has been shown to exert protective effects in forebrain-injured animal models, including adult diabetes induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mg/kg body weight). This type 1 diabetes model was used in this study to investigate whether oNGF might extend its actions on neuronal precursors localised in the subventricular zone (SVZ). NGF or saline was administrated as eye drops twice daily for 2 weeks in rats with STZ-induced diabetes and healthy control rats. The expression of mature and precursor NGF and the NGF receptors, tropomyosin-related kinase A and neurotrophin receptor p75, and the levels of DNA fragmentation were analysed by ELISA and western blotting. Incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine was used to trace newly formed cells. Nestin, polysialylated neuronal cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), doublecortin (DCX) and glial fibrillary acidic protein antibodies were used to identify the SVZ cells by confocal microscopy. It was found that oNGF counteracts the STZ-induced cell death and the alteration of mature/pro-NGF expression in the SVZ. It also affects the survival and differentiation of SVZ progenitors. In particular, oNGF counteracts the reduction in the number of cells expressing PSA-NCAM/DCX (neuroblast type A cells) and the related reductions in the number and distribution of nestin/DCX-positive cells (C-type cells), or glia-committed cells (type B cells), observed in the SVZ of diabetic rats. These findings show that oNGF treatment counteracts the effect of type 1 diabetes on neuronal precursors in the SVZ, and further support the neuroprotective and reparative role of oNGF in the brain.

  17. Cold atmospheric-pressure air plasma treatment of C6 glioma cells: effects of reactive oxygen species in the medium produced by the plasma on cell death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuyang, Wang; Cheng, Cheng; Peng, Gao; Shaopeng, Li; Jie, Shen; Yan, Lan; Yongqiang, Yu; Paul, K. Chu

    2017-02-01

    An atmospheric-pressure air plasma is employed to treat C6 glioma cells in vitro. To elucidate on the mechanism causing cell death and role of reactive species (RS) in the medium produced by the plasma, the concentration of the long-lived RS such as hydrogen peroxide, nitrate, and ozone in the plasma-treated liquid (phosphate-buffered saline solution) is measured. When vitamin C is added to the medium as a ROS quencher, the viability of C6 glioma cells after the plasma treatment is different from that without vitamin C. The results demonstrate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as H2O2, and O3 constitute the main factors for inactivation of C6 glioma cells and the reactive nitrogen species (RNS) may only play an auxiliary role in cell death.

  18. Treatment of poly(ethylene terephthalate) foils by atmospheric pressure air dielectric barrier discharge and its influence on cell growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzminova, Anna; Vandrovcová, Marta; Shelemin, Artem; Kylián, Ondřej; Choukourov, Andrei; Hanuš, Jan; Bačáková, Lucie; Slavínská, Danka; Biederman, Hynek

    2015-12-01

    In this contribution an effect of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) sustained in air at atmospheric pressure on surface properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) foils is studied. It is found that exposure of PET to DBD plasma leads to rapid changes of surface chemical composition, wettability, surface morphology as well as mechanical properties of PET surface. In addition, based on biological tests that were performed using two cell types (Saos-2 human osteoblast-like cells and HUVEC human umbilical vein endothelial cells), it may be concluded that DBD plasma treatment positively influences cell growth on PET. This effect was found to be connected predominantly with increased surface energy and oxygen content of the surface of treated PET foils.

  19. Kupffer Cell Activation by Ambient Air Particulate Matter Exposure May Exacerbate Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hui-Hui; Fiel, M. Isabel; Sun, Qinghua; Guo, Jinsheng; Gordon, Ronald E.; Chen, Lung-Chi; Friedman, Scott L.; Odin, Joseph A.; Allina, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Due to increased obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the most prevalent liver disease in the United States. NAFLD is considered a component of metabolic syndrome, a cluster of disorders that also includes diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, arteriosclerosis, and hypertension. Exposure to ambient air particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 µm (PM2.5) is a risk factor for arteriosclerosis as well as lung disease, but its effect on NAFLD is unknown. PM2.5 induces pulmonary dysfunction via toll-like receptor activation on alveolar macrophages. Toll-like receptor activation of Kupffer cells, resident hepatic macrophages, and subsequent pro-inflammatory cytokine production have been shown to play a key role in NAFLD progression. We hypothesized that PM2.5 exposure is a significant risk factor for progression of NAFLD. Thus, following exposure of male C57BL/6 mice fed high fat chow to concentrated air particulate matter (CAPs) or filtered air for 6 wk, progression of NAFLD was evaluated by standardized histological assessment of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. In mice fed high fat chow, the hepatic inflammatory grade (3.00 ± 0.00 vs. 1.50 ± 0.71, p < 0.001) and fibrosis stage (1.00 ± 0.00 vs. 0.60 ± 0.52, p = 0.023) were both significantly higher in mice exposed to CAPs versus filtered air, respectively. Increased numbers of Kupffer cells contained PM in CAPs-exposed mice (2.00 ± 0.94 vs. 0.20 ± 0.42, respectively, p < 0.001). PM exposure increased IL-6 secretion up to seven fold in a dose-dependent manner by isolated wild-type but not TLR4−/− Kupffer cells (p < 0.050). Conclusion: Ambient PM2.5 exposure may be a significant risk factor for NAFLD progression. PMID:19908945

  20. Requirement for natural killer cell-produced interferon gamma in defense against murine cytomegalovirus infection and enhancement of this defense pathway by interleukin 12 administration

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    killing at levels comparable to those observed in control-treated mice. The consequences of interleukin 12 (IL-12) administration, a known potent inducer of IFN- gamma production by NK cells, were evaluated in MCMV-infected mice. Low IL-12 doses, i.e., 1 ng/d, increased NK cell cytotoxicity and IFN-gamma production up to twofold and resulted in improved antiviral status; virus-induced hepatitis was decreased as much as fivefold, and viral burdens were decreased to levels below detection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7561678

  1. Bilateral Administration of Autologous CD133+ Cells in Ambulatory Patients with Refractory Critical Limb Ischemia: Lessons Learned from a Pilot Randomized, Double blind, Placebo-controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Raval, Amish N.; Schmuck, Eric; Tefera, Girma; Leitzke, Cathlyn; Ark, Cassondra Vander; Hei, Derek; Centanni, John M.; de Silva, Ranil; Koch, Jill; Chappell, Richard; Hematti, Peiman

    2014-01-01

    Introduction CD133+ cells confer angiogenic potential and may be beneficial for the treatment of critical limb ischemia (CLI). However, patient selection, blinding methods and endpoints for clinical trials is challenging. We hypothesized that bilateral intramuscular administration of cytokine mobilized CD133+ cells in ambulatory patients with refractory CLI would be feasible and safe. Methods In this double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled trial, subjects received subcutaneous injections of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (10 mcg/kg/d) for 5 days, followed by leukapheresis, and intramuscular administration of 50-400 million sorted CD133+ cells delivered into both legs. Control subjects received normal saline injections, sham leukapheresis and intramuscular injection of placebo buffered solution. Subjects were followed for 1 year. An aliquot of CD133+ cells was collected from each subject to test for genes associated with cell senescence. Results 70 subjects were screened, of whom 10 were eligible. Subject enrollment was suspended due to a high rate of mobilization failure in subjects randomized to treatment. Of 10 subjects enrolled (7 randomized to treatment, 3 randomized to control), there were no differences in serious adverse events at 12 months and blinding was preserved. There were non-significant trends toward improved amputation free survival, 6 minute walk distance, walking impairment questionnaire and quality of life in subjects randomized to treatment. Successful CD133+ mobilizers expressed fewer senescence associated genes compared to poor mobilizers. Conclusion Bilateral administration of autologous CD133+ cell in ambulatory CLI subjects was safe and blinding was preserved. However, poor mobilization efficiency combined with high CD133+ senescence suggests futility in this approach. PMID:25239491

  2. Oral administration of paeoniflorin attenuates allergic contact dermatitis by inhibiting dendritic cell migration and Th1 and Th17 differentiation in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Shi, Dongmei; Li, Xuefeng; Li, Dongmei; Zhao, Quanjing; Shen, Yongnian; Yan, Hongxia; Fu, Hongjun; Zheng, Hailin; Lu, Guixia; Qiu, Ying; Liu, Weida

    2015-04-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a hapten-specific CD4(+) T-cells mediated inflammatory response of the skin. Its pathomechanism involves 2 phases, an induction phase and an elicitation phase. Langerhans cells (LCs) and dendritic cells (DCs) in the skin play key roles in presenting low molecular weight chemicals (haptens) to the lymph nodes. Therefore, inhibition of the migration of LCs or DCs and T-cell proliferation is each expected to control ACD disease. To explore the effectiveness of paeoniflorin (PF) on the migration of LCs and T-cell proliferation in vivo, we establish a murine model of ACD, promoted by repeated exposure to an allergen (specifically 1-Chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB)). Administration of PF inhibits DC migration in this DNCB-induced model in the induction phase. As a result, epidermal LC density in the elicitation phase increased in PF-treated mice when compared to PF-untreated mice. At the same time, PF reduced IFN-γ(+)CD4(+) and IL-17(+)CD4(+) T cells proliferation (but not IL-4(+)CD4(+) T cells proliferation), leading to an attenuated cutaneous inflammatory response. Consistent with this T-cell proliferation profile, secretions of IFN-γ and IL-17 were reduced and IL-10 secretion increased in PF-treated mice, but production of IL-4 and IL-5 remained unchanged in the skin and blood samples. These results suggest that oral administration of PF can treat and prevent ACD effectively through inhibition of DC migration, and thus decrease the capacity of DCs to stimulate Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation and cytokine production.

  3. AirLab: a cloud-based platform to manage and share antibody-based single-cell research.

    PubMed

    Catena, Raúl; Özcan, Alaz; Jacobs, Andrea; Chevrier, Stephane; Bodenmiller, Bernd

    2016-06-29

    Single-cell analysis technologies are essential tools in research and clinical diagnostics. These methods include flow cytometry, mass cytometry, and other microfluidics-based technologies. Most laboratories that employ these methods maintain large repositories of antibodies. These ever-growing collections of antibodies, their multiple conjugates, and the large amounts of data generated in assays using specific antibodies and conditions makes a dedicated software solution necessary. We have developed AirLab, a cloud-based tool with web and mobile interfaces, for the organization of these data. AirLab streamlines the processes of antibody purchase, organization, and storage, antibody panel creation, results logging, and antibody validation data sharing and distribution. Furthermore, AirLab enables inventory of other laboratory stocks, such as primers or clinical samples, through user-controlled customization. Thus, AirLab is a mobile-powered and flexible tool that harnesses the capabilities of mobile tools and cloud-based technology to facilitate inventory and sharing of antibody and sample collections and associated validation data.

  4. External CO2 and water supplies for enhancing electrical power generation of air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, So; Fujiki, Itto; Sano, Daisuke; Okabe, Satoshi

    2014-10-07

    Alkalization on the cathode electrode limits the electrical power generation of air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs), and thus external proton supply to the cathode electrode is essential to enhance the electrical power generation. In this study, the effects of external CO2 and water supplies to the cathode electrode on the electrical power generation were investigated, and then the relative contributions of CO2 and water supplies to the total proton consumption were experimentally evaluated. The CO2 supply decreased the cathode pH and consequently increased the power generation. Carbonate dissolution was the main proton source under ambient air conditions, which provides about 67% of total protons consumed for the cathode reaction. It is also critical to adequately control the water content on the cathode electrode of air-cathode MFCs because the carbonate dissolution was highly dependent on water content. On the basis of these experimental results, the power density was increased by 400% (143.0 ± 3.5 mW/m(2) to 575.0 ± 36.0 mW/m(2)) by supplying a humid gas containing 50% CO2 to the cathode chamber. This study demonstrates that the simultaneous CO2 and water supplies to the cathode electrode were effective to increase the electrical power generation of air-cathode MFCs for the first time.

  5. Legal and security requirements for the air transportation of cyanotoxins and toxigenic cyanobacterial cells for legitimate research and analytical purposes.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, J S; Meriluoto, J A O; Codd, G A

    2006-05-25

    Cyanotoxins are now recognised by international and national health and environment agencies as significant health hazards. These toxins, and the cells which produce them, are also vulnerable to exploitation for illegitimate purposes. Cyanotoxins are increasingly being subjected to national and international guidelines and regulations governing their production, storage, packaging and transportation. In all of these respects, cyanotoxins are coming under the types of controls imposed on a wide range of chemicals and other biotoxins of microbial, plant and animal origin. These controls apply whether cyanotoxins are supplied on a commercial basis, or stored and transported in non-commercial research collaborations and programmes. Included are requirements concerning the transportation of these toxins as documented by the United Nations, the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and national government regulations. The transportation regulations for "dangerous goods", which by definition include cyanotoxins, cover air mail, air freight, and goods checked in and carried on flights. Substances include those of determined toxicity and others of suspected or undetermined toxicity, covering purified cyanotoxins, cyanotoxin-producing laboratory strains and environmental samples of cyanobacteria. Implications of the regulations for the packaging and air-transport of dangerous goods, as they apply to cyanotoxins and toxigenic cyanobacteria, are discussed.

  6. Carnation-like MnO2 modified activated carbon air cathode improve power generation in microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Kexun; Liu, Xianhua

    2014-10-01

    Highly active and low-cost electrocatalysts are of great importance for large-scale commercial applications of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this work, we prepared an activated carbon (AC) air cathode containing electrodeposited γ-MnO2 using a potentiostatic method. The results indicated that carnation-like MnO2 crystals were bound to the surface of the AC air cathode after a deposition time of 10 min, which greatly improved the performance of the cathode. BET analysis results demonstrated that the electrodeposition of MnO2 decreased the micropore surface area of the cathode but increased the mesopore surface area. When compared with a bare AC air cathode, the electrodeposited MnO2 cathode exhibited higher catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction. The maximum power density of the MFC equipped with the electrodeposited MnO2 AC air cathode was 1554 mW m-2, which is 1.5 times higher than the control cathode.

  7. Inhibition of microbial growth on air cathodes of single chamber microbial fuel cells by incorporating enrofloxacin into the catalyst layer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weifeng; Cheng, Shaoan; Sun, Dan; Huang, Haobin; Chen, Jie; Cen, Kefa

    2015-10-15

    The inevitable growth of aerobic bacteria on the surface of air cathodes is an important factor reducing the performance stability of air cathode single-chamber membrane-free microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Thus searching for effective methods to inhibit the cathodic microbial growth is critical for the practical application of MFCs. In this study, enrofloxacin (ENR), a broad spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic, was incorporated into the catalyst layer of activated carbon air cathodes (ACACs) to inhibit the cathodic microbial growth. The biomass content on ACACs was substantially reduced by 60.2% with ENR treatment after 91 days of MFCs operation. As a result of the inhibited microbial growth, the oxygen reduction catalytic performance of the ENR treated ACACs was much stable compared to the fast performance decline of the untreated control. Consequently, a quite stable electricity production was obtained for the MFCs with the ENR treated ACACs, in contrast with a 22.5% decrease in maximum power density of the MFCs with the untreated cathode. ENR treatment of ACACs showed minimal effects on the anode performance. These results indicate that incorporating antibiotics into ACACs should be a simple and effective strategy to inhibit the microbial growth and improve the long-term stability of the performance of air cathode and the electricity production of MFCs.

  8. Air support facilities. [interface between air and surface transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Airports are discussed in terms of the interface between the ground and air for transportation systems. The classification systems, design, facilities, administration, and operations of airports are described.

  9. Effect of indoor air pollution from biomass fuel use on argyrophilic nuclear organizer regions in buccal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Nandan K; Dutta, Anindita; Banerjee, Anirban; Chakraborty, Sreeparna; Lahiri, Twisha; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of indoor air pollution from biomass-fuel use on the expression of argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs), an indicator of ribosome biosynthesis, in epithelial cells of oral mucosa. AgNORs were evaluated using cytochemical staining in 62 nonsmoking indian women (median age, 34 years), who cooked exclusively with biomass, and 55 age-matched women, who were from a similar neighborhood and cooked with relatively clean liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Concentrations of particulate pollutants in indoor air were measured using a real-time aerosol monitor. Compared to the LPG-using controls, biomass-fuel users showed a remarkably increased number of AgNOR dots per nucleus (6.08 +/-2.26 vs 3.16 +/-0.86, p < 0.001), AgNOR size (0.85 +/-0.19 vs 0.53 +/-0.15 mum2, p < 0.001), and percentage of AgNOR-occupied nuclear area (4.88 +/-1.49 vs 1.75 +/-0.13%, p < 0.001). Biomass-using households had 2 to 4 times more particulate pollutants than that of LPG-using households. The changes in AgNOR expression were positively associated with PM10 and PM2.5 levels in indoor air after controlling for potential confounders such as age, kitchen location, and family income. Thus, biomass smoke appears to be a risk factor for abnormal cell growth via upregulation of ribosome biogenesis.

  10. CO2 Fixation, Lipid Production, and Power Generation by a Novel Air-Lift-Type Microbial Carbon Capture Cell System.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xia; Liu, Baojun; Zhou, Jiti; Jin, Ruofei; Qiao, Sen; Liu, Guangfei

    2015-09-01

    An air-lift-type microbial carbon capture cell (ALMCC) was constructed for the first time by using an air-lift-type photobioreactor as the cathode chamber. The performance of ALMCC in fixing high concentration of CO2, producing energy (power and biodiesel), and removing COD together with nutrients was investigated and compared with the traditional microbial carbon capture cell (MCC) and air-lift-type photobioreactor (ALP). The ALMCC system produced a maximum power density of 972.5 mW·m(-3) and removed 86.69% of COD, 70.52% of ammonium nitrogen, and 69.24% of phosphorus, which indicate that ALMCC performed better than MCC in terms of power generation and wastewater treatment efficiency. Besides, ALMCC demonstrated 9.98- and 1.88-fold increases over ALP and MCC in the CO2 fixation rate, respectively. Similarly, the ALMCC significantly presented a higher lipid productivity compared to those control reactors. More importantly, the preliminary analysis of energy balance suggested that the net energy of the ALMCC system was significantly superior to other systems and could theoretically produce enough energy to cover its consumption. In this work, the established ALMCC system simultaneously achieved the high level of CO2 fixation, energy recycle, and municipal wastewater treatment effectively and efficiently.

  11. Step-Scan T-Cell Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) for Monitoring Environmental Air Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lixian; Mandelis, Andreas; Melnikov, Alexander; Michaelian, Kirk; Huan, Huiting; Haisch, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    Air pollutants have adverse effects on the Earth's climate system. There is an urgent need for cost-effective devices capable of recognizing and detecting various ambient pollutants. An FTIR photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) method based on a commercial FTIR spectrometer developed for air contamination monitoring will be presented. A resonant T-cell was determined to be the most appropriate resonator in view of the low-frequency requirement and space limitations in the sample compartment. Step-scan FTIR-PAS theory for regular cylinder resonator has been described as a reference for prediction of T-cell vibration principles. Both simulated amplitude and phase responses of the T-cell show good agreement with measurement data Carbon dioxide IR absorption spectra were used to demonstrate the capacity of the FTIR-PAS method to detect ambient pollutants. The theoretical detection limit for carbon dioxide was found to be 4 ppmv. A linear response to carbon dioxide concentration was found in the range from 2500 ppmv to 5000 ppmv. The results indicate that it is possible to use step-scan FTIR-PAS with a T-cell as a quantitative method for analysis of ambient contaminants.

  12. A passive microfluidic hydrogen-air fuel cell with exceptional stability and high performance.

    PubMed

    Mitrovski, Svetlana M; Nuzzo, Ralph G

    2006-03-01

    We describe an advanced microfluidic hydrogen-air fuel cell (FC) that exhibits exceptional durability and high performance, most notably yielding stable output power (>100 days) without the use of an anode-cathode separator membrane. This FC embraces an entirely passive device architecture and, unlike conventional microfluidic designs that exploit laminar hydrodynamics, no external pumps are used to sustain or localize the reagent flow fields. The devices incorporate high surface area/porous metal and metal alloy electrodes that are embedded and fully immersed in liquid electrolyte confined in the channels of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-based microfluidic network. The polymeric network also serves as a self-supporting membrane through which oxygen and hydrogen are supplied to the cathode and alloy anode, respectively, by permeation. The operational stability of the device and its performance is strongly dependent on the nature of the electrolyte used (5 M H2SO4 or 2.5 M NaOH) and composition of the anode material. The latter choice is optimized to decrease the sensitivity of the system to oxygen cross-over while still maintaining high activity towards the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR). Three types of high surface area anodes were tested in this work. These include: high-surface area electrodeposited Pt (Pt); high-surface area electrodeposited Pd (Pd); and thin palladium adlayers supported on a "porous" Pt electrode (Pd/Pt). The FCs display their best performance in 5 M H2SO4 using the Pd/Pt anode. This exceptional stability and performance was ascribed to several factors, namely: the high permeabilities of O2, H2, and CO2 in PDMS; the inhibition of the formation of insoluble carbonate species due to the presence of a highly acidic electrolyte; and the selectivity of the Pd/Pt anode toward the HOR. The stability of the device for long-term operation was modeled using a stack of three FCs as a power supply for a portable display that otherwise uses a 3 V

  13. Air Force Ni-H2 cell test program: State of Charge test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Bruce; Smellie, Douglas

    1995-01-01

    Nickel-Hydrogen cells are being cycled under a LEO (low earth orbit) test regime to examine the benefits of operating the cells at lower States of Charge (SOC) than typically used. A group of four cells are cycled using a voltage limiting charge regime that limits the State of Charge that the cells are allowed to reach. The test cells are then compared to identical cells being cycled at or near 100% State of Charge using a constant current charge regime.

  14. Safety demonstration tests of hypothetical explosive burning in the cell and air ventilation system in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Nisio, G.; Suzuki, M.; Mukaide, S. )

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports on a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant equipped with an air ventilation system consisting of cells, ducts, dampers, high-efficiency particulate air filters, and blowers. This ventilation system is required to have multiple safeguards in order to confine airborne radioactive materials within the plant in the event of fire, explosion, and criticality. To evaluate these safeguards, three kinds of explosive burning tests are performed using a large-scale facility simulating the ventilation system of a reprocessing plant. In the boilover test, an organic solvent is burned on a layer of water in a burning pan to determine the magnitude of the burning caused by the sudden boiling of the water under the solvent. The optimum conditions for boilover burning are determined by the relationship between the pan size and the ventilation rate.

  15. Comparison of safety and immunogenicity of a Vi polysaccharide typhoid vaccine with a whole-cell killed vaccine in Malaysian Air Force recruits.

    PubMed Central

    Panchanathan, V.; Kumar, S.; Yeap, W.; Devi, S.; Ismail, R.; Sarijan, S.; Sam, S. M.; Jusoh, Z.; Nordin, S.; Leboulleux, D.; Pang, T.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To carry out a comparative study of the safety and immunogenicity of Vi polysaccharide vaccine against whole-cell killed (WCK) typhoid vaccine. METHODS: The study was carried out on young adult recruits (aged 18-25 years) of the Malaysian Air Force. A total of 125 subjects received the Vi polysaccharide vaccine and 114 received the WCK vaccine. FINDINGS: The Vi vaccine was significantly less reactogenic than the WCK vaccine with regard to systemic and local reactions. Following administration of the Vi vaccine, seroconversion rates (defined as the percentage of subjects with a 4-fold rise of baseline antibody level) of 75.5% and 67% were observed at 2 weeks and 6 weeks, respectively, after immunization, compared with 25% and 31.3% among recipients of the WCK vaccine. Of the 110 Vi vaccinees with serological data, 21 (19%) had high, seroprotective, pre-immunization levels of anti-Vi antibodies (> or = 1 microgram/ml). The majority of subjects in this group came from a region in Malaysia which is known to have high typhoid endemicity. Interestingly, these antibody levels were boosted considerably following administration of vaccine at a level that was 5-fold higher than in subjects with low pre-immunization levels. In contrast, the seroconversion rates in those receiving the Vi vaccine were higher in subjects with low pre-immunization levels of anti-Vi antibodies (76-84%), compared to those with protective levels of > or = 1 microgram/ml prior to immunization (48-57%). CONCLUSIONS: The study reaffirms the safety and efficacy of the Vi polysaccharide vaccine and identifies a hitherto unrecognized advantage in its use, i.e. it is a potent immunogen that boosted considerably the protective antibody levels among a significant number of immunologically sensitized individuals living in typhoid-endemic regions. PMID:11584728

  16. Perspective: Maintaining surface-phase purity is key to efficient open air fabricated cuprous oxide solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hoye, Robert L. Z. E-mail: jld35@cam.ac.uk; Ievskaya, Yulia; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L. E-mail: jld35@cam.ac.uk; Brandt, Riley E.; Buonassisi, Tonio; Heffernan, Shane; Musselman, Kevin P.

    2015-02-01

    Electrochemically deposited Cu{sub 2}O solar cells are receiving growing attention owing to a recent doubling in efficiency. This was enabled by the controlled chemical environment used in depositing doped ZnO layers by atomic layer deposition, which is not well suited to large-scale industrial production. While open air fabrication with atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition overcomes this limitation, we find that this approach is limited by an inability to remove the detrimental CuO layer that forms on the Cu{sub 2}O surface. Herein, we propose strategies for achieving efficiencies in atmospherically processed cells that are equivalent to the high values achieved in vacuum processed cells.

  17. The electrolyte challenge for a direct methanol-air polymer electrolyte fuel cell operating at temperatures up to 200 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savinell, Robert; Yeager, Ernest; Tryk, Donald; Landau, Uziel; Wainright, Jesse; Gervasio, Dominic; Cahan, Boris; Litt, Morton; Rogers, Charles; Scherson, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    Novel polymer electrolytes are being evaluated for use in a direct methanol-air fuel cell operating at temperatures in excess of 100 C. The evaluation includes tests of thermal stability, ionic conductivity, and vapor transport characteristics. The preliminary results obtained to date indicate that a high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell is feasible. For example, Nafion 117 when equilibrated with phosphoric acid has a conductivity of at least 0.4 Omega(exp -1)cm(exp -1) at temperatures up to 200 C in the presence of 400 torr of water vapor and methanol vapor cross over equivalent to 1 mA/cm(exp 2) under a one atmosphere methanol pressure differential at 135 C. Novel polymers are also showing similar encouraging results. The flexibility to modify and optimize the properties by custom synthesis of these novel polymers presents an exciting opportunity to develop an efficient and compact methanol fuel cell.

  18. [Incidence of the characteristics of induced pluripotent stem cells in vitro in administrative regime of their lines].

    PubMed

    Bobo-Ruiz, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Recently achieved techniques in the field of stem cell research have permitted the development of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). The characteristics of these cells and their appearance after the passage of Order SCO/393/2006, of 8 February, on Functioning and Organization of a National Bank of Cell Lines and Act 14/2007, of 3 July, on Biomedical Research raise the questions of the legal regime of their deposition at the National Bank of Cell Lines and their control by the Commission of Guarantees for the Donation and Use of Human Cells and Tissues. Drawing on a wider legal frame, the author defends these requirements on the grounds that the legal classification comes from the origin and potentiality of the cells rather than from the techniques employed to obtain them.

  19. Results of the Air Force high efficiency cascaded multiple bandgap solar cell programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahilly, W. P.

    1980-01-01

    The III-V semiconductor materials system that was selected for continued cascade cell development was the AlGaAs cell on GaAs cell structure. The tunnel junction used as transparent ohmic contact between the top cell and the bottom cell continued to be the central difficulty in achieving the program objective of 25 percent AMO efficiency at 25 C. During the tunnel junction and top cell developments it became apparent that the AlGaAs cell has potential for independent development as a single junction converter and is a logical extension of the present GaAs heteroface technology.

  20. Real-Time Cell-Electronic Sensing of Coal Fly Ash Particulate Matter for Toxicity-Based Air Quality Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Moe, Birget; Yuan, Chungang; Li, Jinhua; Du, Haiying; Gabos, Stephan; Le, X Chris; Li, Xing-Fang

    2016-06-20

    The development of a unique bioassay for cytotoxicity analysis of coal fly ash (CFA) particulate matter (PM) and its potential application for air quality monitoring is described. Using human cell lines, A549 and SK-MES-1, as live probes on microelectrode-embedded 96-well sensors, impedance changes over time are measured as cells are treated with varying concentrations (1 μg/mL-20 mg/mL) of CFA samples. A dose-dependent impedance change is determined for each CFA sample, from which an IC50 histogram is obtained. The assay was successfully applied to examine CFA samples collected from three coal-fired power plants (CFPs) in China. The samples were separated into three size fractions: PM2.5 (<2.5 μm), PM10-2.5 (2.5 μm < x < 10 μm), and PM10 (>10 μm). Dynamic cell-response profiles and temporal IC50 histograms of all samples show that CFA cytotoxicity depends on concentration, exposure time (0-60 h), and cell-type (SK-MES-1 > A549). The IC50 values differentiate the cytotoxicity of CFA samples based on size fraction (PM2.5 ≈ PM10-2.5 ≫ PM10) and the sampling location (CFP2 > CFP1 ≈ CFP3). Differential cytotoxicity measurements of particulates in human cell lines using cell-electronic sensing provide a useful tool for toxicity-based air quality monitoring and risk assessment.

  1. Fuel Cell Vehicle Fleet and Hydrogen Infrastructure at Hickam Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-27

    include: a fuel cell powered light cart using metal hydride storage technology for hydrogen, another fuel cell powered shuttle bus, a fuel cell powered...redesigned to com- pletely eliminate any metallic contact between the fuel cell process fluids and any stack components. Since implementing these changes...eliminated in the new tech- nology fuel cell power modules. The metal ion contamination from the corrosion and the gas crossover leaks resulted in rapid

  2. Immunotherapy of murine sarcomas using lymphokine activated killer cells: optimization of the schedule and route of administration of recombinant interleukin-2

    SciTech Connect

    Ettinghausen, S.E.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1986-06-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) at high doses or at low doses in concert with lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells can produce regression of established pulmonary and hepatic metastases from a variety of tumors in mice. IL-2 appears to mediate its antitumor effect through the generation of LAK cells in vivo from endogenous lymphocytes and by the stimulation of host and transferred LAK cell proliferation in tissues. In this paper we have investigated different strategies for IL-2 administration to determine which regimen produced maximal in vivo proliferation and optimal immunotherapeutic efficacy of LAK cells. Tissue expansion of lymphoid cells was assessed using an assay of in vivo labeling of dividing cells by the thymidine analogue, 5-(/sup 125/I)iododeoxyuridine. The therapeutic effect of the different IL-2 administration protocols was determined by evaluating their efficacy in the treatment of established, 3-day pulmonary metastases from sarcomas in mice. The selection of IL-2 injection regimens for evaluation was based upon pharmacokinetic studies of IL-2 in mice. A single i.v. or i.p. dose yielded high peak IL-2 levels that could be measured for only a few hours after injection, while IL-2 given i.p. thrice daily produced titers that were detectable throughout the study periods (greater than or equal to 6 units/ml of serum after 100,000 units of IL-2 i.p. thrice daily). Using the proliferation and therapy models, we tested the same cumulative daily doses of IL-2 administered by i.v. or i.p. once daily, or i.p. thrice daily regimens. The i.p. thrice daily protocol stimulated greater lymphoid cell proliferation in the lungs, for example, than did the other regimens.

  3. Sublingual administration of Lactobacillus paracasei KW3110 inhibits Th2-dependent allergic responses via upregulation of PD-L2 on dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Inamine, Ayako; Sakurai, Daijyu; Horiguchi, Shigetoshi; Yonekura, Syuji; Hanazawa, Toyoyuki; Hosokawa, Hiroyuki; Matuura-Suzuki, Asaka; Nakayama, Toshinori; Okamoto, Yoshitaka

    2012-05-01

    Lactic acid bacteria have potential in immunomodulation therapy, but their clinical efficacy and underlying mechanisms are unclear. We aimed to clarify the anti-allergic immune responses induced by intragastric and sublingual administration of heat-killed Lactobacillus paracasei KW3110 and Lactobacillus acidophilus L-92. The KW3110 strain (but not the L-92 strain) enhanced ovalbumin (OVA)-induced expression of CCR-7 and PD-L2 in murine dendritic cells (DCs), and strongly inhibited IL-5 and IL-13 production in vitro in co-cultures with Th2-skewed CD4(+) T cells from DO11.10 transgenic mice. Sublingual administration of low-dose KW3110 (but not L-92) to OVA-sensitized mice selectively suppressed serum IgE production and Th2 cytokine expression in cervical lymph nodes, and significantly improved symptoms after OVA provocation in vivo. KW3110 probably accelerates DC migration into the regional lymph nodes and inhibits Th2 cytokine production through enhanced CCR-7 and PD-L2 expression. Thus, sublingual KW3110 administration may be effective in reducing allergic inflammation.

  4. Increasing light capture in silicon solar cells with encapsulants incorporating air prisms to reduce metallic contact losses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fu-Hao; Pathreeker, Shreyas; Kaur, Jaspreet; Hosein, Ian D

    2016-10-31

    Silicon solar cells are the most widely deployed modules owing to their low-cost manufacture, large market, and suitable efficiencies for residential and commercial use. Methods to increase their solar energy collection must be easily integrated into module fabrication. We perform a theoretical and experimental study on the light collection properties of an encapsulant that incorporates a periodic array of air prisms, which overlay the metallic front contacts of silicon solar cells. We show that the light collection efficiency induced by the encapsulant depends on both the shape of the prisms and angle of incidence of incoming light. We elucidate the changes in collection efficiency in terms of the ray paths and reflection mechanisms in the encapsulant. We fabricated the encapsulant from a commercial silicone and studied the change in the external quantum efficiency (EQE) on an encapsulated, standard silicon solar cell. We observe efficiency enhancements, as compared to a uniform encapsulant, over the visible to near infrared region for a range of incident angles. This work demonstrates exactly how a periodic air prism architecture increases light collection, and how it may be designed to maximize light collection over the widest range of incident angles.

  5. Basal CD34+ Cell Count Predicts Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Mobilization in Healthy Donors after Administration of G-CSF: a Longitudinal, Prospective, Observational, Single-Center, Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Martino, Massimo; Gori, Mercedes; Pitino, Annalisa; Gentile, Massimo; Dattola, Antonia; Pontari, Antonella; Vigna, Ernesto; Moscato, Tiziana; Recchia, Anna Grazia; Barilla', Santina; Tripepi, Giovanni; Morabito, Fortunato

    2017-03-24

    A longitudinal, prospective, observational, single-center, cohort study on healthy donors (HDs) was designed to identify predictors of CD34+ cells on day 5 with emphasis on the predictive value of the basal CD34+ cell count. As potential predictors of mobilization, age, sex, body weight, height, blood volume as well as white blood cell count, peripheral blood (PB) mononuclear cells, platelet count, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were considered. Two different evaluations of CD34+ cell counts were determined for each donor: baseline (before granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [G-CSF] administration) and in PB after G-CSF administration on the morning of the fifth day (day 5). A total 128 consecutive HDs (66 males) with a median age of 43 years were enrolled. CD34+ levels on day 5 displayed a non-normal distribution with a median value of 75.5 cells/µL. To account for the non-normal distribution of the dependent variable, a quantile regression analysis to predict CD34+ on day 5 using the baseline value of CD34+ as the key predictor was performed. On crude analysis, a baseline value of CD34+ ranging from 0.5 to 1 cells/µL predicts a median value of 50 cells/µL on day 5; a value of 2 cells/µL predicts a median value of 70.7 cells/µL; a value of 3-4 cells/µL predicts a median value of 91.3 cells/µL, and a value ≥ 5 predicts a median value of 112 cells/µL. In conclusion, the baseline PB CD34+ cell count correlates with the effectiveness of allogeneic PBSC mobilization and could be useful to plan the collection.

  6. Treatment of complete spinal cord injury patients by autologous bone marrow cell transplantation and administration of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung Chun; Shim, Yoo Shik; Ha, Yoon; Yoon, Seung Hwan; Park, So Ra; Choi, Byung Hyune; Park, Hyun Seon

    2005-01-01

    Transplantation of bone marrow cells into the injured spinal cord has been found to improve neurologic functions in experimental animal studies. However, it is unclear whether bone marrow cells can similarly improve the neurologic functions of complete spinal cord injury (SCI) in human patients. To address this issue, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of autologous bone marrow cell transplantation (BMT) in conjunction with the administration of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in six complete SCI patients. BMT in the injury site (1.1 x 10(6) cells/microL in a total of 1.8 mL) and subcutaneous GM-CSF administration were performed on five patients. One patient was treated with GM-CSF only. The follow-up periods were from 6 to 18 months, depending on the patients. Sensory improvements were noted immediately after the operations. Sensory recovery in the sacral segment was noted mainly 3 weeks to 7 months postoperatively. Significant motor improvements were noted 3 to 7 months postoperatively. Four patients showed neurologic improvements in their American Spiral Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) grades (from A to C). One patient improved to AIS grade B from A and the last patient remained in AIS grade A. No immediate worsening of neurologic symptoms was found. Side effects of GMCSF treatment such as a fever (>38 degrees C) and myalgia were noted. Serious complications increasing mortality and morbidity were not found. The follow-up study with magnetic resonance imaging 4-6 months after injury showed slight enhancement within the zone of BMT. Syrinx formation was not definitely found. BMT and GM-CSF administration represent a safe protocol to efficiently manage SCI patients, especially those with acute complete injury. To demonstrate the full therapeutic value of this protocol, long-term and more comprehensive case-control clinical studies are required.

  7. Different routes of administration of human umbilical tissue-derived cells improve functional recovery in the rat after focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Li, Yi; Romanko, Michael; Kramer, Brian C; Gosiewska, Anna; Chopp, Michael; Hong, Klaudyne

    2012-12-13

    Human umbilical tissue-derived cells (hUTC) are a potential neurorestorative candidate for stroke treatment. Here, we test the effects of hUTC treatment in a rat model of stroke via various routes of administration. Rats were treated with hUTC or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) via different routes including intraarterial (IA), intravenous (IV), intra-cisterna magna (ICM), lumber intrathecal (IT), or intracerebral injection (IC) at 24h after stroke onset. Treatment with hUTC via IV and IC route led to significant functional improvements starting at day 14, which persisted to day 60 compared with respective PBS-treated rats. HUTC administered via IA, ICM, and IT significantly improved neurological functional recovery starting at day 14 and persisted up to day 49 compared with PBS-treated rats. Although IA administration resulted in the highest donor cell number detected within the ischemic brain compared to the other routes, hUTC treatments significantly increased ipsilateral bromodeoxyuridine incorporating subventricular zone (SVZ) cells and vascular density in the ischemic boundary compared with PBS-treated rats regardless of the route of administration. While rats received hUTC treatment via IA, IV, IC, and ICM routes showed greater synaptophysin immunoreactivity, significant reductions in TUNEL-positive cells in the ipsilateral hemisphere were observed in IA, IV, and IC routes compared with PBS-treated rats. hUTC treatments did not reduce infarct volume when compared to the PBS groups. Our data indicate that hUTC administered via multiple routes provide therapeutic benefit after stroke. The enhancement of neurorestorative events in the host brain may contribute to the therapeutic benefits of hUTC in the treatment of stroke.

  8. Oral administration of lipopolysaccharides activates B-1 cells in the peritoneal cavity and lamina propria of the gut and induces autoimmune symptoms in an autoantibody transgenic mouse

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    About a half of the antierythrocyte autoantibody transgenic (autoAb Tg) mice, in which almost all B cells are detected in the spleen, lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches, but not in the peritoneal cavity, suffer from autoimmune hemolytic anemia. The occurrence of this disease is strongly linked to production of autoAb by activated peritoneal B-1 cells in the Tg mice. In this study, we have shown that oral administration of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) activated B-1 cells in the lamina propria of the gut as well as the peritoneal cavity in the healthy Tg mice and induced the autoimmune symptoms in all the Tg mice. The activation of peritoneal and lamina propria B-1 cells by enteric LPS is found not only in the anti-RBC autoAb Tg mice and normal mice but also in the aly mice which congenitally lack lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. These results suggest that B-1 cells in the two locations may form a common pool independent of Peyer's patches and lymph nodes, and can be activated by enteric thymus-independent antigens or polyclonal activators such as LPS. The induction of autoimmune hemolytic anemia in the Tg mice by enteric LPS through the activation of B-1 cells in the lamina propria of gut and in the peritoneal cavity suggests that B-1 cells and bacterial infection may play a pathogenic role in the onset of autoimmune diseases. PMID:8006578

  9. Engineering Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

  10. Administrative IT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…

  11. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  12. Splitting culture medium by air-jet and rewetting for the assessment of the wettability of cultured epithelial cell surfaces.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Kondo, Makoto; Uchida, Ryohei; Kaneko, Makoto; Sugiyama, Hiroaki; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo

    2013-12-01

    This study found that the phenomenon of rewetting after squeezing culture medium varied in different culture conditions for rat oral mucosal epithelial cells. When culture medium covering over cultured cells was squeezed by an air-jet application, the motion of squeezed culture medium was able to be observed by using a commercially available movie camera. Squeezed width on cells cultured in keratinocyte culture medium (KCM), which contained with fetal bovine serum, was one-sixth of that in FBS-free KCM. This result corresponded to the mucous layer staining statuses of cultured cells in both cases; positive in KCM and negative in FBS-free medium. Furthermore, the gene expression of mucous glycoprotein MUC4 in KCM was 100 times higher than that in FBS-free medium, and the expression of MUC4 protein only showed on the apical surface of cells cultured in KCM. The relative gene expression levels of MUC1, 13, 15, and 16 in both the normal and FBS-free medium were found to be no more than one-thirtieth of that of MUC4 in KCM. The main factor of the wettability difference between KCM and FBS-free medium was speculated to be the difference of MUC4 expression between both media. This method can be a simple technique for testing not only the surface wettability but also the mucous formation of cultured cells.

  13. Administration of polysaccharides from Antrodia camphorata modulates dendritic cell function and alleviates allergen-induced T helper type 2 responses in a mouse model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ko-Jiunn; Leu, Sy-Jye; Su, Ching-Hua; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Chen, Yi-Lien; Lee, Yueh-Lun

    2010-03-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease characterized by airway inflammation caused by the dysregulated production of cytokines secreted by allergen-specific type 2 T helper (Th2) cells. Antrodia camphorata is a commonly used fungus in Asian folk medicine, and A. camphorata polysaccharides are reported to possess anti-cancer activities. In this study, the immunomodulatory effects of purified fractionated polysaccharides (GF2) from A. camphorata on dendritic cells (DCs) and their potential preventive effects against ovalbumin (OVA) -induced asthma were investigated. In the presence of GF2, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -activated DCs exhibited up-regulated expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and co-stimulatory molecules, as well as enhanced interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-12 production. GF2 treatment on LPS-activated DCs suppressed naïve CD4(+) T-cell proliferation and Th2 cell polarization with IL-10 production in an allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction. In animal experiments, a high dose of GF2 efficiently reduced expression levels of OVA-specific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgE. However, lower doses of GF2 significantly enhanced OVA-specific IgG2a production. Our data also showed that administration of GF2 dose-dependently inhibited the development of airway hyperresponsiveness, airway eosinophilia and Th2 responses. OVA-specific CD4(+) T cells from higher doses of GF2-treated mice had significantly lower proliferative capacities compared with control mice. Moreover, treatment with GF2 significantly increased the high levels of IL-10 and low levels of interferon-gamma produced by T cells. Taken together, these data indicate that administration of A. camphorata polysaccharides (GF2) may have therapeutic potential when used as an adjuvant for the immunomodulatory treatment of allergic asthma.

  14. Chronic Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol Administration Reduces IgE(+)B Cells but Unlikely Enhances Pathogenic SIVmac251 Infection in Male Rhesus Macaques of Chinese Origin.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qiang; Liu, Li; Cong, Zhe; Wu, Xiaoxian; Wang, Hui; Qin, Chuan; Molina, Patricia; Chen, Zhiwei

    2016-09-01

    Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) is the major psychoactive component of the cannabis plant. Δ(9)-THC has been used in the active ingredient of Marinol as an appetite stimulant for AIDS patients. Its impact on progression of HIV-1 infection, however, remains debatable. Previous studies indicated that Δ(9)-THC administration enhanced HIV-1 infection in huPBL-SCID mice but seemingly decreased early mortality in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infected male Indian-derived rhesus macaques. Here, we determine the chronic effect of Δ(9)-THC administration using 0.32 mg/kg or placebo (PBO), i.m., twice daily for 428 days on SIVmac251 infected male Chinese-derived rhesus macaques. Sixteen animals were divided into four study groups: Δ(9)-THC(+)SIV(+), Δ(9)-THC(+)SIV(-), PBO/SIV(+) and PBO/SIV(-) (n = 4/group). One-month after daily Δ(9)-THC or PBO administrations, macaques in groups one and three were challenged intravenously with pathogenic SIVmac251/CNS, which was isolated from the brain of a Chinese macaque with end-staged neuroAIDS. No significant differences in peak and steady state plasma viral loads were seen between Δ(9)-THC(+)SIV(+) and PBO/SIV(+) macaques. Regardless of Δ(9)-THC, all infected macaques displayed significant drop of CD4/CD8 T cell ratio, loss of CD4(+) T cells and higher persistent levels of Ki67(+)CD8(+) T cells compared with uninfected animals. Moreover, long-term Δ(9)-THC treatment reduced significantly the frequency of circulating IgE(+)B cells. Only one Δ(9)-THC(+)SIV(+) macaque died of simian AIDS with paralyzed limbs compared with two deaths in the PBO/SIV(+) group during the study period. These findings indicate that chronic Δ(9)-THC administration resulted in reduction of IgE(+)B cells, yet it unlikely enhanced pathogenic SIVmac251/CNS infection in male Rhesus macaques of Chinese origin.

  15. High-performance of PEDOT/PSS free organic solar cells on an air-plasma-treated ITO substrate.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong Kil; Jin, Ming Liang; An, Cheng Jin; Kim, Dae Woo; Jung, Hee-Tae

    2014-07-23

    In this work, we demonstrate the high-performance of a PEDOT:PSS free organic photovoltaic cell (OPVC) using an air-plasma modified ITO surface, followed by controlled solvent evaporation and annealing of the P3HT:PCBM photoactive layer. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and conductive atomic force microscopy (c-AFM) results show that the work function of ITO was increased to as high as that of PEDOT:PSS (5.2 eV) after air-plasma treatment, along with significantly enhanced electrical homogeneity. From the dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy (DSIMS) results, we confirm that the thermodynamic stability of the slow-dried active layer is attributed to the uniform vertical compositional distribution on the air plasma treated ITO surface, even after thermal annealing at 150 °C for 10 min. The resulting device has an open-circuit voltage of 0.65 V, a fill factor of 63%, and a power conversion efficiency of 3.38%, providing a high performance PEDOT:PSS free OPVC device.

  16. Dual control of low concentration CO poisoning by anode air bleeding of low temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klages, Merle; Tjønnås, Johannes; Zenith, Federico; Halvorsen, Ivar J.; Scholta, Joachim

    2016-12-01

    Fuel impurities, fed to a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, can affect stack performance by poisoning of catalyst layers. This paper describes the dynamic behaviour of a stack, including state-of-the-art membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) of three different manufacturers, at different operating conditions. The voltage transients of the step responses to CO poisoning as well as air bleed recovery are compared, revealing differences in performance loss: slow poisoning versus fast recovery, incomplete recovery and voltage oscillation. The recorded behaviour is used to develop a model, based on Tafel equation and first order dynamic response, which can be calibrated to each MEA type. Using this model to predict voltage response, a controller is built with the aim of reducing the total amount of air bleed and monitoring upstream stack processes without the need of sensors measuring the poisoning level. Two controllers are implemented in order to show the concept from a heuristic, easy to implement, and a more technical side allowing more detailed analysis of the synthesis. The heuristic algorithm, based on periodic perturbations of the manipulated variable (air-bleed), is validated on a real stack, revealing a stabilized performance without the need of detailed stack properties knowledge.

  17. Home administration of maintenance pemetrexed for patients with advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer: rationale, practicalities and phase II feasibility study design

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Home-based care in oncology is mainly reserved for patients at the end of life. Regulations regarding home delivery of cytotoxics differ across Europe, with a notable lack of practice guidelines in most countries. This has led to a lack of data addressing the feasibility of home-based administration of cytotoxic chemotherapy. In advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer, pemetrexed is approved as maintenance therapy after first-line chemotherapy. In this setting, patients have the potential to be treated long-term with maintenance therapy, which, in the absence of unacceptable toxicity, is continued until disease progression. The favourable safety profile of pemetrexed and the ease of its administration by 10-minute intravenous infusion every 3 weeks make this drug a suitable candidate for administration in a home setting. Methods Literature and regulations relevant to the home-based delivery of cytotoxic therapy were reviewed, and a phase II feasibility study of home administration of pemetrexed maintenance therapy was designed. At least 50 patients with advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0–1 and no progressive disease after four cycles of platinum-based first-line therapy are required to allow investigation of the feasibility of home-based administration of pemetrexed maintenance therapy (500 mg/m2 every 3 weeks until progressive disease or unacceptable toxicity). Feasibility is being assessed as adherence to the home-based administration process (primary endpoint), patient safety, impact on patients’ quality of life, patient and physician satisfaction with home care, and healthcare resource use and costs. Enrolment of patients from the UK and Sweden, where home-based care is relatively well developed, commenced in December 2011. Discussion This feasibility study addresses an important aspect of maintenance therapy, that is, patient comfort during protracted home

  18. High Fat Diet-Induced Skeletal Muscle Wasting Is Decreased by Mesenchymal Stem Cells Administration: Implications on Oxidative Stress, Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway Activation, and Myonuclear Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Abrigo, Johanna; Rivera, Juan Carlos; Aravena, Javier; Cabrera, Daniel; Simon, Felipe; Ezquer, Fernando; Ezquer, Marcelo; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Obesity can lead to skeletal muscle atrophy, a pathological condition characterized by the loss of strength and muscle mass. A feature of muscle atrophy is a decrease of myofibrillar proteins as a result of ubiquitin proteasome pathway overactivation, as evidenced by increased expression of the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. Additionally, other mechanisms are related to muscle wasting, including oxidative stress, myonuclear apoptosis, and autophagy. Stem cells are an emerging therapy in the treatment of chronic diseases such as high fat diet-induced obesity. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a population of self-renewable and undifferentiated cells present in the bone marrow and other mesenchymal tissues of adult individuals. The present study is the first to analyze the effects of systemic MSC administration on high fat diet-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in the tibialis anterior of mice. Treatment with MSCs reduced losses of muscle strength and mass, decreases of fiber diameter and myosin heavy chain protein levels, and fiber type transitions. Underlying these antiatrophic effects, MSC administration also decreased ubiquitin proteasome pathway activation, oxidative stress, and myonuclear apoptosis. These results are the first to indicate that systemically administered MSCs could prevent muscle wasting associated with high fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes.

  19. High Fat Diet-Induced Skeletal Muscle Wasting Is Decreased by Mesenchymal Stem Cells Administration: Implications on Oxidative Stress, Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway Activation, and Myonuclear Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Aravena, Javier; Cabrera, Daniel; Simon, Felipe; Ezquer, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Obesity can lead to skeletal muscle atrophy, a pathological condition characterized by the loss of strength and muscle mass. A feature of muscle atrophy is a decrease of myofibrillar proteins as a result of ubiquitin proteasome pathway overactivation, as evidenced by increased expression of the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. Additionally, other mechanisms are related to muscle wasting, including oxidative stress, myonuclear apoptosis, and autophagy. Stem cells are an emerging therapy in the treatment of chronic diseases such as high fat diet-induced obesity. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a population of self-renewable and undifferentiated cells present in the bone marrow and other mesenchymal tissues of adult individuals. The present study is the first to analyze the effects of systemic MSC administration on high fat diet-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in the tibialis anterior of mice. Treatment with MSCs reduced losses of muscle strength and mass, decreases of fiber diameter and myosin heavy chain protein levels, and fiber type transitions. Underlying these antiatrophic effects, MSC administration also decreased ubiquitin proteasome pathway activation, oxidative stress, and myonuclear apoptosis. These results are the first to indicate that systemically administered MSCs could prevent muscle wasting associated with high fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes. PMID:27579157

  20. Investigation of the concentration of bacteria and their cell envelope components in indoor air in two elementary schools.

    PubMed

    Liu, L J; Krahmer, M; Fox, A; Feigley, C E; Featherstone, A; Saraf, A; Larsson, L

    2000-11-01

    Bacterial cell envelope components are widely distributed in airborne dust, where they act as inflammatory agents causing respiratory symptoms. Measurements of these agents and other environmental factors are assessed in two elementary schools in a southeastern city in the United States. Muramic acid (MA) was used as a marker for bacterial peptidoglycan (PG), and 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) were used as markers for Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Culturable bacteria were collected using an Andersen sampler with three different culture media. In addition, temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), and CO2 were continuously monitored. Concentrations of airborne MA and 3-OH FAs were correlated with total suspended particulate (TSP) levels. Outdoor MA (mean = 0.78-1.15 ng/m3) and 3-OH FA levels (mean = 2.19-2.18 ng/m3) were similar at the two schools. Indoor concentrations of airborne MA and 3-OH FAs differed significantly between schools (MA: 1.44 vs. 2.84 ng/m3; 3-OH FAs: 2.96 vs. 4.57 ng/m3). Although indoor MA levels were low, they were significantly related to teachers' perception of the severity of indoor air quality (IAQ) problems in their classrooms. Concentrations of CO2 correlated significantly with all bacteria measurements. Because CO2 levels were related to the number of occupants and the ventilation rates, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the children and teachers are sources of bacterial contamination. Many culturable bacteria present in indoor air are opportunistic organisms that can be infectious for compromised individuals, while both culturable and nonculturable bacterial remnants act as environmental toxins for both healthy and compromised individuals. Measuring the "total bacteria load" would be most accurate in assessing the biotoxicity of indoor air. Chemical analysis of MA and 3-OH FAs, when coupled with the conventional culture method, provides complementary information for assessing biocontamination

  1. 40 CFR 86.162-03 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.162-03 Approval of... initiative, the Administrator will approve a simulation of the environmental cell for air conditioning test... environmental cell test data for the range of vehicles to be covered by the simulation including items such...

  2. 40 CFR 86.162-03 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.162-03 Approval of... initiative, the Administrator will approve a simulation of the environmental cell for air conditioning test... environmental cell test data for the range of vehicles to be covered by the simulation including items such...

  3. 40 CFR 86.162-03 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.162-03 Approval of... initiative, the Administrator will approve a simulation of the environmental cell for air conditioning test... environmental cell test data for the range of vehicles to be covered by the simulation including items such...

  4. 40 CFR 86.162-03 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.162-03 Approval of... initiative, the Administrator will approve a simulation of the environmental cell for air conditioning test... environmental cell test data for the range of vehicles to be covered by the simulation including items such...

  5. The GaAs solar cell research and development programs of the Air Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masloski, K. T.

    1980-01-01

    The compound GaAs is of interest for space application photovoltaics due to its inherent advantages over silicon. Higher efficiencies, superior radiation hardness, and a greater temperature resistance are the major advantages of GaAs over Si. Air Force programs look for ways of maximizing these advantages while minimizing disadvantages such as higher costs and weights. Four programs in GaAs photovoltaics are described and each program is discussed in terms of its objective, approach and status.

  6. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of planar perovskite solar cells fabricated in ambient air by solvent annealing treatment method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obiozo Eze, Vincent; Mori, Tatsuo

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we report on planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs) fabricated by a simple one-step solution process and an antisolvent bath (ASB) method in ambient air. The ASB method enabled the efficient extraction of the precursor solvent and induced the swift crystallization of uniform and highly smooth perovskite films with an average grain size of about 0.34 µm. The morphology and grain growth of the resultant perovskite film were further improved by solvent annealing (SA) under dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) vapor atmosphere at 150 °C for 10 min and thus an average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.20% and a maximum efficiency of 16.77% were achieved. This work highlights the importance of solvent annealing for perovskite prepared by a one-step solution process and an ASB method, and offers a facile and attractive way to fabricate high-performance perovskite solar cells.

  7. REGULATION OF CYTOKINE PRODUCTION IN HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACHROPHAGES AND AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS IN RESPONSE TO AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES: FURTHER MECHANISTIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to better understand how ambient air particulate matter (PM) affect lung health, the two main airway cell types likely to interact with inhaled particles, alveolar macrophages (AM) and airway epithelial cells have been exposed to particles in vitro and followed for endp...

  8. Growth of airway epithelial cells at an air-liquid interface changes both the response to particle exposure and iron homeostasis

    EPA Science Inventory

    We tested the hypothesis that 1) relative to submerged cells, airway epithelial cells grown at an air-liquid interface and allowed to differentiate would have an altered response to particle exposure and 2) that these differences would be associated with indices of iron homeostas...

  9. Growth of airway epithelial cells at an air-liquid interface changes both the response to particle exposure and iron homeostasis.

    EPA Science Inventory

    RATIONALE: We tested the hypothesis that 1) relative to submerged cells, airway epithelial cells grown at an air-liquid interface and allowed to differentiate would have an altered response to particle exposure and 2) that these differences would be associated with indices of iro...

  10. Augmentation of myelopoiesis in a murine host bearing a T cell lymphoma following in vivo administration of proton pump inhibitor pantoprazole.

    PubMed

    Vishvakarma, Naveen Kumar; Singh, Sukh Mahendra

    2011-10-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are being proposed as potent antitumor agents, owing to their ability to specifically induce tumor cell death by reversing H(+) ion homeostasis. As tumor growth induces myelosuppression in tumor-bearing hosts, it remains unclear if PPI can also modulate tumor-induced myelosuppression. Thus, we studied the effect of in vivo administration of pantoprazole (PPZ), a PPI, on myelopoiesis in a murine model of a transplantable T cell lymphoma, designated as Dalton's lymphoma (DL). Intraperitoneal administration of PPZ to tumor-bearing mice resulted in an enhanced bone marrow cellularity, inhibited induction of apoptosis and augmented bone marrow cell (BMC) survival. BMC of PPZ-administered tumor-bearing mice showed elevated number of F4/80 positive cells, augmented colony forming ability and differentiation in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) with higher expression of F4/80 and CD11c markers. This study also presents evidences to indicate that PPZ-dependent augmentation of myelopoiesis in the tumor-bearing host is dependent on an enhanced expression of M-CSF and receptors for M-CSF & GM-CSF in BMC, along with a modulation in the expression of cell survival regulatory molecules PUMA, Bcl2, p53 and caspase-activated DNase (CAD). BMDM obtained from PPZ-administered tumor-bearing mice also showed an augmented expression of TLR-2, tumoricidal activity, production of NO and monokines: IL-1, IL-6 & TNF-α. The study discusses the possible mechanisms underlying PPZ-dependent augmentation of myelopoiesis. Taken together, the present study proposes that a PPZ-dependent alleviation of tumor-induced myelosuppression could contribute to an augmented myelopoiesis.

  11. Dual gas-diffusion membrane- and mediatorless dihydrogen/air-breathing biofuel cell operating at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Hong-qi; So, Keisei; Kitazumi, Yuki; Shirai, Osamu; Nishikawa, Koji; Higuchi, Yoshiki; Kano, Kenji

    2016-12-01

    A membraneless direct electron transfer (DET)-type dihydrogen (H2)/air-breathing biofuel cell without any mediator was constructed wherein bilirubin oxidase from Myrothecium verrucaria (BOD) and membrane-bound [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F (MBH) were used as biocatalysts for the cathode and the anode, respectively, and Ketjen black-modified water proof carbon paper (KB/WPCC) was used as an electrode material. The KB/WPCC surface was modified with 2-aminobenzoic acid and p-phenylenediamine, respectively, to face the positively charged electron-accepting site of BOD and the negatively charged electron-donating site of MBH to the electrode surface. A gas-diffusion system was employed for the electrodes to realize high-speed substrate supply. As result, great improvement in the current density of O2 reduction with BOD and H2 reduction with MBH were realized at negatively and postively charged surfaces, respectively. Gas diffusion system also suppressed the oxidative inactivation of MBH at high electrode potentials. Finally, based on the improved bioanode and biocathode, a dual gas-diffusion membrane- and mediatorless H2/air-breathing biofuel cell was constructed. The maximum power density reached 6.1 mW cm-2 (at 0.72 V), and the open circuit voltage was 1.12 V using 1 atm of H2 gas as a fuel at room temperature and under passive and quiescent conditions.

  12. Spatial and Temporal Effects of Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (POPFACE) on Leaf Growth, Cell Expansion, and Cell Production in a Closed Canopy of Poplar1

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Gail; Tricker, Penny J.; Zhang, Fang Z.; Alston, Victoria J.; Miglietta, Franco; Kuzminsky, Elena

    2003-01-01

    Leaf expansion in the fast-growing tree, Populus × euramericana was stimulated by elevated [CO2] in a closed-canopy forest plantation, exposed using a free air CO2 enrichment technique enabling long-term experimentation in field conditions. The effects of elevated [CO2] over time were characterized and related to the leaf plastochron index (LPI), and showed that leaf expansion was stimulated at very early (LPI, 0–3) and late (LPI, 6–8) stages in development. Early and late effects of elevated [CO2] were largely the result of increased cell expansion and increased cell production, respectively. Spatial effects of elevated [CO2] were also marked and increased final leaf size resulted from an effect on leaf area, but not leaf length, demonstrating changed leaf shape in response to [CO2]. Leaves exhibited a basipetal gradient of leaf development, investigated by defining seven interveinal areas, with growth ceasing first at the leaf tip. Interestingly, and in contrast to other reports, no spatial differences in epidermal cell size were apparent across the lamina, whereas a clear basipetal gradient in cell production rate was found. These data suggest that the rate and timing of cell production was more important in determining leaf shape, given the constant cell size across the leaf lamina. The effect of elevated [CO2] imposed on this developmental gradient suggested that leaf cell production continued longer in elevated [CO2] and that basal increases in cell production rate were also more important than altered cell expansion for increased final leaf size and altered leaf shape in elevated [CO2]. PMID:12529526

  13. Prediction of thyroid C-cell carcinogenicity after chronic administration of GLP1-R agonists in rodents.

    PubMed

    van den Brink, Willem; Emerenciana, Annette; Bellanti, Francesco; Della Pasqua, Oscar; van der Laan, Jan Willem

    2017-04-01

    Increased incidence of C-cell carcinogenicity has been observed for glucagon-like-protein-1 receptor (GLP-1r) agonists in rodents. It is suggested that the duration of exposure is an indicator of carcinogenic potential in rodents of the different products on the market. Furthermore, the role of GLP-1-related mechanisms in the induction of C-cell carcinogenicity has gained increased attention by regulatory agencies. This study proposes an integrative pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PKPD) framework to identify explanatory factors and characterize differences in carcinogenic potential of the GLP-1r agonist products. PK models for four products (exenatide QW (once weekly), exenatide BID (twice daily), liraglutide and lixisenatide) were developed using nonlinear mixed effects modelling. Predicted exposure was subsequently linked to GLP-1r stimulation using in vitro GLP-1r potency data. A logistic regression model was then applied to exenatide QW and liraglutide data to assess the relationship between GLP-1r stimulation and thyroid C-cell hyperplasia incidence as pre-neoplastic predictor of a carcinogenic response. The model showed a significant association between predicted GLP-1r stimulation and C-cell hyperplasia after 2years of treatment. The predictive performance of the model was evaluated using lixisenatide, for which hyperplasia data were accurately described during the validation step. The use of a model-based approach provided insight into the relationship between C-cell hyperplasia and GLP-1r stimulation for all four products, which is not possible with traditional data analysis methods. It can be concluded that both pharmacokinetics (exposure) and pharmacodynamics (potency for GLP-1r) factors determine C-cell hyperplasia incidence in rodents. Our work highlights the pharmacological basis for GLP-1r agonist-induced C-cell carcinogenicity. The concept is promising for application to other drug classes.

  14. Administration of TLR7 agonist, resiquimod, in different types of chicken induces a mixed Th1 and Th2 response in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, Arunsaravanakumar; Ramakrishnan, Saravanan; Sachan, Swati; Sharma, Bal Krishan; Anand Kumar, B S; Kumar, Vimal; Badasara, Surendra Kumar; Kumar, Ajay; Saravanan, B C; Krishnaswamy, Narayanan

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the variation in immune response in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of broiler, White Leghorn (WL) and Kadaknath breeds of chicken following administration of TLR7 agonist, resiquimod (R-848). Expression of different immune related genes viz., interferon-β (IFN-β), IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, TLR7 and iNOS was assessed by quantitative real time PCR over a period of 24 h. The results indicated that there was a significant up-regulation in the relative expression of immune response genes post R-848 administration (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the transcriptional expression of IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, iNOS and TLR7 genes in the PBMCs was significantly up-regulated over 24 h in broiler, WL and Kadaknath breeds of birds after the administration of R-848. Overall, R-848 induced a mixed Th1 and Th2 response in PBMCs of chicken origin ex vivo.

  15. Analysis of the variable factors influencing tacrolimus blood concentration during the switch from continuous intravenous infusion to oral administration after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Suetsugu, Kimitaka; Ikesue, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Toshihiro; Shiratsuchi, Motoaki; Yamamoto-Taguchi, Nanae; Tsuchiya, Yuichi; Matsukawa, Kumi; Uchida, Mayako; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Akashi, Koichi; Masuda, Satohiro

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to identify variable factors affecting tacrolimus blood concentration during the switch from continuous intravenous infusion to twice-daily oral administration in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients (n = 73). The blood concentration/dose ratio of tacrolimus immediately before the change from continuous infusion (C/Div) was compared with that between 3 and 5 days after the change to oral administration (C/Dpo). Median (C/Dpo)/(C/Div) was 0.21 (range 0.04-0.58). Multiple regression analysis showed that concomitant use of oral itraconazole or voriconazole significantly increased the (C/Dpo)/(C/Div) of tacrolimus (p = 0.002), probably owing to the inhibition of enterohepatic cytochrome P450 3A4. In addition, 5 of 18 (28%) patients who had the lowest quartile (C/Dpo)/(C/Div) values developed acute graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD), which was significantly higher than in others [5 of 55 (9%) patients, p = 0.045]. Although the switch from intravenous to oral administration at a ratio of 1:5 appeared to be appropriate, a lower conversion ratio was suitable in patients taking oral itraconazole or voriconazole. In patients whose blood concentration decreases after the switch, the development of GVHD should be monitored and tacrolimus dosage should be readjusted to maintain an appropriate blood concentration.

  16. Intravenous Administration of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induces a Switch from Classical to Atypical Symptoms in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Kurte, Mónica; Bravo-Alegría, Javiera; Torres, Alexander; Carrasco, Vania; Ibáñez, Cristina; Vega-Letter, Ana María; Fernández-O'Ryan, Catalina; Irarrázabal, Carlos E.; Figueroa, Fernando E.; Fuentealba, Rodrigo A.; Riedel, Claudia; Carrión, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    Potent immunosuppressive and regenerative properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) position them as a novel therapy for autoimmune diseases. This research examines the therapeutic effect of MSCs administration at different disease stages in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Classical and atypical scores of EAE, associated with Th1 and Th17 response, respectively, and also Treg lymphocytes, were evaluated. MSCs administration at the onset (EAE+MSConset) induced an important amelioration of the clinical signs and less lasting effect at the peak of EAE (EAE+MSCpeak). No effect was observed when MSCs were applied after EAE stabilization (EAE+MSClate). Surprisingly, EAE atypical signs were detected in EAE+MSCpeak and EAE+MSClate mice. However, no correlation was found in Th17/Th1 ratio. Interestingly, regardless of time administration, MSCs significantly reduced IL-6 and also T-bet, RORγT, and Foxp3 mRNA levels in brain samples of EAE mice. The downregulation of IL-6 could restore the well-functioning of the blood-brain barrier of EAE mice, correlated with a decreased number of brain infiltrating leukocytes. These results suggest that the inflammatory status is important to be considered for administering MSCs in autoimmune pathologies, leading to a further research to clarify the effect of MSCs for multiple sclerosis. PMID:25838828

  17. Intravenous administration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells induces a switch from classical to atypical symptoms in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Kurte, Mónica; Bravo-Alegría, Javiera; Torres, Alexander; Carrasco, Vania; Ibáñez, Cristina; Vega-Letter, Ana María; Fernández-O'Ryan, Catalina; Irarrázabal, Carlos E; Figueroa, Fernando E; Fuentealba, Rodrigo A; Riedel, Claudia; Carrión, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    Potent immunosuppressive and regenerative properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) position them as a novel therapy for autoimmune diseases. This research examines the therapeutic effect of MSCs administration at different disease stages in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Classical and atypical scores of EAE, associated with Th1 and Th17 response, respectively, and also Treg lymphocytes, were evaluated. MSCs administration at the onset (EAE+MSConset) induced an important amelioration of the clinical signs and less lasting effect at the peak of EAE (EAE+MSCpeak). No effect was observed when MSCs were applied after EAE stabilization (EAE+MSClate). Surprisingly, EAE atypical signs were detected in EAE+MSCpeak and EAE+MSClate mice. However, no correlation was found in Th17/Th1 ratio. Interestingly, regardless of time administration, MSCs significantly reduced IL-6 and also T-bet, RORγT, and Foxp3 mRNA levels in brain samples of EAE mice. The downregulation of IL-6 could restore the well-functioning of the blood-brain barrier of EAE mice, correlated with a decreased number of brain infiltrating leukocytes. These results suggest that the inflammatory status is important to be considered for administering MSCs in autoimmune pathologies, leading to a further research to clarify the effect of MSCs for multiple sclerosis.

  18. Effects of Intravenous Administration of Human Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells in 3-Acetylpyridine-Lesioned Rats

    PubMed Central

    Calatrava-Ferreras, Lucía; Gonzalo-Gobernado, Rafael; Herranz, Antonio S.; Reimers, Diana; Montero Vega, Teresa; Jiménez-Escrig, Adriano; Richart López, Luis Alberto; Bazán, Eulalia

    2012-01-01

    Cerebellar ataxias include a heterogeneous group of infrequent diseases characterized by lack of motor coordination caused by disturbances in the cerebellum and its associated circuits. Current therapies are based on the use of drugs that correct some of the molecular processes involved in their pathogenesis. Although these treatments yielded promising results, there is not yet an effective therapy for these diseases. Cell replacement strategies using human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (HuUCBMCs) have emerged as a promising approach for restoration of function in neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this work was to investigate the potential therapeutic activity of HuUCBMCs in the 3-acetylpyridine (3-AP) rat model of cerebellar ataxia. Intravenous administered HuUCBMCs reached the cerebellum and brain stem of 3-AP ataxic rats. Grafted cells reduced 3-AP-induced neuronal loss promoted the activation of microglia in the brain stem, and prevented the overexpression of GFAP elicited by 3-AP in the cerebellum. In addition, HuUCBMCs upregulated the expression of proteins that are critical for cell survival, such as phospho-Akt and Bcl-2, in the cerebellum and brain stem of 3-AP ataxic rats. As all these effects were accompanied by a temporal but significant improvement in motor coordination, HuUCBMCs grafts can be considered as an effective cell replacement therapy for cerebellar disorders. PMID:23150735

  19. Active water management at the cathode of a planar air-breathing polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell using an electroosmotic pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, T.; O'Hayre, R.; Litster, S.; Prinz, F. B.; Santiago, J. G.

    In a typical air-breathing fuel cell design, ambient air is supplied to the cathode by natural convection and dry hydrogen is supplied to a dead-ended anode. While this design is simple and attractive for portable low-power applications, the difficulty in implementing effective and robust water management presents disadvantages. In particular, excessive flooding of the open-cathode during long-term operation can lead to a dramatic reduction of fuel cell power. To overcome this limitation, we report here on a novel air-breathing fuel cell water management design based on a hydrophilic and electrically conductive wick in conjunction with an electroosmotic (EO) pump that actively pumps water out of the wick. Transient experiments demonstrate the ability of the EO-pump to "resuscitate" the fuel cell from catastrophic flooding events, while longer term galvanostatic measurements suggest that the design can completely eliminate cathode flooding using less than 2% of fuel cell power, and lead to stable operation with higher net power performance than a control design without EO-pump. This demonstrates that active EO-pump water management, which has previously only been demonstrated in forced-convection fuel cell systems, can also be applied effectively to miniaturized (<5 W) air-breathing fuel cell systems.

  20. Prenatal nicotine exposure alters the responses to subsequent nicotine administration and withdrawal in adolescence: Serotonin receptors and cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Tate, Charlotte A; Cousins, Mandy M; Seidler, Frederic J

    2006-11-01

    Offspring of women who smoke during pregnancy are themselves more likely to take up smoking in adolescence, effects that are associated with a high rate of depression and increased sensitivity to withdrawal symptoms. To evaluate the biological basis for this relationship, we assessed effects on serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT) receptors and 5HT-mediated cellular responses in rats exposed to nicotine throughout prenatal development and then given nicotine in adolescence (postnatal days PN30-47.5), using regimens that reproduce plasma nicotine levels found in smokers. Evaluations were then made during the period of adolescent nicotine treatment and for up to one month after the end of treatment. Prenatal nicotine exposure, which elicits damage to 5HT projections in the cerebral cortex and striatum, produced sex-selective changes in the expression of 5HT(1A) and 5HT2 receptors, along with induction of adenylyl cyclase (AC), leading to sensitization of heterologous inputs operating through this signaling pathway. Superimposed on these effects, the AC response to 5HT was shifted toward inhibition. By itself, adolescent nicotine administration, which damages the same pathways, produced similar effects on receptors and the 5HT-mediated response, but a smaller overall induction of AC. Animals exposed to prenatal nicotine showed a reduced response to nicotine administered in adolescence, results in keeping with earlier findings of persistent desensitization. Our results indicate that prenatal nicotine exposure alters parameters of 5HT synaptic communication lasting into adolescence and changes the response to nicotine administration and withdrawal in adolescence, actions which may contribute to a subpopulation especially vulnerable to nicotine dependence.

  1. Kinetics of human hemopoietic cells after in vivo administration of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed Central

    Aglietta, M; Piacibello, W; Sanavio, F; Stacchini, A; Aprá, F; Schena, M; Mossetti, C; Carnino, F; Caligaris-Cappio, F; Gavosto, F

    1989-01-01

    The kinetic changes induced by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on hemopoietic cells were assessed in physiological conditions by administering GM-CSF (8 micrograms/kg per d) for 3 d to nine patients with solid tumors and normal bone marrow (BM), before chemotherapy. GM-CSF increased the number of circulating granulocytes and monocytes; platelets, erythrocytes, lymphocyte number, and subsets were unmodified. GM-CSF increased the percentage of BM S phase BFU-E (from 32 +/- 7 to 79 +/- 16%), day 14 colony-forming unit granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) (from 43 +/- 20 to 82 +/- 11%) and day 7 CFU-GM (from 41 +/- 14 to 56 +/- 20%). The percentage of BM myeloblasts, promyelocytes, and myelocytes in S phase increased from 26 +/- 14 to 41 +/- 6%, and that of erythroblasts increased from 25 +/- 12 to 30 +/- 12%. This suggests that GM-CSF activates both erythroid and granulomonopoietic progenitors but that, among the morphologically recognizable BM precursors, only the granulomonopoietic lineage is a direct target of the molecule. GM-CSF increased the birth rate of cycling cells from 1.3 to 3.4 cells %/h and decreased the duration of the S phase from 14.3 to 9.1 h and the cell cycle time from 86 to 26 h. After treatment discontinuation, the number of circulating granulocytes and monocytes rapidly fell. The proportion of S phase BM cells dropped to values lower than pretreatment levels, suggesting a period of relative refractoriness to cell cycle-active antineoplastic agents. PMID:2643633

  2. Effects of oral powder electrolyte administration on packed cell volume, plasma chemistry parameters, and incidence of colic in horses participating in a 6-day 162-km trail ride.

    PubMed

    Walker, Wade T; Callan, Robert J; Hill, Ashley E; Tisher, Kelly B

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of administering oral powder electrolytes on packed cell volume (PCV), plasma chemistry parameters, and incidence of colic in horses participating on a 6-day 162-km trail ride in which water was not offered ad libitum. Twenty-three horses received grain with powder electrolytes daily while 19 control horses received grain only. Horses were ridden approximately 32 km a day at a walk or trot. Packed cell volume and plasma chemistry parameters were analyzed daily. Episodes of colic were diagnosed and treated by a veterinarian unaware of treatment group allocation. Blood parameters and incidence of colic were compared between treatment groups. Electrolyte administration did not alter PCV or plasma chemistry parameters compared to controls. The incidence of colic was significantly higher in treated horses (P = 0.05). Oral powder electrolytes did not enhance hydration status or electrolyte homeostasis and may be associated with colic in horses participating on long distance trail rides similar to this model.

  3. Movement disorders in encephalitis induced by Rhodococcus aurantiacus infection relieved by the administration of L-dopa and anti-T-cell antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Min, Y; Asano, M; Kohanawa, M; Minagawa, T

    1999-01-01

    Mice injected with Rhodococcus aurantiacus by the intravenous (i.v.) route show neurological disorders, hemiparesis, vertical headshake and turn-round gait after day 7 postinfection (p.i.). Neurological symptoms caused by i.v. inoculation of R. aurantiacus were relieved by treatment with levodopa (l-dopa). R. aurantiacus was isolated from the brain and was found to be completely eliminated at day 7 p.i. Focal encephalitis was mainly observed in the brain stem, and T cells could be isolated from the brain after day 7 p.i. Administration of both an anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and an anti-CD8 mAb suppressed neurological symptoms. These results suggest that R. aurantiacus induces movement disorders in mice, and that the symptoms are mediated by T cells infiltrating the brain, rather than directly by the bacterium. PMID:10233672

  4. 8.01% CuInGaSe2 solar cells fabricated by air-stable low-cost inks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Han, Seung-Yeol; Sung, Shi-Joon; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Chang, Chih-Hung

    2012-08-21

    CuInGaSe(2) (CIGS), a promising thin film solar cell material, has gained lots of attention in decades due to its high energy conversion efficiency and potential lower manufacture cost over conventional Si solar cells. As a cheaper processing method compared to vacuum-based techniques, solution-based deposition has been successfully applied to fabricate electronic devices, such as transistors and solar cells. In this paper, we reported CIGS thin film solar cells with an energy conversion efficiency reaching up to 8.01% using air-stable, low-cost inks. The newly developed inks consist of commercially available, low-cost compounds and solvents and can be processed using a variety of printing and coating techniques. More importantly, the inks can produce CIGS films free of copper selenides and amorphous carbon, two common by-products from solution-based CIGS processes. The mechanism for the transformation from metal salt precursor films to CIGS absorber thin films and the influence of selenium vapour pressure on absorber film quality and photovoltaic device performance were investigated and discussed. High-quality CIGS films with micrometer-sized crystals were obtained by using higher selenization partial pressure.

  5. Marked increase of procalcitonin after the administration of anti-thymocyte globulin in patients before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation does not indicate sepsis: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Brodska, Helena; Drabek, Tomas; Malickova, Karin; Kazda, Antonin; Vitek, Antonin; Zima, Tomas; Markova, Marketa

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are established markers of infection in the general population. In contrast, several studies reported falsely increased PCT levels in patients receiving T-cell antibodies. We evaluated the validity of these markers in patients scheduled for hemopoietic stem cell transplantation receiving anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) during conditioning. We also assessed renal and liver functions and their relationship to PCT and CRP changes. Methods Twenty-six patients without clinical signs of infection were prospectively studied. ATG was administered in up to three doses over the course of 5 days. PCT, CRP, white blood cell (WBC) count, urea, creatinine, glomerular filtration rate, bilirubin, alanin amino-transferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were assessed daily during ATG administration. Pharyngeal, nose, and rectal swabs and urine samples were cultured twice weekly. Blood cultures were obtained if clinical symptoms of infection were present. Results Baseline (BL) levels of both PCT and CRP before ATG administration were normal. WBC count decreased after ATG administration (P = 0.005). One day after ATG administration, both PCT and CRP levels increased significantly, returning to BL levels on day 4. Microbiological results were clinically unremarkable. There was no interrelationship between PCT levels and BL markers of renal or liver functions (P > 0.05 for all comparisons). Bilirubin and GGT were increased on days 2 to 5 and ALT was increased on day 3 (P < 0.05 versus BL). No difference in renal functions was observed. Three patients developed bacterial infection on days 7 to 11 with different dynamics of PCT and CRP. There was no association between the number of ATG doses and PCT levels or between the risk of developing infection and previous PCT levels. Conclusions ATG triggered a marked early surge in PCT and CRP followed by a steady decrease over the course of 3 days. The dynamics of both PCT

  6. Oral administration of immunoglobulin G-enhanced colostrum alleviates insulin resistance and liver injury and is associated with alterations in natural killer T cells

    PubMed Central

    Adar, T; Ben Ya'acov, A; Lalazar, G; Lichtenstein, Y; Nahman, D; Mizrahi, M; Wong, V; Muller, B; Rawlin, G; Ilan, Y

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome are chronic inflammatory conditions that lead to hepatic injury and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Bovine colostrum has therapeutic effects in a variety of chronic infections. However its effectiveness in NASH was never studied. Natural killer T (NKT) cells have been shown to be associated with some of the pathological and metabolic abnormalities accompanying NASH in leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice. In the present study, we used hyperimmune bovine colostrum to treat hepatic injury and insulin resistance and we also assessed the effects on NKT cells. We used ob/ob mice that were fed for 6 weeks with either 0·1 mg bovine colostrum prepared from non-immunized cows, 0·1 mg hyperimmune colostrum raised against a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extract or 0·001, 0·1 or 1 mg of immunoglobulin (Ig)G purified from hyperimmune colostrum (IgG–LPS). NKT cells were phenotyped by flow cytometry, and hepatic injury and insulin resistance were assessed by measuring fasting glucose levels, glucose tolerance tests and liver enzymes. Fat accumulation was measured in the liver and plasma. Oral administration of hyperimmune colostrums decreased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) serum levels and serum triglycerides compared to controls. Glucose intolerance was also improved by the hyperimmune colostrum preparations. These results were accompanied by a decrease in serum tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels following oral treatment with 0·1 or 1 mg of IgG–LPS. The beneficial effects of hyperimmune colostrums were associated with an increase in the number of splenic NKT cells. These data suggest that oral administration of hyperimmune colostrum preparations can alleviate chronic inflammation, liver injury and insulin resistance associated with NASH. PMID:22236001

  7. Occurrence of molecular abnormalities of cell cycle in L132 cells after in vitro short-term exposure to air pollution PM(2.5).

    PubMed

    Abbas, Imane; Garçon, Guillaume; Saint-Georges, Françoise; Billet, Sylvain; Verdin, Anthony; Gosset, Pierre; Mulliez, Philippe; Shirali, Pirouz

    2010-12-05

    To improve the knowledge of the underlying mechanisms implying in air pollution Particulate Matter (PM)-induced lung toxicity in humans, we were interested in the sequential occurrence of molecular abnormalities from TP53-RB gene signaling pathway activation in the L132 target human lung epithelial cell model. The most toxicologically relevant physical and chemical characteristics of air pollution PM(2.5) collected in Dunkerque, a French highly-industrialized sea-side city, were determined. L132 cells were exposed during 24, 48 and 72h to Dunkerque City's PM(2.5) (i.e. Lethal Concentration (LC)(10)=18.84μgPM/mL or 5.02μgPM/cm(2); LC(50)=75.36μgPM/mL or 20.10μgPM/cm(2)), TiO(2) and desorbed PM (i.e. dPM; EqLC(10)=15.42μg/mL or 4.11μgPM/cm(2); EqLC(50)=61.71μg/mL or 16.46μgPM/cm(2)), benzene (7μM) or Benzo[a]Pyrene (B[a]P; 1μM). Dunkerque City's PM(2.5) altered the gene expression and/or the protein concentration of several key cell cycle controllers from TP53-RB gene signaling pathway (i.e. P53; BCL2; P21; cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 1; retinoblastoma protein) in L132 cells, thereby leading to the occurrence of cell proliferation and apoptosis together. The activation of the critical cell cycle controllers under study might be related to PM-induced oxidative stress, through the possible involvement of covalent metals in redox systems, the metabolic activation of organic chemicals by enzyme-catalyzed reactions, and phagocytosis. Taken together, these results might ask the critical question whether there is a balance or, in contrast, rather an imbalance between the cell proliferation and the apoptosis occurring in PM-exposed L132 cells, with possible consequences in term of PM-induced lung tumorgenesis.

  8. Interaction of endothelial progenitor cells expressing cytosine deaminase in tumor tissues and 5-fluorocytosine administration suppresses growth of 5-fluorouracil-sensitive liver cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Torimura, Takuji; Ueno, Takato; Taniguchi, Eitaro; Masuda, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Hideki; Nakamura, Toru; Inoue, Kinya; Hashimoto, Osamu; Abe, Mitsuhiko; Koga, Hironori; Barresi, Vincenza; Nakashima, Emi; Yano, Hirohisa; Sata, Michio

    2012-03-01

    The drug delivery system to tumors is a critical factor in upregulating the effect of anticancer drugs and reducing adverse events. Recent studies indicated selective migration of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) into tumor tissues. Cytosine deaminase (CD) transforms nontoxic 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) into the highly toxic 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). We investigated the antitumor effect of a new CD/5-FC system with CD cDNA transfected EPC for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in mice. We used human hepatoma cell lines (HuH-7, HLF, HAK1-B, KYN-2, KIM-1) and a rat EPC cell line (TR-BME-2). Escherichia coli CD cDNA was transfected into TR-BME-2 (CD-TR-BME). The inhibitory effect of 5-FU on the proliferation of hepatoma cell lines and the inhibitory effect of 5-FU secreted by CD-TR-BME and 5-FC on the proliferation of co-cultured hepatoma cells were evaluated by a tetrazolium-based assay. In mouse subcutaneous xenograft models of KYN-2 and HuH-7, CD-TR-BME was transplanted intravenously followed by 5-FC injection intraperitoneally. HuH-7 cells were the most sensitive to 5-FU and KYN-2 cells were the most resistant. CD-TR-BME secreted 5-FU and inhibited HuH-7 proliferation in a 5-FC dose-dependent manner. CD-TR-BME were recruited into the tumor tissues and some were incorporated into tumor vessels. Tumor growth of HuH-7 was significantly suppressed during 5-FC administration. No bodyweight loss, ALT abnormality or bone marrow suppression was observed. These findings suggest that our new CD/5-FC system with CD cDNA transfected EPC could be an effective and safe treatment for suppression of 5-FU-sensitive HCC growth.

  9. Effect of automated red cell exchanges on oxygen saturation on-air, blood parameters and length of hospitalization in sickle cell disease patients with acute chest syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Aneke, John C.; Huntley, Nancy; Porter, John; Eleftheriou, Perla

    2016-01-01

    Background: Red cell exchanges (RCEs) lead to improvement in tissue oxygenation and reduction in inflammatory markers in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients who present with acute chest syndrome (ACS). The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of automated-RCE (auto-RCE) on oxygen saturation (SpO2) on-air, blood counts, the time to correct the parameters and length of hospitalization after the exchange in SCD patients presenting with ACS. Subjects and Methods: This was 2 years study involving five SCD patients; the time for SpO2 on air to increase to ≥95% and chest symptoms to resolve, postprocedure, as well as the length of in-patient hospitalization was recorded. All data were entered into Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 20.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) computer software for analyses. Results: The study involved 4 (80%) hemoglobin (Hb) SS and 1 (20%) HbSC patients. The median time of SpO2 recovery was 24 h, ranging from 6 to 96 h. About 60% (3/5) of patients achieved optimal SpO2 within 24 h post-RCE, while discharge from intensive care unit was 24 h after auto-RCE in one patient. The Hb concentration was significantly higher, while the total white cell and absolute neutrophil counts were significantly lower at the time of resolution of symptoms, compared to before auto-RCE (P < 0.05). The average post auto-red cell transfusion symptoms duration was 105.6 (24–240) h while mean inpatient stay was 244.8 (144–456) h. Conclusion: Auto-RCE could reverse hypoxia in ACS within 24 h. PMID:27397962

  10. Effects of Female Sex Hormones on Susceptibility to HSV-2 in Vaginal Cells Grown in Air-Liquid Interface

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yung; Dizzell, Sara E.; Leung, Vivian; Nazli, Aisha; Zahoor, Muhammad A.; Fichorova, Raina N.; Kaushic, Charu

    2016-01-01

    The lower female reproductive tract (FRT) is comprised of the cervix and vagina, surfaces that are continuously exposed to a variety of commensal and pathogenic organisms. Sexually transmitted viruses, such as herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), have to traverse the mucosal epithelial lining of the FRT to establish infection. The majority of current culture systems that model the host-pathogen interactions in the mucosal epithelium have limitations in simulating physiological conditions as they employ a liquid-liquid interface (LLI), in which both apical and basolateral surfaces are submerged in growth medium. We designed the current study to simulate in vivo conditions by growing an immortalized vaginal epithelial cell line (Vk2/E6E7) in culture with an air-liquid interface (ALI) and examined the effects of female sex hormones on their growth, differentiation, and susceptibility to HSV-2 under these conditions, in comparison to LLI cultures. ALI conditions induced Vk2/E6E7 cells to grow into multi-layered cultures compared to the monolayers present in LLI conditions. Vk2 cells in ALI showed higher production of cytokeratin in the presence of estradiol (E2), compared to cells grown in progesterone (P4). Cells grown under ALI conditions were exposed to HSV-2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the highest infection and replication was observed in the presence of P4. Altogether, this study suggests that ALI cultures more closely simulate the in vivo conditions of the FRT compared to the conventional LLI cultures. Furthermore, under these conditions P4 was found to confer higher susceptibility to HSV-2 infection in vaginal cells. The vaginal ALI culture system offers a better alternative to study host-pathogen interactions. PMID:27589787

  11. Effects of Female Sex Hormones on Susceptibility to HSV-2 in Vaginal Cells Grown in Air-Liquid Interface.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yung; Dizzell, Sara E; Leung, Vivian; Nazli, Aisha; Zahoor, Muhammad A; Fichorova, Raina N; Kaushic, Charu

    2016-08-30

    The lower female reproductive tract (FRT) is comprised of the cervix and vagina, surfaces that are continuously exposed to a variety of commensal and pathogenic organisms. Sexually transmitted viruses, such as herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), have to traverse the mucosal epithelial lining of the FRT to establish infection. The majority of current culture systems that model the host-pathogen interactions in the mucosal epithelium have limitations in simulating physiological conditions as they employ a liquid-liquid interface (LLI), in which both apical and basolateral surfaces are submerged in growth medium. We designed the current study to simulate in vivo conditions by growing an immortalized vaginal epithelial cell line (Vk2/E6E7) in culture with an air-liquid interface (ALI) and examined the effects of female sex hormones on their growth, differentiation, and susceptibility to HSV-2 under these conditions, in comparison to LLI cultures. ALI conditions induced Vk2/E6E7 cells to grow into multi-layered cultures compared to the monolayers present in LLI conditions. Vk2 cells in ALI showed higher production of cytokeratin in the presence of estradiol (E2), compared to cells grown in progesterone (P4). Cells grown under ALI conditions were exposed to HSV-2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the highest infection and replication was observed in the presence of P4. Altogether, this study suggests that ALI cultures more closely simulate the in vivo conditions of the FRT compared to the conventional LLI cultures. Furthermore, under these conditions P4 was found to confer higher susceptibility to HSV-2 infection in vaginal cells. The vaginal ALI culture system offers a better alternative to study host-pathogen interactions.

  12. Air Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tool