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Sample records for air classification system

  1. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface compressed air system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  2. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site compressed air system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  3. Air support facilities. [interface between air and surface transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Airports are discussed in terms of the interface between the ground and air for transportation systems. The classification systems, design, facilities, administration, and operations of airports are described.

  4. An Easy Classification System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    File folders can be used effectively to develop and retrieve information about animal classification systems. Animal characters are drawn separately on the front side of a file cover and holes are punched next to each character. (PS)

  5. Neuromuscular disease classification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáez, Aurora; Acha, Begoña; Montero-Sánchez, Adoración; Rivas, Eloy; Escudero, Luis M.; Serrano, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    Diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases is based on subjective visual assessment of biopsies from patients by the pathologist specialist. A system for objective analysis and classification of muscular dystrophies and neurogenic atrophies through muscle biopsy images of fluorescence microscopy is presented. The procedure starts with an accurate segmentation of the muscle fibers using mathematical morphology and a watershed transform. A feature extraction step is carried out in two parts: 24 features that pathologists take into account to diagnose the diseases and 58 structural features that the human eye cannot see, based on the assumption that the biopsy is considered as a graph, where the nodes are represented by each fiber, and two nodes are connected if two fibers are adjacent. A feature selection using sequential forward selection and sequential backward selection methods, a classification using a Fuzzy ARTMAP neural network, and a study of grading the severity are performed on these two sets of features. A database consisting of 91 images was used: 71 images for the training step and 20 as the test. A classification error of 0% was obtained. It is concluded that the addition of features undetectable by the human visual inspection improves the categorization of atrophic patterns.

  6. Neuromuscular disease classification system.

    PubMed

    Sáez, Aurora; Acha, Begoña; Montero-Sánchez, Adoración; Rivas, Eloy; Escudero, Luis M; Serrano, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    Diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases is based on subjective visual assessment of biopsies from patients by the pathologist specialist. A system for objective analysis and classification of muscular dystrophies and neurogenic atrophies through muscle biopsy images of fluorescence microscopy is presented. The procedure starts with an accurate segmentation of the muscle fibers using mathematical morphology and a watershed transform. A feature extraction step is carried out in two parts: 24 features that pathologists take into account to diagnose the diseases and 58 structural features that the human eye cannot see, based on the assumption that the biopsy is considered as a graph, where the nodes are represented by each fiber, and two nodes are connected if two fibers are adjacent. A feature selection using sequential forward selection and sequential backward selection methods, a classification using a Fuzzy ARTMAP neural network, and a study of grading the severity are performed on these two sets of features. A database consisting of 91 images was used: 71 images for the training step and 20 as the test. A classification error of 0% was obtained. It is concluded that the addition of features undetectable by the human visual inspection improves the categorization of atrophic patterns. PMID:23804164

  7. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  8. A Comparison of the Human Characteristics of Curriculum Materials Used in an Air National Guard Leadership Development Program with the Characteristics of Students Encountering the Materials: A Study Using the Annehurst Curriculum Classification System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Russell L.; And Others

    The Annehurst Curriculum Classification System (ACCS), a tool for matching individual learners with appropriate curriculum materials, was used with a group of fifty-nine students (Air National Guard officer candidates) and their four instructor-advisors to examine two issues: (1) the applicability of the ACCS in a highly structured,…

  9. CLASSIFICATION FRAMEWORK FOR COASTAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Classification Framework for Coastal Systems. EPA/600/R-04/061. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Atlantic Ecology Division, Narragansett, RI, Gulf Ecology Division, Gulf Bree...

  10. Seismic event classification system

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, Farid U.; Jarpe, Stephen P.; Maurer, William

    1994-01-01

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities.

  11. Seismic event classification system

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, F.U.; Jarpe, S.P.; Maurer, W.

    1994-12-13

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities. 21 figures.

  12. Air classification: Potential treatment method for optimized recycling or utilization of fine-grained air pollution control residues obtained from dry off-gas cleaning high-temperature processing systems.

    PubMed

    Lanzerstorfer, Christof

    2015-11-01

    In the dust collected from the off-gas of high-temperature processes, usually components that are volatile at the process temperature are enriched. In the recycling of the dust, the concentration of these volatile components is frequently limited to avoid operation problems. Also, for external utilization the concentration of such volatile components, especially heavy metals, is often restricted. The concentration of the volatile components is usually higher in the fine fractions of the collected dust. Therefore, air classification is a potential treatment method to deplete the coarse material from these volatile components by splitting off a fines fraction with an increased concentration of those volatile components. In this work, the procedure of a sequential classification using a laboratory air classifier and the calculations required for the evaluation of air classification for a certain application were demonstrated by taking the example of a fly ash sample from a biomass combustion plant. In the investigated example, the Pb content in the coarse fraction could be reduced to 60% by separation of 20% fines. For the non-volatile Mg the content was almost constant. It can be concluded that air classification is an appropriate method for the treatment of off-gas cleaning residues.

  13. 14 CFR 10 - Functional Classification-Operating Expenses of Group I Air Carriers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Functional Classification-Operating Expenses of Group I Air Carriers Section 10 Section Section 10 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR...

  14. High efficiency air cycle air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rannenberg, G. C.

    1985-11-19

    An air cycle air conditioning system is provided with regenerative heat exchangers upstream and downstream of an expansion turbine. A closedloop liquid circulatory system serially connects the two regenerative heat exchangers for regeneration without the bulk associated with air-to-air heat exchange. The liquid circulatory system may also provide heat transport to a remote sink heat exchanger and from a remote load as well as heat exchange within the sink heat exchanger and load for enhanced compactness and efficiency.

  15. Objective classification of air quality monitoring sites over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joly, Mathieu; Peuch, Vincent-Henri

    2012-02-01

    The observation sites that make up air quality monitoring networks can have very different characteristics (topography, climatology, distance to emission sources, etc), which are partially described in the meta-information provided with data sets. At the scale of Europe, the description of the sites depends on the institute(s) in charge of the air quality monitoring in each country, and is based on specific criteria that can be sometimes rather subjective. The purpose of this study is to build an objective, homogeneous, and pollutant-specific classification of European air quality monitoring sites, primarily for the purpose of model verification and chemical data assimilation. Most studies that tackled this issue so far were based on limited data sets, and often took into account additional external data such as population density, emission estimates, or land cover maps. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of a classification only based on the past time series of measured pollutants. The underlying idea is that the true fingerprint of a given monitoring site lies within its past observation values. On each site to be categorized, eight indicators are defined to characterize each pollutant time series (O 3, NO 2, NO, SO 2, or PM 10) of the European AirBase and the French BDQA (Base de Données de Qualité de l'Air) reference sets of validated data over the period 2002-2009. A Linear Discriminant Analysis is used to best discriminate the rural and urban sites. After projection on the Fisher axis, ten classes are finally determined on the basis of fixed thresholds, for each molecule. The method is validated by cross-validation and by direct comparison with the existing meta-data. The link between the classes obtained and the meta-data is strongest with NO, NO 2, and PM 10. Across Europe, the classification exhibits interesting large-scale features: some contrasts between different regions depend on the pollutant considered. Comparing the classes obtained

  16. Culture systems: air quality.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Poor laboratory air quality is a known hazard to the culture of human gametes and embryos. Embryologists and chemists have employed analytical methods for identifying and measuring bulk and select air pollutants to assess the risk they pose to the embryo culture system. However, contaminant concentrations that result in gamete or embryotoxicity are poorly defined. Combating the ill effects of poor air quality requires an understanding of how toxicants can infiltrate the laboratory, the incubator, and ultimately the culture media. A further understanding of site-specific air quality can then lead to the consideration of laboratory design and management strategies that can minimize the deleterious effects that air contamination may have on early embryonic development in vitro.

  17. Autoclass: An automatic classification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutz, John; Cheeseman, Peter; Hanson, Robin

    1991-01-01

    The task of inferring a set of classes and class descriptions most likely to explain a given data set can be placed on a firm theoretical foundation using Bayesian statistics. Within this framework, and using various mathematical and algorithmic approximations, the AutoClass System searches for the most probable classifications, automatically choosing the number of classes and complexity of class descriptions. A simpler version of AutoClass has been applied to many large real data sets, has discovered new independently-verified phenomena, and has been released as a robust software package. Recent extensions allow attributes to be selectively correlated within particular classes, and allow classes to inherit, or share, model parameters through a class hierarchy. The mathematical foundations of AutoClass are summarized.

  18. Air heating system

    DOEpatents

    Primeau, John J.

    1983-03-01

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  19. Advancing Towards a Universal Soil Classification System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Phillip R.; Hempel, Jon; Micheli, Erika; McBratney, Alex

    2014-05-01

    Within the variability of soils across the globe, there are common soil attributes that pedologists have used to group soil within taxonomic classifications. Classification systems are necessary for the communication of information about soils. There are many national classification systems used within designated countries and two classification systems used globally, the US Soil Taxonomy and the World Reference Base. There is a great need for soil scientists to develop one common language or taxonomic system to communicate information within soil science as well as to other scientists in other disciplines. The International Union of Soil Sciences Working Group for Universal Soil Classification was officially established by an IUSS Council decision in August of 2010 at the World Congress of Soil Science in Brisbane, Australia. The charge for the Working Group includes development of common standards for methods and terminology in soil observations and investigations and the development of a universal soil classification system. The Universal Soil Classification Working Group was established and the initial meeting was held at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana USA. The Working Group has evaluated the current national systems and the two international systems to identify gaps in knowledge. Currently, it was determined that gaps in knowledge exists in cold soil, hydromorphic, salt affected, anthropengic, and tropical soil groups. Additionally, several members of the Working Group have utilized taxonomic distance calculations from large databases to determine the clusters of similar taxonomic groupings utilizing the classification. Additionally, the databases are being used to make allocations into logical groups to recognize "Great Soil Groups". The great soil groups will be equivalent to great groups level from Soil Taxonomy along with similar levels in the World Reference Base, Australian Soil Classification and other defined soil classification systems

  20. 14 CFR 71.13 - Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.13 Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless...

  1. 14 CFR 71.13 - Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.13 Classification of Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless...

  2. Discriminant forest classification method and system

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Barry Y.; Hanley, William G.; Lemmond, Tracy D.; Hiller, Lawrence J.; Knapp, David A.; Mugge, Marshall J.

    2012-11-06

    A hybrid machine learning methodology and system for classification that combines classical random forest (RF) methodology with discriminant analysis (DA) techniques to provide enhanced classification capability. A DA technique which uses feature measurements of an object to predict its class membership, such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA) or Andersen-Bahadur linear discriminant technique (AB), is used to split the data at each node in each of its classification trees to train and grow the trees and the forest. When training is finished, a set of n DA-based decision trees of a discriminant forest is produced for use in predicting the classification of new samples of unknown class.

  3. Air System Information Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  4. Classification systems for natural resource management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleckner, Richard L.

    1981-01-01

    Resource managers employ various types of resource classification systems in their management activities such as inventory, mapping, and data analysis. Classification is the ordering or arranging of objects into groups or sets on the basis of their relationships, and as such, provide the resource managers with a structure for organizing their needed information. In addition of conforming to certain logical principles, resource classifications should be flexible, widely applicable to a variety of environmental conditions, and useable with minimal training. The process of classification may be approached from the bottom up (aggregation) or the top down (subdivision) or a combination of both, depending on the purpose of the classification. Most resource classification systems in use today focus on a single resource and are used for a single, limited purpose. However, resource managers now must employ the concept of multiple use in their management activities. What they need is an integrated, ecologically based approach to resource classification which would fulfill multiple-use mandates. In an effort to achieve resource-data compatibility and data sharing among Federal agencies, and interagency agreement has been signed by five Federal agencies to coordinate and cooperate in the area of resource classification and inventory.

  5. QA CLASSIFICATION ANALYSIS OF GROUND SUPPORT SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    D. W. Gwyn

    1996-10-29

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine if the permanent function Ground Support Systems (CI: BABEEOOOO) are quality-affecting items and if so, to establish the appropriate Quality Assurance (QA) classification.

  6. Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Renee Clary and James Wandersee describe the beginnings of "Classification," which lies at the very heart of science and depends upon pattern recognition. Clary and Wandersee approach patterns by first telling the story of the "Linnaean classification system," introduced by Carl Linnacus (1707-1778), who is…

  7. A statistical approach to root system classification.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Gernot; Leitner, Daniel; Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Sobotik, Monika; Moder, Karl; Kaul, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Plant root systems have a key role in ecology and agronomy. In spite of fast increase in root studies, still there is no classification that allows distinguishing among distinctive characteristics within the diversity of rooting strategies. Our hypothesis is that a multivariate approach for "plant functional type" identification in ecology can be applied to the classification of root systems. The classification method presented is based on a data-defined statistical procedure without a priori decision on the classifiers. The study demonstrates that principal component based rooting types provide efficient and meaningful multi-trait classifiers. The classification method is exemplified with simulated root architectures and morphological field data. Simulated root architectures showed that morphological attributes with spatial distribution parameters capture most distinctive features within root system diversity. While developmental type (tap vs. shoot-borne systems) is a strong, but coarse classifier, topological traits provide the most detailed differentiation among distinctive groups. Adequacy of commonly available morphologic traits for classification is supported by field data. Rooting types emerging from measured data, mainly distinguished by diameter/weight and density dominated types. Similarity of root systems within distinctive groups was the joint result of phylogenetic relation and environmental as well as human selection pressure. We concluded that the data-define classification is appropriate for integration of knowledge obtained with different root measurement methods and at various scales. Currently root morphology is the most promising basis for classification due to widely used common measurement protocols. To capture details of root diversity efforts in architectural measurement techniques are essential. PMID:23914200

  8. A statistical approach to root system classification

    PubMed Central

    Bodner, Gernot; Leitner, Daniel; Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Sobotik, Monika; Moder, Karl; Kaul, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Plant root systems have a key role in ecology and agronomy. In spite of fast increase in root studies, still there is no classification that allows distinguishing among distinctive characteristics within the diversity of rooting strategies. Our hypothesis is that a multivariate approach for “plant functional type” identification in ecology can be applied to the classification of root systems. The classification method presented is based on a data-defined statistical procedure without a priori decision on the classifiers. The study demonstrates that principal component based rooting types provide efficient and meaningful multi-trait classifiers. The classification method is exemplified with simulated root architectures and morphological field data. Simulated root architectures showed that morphological attributes with spatial distribution parameters capture most distinctive features within root system diversity. While developmental type (tap vs. shoot-borne systems) is a strong, but coarse classifier, topological traits provide the most detailed differentiation among distinctive groups. Adequacy of commonly available morphologic traits for classification is supported by field data. Rooting types emerging from measured data, mainly distinguished by diameter/weight and density dominated types. Similarity of root systems within distinctive groups was the joint result of phylogenetic relation and environmental as well as human selection pressure. We concluded that the data-define classification is appropriate for integration of knowledge obtained with different root measurement methods and at various scales. Currently root morphology is the most promising basis for classification due to widely used common measurement protocols. To capture details of root diversity efforts in architectural measurement techniques are essential. PMID:23914200

  9. A statistical approach to root system classification.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Gernot; Leitner, Daniel; Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Sobotik, Monika; Moder, Karl; Kaul, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Plant root systems have a key role in ecology and agronomy. In spite of fast increase in root studies, still there is no classification that allows distinguishing among distinctive characteristics within the diversity of rooting strategies. Our hypothesis is that a multivariate approach for "plant functional type" identification in ecology can be applied to the classification of root systems. The classification method presented is based on a data-defined statistical procedure without a priori decision on the classifiers. The study demonstrates that principal component based rooting types provide efficient and meaningful multi-trait classifiers. The classification method is exemplified with simulated root architectures and morphological field data. Simulated root architectures showed that morphological attributes with spatial distribution parameters capture most distinctive features within root system diversity. While developmental type (tap vs. shoot-borne systems) is a strong, but coarse classifier, topological traits provide the most detailed differentiation among distinctive groups. Adequacy of commonly available morphologic traits for classification is supported by field data. Rooting types emerging from measured data, mainly distinguished by diameter/weight and density dominated types. Similarity of root systems within distinctive groups was the joint result of phylogenetic relation and environmental as well as human selection pressure. We concluded that the data-define classification is appropriate for integration of knowledge obtained with different root measurement methods and at various scales. Currently root morphology is the most promising basis for classification due to widely used common measurement protocols. To capture details of root diversity efforts in architectural measurement techniques are essential.

  10. Pulsed-flow air classification for waste to energy production. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Peirce, J.J.; Vesilind, P.A.

    1983-09-30

    The development and testing of pulsed-flow air classification for waste-to-energy production are discussed. Standard designs generally permit large amounts of combustible material to escape as reject while producing a fuel that is high in metal and glass contaminants. Pulsed-flow classification is presented as a concept which can avoid both pitfalls. Each aspect of theory and laboratory testing is summarized: particle characteristics, theory of pulsed-flow classification, laboratory testing, and pulsed-flow air classification for waste-to-energy production. Conclusions from the research are summarized.

  11. Updated Classification System for Proximal Humeral Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Guix, José M. Mora; Pedrós, Juan Sala; Serrano, Alejandro Castaño

    2009-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures can restrict daily activities and, therefore, deserve efficient diagnoses that minimize complications and sequels. For good diagnosis and treatment, patient characteristics, variability in the forms of the fractures presented, and the technical difficulties in achieving fair results with surgical treatment should all be taken into account. Current classification systems for these fractures are based on anatomical and pathological principles, and not on systematic image reading. These fractures can appear in many different forms, with many characteristics that must be identified. However, many current classification systems lack good reliability, both inter-observer and intra-observer for different image types. A new approach to image reading, following a well-designed set and sequence of variables to check, is needed. We previously reported such an image reading system. In the present study, we report a classification system based on this image reading system. Here we define 21 fracture characteristics and apply them along with classical Codman approaches to classify fractures. We base this novel classification system for classifying proximal humeral fractures on a review of scientific literature and improvements to our image reading protocol. Patient status, fracture characteristics and surgeon circumstances have been important issues in developing this system. PMID:19574487

  12. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR MUCK HANDLING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) muck handling system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) (DOE 1998). This QA classification incorporates the current MGR design and the results of the ''Preliminary Preclosure Design Basis Event Calculations for the Monitored Geologic Repository (CRWMS M and O 1998a).

  13. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE FACILITY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface facility system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998). This QA classification incorporates the current MGR design and the results of the ''Preliminary Preclosure Design Basis Event Calculations for the Monitored Geologic Repository'' (CRWMS M&O 1998a).

  14. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR EMPLACEMENT DRIFT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) emplacement drift system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Preclosure Safety and Systems Engineering Section. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 2000). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P7 Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) (DOE 2000).

  15. Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty Prosthesis Design Classification System.

    PubMed

    Routman, Howard D; Flurin, Pierre-Henri; Wright, Thomas W; Zuckerman, Joseph D; Hamilton, Matthew A; Roche, Christopher P

    2015-12-01

    Multiple different reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (rTSA) prosthesis designs are available in the global marketplace for surgeons to perform this growing procedure. Subtle differences in rTSA prosthesis design parameters have been shown to have significant biomechanical impact and clinical consequences. We propose an rTSA prosthesis design classification system to objectively identify and categorize different designs based upon their specific glenoid and humeral prosthetic characteristics for the purpose of standardizing nomenclature that will help the orthopaedic surgeon determine which combination of design configurations best suit a given clinical scenario. The impact of each prosthesis classification type on shoulder muscle length and deltoid wrapping are also described to illustrate how each prosthesis classification type impacts these biomechanical parameters. PMID:26631189

  16. Common occupational classification system - revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Stahlman, E.J.; Lewis, R.E.

    1996-05-01

    Workforce planning has become an increasing concern within the DOE community as the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER/WM or EM) seeks to consolidate and refocus its activities and the Office of Defense Programs (DP) closes production sites. Attempts to manage the growth and skills mix of the EM workforce while retaining the critical skills of the DP workforce have been difficult due to the lack of a consistent set of occupational titles and definitions across the complex. Two reasons for this difficulty may be cited. First, classification systems commonly used in industry often fail to cover in sufficient depth the unique demands of DOE`s nuclear energy and research community. Second, the government practice of contracting the operation of government facilities to the private sector has introduced numerous contractor-specific classification schemes to the DOE complex. As a result, sites/contractors report their workforce needs using unique classification systems. It becomes difficult, therefore, to roll these data up to the national level necessary to support strategic planning and analysis. The Common Occupational Classification System (COCS) is designed to overcome these workforce planning barriers. The COCS is based on earlier workforce planning activities and the input of technical, workforce planning, and human resource managers from across the DOE complex. It provides a set of mutually-exclusive occupation titles and definitions that cover the broad range of activities present in the DOE complex. The COCS is not a required record-keeping or data management guide. Neither is it intended to replace contractor/DOE-specific classification systems. Instead, the system provides a consistent, high- level, functional structure of occupations to which contractors can crosswalk (map) their job titles.

  17. System interactions of air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, W.E. )

    1992-06-01

    The impact of system interactions and simultaneous or sequential exposure to various air pollutants, both man-made and natural ones, requires greater concern in the interpretation of the total adverse impact of various air pollutants. It is clear that there are highly significant system interactions with exposure to various air pollutants, and these must be considered very carefully in the evaluation of their adverse health effects.

  18. Air conditioning system

    DOEpatents

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  19. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR HEALTH SAFETY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) health safety system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  20. Classification of the MGR Administration System

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) administration system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/9O-55Qy Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  1. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR EMERGENCY RESPONSE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Zeigler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) emergency response system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P7 ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  2. CLASSIFICATION OF MGR GROUND CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) ground control system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333PY ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  3. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface fire protection system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  4. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR BACKFILL EMPLACEMENT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) backfill emplacement system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  5. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site communications system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  6. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE EXCAVATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface excavation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  7. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE OPERATIONS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site operations system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  8. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE LAYOUT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site layout system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  9. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE VENTILATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface ventilation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P7 ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  10. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE WATER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site water system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  11. Fundamentals of air quality systems

    SciTech Connect

    Noll, K.E.

    1999-08-01

    The book uses numerous examples to demonstrate how basic design concepts can be applied to the control of air emissions from industrial sources. It focuses on the design of air pollution control devices for the removal of gases and particles from industrial sources, and provides detailed, specific design methods for each major air pollution control system. Individual chapters provide design methods that include both theory and practice with emphasis on the practical aspect by providing numerous examples that demonstrate how air pollution control devices are designed. Contents include air pollution laws, air pollution control devices; physical properties of air, gas laws, energy concepts, pressure; motion of airborne particles, filter and water drop collection efficiency; fundamentals of particulate emission control; cyclones; fabric filters; wet scrubbers; electrostatic precipitators; control of volatile organic compounds; adsorption; incineration; absorption; control of gaseous emissions from motor vehicles; practice problems (with solutions) for the P.E. examination in environmental engineering. Design applications are featured throughout.

  12. Advanced air revitalization system testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Hallick, T. M.; Schubert, F. H.

    1983-01-01

    A previously developed experimental air revitalization system was tested cyclically and parametrically. One-button startup without manual interventions; extension by 1350 hours of tests with the system; capability for varying process air carbon dioxide partial pressure and humidity and coolant source for simulation of realistic space vehicle interfaces; dynamic system performance response on the interaction of the electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator, the Sabatier carbon dioxide reduction subsystem, and the static feed water electrolysis oxygen generation subsystem, the carbon dioxide concentrator module with unitized core technology for the liquid cooled cell; and a preliminary design for a regenerative air revitalization system for the space station are discussed.

  13. Intelligent Computer Vision System for Automated Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanov, Ivan; Georgieva, Antoniya

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we investigate an Intelligent Computer Vision System applied for recognition and classification of commercially available cork tiles. The system is capable of acquiring and processing gray images using several feature generation and analysis techniques. Its functionality includes image acquisition, feature extraction and preprocessing, and feature classification with neural networks (NN). We also discuss system test and validation results from the recognition and classification tasks. The system investigation also includes statistical feature processing (features number and dimensionality reduction techniques) and classifier design (NN architecture, target coding, learning complexity and performance, and training with our own metaheuristic optimization method). The NNs trained with our genetic low-discrepancy search method (GLPτS) for global optimisation demonstrated very good generalisation abilities. In our view, the reported testing success rate of up to 95% is due to several factors: combination of feature generation techniques; application of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), which appeared to be very efficient for preprocessing the data; and use of suitable NN design and learning method.

  14. Intelligent Computer Vision System for Automated Classification

    SciTech Connect

    Jordanov, Ivan; Georgieva, Antoniya

    2010-05-21

    In this paper we investigate an Intelligent Computer Vision System applied for recognition and classification of commercially available cork tiles. The system is capable of acquiring and processing gray images using several feature generation and analysis techniques. Its functionality includes image acquisition, feature extraction and preprocessing, and feature classification with neural networks (NN). We also discuss system test and validation results from the recognition and classification tasks. The system investigation also includes statistical feature processing (features number and dimensionality reduction techniques) and classifier design (NN architecture, target coding, learning complexity and performance, and training with our own metaheuristic optimization method). The NNs trained with our genetic low-discrepancy search method (GLPtauS) for global optimisation demonstrated very good generalisation abilities. In our view, the reported testing success rate of up to 95% is due to several factors: combination of feature generation techniques; application of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), which appeared to be very efficient for preprocessing the data; and use of suitable NN design and learning method.

  15. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1980-01-01

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  16. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air presure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  17. Air Pollution Surveillance Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George B.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes atmospheric data monitoring as part of total airpollution control effort. Summarizes types of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants and their sources; contrast between urban and rural environmental air quality; instrumentation to identify pollutants; and anticipated new non-wet chemical physical and physiochemical techniques tor cetection…

  18. Proposed clinical internal carotid artery classification system

    PubMed Central

    Abdulrauf, Saleem I; Ashour, Ahmed M; Marvin, Eric; Coppens, Jeroen; Kang, Brian; Hsieh, Tze Yu Yeh; Nery, Breno; Penanes, Juan R; Alsahlawi, Aysha K; Moore, Shawn; Al-Shaar, Hussam Abou; Kemp, Joanna; Chawla, Kanika; Sujijantarat, Nanthiya; Najeeb, Alaa; Parkar, Nadeem; Shetty, Vilaas; Vafaie, Tina; Antisdel, Jastin; Mikulec, Tony A; Edgell, Randall; Lebovitz, Jonathan; Pierson, Matt; Pires de Aguiar, Paulo Henrique; Buchanan, Paula; Di Cosola, Angela; Stevens, George

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Numerical classification systems for the internal carotid artery (ICA) are available, but modifications have added confusion to the numerical systems. Furthermore, previous classifications may not be applicable uniformly to microsurgical and endoscopic procedures. The purpose of this study was to develop a clinically useful classification system. Materials and Methods: We performed cadaver dissections of the ICA in 5 heads (10 sides) and evaluated 648 internal carotid arteries with computed tomography angiography. We identified specific anatomic landmarks to define the beginning and end of each ICA segment. Results: The ICA was classified into eight segments based on the cadaver and imaging findings: (1) Cervical segment; (2) cochlear segment (ascending segment of the ICA in the temporal bone) (relation of the start of this segment to the base of the styloid process: Above, 425 sides [80%]; below, 2 sides [0.4%]; at same level, 107 sides [20%]; P < 0.0001) (relation of cochlea to ICA: Posterior, 501 sides [85%]; posteromedial, 84 sides [14%]; P < 0.0001); (3) petrous segment (horizontal segment of ICA in the temporal bone) starting at the crossing of the eustachian tube superolateral to the ICA turn in all 10 samples; (4) Gasserian-Clival segment (ascending segment of ICA in the cavernous sinus) starting at the petrolingual ligament (PLL) (relation to vidian canal on imaging: At same level, 360 sides [63%]; below, 154 sides [27%]; above, 53 sides [9%]; P < 0.0001); in this segment, the ICA projected medially toward the clivus in 275 sides (52%) or parallel to the clivus with no deviation in 256 sides (48%; P < 0.0001); (5) sellar segment (medial loop of ICA in the cavernous sinus) starting at the takeoff of the meningeal hypophyseal trunk (ICA was medial into the sella in 271 cases [46%], lateral without touching the sella in 127 cases [23%], and abutting the sella in 182 cases [31%]; P < 0.0001); (6) sphenoid segment (lateral loop of ICA within the

  19. Proposed clinical internal carotid artery classification system

    PubMed Central

    Abdulrauf, Saleem I; Ashour, Ahmed M; Marvin, Eric; Coppens, Jeroen; Kang, Brian; Hsieh, Tze Yu Yeh; Nery, Breno; Penanes, Juan R; Alsahlawi, Aysha K; Moore, Shawn; Al-Shaar, Hussam Abou; Kemp, Joanna; Chawla, Kanika; Sujijantarat, Nanthiya; Najeeb, Alaa; Parkar, Nadeem; Shetty, Vilaas; Vafaie, Tina; Antisdel, Jastin; Mikulec, Tony A; Edgell, Randall; Lebovitz, Jonathan; Pierson, Matt; Pires de Aguiar, Paulo Henrique; Buchanan, Paula; Di Cosola, Angela; Stevens, George

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Numerical classification systems for the internal carotid artery (ICA) are available, but modifications have added confusion to the numerical systems. Furthermore, previous classifications may not be applicable uniformly to microsurgical and endoscopic procedures. The purpose of this study was to develop a clinically useful classification system. Materials and Methods: We performed cadaver dissections of the ICA in 5 heads (10 sides) and evaluated 648 internal carotid arteries with computed tomography angiography. We identified specific anatomic landmarks to define the beginning and end of each ICA segment. Results: The ICA was classified into eight segments based on the cadaver and imaging findings: (1) Cervical segment; (2) cochlear segment (ascending segment of the ICA in the temporal bone) (relation of the start of this segment to the base of the styloid process: Above, 425 sides [80%]; below, 2 sides [0.4%]; at same level, 107 sides [20%]; P < 0.0001) (relation of cochlea to ICA: Posterior, 501 sides [85%]; posteromedial, 84 sides [14%]; P < 0.0001); (3) petrous segment (horizontal segment of ICA in the temporal bone) starting at the crossing of the eustachian tube superolateral to the ICA turn in all 10 samples; (4) Gasserian-Clival segment (ascending segment of ICA in the cavernous sinus) starting at the petrolingual ligament (PLL) (relation to vidian canal on imaging: At same level, 360 sides [63%]; below, 154 sides [27%]; above, 53 sides [9%]; P < 0.0001); in this segment, the ICA projected medially toward the clivus in 275 sides (52%) or parallel to the clivus with no deviation in 256 sides (48%; P < 0.0001); (5) sellar segment (medial loop of ICA in the cavernous sinus) starting at the takeoff of the meningeal hypophyseal trunk (ICA was medial into the sella in 271 cases [46%], lateral without touching the sella in 127 cases [23%], and abutting the sella in 182 cases [31%]; P < 0.0001); (6) sphenoid segment (lateral loop of ICA within the

  20. Regional medical campuses: a new classification system.

    PubMed

    Cheifetz, Craig E; McOwen, Katherine S; Gagne, Pierre; Wong, Jennifer L

    2014-08-01

    There is burgeoning belief that regional medical campuses (RMCs) are a significant part of the narrative about medical education and the health care workforce in the United States and Canada. Although RMCs are not new, in the recent years of medical education enrollment expansion, they have seen their numbers increase. Class expansion explains the rapid growth of RMCs in the past 10 years, but it does not adequately describe their function. Often, RMCs have missions that differ from their main campus, especially in the areas of rural and community medicine. The absence of an easy-to-use classification system has led to a lack of current research about RMCs as evidenced by the small number of articles in the current literature. The authors describe the process of the Group on Regional Medical Campuses used to develop attributes of a campus separate from the main campus that constitute a "classification" of a campus as an RMC. The system is broken into four models-basic science, clinical, longitudinal, and combined-and is linked to Liaison Committee on Medical Education standards. It is applicable to all schools and can be applied by any medical school dean or medical education researcher. The classification system paves the way for stakeholders to agree on a denominator of RMCs and conduct future research about their impact on medical education.

  1. A new classification system for gingival and palatal recession.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashish; Masamatti, Sujata Surendra

    2013-03-01

    Various classifications have been proposed to classify gingival recession. Miller's classification of gingival recession is most widely followed. With a wide array of cases in daily clinical practice, it is often difficult to classify numerous gingival recession cases according to defined criteria of the present classification systems. To propose a new classification system that gives a comprehensive depiction of recession defect that can be used to include cases that cannot be classified according to present classifications. A separate classification system for palatal recessions (PR) is also proposed. This article outlines the limitations of present classification systems and also the inability to classify PR. A new comprehensive classification system is proposed to classify recession on the basis of the position of interdental papilla and buccal/lingual/palatal recessions. PMID:23869122

  2. Statistical characterization of air ion mobility spectra at Tahkuse Observatory: Classification of air ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hõrrak, U.; Salm, J.; Tammet, H.

    2000-04-01

    A database of 8615 hourly averaged air ion mobility spectra in the range of 0.00041-3.2 cm2 V-1 s-1 was measured at Tahkuse Observatory, Estonia, during 14 months in 1993-1994. The average mobility spectrum over the whole period shows distinct peaks of small and large ions. Intermediate ions with mobilities of 0.034-0.5 cm2 V-1 s-1 are of low concentration of about 50 cm-3 in the average spectrum. They experience occasional bursts of up to about 900 cm-3 during 6-10 hours at daytime. The number of burst events recorded during 14 months was 101, with maximum frequency in spring and minimum frequency in winter. Physically, large and intermediate ions can be called aerosol ions, and small ions can be called cluster ions. The principal component analysis was applied to detect the structure of an air ion mobility spectrum. As a result, the mobility spectrum in the range of 0.00041-3.2 cm2 V-1 s-1 (diameters of 0.36-79 nm) was divided into five classes: small cluster, big cluster, intermediate, light large, and heavy large ions. The boundaries between the classes are 1.3 cm2 V-1 s-1 (diameter of 0.85 nm), 0.5 cm2 V-1 s-1 (1.6 nm), 0.034 cm2 V-1 s-1 (7.4 nm), and 0.0042 cm2 V-1 s-1 (22 nm). The five principal components that are closely correlated with the respective ion classes explain 92% of total variance. The classification of aerosol ions is in accord with the three-modal structure of the size spectrum of submicron aerosol particles.

  3. Cold air systems: Sleeping giant

    SciTech Connect

    MacCracken, C.D. )

    1994-04-01

    This article describes how cold air systems help owners increase the profits from their buildings by reducing electric costs and improving indoor air quality through lower relative humidity levels. Cold air distribution involves energy savings, cost savings, space savings, greater comfort, cleaner air, thermal storage, tighter ducting, coil redesign, lower relative humidities, retrofitting, and improved indoor air quality (IAQ). It opens a door for architects, engineers, owners, builders, environmentalists, retrofitters, designers, occupants, and manufacturers. Three things have held up cold air's usage: multiple fan-powered boxes that ate up the energy savings of primary fans. Cold air room diffusers that provided inadequate comfort. Condensation from ducts, boxes, and diffusers. Such problems have been largely eliminated through research and development by utilities and manufacturers. New cold air diffusers no longer need fan powered boxes. It has also been found that condensation is not a concern so long as the ducts are located in air conditioned space, such as drop ceilings or central risers, where relative humidity falls quickly during morning startup.

  4. A system for heart sounds classification.

    PubMed

    Redlarski, Grzegorz; Gradolewski, Dawid; Palkowski, Aleksander

    2014-01-01

    The future of quick and efficient disease diagnosis lays in the development of reliable non-invasive methods. As for the cardiac diseases - one of the major causes of death around the globe - a concept of an electronic stethoscope equipped with an automatic heart tone identification system appears to be the best solution. Thanks to the advancement in technology, the quality of phonocardiography signals is no longer an issue. However, appropriate algorithms for auto-diagnosis systems of heart diseases that could be capable of distinguishing most of known pathological states have not been yet developed. The main issue is non-stationary character of phonocardiography signals as well as a wide range of distinguishable pathological heart sounds. In this paper a new heart sound classification technique, which might find use in medical diagnostic systems, is presented. It is shown that by combining Linear Predictive Coding coefficients, used for future extraction, with a classifier built upon combining Support Vector Machine and Modified Cuckoo Search algorithm, an improvement in performance of the diagnostic system, in terms of accuracy, complexity and range of distinguishable heart sounds, can be made. The developed system achieved accuracy above 93% for all considered cases including simultaneous identification of twelve different heart sound classes. The respective system is compared with four different major classification methods, proving its reliability. PMID:25393113

  5. A System for Heart Sounds Classification

    PubMed Central

    Redlarski, Grzegorz; Gradolewski, Dawid; Palkowski, Aleksander

    2014-01-01

    The future of quick and efficient disease diagnosis lays in the development of reliable non-invasive methods. As for the cardiac diseases – one of the major causes of death around the globe – a concept of an electronic stethoscope equipped with an automatic heart tone identification system appears to be the best solution. Thanks to the advancement in technology, the quality of phonocardiography signals is no longer an issue. However, appropriate algorithms for auto-diagnosis systems of heart diseases that could be capable of distinguishing most of known pathological states have not been yet developed. The main issue is non-stationary character of phonocardiography signals as well as a wide range of distinguishable pathological heart sounds. In this paper a new heart sound classification technique, which might find use in medical diagnostic systems, is presented. It is shown that by combining Linear Predictive Coding coefficients, used for future extraction, with a classifier built upon combining Support Vector Machine and Modified Cuckoo Search algorithm, an improvement in performance of the diagnostic system, in terms of accuracy, complexity and range of distinguishable heart sounds, can be made. The developed system achieved accuracy above 93% for all considered cases including simultaneous identification of twelve different heart sound classes. The respective system is compared with four different major classification methods, proving its reliability. PMID:25393113

  6. Extensions to the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Fourakis, Marios; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Potter, Nancy L.; Scheer-Cohen, Alison R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes three extensions to a classification system for paediatric speech sound disorders termed the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS). Part I describes a classification extension to the SDCS to differentiate motor speech disorders from speech delay and to differentiate among three sub-types of motor speech disorders.…

  7. A program system for efficient multispectral classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åkersten, S. I.

    Pixelwise multispectral classification is an important tool for analyzing remotely sensed imagery data. The computing time for performing this analysis becomes significantly large when large, multilayer images are analyzed. In the classical implementation of the supervised multispectral classification assuming gaussian-shaped multidimensional class-clusters, the computing time is furthermore approximately proportional to the square of the number of image layers. This leads to very appreciable CPU-times when large numbers of multispectral channels are used and/or temporal classification is performed. In order to decrease computer time, a classification program system has been implemented which has the following characteristics: (1) a simple one-dimensional box classifier, (2) a multidimensional box classifier, (3) a class-pivotal "canonical" classifier utilizing full maximum likelihood and making full use of within-class and between-class statistical characteristics, (4) a hybrid classifier (2 and 3 combined), and (5) a local neighbourhood filtering algorithm producing generalized classification results. The heart of the classifier is the class-pivotal canonical classifier. This algorithm is based upon an idea of Dye suggesting the use of linear transformations making possible a simultaneous evaluation of a measure of the pixel being likely not to belong to the candidate class as well as computing its full maximum likelihood ratio. In case it is more likely to be misclassified the full maximum likelihood evaluation can be truncated almost immediately, i.e. the candidate class can often be rejected using only one or two of the available transformed spectral features. The result of this is a classifier with CPU-time which is empirically shown to be linearly dependent upon the number of image layers. The use of the hybrid classifier lowers the CPU-time with another factor of 3-4. Furthermore, for certain problems like classifying water-non water a single spectral band

  8. Explosives Classifications Tracking System User Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Genoni, R.P.

    1993-10-01

    The Explosives Classification Tracking System (ECTS) presents information and data for U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) explosives classifications of interest to EM-561, Transportation Management Division, other DOE facilities, and contractors. It is intended to be useful to the scientist, engineer, and transportation professional, who needs to classify or transport explosives. This release of the ECTS reflects upgrading of the software which provides the user with an environment that makes comprehensive retrieval of explosives related information quick and easy. Quarterly updates will be provided to the ECTS throughout its development in FY 1993 and thereafter. The ECTS is a stand alone, single user system that contains unclassified, publicly available information, and administrative information (contractor names, product descriptions, transmittal dates, EX-Numbers, etc.) information from many sources for non-decisional engineering and shipping activities. The data is the most up-to-date and accurate available to the knowledge of the system developer. The system is designed to permit easy revision and updating as new information and data become available. These, additions and corrections are welcomed by the developer. This user manual is intended to help the user install, understand, and operate the system so that the desired information may be readily obtained, reviewed, and reported.

  9. A confidence paradigm for classification systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leap, Nathan J.; Bauer, Kenneth W., Jr.

    2008-04-01

    There is no universally accepted methodology to determine how much confidence one should have in a classifier output. This research proposes a framework to determine the level of confidence in an indication from a classifier system where the output is a measurement value. There are two types of confidence developed in this paper. The first is confidence in a classification system or classifier and is denoted classifier confidence. The second is the confidence in the output of a classification system or classifier. In this paradigm, we posit that the confidence in the output of a classifier should be, on average, equal to the confidence in the classifier as a whole (i.e., classifier confidence). The amount of confidence in a given classifier is estimated using multiattribute preference theory and forms the foundation for a quadratic confidence function that is applied to posterior probability estimates. Classifier confidence is currently determined based upon individual measurable value functions for classification accuracy, average entropy, and sample size, and the form of the overall measurable value function is multilinear based upon the assumption of weak difference independence. Using classifier confidence, a quadratic function is trained to be the confidence function which inputs a posterior probability and outputs the confidence in a given indication. In this paradigm, confidence is not equal to the posterior probability estimate but is related to it. This confidence measure is a direct link between traditional decision analysis techniques and traditional pattern recognition techniques. This methodology is applied to two real world data sets, and results show the sort of behavior that would be expected from a rational confidence measure.

  10. Gender classification system in uncontrolled environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Pingping; Zhang, Yu-Jin; Duan, Fei

    2011-01-01

    Most face analysis systems available today perform mainly on restricted databases of images in terms of size, age, illumination. In addition, it is frequently assumed that all images are frontal and unconcealed. Actually, in a non-guided real-time supervision, the face pictures taken may often be partially covered and with head rotation less or more. In this paper, a special system supposed to be used in real-time surveillance with un-calibrated camera and non-guided photography is described. It mainly consists of five parts: face detection, non-face filtering, best-angle face selection, texture normalization, and gender classification. Emphases are focused on non-face filtering and best-angle face selection parts as well as texture normalization. Best-angle faces are figured out by PCA reconstruction, which equals to an implicit face alignment and results in a huge increase of the accuracy for gender classification. Dynamic skin model and a masked PCA reconstruction algorithm are applied to filter out faces detected in error. In order to fully include facial-texture and shape-outline features, a hybrid feature that is a combination of Gabor wavelet and PHoG (pyramid histogram of gradients) was proposed to equitable inner texture and outer contour. Comparative study on the effects of different non-face filtering and texture masking methods in the context of gender classification by SVM is reported through experiments on a set of UT (a company name) face images, a large number of internet images and CAS (Chinese Academy of Sciences) face database. Some encouraging results are obtained.

  11. Functional classifications for cerebral palsy: correlations between the gross motor function classification system (GMFCS), the manual ability classification system (MACS) and the communication function classification system (CFCS).

    PubMed

    Compagnone, Eliana; Maniglio, Jlenia; Camposeo, Serena; Vespino, Teresa; Losito, Luciana; De Rinaldis, Marta; Gennaro, Leonarda; Trabacca, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate a possible correlation between the gross motor function classification system-expanded and revised (GMFCS-E&R), the manual abilities classification system (MACS) and the communication function classification system (CFCS) functional levels in children with cerebral palsy (CP) by CP subtype. It was also geared to verify whether there is a correlation between these classification systems and intellectual functioning (IF) and parental socio-economic status (SES). A total of 87 children (47 males and 40 females, age range 4-18 years, mean age 8.9±4.2) were included in the study. A strong correlation was found between the three classifications: Level V of the GMFCS-E&R corresponds to Level V of the MACS (rs=0.67, p=0.001); the same relationship was found for the CFCS and the MACS (rs=0.73, p<0.001) and for the GMFCS-E&R and the CFCS (rs=0.61, p=0.001). The correlations between the IQ and the global functional disability profile were strong or moderate (GMFCS and IQ: rs=0.66, p=0.001; MACS and IQ: rs=0.58, p=0.001; CFCS and MACS: rs=0.65, p=0.001). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine if there were differences between the GMFCS-E&R, the CFCS and the MACS by CP type. CP types showed different scores for the IQ level (Chi-square=8.59, df=2, p=0.014), the GMFCS-E&R (Chi-square=36.46, df=2, p<0.001), the CFCS (Chi-square=12.87, df=2, p=0.002), and the MACS Level (Chi-square=13.96, df=2, p<0.001) but no significant differences emerged for the SES (Chi-square=1.19, df=2, p=0.554). This study shows how the three functional classifications (GMFCS-E&R, CFCS and MACS) complement each other to provide a better description of the functional profile of CP. The systematic evaluation of the IQ can provide useful information about a possible future outcome for every functional level. The SES does not appear to affect functional profiles.

  12. Mixture model-based atmospheric air mass classification: a probabilistic view of thermodynamic profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernin, Jérôme; Vrac, Mathieu; Crevoisier, Cyril; Chédin, Alain

    2016-10-01

    Air mass classification has become an important area in synoptic climatology, simplifying the complexity of the atmosphere by dividing the atmosphere into discrete similar thermodynamic patterns. However, the constant growth of atmospheric databases in both size and complexity implies the need to develop new adaptive classifications. Here, we propose a robust unsupervised and supervised classification methodology of a large thermodynamic dataset, on a global scale and over several years, into discrete air mass groups homogeneous in both temperature and humidity that also provides underlying probability laws. Temperature and humidity at different pressure levels are aggregated into a set of cumulative distribution function (CDF) values instead of classical ones. The method is based on a Gaussian mixture model and uses the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to estimate the parameters of the mixture. Spatially gridded thermodynamic profiles come from ECMWF reanalyses spanning the period 2000-2009. Different aspects are investigated, such as the sensitivity of the classification process to both temporal and spatial samplings of the training dataset. Comparisons of the classifications made either by the EM algorithm or by the widely used k-means algorithm show that the former can be viewed as a generalization of the latter. Moreover, the EM algorithm delivers, for each observation, the probabilities of belonging to each class, as well as the associated uncertainty. Finally, a decision tree is proposed as a tool for interpreting the different classes, highlighting the relative importance of temperature and humidity in the classification process.

  13. Magnus air turbine system

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, Thomas F.

    1982-01-01

    A Magnus effect windmill for generating electrical power is disclosed. A large nacelle-hub mounted pivotally (in Azimuth) atop a support tower carries, in the example disclosed, three elongated barrels arranged in a vertical plane and extending symmetrically radially outwardly from the nacelle. The system provides spin energy to the barrels by internal mechanical coupling in the proper sense to cause, in reaction to an incident wind, a rotational torque of a predetermined sense on the hub. The rotating hub carries a set of power take-off rollers which ride on a stationary circular track in the nacelle. Shafts carry the power, given to the rollers by the wind driven hub, to a central collector or accumulator gear assembly whose output is divided to drive the spin mechanism for the Magnus barrels and the main electric generator. A planetary gear assembly is interposed between the collector gears and the spin mechanism functioning as a differential which is also connected to an auxiliary electric motor whereby power to the spin mechanism may selectively be provided by the motor. Generally, the motor provides initial spin to the barrels for start-up after which the motor is braked and the spin mechanism is driven as though by a fixed ratio coupling from the rotor hub. During high wind or other unusual conditions, the auxiliary motor may be unbraked and excess spin power may be used to operate the motor as a generator of additional electrical output. Interposed between the collector gears of the rotating hub and the main electric generator is a novel variable speed drive-fly wheel system which is driven by the variable speed of the wind driven rotor and which, in turn, drives the main electric generator at constant angular speed. Reference is made to the complete specification for disclosure of other novel aspects of the system such as, for example, the aerodynamic and structural aspects of the novel Magnus barrels as well as novel gearing and other power coupling

  14. A comprehensive classification system for lipids.

    PubMed

    Fahy, Eoin; Subramaniam, Shankar; Brown, H Alex; Glass, Christopher K; Merrill, Alfred H; Murphy, Robert C; Raetz, Christian R H; Russell, David W; Seyama, Yousuke; Shaw, Walter; Shimizu, Takao; Spener, Friedrich; van Meer, Gerrit; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S; White, Stephen H; Witztum, Joseph L; Dennis, Edward A

    2005-05-01

    Lipids are produced, transported, and recognized by the concerted actions of numerous enzymes, binding proteins, and receptors. A comprehensive analysis of lipid molecules, "lipidomics," in the context of genomics and proteomics is crucial to understanding cellular physiology and pathology; consequently, lipid biology has become a major research target of the postgenomic revolution and systems biology. To facilitate international communication about lipids, a comprehensive classification of lipids with a common platform that is compatible with informatics requirements has been developed to deal with the massive amounts of data that will be generated by our lipid community. As an initial step in this development, we divide lipids into eight categories (fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, sterol lipids, prenol lipids, saccharolipids, and polyketides) containing distinct classes and subclasses of molecules, devise a common manner of representing the chemical structures of individual lipids and their derivatives, and provide a 12 digit identifier for each unique lipid molecule. The lipid classification scheme is chemically based and driven by the distinct hydrophobic and hydrophilic elements that compose the lipid. This structured vocabulary will facilitate the systematization of lipid biology and enable the cataloging of lipids and their properties in a way that is compatible with other macromolecular databases.

  15. 42 CFR 412.513 - Patient classification system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of LTC-DRG assignment. (1) A hospital has 60 days after the date of the notice of the initial... MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Long-Term Care Hospitals § 412.513 Patient classification system. (a) Classification methodology....

  16. 42 CFR 412.513 - Patient classification system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of LTC-DRG assignment. (1) A hospital has 60 days after the date of the notice of the initial... MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Long-Term Care Hospitals § 412.513 Patient classification system. (a) Classification methodology....

  17. An Alternate Classification System for Institutions. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niwa, Shelley; Brinkman, Paul

    The feasibility of developing a refined national reporting classification system for colleges and universities to complement the present classification system of the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS) which categorizes institutions into five major classes was studied. For some types of national reporting the NCHEMS…

  18. Steerable percussion air drilling system

    SciTech Connect

    Bui, H.D.; Meyers, J.A.; Yost, A.B. II

    1998-12-31

    By increasing penetration rates and bit life, especially in hard formations, the use of down-hole air hammers in the oil field has significantly reduced drilling costs in the Northeast US and West Texas. Unfortunately, drilling by this percussion method has been limited mostly to straight hole applications. This paper presents a new concept of a percussion drilling tool which performs both the function of a down-hole hammer as well as that of a down-hole motor. Such a drilling tool, being introduced here as Steerable Percussion Air Drilling System (SPADS), eliminates the necessity to rotate the drill string and, consequently, enables the use of down-hole air hammers to drill directional wells.

  19. Classification and certification requirements for floating production systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bowie, R.D.; Richardson, K.L.

    1995-12-31

    Floating Production Systems (FPSs) can be either, custom built or a converted semi-submersible, tanker or barge. The paper describes the necessary steps to be taken for the Classification and Certification of FPSs and FPSOS. The paper outlines the latest Classification and certification requirements for both semi-submersible and ship type FPSS. Classification and regulatory requirements for the Hull Structure, Stability, Station Keeping, Shipboard and Production Systems are discussed.

  20. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-yu (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air outside a moving aircraft are presented. In one embodiment, a system includes a laser for generating laser energy. The system also includes one or more transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. Subsequently, each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines one or more air parameters based on the scattered laser radiation. Such air parameters may include air speed, air pressure, air temperature and aircraft orientation angle, such as yaw, angle of attack and sideslip.

  1. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin J. (Inventor); Weimer, Carl S. (Inventor); Nelson, Loren D. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air outside a moving aircraft are presented. In one embodiment, a system includes a laser for generating laser energy. The system also includes one or more transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. Subsequently, each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines one or more air parameters based on the scattered laser radiation. Such air parameters may include air speed, air pressure, air temperature and aircraft orientation angle, such as yaw, angle of attack and sideslip.

  2. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin J. (Inventor); Weimer, Carl S. (Inventor); Nelson, Loren D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air outside a moving aircraft are presented. In one embodiment, a system includes a laser for generating laser energy. The system also includes one or more transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. Subsequently, each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines one or more air parameters based on the scattered laser radiation. Such air parameters may include air speed, air pressure, air temperature and aircraft orientation angle, such as yaw, angle of attack and sideslip.

  3. Air control system providing healthful enclosed environment

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, J.A.

    1991-08-27

    This patent describes an environmentally controlled building. It comprises an outer wall defining an outer building perimeter and having at least one fenestration therethrough for passage of personnel; a roof supported by and cooperating with the outer wall to define a building exterior and interior; and an environmental control system for controlling the environment within the building interior, the environmental control system including a heating and air conditioning unit, having an air inlet, for controlling the temperature of air drawing into the air control system; a humidity control unit, having an inlet connected to the heating and air conditioning unit, for controlling the humidity of air within the air control system; an air blower for forcing air from the environmental control system into the building interior; and an air filtering system having an inlet connected to the humidity control unit and an outlet connected to the blower.

  4. Designing a Classification System for Internet Offenders: Doing Cognitive Distortions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hundersmarck, Steven F.; Durkin, Keith F.; Delong, Ronald L.

    2007-01-01

    Televised features such as NBC's "To Catch a Predator" have highlighted the growing problem posed by Internet sexual predators. This paper reports on the authors' attempts in designing a classification system for Internet offenders. The classification system was designed based on existing theory, understanding the nature of Internet offenders and…

  5. Air Sampling System Evaluation Template

    2000-05-09

    The ASSET1.0 software provides a template with which a user can evaluate an Air Sampling System against the latest version of ANSI N13.1 "Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities". The software uses the ANSI N13.1 PIC levels to establish basic design criteria for the existing or proposed sampling system. The software looks at such criteria as PIC level, type of radionuclide emissions, physical state ofmore » the radionuclide, nozzle entrance effects, particulate transmission effects, system and component accuracy and precision evaluations, and basic system operations to provide a detailed look at the subsystems of a monitoring and sampling system/program. A GAP evaluation can then be completed which leads to identification of design and operational flaws in the proposed systems. Corrective measures can then be limited to the GAPs.« less

  6. Removal of introduced inorganic content from chipped forest residues via air classification

    DOE PAGES

    Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Aston, John E.; Westover, Tyler L.; Cherry, Robert S.; Thompson, David N.

    2015-08-04

    Inorganic content in biomass decreases the efficiency of conversion processes, especially thermochemical conversions. The combined concentrations of specific ash forming elements are the primary attributes that cause pine residues to be considered a degraded energy conversion feedstock, as compared to clean pine. Air classification is a potentially effective and economical tool to isolate high inorganic content biomass fractions away from primary feedstock sources to reduce their ash content. In this work, loblolly pine forest residues were air classified into 10 fractions whose ash content and composition were measured. Ash concentrations were highest in the lightest fractions (5.8–8.5 wt%), and inmore » a heavy fraction of the fines (8.9–15.1 wt%). The removal of fractions with high inorganic content resulted in a substantial reduction in the ash content of the remaining biomass in forest thinnings (1.69–1.07 wt%) and logging residues (1.09–0.68 wt%). These high inorganic content fractions from both forest residue types represented less than 7.0 wt% of the total biomass, yet they contained greater than 40% of the ash content by mass. Elemental analysis of the air classified fractions revealed the lightest fractions were comprised of high concentrations of soil elements (silicon, aluminum, iron, sodium, and titanium). However, the elements of biological origin including calcium, potassium, magnesium, sulfur, manganese, and phosphorous were evenly distributed throughout all air classified fractions, making them more difficult to isolate into fractions with high mineral concentrations. Under the conditions reported in this study, an economic analysis revealed air classification could be used for ash removal for as little as $2.23 per ton of product biomass. As a result, this study suggests air classification is a potentially attractive technology for the removal of introduced soil minerals from pine forest residues.« less

  7. Removal of introduced inorganic content from chipped forest residues via air classification

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Aston, John E.; Westover, Tyler L.; Cherry, Robert S.; Thompson, David N.

    2015-08-04

    Inorganic content in biomass decreases the efficiency of conversion processes, especially thermochemical conversions. The combined concentrations of specific ash forming elements are the primary attributes that cause pine residues to be considered a degraded energy conversion feedstock, as compared to clean pine. Air classification is a potentially effective and economical tool to isolate high inorganic content biomass fractions away from primary feedstock sources to reduce their ash content. In this work, loblolly pine forest residues were air classified into 10 fractions whose ash content and composition were measured. Ash concentrations were highest in the lightest fractions (5.8–8.5 wt%), and in a heavy fraction of the fines (8.9–15.1 wt%). The removal of fractions with high inorganic content resulted in a substantial reduction in the ash content of the remaining biomass in forest thinnings (1.69–1.07 wt%) and logging residues (1.09–0.68 wt%). These high inorganic content fractions from both forest residue types represented less than 7.0 wt% of the total biomass, yet they contained greater than 40% of the ash content by mass. Elemental analysis of the air classified fractions revealed the lightest fractions were comprised of high concentrations of soil elements (silicon, aluminum, iron, sodium, and titanium). However, the elements of biological origin including calcium, potassium, magnesium, sulfur, manganese, and phosphorous were evenly distributed throughout all air classified fractions, making them more difficult to isolate into fractions with high mineral concentrations. Under the conditions reported in this study, an economic analysis revealed air classification could be used for ash removal for as little as $2.23 per ton of product biomass. As a result, this study suggests air classification is a potentially attractive technology for the removal of introduced soil minerals from pine forest residues.

  8. The Bellevue Classification System: nursing's voice upon the library shelves.

    PubMed

    Mages, Keith C

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the inspiration, construction, and meaning of the Bellevue Classification System (BCS), created during the 1930s for use in the Bellevue School of Nursing Library. Nursing instructor Ann Doyle, with assistance from librarian Mary Casamajor, designed the BCS after consulting with library leaders and examining leading contemporary classification systems, including the Dewey Decimal Classification and Library of Congress, Ballard, and National Health Library classification systems. A close textual reading of the classes, subclasses, and subdivisions of these classification systems against those of the resulting BCS, reveals Doyle's belief that the BCS was created not only to organize the literature, but also to promote the burgeoning intellectualism and professionalism of early twentieth-century American nursing.

  9. 78 FR 58153 - Prevailing Rate Systems; North American Industry Classification System Based Federal Wage System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ..., 2013, the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) issued a proposed rule (78 FR 18252) to update the... RIN 3206-AM78 Prevailing Rate Systems; North American Industry Classification System Based Federal... Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes currently used in Federal Wage System wage survey...

  10. Towards a Collaborative Intelligent Tutoring System Classification Scheme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harsley, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel classification scheme for Collaborative Intelligent Tutoring Systems (CITS), an emergent research field. The three emergent classifications of CITS are unstructured, semi-structured, and fully structured. While all three types of CITS offer opportunities to improve student learning gains, the full extent to which these…

  11. Zoned heating and air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Beachboard, S.A.

    1987-06-16

    This patent describes a zoned heating and air conditioning system comprising: a central air handling system with an air heating means and an air cooling means and a blower connected to an air duct system; thermostats each have heating and cooling set points, respectively associated with and located in different zones of a building; dampers respectively associated with each building zone positioned in the air duct system. Each damper has an open position allowing air into the respective zone from the duct system and a closed position; relay means for connecting one thermostat to the air handling system upon a call for heating or cooling by one thermostat and disconnecting all other thermostats by connecting one thermostat's connections between the thermostat and air handling system. Only one thermostat is connected to the air handling system at a time and the relay means disconnects one thermostat from the air handling system after one thermostat is satisified; and damper actuating means for unlocking each damper in one building zone responsive actuated by a respective zone thermostat connected to the air handling system by the relay means. The damper actuates means including a damper solenoid for each damper located adjacent each damper and connected to a respective zone thermostat. It unlocks each damper in one building zone responsive to being actuated by the respective zone thermostat and unlocks the dampers in one building zone when one thermostat is actuated while preventing the dampers in another thermostat's building zone from unlocking.

  12. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  13. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  14. Strategy Guideline. Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, Arlan

    2013-06-01

    This guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  15. Air Force Training for Instructional Systems Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkins, Ronald R.

    Detailed information is provided about the Air Force Instructional System Development (ISD) Model to supplement the 1979 AECT presentation made in New Orleans. Information of interest to instructional systems designers includes (1) a short overview of the Air Force ISD model, (2) an extended example which demonstrates the Air Training Command…

  16. Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, A.

    2013-06-01

    This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  17. A system for analysis and classification of voice communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Older, H. J.; Jenney, L. L.; Garland, L.

    1973-01-01

    A method for analysis and classification of verbal communications typically associated with manned space missions or simulations was developed. The study was carried out in two phases. Phase 1 was devoted to identification of crew tasks and activities which require voice communication for accomplishment or reporting. Phase 2 entailed development of a message classification system and a preliminary test of its feasibility. The classification system permits voice communications to be analyzed to three progressively more specific levels of detail and to be described in terms of message content, purpose, and the participants in the information exchange. A coding technique was devised to allow messages to be recorded by an eight-digit number.

  18. A proposed ecosystem services classification system to support green accounting

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are a multitude of actual or envisioned, complete or incomplete, ecosystem service classification systems being proposed to support Green Accounting. Green Accounting is generally thought to be the formal accounting attempt to factor environmental production into National ...

  19. Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification for Europe Recaptured via the Hölder Regularity of Air Temperature Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deliège, Adrien; Nicolay, Samuel

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we make use of the monoHölder nature of surface air temperature data to recapture the Köppen-Geiger climate classification in Europe. Using data from the European Climate Assessment and Dataset (ECA&D), we first show that the Hölder exponents of surface air temperature data are statistically related to pressure anomalies. Then, we establish a climate classification based on these Hölder exponents in such a way that it allows to recover the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. We show that the two classifications match for a vast majority of stations, and we corroborate these observations with a confirmation test. We compare these results with those obtained with another dataset (NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis Project) to show that the new classification is still well-adapted, before eventually discussing these findings.

  20. Acuity systems dialogue and patient classification system essentials.

    PubMed

    Harper, Kelle; McCully, Crystal

    2007-01-01

    Obtaining resources for quality patient care is a major responsibility of nurse leaders and requires accurate information in the political world of budgeting. Patient classification systems (PCS) assist nurse managers in controlling cost and improving patient care while appropriately using financial resources. This paper communicates acuity systems development, background, flaws, and components while discussing a few tools currently available. It also disseminates the development of a new acuity tool, the Patient Classification System. The PCS tool, developed in a small rural hospital, uses 5 broad concepts: (1) medications, (2) complicated procedures, (3) education, (4) psychosocial issues, and (5) complicated intravenous medications. These concepts embrace a 4-tiered scale that differentiates significant patient characteristics and assists in staffing measures for equality in patient staffing and improving quality of care and performance. Data obtained through use of the PCS can be used by nurse leaders to effectively and objectively lobby for appropriate patient care resources. Two questionnaires distributed to registered nurses on a medical-surgical unit evaluated the nurses' opinion of the 5 concepts and the importance for establishing patient acuity for in-patient care. Interrater reliability among nurses was 87% with the author's acuity tool. PMID:17909428

  1. Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.

  2. A Classification System for Peri-implant Diseases and Conditions.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Hector L; Norton, Michael R; Fiorellini, Joseph P

    2016-01-01

    Peri-implant bone levels are influenced by pathologic and nonpathologic conditions. The understanding of peri-implant disease has evolved over the past several decades, and the classification of peri-implantitis has been limited to descriptions of disease progression or those involving soft and/or hard tissues (peri-implant mucositis or peri-implantitis). However, no classification system has been established based on etiology. The objective of this study was to identify various etiologies for peri-implantitis and to establish a classification system based on the pathogenesis. The results indicate that the majority of bone loss was related to biofilm, followed by iatrogenic factors, exogenous irritants, absence of keratinized tissue, and extrinsic pathology. The proposed classification system will allow the clinician to properly diagnose peri-implant diseases in relation to etiology. These conditions may respond differently to applied therapies. PMID:27560674

  3. Application of air classification and formulation to manage feedstock cost, quality and availability for bioenergy

    DOE PAGES

    Thompson, Vicki S.; Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Hartley, Damon; Jindra, Michael A.; Aston, John E.; Thompson, David N.

    2016-04-22

    Biomass such as agricultural residues, energy crops and yard waste has significant potential to be used as renewable feedstocks for production of fuels, chemicals and energy. However, in a given location, biomass availability, cost and quality can vary markedly. Strategies to manage these traits must be identified and implemented so that consistent low-cost and high-quality feedstocks can be delivered to biorefineries year round. In this study, we examine air classification as a method to mitigate high ash concentrations in corn stover, switchgrass, and grass clippings. Formulation techniques were then used to produce blends that met ash quality and biomass quantitymore » specifications at the lowest possible cost for biopower and biochemical conversion applications. It was found that air classification can separate the biomass into light fractions which contain concentrated amounts of elemental ash components introduced through soil contamination such as sodium, alumina, silica, iron and titania; and heavy fractions that are depleted in these components and have relatively lower total ash content. Light fractions of corn stover and grass clippings were found to be suitable for combustion applications since they had less propensity to slag than the whole biomass material. The remaining heavy fractions of corn stover or grass clippings could then be blended with switchgrass to produce blends that met the 5% total ash specifications suggested for biochemical conversions. However, ternary blends of the three feedstocks were not possible due to the high ash content of grass clippings. Lastly, it was determined that air classification by itself was not suitable to prepare these feedstocks for pyrolysis due to high ash content.« less

  4. [Air quality control systems: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)].

    PubMed

    Bellucci Sessa, R; Riccio, G

    2004-01-01

    After a brief illustration of the principal layout schemes of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), the first part of this paper summarizes the standards, both voluntary and compulsory, regulating HVAC facilities design and installation with regard to the question of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). The paper then examines the problem of ventilation systems maintenance and the essential hygienistic requirements in whose absence HVAC facilities may become a risk factor for people working or living in the building. Lastly, the paper deals with HVAC design strategies and methods, which aim not only to satisfy comfort and air quality requirements, but also to ensure easy and effective maintenance procedures.

  5. The 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC): A Classification System Gets an Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmel, Alissa; Cosca, Theresa

    2010-01-01

    Making sense of occupational data isn't always easy. But the task is less daunting when the data are well organized. For Federal occupational statistics, the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system establishes that organization. And a recent revision to the SOC means that the data will be current, in addition to being well organized. The…

  6. Comparison of the clinical applicability of Miller's classification system to Kumar and Masamatti's classification system of gingival recession

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashish; Gupta, Geeti; Puri, Komal; Bansal, Mansi; Jain, Deept; Khatri, Manish; Masamatti, Sujata Surendra

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aims of the present study were to (i) Find the percentage of recession cases that could be classified by application of Miller's and/or Kumar and Masamatti's classification of gingival recession, and (ii) compare the percentage of clinical applicability of Miller's criteria and Kumar and Masamatti's criteria to the total recessions present. Materials and Methods: A total of 104 patients (1089 recession cases) were included in the study wherein they were classified using both Miller's and Kumar and Masamatti's classification systems of gingival recession. Percentage comparison of the application of both classification systems was done. Results: Data analysis showed that though all the cases of the recession were classified by Kumar and Masamatti's classification, only 34.61% cases were classified by Miller's classification. 19.10% cases were completely (having only labial/buccal recession) classified. In 15.51% (out of 34.61%) cases, only buccal recession was classified according to Miller's criteria and included in this category, although these cases had both buccal and lingual/palatal recessions. Furthermore, 29.75% cases of recession with interdental loss and marginal tissue loss coronal to mucogingival junction (MGJ) remained uncategorized by Miller's classification; categorization of palatal/lingual recession was possible with Kumar and Masamatti's classification. Conclusion: The elaborative evaluation of both buccal and palatal/lingual recession by the Kumar and Masamatti's classification system can be used to overcome the limitations of Miller's classification system, especially the cases with interdental loss and having marginal tissue loss coronal to MGJ. PMID:26644724

  7. Development of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (1997)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    To address the need for a standardized system to classify the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy, the authors developed a five-level classification system analogous to the staging and grading systems used in medicine. Nominal group process and Delphi survey consensus methods were used to examine content validity and revise the…

  8. Empirical study of classification process for two-stage turbo air classifier in series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yuan; Liu, Jiaxiang; Li, Gang

    2013-05-01

    The suitable process parameters for a two-stage turbo air classifier are important for obtaining the ultrafine powder that has a narrow particle-size distribution, however little has been published internationally on the classification process for the two-stage turbo air classifier in series. The influence of the process parameters of a two-stage turbo air classifier in series on classification performance is empirically studied by using aluminum oxide powders as the experimental material. The experimental results show the following: 1) When the rotor cage rotary speed of the first-stage classifier is increased from 2 300 r/min to 2 500 r/min with a constant rotor cage rotary speed of the second-stage classifier, classification precision is increased from 0.64 to 0.67. However, in this case, the final ultrafine powder yield is decreased from 79% to 74%, which means the classification precision and the final ultrafine powder yield can be regulated through adjusting the rotor cage rotary speed of the first-stage classifier. 2) When the rotor cage rotary speed of the second-stage classifier is increased from 2 500 r/min to 3 100 r/min with a constant rotor cage rotary speed of the first-stage classifier, the cut size is decreased from 13.16 μm to 8.76 μm, which means the cut size of the ultrafine powder can be regulated through adjusting the rotor cage rotary speed of the second-stage classifier. 3) When the feeding speed is increased from 35 kg/h to 50 kg/h, the "fish-hook" effect is strengthened, which makes the ultrafine powder yield decrease. 4) To weaken the "fish-hook" effect, the equalization of the two-stage wind speeds or the combination of a high first-stage wind speed with a low second-stage wind speed should be selected. This empirical study provides a criterion of process parameter configurations for a two-stage or multi-stage classifier in series, which offers a theoretical basis for practical production.

  9. SpaceX Dragon Air Circulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, Brenda; Piatrovich, Siarhei; Prina, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    The Dragon capsule is a reusable vehicle being developed by Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) that will provide commercial cargo transportation to the International Space Station (ISS). Dragon is designed to be a habitable module while it is berthed to ISS. As such, the Dragon Environmental Control System (ECS) consists of pressure control and pressure equalization, air sampling, fire detection, illumination, and an air circulation system. The air circulation system prevents pockets of stagnant air in Dragon that can be hazardous to the ISS crew. In addition, through the inter-module duct, the air circulation system provides fresh air from ISS into Dragon. To utilize the maximum volume of Dragon for cargo packaging, the Dragon ECS air circulation system is designed around cargo rack optimization. At the same time, the air circulation system is designed to meet the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) inter-module and intra-module ventilation requirements and acoustic requirements. A flight like configuration of the Dragon capsule including the air circulation system was recently assembled for testing to assess the design for inter-module and intra-module ventilation and acoustics. The testing included the Dragon capsule, and flight configuration in the pressure section with cargo racks, lockers, all of the air circulation components, and acoustic treatment. The air circulation test was also used to verify the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the Dragon capsule. The CFD model included the same Dragon internal geometry that was assembled for the test. This paper will describe the Dragon air circulation system design which has been verified by testing the system and with CFD analysis.

  10. Multiphase Systems for Medical Image Region Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garamendi, J. F.; Malpica, N.; Schiavi, E.

    2009-05-01

    Variational methods for region classification have shown very promising results in medical image analysis. The Chan-Vese model is one of the most popular methods, but its numerical resolution is slow and it has serious drawbacks for most multiphase applications. In this work, we extend the link, stablished by Chambolle, between the two classes binary Chan-Vese model and the Rudin-Osher-Fatemi (ROF) model to a multiphase four classes minimal partition problem. We solve the ROF image restoration model and then we threshold the image by means of a genetic algorithm. This strategy allows for a more efficient algorithm due to the fact that only one well posed elliptic problem is solved instead of solving the coupled parabolic equations arising in the original multiphase Chan-Vese model.

  11. Air ion exposure system for plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, R. C.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1987-01-01

    A system was developed for subjecting plants to elevated air ion levels. This system consisted of a rectangular Plexiglas chamber lined with a Faraday cage. Air ions were generated by corona discharge from frayed stainless steel fibers placed at one end of the chamber. This source was capable of producing varying levels of either positive or negative air ions. During plant exposures, environmental conditions were controlled by operating the unit in a growth chamber.

  12. Rooftop Unitary Air Conditioner with Integral Dedicated Outdoor Air System

    SciTech Connect

    Tiax Llc

    2006-02-28

    Energy use of rooftop and other unitary air-conditioners in commercial applications accounts for about 1 quad (10{sup 15} Btu) of primary energy use annually in the U.S. [Reference 7]. The realization that this cooling equipment accounts for the majority of commercial building cooled floorspace and the majority also of commercial building energy use has spurred development of improved-efficiency equipment as well as development of stricter standards addressing efficiency levels. Another key market driver affecting design of rooftop air-conditioning equipment has been concern regarding comfort and the control of humidity. Trends for increases in outdoor air ventilation rates in certain applications, and the increasing concern about indoor air quality problems associated with humidity levels and moisture in buildings points to a need for improved dehumidification capability in air-conditioning equipment of all types. In many cases addressing this issue exacerbates energy efficiency, and vice versa. The integrated dedicated outdoor air system configuration developed in this project addresses both energy and comfort/humidity issues.

  13. U.S. Geological Survey library classification system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sasscer, R. Scott

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Library classification system has been designed for earth science libraries. It is a tool for assigning call numbers to earth science and allied pure science materials in order to collect these materials into related subject groups on the library shelves and arrange them alphabetically by author and title. The classification can be used as a retrieval system to access materials through the subject and geographic numbers. The classification scheme has been developed over the years since 1904 to meet the ever-changing needs of increased specialization and the development of new areas of research in the earth sciences. The system contains seven schedules: * Subject schedule * Geological survey schedule * Earth science periodical schedule * Government document periodical schedule * General science periodical schedule * Earth science map schedule * Geographic schedule Introduction provides detailed instructions on the construction of call numbers for works falling into the framework of the classification schedules. The tables following the introduction can be quickly accessed through the use of the newly expanded subject index. The purpose of this publication is to provide the earth science community with a classification and retrieval system for earth science materials, to offer sufficient explanation of its structure and use, and to enable library staff and clientele to classify or access research materials in a library collection.

  14. Solar Hot-Air System --Memphis, Tennessee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Solar collectors using air as collection medium provide space heating for four-building office complex in Memphis. 98 page report furnishes details on installation, including: description of system; system startup and acceptance-test results; technical data on collector; installation manuals for collectors, air handler and heat-storage unit.

  15. Overview of Classification Systems in Peripheral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hardman, Rulon L.; Jazaeri, Omid; Yi, J.; Smith, M.; Gupta, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD), secondary to atherosclerotic disease, is currently the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. While PAD is common, it is estimated that the majority of patients with PAD are undiagnosed and undertreated. The challenge to the treatment of PAD is to accurately diagnose the symptoms and determine treatment for each patient. The varied presentations of peripheral vascular disease have led to numerous classification schemes throughout the literature. Consistent grading of patients leads to both objective criteria for treating patients and a baseline for clinical follow-up. Reproducible classification systems are also important in clinical trials and when comparing medical, surgical, and endovascular treatment paradigms. This article reviews the various classification systems for PAD and advantages to each system. PMID:25435665

  16. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR WASTE HANDLING BUILDING VENTILATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    2000-11-02

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) waste handling building ventilation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Preclosure Safety and Systems Engineering Section. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 2000). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 2000). This QA classification incorporates the current MGR design and the results of the ''Design Basis Event Frequency and Dose Calculation for Site Recommendation'' (CRWMS M&O 2000a) and ''Bounding Individual Category 1 Design Basis Event Dose Calculation to Support Quality Assurance Classification'' (Gwyn 2000).

  17. 40 CFR 141.710 - Bin classification for filtered systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... completion of the initial round of source water monitoring required under § 141.701(a), filtered systems must... water monitoring required under § 141.701(b), filtered systems must recalculate their Cryptosporidium... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bin classification for...

  18. 40 CFR 141.710 - Bin classification for filtered systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... completion of the initial round of source water monitoring required under § 141.701(a), filtered systems must... water monitoring required under § 141.701(b), filtered systems must recalculate their Cryptosporidium... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bin classification for...

  19. 40 CFR 141.710 - Bin classification for filtered systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... completion of the initial round of source water monitoring required under § 141.701(a), filtered systems must... water monitoring required under § 141.701(b), filtered systems must recalculate their Cryptosporidium... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bin classification for...

  20. 40 CFR 141.710 - Bin classification for filtered systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... completion of the initial round of source water monitoring required under § 141.701(a), filtered systems must... water monitoring required under § 141.701(b), filtered systems must recalculate their Cryptosporidium... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bin classification for...

  1. 40 CFR 141.710 - Bin classification for filtered systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium Treatment Technique Requirements § 141.710 Bin classification for filtered systems. (a) Following completion of the initial round of source water monitoring required under § 141.701(a), filtered systems...

  2. What's behind the Biological Classification System in Use Today?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, William C.

    2010-01-01

    Whether students should memorize classification schemes (taxonomies) is a column in itself, but the author can address the role that this system plays in the study of biology. To that end, it will help to address how the system developed over time. And toward "that" end, you will do a simple activity to start. (Contains 3 figures.)

  3. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-yu (Inventor); Acott, Phillip E. (Inventor); Spaeth, Lisa G. (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air includes at least one, and in some embodiments three, transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. The transceivers are scanned or aligned along several different axes. Each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines air temperatures, wind speeds, and wind directions based on the scattered laser radiation. Applications of the system to wind power site evaluation, wind turbine control, traffic safety, general meteorological monitoring and airport safety are presented.

  4. Advances in metals classification under the United Nations globally harmonized system of classification and labeling.

    PubMed

    Skeaff, James; Adams, William J; Rodriguez, Patricio; Brouwers, Tony; Waeterschoot, Hugo

    2011-10-01

    This article shows how regulatory obligations mandated for metal substances can be met with a laboratory-based transformation/dissolution (T/D) method for deriving relevant hazard classification outcomes, which can then be linked to attendant environmental protection management decisions. We report the results of a ring-test at 3 laboratories conducted to determine the interlaboratory precision of the United Nations T/D Protocol (T/DP) in generating data for classifying 4 metal-bearing substances for acute and chronic toxicity under the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling (GHS) criteria with respect to the aquatic environment. The test substances were Ni metal powder, cuprous oxide (Cu(2) O) powder, tricobalt tetroxide (Co(3) O(4) ) powder, and cuttings of a NILO K Ni-Co-Fe alloy. Following GHS Annex 10 guidelines, we tested 3 loadings (1, 10, and 100 mg/L) of each substance at pH 6 and 8 for 7 or 28 d to yield T/D data for acute and chronic classification, respectively. We compared the T/DP results (dissolved metal in aqueous media) against acute and chronic ecotoxicity reference values (ERVs) for each substance to assess GHS classification outcomes. For dissolved metal ions, the respective acute and chronic ERVs established at the time of the T/D testing were: 29 and 8 µg/L for Cu; 185 and 1.5 µg/L for Co; and 13.3 and 1.0 mg/L for Fe. The acute ERVs for Ni were pH-dependent: 120 and 68 µg/L at pH 6 and 8, respectively, whereas the chronic ERV for Ni was 2.4 µg/L. The acute classification outcomes were consistent among 3 laboratories: cuprous oxide, Acute 1; Ni metal powder, Acute 3; Co(3) O(4) and the NILO K alloy, no classification. We obtained similar consistent results in chronic classifications: Cu(2) O, Ni metal powder, and Co(3) O(4) , Chronic 4; and the NILO K alloy, no classification. However, we observed equivocal results only in 2 of a possible 48 cases where the coefficient of variation of final T

  5. An updated evolutionary classification of CRISPR-Cas systems.

    PubMed

    Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Alkhnbashi, Omer S; Costa, Fabrizio; Shah, Shiraz A; Saunders, Sita J; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Brouns, Stan J J; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Haft, Daniel H; Horvath, Philippe; Moineau, Sylvain; Mojica, Francisco J M; Terns, Rebecca M; Terns, Michael P; White, Malcolm F; Yakunin, Alexander F; Garrett, Roger A; van der Oost, John; Backofen, Rolf; Koonin, Eugene V

    2015-11-01

    The evolution of CRISPR-cas loci, which encode adaptive immune systems in archaea and bacteria, involves rapid changes, in particular numerous rearrangements of the locus architecture and horizontal transfer of complete loci or individual modules. These dynamics complicate straightforward phylogenetic classification, but here we present an approach combining the analysis of signature protein families and features of the architecture of cas loci that unambiguously partitions most CRISPR-cas loci into distinct classes, types and subtypes. The new classification retains the overall structure of the previous version but is expanded to now encompass two classes, five types and 16 subtypes. The relative stability of the classification suggests that the most prevalent variants of CRISPR-Cas systems are already known. However, the existence of rare, currently unclassifiable variants implies that additional types and subtypes remain to be characterized. PMID:26411297

  6. Fluid-bed air-supply system

    DOEpatents

    Atabay, Keramettin

    1979-01-01

    The air-supply system for a fluidized-bed furnace includes two air conduits for the same combustion zone. The conduits feed separate sets of holes in a distributor plate through which fluidizing air flows to reach the bed. During normal operation, only one conduit and set of holes is used, but the second conduit and set of holes is employed during start-up.

  7. Classifications of central solar domestic hot water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, J. Y.; Hao, B.; Peng, C.; Wang, S. S.

    2016-08-01

    Currently, there are many means by which to classify solar domestic hot water systems, which are often categorized according to their scope of supply, solar collector positions, and type of heat storage tank. However, the lack of systematic and scientific classification as well as the general disregard of the thermal performance of the auxiliary heat source is important to DHW systems. Thus, the primary focus of this paper is to determine a classification system for solar domestic hot water systems based on the positions of the solar collector and auxiliary heating device, both respectively and in combination. Field-testing data regarding many central solar DHW systems demonstrates that the position of the auxiliary heat source clearly reflects the operational energy consumption. The consumption of collective auxiliary heating hot water system is much higher than individual auxiliary heating hot water system. In addition, costs are significantly reduced by the separation of the heat storage tank and the auxiliary heating device.

  8. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: moving towards a new classification system.

    PubMed

    Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Hardiman, Orla; Kiernan, Matthew C; Chiò, Adriano; Rix-Brooks, Benjamin; van den Berg, Leonard H

    2016-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive adult-onset neurodegenerative disease that primarily affects upper and lower motor neurons, but also frontotemporal and other regions of the brain. The extent to which each neuronal population is affected varies between individuals. The subsequent patterns of disease progression form the basis of diagnostic criteria and phenotypic classification systems, with considerable overlap in the clinical terms used. This overlap can lead to confusion between diagnosis and phenotype. Formal classification systems such as the El Escorial criteria and the International Classification of Diseases are systematic approaches but they omit features that are important in clinical management, such as rate of progression, genetic basis, or functional effect. Therefore, many neurologists use informal classification approaches that might not be systematic, and could include, for example, anatomical descriptions such as flail-arm syndrome. A new strategy is needed to combine the benefits of a systematic approach to classification with the rich and varied phenotypic descriptions used in clinical practice. PMID:27647646

  9. Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunj C.

    2011-01-01

    A supervised learning task involves constructing a mapping from input data (normally described by several features) to the appropriate outputs. Within supervised learning, one type of task is a classification learning task, in which each output is one or more classes to which the input belongs. In supervised learning, a set of training examples---examples with known output values---is used by a learning algorithm to generate a model. This model is intended to approximate the mapping between the inputs and outputs. This model can be used to generate predicted outputs for inputs that have not been seen before. For example, we may have data consisting of observations of sunspots. In a classification learning task, our goal may be to learn to classify sunspots into one of several types. Each example may correspond to one candidate sunspot with various measurements or just an image. A learning algorithm would use the supplied examples to generate a model that approximates the mapping between each supplied set of measurements and the type of sunspot. This model can then be used to classify previously unseen sunspots based on the candidate's measurements. This chapter discusses methods to perform machine learning, with examples involving astronomy.

  10. Air-water flow in subsurface systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, A.; Mishra, P.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater traces its roots to tackle challenges of safe and reliable drinking water and food production. When the groundwater level rises, air pressure in the unsaturated Vadose zone increases, forcing air to escape from the ground surface. Abnormally high and low subsurface air pressure can be generated when the groundwater system, rainfall, and sea level fluctuation are favorably combined [Jiao and Li, 2004]. Through this process, contamination in the form of volatile gases may diffuse from the ground surface into residential areas, or possibly move into groundwater from industrial waste sites. It is therefore crucial to understand the combined effects of air-water flow in groundwater system. Here we investigate theoretically and experimentally the effects of air and water flow in groundwater system.

  11. Systemic air embolization from penetrating lung injury.

    PubMed

    Meier, G H; Wood, W J; Symbas, P N

    1979-02-01

    This study evaluates the role of increased intratracheal pressure in developing systemic air embolization. Twenty healthy mongrel dogs were monitored for air embolization, both by means of an extracorporeal arteriovenous shunt constructed from transparent plastic tubing for visualization of air emboli and by means of a Doppler flow probe implanted at the root of the aorta. Systemic arterial, left atrial, intratracheal, and intrapleural pressures were recorded. In 10 of the dogs, a penetrating wound of the lung 1 cm wide by 4 cm deep was produced; in 5 the chest was left open and in 5 the chest was closed. The remaining 10 dogs served as controls (with no wound of the lung); in 5 the chest was left open and in the other 5 the chest was closed. No air embolization occurred in any animals at intratracheal pressures less than 65 mm Hg. However, systemic air embolization occurred in every dog in all groups upon hyperinflation of the lung above 65 mm Hg. The control groups differed from the groups with penetrating wound only in the quantity of embolized air. This study suggests that hyperinflation of the lung to an intratracheal pressure above 65 mm Hg results in systemic air embolization and that the presence of a penetrating wound of the lung at such intratracheal pressure predisposes to a greater quantity of air embolization.

  12. AEROMETRIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (AIRS) - GRAPHICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) is a computer-based repository of information about airborne pollution in the United States and various World Health Organization (WHO) member countries. AIRS is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and runs on t...

  13. Solar-powered hot-air system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Solar-powered air heater supplies part or all of space heating requirements of residential or commercial buildings and is interfaced with air to water heat exchanger to heat domestic hot water. System has potential application in drying agricultural products such as cotton, lumber, corn, grains, and peanuts.

  14. Air Systems Provide Life Support to Miners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    Through a Space Act Agreement with Johnson Space Center, Paragon Space Development Corporation, of Tucson, Arizona, developed the Commercial Crew Transport-Air Revitalization System, designed to provide clean air for crewmembers on short-duration space flights. The technology is now being used to help save miners' lives in the event of an underground disaster.

  15. Image interpretation for a multilevel land use classification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The potential use is discussed of three remote sensors for developing a four level land use classification system. Three types of imagery for photointerpretation are presented: ERTS-1 satellite imagery, high altitude photography, and medium altitude photography. Suggestions are given as to which remote sensors and imagery scales may be most effectively employed to provide data on specific types of land use.

  16. Nursing Classification System: Foundation for Personnel Planning and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Rosemary L.; Mable, Richard J.

    1983-01-01

    This article demonstrates the usefulness of the Nursing Classification System (NCS) as an operational planning and control tool. Here the authors introduce and illustrate the concept of workload indexing, a means by which the NCS assists in defining staffing needs and monitoring workload and performance. (SSH)

  17. Revising the Standard Occupational Classification System. Report 929.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    In 1994, a committee was formed to revise the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system to meet the needs of the 21st century. The committee, which was chartered by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Bureau of the Census, included representatives from eight public agencies using occupational information. The SOC revision process…

  18. The Nature of the Physical Microenvironment: An Expanded Classification System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachs, Theodore D.

    1989-01-01

    Develops a classification system for the physical environment based on 3 dimensions of stimulation. Intercorrelations of physical and social environmental measures obtained for 88 infants of 12 months supported the validity of the decision rule that nonresponsive animate stimulation is primarily physical rather than social. (RJC)

  19. 42 CFR 412.513 - Patient classification system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patient classification system. 412.513 Section 412.513 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES..., sex, principal diagnosis (that is, the diagnosis established after study to be chiefly responsible...

  20. Exercise-Associated Collapse in Endurance Events: A Classification System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, William O.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a classification system devised for exercise-associated collapse in endurance events based on casualties observed at six Twin Cities Marathons. Major diagnostic criteria are body temperature and mental status. Management protocol includes fluid and fuel replacement, temperature correction, and leg cramp treatment. (Author/SM)

  1. Educational Web Sites: A Classification System for Educators and Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martindale, Trey; Cates, Ward Mitchell; Qian, Yufeng

    2003-01-01

    Describes the creation of a classification system with a common vocabulary for discussing educational Web sites, both formal and informal education, and looking for trends in exemplary sites. Categories include instructional; learning activities; content collection; links; reference; teacher resources; vicarious participation; interpersonal…

  2. 42 CFR 412.620 - Patient classification system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patient classification system. 412.620 Section 412.620 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... patient's impairment, age, comorbidities, functional capabilities, and other factors that may improve...

  3. 42 CFR 412.620 - Patient classification system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patient classification system. 412.620 Section 412.620 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... patient's impairment, age, comorbidities, functional capabilities, and other factors that may improve...

  4. 42 CFR 412.620 - Patient classification system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patient classification system. 412.620 Section 412.620 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... patient's impairment, age, comorbidities, functional capabilities, and other factors that may improve...

  5. 42 CFR 412.620 - Patient classification system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patient classification system. 412.620 Section 412.620 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... patient's impairment, age, comorbidities, functional capabilities, and other factors that may improve...

  6. 42 CFR 412.620 - Patient classification system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patient classification system. 412.620 Section 412.620 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... patient's impairment, age, comorbidities, functional capabilities, and other factors that may improve...

  7. Classification system for conventional crown and fixed partial denture failures.

    PubMed

    Manappallil, John Joy

    2008-04-01

    The dental literature is replete with reports on the many aspects of failure encountered with traditional fixed prosthodontic treatment, including longitudinal survival studies of crowns and fixed partial dentures and reasons for failures. However, criteria for grading or classifying the type and severity of these failures are inadequate. A classification system for conventional fixed prosthodontic failures based on severity is presented.

  8. Toward an objective classification of cells in the immune system.

    PubMed Central

    Lefkovits, I; Kuhn, L; Valiron, O; Merle, A; Kettman, J

    1988-01-01

    The relative abundance of individual proteins shared among clones of lymphocytes provides a meaningful basis for cellular classification. Twelve clones of T cells (obtained by limiting dilution) were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for polypeptide content and then evaluated by the computational technique known as principal component analysis. As a result, relatedness of the clones was established and expressed in terms of taxonomic distances. The data show that a comprehensive and objective classification of the cells involved in the immune system can be approached. Images PMID:3259320

  9. The effects of air leaks on solar air heating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkin, R.; Cash, M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation to determine the effects of leakages in collector and duct work on the system performance of a typical single-family residence solar air heating system. Positive (leakage out) and negative (leakage in) pressure systems were examined. Collector and duct leakage rates were varied from 10 to 30 percent of the system flow rate. Within the range of leakage rates investigated, solar contribution to heated space and domestic hot water loads was found to be reduced up to 30 percent from the no-leak system contribution with duct leakage equally divided between supply and return duct; with supply duct leakage greater than return leakage a reduction of up to 35 percent was noted. The negative pressure system exhibited a reduction in solar contribution somewhat larger than the positive pressure system for the same leakage rates.

  10. On a production system using default reasoning for pattern classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Lowe, Carlyle M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses an unconventional application of a production system to a problem involving belief specialization. The production system reduces a large quantity of low-level descriptions into just a few higher-level descriptions that encompass the problem space in a more tractable fashion. This classification process utilizes a set of descriptions generated by combining the component hierarchy of a physical system with the semantics of the terminology employed in its operation. The paper describes an application of this process in a program, constructed in C and CLIPS, that classifies signatures of electromechanical system configurations. The program compares two independent classifications, describing the actual and expected system configurations, in order to generate a set of contradictions between the two.

  11. 5 CFR 9701.231 - Conversion of positions and employees to the DHS classification system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the DHS classification system. 9701.231 Section 9701.231 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification...

  12. 5 CFR 9701.231 - Conversion of positions and employees to the DHS classification system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the DHS classification system. 9701.231 Section 9701.231 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification...

  13. A classification system for hospital-based infection outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Ganney, Paul S; Madeo, Maurice; Phillips, Roger

    2010-12-01

    Outbreaks of infection within semi-closed environments such as hospitals, whether inherent in the environment (such as Clostridium difficile (C.Diff) or Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or imported from the wider community (such as Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs)), are difficult to manage. As part of our work on modelling such outbreaks, we have developed a classification system to describe the impact of a particular outbreak upon an organization. This classification system may then be used in comparing appropriate computer models to real outbreaks, as well as in comparing different real outbreaks in, for example, the comparison of differing management and containment techniques and strategies. Data from NLV outbreaks in the Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust (the Trust) over several previous years are analysed and classified, both for infection within staff (where the end of infection date may not be known) and within patients (where it generally is known). A classification system consisting of seven elements is described, along with a goodness-of-fit method for comparing a new classification to previously known ones, for use in evaluating a simulation against history and thereby determining how 'realistic' (or otherwise) it is.

  14. Color image classification systems for poultry viscera inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Kevin; Chen, Yud-Ren; Early, Howard; Park, Bosoon

    1999-01-01

    A neuro-fuzzy based image classification system that utilizes color-imaging features of poultry viscera in the spectral and spatial domains was developed in this study. Poultry viscera of liver and heart were separated into four classes: normal, airsacculitis, cadaver, and septicemia. Color images for the classified poultry viscera were collected in the poultry process plant. These images in RGB color space were segmented and statistical analysis was performed for feature selection. The neuro-fuzzy system utilizes hybrid paradigms of fuzzy interference system and neural networks to enhance the robustness of the classification processes. The results showed that the accuracy for separation of normal from abnormal livers were 87.5 to 92.5% when two classes of validation data were used. For two-class classification of chicken hearts, the accuracies were 92.5 to 97.5%. When neuro-fuzzy models were employed to separate chicken livers into three classes (normal, airsacculitis, and cadaver), the accuracy was 88.3% for the training data and 83.3% for the validation data. Combining features of chicken liver and heart, a generalized neuro-fuzzy model was designed to classify poultry viscera into four classes (normal, airsacculitis, cadaver, and septicemia). The classification accuracy of 86.3% was achieved for the training data and 82.5% accuracy for the validation.

  15. PIRSF family classification system for protein functional and evolutionary analysis.

    PubMed

    Nikolskaya, Anastasia N; Arighi, Cecilia N; Huang, Hongzhan; Barker, Winona C; Wu, Cathy H

    2006-01-01

    The PIRSF protein classification system (http://pir.georgetown.edu/pirsf/) reflects evolutionary relationships of full-length proteins and domains. The primary PIRSF classification unit is the homeomorphic family, whose members are both homologous (evolved from a common ancestor) and homeomorphic (sharing full-length sequence similarity and a common domain architecture). PIRSF families are curated systematically based on literature review and integrative sequence and functional analysis, including sequence and structure similarity, domain architecture, functional association, genome context, and phyletic pattern. The results of classification and expert annotation are summarized in PIRSF family reports with graphical viewers for taxonomic distribution, domain architecture, family hierarchy, and multiple alignment and phylogenetic tree. The PIRSF system provides a comprehensive resource for bioinformatics analysis and comparative studies of protein function and evolution. Domain or fold-based searches allow identification of evolutionarily related protein families sharing domains or structural folds. Functional convergence and functional divergence are revealed by the relationships between protein classification and curated family functions. The taxonomic distribution allows the identification of lineage-specific or broadly conserved protein families and can reveal horizontal gene transfer. Here we demonstrate, with illustrative examples, how to use the web-based PIRSF system as a tool for functional and evolutionary studies of protein families.

  16. Wavelet based de-noising of breath air absorption spectra profiles for improved classification by principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistenev, Yu. V.; Shapovalov, A. V.; Borisov, A. V.; Vrazhnov, D. A.; Nikolaev, V. V.; Nikiforova, O. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    The comparison results of different mother wavelets used for de-noising of model and experimental data which were presented by profiles of absorption spectra of exhaled air are presented. The impact of wavelets de-noising on classification quality made by principal component analysis are also discussed.

  17. Creating a Canonical Scientific and Technical Information Classification System for NCSTRL+

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiffany, Melissa E.; Nelson, Michael L.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the new subject classification system for the NCSTRL+ project. NCSTRL+ is a canonical digital library (DL) based on the Networked Computer Science Technical Report Library (NCSTRL). The current NCSTRL+ classification system uses the NASA Scientific and Technical (STI) subject classifications, which has a bias towards the aerospace, aeronautics, and engineering disciplines. Examination of other scientific and technical information classification systems showed similar discipline-centric weaknesses. Traditional, library-oriented classification systems represented all disciplines, but were too generalized to serve the needs of a scientific and technically oriented digital library. Lack of a suitable existing classification system led to the creation of a lightweight, balanced, general classification system that allows the mapping of more specialized classification schemes into the new framework. We have developed the following classification system to give equal weight to all STI disciplines, while being compact and lightweight.

  18. ISE-based sensor array system for classification of foodstuffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciosek, Patrycja; Sobanski, Tomasz; Augustyniak, Ewa; Wróblewski, Wojciech

    2006-01-01

    A system composed of an array of polymeric membrane ion-selective electrodes and a pattern recognition block—a so-called 'electronic tongue'—was used for the classification of liquid samples: milk, fruit juice and tonic. The task of this system was to automatically recognize a brand of the product. To analyze the measurement set-up responses various non-parametric classifiers such as k-nearest neighbours, a feedforward neural network and a probabilistic neural network were used. In order to enhance the classification ability of the system, standard model solutions of salts were measured (in order to take into account any variation in time of the working parameters of the sensors). This system was capable of recognizing the brand of the products with accuracy ranging from 68% to 100% (in the case of the best classifier).

  19. D0 Cryo Instrument Air Backup System

    SciTech Connect

    Urbin, J.; /Fermilab

    1990-11-20

    The D0 instrument air system for cryo controls has an emergency backup supply of nitrogen gas. The backup system consists of a high pressure tube trailer (38 tubes - 2400 psig MAWP), piping, valves, regulators and pressure monitoring instrumentation. The trailer is located south of DAB alongside the LN{sub 2} Dewar. Fixed piping ties to the trailer with a flex-hose. The piping follows the cryo piping bridge entering the south wall of DAB. where it passes through the pipe chase and into the cryo pump room (Rm 315). The high pressure gas is regulated down to 90 psig before tying into the compressor supplied instrument air system. Check valves are installed at the tee for the primary air and the backup N{sub 2}. Normal operating pressure for instrument air is 100-120 psig. With the backup supply pressure set to 90 psig, 'emergency air' is supplied whenever primary air pressure falls below 90 psig. There are two additional, outside connections to the system: one is a connection for repumping the trailer after a minimum backup volume is reached and the other is an auxiliary flex-hose connection for another trailer. All manual valves at system connections will be locked closed when not in use. The system's maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) is 2400 psi, which is the trailer MAWP. All piping and components have a minimum 2400 psi working pressure. Actual component working pressures are included in the component list.

  20. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR GENERAL SITE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) general site transportation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  1. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SURFACE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface environmental monitoring system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333PY ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  2. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE CLOSURE AND SEAL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface closure and seal system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOERW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  3. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR CARRIER PREPARATION BUILDING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) carrier preparation building system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  4. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR MAINTENANCE AND SUPPLY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) maintenance and supply system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  5. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE RADIOLOGICAL MONITORING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site radiological monitoring system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  6. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR WASTE HANDLING BUILDING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-30

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) waste handling building system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333PY ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  7. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface water distribution system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  8. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR OFF-SITE UTILITIES SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) offsite utilities system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  9. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) waste treatment building system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  10. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR OPERATIONS MONITORING AND CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Operations Monitoring and Control System structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P7 ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  11. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR WASTE HANDLING BUILDING FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-30

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) waste handling building fire protection system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333PY ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  12. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING VENTILATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) waste treatment building ventilation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  13. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) pool water treatment and cooling system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  14. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR CARRIER/CASK TRANSPORT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-30

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) carrier/cask transport system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  15. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR WASTE HANDLING BUILDING ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) waste handling building electrical system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  16. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) safeguards and security system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  17. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface electrical distribution system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333PY ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  18. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE EMPLACEMENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface emplacement transportation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333PY ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  19. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE WATER COLLECTION/REMOVAL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface water collection/removal system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  20. Annotation and Classification of CRISPR-Cas Systems.

    PubMed

    Makarova, Kira S; Koonin, Eugene V

    2015-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas (CRISPR-associated proteins) is a prokaryotic adaptive immune system that is represented in most archaea and many bacteria. Among the currently known prokaryotic defense systems, the CRISPR-Cas genomic loci show unprecedented complexity and diversity. Classification of CRISPR-Cas variants that would capture their evolutionary relationships to the maximum possible extent is essential for comparative genomic and functional characterization of this theoretically and practically important system of adaptive immunity. To this end, a multipronged approach has been developed that combines phylogenetic analysis of the conserved Cas proteins with comparison of gene repertoires and arrangements in CRISPR-Cas loci. This approach led to the current classification of CRISPR-Cas systems into three distinct types and ten subtypes for each of which signature genes have been identified. Comparative genomic analysis of the CRISPR-Cas systems in new archaeal and bacterial genomes performed over the 3 years elapsed since the development of this classification makes it clear that new types and subtypes of CRISPR-Cas need to be introduced. Moreover, this classification system captures only part of the complexity of CRISPR-Cas organization and evolution, due to the intrinsic modularity and evolutionary mobility of these immunity systems, resulting in numerous recombinant variants. Moreover, most of the cas genes evolve rapidly, complicating the family assignment for many Cas proteins and the use of family profiles for the recognition of CRISPR-Cas subtype signatures. Further progress in the comparative analysis of CRISPR-Cas systems requires integration of the most sensitive sequence comparison tools, protein structure comparison, and refined approaches for comparison of gene neighborhoods.

  1. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR DISPOSAL CONTAINER HANDLING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) disposal container handling system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-O333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  2. A new classification system for lesbians: the Dyke Diagnostic Manual.

    PubMed

    Eliason, Michele J

    2010-01-01

    There has been a long-standing need for a diagnostic manual that documents the unique pathological behaviors of lesbians. The Dyke Diagnostic Manual (DDM) is meant to supplement mainstream classification systems used to identify problematic behaviors in heterosexuals. This article presents thirteen uniquely lesbian conditions that are nowhere to be found in heterosexist diagnostic systems. The DDM may help to reduce the pain and suffering found in many lesbian relationships where one or both partners are afflicted. PMID:20661801

  3. Proposed classification of auriculotemporal nerve, based on the root system.

    PubMed

    Komarnitki, Iulian; Tomczyk, Jacek; Ciszek, Bogdan; Zalewska, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The topography of the auriculotemporal nerve (ATN) root system is the main criterion of this nerve classification. Previous publications indicate that ATN may have between one and five roots. Most common is a one- or two-root variant of the nerve structure. The problem of many publications is the inconsistency of nomenclature which concerns the terms "roots", "connecting branches", or "branches" that are used to identify the same structures. This study was performed on 80 specimens (40 adults and 40 fetuses) to propose a classification based on: (i) the number of roots, (ii) way of root division, and (iii) configuration of interradicular fibers that form the ATN trunk. This new classification is a remedy for inconsistency of nomenclature of ATN in the infratemporal fossa. This classification system has proven beneficial when organizing all ATN variants described in previous studies and could become a helpful tool for surgeons and dentists. Examination of ATN from the infratemporal fossa of fetuses (the youngest was at 18 weeks gestational age) showed that, at that stage, the nerve is fully developed.

  4. Proposed Classification of Auriculotemporal Nerve, Based on the Root System

    PubMed Central

    Komarnitki, Iulian; Tomczyk, Jacek; Ciszek, Bogdan; Zalewska, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The topography of the auriculotemporal nerve (ATN) root system is the main criterion of this nerve classification. Previous publications indicate that ATN may have between one and five roots. Most common is a one- or two-root variant of the nerve structure. The problem of many publications is the inconsistency of nomenclature which concerns the terms “roots”, “connecting branches”, or “branches” that are used to identify the same structures. This study was performed on 80 specimens (40 adults and 40 fetuses) to propose a classification based on: (i) the number of roots, (ii) way of root division, and (iii) configuration of interradicular fibers that form the ATN trunk. This new classification is a remedy for inconsistency of nomenclature of ATN in the infratemporal fossa. This classification system has proven beneficial when organizing all ATN variants described in previous studies and could become a helpful tool for surgeons and dentists. Examination of ATN from the infratemporal fossa of fetuses (the youngest was at 18 weeks gestational age) showed that, at that stage, the nerve is fully developed. PMID:25856464

  5. Air quality and future energy system planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobral Mourao, Zenaida; Konadu, Dennis; Lupton, Rick

    2016-04-01

    Ambient air pollution has been linked to an increasing number of premature deaths throughout the world. Projected increases in demand for food, energy resources and manufactured products will likely contribute to exacerbate air pollution with an increasing impact on human health, agricultural productivity and climate change. Current events such as tampering emissions tests by VW car manufacturers, failure to comply with EU Air Quality directives and WHO guidelines by many EU countries, the problem of smog in Chinese cities and new industrial emissions regulations represent unique challenges but also opportunities for regulators, local authorities and industry. However current models and practices of energy and resource use do not consider ambient air impacts as an integral part of the planing process. Furthermore the analysis of drivers, sources and impacts of air pollution is often fragmented, difficult to understand and lacks effective visualization tools that bring all of these components together. This work aims to develop a model that links impacts of air quality on human health and ecosystems to current and future developments in the energy system, industrial and agricultural activity and patterns of land use. The model will be added to the ForeseerTM tool, which is an integrated resource analysis platform that has been developed at the University of Cambridge initially with funding from BP and more recently through the EPSRC funded Whole Systems Energy Modeling (WholeSEM) project. The basis of the tool is a set of linked physical models for energy, water and land, including the technologies that are used to transform these resources into final services such as housing, food, transport and household goods. The new air quality model will explore different feedback effects between energy, land and atmospheric systems with the overarching goal of supporting better communication about the drivers of air quality and to incorporate concerns about air quality into

  6. Systemic Analysis Approaches for Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Air transportation system designers have had only limited success using traditional operations research and parametric modeling approaches in their analyses of innovations. They need a systemic methodology for modeling of safety-critical infrastructure that is comprehensive, objective, and sufficiently concrete, yet simple enough to be used with reasonable investment. The methodology must also be amenable to quantitative analysis so issues of system safety and stability can be rigorously addressed. However, air transportation has proven itself an extensive, complex system whose behavior is difficult to describe, no less predict. There is a wide range of system analysis techniques available, but some are more appropriate for certain applications than others. Specifically in the area of complex system analysis, the literature suggests that both agent-based models and network analysis techniques may be useful. This paper discusses the theoretical basis for each approach in these applications, and explores their historic and potential further use for air transportation analysis.

  7. Multispectral data acquisition and classification - Statistical models for system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, F. O.; Park, S. K.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper we relate the statistical processes that are involved in multispectral data acquisition and classification to a simple radiometric model of the earth surface and atmosphere. If generalized, these formulations could provide an analytical link between the steadily improving models of our environment and the performance characteristics of rapidly advancing device technology. This link is needed to bring system analysis tools to the task of optimizing remote sensing and (real-time) signal processing systems as a function of target and atmospheric properties, remote sensor spectral bands and system topology (e.g., image-plane processing), radiometric sensitivity and calibration accuracy, compensation for imaging conditions (e.g., atmospheric effects), and classification rates and errors.

  8. General classification handbook for floodplain vegetation in large river systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieck, Jennifer J.; Ruhser, Janis; Hoy, Erin E.; Robinson, Larry R.

    2015-01-01

    This handbook describes the General Wetland Vegetation Classification System developed as part of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ Upper Mississippi River Restoration (UMRR) Program, Long Term Resource Monitoring (LTRM) element. The UMRR is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the states of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, and Wisconsin. The classification system consists of 31 general map classes and has been used to create systemic vegetation data layers throughout the diverse Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS), which includes the commercially navigable reaches of the Mississippi River from Minneapolis, Minnesota, in the north to Cairo, Illinois, in the south, the Illinois River, and navigable portions of the Kaskaskia, Black, St. Croix, and Minnesota Rivers. In addition, this handbook describes the evolution of the General Wetland Vegetation Classification System, discusses the process of creating a vegetation data layer, and describes each of the 31 map classes in detail. The handbook also acts as a pictorial guide to each of the map classes as they may appear in the field, as well as on color-infrared imagery. This version is an update to the original handbook published in 2004.

  9. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake... STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.57 Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem. The following requirements apply to vehicles with air brake and...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1730 - Compressed air; general; compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air; general; compressed air systems... Compressed air; general; compressed air systems. (a) All pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed... Safety and Health district office. (b) Compressors and compressed-air receivers shall be equipped...

  15. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... reading. (2) The air brake system compressor shall increase the air pressure in the reservoir(s) from the... time allowed for air pressure buildup shall not exceed 45 seconds. (3) The warning device (visual or audible) connected to the brake system air pressure source shall be activated when air pressure is...

  16. 78 FR 18252 - Prevailing Rate Systems; North American Industry Classification System Based Federal Wage System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... survey industry regulations with the 2007 NAICS revisions published by the Office of Management and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0;Proposed Rules #0... Industry Classification System Based Federal Wage System Wage Surveys AGENCY: U. S. Office of...

  17. Nasal Septal Deviations: A Systematic Review of Classification Systems

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Jeffrey; Certal, Victor; Chang, Edward T.; Camacho, Macario

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To systematically review the international literature for internal nasal septal deviation classification systems and summarize them for clinical and research purposes. Data Sources. Four databases (including PubMed/MEDLINE) were systematically searched through December 16, 2015. Methods. Systematic review, adhering to PRISMA. Results. After removal of duplicates, this study screened 952 articles for relevance. A final comprehensive review of 50 articles identified that 15 of these articles met the eligibility criteria. The classification systems defined in these articles included C-shaped, S-shaped, reverse C-shaped, and reverse S-shaped descriptions of the septal deviation in both the cephalocaudal and anteroposterior dimensions. Additional studies reported use of computed tomography and categorized deviation based on predefined locations. Three studies graded the severity of septal deviations based on the amount of deflection. The systems defined in the literature also included an evaluation of nasal septal spurs and perforations. Conclusion. This systematic review ascertained that the majority of the currently published classification systems for internal nasal septal deviations can be summarized by C-shaped or reverse C-shaped, as well as S-shaped or reverse S-shaped deviations in the anteroposterior and cephalocaudal dimensions. For imaging studies, predefined points have been defined along the septum. Common terminology can facilitate future research. PMID:26933510

  18. Molecular optical air data system (MOADS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchoryk, Peter, Jr.; Watkins, Christopher B.; Lindemann, Scott K.; Hays, Paul B.; Nardell, Carl A.

    2001-09-01

    The Molecular Optical Air Data System (MOADS) is a compact optical instrument that can directly measure wind speed and direction, density, and temperature of the air surrounding an aircraft. From these measurements, a complete set of air data products can be determined. Single-axis wind tunnel testing of wind speed and density has just been completed for the current prototype. These wind tunnel measurements have shown that the current prototype meets wind speed accuracy predictions and initial results from density testing indicate a high level of correlation with absolute pressure transducer measurements. A preliminary design for the next generation instrument, the Joint Optical Air Data System (JOADS), has been completed and is intended to meet Joint Striker Fighter (JSF) requirements. Work is also underway to evaluate the application of MOADS to Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs), Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs), helicopters and weapon systems. Extensions of MOADS technology to wind shear, gust alleviation, and clear air turbulence detection for commercial aircraft are also being pursued. The basic instrument operation, preliminary ground testing (wind tunnel) results, comparison of these results to simulations, next generation instrument capabilities, and plans for a flight demonstration are discussed.

  19. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE DEVELOPMENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface development transportation structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P7 ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  20. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR PERFORMANCE CONFIRMATION EMPLACEMENT DRIFT MONITORING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) performance confirmation emplacement drift monitoring structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOERW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  1. Classification of Transient Phenomena in Distribution System using wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedighi, Alireza

    2014-05-01

    An efficient procedure for classification of transient phenomena in distribution systems is proposed in this paper. The proposed method has been applied to classify some transient phenomena such as inrush current, load switching, capacitor switching and single phase to ground fault. The new scheme is based on wavelet transform algorithm. All of the events for feature extraction and test are simulated using Electro Magnetic Transient Program (EMTP). Results show high accuracy of proposed method.

  2. Identification of aerosol types over an urban site based on air-mass trajectory classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, G. V.; Devara, P. C. S.; Aher, G. R.

    2015-10-01

    Columnar aerosol properties retrieved from MICROTOPS II Sun Photometer measurements during 2010-2013 over Pune (18°32‧N; 73°49‧E, 559 m amsl), a tropical urban station in India, are analyzed to identify aerosol types in the atmospheric column. Identification/classification is carried out on the basis of dominant airflow patterns, and the method of discrimination of aerosol types on the basis of relation between aerosol optical depth (AOD500 nm) and Ångström exponent (AE, α). Five potential advection pathways viz., NW/N, SW/S, N, SE/E and L have been identified over the observing site by employing the NOAA-HYSPLIT air mass back trajectory analysis. Based on AE against AOD500 nm scatter plot and advection pathways followed five major aerosol types viz., continental average (CA), marine continental average (MCA), urban/industrial and biomass burning (UB), desert dust (DD) and indeterminate or mixed type (MT) have been identified. In winter, sector SE/E, a representative of air masses traversed over Bay of Bengal and Eastern continental Indian region has relatively small AOD (τpλ = 0.43 ± 0.13) and high AE (α = 1.19 ± 0.15). These values imply the presence of accumulation/sub-micron size anthropogenic aerosols. During pre-monsoon, aerosols from the NW/N sector have high AOD (τpλ = 0.61 ± 0.21), and low AE (α = 0.54 ± 0.14) indicating an increase in the loading of coarse-mode particles over Pune. Dominance of UB type in winter season for all the years (i.e. 2010-2013) may be attributed to both local/transported aerosols. During pre-monsoon seasons, MT is the dominant aerosol type followed by UB and DD, while the background aerosols are insignificant.

  3. Advanced Overfire Air system and design

    SciTech Connect

    Gene berkau

    2004-07-30

    The objective of the proposed project is to design, install and optimize a prototype advanced tangential OFA air system on two mass feed stoker boilers that can burn coal, biomass and a mixture of these fuels. The results will be used to develop a generalized methodology for retrofit designs and optimization of advanced OFA air systems. The advanced OFA system will reduce particulate and NOx emissions and improve overall efficiency by reducing carbon in the ash and excess oxygen. The advanced OFA will also provide capabilities for carrying full load and improved load following and transitional operations.

  4. A Biochar Classification System and Associated Test Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Camps-Arbestain, Marta; Amonette, James E.; Singh, Balwant; Wang, Tao; Schmidt, Hans-Peter

    2015-02-18

    In this chapter, a biochar classification system related to its use as soil amendment is proposed. This document builds upon previous work and constrains its scope to materials with properties that satisfy the criteria for biochar as defined by either the International Biochar Initiative (IBI) Biochar Standards or the European Biochar Community (EBC) Standards, and it is intended to minimise the need for testing in addition to those required according to the above-mentioned standards. The classification system envisions enabling stakeholders and commercial entities to (i) identify the most suitable biochar to fulfil the requirements for a particular soil and/or land-use, and (ii) distinguish the application of biochar for specific niches (e.g., soilless agriculture). It is based on the best current knowledge and the intention is to periodically review and update the document based on new data and knowledge that become available in the scientific literature. The main thrust of this classification system is based on the direct or indirect beneficial effects that biochar provides from its application to soil. We have classified the potential beneficial effects of biochar application to soils into five categories with their corresponding classes, where applicable: (i) carbon (C) storage value, (ii) fertiliser value, (iii) liming value, (iv) particle-size, and (v) use in soil-less agriculture. A summary of recommended test methods is provided at the end of the chapter.

  5. Patient Classification Systems in Nursing: A Description and Analysis. Nurse Planning Information Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giovannetti, Phyllis

    Patient classification systems in nursing, primarily limited to their application in hospitals, are the topic of this monograph. Following a brief introduction discussing their role and theoretical framework, the various uses of patient classification systems are discussed. Examples of patient classification systems in various settings are…

  6. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR CARRIER PREPARATION BUILDING MATERIALS HANDLING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    2001-02-08

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) carrier preparation building materials handling system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Preclosure Safety and Systems Engineering Section. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 2000). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P7 ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 2000).

  7. Classification of Unmanned Aircraft Systems. UAS Classification/Categorization for Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Category, class, and type designations are primary means to identify appropriate aircraft certification basis, operating rules/limitations, and pilot qualifications to operate in the National Airspace System (NAS). The question is whether UAS fit into existing aircraft categories or classes, or are unique enough to justify the creation of a new category/class. In addition, the characteristics or capabilities, which define when an UAS becomes a regulated aircraft, must also be decided. This issue focuses on UAS classification for certification purposes. Several approaches have been considered for classifying UAS. They basically group into either using a weight/mass basis, or a safety risk basis, factoring in the performance of the UAS, including where the UAS would operate. Under existing standards, aircraft must have a Type Certificate and Certificate of Airworthiness, in order to be used for "compensation or hire", a major difference from model aircraft. Newer technologies may make it possible for very small UAS to conduct commercial services, but that is left for a future discussion to extend the regulated aircraft to a lower level. The Access 5 position is that UAS are aircraft and should be regulated above the weight threshold differentiating them from model airplanes. The recommended classification grouping is summarized in a chart.

  8. The Integrated Air Transportation System Evaluation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, Earl R., III; Hees, Jing; Villani, James A.; Yackovetsky, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Throughout U.S. history, our nation has generally enjoyed exceptional economic growth, driven in part by transportation advancements. Looking forward 25 years, when the national highway and skyway systems are saturated, the nation faces new challenges in creating transportation-driven economic growth and wealth. To meet the national requirement for an improved air traffic management system, NASA developed the goal of tripling throughput over the next 20 years, in all weather conditions while maintaining safety. Analysis of the throughput goal has primarily focused on major airline operations, primarily through the hub and spoke system.However, many suggested concepts to increase throughput may operate outside the hub and spoke system. Examples of such concepts include the Small Aircraft Transportation System, civil tiltrotor, and improved rotorcraft. Proper assessment of the potential contribution of these technologies to the domestic air transportation system requires a modeling capability that includes the country's numerous smaller airports, acting as a fundamental component of the National Air space System, and the demand for such concepts and technologies. Under this task for NASA, the Logistics Management Institute developed higher fidelity demand models that capture the interdependence of short-haul air travel with other transportation modes and explicitly consider the costs of commercial air and other transport modes. To accomplish this work, we generated forecasts of the distribution of general aviation based aircraft and GA itinerant operations at each of nearly 3.000 airport based on changes in economic conditions and demographic trends. We also built modules that estimate the demand for travel by different modes, particularly auto, commercial air, and GA. We examined GA demand from two perspectives: top-down and bottom-up, described in detail.

  9. On the Origins of the Quinarian System of Classification.

    PubMed

    Novick, Aaron

    2016-02-01

    William Sharp Macleay developed the quinarian system of classification in his Horæ Entomologicæ, published in two parts in 1819 and 1821. For two decades, the quinarian system was widely discussed in Britain and influenced such naturalists as Charles Darwin, Richard Owen, and Thomas Huxley. This paper offers the first detailed account of Macleay's development of the quinarian system. Macleay developed his system under the shaping influence of two pressures: (1) the insistence by followers of Linnaeus on developing artificial systems at the expense of the natural system and (2) the apparent tension between the continuity of organic nature and the failure of linear classification schemes (which continuity seemed to require). Against what he perceived as dogmatic indolence on the part of the Linnaeans, Macleay developed a philosophy of science in which hypotheses that exceeded the available evidence should be proposed and subjected to severe tests. He also developed a novel comparative anatomical methodology, the method of variation, to aid in his search for the natural system. Using this method, he developed an intricate system that showed how organic nature could be continuous without being linear. A failure to appreciate these facets of Macleay's thought has led to several misunderstandings of him and his work, most notably that he was an idealist. These misunderstandings are here rebutted. PMID:26238092

  10. On the Origins of the Quinarian System of Classification.

    PubMed

    Novick, Aaron

    2016-02-01

    William Sharp Macleay developed the quinarian system of classification in his Horæ Entomologicæ, published in two parts in 1819 and 1821. For two decades, the quinarian system was widely discussed in Britain and influenced such naturalists as Charles Darwin, Richard Owen, and Thomas Huxley. This paper offers the first detailed account of Macleay's development of the quinarian system. Macleay developed his system under the shaping influence of two pressures: (1) the insistence by followers of Linnaeus on developing artificial systems at the expense of the natural system and (2) the apparent tension between the continuity of organic nature and the failure of linear classification schemes (which continuity seemed to require). Against what he perceived as dogmatic indolence on the part of the Linnaeans, Macleay developed a philosophy of science in which hypotheses that exceeded the available evidence should be proposed and subjected to severe tests. He also developed a novel comparative anatomical methodology, the method of variation, to aid in his search for the natural system. Using this method, he developed an intricate system that showed how organic nature could be continuous without being linear. A failure to appreciate these facets of Macleay's thought has led to several misunderstandings of him and his work, most notably that he was an idealist. These misunderstandings are here rebutted.

  11. Engine powered auxiliary air supply system

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Lean, J.R.

    1987-01-27

    This patent describes an auxiliary air supply system comprising: an engine; at least one exhaust driven turbocharger including a turbine and a compressor associated therewith for supply of compressed air to the engine; a low pressure compressor including means for powering the low pressure compressor utilizing the engine exhaust gas and flow connected to receive a portion of the compressed air exiting the engine turbocharger compressor; a high pressure compressor including means for powering the high pressure compressor utilizing the engine exhaust gas and flow connected to receive the compressed air exiting the low pressure compressor; and means for directing engine exhaust gases between at least one engine turbocharger and the means for powering the low and high pressure compressors.

  12. The Comprehensive AOCMF Classification System: Midface Fractures - Level 3 Tutorial

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Carl-Peter; Audigé, Laurent; Kunz, Christoph; Buitrago-Téllez, Carlos H.; Rudderman, Randal; Prein, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    This tutorial outlines the details of the AOCMF image-based classification system for fractures of the midface at the precision level 3. The topography of the different midface regions (central midface—upper central midface, intermediate central midface, lower central midface—incorporating the naso-orbito-ethmoid region; lateral midface—zygoma and zygomatic arch, palate) is subdivided in much greater detail than in level 2 going beyond the Le Fort fracture types and its analogs. The level 3 midface classification system is presented along with guidelines to precisely delineate the fracture patterns in these specific subregions. It is easy to plot common fracture entities, such as nasal and naso-orbito-ethmoid, and their variants due to the refined structural layout of the subregions. As a key attribute, this focused approach permits to document the occurrence of fragmentation (i.e., single vs. multiple fracture lines), displacement, and bone loss. Moreover, the preinjury dental state and the degree of alveolar atrophy in edentulous maxillary regions can be recorded. On the basis of these individual features, tooth injuries, periodontal trauma, and fracture involvement of the alveolar process can be assessed. Coding rules are given to set up a distinctive formula for typical midface fractures and their combinations. The instructions and illustrations are elucidated by a series of radiographic imaging examples. A critical appraisal of the design of this level 3 midface classification is made. PMID:25489392

  13. A classification system for conditions causing condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Wolford, Larry M; Movahed, Reza; Perez, Daniel E

    2014-03-01

    A classification system was developed to place patients with condylar hyperplasia (CH) into categories based on histology, clinical and imaging characteristics, effects on the jaws and facial structures, and rate of occurrence. Four major categories were defined. CH type 1 is an accelerated and prolonged growth aberration of the "normal" mandibular condylar growth mechanism, causing a predominantly horizontal growth vector, resulting in prognathism that can occur bilaterally (CH type 1A) or unilaterally (CH type 1B). CH type 2 refers to enlargement of the mandibular condyle caused by an osteochondroma, resulting in predominantly unilateral vertical overgrowth and elongation of the mandible and face. One of the forms has predominantly a vertical growth vector and condylar enlargement, but without exophytic tumor extensions (type 2A), whereas the other primary form grows vertically but develops horizontal exophytic tumor growth off of the condyle (CH type 2B). CH type 3 includes other rare, benign tumors and CH type 4 includes malignant conditions that originate in the mandibular condyle causing enlargement. The order of classification is based on occurrence rates and type of pathology, where CH type 1A is the most commonly occurring form and CH type 4 is the rarest. This classification system for CH pathology should help the clinician understand the nature of the pathology, progression if untreated, recommended ages for surgical intervention to minimize adverse effects on subsequent facial growth and development in younger patients, and the surgical protocols to comprehensively and predictably treat these conditions. PMID:24388179

  14. Extensions to the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS).

    PubMed

    Shriberg, Lawrence D; Fourakis, Marios; Hall, Sheryl D; Karlsson, Heather B; Lohmeier, Heather L; McSweeny, Jane L; Potter, Nancy L; Scheer-Cohen, Alison R; Strand, Edythe A; Tilkens, Christie M; Wilson, David L

    2010-10-01

    This report describes three extensions to a classification system for paediatric speech sound disorders termed the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS). Part I describes a classification extension to the SDCS to differentiate motor speech disorders from speech delay and to differentiate among three sub-types of motor speech disorders. Part II describes the Madison Speech Assessment Protocol (MSAP), an ∼ 2-hour battery of 25 measures that includes 15 speech tests and tasks. Part III describes the Competence, Precision, and Stability Analytics (CPSA) framework, a current set of ∼ 90 perceptual- and acoustic-based indices of speech, prosody, and voice used to quantify and classify sub-types of Speech Sound Disorders (SSD). A companion paper provides reliability estimates for the perceptual and acoustic data reduction methods used in the SDCS. The agreement estimates in the companion paper support the reliability of SDCS methods and illustrate the complementary roles of perceptual and acoustic methods in diagnostic analyses of SSD of unknown origin. Examples of research using the extensions to the SDCS described in the present report include diagnostic findings for a sample of youth with motor speech disorders associated with galactosemia, and a test of the hypothesis of apraxia of speech in a group of children with autism spectrum disorders. All SDCS methods and reference databases running in the PEPPER (Programs to Examine Phonetic and Phonologic Evaluation Records) environment will be disseminated without cost when complete.

  15. Toward a Cognitive-Behavioral Classification System for Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2014-01-01

    As is true for its predecessors, the recently published DSM-5 uses arbitrary criteria and cutoffs to define categories of mental disorders that are of questionable validity and that provide no guidance for treatment. Recently, the NIMH introduced an alternative classification system, the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). Both the DSM-5 and the RDoC initiative make the strong assumption that psychological problems are expressions of specific latent disease entities. In contrast, the complex causal network approach conceptualizes psychological problems as mutually interacting, often reciprocally reinforcing, elements of a complex causal network. The cognitive behavioral model offers a classification framework that is compatible with the complex causal network approach and offers a treatment-relevant alternative to the latent disease model that is the basis for the DSM-5 and the RDoC initiative. PMID:24912469

  16. A model for anomaly classification in intrusion detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, V. O.; Galhardi, V. V.; Gonçalves, L. B. L.; Silva, R. C.; Cansian, A. M.

    2015-09-01

    Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) are traditionally divided into two types according to the detection methods they employ, namely (i) misuse detection and (ii) anomaly detection. Anomaly detection has been widely used and its main advantage is the ability to detect new attacks. However, the analysis of anomalies generated can become expensive, since they often have no clear information about the malicious events they represent. In this context, this paper presents a model for automated classification of alerts generated by an anomaly based IDS. The main goal is either the classification of the detected anomalies in well-defined taxonomies of attacks or to identify whether it is a false positive misclassified by the IDS. Some common attacks to computer networks were considered and we achieved important results that can equip security analysts with best resources for their analyses.

  17. A Functional-Phylogenetic Classification System for Transmembrane Solute Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Saier, Milton H.

    2000-01-01

    A comprehensive classification system for transmembrane molecular transporters has been developed and recently approved by the transport panel of the nomenclature committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. This system is based on (i) transporter class and subclass (mode of transport and energy coupling mechanism), (ii) protein phylogenetic family and subfamily, and (iii) substrate specificity. Almost all of the more than 250 identified families of transporters include members that function exclusively in transport. Channels (115 families), secondary active transporters (uniporters, symporters, and antiporters) (78 families), primary active transporters (23 families), group translocators (6 families), and transport proteins of ill-defined function or of unknown mechanism (51 families) constitute distinct categories. Transport mode and energy coupling prove to be relatively immutable characteristics and therefore provide primary bases for classification. Phylogenetic grouping reflects structure, function, mechanism, and often substrate specificity and therefore provides a reliable secondary basis for classification. Substrate specificity and polarity of transport prove to be more readily altered during evolutionary history and therefore provide a tertiary basis for classification. With very few exceptions, a phylogenetic family of transporters includes members that function by a single transport mode and energy coupling mechanism, although a variety of substrates may be transported, sometimes with either inwardly or outwardly directed polarity. In this review, I provide cross-referencing of well-characterized constituent transporters according to (i) transport mode, (ii) energy coupling mechanism, (iii) phylogenetic grouping, and (iv) substrates transported. The structural features and distribution of recognized family members throughout the living world are also evaluated. The tabulations should facilitate familial and functional

  18. A functional-phylogenetic classification system for transmembrane solute transporters.

    PubMed

    Saier, M H

    2000-06-01

    A comprehensive classification system for transmembrane molecular transporters has been developed and recently approved by the transport panel of the nomenclature committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. This system is based on (i) transporter class and subclass (mode of transport and energy coupling mechanism), (ii) protein phylogenetic family and subfamily, and (iii) substrate specificity. Almost all of the more than 250 identified families of transporters include members that function exclusively in transport. Channels (115 families), secondary active transporters (uniporters, symporters, and antiporters) (78 families), primary active transporters (23 families), group translocators (6 families), and transport proteins of ill-defined function or of unknown mechanism (51 families) constitute distinct categories. Transport mode and energy coupling prove to be relatively immutable characteristics and therefore provide primary bases for classification. Phylogenetic grouping reflects structure, function, mechanism, and often substrate specificity and therefore provides a reliable secondary basis for classification. Substrate specificity and polarity of transport prove to be more readily altered during evolutionary history and therefore provide a tertiary basis for classification. With very few exceptions, a phylogenetic family of transporters includes members that function by a single transport mode and energy coupling mechanism, although a variety of substrates may be transported, sometimes with either inwardly or outwardly directed polarity. In this review, I provide cross-referencing of well-characterized constituent transporters according to (i) transport mode, (ii) energy coupling mechanism, (iii) phylogenetic grouping, and (iv) substrates transported. The structural features and distribution of recognized family members throughout the living world are also evaluated. The tabulations should facilitate familial and functional

  19. Interobserver Agreement in the Classification of Partial-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears Using the Snyder Classification System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Christopher S.; Davis, Shane M.; Doremus, Brittany; Kouk, Shalen; Stetson, William B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: At present, there is no widely accepted classification system for partial-thickness rotator cuff tears, and as a result, optimal treatment remains controversial. Purpose: To examine the interobserver reliability and accuracy of classifying partial rotator cuff tears using the Snyder classification system. We hypothesized that the Snyder classification would be reproducible with high reliability and accuracy. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Twenty-seven orthopaedic surgeons reviewed 10 video-recorded shoulder arthroscopies. Each surgeon was provided with a description of the Snyder classification system for partial-thickness rotator cuff tears and was then instructed to use this system to describe each tear. Interrater kappa statistics and percentage agreement between observers were calculated to measure the level of agreement. Surgeon experience as well as fellowship training was evaluated to determine possible correlations. Results: A kappa coefficient of 0.512 indicated moderate reliability between surgeons using the Snyder classification to describe partial-thickness rotator cuff tears. The mean correct score was 80%, which indicated “very good” agreement. There was no correlation between the number of shoulder arthroscopies performed per year and fellowship training and the number of correct scores. Conclusion: The Snyder classification system is reproducible and can be used in future research studies in analyzing the treatment options of partial rotator cuff tears. PMID:27738643

  20. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality As.surance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site fire protection system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P7 ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998b).

  1. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality As.surance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site fire protection system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P7 ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998b).

  2. Classification of healthcare systems: Can we go further?

    PubMed

    Toth, Federico

    2016-05-01

    This article addresses the issue of the classification of healthcare systems, with the intent to take a step further than the previously analysed models of healthcare organisation. As concerns the financing of healthcare services, the standard tripartite classification (according to which healthcare systems are divided into three groups: voluntary insurance, social health insurance and universal coverage) is enriched with two additional types: compulsory national health insurance and residual programs. With respect to the provision of services and the relationship between insurers and providers, it is important to distinguish between vertically integrated and separated systems. What differentiates this analysis from the majority of previous studies is its underlying logic. Assuming that all systems are hybrid, the article proposes to put aside the classic logic for classifying healthcare systems (according to which individual countries are pigeonholed into different classes depending on the prevailing system) in favour of the identikit logic. The concept of segmentation (of healthcare services or population) proves to be remarkably useful to this purpose. PMID:27041537

  3. Combined air and water pollution control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  4. An integrated spatial signature analysis and automatic defect classification system

    SciTech Connect

    Gleason, S.S.; Tobin, K.W.; Karnowski, T.P.

    1997-08-01

    An integrated Spatial Signature Analysis (SSA) and automatic defect classification (ADC) system for improved automatic semiconductor wafer manufacturing characterization is presented. Both concepts of SSA and ADC methodologies are reviewed and then the benefits of an integrated system are described, namely, focused ADC and signature-level sampling. Focused ADC involves the use of SSA information on a defect signature to reduce the number of possible classes that an ADC system must consider, thus improving the ADC system performance. Signature-level sampling improved the ADC system throughput and accuracy by intelligently sampling defects within a given spatial signature for subsequent off-line, high-resolution ADC. A complete example of wafermap characterization via an integrated SSA/ADC system is presented where a wafer with 3274 defects is completely characterized by revisiting only 25 defects on an off-line ADC review station. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Secondary air injection system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ko-Jen; Walter, Darrell J.

    2014-08-19

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a secondary air injection system includes a first conduit in fluid communication with at least one first exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine and a second conduit in fluid communication with at least one second exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine, wherein the at least one first and second exhaust passages are in fluid communication with a turbocharger. The system also includes an air supply in fluid communication with the first and second conduits and a flow control device that controls fluid communication between the air supply and the first conduit and the second conduit and thereby controls fluid communication to the first and second exhaust passages of the internal combustion engine.

  6. Low-power wireless ECG acquisition and classification system for body sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shuenn-Yuh; Hong, Jia-Hua; Hsieh, Cheng-Han; Liang, Ming-Chun; Chang Chien, Shih-Yu; Lin, Kuang-Hao

    2015-01-01

    A low-power biosignal acquisition and classification system for body sensor networks is proposed. The proposed system consists of three main parts: 1) a high-pass sigma delta modulator-based biosignal processor (BSP) for signal acquisition and digitization, 2) a low-power, super-regenerative on-off keying transceiver for short-range wireless transmission, and 3) a digital signal processor (DSP) for electrocardiogram (ECG) classification. The BSP and transmitter circuits, which are the body-end circuits, can be operated for over 80 days using two 605 mAH zinc-air batteries as the power supply; the power consumption is 586.5 μW. As for the radio frequency receiver and DSP, which are the receiving-end circuits that can be integrated in smartphones or personal computers, power consumption is less than 1 mW. With a wavelet transform-based digital signal processing circuit and a diagnosis control by cardiologists, the accuracy of beat detection and ECG classification are close to 99.44% and 97.25%, respectively. All chips are fabricated in TSMC 0.18-μm standard CMOS process. PMID:25561446

  7. Advanced Air Data Systems for Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    It is possible to get a crude estimate of wind speed and direction while driving a car at night in the rain, with the motion of the raindrop reflections in the headlights providing clues about the wind. The clues are difficult to interpret, though, because of the relative motions of ground, car, air, and raindrops. More subtle interpretation is possible if the rain is replaced by fog, because the tiny droplets would follow the swirling currents of air around an illuminated object, like, for example, a walking pedestrian. Microscopic particles in the air (aerosols) are better for helping make assessments of the wind, and reflective air molecules are best of all, providing the most refined measurements. It takes a bright light to penetrate fog, so it is easy to understand how other factors, like replacing the headlights with the intensity of a searchlight, can be advantageous. This is the basic principle behind a lidar system. While a radar system transmits a pulse of radiofrequency energy and interprets the received reflections, a lidar system works in a similar fashion, substituting a near-optical laser pulse. The technique allows the measurement of relative positions and velocities between the transmitter and the air, which allows measurements of relative wind and of air temperature (because temperature is associated with high-frequency random motions on a molecular level). NASA, as well as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), have interests in this advanced lidar technology, as much of their explorative research requires the ability to measure winds and turbulent regions within the atmosphere. Lidar also shows promise for providing warning of turbulent regions within the National Airspace System to allow commercial aircraft to avoid encounters with turbulence and thereby increase the safety of the traveling public. Both agencies currently employ lidar and optical sensing for a variety of weather-related research projects, such as analyzing

  8. [Application of ecological classification system in China's digital forestry].

    PubMed

    Tang, Li-Na; Dai, Li-Min

    2008-02-01

    In China's conventional forest management system, there are two types of sub-compartment, i.e., the 2nd- and 3rd-level sub-compartments, which are concurrent but inconsistent in size and boundary locations. Even in the same type of sub-compartments, the inconsistency still existed at different time, which is unbeneficial to the long-term forest management planning by using digital technologies. With the mountainous region in eastern Liaoning Province as a case, this paper established an ecological classification system (ECS), which contained 5 ecological land types (ELTs) and 34 ecological land type phases (ELTPs). Based on the basic technical needs of China's digital forestry, the ELTPs could be used as a fixed sub-compartment system. A compatible forest inventory system was designed then. It was concluded that ecosystem management based on ECS and geospatial information technologies combined with computer models and decision-support systems would be the important component of digital forestry.

  9. Computer aided decision support system for cervical cancer classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmadwati, Rahmadwati; Naghdy, Golshah; Ros, Montserrat; Todd, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    Conventional analysis of a cervical histology image, such a pap smear or a biopsy sample, is performed by an expert pathologist manually. This involves inspecting the sample for cellular level abnormalities and determining the spread of the abnormalities. Cancer is graded based on the spread of the abnormal cells. This is a tedious, subjective and time-consuming process with considerable variations in diagnosis between the experts. This paper presents a computer aided decision support system (CADSS) tool to help the pathologists in their examination of the cervical cancer biopsies. The main aim of the proposed CADSS system is to identify abnormalities and quantify cancer grading in a systematic and repeatable manner. The paper proposes three different methods which presents and compares the results using 475 images of cervical biopsies which include normal, three stages of pre cancer, and malignant cases. This paper will explore various components of an effective CADSS; image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction, classification, grading and disease identification. Cervical histological images are captured using a digital microscope. The images are captured in sufficient resolution to retain enough information for effective classification. Histology images of cervical biopsies consist of three major sections; background, stroma and squamous epithelium. Most diagnostic information are contained within the epithelium region. This paper will present two levels of segmentations; global (macro) and local (micro). At the global level the squamous epithelium is separated from the background and stroma. At the local or cellular level, the nuclei and cytoplasm are segmented for further analysis. Image features that influence the pathologists' decision during the analysis and classification of a cervical biopsy are the nuclei's shape and spread; the ratio of the areas of nuclei and cytoplasm as well as the texture and spread of the abnormalities

  10. A neuromorphic system for object detection and classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosla, Deepak; Chen, Yang; Kim, Kyungnam; Cheng, Shinko Y.; Honda, Alexander L.; Zhang, Lei

    2013-05-01

    Unattended object detection, recognition and tracking on unmanned reconnaissance platforms in battlefields and urban spaces are topics of emerging importance. In this paper, we present an unattended object recognition system that automatically detects objects of interest in videos and classifies them into various categories (e.g., person, car, truck, etc.). Our system is inspired by recent findings in visual neuroscience on feed-forward object detection and recognition pipeline and mirrors that via two main neuromorphic modules (1) A front-end detection module that combines form and motion based visual attention to search for and detect "integrated" object percepts as is hypothesized to occur in the human visual pathways; (2) A back-end recognition module that processes only the detected object percepts through a neuromorphic object classification algorithm based on multi-scale convolutional neural networks, which can be efficiently implemented in COTS hardware. Our neuromorphic system was evaluated using a variety of urban area video data collected from both stationary and moving platforms. The data are quite challenging as it includes targets at long ranges, occurring under variable conditions of illuminations and occlusion with high clutter. The experimental results of our system showed excellent detection and classification performance. In addition, the proposed bio-inspired approach is good for hardware implementation due to its low complexity and mapping to off-the-shelf conventional hardware.

  11. A proposed classification system for liver metastasis from colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Petrelli, N J; Bonnheim, D C; Herrera, L O; Mittelman, A

    1984-04-01

    A proposed classification system for liver metastasis from colorectal carcinoma is presented. This proposed system utilizes the prognostic factors of the extent of hepatic involvement by metastasis at the time of laparotomy, performance status, preoperative serum alkaline phosphatase level, and the presence or absence of extrahepatic intraabdominal disease at the time of laparotomy. Because of the several different modes of treatment for liver metastasis from colorectal carcinoma, it is necessary that a liver classification system be adopted so that different treatment groups will be comparable. The proposed system utilizes the extent of hepatic involvement by metastasis at laparotomy with a division into three subsets of patients described by a Roman numeral. Roman numeral I represents less than or equal to 25 per cent involvement of the liver by metastasis; Roman numeral II represents greater than 25 per cent but less than or equal to 50 per cent involvement by liver metastasis, and Roman numeral III represents greater than 50 per cent involvement by liver metastasis. An Arabic subscript number is used to describe the patients' performance status. Alkaline phosphatase levels are described by a subscript letter with a representing less than two times normal alkaline phosphatase, b representing greater than two times, but less than four times normal levels, and c representing greater than four times normal levels. At the time of laparotomy extrahepatic intra-abdominal disease is represented by the superscript letter E. PMID:6714032

  12. Classification of time series patterns from complex dynamic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schryver, J.C.; Rao, N.

    1998-07-01

    An increasing availability of high-performance computing and data storage media at decreasing cost is making possible the proliferation of large-scale numerical databases and data warehouses. Numeric warehousing enterprises on the order of hundreds of gigabytes to terabytes are a reality in many fields such as finance, retail sales, process systems monitoring, biomedical monitoring, surveillance and transportation. Large-scale databases are becoming more accessible to larger user communities through the internet, web-based applications and database connectivity. Consequently, most researchers now have access to a variety of massive datasets. This trend will probably only continue to grow over the next several years. Unfortunately, the availability of integrated tools to explore, analyze and understand the data warehoused in these archives is lagging far behind the ability to gain access to the same data. In particular, locating and identifying patterns of interest in numerical time series data is an increasingly important problem for which there are few available techniques. Temporal pattern recognition poses many interesting problems in classification, segmentation, prediction, diagnosis and anomaly detection. This research focuses on the problem of classification or characterization of numerical time series data. Highway vehicles and their drivers are examples of complex dynamic systems (CDS) which are being used by transportation agencies for field testing to generate large-scale time series datasets. Tools for effective analysis of numerical time series in databases generated by highway vehicle systems are not yet available, or have not been adapted to the target problem domain. However, analysis tools from similar domains may be adapted to the problem of classification of numerical time series data.

  13. 5 CFR 9701.231 - Conversion of positions and employees to the DHS classification system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification...

  14. Evaluating Radionuclide Air Emission Stack Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2002-12-16

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Hanford Site, Washington. These facilities are subject to Clean Air Act regulations that require sampling of radionuclide air emissions from some of these facilities. A revision to an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard on sampling radioactive air emissions has recently been incorporated into federal and state regulations and a re-evaluation of affected facilities is being performed to determine the impact. The revised standard requires a well-mixed sampling location that must be demonstrated through tests specified in the standard. It also carries a number of maintenance requirements, including inspections and cleaning of the sampling system. Evaluations were performed in 2000 – 2002 on two PNNL facilities to determine the operational and design impacts of the new requirements. The evaluation included inspection and cleaning maintenance activities plus testing to determine if the current sampling locations meet criteria in the revised standard. Results show a wide range of complexity in inspection and cleaning activities depending on accessibility of the system, ease of removal, and potential impact on building operations (need for outages). As expected, these High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA)-filtered systems did not show deposition significant enough to cause concerns with blocking of the nozzle or other parts of the system. The tests for sampling system location in the revised standard also varied in complexity depending on accessibility of the sample site and use of a scale model can alleviate many issues. Previous criteria to locate sampling systems at eight duct diameters downstream and two duct diameters upstream of the nearest disturbances is no guarantee of meeting criteria in the revised standard. A computational fluid dynamics model was helpful in understanding flow and

  15. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air induction system. 23.1091 Section 23... § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories must supply the air required by that engine and auxiliary power unit and...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction system. 23.1091 Section 23... § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories must supply the air required by that engine and auxiliary power unit and...

  17. 30 CFR 77.412 - Compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compressed air systems. 77.412 Section 77.412... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.412 Compressed air systems. (a) Compressors and compressed-air receivers... involving the pressure system of compressors, receivers, or compressed-air-powered equipment shall not...

  18. 30 CFR 77.412 - Compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compressed air systems. 77.412 Section 77.412... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.412 Compressed air systems. (a) Compressors and compressed-air receivers... involving the pressure system of compressors, receivers, or compressed-air-powered equipment shall not...

  19. 30 CFR 77.412 - Compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compressed air systems. 77.412 Section 77.412... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.412 Compressed air systems. (a) Compressors and compressed-air receivers... involving the pressure system of compressors, receivers, or compressed-air-powered equipment shall not...

  20. 30 CFR 77.412 - Compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compressed air systems. 77.412 Section 77.412... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.412 Compressed air systems. (a) Compressors and compressed-air receivers... involving the pressure system of compressors, receivers, or compressed-air-powered equipment shall not...

  1. 30 CFR 77.412 - Compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air systems. 77.412 Section 77.412... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.412 Compressed air systems. (a) Compressors and compressed-air receivers... involving the pressure system of compressors, receivers, or compressed-air-powered equipment shall not...

  2. Classification of boundary equilibrium bifurcations in planar Filippov systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glendinning, Paul

    2016-01-01

    If a family of piecewise smooth systems depending on a real parameter is defined on two different regions of the plane separated by a switching surface, then a boundary equilibrium bifurcation occurs if a stationary point of one of the systems intersects the switching surface at a critical value of the parameter. We derive the leading order terms of a normal form for boundary equilibrium bifurcations of planar systems. This makes it straightforward to derive a complete classification of the bifurcations that can occur. We are thus able to confirm classic results of Filippov [Differential Equations with Discontinuous Right Hand Sides (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1988)] using different and more transparent methods, and explain why the `missing' cases of Hogan et al. [Piecewise Smooth Dynamical Systems: The Case of the Missing Boundary Equilibrium Bifurcations (University of Bristol, 2015)] are the only cases omitted in more recent work.

  3. Classification of boundary equilibrium bifurcations in planar Filippov systems.

    PubMed

    Glendinning, Paul

    2016-01-01

    If a family of piecewise smooth systems depending on a real parameter is defined on two different regions of the plane separated by a switching surface, then a boundary equilibrium bifurcation occurs if a stationary point of one of the systems intersects the switching surface at a critical value of the parameter. We derive the leading order terms of a normal form for boundary equilibrium bifurcations of planar systems. This makes it straightforward to derive a complete classification of the bifurcations that can occur. We are thus able to confirm classic results of Filippov [Differential Equations with Discontinuous Right Hand Sides (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1988)] using different and more transparent methods, and explain why the 'missing' cases of Hogan et al. [Piecewise Smooth Dynamical Systems: The Case of the Missing Boundary Equilibrium Bifurcations (University of Bristol, 2015)] are the only cases omitted in more recent work.

  4. 21. DETAIL OF AIR HANDLER 1 (MST AIRCONDITIONING SYSTEM) INTERIOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DETAIL OF AIR HANDLER 1 (MST AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM) INTERIOR, SOUTHEAST CORNER, STATION 30, SLC-3W MST - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  5. Fuel-air ratio controlled carburetion system

    SciTech Connect

    Abbey, H. G.

    1980-02-12

    An automatic control system is disclosed supplying a fuel-air mixture to an internal combustion engine including a variable-venturi carburetor. Air is fed into the input of the venturi, the air passing through the throat thereof whose effective area is adjusted by a mechanism operated by a servo motor. Fuel is fed into the input of the venturi from a fuel reservoir through a main path having a fixed orifice and an auxiliary path formed by a metering valve operated by an auxiliary fuel-control motor. The differential air pressure developed between the inlet of the venturi and the throat thereof is sensed to produce an airvelocity command signal that is applied to a controller adapted to compare the command signal with the servo motor set point to produce an output for governing the servo motor to cause it to seek a null point, thereby defining a closed process control loop. The intake manifold vacuum, which varies in degree as a function of load and speed conditions is sensed to govern the auxiliary fuel-control motor accordingly, is at the same time converted into an auxiliary signal which is applied to the controller in the closed loop to modulate the command signal in a manner establishing an optimum air-fuel ratio under the varying conditions of load and speed.

  6. A complete electrical hazard classification system and its application

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Lloyd B; Cartelli, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace, NFPA 70E, and relevant OSHA electrical safety standards evolved to address the hazards of 60-Hz power that are faced primarily by electricians, linemen, and others performing facility and utility work. This leaves a substantial gap in the management of electrical hazards in Research and Development (R&D) and specialized high voltage and high power equipment. Examples include lasers, accelerators, capacitor banks, electroplating systems, induction and dielectric heating systems, etc. Although all such systems are fed by 50/60 Hz alternating current (ac) power, we find substantial use of direct current (dc) electrical energy, and the use of capacitors, inductors, batteries, and radiofrequency (RF) power. The electrical hazards of these forms of electricity and their systems are different than for 50160 Hz power. Over the past 10 years there has been an effort to develop a method of classifying all of the electrical hazards found in all types of R&D and utilization equipment. Examples of the variation of these hazards from NFPA 70E include (a) high voltage can be harmless, if the available current is sufficiently low, (b) low voltage can be harmful if the available current/power is high, (c) high voltage capacitor hazards are unique and include severe reflex action, affects on the heart, and tissue damage, and (d) arc flash hazard analysis for dc and capacitor systems are not provided in existing standards. This work has led to a comprehensive electrical hazard classification system that is based on various research conducted over the past 100 years, on analysis of such systems in R&D, and on decades of experience. Initially, national electrical safety codes required the qualified worker only to know the source voltage to determine the shock hazard. Later, as arc flash hazards were understood, the fault current and clearing time were needed. These items are still insufficient to fully characterize all types of

  7. A warm air poultry brooding system

    SciTech Connect

    Nulte, W.H.

    1980-12-01

    As the energy crisis escalated during the mid-70's, it became apparent that energy intensive industries must seek alternate fuel sources. Georgia Tech realized that one of these industries was the poultry industry. Consequently, a demonstration project of a wood-fired, warm air poultry brooding system was designed and built. Since its completion in mid-1978, the system has demonstrated considerable cost savings as well as being a very functional and reliable system. The system consists of 3 main components--a wood burning furnace, a supply distribution and return duct, and 20 flexible ducts which simulate the function of the propane brooders by providing warm air close to the ground. A separate structure houses the furnace and wood supply. This house is located at the midpoint of the growout house to allow symmetrical and naturally balanced air distribution. Since the system became operational, 16 flocks of birds have been brooded. During this time, wood usage has averaged approximately 30 cords per year while in a neighboring house, that is used as a control house, the propane usage has averaged 3,800 gallons per year. In the area of Georgia where the demonstration project is located, the cost of fuelwood has remained stable over the last 2 years, whereas the price of propane has continually increased. Thus the grower has the benefit of constantly increasing cost savings while utilizing a renewable resource as fuel.

  8. A Model Assessment and Classification System for Men and Women in Correctional Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellervik, Lowell W.; And Others

    The report describes a manpower assessment and classification system for criminal offenders directed towards making practical training and job classification decisions. The model is not concerned with custody classifications except as they affect occupational/training possibilities. The model combines traditional procedures of vocational…

  9. Gender and cultural issues in psychiatric nosological classification systems.

    PubMed

    van de Water, Tanya; Suliman, Sharain; Seedat, Soraya

    2016-08-01

    Much has changed since the two dominant mental health nosological systems, the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), were first published in 1900 and 1952, respectively. Despite numerous modifications to stay up to date with scientific and cultural changes (eg, exclusion of homosexuality as a disorder) and to improve the cultural sensitivity of psychiatric diagnoses, the ICD and DSM have only recently renewed attempts at harmonization. Previous nosological iterations demonstrate the oscillation in the importance placed on the biological focus, highlighting the tension between a gender- and culture-free nosology (solely biological) and a contextually relevant understanding of mental illness. In light of the release of the DSM 5, future nosological systems, such as the ICD 11, scheduled for release in 2017, and the Research Development Criteria (RDoC), can learn from history and apply critiques. This article aims to critically consider gender and culture in previous editions of the ICD and DSM to inform forthcoming classifications.

  10. Gender and cultural issues in psychiatric nosological classification systems.

    PubMed

    van de Water, Tanya; Suliman, Sharain; Seedat, Soraya

    2016-08-01

    Much has changed since the two dominant mental health nosological systems, the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), were first published in 1900 and 1952, respectively. Despite numerous modifications to stay up to date with scientific and cultural changes (eg, exclusion of homosexuality as a disorder) and to improve the cultural sensitivity of psychiatric diagnoses, the ICD and DSM have only recently renewed attempts at harmonization. Previous nosological iterations demonstrate the oscillation in the importance placed on the biological focus, highlighting the tension between a gender- and culture-free nosology (solely biological) and a contextually relevant understanding of mental illness. In light of the release of the DSM 5, future nosological systems, such as the ICD 11, scheduled for release in 2017, and the Research Development Criteria (RDoC), can learn from history and apply critiques. This article aims to critically consider gender and culture in previous editions of the ICD and DSM to inform forthcoming classifications. PMID:27133577

  11. A data-stream classification system for investigating terrorist threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Alexia; Dettman, Joshua; Gottschalk, Jeffrey; Kotson, Michael; Vuksani, Era; Yu, Tamara

    2016-05-01

    The role of cyber forensics in criminal investigations has greatly increased in recent years due to the wealth of data that is collected and available to investigators. Physical forensics has also experienced a data volume and fidelity revolution due to advances in methods for DNA and trace evidence analysis. Key to extracting insight is the ability to correlate across multi-modal data, which depends critically on identifying a touch-point connecting the separate data streams. Separate data sources may be connected because they refer to the same individual, entity or event. In this paper we present a data source classification system tailored to facilitate the investigation of potential terrorist activity. This taxonomy is structured to illuminate the defining characteristics of a particular terrorist effort and designed to guide reporting to decision makers that is complete, concise, and evidence-based. The classification system has been validated and empirically utilized in the forensic analysis of a simulated terrorist activity. Next-generation analysts can use this schema to label and correlate across existing data streams, assess which critical information may be missing from the data, and identify options for collecting additional data streams to fill information gaps.

  12. Classification of hospitals based on measured output: the VA system.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J W; Berki, S E; Wyszewianski, L; Ashcraft, M L

    1983-07-01

    Evaluation of hospital performance and improvement of resource allocation in hospital systems require a method for classifying hospitals on the basis of their output. Previous approaches to hospital classification relied largely on input characteristics. The authors propose and apply a procedure for classifying hospitals into groups where within-group hospitals are similar with respect to output. Direct measures of case-mix-adjusted discharges and outpatient visits are the principal measures of patient care output; other measures capture training and research functions. The component measures were weighted, and a composite output measure was calculated for each of the 162 hospitals in the Veterans Administration health care system. The output score then was used as the dependent variable in an Automatic Interaction Detector analysis, which partitioned the 162 hospitals into 10 groups, accounting for 85 per cent of the variance in the dependent variable. An extension of the output classification method is presented for illustration of how the difference between hospitals' actual operating costs and costs predicted on the basis of output can be used in defining isoefficiency groups. PMID:6350744

  13. Refining Time-Activity Classification of Human Subjects Using the Global Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Maogui; Li, Wei; Li, Lianfa; Houston, Douglas; Wu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background Detailed spatial location information is important in accurately estimating personal exposure to air pollution. Global Position System (GPS) has been widely used in tracking personal paths and activities. Previous researchers have developed time-activity classification models based on GPS data, most of them were developed for specific regions. An adaptive model for time-location classification can be widely applied to air pollution studies that use GPS to track individual level time-activity patterns. Methods Time-activity data were collected for seven days using GPS loggers and accelerometers from thirteen adult participants from Southern California under free living conditions. We developed an automated model based on random forests to classify major time-activity patterns (i.e. indoor, outdoor-static, outdoor-walking, and in-vehicle travel). Sensitivity analysis was conducted to examine the contribution of the accelerometer data and the supplemental spatial data (i.e. roadway and tax parcel data) to the accuracy of time-activity classification. Our model was evaluated using both leave-one-fold-out and leave-one-subject-out methods. Results Maximum speeds in averaging time intervals of 7 and 5 minutes, and distance to primary highways with limited access were found to be the three most important variables in the classification model. Leave-one-fold-out cross-validation showed an overall accuracy of 99.71%. Sensitivities varied from 84.62% (outdoor walking) to 99.90% (indoor). Specificities varied from 96.33% (indoor) to 99.98% (outdoor static). The exclusion of accelerometer and ambient light sensor variables caused a slight loss in sensitivity for outdoor walking, but little loss in overall accuracy. However, leave-one-subject-out cross-validation showed considerable loss in sensitivity for outdoor static and outdoor walking conditions. Conclusions The random forests classification model can achieve high accuracy for the four major time

  14. New ACR EULAR guidelines for systemic sclerosis classification.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sindhu R

    2015-05-01

    The American College of Rheumatology and European League Against Rheumatism classification criteria for systemic sclerosis are a significant advancement in the field. This article describes the innovative, rigorous, criteria development strategy that was used. The new criteria build upon previous criteria by incorporating important elements (proximal scleroderma, sclerodactyly, digital pits, pulmonary fibrosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, and scleroderma specific autoantibodies). The new criteria add emphasis to the vasculopathic manifestations, and include the early manifestation of puffy fingers. Together, these enhancements have resulted in a shift in the conceptual framework of the disease for the next generation. The new criteria have improved sensitivity and specifically, particularly among cases with early disease, mild disease, or limited disease. The ability to classify more cases, at an earlier stage, may confer the opportunity to intervene and prevent disease progression. Undoubtedly, this will lead to a paradigm shift in the conduct of clinical trials in systemic sclerosis.

  15. Classification of attractors for systems of identical coupled Kuramoto oscillators.

    PubMed

    Engelbrecht, Jan R; Mirollo, Renato

    2014-03-01

    We present a complete classification of attractors for networks of coupled identical Kuramoto oscillators. In such networks, each oscillator is driven by the same first-order trigonometric function, with coefficients given by symmetric functions of the entire oscillator ensemble. For [Formula: see text] oscillators, there are four possible types of attractors: completely synchronized fixed points or limit cycles, and fixed points or limit cycles where all but one of the oscillators are synchronized. The case N = 3 is exceptional; systems of three identical Kuramoto oscillators can also posses attracting fixed points or limit cycles with all three oscillators out of sync, as well as chaotic attractors. Our results rely heavily on the invariance of the flow for such systems under the action of the three-dimensional group of Möbius transformations, which preserve the unit disc, and the analysis of the possible limiting configurations for this group action.

  16. Classification of attractors for systems of identical coupled Kuramoto oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Engelbrecht, Jan R.; Mirollo, Renato

    2014-03-15

    We present a complete classification of attractors for networks of coupled identical Kuramoto oscillators. In such networks, each oscillator is driven by the same first-order trigonometric function, with coefficients given by symmetric functions of the entire oscillator ensemble. For N≠3 oscillators, there are four possible types of attractors: completely synchronized fixed points or limit cycles, and fixed points or limit cycles where all but one of the oscillators are synchronized. The case N = 3 is exceptional; systems of three identical Kuramoto oscillators can also posses attracting fixed points or limit cycles with all three oscillators out of sync, as well as chaotic attractors. Our results rely heavily on the invariance of the flow for such systems under the action of the three-dimensional group of Möbius transformations, which preserve the unit disc, and the analysis of the possible limiting configurations for this group action.

  17. Real-time, resource-constrained object classification on a micro-air vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Louis; Ray, Laura

    2013-12-01

    A real-time embedded object classification algorithm is developed through the novel combination of binary feature descriptors, a bag-of-visual-words object model and the cortico-striatal loop (CSL) learning algorithm. The BRIEF, ORB and FREAK binary descriptors are tested and compared to SIFT descriptors with regard to their respective classification accuracies, execution times, and memory requirements when used with CSL on a 12.6 g ARM Cortex embedded processor running at 800 MHz. Additionally, the effect of x2 feature mapping and opponent-color representations used with these descriptors is examined. These tests are performed on four data sets of varying sizes and difficulty, and the BRIEF descriptor is found to yield the best combination of speed and classification accuracy. Its use with CSL achieves accuracies between 67% and 95% of those achieved with SIFT descriptors and allows for the embedded classification of a 128x192 pixel image in 0.15 seconds, 60 times faster than classification with SIFT. X2 mapping is found to provide substantial improvements in classification accuracy for all of the descriptors at little cost, while opponent-color descriptors are offer accuracy improvements only on colorful datasets.

  18. Multiple classifier system for remote sensing image classification: a review.

    PubMed

    Du, Peijun; Xia, Junshi; Zhang, Wei; Tan, Kun; Liu, Yi; Liu, Sicong

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, multiple classifier system (MCS) or classifier ensemble has shown great potential to improve the accuracy and reliability of remote sensing image classification. Although there are lots of literatures covering the MCS approaches, there is a lack of a comprehensive literature review which presents an overall architecture of the basic principles and trends behind the design of remote sensing classifier ensemble. Therefore, in order to give a reference point for MCS approaches, this paper attempts to explicitly review the remote sensing implementations of MCS and proposes some modified approaches. The effectiveness of existing and improved algorithms are analyzed and evaluated by multi-source remotely sensed images, including high spatial resolution image (QuickBird), hyperspectral image (OMISII) and multi-spectral image (Landsat ETM+). Experimental results demonstrate that MCS can effectively improve the accuracy and stability of remote sensing image classification, and diversity measures play an active role for the combination of multiple classifiers. Furthermore, this survey provides a roadmap to guide future research, algorithm enhancement and facilitate knowledge accumulation of MCS in remote sensing community.

  19. Multiple Classifier System for Remote Sensing Image Classification: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Du, Peijun; Xia, Junshi; Zhang, Wei; Tan, Kun; Liu, Yi; Liu, Sicong

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, multiple classifier system (MCS) or classifier ensemble has shown great potential to improve the accuracy and reliability of remote sensing image classification. Although there are lots of literatures covering the MCS approaches, there is a lack of a comprehensive literature review which presents an overall architecture of the basic principles and trends behind the design of remote sensing classifier ensemble. Therefore, in order to give a reference point for MCS approaches, this paper attempts to explicitly review the remote sensing implementations of MCS and proposes some modified approaches. The effectiveness of existing and improved algorithms are analyzed and evaluated by multi-source remotely sensed images, including high spatial resolution image (QuickBird), hyperspectral image (OMISII) and multi-spectral image (Landsat ETM+). Experimental results demonstrate that MCS can effectively improve the accuracy and stability of remote sensing image classification, and diversity measures play an active role for the combination of multiple classifiers. Furthermore, this survey provides a roadmap to guide future research, algorithm enhancement and facilitate knowledge accumulation of MCS in remote sensing community. PMID:22666057

  20. A Classification System for 2-Year Postsecondary Institutions. Methodology Report. Postsecondary Education Descriptive Analysis Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Ronald A.; Shedd, Jessica M.; Merisotis, Jamie P.

    This methodology report by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) outlines the need and rationale for a two-year postsecondary classification system and the methodology used to produce this classification system. The system was created based on information from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) database that…

  1. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction system. 23.1091 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air... contamination following any probable failure of the turbocharger or its lubrication system. (b) The...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air... contamination following any probable failure of the turbocharger or its lubrication system. (b) The...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air... contamination following any probable failure of the turbocharger or its lubrication system. (b) The...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air... contamination following any probable failure of the turbocharger or its lubrication system. (b) The...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air... contamination following any probable failure of the turbocharger or its lubrication system. (b) The...

  12. Air Force geographic information and analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Henney, D.A.; Jansing, D.S.; Durfee, R.C.; Margle, S.M.; Till, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    A microcomputer-based geographic information and analysis system (GIAS) was developed to assist Air Force planners with environmental analysis, natural resources management, and facility and land-use planning. The system processes raster image data, topological data structures, and geometric or vector data similar to that produced by computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) systems, integrating the data where appropriate. Data types included Landsat imagery, scanned images of base maps, digitized point and chain features, topographic elevation data, USGS stream course data, highway networks, railroad networks, and land use/land cover information from USGS interpreted aerial photography. The system is also being developed to provide an integrated display and analysis capability with base maps and facility data bases prepared on CADD systems. 3 refs.

  13. Wood stove with safety forced air system

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, A.J.; Thulman, R.D.

    1982-08-03

    A high efficiency, air-tight wood stove has a firebox with front, side, rear, top and bottom walls, primary air introducing means for admitting combustion air into the firebox, air flow means adjacent the bottom of the firebox for directing a flow of air upwardly across at least one firebox wall, at least one supplemental air inlet for diverting a portion of the air from the air flow means into the firebox, fan means for forcing air through the air flow means and through the supplemental air inlet, the size of the primary air introducing means being chosen to automatically restrict the combustion in the firebox if the fan means stops to maintain the temperature of the stove and surroundings at safe levels.

  14. Exercise-Associated Collapse in Endurance Events: A Classification System.

    PubMed

    Roberts, W O

    1989-05-01

    In brief: Athletes who compete in endurance sports may sustain exercise-associated collapse (EAC) during or after an event. A classification system was devised for EAC that can be used by physicians who cover endurance events. Symptoms and signs of EAC include exhaustion, nausea, cramps, abnormally high or low core body temperature, muscle spasms, and inability to walk unassisted. The three classes of EAC are hyperthermic, normothermic, and hypothermic; each class is subclassified as mild, moderate, or severe. Treatment of warm runners includes applying ice bags wrapped with wet towels to the major areas of heat loss (neck, axilla, groin) to lower the core body temperature. Treatment of cool runners involves removing wet clothing, drying the skin, and insulating with wool blankets.

  15. Newer Classification System for Fissured Tongue: An Epidemiological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sudarshan, Ramachandran; Sree Vijayabala, G.; Samata, Y.; Ravikiran, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Fissured tongue is a commonly encountered tongue disorder in dental practice. But there is a lack of data on different pattern, severity, and association of fissuring with various systemic disorders and other tongue anomalies. This study attempts to establish a classification system for fissured tongue and to know the correlation with the systemic health and other disorders of the tongue. Materials and Methods. A total of 1000 subjects between the age groups of 10 and 80 years were included in the study. Pattern of fissuring, allied systemic diseases, and related tongue anomalies were tabulated. Results. Out of 1000 subjects, 387 subjects presented with fissured tongue. Out of 387 subjects, hypertension was present in 57 cases, 18 subjects had diabetes, and 3 subjects had both hypertension and diabetes. Central longitudinal type was found to be the most common type of tongue fissuring. Conclusion. Fissured tongue has been found to be associated with certain systemic disease and further researches are required to know positive correlation. If a correlation exists, such disorders could be diagnosed earlier by identifying fissured tongue at an earlier age. PMID:26457087

  16. The Self-Directed Violence Classification System and the Columbia Classification Algorithm for Suicide Assessment: A Crosswalk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matarazzo, Bridget B.; Clemans, Tracy A.; Silverman, Morton M.; Brenner, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    The lack of a standardized nomenclature for suicide-related thoughts and behaviors prompted the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, with the Veterans Integrated Service Network 19 Mental Illness Research Education and Clinical Center, to create the Self-Directed Violence Classification System (SDVCS). SDVCS has been adopted by the…

  17. Electrochemical air revitalization system optimization investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, R. R.; Schubert, F. H.; Hallick, T. M.

    1975-01-01

    A program to characterize a Breadboard of an Electrochemical Air Revitalization System (BEARS) was successfully completed. The BEARS is composed of three components: (1) a water vapor electrolysis module (WVEM) for O2 production and partial humidity control, (2) an electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator module (EDCM) for CO2 control, and (3) a power-sharing controller, designed to utilize the power produced by the EDCM to partially offset the WVEM power requirements. It is concluded from the results of this work that the concept of electrochemical air revitalization with power-sharing is a viable solution to the problem of providing a localized topping force for O2 generation, CO2 removal and partial humidity control aboard manned spacecraft. Continued development of the EARS concept is recommended, applying the operational experience and limits identified during the BEARS program to testing of a one-man capacity system and toward the development of advanced system controls to optimize EARS operation for given interfaces and requirements. Successful completion of this development will produce timely technology necessary to plan future advanced environmental control and life support system programs and experiments.

  18. UV Disinfection System for Cabin Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Soojung

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is commonly used for disinfection of water. As a result of advancements made in the last 10-15 years, the analysis and design of UV disinfection systems for water is well developed. UV disinfection is also used for disinfection of air; however, despite the fact the UV-air systems have a longer record of application than UV-water systems, the methods used to analyze and design UV-air disinfection systems remain quite empirical. It is well-established that the effectiveness of UV-air systems is strongly affected by the type of microorganisms, the irradiation level/type (lamp power and wavelength), duration of irradiation (exposure time), air movement pattern (mixing degree), and relative humidity. This paper will describe ongoing efforts to evaluate, design and test a UV-air system based on first principles. Specific issues to be addressed in this work will include laboratory measurements of relevant kinetics (i.e., UV dose-response behavior) and numerical simulations designed to represent fluid mechanics and the radiation intensity field. UV dose-response behavior of test microorganism was measured using a laboratory (bench-scale) system. Target microorganisms (e.g., bacterial spores) were first applied to membrane filters at sub-monolayer coverage. The filters were then transferred to an environmental chamber at fixed relative humidity (RH) and allowed to equilibrate with their surroundings. Microorganisms were then subjected to UV exposure under a collimated beam. The experiment was repeated at RH values ranging from 20% to 100%. UV dose-response behavior was observed to vary with RH. For example, at 100% RH, a UV dose of 20 mJ/cm2 accomplished 90% (1 log10 units) of the B. subtilis spore inactivation, whereas 99 % (2 log10 units) inactivation was accomplished at this same UV dose under 20% RH conditions. However, at higher doses, the result was opposite of that in low dose. Reactor behavior is simulated using an integrated application

  19. 48 CFR 219.303 - Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. 219.303 Section 219.303 Federal... Programs 219.303 Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size...

  20. 48 CFR 219.303 - Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. 219.303 Section 219.303 Federal... Programs 219.303 Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size...

  1. 48 CFR 219.303 - Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. 219.303 Section 219.303 Federal... Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards....

  2. 48 CFR 219.303 - Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. 219.303 Section 219.303 Federal... Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards....

  3. A new classification system for bacterial Rieske non-heme iron aromatic ring-hydroxylating oxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Kweon, Ohgew; Kim, Seong-Jae; Baek, Songjoon; Chae, Jong-Chan; Adjei, Michael D; Baek, Dong-Heon; Kim, Young-Chang; Cerniglia, Carl E

    2008-01-01

    Background Rieske non-heme iron aromatic ring-hydroxylating oxygenases (RHOs) are multi-component enzyme systems that are remarkably diverse in bacteria isolated from diverse habitats. Since the first classification in 1990, there has been a need to devise a new classification scheme for these enzymes because many RHOs have been discovered, which do not belong to any group in the previous classification. Here, we present a scheme for classification of RHOs reflecting new sequence information and interactions between RHO enzyme components. Result We have analyzed a total of 130 RHO enzymes in which 25 well-characterized RHO enzymes were used as standards to test our hypothesis for the proposed classification system. From the sequence analysis of electron transport chain (ETC) components of the standard RHOs, we extracted classification keys that reflect not only the phylogenetic affiliation within each component but also relationship among components. Oxygenase components of standard RHOs were phylogenetically classified into 10 groups with the classification keys derived from ETC components. This phylogenetic classification scheme was converted to a new systematic classification consisting of 5 distinct types. The new classification system was statistically examined to justify its stability. Type I represents two-component RHO systems that consist of an oxygenase and an FNRC-type reductase. Type II contains other two-component RHO systems that consist of an oxygenase and an FNRN-type reductase. Type III represents a group of three-component RHO systems that consist of an oxygenase, a [2Fe-2S]-type ferredoxin and an FNRN-type reductase. Type IV represents another three-component systems that consist of oxygenase, [2Fe-2S]-type ferredoxin and GR-type reductase. Type V represents another different three-component systems that consist of an oxygenase, a [3Fe-4S]-type ferredoxin and a GR-type reductase. Conclusion The new classification system provides the following

  4. A Library Book Intelligence Classification System based on Multi-agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pengfei, Guo; Liangxian, Du; Junxia, Qi

    This paper introduces the concept of artificial intelligence into the administrative system of the library, and then gives the model of robot system in book classification based on multi-agent. The intelligent robot can recognize books' barcode automatically and here gives the classification algorithm according to the book classification of Chinese library. The algorithm can calculate the concrete position of the books, and relate with all similar books, thus the robot can put all congener books once without turning back.

  5. New Maximally Entangled States and Pattern Classification in Two-Qubit System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manu Pratap; Rajput, B. S.

    2014-09-01

    Pattern classifications have been performed by employing the method of Grover's iteration on Bell's MES and Singh-Rajput MES in two-qubit system and it has been demonstrated that for any pattern classification in a two-qubit system the maximally entangled states of Singh-Rajput eigen basis provide the most suitable choice of search states while in no case any of Bell's states is suitable for such pattern classifications.

  6. Operating systems in the air transportation environment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Consideration of the problems facing air transport at present, and to be expected in the future. In the Northeast Corridor these problems involve community acceptance, airway and airport congestion and delays, passenger acceptance, noise reduction, and improvements in low-density short-haul economics. In the development of a superior short-haul operating system, terminal-configured vs cruise-configured vehicles are evaluated. CTOL, STOL, and VTOL aircraft of various types are discussed. In the field of noise abatement, it is shown that flight procedural techniques are capable of supplementing ?quiet engine' technology.

  7. Validation of potential classification criteria for systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sindhu R.; Fransen, Jaap; Khanna, Dinesh; Baron, Murray; van den Hoogen, Frank; Medsger, Thomas A.; Peschken, Christine A.; Carreira, Patricia E.; Riemekasten, Gabriela; Tyndall, Alan; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Pope, Janet E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Classification criteria for systemic sclerosis (SSc) are being updated jointly by ACR and EULAR. Potential items for classification were reduced to 23 using Delphi and Nominal Group Techniques. We evaluated the face, discriminant and construct validity of the items to be further studied as potential criteria. Methods Face validity was evaluated using the frequency of items in patients sampled from the Canadian Scleroderma Research Group, 1000 Faces of Lupus, the Pittsburgh, Toronto, Madrid and Berlin CTD databases. SSc (n=783) were compared to 1071 patients with diseases similar to SSc (mimickers): SLE (n=499), myositis (n=171), Sjögren’s syndrome (n=95), Raynaud’s phenomenon (RP) (n=228), MCTD (n=29), and idiopathic PAH (n=49). Discriminant validity was evaluated using odds ratios (OR). For construct validity, empiric ranking was compared to expert ranking. Results Compared to mimickers, SSc are more likely to have skin thickening (OR=427), telangiectasias (OR=91), anti-RNA polymerase III antibody (OR=75), puffy fingers (OR=35), finger flexion contractures (OR=29), tendon/bursal friction rubs (OR=27), anti-topoisomerase-I antibody (OR=25), RP (OR=24), finger tip ulcers/pitting scars (OR=19), anti-centromere antibody(OR=14), abnormal nailfold capillaries (OR=10), GERD symptoms (OR=8), and ANA, calcinosis, dysphagia, esophageal dilation (all OR=6), interstitial lung disease/pulmonary fibrosis (OR=5) and anti-PM-Scl antibody (OR=2). Reduced DLCO, PAH, and reduced FVC had OR<2. Renal crisis and digital pulp loss/acro-osteolysis did not occur in SSc mimickers (OR not estimated). Empiric and expert ranking were correlated (Spearman rho 0.53, p=0.01). Conclusion The candidate items have good face, discriminant and construct validity. Further item reduction will be evaluated in prospective SSc and mimicker cases. PMID:22052658

  8. Sparse representation-based classification scheme for motor imagery-based brain-computer interface systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Younghak; Lee, Seungchan; Lee, Junho; Lee, Heung-No

    2012-10-01

    Motor imagery (MI)-based brain-computer interface systems (BCIs) normally use a powerful spatial filtering and classification method to maximize their performance. The common spatial pattern (CSP) algorithm is a widely used spatial filtering method for MI-based BCIs. In this work, we propose a new sparse representation-based classification (SRC) scheme for MI-based BCI applications. Sensorimotor rhythms are extracted from electroencephalograms and used for classification. The proposed SRC method utilizes the frequency band power and CSP algorithm to extract features for classification. We analyzed the performance of the new method using experimental datasets. The results showed that the SRC scheme provides highly accurate classification results, which were better than those obtained using the well-known linear discriminant analysis classification method. The enhancement of the proposed method in terms of the classification accuracy was verified using cross-validation and a statistical paired t-test (p < 0.001).

  9. An Analysis of Expenditure Allocation and Its Relationship to Institutional Classification. AIR 1992 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Edward J., III

    This paper examines the expenditure patterns of public doctorate-granting institutions, the tradeoffs made among competing financial needs by these institutions, and how well these expenditure patterns may validate the Carnegie classifications of the examined institutions. The paper presents data collected from 133 institutions in the Research I,…

  10. The classification of the patients with pulmonary diseases using breath air samples spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistenev, Yury V.; Borisov, Alexey V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Bulanova, Anna A.

    2016-08-01

    Technique of exhaled breath sampling is discussed. The procedure of wavelength auto-calibration is proposed and tested. Comparison of the experimental data with the model absorption spectra of 5% CO2 is conducted. The classification results of three study groups obtained by using support vector machine and principal component analysis methods are presented.

  11. Superiority of Classification Tree versus Cluster, Fuzzy and Discriminant Models in a Heartbeat Classification System

    PubMed Central

    Krasteva, Vessela; Jekova, Irena; Leber, Remo; Schmid, Ramun; Abächerli, Roger

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a 2-stage heartbeat classifier of supraventricular (SVB) and ventricular (VB) beats. Stage 1 makes computationally-efficient classification of SVB-beats, using simple correlation threshold criterion for finding close match with a predominant normal (reference) beat template. The non-matched beats are next subjected to measurement of 20 basic features, tracking the beat and reference template morphology and RR-variability for subsequent refined classification in SVB or VB-class by Stage 2. Four linear classifiers are compared: cluster, fuzzy, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and classification tree (CT), all subjected to iterative training for selection of the optimal feature space among extended 210-sized set, embodying interactive second-order effects between 20 independent features. The optimization process minimizes at equal weight the false positives in SVB-class and false negatives in VB-class. The training with European ST-T, AHA, MIT-BIH Supraventricular Arrhythmia databases found the best performance settings of all classification models: Cluster (30 features), Fuzzy (72 features), LDA (142 coefficients), CT (221 decision nodes) with top-3 best scored features: normalized current RR-interval, higher/lower frequency content ratio, beat-to-template correlation. Unbiased test-validation with MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database rates the classifiers in descending order of their specificity for SVB-class: CT (99.9%), LDA (99.6%), Cluster (99.5%), Fuzzy (99.4%); sensitivity for ventricular ectopic beats as part from VB-class (commonly reported in published beat-classification studies): CT (96.7%), Fuzzy (94.4%), LDA (94.2%), Cluster (92.4%); positive predictivity: CT (99.2%), Cluster (93.6%), LDA (93.0%), Fuzzy (92.4%). CT has superior accuracy by 0.3–6.8% points, with the advantage for easy model complexity configuration by pruning the tree consisted of easy interpretable ‘if-then’ rules. PMID:26461492

  12. The promise of air cargo: System aspects and vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The current operation of the air cargo system is reviewed. An assessment of the future of air cargo is provided by: (1) analyzing statistics and trends, (2) by noting system problems and inefficiencies, (3) by analyzing characteristics of 'air eligible' commodities, and (4) by showing the promise of new technology for future cargo aircraft with significant improvements in costs and efficiency. The following topics are discussed: (1) air cargo demand forecasts; (2) economics of air cargo transport; (3) the integrated air cargo system; (4) evolution of airfreighter design; and (5) the span distributed load concept.

  13. System diagnostics using qualitative analysis and component functional classification

    DOEpatents

    Reifman, Jaques; Wei, Thomas Y. C.

    1993-01-01

    A method for detecting and identifying faulty component candidates during off-normal operations of nuclear power plants involves the qualitative analysis of macroscopic imbalances in the conservation equations of mass, energy and momentum in thermal-hydraulic control volumes associated with one or more plant components and the functional classification of components. The qualitative analysis of mass and energy is performed through the associated equations of state, while imbalances in momentum are obtained by tracking mass flow rates which are incorporated into a first knowledge base. The plant components are functionally classified, according to their type, as sources or sinks of mass, energy and momentum, depending upon which of the three balance equations is most strongly affected by a faulty component which is incorporated into a second knowledge base. Information describing the connections among the components of the system forms a third knowledge base. The method is particularly adapted for use in a diagnostic expert system to detect and identify faulty component candidates in the presence of component failures and is not limited to use in a nuclear power plant, but may be used with virtually any type of thermal-hydraulic operating system.

  14. System diagnostics using qualitative analysis and component functional classification

    DOEpatents

    Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1993-11-23

    A method for detecting and identifying faulty component candidates during off-normal operations of nuclear power plants involves the qualitative analysis of macroscopic imbalances in the conservation equations of mass, energy and momentum in thermal-hydraulic control volumes associated with one or more plant components and the functional classification of components. The qualitative analysis of mass and energy is performed through the associated equations of state, while imbalances in momentum are obtained by tracking mass flow rates which are incorporated into a first knowledge base. The plant components are functionally classified, according to their type, as sources or sinks of mass, energy and momentum, depending upon which of the three balance equations is most strongly affected by a faulty component which is incorporated into a second knowledge base. Information describing the connections among the components of the system forms a third knowledge base. The method is particularly adapted for use in a diagnostic expert system to detect and identify faulty component candidates in the presence of component failures and is not limited to use in a nuclear power plant, but may be used with virtually any type of thermal-hydraulic operating system. 5 figures.

  15. UV disinfection system for cabin air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Soojung; Blatchley, Ernest R.

    2009-10-01

    The air of indoor cabin environments is susceptible to contamination by airborne microbial pathogens. A number of air treatment processes are available for inactivation or removal of airborne pathogens; included among these processes is ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The effectiveness of UV-based processes is known to be determined by the combined effects of UV dose delivery by the reactor and the UV dose-response behavior of the target microbe(s). To date, most UV system designs for air treatment have been based on empirical approaches, often involving crude representations of dose delivery and dose-response behavior. The objective of this research was to illustrate the development of a UV system for disinfection of cabin air based on well-defined methods of reactor and reaction characterization. UV dose-response behavior of a test microorganism was measured using a laboratory (bench-scale) system. Target microorganisms (bacterial spores) were first applied to membrane filters at sub-monolayer coverage. The filters were then transferred to a humidity chamber at fixed relative humidity (RH) and allowed to equilibrate with their surroundings. Microorganisms were then subjected to UV exposure under a collimated beam. The experiment was repeated at RH values ranging from 20% to 100%. UV dose-response behavior was observed to vary with RH. For example, at 100% RH, a UV dose of 20 mJ/cm 2 accomplished 99.7% (2.5 log10 U) of the Bacillus subtilis spore inactivation, whereas 99.94% (3.2 log10 U) inactivation was accomplished at this same UV dose under 20% RH conditions. To determine reactor behavior, UV dose-response behavior was combined with simulated results of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and radiation intensity field models. This modeling approach allowed estimating the UV dose distribution delivered by the reactor. The advantage of this approach is that simulation of many reactor configurations can be done in a relatively short period of time. Moreover, by

  16. Weather elements, chemical air pollutants and airborne pollen influencing asthma emergency room visits in Szeged, Hungary: performance of two objective weather classifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makra, László; Puskás, János; Matyasovszky, István; Csépe, Zoltán; Lelovics, Enikő; Bálint, Beatrix; Tusnády, Gábor

    2015-09-01

    Weather classification approaches may be useful tools in modelling the occurrence of respiratory diseases. The aim of the study is to compare the performance of an objectively defined weather classification and the Spatial Synoptic Classification (SSC) in classifying emergency department (ED) visits for acute asthma depending from weather, air pollutants, and airborne pollen variables for Szeged, Hungary, for the 9-year period 1999-2007. The research is performed for three different pollen-related periods of the year and the annual data set. According to age and gender, nine patient categories, eight meteorological variables, seven chemical air pollutants, and two pollen categories were used. In general, partly dry and cold air and partly warm and humid air aggravate substantially the symptoms of asthmatics. Our major findings are consistent with this establishment. Namely, for the objectively defined weather types favourable conditions for asthma ER visits occur when an anticyclonic ridge weather situation happens with near extreme temperature and humidity parameters. Accordingly, the SSC weather types facilitate aggravating asthmatic conditions if warm or cool weather occur with high humidity in both cases. Favourable conditions for asthma attacks are confirmed in the extreme seasons when atmospheric stability contributes to enrichment of air pollutants. The total efficiency of the two classification approaches is similar in spite of the fact that the methodology for derivation of the individual types within the two classification approaches is completely different.

  17. 76 FR 6551 - Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of Contact Cooling System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... Controls Guidance Document: Contact Cooling System for Aesthetic Use.'' The Agency is classifying the... Controls Guidance Document: Contact Cooling System for Aesthetic Use'' references previously approved... Devices; Classification of Contact Cooling System for Aesthetic Use AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  18. Estimating persistence of brominated and chlorinated organic pollutants in air, water, soil, and sediments with the QSPR-based classification scheme.

    PubMed

    Puzyn, T; Haranczyk, M; Suzuki, N; Sakurai, T

    2011-02-01

    We have estimated degradation half-lives of both brominated and chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs and PCDDs), furans (PBDFs and PCDFs), biphenyls (PBBs and PCBs), naphthalenes (PBNs and PCNs), diphenyl ethers (PBDEs and PCDEs) as well as selected unsubstituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air, surface water, surface soil, and sediments (in total of 1,431 compounds in four compartments). Next, we compared the persistence between chloro- (relatively well-studied) and bromo- (less studied) analogs. The predictions have been performed based on the quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) scheme with use of k-nearest neighbors (kNN) classifier and the semi-quantitative system of persistence classes. The classification models utilized principal components derived from the principal component analysis of a set of 24 constitutional and quantum mechanical descriptors as input variables. Accuracies of classification (based on an external validation) were 86, 85, 87, and 75% for air, surface water, surface soil, and sediments, respectively. The persistence of all chlorinated species increased with increasing halogenation degree. In the case of brominated organic pollutants (Br-OPs), the trend was the same for air and sediments. However, we noticed that the opposite trend for persistence in surface water and soil. The results suggest that, due to high photoreactivity of C-Br chemical bonds, photolytic processes occurring in surface water and soil are able to play significant role in transforming and removing Br-OPs from these compartments. This contribution is the first attempt of classifying together Br-OPs and Cl-OPs according to their persistence, in particular, environmental compartments. PMID:20386980

  19. Air conditioning system and component therefore distributing air flow from opposite directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obler, H. D.; Bauer, H. B. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The air conditioning system comprises a plurality of separate air conditioning units coupled to a common supply duct such that air may be introduced into the supply duct in two opposite flow directions. A plurality of outlets such as registers or auxiliary or branch ducts communicate with the supply duct and valve means are disposed in the supply duct at at least some of the outlets for automatically channelling a controllable amount of air from the supply duct to the associated outlet regardless of the direction of air flow within the supply duct. The valve means comprises an automatic air volume control apparatus for distribution within the air supply duct into which air may be introduced from two opposite directions. The apparatus incorporates a freely swinging movable vane in the supply duct to automatically channel into the associated outlet only the deflected air flow which has the higher relative pressure.

  20. 42 CFR 412.10 - Changes in the DRG classification system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... classification system published in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section. (e) Review by ProPAC. Changes...PAC upon publication. Interim changes to the DRG classification system that are made in accordance with paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section are subject to review by ProPAC before implementation....

  1. 42 CFR 412.10 - Changes in the DRG classification system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... classification system published in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section. (e) Review by ProPAC. Changes...PAC upon publication. Interim changes to the DRG classification system that are made in accordance with paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section are subject to review by ProPAC before implementation....

  2. Perceptual and Acoustic Reliability Estimates for the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Fourakis, Marios; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Potter, Nancy L.; Scheer-Cohen, Alison R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2010-01-01

    A companion paper describes three extensions to a classification system for paediatric speech sound disorders termed the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS). The SDCS uses perceptual and acoustic data reduction methods to obtain information on a speaker's speech, prosody, and voice. The present paper provides reliability estimates for…

  3. One man electrochemical air revitalization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddleston, J. C.; Aylward, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    An integrated water vapor electrolysis (WVE) hydrogen depolarized CO2 concentrator (HDC) system sized for one man support over a wide range of inlet air conditions was designed, fabricated, and tested. Data obtained during 110 days of testing verified that this system can provide the necessary oxygen, CO2 removal, and partial humidity control to support one man (without exceeding a cabin partial pressure of 3.0 mmHg for CO2 and while maintaining a 20% oxygen level), when operated at a WVE current of 50 amperes and an HDC current of 18 amperes. An evaluation to determine the physical properties of tetramethylammonium bicarbonate (TMAC) and hydroxide was made. This provides the necessary electrolyte information for designing an HDC cell using TMAC.

  4. Impact of Biopharmaceutics Classification System-based biowaivers.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jack A; Davit, Barbara M; Polli, James E

    2010-10-01

    The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) is employed to waive in vivo bioequivalence testing (i.e. provide "biowaivers") for new and generic drugs that are BCS class I. Granting biowaivers under systems such as the BCS eliminates unnecessary drug exposures to healthy subjects and provides economic relief, while maintaining the high public health standard for therapeutic equivalence. International scientific consensus suggests class III drugs are also eligible for biowaivers. The objective of this study was to estimate the economic impact of class I BCS-based biowaivers, along with the economic impact of a potential expansion to BCS class III. Methods consider the distribution of drugs across the four BCS classes, numbers of in vivo bioequivalence studies performed from a five year period, and effects of highly variable drugs (HVDs). Results indicate that 26% of all drugs are class I non-HVDs, 7% are class I HVDs, 27% are class III non-HVDs, and 3% are class III HVDs. An estimated 66 to 76 million dollars can be saved each year in clinical study costs if all class I compounds were granted biowaivers. Between 21 and 24 million dollars of this savings is from HVDs. If BCS class III compounds were also granted waivers, an additional direct savings of 62 to 71 million dollars would be realized, with 9 to 10 million dollars coming from HVDs.

  5. Impact of Biopharmaceutics Classification System-based biowaivers.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jack A; Davit, Barbara M; Polli, James E

    2010-10-01

    The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) is employed to waive in vivo bioequivalence testing (i.e. provide "biowaivers") for new and generic drugs that are BCS class I. Granting biowaivers under systems such as the BCS eliminates unnecessary drug exposures to healthy subjects and provides economic relief, while maintaining the high public health standard for therapeutic equivalence. International scientific consensus suggests class III drugs are also eligible for biowaivers. The objective of this study was to estimate the economic impact of class I BCS-based biowaivers, along with the economic impact of a potential expansion to BCS class III. Methods consider the distribution of drugs across the four BCS classes, numbers of in vivo bioequivalence studies performed from a five year period, and effects of highly variable drugs (HVDs). Results indicate that 26% of all drugs are class I non-HVDs, 7% are class I HVDs, 27% are class III non-HVDs, and 3% are class III HVDs. An estimated 66 to 76 million dollars can be saved each year in clinical study costs if all class I compounds were granted biowaivers. Between 21 and 24 million dollars of this savings is from HVDs. If BCS class III compounds were also granted waivers, an additional direct savings of 62 to 71 million dollars would be realized, with 9 to 10 million dollars coming from HVDs. PMID:20735084

  6. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A compressor used to supply breathing air to a diver must have— (a) A volume tank that is— (1) Built and stamped...

  7. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A compressor used to supply breathing air to a diver must have— (a) A volume tank that is— (1) Built and stamped...

  8. Comparison of wheat classification accuracy using different classifiers of the image-100 system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Chen, S. C.; Moreira, M. A.; Delima, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    Classification results using single-cell and multi-cell signature acquisition options, a point-by-point Gaussian maximum-likelihood classifier, and K-means clustering of the Image-100 system are presented. Conclusions reached are that: a better indication of correct classification can be provided by using a test area which contains various cover types of the study area; classification accuracy should be evaluated considering both the percentages of correct classification and error of commission; supervised classification approaches are better than K-means clustering; Gaussian distribution maximum likelihood classifier is better than Single-cell and Multi-cell Signature Acquisition Options of the Image-100 system; and in order to obtain a high classification accuracy in a large and heterogeneous crop area, using Gaussian maximum-likelihood classifier, homogeneous spectral subclasses of the study crop should be created to derive training statistics.

  9. Applications of principal component analysis to breath air absorption spectra profiles classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistenev, Yu. V.; Shapovalov, A. V.; Borisov, A. V.; Vrazhnov, D. A.; Nikolaev, V. V.; Nikiforova, O. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The results of numerical simulation of application principal component analysis to absorption spectra of breath air of patients with pulmonary diseases are presented. Various methods of experimental data preprocessing are analyzed.

  10. Classification Systems in Renal Pathology: Promises and Problems.

    PubMed

    Stokes, M Barry

    2014-09-01

    Kidney diseases are morphologically heterogeneous. Pathologic classifications of renal disease permit standardization of diagnosis and may identify clinical-pathologic subgroups with different outcomes and/or responses to treatment. To date, classifications have been proposed for lupus nephritis, allograft rejection, IgA nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody -related glomerulonephritis, and diabetic glomerulosclerosis. These classifications share several limitations related to lack of specificity, reproducibility, validation, and relevance to clinical practice. They offer a standardized approach to diagnosis, however, which should facilitate communication and clinical research.

  11. HVAC system performance and indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, J.L. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in the mid-seventies, the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) promulgated ASHRAE Standard 90-75 Energy Conservation in New Building Design, which called for revised minimum ventilation rates and the elimination of energy-wasting HVAC systems. Most building codes which cover energy conservation in the late seventies and eighties referred to this standard. This lowering of ventilation rates, coupled with the tighter building envelope (walls, windows, doors and roof) led to a reduction in outside air, both by engineering design and by minimizing infiltration through the structure. The minimum ventilation rates are based on the assumption that average concentrations of tobacco smoke exist in all enclosed spaces (30 percent of the population being smokers at two cigarettes per hour), rather than having separate rates for smoking and nonsmoking areas, as in the 1981 revision of the Standard. If tobacco smoke is ever declared a carcinogen, it will undoubtedly prompt a review of Standard 62-1989, as well as hasten totally smoke-free buildings.

  12. Classification Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Children, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The interview presents opinions of Nicholas Hobbs on the classification of exceptional children, including topics such as ecologically oriented classification systems, the role of parents, and need for revision of teacher preparation programs. (IM)

  13. Automated cloud classification with a fuzzy logic expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tovinkere, Vasanth; Baum, Bryan A.

    1993-01-01

    An unresolved problem in current cloud retrieval algorithms concerns the analysis of scenes containing overlapping cloud layers. Cloud parameterizations are very important both in global climate models and in studies of the Earth's radiation budget. Most cloud retrieval schemes, such as the bispectral method used by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP), have no way of determining whether overlapping cloud layers exist in any group of satellite pixels. One promising method uses fuzzy logic to determine whether mixed cloud and/or surface types exist within a group of pixels, such as cirrus, land, and water, or cirrus and stratus. When two or more class types are present, fuzzy logic uses membership values to assign the group of pixels partially to the different class types. The strength of fuzzy logic lies in its ability to work with patterns that may include more than one class, facilitating greater information extraction from satellite radiometric data. The development of the fuzzy logic rule-based expert system involves training the fuzzy classifier with spectral and textural features calculated from accurately labeled 32x32 regions of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) 1.1-km data. The spectral data consists of AVHRR channels 1 (0.55-0.68 mu m), 2 (0.725-1.1 mu m), 3 (3.55-3.93 mu m), 4 (10.5-11.5 mu m), and 5 (11.5-12.5 mu m), which include visible, near-infrared, and infrared window regions. The textural features are based on the gray level difference vector (GLDV) method. A sophisticated new interactive visual image Classification System (IVICS) is used to label samples chosen from scenes collected during the FIRE IFO II. The training samples are chosen from predefined classes, chosen to be ocean, land, unbroken stratiform, broken stratiform, and cirrus. The November 28, 1991 NOAA overpasses contain complex multilevel cloud situations ideal for training and validating the fuzzy logic expert system.

  14. The Bellevue Classification System: nursing's voice upon the library shelves*†

    PubMed Central

    Mages, Keith C

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the inspiration, construction, and meaning of the Bellevue Classification System (BCS), created during the 1930s for use in the Bellevue School of Nursing Library. Nursing instructor Ann Doyle, with assistance from librarian Mary Casamajor, designed the BCS after consulting with library leaders and examining leading contemporary classification systems, including the Dewey Decimal Classification and Library of Congress, Ballard, and National Health Library classification systems. A close textual reading of the classes, subclasses, and subdivisions of these classification systems against those of the resulting BCS, reveals Doyle's belief that the BCS was created not only to organize the literature, but also to promote the burgeoning intellectualism and professionalism of early twentieth-century American nursing. PMID:21243054

  15. The postoperative COFAS end-stage ankle arthritis classification system: interobserver and intraobserver reliability.

    PubMed

    Krause, Fabian G; Di Silvestro, Matthew; Penner, Murray J; Wing, Kevin J; Glazebrook, Mark A; Daniels, Timothy R; Lau, Johnny T C; Younger, Alastair S E

    2012-02-01

    End-stage ankle arthritis is operatively treated with numerous designs of total ankle replacement and different techniques for ankle fusion. For superior comparison of these procedures, outcome research requires a classification system to stratify patients appropriately. A postoperative 4-type classification system was designed by 6 fellowship-trained foot and ankle surgeons. Four surgeons reviewed blinded patient profiles and radiographs on 2 occasions to determine the interobserver and intraobserver reliability of the classification. Excellent interobserver reliability (κ = .89) and intraobserver reproducibility (κ = .87) were demonstrated for the postoperative classification system. In conclusion, the postoperative Canadian Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (COFAS) end-stage ankle arthritis classification system appears to be a valid tool to evaluate the outcome of patients operated for end-stage ankle arthritis.

  16. A novel classification system for evolutionary aging theories.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Lucas S; Aigaki, Toshiro; Peixoto, Alexandre A; Balduino, Alex; Mânica da Cruz, Ivana B; Heddle, Jonathan G

    2013-01-01

    Theories of lifespan evolution are a source of confusion amongst aging researchers. After a century of aging research the dispute over whether the aging process is active or passive persists and a comprehensive and universally accepted theoretical model remains elusive. Evolutionary aging theories primarily dispute whether the aging process is exclusively adapted to favor the kin or exclusively non-adapted to favor the individual. Interestingly, contradictory data and theories supporting both exclusively programmed and exclusively non-programmed theories continue to grow. However, this is a false dichotomy; natural selection favors traits resulting in efficient reproduction whether they benefit the individual or the kin. Thus, to understand the evolution of aging, first we must understand the environment-dependent balance between the advantages and disadvantages of extended lifespan in the process of spreading genes. As described by distinct theories, different niches and environmental conditions confer on extended lifespan a range of fitness values varying from highly beneficial to highly detrimental. Here, we considered the range of fitness values for extended lifespan and develop a fitness-based framework for categorizing existing theories. We show that all theories can be classified into four basic types: secondary (beneficial), maladaptive (neutral), assisted death (detrimental), and senemorphic aging (varying between beneficial to detrimental). We anticipate that this classification system will assist with understanding and interpreting aging/death by providing a way of considering theories as members of one of these classes rather than consideration of their individual details.

  17. Clinical usefulness of the Vaughan Williams classification system.

    PubMed

    Cobbe, S M

    1987-03-01

    The clinical usefulness of the Vaughan Williams classification scheme is limited by the complexity of the mechanisms of arrhythmia formation in man, which offer multiple potential sites for intervention. The properties of antiarrhythmic drugs may be considerably altered in abnormal myocardium. Despite these limitations, however, the classification provides a valuable conceptual framework for the understanding of the clinical electrophysiological properties of antiarrhythmic drugs and for their use.

  18. Heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, D.M.; Sullivan, R.A.

    1993-02-01

    A study is made of several outstanding issues concerning the commercial development of environmental control systems for electric vehicles (EVs). Engineering design constraints such as federal regulations and consumer requirements are first identified. Next, heating and cooling loads in a sample automobile are calculated using a computer model available from the literature. The heating and cooling loads are then used as a basis for estimating the electrical consumption that is to be expected for heat pumps installed in EVs. The heat pump performance is evaluated using an automobile heat pump computer model which has been developed recently at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The heat pump design used as input to the model consists of typical finned-tube heat exchangers and a hermetic compressor driven by a variable-speed brushless dc motor. The simulations suggest that to attain reasonable system efficiencies, the interior heat exchangers that are currently installed as automobile air conditioning will need to be enlarged. Regarding the thermal envelope of the automobile itself, calculations are made which show that considerable energy savings will result if steps are taken to reduce {open_quote}hot soak{close_quote} temperatures and if the outdoor air ventilation rate is well controlled. When these changes are made, heating and cooling should consume less than 10% of the total stored electrical energy for steady driving in most U.S. climates. However, this result depends strongly upon the type of driving: The fraction of total power for heating and cooling ({open_quote}range penalty{close_quote}) increases sharply for driving scenarios having low average propulsion power, such as stop-and-go driving.

  19. An Analysis of the Universal Decimal Classification as a Term System for Nuclear Science and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stueart, Robert D.

    1971-01-01

    The possibilities of merging the terminology of the Universal Decimal Classification System with that of a term system - Engineers Joint Council's Thesaurus - for nuclear science and technology are explored. (12 references) (Author/NH)

  20. Meteorological regimes for the classification of aerospace air quality predictions for NASA-Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. B.; Sloan, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for developing a statistical air quality assessment for the launch of an aerospace vehicle from the Kennedy Space Center in terms of existing climatological data sets. The procedure can be refined as developing meteorological conditions are identified for use with the NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center Rocket Exhaust Effluent Diffusion (REED) description. Classical climatological regimes for the long range analysis can be narrowed as the synoptic and mesoscale structure is identified. Only broad synoptic regimes are identified at this stage of analysis. As the statistical data matrix is developed, synoptic regimes will be refined in terms of the resulting eigenvectors as applicable to aerospace air quality predictions.

  1. Review of Medical Image Classification using the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Monireh Sheikh; Zekri, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Image classification is an issue that utilizes image processing, pattern recognition and classification methods. Automatic medical image classification is a progressive area in image classification, and it is expected to be more developed in the future. Because of this fact, automatic diagnosis can assist pathologists by providing second opinions and reducing their workload. This paper reviews the application of the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) as a classifier in medical image classification during the past 16 years. ANFIS is a fuzzy inference system (FIS) implemented in the framework of an adaptive fuzzy neural network. It combines the explicit knowledge representation of an FIS with the learning power of artificial neural networks. The objective of ANFIS is to integrate the best features of fuzzy systems and neural networks. A brief comparison with other classifiers, main advantages and drawbacks of this classifier are investigated. PMID:23493054

  2. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  3. Using the Megargee MMPI-Based Classification System with MMPI-2s of Male Prison Inmates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megargee, Edwin I.

    1994-01-01

    Results of two studies with 1,635 male offenders on the impact of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) on the Megargee offender classification system indicate that the original Megargee rules should not be used to classify MMPI-2s. A new set of classification rules is proposed. (SLD)

  4. A fast SCOP fold classification system using content-based E-Predict algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Pin-Hao; Shyu, Chi-Ren; Xu, Dong

    2006-01-01

    Background Domain experts manually construct the Structural Classification of Protein (SCOP) database to categorize and compare protein structures. Even though using the SCOP database is believed to be more reliable than classification results from other methods, it is labor intensive. To mimic human classification processes, we develop an automatic SCOP fold classification system to assign possible known SCOP folds and recognize novel folds for newly-discovered proteins. Results With a sufficient amount of ground truth data, our system is able to assign the known folds for newly-discovered proteins in the latest SCOP v1.69 release with 92.17% accuracy. Our system also recognizes the novel folds with 89.27% accuracy using 10 fold cross validation. The average response time for proteins with 500 and 1409 amino acids to complete the classification process is 4.1 and 17.4 seconds, respectively. By comparison with several structural alignment algorithms, our approach outperforms previous methods on both the classification accuracy and efficiency. Conclusion In this paper, we build an advanced, non-parametric classifier to accelerate the manual classification processes of SCOP. With satisfactory ground truth data from the SCOP database, our approach identifies relevant domain knowledge and yields reasonably accurate classifications. Our system is publicly accessible at . PMID:16872501

  5. Characterization of Neisseria gonorrhoeae reference strains used in development of serologic classification systems.

    PubMed Central

    Evins, G M; Knapp, J S

    1988-01-01

    Certain strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae have been used by numerous investigators to develop serologic classification systems. Some of these strains have been used by investigators to study gonococcal virulence. A reference consisting of strain classification by auxotype and serovar, a strain history, and a selected bibliography are provided cohesively. PMID:3125223

  6. Using hydrogeomorphic criteria to classify wetlands on Mt. Desert Island, Maine - approach, classification system, and examples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, Martha G.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Neckles, Hilary A.

    2005-01-01

    A wetland classification system was designed for Mt. Desert Island, Maine, to help categorize the large number of wetlands (over 1,200 mapped units) as an aid to understanding their hydrologic functions. The classification system, developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Park Service, uses a modified hydrogeomorphic (HGM) approach, and assigns categories based on position in the landscape, soils and surficial geologic setting, and source of water. A dichotomous key was developed to determine a preliminary HGM classification of wetlands on the island. This key is designed for use with USGS topographic maps and 1:24,000 geographic information system (GIS) coverages as an aid to the classification, but may also be used with field data. Hydrologic data collected from a wetland monitoring study were used to determine whether the preliminary classification of individual wetlands using the HGM approach yielded classes that were consistent with actual hydroperiod data. Preliminary HGM classifications of the 20 wetlands in the monitoring study were consistent with the field hydroperiod data. The modified HGM classification approach appears robust, although the method apparently works somewhat better with undisturbed wetlands than with disturbed wetlands. This wetland classification system could be applied to other hydrogeologically similar areas of northern New England.

  7. Systems evaluation of low density air transportation concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, R. W.; Webb, H. M.

    1972-01-01

    Methods were studied for improving air transportation to low-density population regions in the U.S. through the application of new aeronautical technology. The low-density air service concepts are developed for selected regions, and critical technologies that presently limit the effective application of low-density air transportation systems are identified.

  8. Calibration of a system to collect visible-light polarization data for classification of geosynchronous satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speicher, Andy; Matin, Mohammad; Tippets, Roger; Chun, Francis

    2014-09-01

    In order to protect critical military and commercial space assets, the United States Space Surveillance Network must have the ability to positively identify and characterize all space objects. Unfortunately, positive identification and characterization of space objects is a manual and labor intensive process today since even large telescopes cannot provide resolved images of most space objects. The objective of this study was to calibrate a system to exploit the optical signature of unresolved geosynchronous satellite images by collecting polarization data in the visible wavelengths for the purpose of revealing discriminating features. These features may lead to positive identification or classification of each satellite. The system was calibrated with an algorithm and process that takes raw observation data from a two-channel polarimeter and converts it to Stokes parameters S0 and S1. This instrumentation is a new asset for the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) Department of Physics and consists of one 20-inch Ritchey-Chretien telescope and a dual focal plane system fed with a polarizing beam splitter. This study calibrated the system and collected preliminary polarization data on five geosynchronous satellites to validate performance. Preliminary data revealed that each of the five satellites had a different polarization signature that could potentially lead to identification in future studies.

  9. Closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    North, William Edward

    2000-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for providing a closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine. The method and apparatus provide for bleeding pressurized air from a gas turbine engine compressor for use in cooling the turbine components. The compressed air is cascaded through the various stages of the turbine. At each stage a portion of the compressed air is returned to the compressor where useful work is recovered.

  10. Compressed Air System Improvements at an Automotive Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2000-10-01

    In 1998, the Ford Motor Company implemented a compressed air system improvement project at its Woodhaven Stamping plant in Woodhaven, Michigan. As a result of the system approach that it took towards improving the plant's compressed air system, the plant was able to take an 800-hp air compressor offline, shut down several high pressure satellite compressors, and operate the remaining compressors more efficiently.

  11. Energy savings potential in air conditioners and chiller systems

    DOE PAGES

    Kaya, Durmus; Alidrisi, Hisham

    2014-01-22

    In the current paper we quantified and evaluated the energy saving potential in air conditioners and chiller systems. Here, we also showed how to reduce the cost of air conditioners and chiller systems in existing facilities on the basis of payback periods. Among the measures investigated were: (1) installing higher efficiency air conditioners, (2) installing higher efficiency chillers, (3) duty cycling air conditioning units, and (4) utilizing existing economizers on air conditioning units. For each method, examples were provided from Arizona, USA. In these examples, the amount of saved energy, the financial evaluation of this energy, and the investment costmore » and pay back periods were calculated.« less

  12. Energy savings potential in air conditioners and chiller systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kaya, Durmus; Alidrisi, Hisham

    2014-01-22

    In the current paper we quantified and evaluated the energy saving potential in air conditioners and chiller systems. Here, we also showed how to reduce the cost of air conditioners and chiller systems in existing facilities on the basis of payback periods. Among the measures investigated were: (1) installing higher efficiency air conditioners, (2) installing higher efficiency chillers, (3) duty cycling air conditioning units, and (4) utilizing existing economizers on air conditioning units. For each method, examples were provided from Arizona, USA. In these examples, the amount of saved energy, the financial evaluation of this energy, and the investment cost and pay back periods were calculated.

  13. STANSORT - Stanford Remote Sensing Laboratory pattern recognition and classification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honey, F. R.; Prelat, A.; Lyon, R. J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The principal barrier to routine use of the ERTS multispectral scanner computer compatible tapes, rather than photointerpretation examination of the images, has been the high computing costs involved due to the large quantity of information (4 Mbytes) contained in a scene. STANSORT, the interactive program package developed at Stanford Remote Sensing Laboratories alleviates this problem, providing an extremely rapid, flexible and low cost tool for data reduction, scene classification, species searches and edge detection. The primary classification procedure, utilizing a search with variable gate widths, for similarities in the normalized, digitized spectra is described along with associated procedures for data refinement and extraction of information. The more rigorous statistical classification procedures are also explained.

  14. Measurement systems and indices of miners' exposure to radon daughter products in the air of mines.

    PubMed

    Domański, T

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the classification of measurement systems that may be used for the assessment of miners' exposure to radiation in mines. The following systems were described and characterized as the Air Sampling System (ASS), the Environmental Control System (ECS), the Individual Dosimetry System (IDS), the Stream Monitoring System (SMS) and the Exhaust Monitoring System (EMS). The indices for evaluation of miners' working environments, or for assessment of individual or collective miners' exposure, were selected and determined. These are: average expected concentration (CAE), average observed concentration (CAO), average expected rate of exposure cumulation rate (EEXP), average observed exposure cumulation rate (EOBS), average effective exposure cumulation rate (EEFF). Mathematical formulae for determining all these indicators, according to the type of measurement system used in particular mines, are presented. The reliability of assessment of miners' exposure in particular measurement systems, as well as the role of the possible reference system, are discussed. PMID:2134320

  15. [Classification of psychiatric disorders in children: a comparison of the most frequent systems].

    PubMed

    Pedreira Massa, J L; Rincón Palomino, F

    1989-01-01

    Six different systems of classification are compared in Child Psychiatry (ICD-9, ICD-10, DSM-III, DSM-III-R, RUTTER, Alfred Binet Centre). Some critical aspects they have exposed about the contents in each systems with practical examples. The classification systems is very different a psychopathological aspects. You emphasize the role of classificatory exercises for the training and the research, and the psychiatric case registers.

  16. Air quality classification and its temporal trend in Tehran, Iran, 2002-2012.

    PubMed

    Saniei, Raheleh; Zangiabadi, Ali; Sharifikia, Mohammad; Ghavidel, Yousef

    2016-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 microns or less (PM2.5), as well as slightly bigger particles (PM10), arrive from the westerly direction and collect in the city centre of Tehran, the capital of Iran. The statistical characteristics and daily trend of the air quality index (AQI) in Theran were studied over an 11-year period (2002- 2012). Various statistical analyses were applied including descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, trend analysis and the sequential nonparametric Mann-Kendall test. The significance of the series was investigated by regression analysis and Kriging interpolation. It was found that Tehran's daily AQI increased by 11.8% over the study period, with the frequency distribution of days with good and average air quality showing a strongly declining trend. The AQI of Tehran was shown to contain a large part of PM10 and PM2.5, the latter having the largest contribution (coefficient=0.853). PMID:27245807

  17. Polarization properties of aerosol particles over western Japan: classification, seasonal variation, and implications for air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiaole; Uno, Itsushi; Hara, Yukari; Osada, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Shigekazu; Wang, Zhe; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Wang, Zifa

    2016-08-01

    Ground-based observation of the polarization properties of aerosol particles using a polarization optical particle counter (POPC) was made from 27 October 2013, to 31 December 2015, at a suburban site in the Kyushu area of Japan. We found that the depolarization ratio (DR, the fraction of s-polarized signal in the total backward light scattering signal) of aerosol particles showed prominent seasonal variability, with peaks in spring (0.21-0.23) and winter (0.19-0.23), and a minimum value (0.09-0.14) in summer. The aerosol compositions in both fine mode (aerodynamic diameter of particle, Dp < 2.5 µm) and coarse mode (2.5 µm < Dp < 10 µm), and the size-dependent polarization characteristics were analyzed for long-range transport dust particles, sea salt, and anthropogenic pollution-dominant aerosols. The DR value increased with increasing particle size, and DR = 0.1 was a reliable threshold value to identify the sphericity of supermicron (Dp > 1 µm) particles. Occurrence of substandard air quality days in Kyushu was closely related with mixed type (coexistence of anthropogenic pollutants and dust particles in the atmosphere), especially in winter and spring, indicating that dust events in the Asian continent played a key role in the cross-boundary transport of continental pollution. Backward trajectory analysis demonstrated that air masses originating from the western Pacific contained large amounts of spherical particles due to the influence of sea salt, especially in summer; however, for air masses from the Asian continent, the dependence of number fraction of spherical particles on air relative humidity was insignificant, indicating the predominance of less-hygroscopic substances (e.g., mineral dust), although the mass concentrations of anthropogenic pollutants were elevated.

  18. The air transportation/energy system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The changing pattern of transportation is discussed, and the energy intensiveness of various modes of transportation is also analyzed. Sociopsychological data affecting why people travel by air are presented, along with governmental regulation and air transportation economics. The aviation user tax structure is shown in tabular form.

  19. PremAir{trademark} catalyst systems: A new approach to clean air

    SciTech Connect

    Poles, T.; Anderson, D.R.; Durilla, M.; Heck, R.; Hoke, J.; Ober, R.; Rudy, W.

    1996-12-01

    PremAir{trademark} catalyst systems represents a new approach to air pollution control--one that focuses on destroying pollutants already in the air. PremAir is the trademark for a family of developmental catalysts capable of reducing ozone, carbon monoxide and potentially other pollutants in ambient air that comes into contact with catalyst-coated surfaces. The more air that comes into contact with the surface the more pollutants that can be destroyed. For this reason, Engelhard has focused its attention on heat-exchange equipment such as automotive radiators and air-conditioner condensers. It is because of advances in catalysis achieved at Engelhard that PremAir catalysts are active at the low temperatures found in these environments. In Los Angeles, which has the country`s worst smog problem, approximately one trillion cubic feet per day of air pass through car radiators and five trillion cubic feet per day pass through air conditioners. Most of the research, development and testing work performed to date has been on ozone catalysts and their application to car radiators. This paper discusses that work and the potential benefits associated with the PremAir technology. In addition, preliminary work on stationary applications of this new technology is discussed.

  20. The microbiological quality of air improves when using air conditioning systems in cars

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Because of better comfort, air conditioning systems are a common feature in automobiles these days. However, its impact on the number of particles and microorganisms inside the vehicle - and by this its impact on the risk of an allergic reaction - is yet unknown. Methods Over a time period of 30 months, the quality of air was investigated in three different types of cars (VW Passat, VW Polo FSI, Seat Alhambra) that were all equipped with a automatic air conditioning system. Operation modes using fresh air from outside the car as well as circulating air from inside the car were examined. The total number of microorganisms and the number of mold spores were measured by impaction in a high flow air sampler. Particles of 0.5 to 5.0 μm diameter were counted by a laser particle counter device. Results Overall 32 occasions of sampling were performed. The concentration of microorganisms outside the cars was always higher than it was inside the cars. Few minutes after starting the air conditioning system the total number of microorganisms was reduced by 81.7%, the number of mold spores was reduced by 83.3%, and the number of particles was reduced by 87.8%. There were no significant differences neither between the types of cars nor between the types of operation mode of the air conditioning system (fresh air vs. circulating air). All parameters that were looked for in this study improved during utilization of the car's air conditioning system. Conclusions We believe that the risk of an allergic reaction will be reduced during use also. Nevertheless, we recommend regular maintenance of the system and replacement of older filters after defined changing intervals. PMID:20515449

  1. On the Implementation of a Land Cover Classification System for SAR Images Using Khoros

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina Revera, Edwin J.; Espinosa, Ramon Vasquez

    1997-01-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensor is widely used to record data about the ground under all atmospheric conditions. The SAR acquired images have very good resolution which necessitates the development of a classification system that process the SAR images to extract useful information for different applications. In this work, a complete system for the land cover classification was designed and programmed using the Khoros, a data flow visual language environment, taking full advantages of the polymorphic data services that it provides. Image analysis was applied to SAR images to improve and automate the processes of recognition and classification of the different regions like mountains and lakes. Both unsupervised and supervised classification utilities were used. The unsupervised classification routines included the use of several Classification/Clustering algorithms like the K-means, ISO2, Weighted Minimum Distance, and the Localized Receptive Field (LRF) training/classifier. Different texture analysis approaches such as Invariant Moments, Fractal Dimension and Second Order statistics were implemented for supervised classification of the images. The results and conclusions for SAR image classification using the various unsupervised and supervised procedures are presented based on their accuracy and performance.

  2. Application of Interactive Classification System in University Study Course Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birzniece, Ilze; Rudzajs, Peteris; Kalibatiene, Diana; Vasilecas, Olegas; Rencis, Edgars

    2015-01-01

    The growing amount of information in the world has increased the need for computerized classification of different objects. This situation is present in higher education as well where the possibility of effortless detection of similarity between different study courses would give the opportunity to organize student exchange programmes effectively…

  3. Near Earth Asteroids: A Classification System According to Their Shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acevedo, R. D.; Rocca, M.; Rabassa, J.; Ponce, J. F.; Stinco, S.

    2012-09-01

    A new way to classify Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) according to their shapes is proposed. This classification is based on the asteroid roundness and sphericity in the same way that it is used in geological sciences to describe clasts in mechanical sedimentary rocks.

  4. Classification System for English Language Learners: Issues and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abedi, Jamal

    2008-01-01

    High-stakes decisions for the instruction and assessment of English language learner (ELL) students are made based on the premise that ELL classification is a valid dichotomy that distinguishes between those who are proficient in the use of the English language and those who are not. However, recent research findings draw a vague picture of the…

  5. GOSAT Air Pollution Watch - Rapid Response System for Local Air Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, T.; Sawada, Y.; Kamei, A.; Uchiyama, A.

    2015-12-01

    GOSAT (Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite) launched in 2009 and its successor, GOSAT-2, to be launched in FY 2017, have push-broom imaging systems with more than one UV band with higher spatial resolution than OMI, MODIS, and VIIRS. Such imaging systems are useful for mapping the spatial extent of the optically thick air mass with particulate matters. GOSAT Air Pollution Watch, a rapid response system mainly using GOSAT CAI (Cloud and Aerosol Imager) data for local air pollution issues is being developed in NIES (National Institute for Environmental Studies) GOSAT-2 Project. The current design of GOSAT Air Pollution Watch has three data processing steps as follows: Step 1) Making a cloud mask Step 2) Estimating AOT (Aerosol Optical Thickness) in the UV region (380 nm for CAI) Step 3) Converting AOT to atmospheric pollution parameters such as PM2.5 concentration Data processing algorithms in GOSAT Air Pollution Watch are based on GOSAT/GOSAT-2 algorithms for aerosol product generation with some modification for faster and timely data processing. Data from GOSAT Air Pollution Watch will be used to inform the general public the current distribution of the polluted air. In addition, they will contribute to short term prediction of the spatial extent of the polluted air using atmospheric transport models. In this presentation, the background, the current status, and the future prospect of GOSAT Air Pollution Watch will be reported together with the development status of GOSAT-2.

  6. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, Armin; Bergey, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    In this project, Building America research team Building Science Corporation tested the effectiveness of ventilation systems at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. This was because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four system factor categories: balance, distribution, outside air source, and recirculation filtration. Recommended system factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  7. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.; Bergey, D.

    2014-02-01

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. It was inferior because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  8. Cork quality classification system using a unified image processing and fuzzy-neural network methodology.

    PubMed

    Chang, J; Han, G; Valverde, J M; Griswold, N C; Duque-Carrillo, J F; Sanchez-Sinencio, E

    1997-01-01

    Cork is a natural material produced in the Mediterranean countries. Cork stoppers are used to seal wine bottles, Cork stopper quality classification is a practical pattern classification problem. The cork stoppers are grouped into eight classes according to the degree of defects on the cork surface. These defects appear in the form of random-shaped holes, cracks, and others. As a result, the classification cork stopper is not a simple object recognition problem. This is because the pattern features are not specifically defined to a particular shape or size. Thus, a complex classification form is involved, Furthermore, there is a need to build a standard quality control system in order to reduce the classification problems in the cork stopper industry. The solution requires factory automation meeting low time and reduced cost requirements. This paper describes a cork stopper quality classification system using morphological filtering and contour extraction and following (CEF) as the feature extraction method, and a fuzzy-neural network as a classifier. This approach will be used on a daily basis. A new adaptive image thresholding method using iterative and localized scheme is also proposed, A fully functioning prototype of the system has been built and successfully tested. The test results showed a 6.7% rejection ratio, It is compared with the 40% counterpart provided by traditional systems. The human experts in the cork stopper industry rated this proposed classification approach as excellent.

  9. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-Yu (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for remotely sensing air outside a moving aircraft includes generating laser radiation within a swept frequency range. A portion of the laser radiation is projected from the aircraft into the air to induce scattered laser radiation. Filtered scattered laser radiation, filtered laser radiation, and unfiltered laser radiation are detected. At least one actual ratio is determined from data corresponding to the filtered scattered laser radiation and the unfiltered laser radiation. One or more air parameters are determined by correlating the actual ratio to at least one reference ratio.

  10. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-Yu (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin J. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method for remotely sensing air outside a moving aircraft includes generating laser radiation within a swept frequency range. A portion of the laser radiation is projected from the aircraft into the air to induce scattered laser radiation. Filtered scattered laser radiation, filtered laser radiation, and unfiltered laser radiation are detected. At least one actual ratio is determined from data corresponding to the filtered scattered laser radiation and the unfiltered laser radiation. One or more air parameters are determined by correlating the actual ratio to at least one reference ratio.

  11. a Gsa-Svm Hybrid System for Classification of Binary Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarafrazi, Soroor; Nezamabadi-pour, Hossein; Barahman, Mojgan

    2011-06-01

    This paperhybridizesgravitational search algorithm (GSA) with support vector machine (SVM) and made a novel GSA-SVM hybrid system to improve the classification accuracy in binary problems. GSA is an optimization heuristic toolused to optimize the value of SVM kernel parameter (in this paper, radial basis function (RBF) is chosen as the kernel function). The experimental results show that this newapproach can achieve high classification accuracy and is comparable to or better than the particle swarm optimization (PSO)-SVM and genetic algorithm (GA)-SVM, which are two hybrid systems for classification.

  12. A systematic literature review of automated clinical coding and classification systems

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Margaret; Fenton, Susan H; Jenders, Robert A; Hersh, William R

    2010-01-01

    Clinical coding and classification processes transform natural language descriptions in clinical text into data that can subsequently be used for clinical care, research, and other purposes. This systematic literature review examined studies that evaluated all types of automated coding and classification systems to determine the performance of such systems. Studies indexed in Medline or other relevant databases prior to March 2009 were considered. The 113 studies included in this review show that automated tools exist for a variety of coding and classification purposes, focus on various healthcare specialties, and handle a wide variety of clinical document types. Automated coding and classification systems themselves are not generalizable, nor are the results of the studies evaluating them. Published research shows these systems hold promise, but these data must be considered in context, with performance relative to the complexity of the task and the desired outcome. PMID:20962126

  13. Proposal for a Unified Classification System of Shock Metamorphosed Planetary Silicate Rocks — Call for Comments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöffler, D.; Metzler, K.

    2016-08-01

    A new classification system for progressive shock metamorphism of planetary silicate rocks is proposed. It is based exclusively on rock types and the shock effects of their mineral constituents independently of their source planets or planetoids.

  14. Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity

    DOEpatents

    Weng, Kuo-Lianq; Weng, Kuo-Liang

    1998-01-01

    The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby the time of supplying cooled air can be effectively extended with the merit that the operation cycle of the on and off of the compressor can be prolonged, extending the operation lifespan of the compressor in one aspect. In another aspect, ice production and storage in great amount can be performed in an off-peak period of the electrical power consumption and the stored ice can be utilized in the peak period of the power consumption so as to provide supplemental cooling capacity for the compressor of the air conditioning system whereby the shift of peak and off-peak power consumption can be effected with ease. The present air conditioning system can lower the installation expense for an ice-storing air conditioning system and can also be applied to an old conventional air conditioning system.

  15. 5 CFR 9901.231 - Conversion of positions and employees to NSPS classification system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... initially are converted to a classification system established under this subpart. (See § 9901.371 for... functional units may convert from the GS system, the SL/ST system, the SES system, or such other DoD systems... terms “convert,” “converted,” “converting,” and “conversion” refer to positions and employees...

  16. A classification of large amplitude oscillations of a spring-pendulum system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broucke, R.

    1977-01-01

    We present a detailed classification of large amplitude oscillations of a non-integrable autonomous system with two degrees of freedom: the spring pendulum system. The classification is made with the method of invariant curves. The results show the importance of three types of motion: periodic, quasi-periodic and semi-ergodic. The numerical results are given for nine different values of the energy constant.

  17. Air pollution and the respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Arbex, Marcos Abdo; Santos, Ubiratan de Paula; Martins, Lourdes Conceição; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Braga, Alfésio Luis Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 250 years-since the Industrial Revolution accelerated the process of pollutant emission, which, until then, had been limited to the domestic use of fuels (mineral and vegetal) and intermittent volcanic emissions-air pollution has been present in various scenarios. Today, approximately 50% of the people in the world live in cities and urban areas and are exposed to progressively higher levels of air pollutants. This is a non-systematic review on the different types and sources of air pollutants, as well as on the respiratory effects attributed to exposure to such contaminants. Aggravation of the symptoms of disease, together with increases in the demand for emergency treatment, the number of hospitalizations, and the number of deaths, can be attributed to particulate and gaseous pollutants, emitted by various sources. Chronic exposure to air pollutants not only causes decompensation of pre-existing diseases but also increases the number of new cases of asthma, COPD, and lung cancer, even in rural areas. Air pollutants now rival tobacco smoke as the leading risk factor for these diseases. We hope that we can impress upon pulmonologists and clinicians the relevance of investigating exposure to air pollutants and of recognizing this as a risk factor that should be taken into account in the adoption of best practices for the control of the acute decompensation of respiratory diseases and for maintenance treatment between exacerbations.

  18. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A...

  19. Thermal Environment for Classrooms. Central System Approach to Air Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triechler, Walter W.

    This speech compares the air conditioning requirements of high-rise office buildings with those of large centralized school complexes. A description of one particular air conditioning system provides information about the system's arrangement, functions, performance efficiency, and cost effectiveness. (MLF)

  20. 14 CFR 33.66 - Bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bleed air system. 33.66 Section 33.66 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.66 Bleed air system....

  1. 14 CFR 33.66 - Bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bleed air system. 33.66 Section 33.66 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.66 Bleed air system....

  2. 14 CFR 33.66 - Bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bleed air system. 33.66 Section 33.66 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.66 Bleed air system....

  3. 14 CFR 33.66 - Bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bleed air system. 33.66 Section 33.66 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.66 Bleed air system....

  4. EMISSIONS PROCESSING FOR THE ETA/ CMAQ AIR QUALITY FORECAST SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    NOAA and EPA have created an Air Quality Forecast (AQF) system. This AQF system links an adaptation of the EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality Model with the 12 kilometer ETA model running operationally at NOAA's National Center for Environmental Predication (NCEP). One of the...

  5. Secondary air control system in an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, K.

    1981-11-10

    This application discloses a secondary air control system in an internal combustion engine. The system comprises: an exhaust gas purifying device mounted on an exhaust pipe; a secondary air control valve which comprises a diaphragm actuated by vacuum pressure for controlling secondary supply air to said exhaust gas purifying device; a solenoid valve for controlling said vacuum pressure which acts upon said secondary air control valve; a vacuum sensor which detects the vacuum pressure at a small venturi of a carburetor; a thermo-sensor for detecting the intake air temperature; an air flow meter mounted on a secondary air supply pipe; a thermo-sensor for detecting the secondary air temperature mounted on said secondary air supply pipe, and; a computer to which said valuum sensor, said thermo-sensors, and said air flow meter are connected so as to feed input signals thereto, said solenoid valve being connected to the output of said computer so as to control the secondary air quantity in response to said input signals.

  6. HZI systems for EEG parametrization and classification of psychotropic drugs.

    PubMed

    Itil, T M; Shapiro, D M; Herrmann, W M; Schulz, W; Morgan, V

    1979-01-01

    The EEG effects of twenty, clinically most frequently used psychotropic drugs and five placebos were studied in 75 male volunteers in five simultaneously designed basic studies. In each of the five studies single oral dosages of five drugs (well known representatives of neuroleptics, antidepressants, anxiolytics and psychostimulants, as well as placebos) were investigated in 15 subjects in a double-blind latin-square research design using the methods of the Quantitative Pharmaco-EEG. The results demonstrated that the therapeutically equivalent effective compounds also have similar effects on human EEG. With a classification rule, based on discriminant function 20, and with a classification rule, based on correlation statistics 19 of 25 compounds could be reclassified into correct clinical-therapeutic psychotropic drug groups. It is suggested that CEEG is an important tool in predicting and describing psychotropic properties of compounds, and should routinely be used in psychotropic drug development. PMID:419164

  7. Hazard Classification of Household Chemical Products in Korea according to the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and labeling of Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to review the validity of the need for the application of the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS) to household chemical products in Korea. The study also aimed to assess the severity of health and environmental hazards of household chemical products using the GHS. Methods 135 products were classified as ‘cleaning agents and polishing agents’ and 98 products were classified as ‘bleaches, disinfectants, and germicides.’ The current status of carcinogenic classification of GHS and carcinogenicity was examined for 272 chemical substances contained in household chemical products by selecting the top 11 products for each of the product categories. In addition, the degree of toxicity was assessed through analysis of whether the standard of the Republic of Korea’s regulations on household chemical products had been exceeded or not. Results According to GHS health and environmental hazards, “acute toxicity (oral)” was found to be the highest for two product groups, ‘cleaning agents and polishing agents’, and ‘bleaches, disinfectants, and germicides’ (result of classification of 233 household chemical products) at 37.8% and 52.0% respectively. In an analysis of carcinogenicity assuming a threshold of IARC 2B for the substances in household chemical products, we found ‘cleaning agents and polishing agents’ to contain 12 chemical substances and ‘bleaches, disinfectants, and germicides’ 11 chemical substances. Conclusion Some of the household chemical products were found to have a high hazard level including acute toxicity and germ cell mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive toxicity. Establishing a hazard information delivery system including the application of GHS to household chemical products in Korea is urgent as well. PMID:24472347

  8. Natural fracture systems on planetary surfaces: Genetic classification and pattern randomness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossbacher, Lisa A.

    1987-01-01

    One method for classifying natural fracture systems is by fracture genesis. This approach involves the physics of the formation process, and it has been used most frequently in attempts to predict subsurface fractures and petroleum reservoir productivity. This classification system can also be applied to larger fracture systems on any planetary surface. One problem in applying this classification system to planetary surfaces is that it was developed for ralatively small-scale fractures that would influence porosity, particularly as observed in a core sample. Planetary studies also require consideration of large-scale fractures. Nevertheless, this system offers some valuable perspectives on fracture systems of any size.

  9. Improving Compressed Air System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry

    SciTech Connect

    2003-11-01

    NREL will produce this sourcebook for DOE's Industrial Technologies Office as part of a series of documents on industrial energy equipment. The sourcebook is a reference for industrial compressed air system users, outlining opportunities to improve system efficiency.

  10. Residential Forced Air System Cabinet Leakage and Blower Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.; Delp, William W.

    2010-03-01

    This project evaluated the air leakage and electric power consumption of Residential HVAC components, with a particular focus on air leakage of furnace cabinets. Laboratory testing of HVAC components indicated that air leakage can be significant and highly variable from unit to unit ? indicating the need for a standard test method and specifying maximum allowable air leakage in California State energy codes. To further this effort, this project provided technical assistance for the development of a national standard for Residential HVAC equipment air leakage. This standard is being developed by ASHRAE and is called"ASHRAE Standard 193P - Method of test for Determining the Air Leakage Rate of HVAC Equipment". The final part of this project evaluated techniques for measurement of furnace blower power consumption. A draft test procedure for power consumption was developed in collaboration with the Canadian General Standards Board: CSA 823"Performance Standard for air handlers in residential space conditioning systems".

  11. Accurate crop classification using hierarchical genetic fuzzy rule-based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topaloglou, Charalampos A.; Mylonas, Stelios K.; Stavrakoudis, Dimitris G.; Mastorocostas, Paris A.; Theocharis, John B.

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of an advanced classification system for accurate crop classification using very high resolution (VHR) satellite imagery. Specifically, a recently proposed genetic fuzzy rule-based classification system (GFRBCS) is employed, namely, the Hierarchical Rule-based Linguistic Classifier (HiRLiC). HiRLiC's model comprises a small set of simple IF-THEN fuzzy rules, easily interpretable by humans. One of its most important attributes is that its learning algorithm requires minimum user interaction, since the most important learning parameters affecting the classification accuracy are determined by the learning algorithm automatically. HiRLiC is applied in a challenging crop classification task, using a SPOT5 satellite image over an intensively cultivated area in a lake-wetland ecosystem in northern Greece. A rich set of higher-order spectral and textural features is derived from the initial bands of the (pan-sharpened) image, resulting in an input space comprising 119 features. The experimental analysis proves that HiRLiC compares favorably to other interpretable classifiers of the literature, both in terms of structural complexity and classification accuracy. Its testing accuracy was very close to that obtained by complex state-of-the-art classification systems, such as the support vector machines (SVM) and random forest (RF) classifiers. Nevertheless, visual inspection of the derived classification maps shows that HiRLiC is characterized by higher generalization properties, providing more homogeneous classifications that the competitors. Moreover, the runtime requirements for producing the thematic map was orders of magnitude lower than the respective for the competitors.

  12. Multiple Chaos Synchronization System for Power Quality Classification in a Power System

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cong-Hui; Lin, Chia-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This document proposes multiple chaos synchronization (CS) systems for power quality (PQ) disturbances classification in a power system. Chen-Lee based CS systems use multiple detectors to track the dynamic errors between the normal signal and the disturbance signal, including power harmonics, voltage fluctuation phenomena, and voltage interruptions. Multiple detectors are used to monitor the dynamic errors between the master system and the slave system and are used to construct the feature patterns from time-domain signals. The maximum likelihood method (MLM), as a classifier, performs a comparison of the patterns of the features in the database. The proposed method can adapt itself without the need for adjustment of parameters or iterative computation. For a sample power system, the test results showed accurate discrimination, good robustness, and faster processing time for the detection of PQ disturbances. PMID:24764771

  13. Cold Vacuum Drying Instrument Air System Design Description (SYS 12)

    SciTech Connect

    SHAPLEY, B.J.; TRAN, Y.S.

    2000-06-05

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the instrument air (IA) system of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This IA system provides instrument quality air to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. The IA system is a general service system that supports the operation of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system, the process equipment skids, and process instruments in the CVD Facility. The following discussion is limited to the compressor, dryer, piping, and valving that provide the IA as shown in Drawings H-1-82222, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Mechanical Utilities Compressed & Instrument Air P&ID, and H-1.82161, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Process Equipment Skid P&ID MCO/Cusk Interface. Figure 1-1 shows the physical location of the 1A system in the CVD Facility.

  14. [Development of modern classification systems and their effects on forensic psychiatric expert assessment].

    PubMed

    Krupinski, M

    1994-12-01

    The world-wide use of modern classification systems such as DSM-III and ICD-10 forces forensic psychiatry to examine the basic concepts of these systems, if the gap already existing between clinical and forensic psychiatry is not to widen. On the one hand concentrating on the historical development of these systems this article shows their limited value in forensic psychiatry. On the other hand a possible way of arriving at more empirically based forensic expert opinions with the help of these classification systems is discussed. The concept of comorbidity of these new systems is given special attention in this connection.

  15. Air cycle machine for an aircraft environmental control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decrisantis, Angelo A. (Inventor); O'Coin, James R. (Inventor); Taddey, Edmund P. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An ECS system includes an ACM mounted adjacent an air-liquid heat exchanger through a diffuser that contains a diffuser plate. The diffuser plate receives airflow from the ACM which strikes the diffuser plate and flows radially outward and around the diffuser plate and into the air-liquid heat exchanger to provide minimal pressure loss and proper flow distribution into the air-liquid heat exchanger with significantly less packaging space.

  16. Exupery volcano fast response system - The event detection and waveform classification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Conny; Ohrnberger, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    Volcanic eruptions are often preceded by seismic activity which can be used to quantify the volcanic activity since the number and the size of certain types of seismic events usually increase before periods of volcanic crisis. The implementation of an automatic detection and classification system for seismic signals of volcanic origin allows not only for the processing of large amounts of data in short time, but also provides consistent and time-invariant results. Here, we have developed a system based upon a combination of different methods. To enable a first robust event detection in the continuous data stream different modules are implemented in the real time system Earthworm which is widely distributed in active volcano monitoring observatories worldwide. Among those software modules are classical trigger algorithm like STA/LTA and cross-correlation master event matching which is also used to detect different classes of signals. Furthermore an additional module is implemented in the real time system to compute continuous activity parameters which are also used to quantify the volcanic activity. Most automatic classification systems need a sufficiently large pre-classified data set for training the system. However in case of a volcanic crisis we are often confronted with a lack of training data due to insufficient prior observations because prior data acquisition might be carried out with different equipment at a low number of sites and due to the imminent crisis there might be no time for the time-consuming and tedious process of preparing a training data set. For this reason we have developed a novel seismic event spotting technique in order to be less dependent on the existence of previously acquired data bases of event classes. One main goal is therefore to provide observatory staff with a robust event classification based on a minimum number of reference waveforms. By using a "learning-while-recording" approach we are allowing for the fast build-up of a

  17. Position paper -- Tank ventilation system design air flow rates

    SciTech Connect

    Goolsby, G.K.

    1995-01-04

    The purpose of this paper is to document a project position on required ventilation system design air flow rates for the waste storage tanks currently being designed by project W-236A, the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF). The Title 1 design primary tank heat removal system consists of two systems: a primary tank vapor space ventilation system; and an annulus ventilation system. At the conclusion of Title 1 design, air flow rates for the primary and annulus ventilation systems were 960 scfm and 4,400 scfm, respectively, per tank. These design flow rates were capable of removing 1,250,000 Btu/hr from each tank. However, recently completed and ongoing studies have resulted in a design change to reduce the extreme case heat load to 700,000 Btu/hr. This revision of the extreme case heat load, coupled with results of scale model evaporative testing performed by WHC Thermal Hydraulics, allow for a reduction of the design air flow rates for both primary and annulus ventilation systems. Based on the preceding discussion, ICF Kaiser Hanford Co. concludes that the design should incorporate the following design air flow rates: Primary ventilation system--500 scfm maximum and Annulus ventilation system--1,100 scfm maximum. In addition, the minimum air flow rates in the primary and annulus ventilation systems will be investigated during Title 2 design. The results of the Title 2 investigation will determine the range of available temperature control using variable air flows to both ventilation systems.

  18. Designing Forced-Air HVAC Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2010-08-31

    This guide explains proper calculation of heating and cooling design loads for homes.used to calculated for the home using the protocols set forth in the latest edition of the Air Conditioning Contractors of America’s (ACCA) Manual J (currently the 8th edition), ASHRAE 2009 Handbook of Fundamentals, or an equivalent computation procedure.

  19. ZACD: A Retrograde Panoramic Analysis among Indian Population with New System of Classification

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Prabhpreet; Kaur, Kirandeep

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Zygomatic Air Cell Defect (ZACD) has been considered as a normal radiographic variant with a spare knowledge. This should be judged before any surgical procedure of the temporal region as lack of which can lead to infections of cranium and may other complications. Aim The present study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence and characteristics of ZACD and to propose a classification for the same using digital panoramic radiography. Materials and Methods A total of 6825 digital panoramic radiographs were evaluated retrospectively of subjects aged between 4-90 years from both genders. The radiographs were evaluated by 4 (four) oral radiologists and the ZACD was recorded only when the decision was indisputable. Results Out of 6825 digital panoramic radiographs evaluated ZACD was noticed in 133 subjects with an overall prevalence of 1.94%. A male predilection was noted in the present study with the maximum prevalence during the second, third and fourth decade of life and as the age increases its prevalence decreases. Most commonly it was found to be unilateral and the unilocular presentation being more common. Conclusion Most of the finding of the present study is in acceptance with those conducted previously, but some of the finding contradicts those in the previous ones. It can be because of low sample size of the previous studies. Moreover this study gives a new system to classify these defects to help diagnose the nature of the defect. PMID:26894181

  20. Computer-based neuro-vision system for color classification of french fries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panigrahi, Suranjan; Wiesenborn, Dennis

    1995-01-01

    French fries are one of the frozen foods with rising demands in domestic and international markets. Color is one of the critical attributes for quality evaluation of french fries. This study discusses the development of a color computer vision system and the integration of neural network technology for objective color evaluation and classification of french fries. The classification accuracy of a prototype back-propagation network developed for this purpose was found to be 96%.

  1. Three-Dimensional Air Quality System (3D-AQS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel-Cox, J.; Hoff, R.; Weber, S.; Zhang, H.; Prados, A.

    2007-12-01

    The 3-Dimensional Air Quality System (3DAQS) integrates remote sensing observations from a variety of platforms into air quality decision support systems at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with a focus on particulate air pollution. The decision support systems are the Air Quality System (AQS) / AirQuest database at EPA, Infusing satellite Data into Environmental Applications (IDEA) system, the U.S. Air Quality weblog (Smog Blog) at UMBC, and the Regional East Atmospheric Lidar Mesonet (REALM). The project includes an end user advisory group with representatives from the air quality community providing ongoing feedback. The 3DAQS data sets are UMBC ground based LIDAR, and NASA and NOAA satellite data from MODIS, OMI, AIRS, CALIPSO, MISR, and GASP. Based on end user input, we are co-locating these measurements to the EPA's ground-based air pollution monitors as well as re-gridding to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model grid. These data provide forecasters and the scientific community with a tool for assessment, analysis, and forecasting of U.S Air Quality. The third dimension and the ability to analyze the vertical transport of particulate pollution are provided by aerosol extinction profiles from the UMBC LIDAR and CALIPSO. We present examples of a 3D visualization tool we are developing to facilitate use of this data. We also present two specific applications of 3D-AQS data. The first is comparisons between PM2.5 monitor data and remote sensing aerosol optical depth (AOD) data, which show moderate agreement but variation with EPA region. The second is a case study for Baltimore, Maryland, as an example of 3D-analysis for a metropolitan area. In that case, some improvement is found in the PM2.5 /LIDAR correlations when using vertical aerosol information to calculate an AOD below the boundary layer.

  2. Classification of weld defect based on information fusion technology for radiographic testing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hongquan; Liang, Zeming; Gao, Jianmin; Dang, Changying

    2016-03-01

    Improving the efficiency and accuracy of weld defect classification is an important technical problem in developing the radiographic testing system. This paper proposes a novel weld defect classification method based on information fusion technology, Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. First, to characterize weld defects and improve the accuracy of their classification, 11 weld defect features were defined based on the sub-pixel level edges of radiographic images, four of which are presented for the first time in this paper. Second, we applied information fusion technology to combine different features for weld defect classification, including a mass function defined based on the weld defect feature information and the quartile-method-based calculation of standard weld defect class which is to solve a sample problem involving a limited number of training samples. A steam turbine weld defect classification case study is also presented herein to illustrate our technique. The results show that the proposed method can increase the correct classification rate with limited training samples and address the uncertainties associated with weld defect classification.

  3. Classification of weld defect based on information fusion technology for radiographic testing system.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hongquan; Liang, Zeming; Gao, Jianmin; Dang, Changying

    2016-03-01

    Improving the efficiency and accuracy of weld defect classification is an important technical problem in developing the radiographic testing system. This paper proposes a novel weld defect classification method based on information fusion technology, Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. First, to characterize weld defects and improve the accuracy of their classification, 11 weld defect features were defined based on the sub-pixel level edges of radiographic images, four of which are presented for the first time in this paper. Second, we applied information fusion technology to combine different features for weld defect classification, including a mass function defined based on the weld defect feature information and the quartile-method-based calculation of standard weld defect class which is to solve a sample problem involving a limited number of training samples. A steam turbine weld defect classification case study is also presented herein to illustrate our technique. The results show that the proposed method can increase the correct classification rate with limited training samples and address the uncertainties associated with weld defect classification. PMID:27036822

  4. Attenuating noise generated by variable-air-volume systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, R.

    1985-03-01

    Sound generated by HVAC systems is receiving much attention because they are generally the principal contributors to room background sound levels that may become irritating and distracting noise if not controlled. This article discusses the creation of a quiet working environment through an analysis of the three traditional sound paths associated with air handling systems: radiated sound, inlet or return air sound and discharge sound. Recommended standards are given as well as a brief overview of materials used to fabricate HVAC system components.

  5. Phylogeny congruence analysis and isozyme classification: the pyruvate kinase system.

    PubMed

    Guderley, H; Fournier, P; Auclair, J C

    1989-09-22

    As the isozymes of pyruvate kinase (PK) are best known in rats, the characteristics of the rat isozymes are generally used to classify the PK isozymes in other species. Given the discrepancies generated by this classification by analogy, we evaluated a classification using a phylogeny congruence analysis of the compositional relatedness of vertebrate PK's. While our phylogenetic analysis confirmed the well established separation of the L and R isozymes from the K and M isozymes, its power became most evident in the identification of non-orthologous (or variant) forms of PK. Our analysis emphasized the uniqueness of chicken liver PK which cannot be classified either as a K or an L isozyme, confirmed that tumors express a variety of forms of PK, and indicated that lungs systematically express PK's which are not orthologous with PK's from other tissues. The determination of orthology by the phylogeny congruence analysis assumes that the structural data from different sources are subject to similar methodological error. However, we cannot reject the possibility that an apparent lack of orthology be due to artifacts during purification and analysis. PMID:2615396

  6. Computer-aided diagnosis system: a Bayesian hybrid classification method.

    PubMed

    Calle-Alonso, F; Pérez, C J; Arias-Nicolás, J P; Martín, J

    2013-10-01

    A novel method to classify multi-class biomedical objects is presented. The method is based on a hybrid approach which combines pairwise comparison, Bayesian regression and the k-nearest neighbor technique. It can be applied in a fully automatic way or in a relevance feedback framework. In the latter case, the information obtained from both an expert and the automatic classification is iteratively used to improve the results until a certain accuracy level is achieved, then, the learning process is finished and new classifications can be automatically performed. The method has been applied in two biomedical contexts by following the same cross-validation schemes as in the original studies. The first one refers to cancer diagnosis, leading to an accuracy of 77.35% versus 66.37%, originally obtained. The second one considers the diagnosis of pathologies of the vertebral column. The original method achieves accuracies ranging from 76.5% to 96.7%, and from 82.3% to 97.1% in two different cross-validation schemes. Even with no supervision, the proposed method reaches 96.71% and 97.32% in these two cases. By using a supervised framework the achieved accuracy is 97.74%. Furthermore, all abnormal cases were correctly classified.

  7. 14 CFR 33.66 - Bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.66 Bleed air system. The engine must supply bleed air without adverse effect on the engine, excluding reduced thrust or...

  8. Air-handling capabilities of blood cardioplegia delivery systems in a simulated pediatric model.

    PubMed

    Palanzo, David; Guan, Yulong; Wan, Caihong; Baer, Larry; Kunselman, Allen; Qiu, Feng; Undar, Akif

    2010-11-01

    Blood cardioplegia delivery systems are employed in most pediatric open heart cases to arrest the heart and keep it preserved during aortic cross-clamping. They are also used as part of a modified ultrafiltration system at the end of cardiopulmonary bypass. We evaluated and compared the air-handling capabilities of different types of blood cardioplegia delivery devices. A simple circuit incorporating a cardiotomy reservoir, a roller pump, a cardioplegia test system, and two emboli detection and classification sensors were used to investigate the air-handling capabilities of the following cardioplegia delivery systems: GISH Vision, Maquet Plegiox, Medtronic Trillium MYOtherm XP, Sorin Group BCD Vanguard, Sorin Group CSC14, and Terumo Sarns Conducer and Bubble Trap. The 0.25-in. circuit was primed with 400mL of Lactated Ringer's. Outdated packed red blood cells were added to obtain a hematocrit of 24-28%. System pressure was maintained at 50mmHg. Air (0.1, 0.3, 0.5mL) was injected at a speed of 0.1mL/s into the circuit just after the pump head. Gaseous microemboli (GME) were measured prior to the cardioplegia system and after the device to evaluate the air-handling characteristics. The tests were run at 100, 200, and 400mL/min blood flow for both 4 and 37°C. There were no significant differences among the groups when comparing precardioplegia delivery system GME, thus demonstrating that all devices received the same amount of injected air. When comparing the groups for postcardioplegia delivery system GME, significant differences were noted especially at the 400mL/min blood flow rate. These results suggest that for the devices compared in this study, the Maquet Plegiox and the Medtronic Trillium MYOtherm XP eliminated GME the best.

  9. A Behavior Classification System for Counselors: A New Look at Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, Charles J.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that counselors develop a classsification system of human behavior that is comprehensive, descriptive, developmental, and compatible with a variety of theoretical backgrounds rather than accept the negative classification system of psychiatry. The system recognizes the role of learning and development in maladaptive behavior. (JAC)

  10. Compressed air systems. A guidebook on energy and cost savings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-30

    This guidebook shows how energy can be saved in compressed air systems. It discusses basic compressed air systems which are typical of those found in industry and describes them and the engineering practices behind them. Energy conservation recommendations follow. These recommendations cover equipment selection, design, maintenance, and operation. Included is information which will help the reader to make economic evaluations of various engineering and equipment alternatives as they affect operations and costs. The appendices include some modern computer based approaches to predicting pressure drop for designing compressed air distribution systems. Also included is a bibliography providing leads for further and more detailed technical information on these and related subjects.

  11. A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, James R.; Hardy, Ernest E.; Roach, John T.; Witmer, Richard E.

    1976-01-01

    The framework of a national land use and land cover classification system is presented for use with remote sensor data. The classification system has been developed to meet the needs of Federal and State agencies for an up-to-date overview of land use and land cover throughout the country on a basis that is uniform in categorization at the more generalized first and second levels and that will be receptive to data from satellite and aircraft remote sensors. The proposed system uses the features of existing widely used classification systems that are amenable to data derived from remote sensing sources. It is intentionally left open-ended so that Federal, regional, State, and local agencies can have flexibility in developing more detailed land use classifications at the third and fourth levels in order to meet their particular needs and at the same time remain compatible with each other and the national system. Revision of the land use classification system as presented in U.S. Geological Survey Circular 671 was undertaken in order to incorporate the results of extensive testing and review of the categorization and definitions.

  12. Toxin-antitoxin Systems: Classification, Biological Function and Application in Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Ghafourian, Sobhan; Raftari, Mohammad; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Sekawi, Zamberi

    2014-01-01

    The toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are systems in which an unstable antitoxin inhibits a stable toxin. This review aims to introduce the TA system and its biological application in bacteria. For this purpose, first we introduce a new classification for the TA systems based on how the antitoxin can neutralize the toxin, we then describe the functions of TA systems and finally review the application of these systems in biotechnology.

  13. It is time to bring borderline intellectual functioning back into the main fold of classification systems

    PubMed Central

    Wieland, Jannelien; Zitman, Frans G.

    2016-01-01

    Borderline intellectual functioning is an important and frequently unrecognised comorbid condition relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of any and all psychiatric disorders. In the DSM-IV-TR, it is defined by IQ in the 71–84 range. In DSM-5, IQ boundaries are no longer part of the classification, leaving the concept without a clear definition. This modification is one of the least highlighted changes in DSM-5. In this article we describe the history of the classification of borderline intellectual functioning. We provide information about it and on the importance of placing it in the right context and in the right place in future DSM editions and other classification systems such as the International Classification of Diseases. PMID:27512590

  14. An approach for classification of hydrogeological systems at the regional scale based on groundwater hydrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haaf, Ezra; Barthel, Roland

    2016-04-01

    When assessing hydrogeological conditions at the regional scale, the analyst is often confronted with uncertainty of structures, inputs and processes while having to base inference on scarce and patchy data. Haaf and Barthel (2015) proposed a concept for handling this predicament by developing a groundwater systems classification framework, where information is transferred from similar, but well-explored and better understood to poorly described systems. The concept is based on the central hypothesis that similar systems react similarly to the same inputs and vice versa. It is conceptually related to PUB (Prediction in ungauged basins) where organization of systems and processes by quantitative methods is intended and used to improve understanding and prediction. Furthermore, using the framework it is expected that regional conceptual and numerical models can be checked or enriched by ensemble generated data from neighborhood-based estimators. In a first step, groundwater hydrographs from a large dataset in Southern Germany are compared in an effort to identify structural similarity in groundwater dynamics. A number of approaches to group hydrographs, mostly based on a similarity measure - which have previously only been used in local-scale studies, can be found in the literature. These are tested alongside different global feature extraction techniques. The resulting classifications are then compared to a visual "expert assessment"-based classification which serves as a reference. A ranking of the classification methods is carried out and differences shown. Selected groups from the classifications are related to geological descriptors. Here we present the most promising results from a comparison of classifications based on series correlation, different series distances and series features, such as the coefficients of the discrete Fourier transform and the intrinsic mode functions of empirical mode decomposition. Additionally, we show examples of classes

  15. Cognitive-motivational deficits in ADHD: development of a classification system.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rashmi; Kar, Bhoomika R; Srinivasan, Narayanan

    2011-01-01

    The classification systems developed so far to detect attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) do not have high sensitivity and specificity. We have developed a classification system based on several neuropsychological tests that measure cognitive-motivational functions that are specifically impaired in ADHD children. A total of 240 (120 ADHD children and 120 healthy controls) children in the age range of 6-9 years and 32 Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) children (aged 9 years) participated in the study. Stop-Signal, Task-Switching, Attentional Network, and Choice Delay tests were administered to all the participants. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that percentage choice of long-delay reward best classified the ADHD children from healthy controls. Single parameters were not helpful in making a differential classification of ADHD with ODD. Multinominal logistic regression (MLR) was performed with multiple parameters (data fusion) that produced improved overall classification accuracy. A combination of stop-signal reaction time, posterror-slowing, mean delay, switch cost, and percentage choice of long-delay reward produced an overall classification accuracy of 97.8%; with internal validation, the overall accuracy was 92.2%. Combining parameters from different tests of control functions not only enabled us to accurately classify ADHD children from healthy controls but also in making a differential classification with ODD. These results have implications for the theories of ADHD.

  16. The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Genc, Sermin; Zadeoglulari, Zeynep; Fuss, Stefan H.; Genc, Kursad

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well established in a series of major epidemiological and observational studies. In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and neurodevelopmental disorders. It has been demonstrated that various components of air pollution, such as nanosized particles, can easily translocate to the CNS where they can activate innate immune responses. Furthermore, systemic inflammation arising from the pulmonary or cardiovascular system can affect CNS health. Despite intense studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, the underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain largely elusive. However, emerging evidence suggests that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, microglial activation, cerebrovascular dysfunction, and alterations in the blood-brain barrier contribute to CNS pathology. A better understanding of the mediators and mechanisms will enable the development of new strategies to protect individuals at risk and to reduce detrimental effects of air pollution on the nervous system and mental health. PMID:22523490

  17. Combined air stripper/membrane vapor separation systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wijmans, J.G.; Baker, R.W.; Kamaruddin, H.D.; Kaschemekat, J.; Olsen, R.P.; Rose, M.E.; Segelke, S.V.

    1992-11-01

    Air stripping is an economical and efficient method of removing dissolved volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater. Air strippers, however, produce a vent air stream, which must meet the local air quality limits. If the VOC content exceeds the limits, direct discharge is not possible; therefore, a carbon adsorption VOC capture system is used to treat the vent air. This treatment step adds a cost of at least $50/lb of VOC captured. In this program, a combined air stripper/membrane vapor separation system was constructed and demonstrated in the laboratory. The membrane system captures VOCs from the stripper vent stream at a projected cost of $15/lb VOC for a water VOC content of 5 ppmw, and $75/lb VOC for a water VOC content of 1 ppmw. The VOCs are recovered as a small, concentrated liquid fraction for disposal or solvent recycling. The concept has been demonstrated in experiments with a system capable of handling up to 150,000 gpd of water. The existing demonstration system is available for field tests at a DOE facility or remediation site. Replacement of the current short air stripping tower (effective height 3 m) with a taller tower is recommended to improve VOC removal.

  18. Prototype air cleaning system for a firing range

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Mishima, J.; Bamberger, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    This report recommends air cleaning system components for the US Army Ballistics Research Laboratory's new large-caliber firing range, which is used for testing depleted uranium (DU) penetrators. The new air cleaning system has lower operating costs during the life of the system compared to that anticipated for the existing air cleaning system. The existing system consists of three banks of filters in series; the first two banks are prefilters and the last are high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The principal disadvantage of the existing filters is that they are not cleanable and reusable. Pacific Northwest Laboratory focused the search for alternate air cleaning equipment on devices that do not employ liquids as part of the particle collection mechanism. Collected dry particles were assumed preferable to a liquid waste stream. The dry particle collection devices identified included electrostatic precipitators; inertial separators using turning vanes or cyclones; and several devices employing a filter medium such as baghouses, cartridge houses, cleanable filters, and noncleanable filters similar to those in the existing system. The economics of practical air cleaning systems employing the dry particle collection devices were evaluated in 294 different combinations. 7 references, 21 figures, 78 tables.

  19. 7. Northeast view interior, air traffic control and landing system ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Northeast view interior, air traffic control and landing system room 25 - Selfridge Field, Building No. 1050, Northwest corner of Doolittle Avenue & D Street; Harrison Township, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  20. Technology options for an enhanced air cargo system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winston, M. M.

    1979-01-01

    A view of potential enhancements to the air cargo system through technology application is provided. NASA's role in addressing deficiencies of the current civil and military air cargo systems is outlined. The evolution of conventional airfreighter design is traced and projected through the 1990's. Also, several advanced airfreighter concepts incorporating unconventional design features are described to show their potentials benefits. A number of ongoing NASA technology programs are discussed to indicate the wide range of advanced technologies offering potential benefits to the air cargo system. The promise of advanced airfreighters is then viewed in light of the future air cargo infrastructure predicted by extensive systems studies. The derived outlook concludes that the aircraft technology benefits may be offset somewhat by adverse economic, environmental, and institutional constraints.

  1. View of building 11070 showing vents and forced air system ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of building 11070 showing vents and forced air system on east side, looking southwest. - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, China Lake Pilot Plant, Maintenance Shop, C Street, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  2. Air cushion landing system stability study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, T. D.

    1981-02-01

    An analysis of an inelastic ACLS plunge mode dynamic model is presented. The ACLS has unrestrained side elements and frozen end elements. The model exhibits unstable behavior at certain operating conditions for which the side elements are in contact with the ground. A linear analysis showed this instability to be due mainly to the altitude sensitivities of the cushion to atmosphere airflows and the attendant influence on the dynamic pressure forces on the vehicle. The model instability can be alleviated by isolating side and end elements so that they are all unrestrained and by simultaneously venting the air cushion directly to atmosphere.

  3. 9. Water Purification System and Instrument Air Receiver Tank, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Water Purification System and Instrument Air Receiver Tank, view to the south. The water purification system is visible in the right foreground of the photograph and the instrument air receiver tank is visible in the right background of the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  4. A reliability study of instrument air system design options

    SciTech Connect

    Guey, C.; Skelley, W. ); Gilbert, L.; Anoba, R.; Stutzke, M. )

    1992-01-01

    The existing instrument air system at Turkey Point station uses mobile diesel-driven air compressors. Although these diesel compressors have performed their function well, they represent a maintenance and financial burden requiring engineering review. An engineering evaluation is ongoing to develop several feasible conceptual design options to upgrade the instrument air systems. This phase-1 study was performed to assess the reliability of the various proposed design options. A phase-2 study will be conducted later to determine the core damage frequency for a selected option.

  5. Air data system optimization using a genetic algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, Samir M.; Kumar, Renjith R.; Seywald, Hans; Siemers, Paul M., III

    1992-01-01

    An optimization method for flush-orifice air data system design has been developed using the Genetic Algorithm approach. The optimization of the orifice array minimizes the effect of normally distributed random noise in the pressure readings on the calculation of air data parameters, namely, angle of attack, sideslip angle and freestream dynamic pressure. The optimization method is applied to the design of Pressure Distribution/Air Data System experiment (PD/ADS) proposed for inclusion in the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE). Results obtained by the Genetic Algorithm method are compared to the results obtained by conventional gradient search method.

  6. Effect of air classification and fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum VTT E-133328 on faba bean (Vicia faba L.) flour nutritional properties.

    PubMed

    Coda, Rossana; Melama, Leena; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Curiel, José Antonio; Sibakov, Juhani; Holopainen, Ulla; Pulkkinen, Marjo; Sozer, Nesli

    2015-01-16

    The effects of air classification and lactic acid bacteria fermentation on the reduction of anti-nutritional factors (vicine and convicine, trypsin inhibitor activity, condensed tannins and phytic acid) and in vitro protein and starch digestibility of faba bean flour were studied. Free amino acid (FAA) profile analysis was also carried out. Air classification allowed the separation of the flour into protein and starch rich fractions, showing different chemical compositions and microstructures. Lactobacillus plantarum growth and acidification in faba bean flour and its fractions were assessed. The anti-nutritional compounds were separated mostly to the fine protein-rich fraction. Fermentation caused the decrease of vicine and convicine contents by more than 91% and significantly reduced trypsin inhibitor activity and condensed tannins (by more than 40% in the protein-rich fraction). No significant (P>0.05) variation was observed for total phenols and phytic acid content. Fermentation increased the amount of FAA, especially of the essential amino acids and γ-aminobutyric acid, enhanced the in vitro protein digestibility and significantly lowered the hydrolysis index. This work showed that the combination of air classification and fermentation improved nutritional functionality of faba bean flour which could be utilized in various food applications.

  7. Methods for assessing hydrogeological similarity and for classification of groundwater systems on the regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haaf, Ezra; Barthel, Roland

    2015-04-01

    Conducting groundwater modelling and resource analysis on the regional scale is often complicated by the scarcity and uneven distribution of observations over space and time, the uncertainty of structures, inputs and processes as well as the inherent heterogeneity and variability of hydrogeological conditions. In order to improve modelling and prediction of poorly-observed groundwater systems, information could be transferred from similar, but more well-explored and better understood systems analogous to PUB (Prediction in ungauged catchments). To achieve this, the overarching goal of this study is to develop an approach to statistically extract relevant information on structure and state from observed and well characterized locations in order to derive a classification scheme of functionally similar groups. At the core of the approach will be the classification of (i) static hydrogeological characteristics (such as aquifer geometry and hydraulic properties) (ii) dynamic changes of the boundary conditions (such as recharge) and (iii) dynamic groundwater system responses (groundwater head and chemical parameters) as well as the systematic use of the dependencies of system responses on explanatory factors. With a classification framework in place, insight can be gained into the behavior of less well-observed groundwater systems and underlying processes can be better understood. Furthermore, it is expected that regional conceptual models can be checked without the need of numerical groundwater models as well as that missing values in time series can be filled. Apart from illustrating the general approach and the main ideas of groundwater systems classification, we show a number of promising methods that can be used to establish a classification framework for groundwater systems assessment. The focus at the current stage is on finding relevant statistical methods that can be used for identifying and quantifying similarities/dissimilarities of groundwater hydrographs

  8. Classification system of frontal sinus patterns by radiography. Its application to identification of unknown skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, M; Miyasaka, S; Sato, H; Seta, S

    1987-08-01

    Frontal sinuses of Japanese skulls were radiographically examined from the view point of identifying individuals. The system of classification of sinus was proposed, basing on the area size, the bilateral asymmetry, the superiority of side, the outline of upper borders, the partial septa and the supraorbital cells. Frontal sinus patterns could be divided into above 20,000 possible combinations by combining the class numbers in each classification item described above. The frontal sinus pattern of a given person was formulated as a code number which was determined by arranging the class numbers in each classification item as serial numbers. This identification system by the frontal sinus pattern should allow one to characterize each person. The application of this identification system to an actual criminal case was also described.

  9. 5 CFR 9901.231 - Conversion of positions and employees to NSPS classification system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conversion of positions and employees to NSPS classification system. 9901.231 Section 9901.231 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NATIONAL...

  10. 5 CFR 9701.231 - Conversion of positions and employees to the DHS classification system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conversion of positions and employees to the DHS classification system. 9701.231 Section 9701.231 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  11. Comparison of rule-building expert systems with pattern recognition for the classification of analytical data

    SciTech Connect

    Derde, M.P.; Buydens, L.; Guns, C.; Massart, D.L.; Hopke, P.K.

    1987-07-15

    Two expert systems of the rule-building type, TIMM and EX-TRAN, are compared with pattern recognition methods for the classification of olive oils of different origins. Both expert systems are more user-friendly than the pattern recognition programs and TIMM yields slightly better results than nearest neighbors classifiers and linear discriminant analysis.

  12. 77 FR 8117 - Medical Devices; Cardiovascular Devices; Classification of the Endovascular Suturing System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 870 Medical Devices; Cardiovascular Devices; Classification of the Endovascular Suturing System AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the endovascular suturing system into...

  13. Transformations in Air Transportation Systems For the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    Globally, our transportation systems face increasingly discomforting realities: certain of the legacy air and ground infrastructures of the 20th century will not satisfy our 21st century mobility needs. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity for those nations unable to transform from the 20th to 21st century systems. Clearly, new thinking is required regarding business models that cater to consumers value of time, airspace architectures that enable those new business models, and technology strategies for innovating at the system-of-networks level. This lecture proposes a structured way of thinking about transformation from the legacy systems of the 20th century toward new systems for the 21st century. The comparison and contrast between the legacy systems of the 20th century and the transformed systems of the 21st century provides insights into the structure of transformation of air transportation. Where the legacy systems tend to be analog (versus digital), centralized (versus distributed), and scheduled (versus on-demand) for example, transformed 21st century systems become capable of scalability through technological, business, and policy innovations. Where air mobility in our legacy systems of the 20th century brought economic opportunity and quality of life to large service markets, transformed air mobility of the 21st century becomes more equitable available to ever-thinner and widely distributed populations. Several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems create new foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation. One of the technological developments of importance arises from complexity science and modern network theory. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of robustness

  14. An Air Quality Data Analysis System for Interrelating Effects, Standards and Needed Source Reductions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Ralph I.

    1973-01-01

    Makes recommendations for a single air quality data system (using average time) for interrelating air pollution effects, air quality standards, air quality monitoring, diffusion calculations, source-reduction calculations, and emission standards. (JR)

  15. Investigation on wind energy-compressed air power system.

    PubMed

    Jia, Guang-Zheng; Wang, Xuan-Yin; Wu, Gen-Mao

    2004-03-01

    Wind energy is a pollution free and renewable resource widely distributed over China. Aimed at protecting the environment and enlarging application of wind energy, a new approach to application of wind energy by using compressed air power to some extent instead of electricity put forward. This includes: explaining the working principles and characteristics of the wind energy-compressed air power system; discussing the compatibility of wind energy and compressor capacity; presenting the theoretical model and computational simulation of the system. The obtained compressor capacity vs wind power relationship in certain wind velocity range can be helpful in the designing of the wind power-compressed air system. Results of investigations on the application of high-pressure compressed air for pressure reduction led to conclusion that pressure reduction with expander is better than the throttle regulator in energy saving.

  16. Autonomous Integrated Receive System (AIRS) requirements definition. Volume 4: Functional specification for the prototype Automated Integrated Receive System (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chie, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    The functional requirements for the performance, design, and testing for the prototype Automated Integrated Receive System (AIRS) to be demonstrated for the TDRSS S-Band Single Access Return Link are presented.

  17. Register Closing Effects on Forced Air Heating System Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.

    2003-11-01

    Closing registers in forced air heating systems and leaving some rooms in a house unconditioned has been suggested as a method of quickly saving energy for California consumers. This study combined laboratory measurements of the changes in duct leakage as registers are closed together with modeling techniques to estimate the changes in energy use attributed to closing registers. The results of this study showed that register closing led to increased energy use for a typical California house over a wide combination of climate, duct leakage and number of closed registers. The reduction in building thermal loads due to conditioning only a part of the house was offset by increased duct system losses; mostly due to increased duct leakage. Therefore, the register closing technique is not recommended as a viable energy saving strategy for California houses with ducts located outside conditioned space. The energy penalty associated with the register closing technique was found to be minimized if registers furthest from the air handler are closed first because this tends to only affect the pressures and air leakage for the closed off branch. Closing registers nearer the air handler tends to increase the pressures and air leakage for the whole system. Closing too many registers (more than 60%) is not recommended because the added flow resistance severely restricts the air flow though the system leading to safety concerns. For example, furnaces may operate on the high-limit switch and cooling systems may suffer from frozen coils.

  18. Advanced air revitalization system modeling and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dall-Baumann, Liese; Jeng, Frank; Christian, Steve; Edeer, Marybeth; Lin, Chin

    1990-01-01

    To support manned lunar and Martian exploration, an extensive evaluation of air revitalization subsystems (ARS) is being conducted. The major operations under study include carbon dioxide removal and reduction; oxygen and nitrogen production, storage, and distribution; humidity and temperature control; and trace contaminant control. A comprehensive analysis program based on a generalized block flow model was developed to facilitate the evaluation of various processes and their interaction. ASPEN PLUS was used in modelling carbon dioxide removal and reduction. Several life support test stands were developed to test new and existing technologies for their potential applicability in space. The goal was to identify processes which use compact, lightweight equipment and maximize the recovery of oxygen and water. The carbon dioxide removal test stands include solid amine/vacuum desorption (SAVD), regenerative silver oxide chemisorption, and electrochemical carbon dioxide concentration (EDC). Membrane-based carbon dioxide removal and humidity control, catalytic reduction of carbon dioxide, and catalytic oxidation of trace contaminants were also investigated.

  19. Electronic control system for air fuel ratio compensation in highlands

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, J.; Noji, A.

    1981-12-29

    An electronic control system which electronically controls the air fuel ratio of a mixture being supplied to a gasoline engine in highlands is described. An orifice device is provided in a passage through which secondary air is supplied to the venturi section of the engine carburetor. An electronic control unit carries out programmed control of the orifice opening of the orifice device in response to the atmospheric pressure and the engine temperature to create a reference pressure. A further electronic control unit drives a second air control valve provided in the secondary air supply passage along a predetermined operating characteristic pattern in response to the difference between the reference pressure and an actual pressure present in the venturi section of the carburetor. A mixture having an optimum air fuel ratio corresponding to the atmospheric pressure can thus be supplied to the engine from the carburetor.

  20. Performance of a photovoltaically powered air-conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, Jr, E. C.; Millner, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    A vapor-compression air conditioner coupled directly to a photovoltaic array is discussed. Previous analyses of such a system are reviewed, and a development system designed to test the concept is described. Preliminary experiments indicate that the performance of this initial system falls considerably short of analytic expectations.

  1. Retrofitting Air Conditioning and Duct Systems in Hot, Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, C.; Aldrich, R.; Arena, L.

    2012-07-01

    This technical report describes CARB's work with Clark County Community Resources Division in Las Vegas, Nevada, to optimize procedures for upgrading cooling systems on existing homes in the area to implement health, safety, and energy improvements. Detailed monitoring of five AC systems showed that three of the five systems met or exceeded air flow rate goals.

  2. Open Fractures of the Hand: Review of Pathogenesis and Introduction of a New Classification System.

    PubMed

    Tulipan, Jacob E; Ilyas, Asif M

    2016-01-01

    Open fractures of the hand are a common and varied group of injuries. Although at increased risk for infection, open fractures of the hand are more resistant to infection than other open fractures. Numerous unique factors in the hand may play a role in the altered risk of postinjury infection. Current systems for the classification of open fractures fail to address the unique qualities of the hand. This article proposes a novel classification system for open fractures of the hand, taking into account the factors unique to the hand that affect its risk for developing infection after an open fracture.

  3. Data Processing And Machine Learning Methods For Multi-Modal Operator State Classification Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearn, Tristan A.

    2015-01-01

    This document is intended as an introduction to a set of common signal processing learning methods that may be used in the software portion of a functional crew state monitoring system. This includes overviews of both the theory of the methods involved, as well as examples of implementation. Practical considerations are discussed for implementing modular, flexible, and scalable processing and classification software for a multi-modal, multi-channel monitoring system. Example source code is also given for all of the discussed processing and classification methods.

  4. Multi-hole pressure probes to air data system for subsonic small-scale air vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, A. M.; Berezin, D. R.; Puzirev, L. N.; Tarasov, A. Z.; Kharitonov, A. M.; Shmakov, A. S.

    2016-10-01

    A brief review of research performed to develop multi-hole probes to measure of aerodynamic angles, dynamic head, and static pressure of a flying vehicle. The basis of these works is the application a well-known classical multi-hole pressure probe technique of measuring of a 3D flow to use in the air data system. Two multi-hole pressure probes with spherical and hemispherical head to air-data system for subsonic small-scale vehicles have been developed. A simple analytical probe model with separation of variables is proposed. The probes were calibrated in the wind tunnel, one of them is in-flight tested.

  5. Air-flow regulation system for a coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1984-01-01

    An improved air-flow regulator for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which allows close air-flow regulation from a compressor source even though the pressure variations are too rapid for a single primary control loop to respond. The improved system includes a primary controller to control a valve in the main (large) air supply line to regulate large slow changes in flow. A secondary controller is used to control a smaller, faster acting valve in a secondary (small) air supply line parallel to the main line valve to regulate rapid cyclic deviations in air flow. A low-pass filter with a time constant of from 20 to 50 seconds couples the output of the secondary controller to the input of the primary controller so that the primary controller only responds to slow changes in the air-flow rate, the faster, cyclic deviations in flow rate sensed and corrected by the secondary controller loop do not reach the primary controller due to the high frequency rejection provided by the filter. This control arrangement provides at least a factor of 5 improvement in air-flow regulation for a coal gasifier in which air is supplied by a reciprocating compressor through a surge tank.

  6. A New System for Classification of Chinese Characters: Initial Three-Stroke Index System (Tou San-Bi Jyandzfa).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, C. K.; Wu, K. S.

    Since the 17th century, Chinese lexicography has been dominated by a character classification system divided into 214 radical groups. The proposed initial three-stroke system would eliminate the need to select (or guess) the proper radical and count strokes. The aim of the system is to facilitate the use of dictionaries and provide the student…

  7. Topological classification of integrable Hamiltonian systems in a potential field on surfaces of revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantonistova, E. O.

    2016-03-01

    A topological classification, up to Liouville (leafwise) equivalence of integrable Hamiltonian systems given by flows with a smooth potential on two-dimensional surfaces of revolution is presented. It is shown that the restrictions of such systems to three-dimensional isoenergy surfaces can be modelled by the geodesic flows (without potential) of certain surfaces of revolution. It is also shown that in many important cases the systems under consideration are equivalent to other well-known mechanical systems. Bibliography: 29 titles.

  8. Underfloor air distribution systems: Benefits and when to use the system in building design

    SciTech Connect

    McCarry, B.T.

    1995-12-31

    Underfloor air distribution systems are a viable option for mechanical system building design. They are comprised of raised floor panels with a supply air plenum in the void between the raised floor and the concrete structure. Supply air grilles are flush mounted to the floor to create a flat floor and walking surface. The engineering challenge is to determine when to use underfloor air distribution systems and how to effectively apply them. The best places to use this system are in owner-occupied buildings with a high churn rate and/or frequent technology changes. The benefits of this system include fresh air at the level where building occupants are located, forgiveness for variations in internal cooling loads, easy relocation of the supply air grilles to suit revised layouts, a reduction in energy costs for the mechanical system, and an improvement in indoor air quality.

  9. DMCS: Dual-Model Classification System and Its Application in Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qun; Weng, Ruihua; Weng, Fengyu

    The paper introduces a novel dual-model classification method - Dual-Model Classification System (DMCS). The DMCS is a personalized or transductive system which is created for every new input vector and trained on a small number of data. These data are selected from the whole training data set and they are closest to the new vector in the input space. In the proposed DMCS, two transductive fuzzy inference models are taken as the structure functions and trained with different sub-training data sets. In this paper, DMCS is illustrated on a case study: a real medical decision support problem of estimating the survival of hemodialysis patients. This personalized modeling method can also be applied to solve other classification problems.

  10. Stygoregions – a promising approach to a bioregional classification of groundwater systems

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Heide; Griebler, Christian; Berkhoff, Sven; Matzke, Dirk; Fuchs, Andreas; Hahn, Hans Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Linked to diverse biological processes, groundwater ecosystems deliver essential services to mankind, the most important of which is the provision of drinking water. In contrast to surface waters, ecological aspects of groundwater systems are ignored by the current European Union and national legislation. Groundwater management and protection measures refer exclusively to its good physicochemical and quantitative status. Current initiatives in developing ecologically sound integrative assessment schemes by taking groundwater fauna into account depend on the initial classification of subsurface bioregions. In a large scale survey, the regional and biogeographical distribution patterns of groundwater dwelling invertebrates were examined for many parts of Germany. Following an exploratory approach, our results underline that the distribution patterns of invertebrates in groundwater are not in accordance with any existing bioregional classification system established for surface habitats. In consequence, we propose to develope a new classification scheme for groundwater ecosystems based on stygoregions. PMID:22993698

  11. Stygoregions--a promising approach to a bioregional classification of groundwater systems.

    PubMed

    Stein, Heide; Griebler, Christian; Berkhoff, Sven; Matzke, Dirk; Fuchs, Andreas; Hahn, Hans Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Linked to diverse biological processes, groundwater ecosystems deliver essential services to mankind, the most important of which is the provision of drinking water. In contrast to surface waters, ecological aspects of groundwater systems are ignored by the current European Union and national legislation. Groundwater management and protection measures refer exclusively to its good physicochemical and quantitative status. Current initiatives in developing ecologically sound integrative assessment schemes by taking groundwater fauna into account depend on the initial classification of subsurface bioregions. In a large scale survey, the regional and biogeographical distribution patterns of groundwater dwelling invertebrates were examined for many parts of Germany. Following an exploratory approach, our results underline that the distribution patterns of invertebrates in groundwater are not in accordance with any existing bioregional classification system established for surface habitats. In consequence, we propose to develope a new classification scheme for groundwater ecosystems based on stygoregions.

  12. Priming Effects Associated with the Hierarchical Levels of Classification Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loehrlein, Aaron J.

    2012-01-01

    The act of categorization produces conceptual representations in memory while knowledge organization (KO) systems provide conceptual representations that are used in information storage and retrieval systems. Previous research has explored how KO systems can be designed to resemble the user's internal conceptual structures. However, the more…

  13. Measurement results obtained from air quality monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Turzanski, P.K.; Beres, R.

    1995-12-31

    An automatic system of air pollution monitoring operates in Cracow since 1991. The organization, assembling and start-up of the network is a result of joint efforts of the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Cracow environmental protection service. At present the automatic monitoring network is operated by the Provincial Inspection of Environmental Protection. There are in total seven stationary stations situated in Cracow to measure air pollution. These stations are supported continuously by one semi-mobile (transportable) station. It allows to modify periodically the area under investigation and therefore the 3-dimensional picture of creation and distribution of air pollutants within Cracow area could be more intelligible.

  14. Integration of air separation membrane and coalescing filter for use on an inlet air system of an engine

    DOEpatents

    Moncelle, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    An intake air separation system suitable for combustion air of an internal combustion engine. An air separation device of the system includes a plurality of fibers, each fiber having a tube with a permeation barrier layer on the outer surface thereof and a coalescing layer on the inner surface thereof, to restrict fluid droplets from contacting the permeation barrier layer.

  15. A Hitchhiker’s Guide to Myeloid Cell Subsets: Practical Implementation of a Novel Mononuclear Phagocyte Classification System

    PubMed Central

    Guilliams, Martin; van de Laar, Lianne

    2015-01-01

    The classification of mononuclear phagocytes as either dendritic cells or macrophages has been mainly based on morphology, the expression of surface markers, and assumed functional specialization. We have recently proposed a novel classification system of mononuclear phagocytes based on their ontogeny. Here, we discuss the practical application of such a classification system through a number of prototypical examples we have encountered while hitchhiking from one subset to another, across species and between steady-state and inflammatory settings. Finally, we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of such a classification system and propose a number of improvements to move from theoretical concepts to concrete guidelines. PMID:26322042

  16. Application of solar energy to air conditioning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, J. M.; Harstad, A. J.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a survey of solar energy system applications of air conditioning are summarized. Techniques discussed are both solar powered (absorption cycle and the heat engine/Rankine cycle) and solar related (heat pump). Brief descriptions of the physical implications of various air conditioning techniques, discussions of status, proposed technological improvements, methods of utilization and simulation models are presented, along with an extensive bibliography of related literature.

  17. Performance of air sparging systems: a review of case studies.

    PubMed

    Bass, D H; Hastings, N A; Brown, R A

    2000-02-25

    Fluor Daniel GTI (now IT Corporation) has compiled a database of 49 completed in-situ air sparging case studies. Air sparging is a commonly used remediation technology which volatilizes and enhances aerobic biodegradation of contamination in groundwater and saturated zone soil. The air sparging database was compiled to address questions regarding the effectiveness and permanence of air sparging, and to provide predictive indicators of air sparging success to aid in optimization of existing and future air sparging systems. In each case study, groundwater concentrations were compared before sparging was initiated, just before sparging was terminated, and in the months following shutdown of the sparging system. The case studies included both chlorinated solvents and petroleum hydrocarbon contamination, and covered a wide range of soil conditions and sparge system parameters. In many cases, air sparging achieved a substantial and permanent decrease in groundwater concentrations. Successful systems were achieved with both chlorinated and petroleum contamination, both sandy and silty soils, and both continuous and pulsed flow sparging. In other cases, however, a significant rebound of groundwater concentrations was observed after sparging was terminated. Rebound sometimes required 6 to 12 months to develop fully. Rebound was more frequently observed at sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons than with chlorinated solvents. Petroleum-contaminated sites were more likely to rebound when initial groundwater contamination levels were high enough to suggest the presence of LNAPL or a smear zone of residual LNAPL. Rebound at petroleum sites appeared to be minimized by a high density of sparge wells addressing the entire source area and a high sparge air injection rate. In some cases, rebound appeared to be related to a rising water table.

  18. Integrated Collision Avoidance System for Air Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ching-Fang (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Collision with ground/water/terrain and midair obstacles is one of the common causes of severe aircraft accidents. The various data from the coremicro AHRS/INS/GPS Integration Unit, terrain data base, and object detection sensors are processed to produce collision warning audio/visual messages and collision detection and avoidance of terrain and obstacles through generation of guidance commands in a closed-loop system. The vision sensors provide more information for the Integrated System, such as, terrain recognition and ranging of terrain and obstacles, which plays an important role to the improvement of the Integrated Collision Avoidance System.

  19. Artificial immune system approach for air combat maneuvering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneshige, John; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2007-04-01

    Since future air combat missions will involve both manned and unmanned aircraft, the primary motivation for this research is to enable unmanned aircraft with intelligent maneuvering capabilities. During air combat maneuvering, pilots use their knowledge and experience of maneuvering strategies and tactics to determine the best course of action. As a result, we try to capture these aspects using an artificial immune system approach. The biological immune system protects the body against intruders by recognizing and destroying harmful cells or molecules. It can be thought of as a robust adaptive system that is capable of dealing with an enormous variety of disturbances and uncertainties. However, another critical aspect of the immune system is that it can remember how previous encounters were successfully defeated. As a result, it can respond faster to similar encounters in the future. This paper describes how an artificial immune system is used to select and construct air combat maneuvers. These maneuvers are composed of autopilot mode and target commands, which represent the low-level building blocks of the parameterized system. The resulting command sequences are sent to a tactical autopilot system, which has been enhanced with additional modes and an aggressiveness factor for enabling high performance maneuvers. Just as vaccinations train the biological immune system how to combat intruders, training sets are used to teach the maneuvering system how to respond to different enemy aircraft situations. Simulation results are presented, which demonstrate the potential of using immunized maneuver selection for the purposes of air combat maneuvering.

  20. Implementing the Omaha classification system in a public health agency.

    PubMed

    Weidmann, J A; North, H

    1987-12-01

    Systemized nursing diagnosis based on standardized, coded terminology is in the early stages of evolution. The Waukesha Health Department has been a part of that evolutionary process. Introduction of the concept of nursing diagnosis led to the conclusion that for this agency a more systematic, community tested taxonomy was needed. The OCS was the system selected. The progress of the two systems, NANDA and OCS, appears to be evolving in parallel. No doubt, in the future one system will emerge as best for all fields of nursing. Meanwhile, the use of the OCS in practice settings serves the evolutionary process well by providing a foundation of trial and experience.

  1. A radome for air traffic control SSR radar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A new generation of monopulse and discrete interrogation systems has evolved for air traffic control applications that presents significant challenges to total system design and performance. Reliable operation of the antenna system is essential in today's ever increasing air traffic congestion. An important component of the total system is a radome to protect the antenna from the environment and to enable consistent, reliable electromagnetic performance. The various types of radomes that have been employed over the years to protect antennas are discussed and evaluated relative to the air traffic control radar application. The sandwich radome is selected as the best option and a detailed design analysis is presented which considers the vital characteristics of transmissivity, boresight error, and sidelobe perturbations.

  2. Nutritional assessment of pregnant adolescents: comparison of two popular classification systems.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Janaina de Fátima Ávila; Vasconcelos, Guilherme Miranda; Torloni, Maria Regina; Fisberg, Mauro; Sampaio, Isa de Pádua Cintra; Guazzelli, Cristina Aparecida Falbo

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the degree of concordance between two popular classification systems [the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-2000 and the Institute of Medicine (IOM)-2009] used to categorise the nutritional status of pregnant adolescents. This cross-sectional study involved 327 pregnant adolescents (10-19 years) booking for antenatal care at a single public maternity in São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were classified into one of four categories, by both systems according to their pre-pregnancy body mass index and age. The CDC-2000 system classified significantly fewer pregnant adolescents as underweight (3.7% vs. 12.5%, P < 0.0001) and significantly more adolescents as normal-weight (86.8% vs. 75.6%, P = 0.0003) than the IOM-2009 system. The distribution of the adolescents in the two systems differed significantly. The global rate of discordance was 13.5%. The overall concordance between the two systems was marginally good (K = 0.63), being moderate for younger (<16 years) adolescents (K = 0.52). Approximately one in every seven pregnant adolescent would be classified in a non-corresponding category if the IOM-2009 classification was used instead of the CDC-2000 classification. The IOM-2009 nutritional classification, which does not take into account age and gender, tends to overestimate the proportion of underweight adolescents, especially in the younger-age group. The use of this classification system can lead to recommendations of higher gestational weight gain in a substantial proportion of pregnant adolescents, which could predispose to post-partum weight retention and future obesity.

  3. Application of LANDSAT system for improving methodology for inventory and classification of wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmer, D. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A newly developed software system for generating statistics on surface water features was tested using LANDSAT data acquired previous to 1975. This software test provided a satisfactory evaluation of the system and also allowed expansion of data base on prairie water features. The software system recognizes water on the basis of a classification algorithm. This classification is accomplished by level thresholding a single near infrared data channel. After each pixel is classified as water or nonwater, the software system then recognizes ponds or lakes as sets of contiguous pixels or as single isolated pixels in the case of very small ponds. Pixels are considered to be contiguous if they are adjacent between successive scan lines. After delineating each water feature, the software system then assigns the feature a position based upon a geographic grid system and calculates the feature's planimetric area, its perimeter, and a parameter known as the shape factor.

  4. Method and System for Controlling a Dexterous Robot Execution Sequence Using State Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Adam M. (Inventor); Platt, Robert J., Jr. (Inventor); Quillin, Nathaniel (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Pfeiffer, Joseph (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A robotic system includes a dexterous robot and a controller. The robot includes a plurality of robotic joints, actuators for moving the joints, and sensors for measuring a characteristic of the joints, and for transmitting the characteristics as sensor signals. The controller receives the sensor signals, and is configured for executing instructions from memory, classifying the sensor signals into distinct classes via the state classification module, monitoring a system state of the robot using the classes, and controlling the robot in the execution of alternative work tasks based on the system state. A method for controlling the robot in the above system includes receiving the signals via the controller, classifying the signals using the state classification module, monitoring the present system state of the robot using the classes, and controlling the robot in the execution of alternative work tasks based on the present system state.

  5. Infrared Laser System for Extended Area Monitoring of Air Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowman, L. R.; Gillmeister, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    An atmospheric pollution monitoring system using a spectrally scanning laser has been developed by the General Electric Company. This paper will report on an evaluation of a breadboard model, and will discuss applications of the concept to various ambient air monitoring situations. The system is adaptable to other tunable lasers. Operating in the middle infrared region, the system uses retroreflectors to measure average concentrations over long paths at low, safe power levels. The concept shows promise of meeting operational needs in ambient air monitoring and providing new data for atmospheric research.

  6. A Vegetation Classification of the Opunohu Valley (Moorea Island, French Polynesia) based on a Relative Canopy-Height Class Set Using AirSAR and MASTER Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, B.; Thomas, J.; Capolsini, P.

    2003-12-01

    This paper addresses the vegetation mapping and land use of Opunohu Valley (Moorea Island - French Polynesia) using JPL-AirSAR and MASTER (MODIS/ASTER simulator) images acquired during the PACRIM2 mission (Aug. 2000). These sensors are different but can be considered as complementary since MASTER is a 20 meters ground resolution multispectral imaging scanner with 50 channels distributed in the visible-shortwave infrared, mid infrared and thermal infrared, and AirSAR is a C-band (TOPSAR) and L-band (POLSAR), 5meters ground resolution radar sensor. Our main application field deals with the complex and fragile vegetation cover of south pacific volcanic islands. We presently focus on Opunohu Valley because of its highly representative diversity of vegetation and land cover (found in other polynesian volcanic islands), including different types of forests, coconut fields, grass fields, fern lands, urban zones, agricultural areas, etc... We first defined an original set of classes based on the relative canopy-height of vegetation, we then composed a well-suited RGB SAR-composite image in order to visually discriminate our vegetation classes. An interesting "pineapple fields" class (an important economic resource in Moorea island) proved to particularly discriminate from height-related "grass fields" class because of its structural properties, which lead to a particular signature on SAR images. Using a supervised maximum likelihood algorithm, two classification maps have been defined on both the AirSAR and the MASTER images, using aerial photographs as a ground truth training set. The vegetal species included in each class as well as the classification results are further discussed and the MASTER and AirSAR based classification maps are compared.

  7. Campus Information Systems for Students: Classification in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobarsi, Josep; Bernardo, Merce; Coenders, Germa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: First, this article seeks to establish a conceptual model for campus information systems for students, in order to make their comparison possible for strategic management purposes. Second, it seeks to test this conceptual model in a fieldwork on Spanish higher education institutions, in order to relate information systems characteristics…

  8. An Alternative System of Subject Classification for Media Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trivedi, Harish

    Since an alphabetically arranged newspaper clipping file often separates those items which should be together, a classified system would be more useful in a newspaper library. The system used at the "Dayton (Ohio) Journal Herald" is based on major categories numbered 1-100, with related items in proximity. Subdivisions are provided by adding…

  9. Utility of Automatic Classification Systems for Information Storage and Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litofsky, Barry

    Large-scale, on-line information storage and retrieval systems pose numerous problems above those encountered by smaller systems. A step toward the solution of these problems is presented along with several demonstrations of feasibility and advantages. The methodology on which this solution is based is that of a posteriori automatic classification…

  10. One-man electrochemical air revitalization system evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schbert, F. H.; Marshall, R. D.; Hallick, T. M.; Woods, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    A program to evaluate the performance of a one man capacity, self contained electrochemical air revitalization system was successfully completed. The technology readiness of this concept was demonstrated by characterizing the performance of this one man system over wide ranges in cabin atmospheric conditions. The electrochemical air revitalization system consists of a water vapor electrolysis module to generate oxygen from water vapor in the cabin air, and an electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator module to remove carbon dioxide from the cabin air. A control/monitor instrumentation package that uses the electrochemical depolarized concentrator module power generated to partially offset the water vapor electrolysis module power requirements and various structural fluid routing components are also part of the system. The system was designed to meet the one man metabolic oxygen generation and carbon dioxide removal requirements, thereby controlling cabin partial pressure of oxygen at 22 kN/sq m and cabin pressure of carbon dioxide at 400 N/sq m over a wide range in cabin air relative humidity conditions.

  11. Sensor network based vehicle classification and license plate identification system

    SciTech Connect

    Frigo, Janette Rose; Brennan, Sean M; Rosten, Edward J; Raby, Eric Y; Kulathumani, Vinod K

    2009-01-01

    Typically, for energy efficiency and scalability purposes, sensor networks have been used in the context of environmental and traffic monitoring applications in which operations at the sensor level are not computationally intensive. But increasingly, sensor network applications require data and compute intensive sensors such video cameras and microphones. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of two such systems: a vehicle classifier based on acoustic signals and a license plate identification system using a camera. The systems are implemented in an energy-efficient manner to the extent possible using commercially available hardware, the Mica motes and the Stargate platform. Our experience in designing these systems leads us to consider an alternate more flexible, modular, low-power mote architecture that uses a combination of FPGAs, specialized embedded processing units and sensor data acquisition systems.

  12. Development of a definition, classification system, and model for cultural geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Lloyd W., III

    The concept for this study is based upon a personal interest by the author, an American Indian, in promoting cultural perspectives in undergraduate college teaching and learning environments. Most academicians recognize that merged fields can enhance undergraduate curricula. However, conflict may occur when instructors attempt to merge social science fields such as history or philosophy with geoscience fields such as mining and geomorphology. For example, ideologies of Earth structures derived from scientific methodologies may conflict with historical and spiritual understandings of Earth structures held by American Indians. Specifically, this study addresses the problem of how to combine cultural studies with the geosciences into a new merged academic discipline called cultural geology. This study further attempts to develop the merged field of cultural geology using an approach consisting of three research foci: a definition, a classification system, and a model. Literature reviews were conducted for all three foci. Additionally, to better understand merged fields, a literature review was conducted specifically for academic fields that merged social and physical sciences. Methodologies concentrated on the three research foci: definition, classification system, and model. The definition was derived via a two-step process. The first step, developing keyword hierarchical ranking structures, was followed by creating and analyzing semantic word meaning lists. The classification system was developed by reviewing 102 classification systems and incorporating selected components into a system framework. The cultural geology model was created also utilizing a two-step process. A literature review of scientific models was conducted. Then, the definition and classification system were incorporated into a model felt to reflect the realm of cultural geology. A course syllabus was then developed that incorporated the resulting definition, classification system, and model. This

  13. An Automated Patient Classification System for Staffing, Billing and Productivity Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Budd, Marjorie; Blaufuss, Judy; Propotnik, Toni; Maynard, Jan; Klingle, Connie; Pryor, Allan

    1988-01-01

    Nursing administrators across the country are developing methods to identify nursing department costs and revenue. A patient classification system driven by computerized nurses notes was developed at LDS Hospital as part of the hospital information system. This system is used to determine appropriates staffing on all nursing units and to bill patients directly for nursing care. The data is also used to measure nursing department productivity.

  14. Teaching Sexual History-Taking Skills Using the Sexual Events Classification System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Donald C.; Petri, Justin Daniel; Chapman, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors review the literature about educational programs for teaching sexual history-taking skills and describe novel techniques for teaching these skills. Methods: Psychiatric residents enrolled in a brief sexual history-taking course that included instruction on the Sexual Events Classification System, feedback on residents'…

  15. 77 FR 49991 - Small Business Size Standards; Adoption of 2012 North American Industry Classification System for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... footnote 1). solar, wind, 1). geothermal, and biomass electric power generation. 238190 Other Foundation, R..., replacing the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) System, effective October 1, 2000 (65 FR 30836 (May 5... modification, NAICS 2002 (66 FR 3825 (January 16, 2001)), into its table of size standards, effective October...

  16. Soil classification and carbon storage in cacao agroforestry farming systems of Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information concerning the classification of soils and their properties under cacao agroforestry systems of the Atlantic rain forest biome region in the Southeast of Bahia Brazil is largely unknown. Soil and climatic conditions in this region are favorable for high soil carbon storage. This study is...

  17. Surveillance system and method having an operating mode partitioned fault classification model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A system and method which partitions a parameter estimation model, a fault detection model, and a fault classification model for a process surveillance scheme into two or more coordinated submodels together providing improved diagnostic decision making for at least one determined operating mode of an asset.

  18. ASSESSING THE HYDROGEOLOGIC CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM IN MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAIN STREAMS USING BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing classification systems that describe natural variation across regions is an important first step for developing indicators. We evaluated a hydrogeologic framework for first order streams in the mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain as part of the LIPS-MACS (Landscape Indicators f...

  19. Correlates of Attachment at Age 3: Construct Validity of the Preschool Attachment Classification System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Ellen; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Cyr, Chantal; Mongeau, Chantal; St-Laurent, Diane

    2004-01-01

    This study examined correlates of attachment at age 3 to further validate preschool separation-reunion measures. Three-year-olds (N = 150) and their mothers participated in a separation-reunion protocol, the Preschool Attachment Classification System (PACS: J. Cassidy & R. S. Marvin with the MacArthur Working Group on Attachment, 1992), and a…

  20. Developing and Validating the Communication Function Classification System for Individuals with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidecker, Mary Jo Cooley; Paneth, Nigel; Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Kent, Raymond D.; Lillie, Janet; Eulenberg, John B.; Chester, Ken, Jr.; Johnson, Brenda; Michalsen, Lauren; Evatt, Morgan; Taylor, Kara

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to create and validate the Communication Function Classification System (CFCS) for children with cerebral palsy (CP), for use by a wide variety of individuals who are interested in CP. This paper reports the content validity, interrater reliability, and test-retest reliability of the CFCS for children with CP.…

  1. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Structures, Systems, and Components Safety Classification White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Pete Jordan

    2010-09-01

    This white paper outlines the relevant regulatory policy and guidance for a risk-informed approach for establishing the safety classification of Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant and sets forth certain facts for review and discussion in order facilitate an effective submittal leading to an NGNP Combined Operating License application under 10 CFR 52.

  2. A classification system for large reservoirs of the contiguous United States.

    PubMed

    Krogman, Rebecca M; Miranda, L E

    2015-04-01

    Degradation of reservoir fish habitat has become a serious concern. Habitat issues-such as sedimentation, excessive nutrient loadings, and lack of submerged structure-may emerge and worsen over time and are accompanied by undesirable shifts in the fish community and fisheries. To prioritize habitat rehabilitation efforts in reservoirs, we developed a classification system for large reservoirs in the contiguous U.S. We used a four-step classification approach based on over 50 variables descriptive of habitat impairment in a sample of almost 1300 reservoirs. To account for the broad geographic heterogeneity in climate and landscape, reservoirs were assigned to a spatial framework relevant to aquatic resources, selected based on how well it recognized regional differences in fish habitat. To account for differences among reservoirs within geographical regions, we used cluster analysis to identify classes of reservoirs with similar characteristics. Classes were compared regarding habitat impairment, the fish community, the recreational fishery, and other variables from an external dataset to seek support for the classification system. A method for classifying new reservoirs not included in the original sample was also developed. The resulting classification system identified nine geographical regions distributed throughout the contiguous U.S. and 24 reservoir classes within the nine regions. The system can serve as the framework for a reservoir assessment mechanism. Our approach may be applicable elsewhere a broad-scale dataset is not available and needs to be obtained quickly and inexpensively, whether in regards to fish habitat or other environmental information needs.

  3. Development and Validation of the Preschool Temperament Classification System for Use with Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munis, Pelin; Greenfield, Daryl B.; Henderson, Heather A.; George, J'Lene

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to describe the development and validation of a new measure of temperament, the Preschool Temperament Classification System (PTCS). The PTCS was developed as a typological measure that identifies children's temperament styles as undercontrolled, resilient, or overcontrolled. The PTCS is a time efficient…

  4. Development of the Gross Motor Function Classification System for Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Palisano, Robert J.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; Galuppi, Barbara E.; Russell, Dianne J.

    2008-01-01

    The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) for cerebral palsy has been widely used internationally for clinical, research, and administrative purposes. This paper recounts the ideas and work behind the creation of the GMFCS, reports on the lessons learned, and identifies some philosophical challenges inherent in trying to develop an…

  5. 48 CFR 19.303 - Determining North American Industry Classification System codes and size standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... evidence (see 13 CFR Part 134), and must be received by OHA within 15 calendar days from the date of the... of NAICS code designations are found at 13 CFR 121.1101 to 121.1103 and 13 CFR part 134. ... Industry Classification System codes and size standards. 19.303 Section 19.303 Federal...

  6. 48 CFR 19.303 - Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... officer's response to the appeal, if any, must include argument and evidence (see 13 CFR Part 134), and... Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. 19.303 Section 19.303 Federal Acquisition... of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs 19.303 Determining North American...

  7. 48 CFR 19.303 - Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... officer's response to the appeal, if any, must include argument and evidence (see 13 CFR Part 134), and... Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. 19.303 Section 19.303 Federal Acquisition... of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs 19.303 Determining North American...

  8. Mental Retardation: Definition, Classification, and Systems of Supports. 10th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckasson, Ruth; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon; Buntinx, Wil H. E.; Coulter, David L.; Craig, Ellis M.; Reeve, Alya; Schalock, Robert L.; Snell, Martha E.; Spitalnik, Deborah M.; Spreat, Scott; Tasse, Marc J.

    This manual, the 10th edition of a regularly published definition and classification work on mental retardation, presents five key assumptions upon which the definition of mental retardation is based and a theoretical model of five essential dimensions that explain mental retardation and how to use the companion system. These dimensions include…

  9. A Functional Classification System of the Visually Impaired to Replace the Legal Definition of Blindness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genensky, Samuel M.

    The capacity of the visually impaired to perform normal tasks is the basis of a new classification system proposed to supplant the current legal definition of blindness, now based on arbitrary numerical values used to measure visual acuity and angular field. A discussion of the current plight of the visually impaired focuses on the failure of the…

  10. Mental Retardation: Definition, Classification, and Systems of Supports. 9th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

    This manual, the ninth edition of a regularly published definition and classification work on mental retardation retains some aspects of the system set forth in the eighth (1983) edition, but departs from previous editions in the following ways: (1) it attempts to express the changing understanding of what mental retardation is; (2) it formulates…

  11. Chinese wine classification system based on micrograph using combination of shape and structure features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Yi

    2011-06-01

    Chinese wines can be classification or graded by the micrographs. Micrographs of Chinese wines show floccules, stick and granule of variant shape and size. Different wines have variant microstructure and micrographs, we study the classification of Chinese wines based on the micrographs. Shape and structure of wines' particles in microstructure is the most important feature for recognition and classification of wines. So we introduce a feature extraction method which can describe the structure and region shape of micrograph efficiently. First, the micrographs are enhanced using total variation denoising, and segmented using a modified Otsu's method based on the Rayleigh Distribution. Then features are extracted using proposed method in the paper based on area, perimeter and traditional shape feature. Eight kinds total 26 features are selected. Finally, Chinese wine classification system based on micrograph using combination of shape and structure features and BP neural network have been presented. We compare the recognition results for different choices of features (traditional shape features or proposed features). The experimental results show that the better classification rate have been achieved using the combinational features proposed in this paper.

  12. Enhancing accuracy of mental fatigue classification using advanced computational intelligence in an electroencephalography system.

    PubMed

    Chai, Rifai; Tran, Yvonne; Craig, Ashley; Ling, Sai Ho; Nguyen, Hung T

    2014-01-01

    A system using electroencephalography (EEG) signals could enhance the detection of mental fatigue while driving a vehicle. This paper examines the classification between fatigue and alert states using an autoregressive (AR) model-based power spectral density (PSD) as the features extraction method and fuzzy particle swarm optimization with cross mutated of artificial neural network (FPSOCM-ANN) as the classification method. Using 32-EEG channels, results indicated an improved overall specificity from 76.99% to 82.02%, an improved sensitivity from 74.92 to 78.99% and an improved accuracy from 75.95% to 80.51% when compared to previous studies. The classification using fewer EEG channels, with eleven frontal sites resulted in 77.52% for specificity, 73.78% for sensitivity and 75.65% accuracy being achieved. For ergonomic reasons, the configuration with fewer EEG channels will enhance capacity to monitor fatigue as there is less set-up time required. PMID:25570210

  13. [Recent psychiatric classification systems and their significance for forensic psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Hoff, P

    1992-05-01

    The influence of operationalized diagnostic systems is growing steadily in general and forensic psychiatry. This article discusses the historical context and the advantages and problems that may occur in the application of the new diagnostic systems. It is of special importance that the improvement of communication and reliability within psychiatry does not lead to an uncritical or even dogmatical understanding of the new diagnostic categories.

  14. Hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtsev, A. I.; Nazarova, O. V.

    2016-02-01

    A hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine unit is considered that can be used in both nuclear and centralized power industries. However, it is the most promising when used for power-generating plants based on renewable energy sources (RES). The basic feature of the energy storage system in question is combination of storing the energy in compressed air and hydrogen and oxygen produced by the water electrolysis. Such a process makes the energy storage more flexible, in particular, when applied to RES-based power-generating plants whose generation of power may considerably vary during the course of a day, and also reduces the specific cost of the system by decreasing the required volume of the reservoir. This will allow construction of such systems in any areas independent of the local topography in contrast to the compressed-air energy storage gas-turbine plants, which require large-sized underground reservoirs. It should be noted that, during the energy recovery, the air that arrives from the reservoir is heated by combustion of hydrogen in oxygen, which results in the gas-turbine exhaust gases practically free of substances hazardous to the health and the environment. The results of analysis of a hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are presented. Its layout and the principle of its operation are described and the basic parameters are computed. The units of the system are analyzed and their costs are assessed; the recovery factor is estimated at more than 60%. According to the obtained results, almost all main components of the hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are well known at present; therefore, no considerable R&D costs are required. A new component of the system is the H2-O2 combustion chamber; a difficulty in manufacturing it is the necessity of ensuring the combustion of hydrogen in oxygen as complete as possible and preventing formation of nitric oxides.

  15. Regenerable Air Purification System for Gas-Phase Contaminant Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinescu, Ileana C.; Finn, John E.; LeVan, M. Douglas; Lung, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Tests of a pre-prototype regenerable air purification system (RAPS) that uses water vapor to displace adsorbed contaminants from an adsorbent column have been performed at NASA Ames Research Center. A unit based on this design can be used for removing trace gas-phase contaminants from spacecraft cabin air or from polluted process streams including incinerator exhaust. During the normal operation mode, contaminants are removed from the air on the column. Regeneration of the column is performed on-line. During regeneration, contaminants are displaced and destroyed inside the closed oxidation loop. In this presentation we discuss initial experimental results for the performance of RAPS in the removal and treatment of several important spacecraft contaminant species from air.

  16. Autonomous self-configuration of artificial neural networks for data classification or system control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Wolfgang

    2009-05-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are powerful methods for the classification of multi-dimensional data as well as for the control of dynamic systems. In general terms, ANNs consist of neurons that are, e.g., arranged in layers and interconnected by real-valued or binary neural couplings or weights. ANNs try mimicking the processing taking place in biological brains. The classification and generalization capabilities of ANNs are given by the interconnection architecture and the coupling strengths. To perform a certain classification or control task with a particular ANN architecture (i.e., number of neurons, number of layers, etc.), the inter-neuron couplings and their accordant coupling strengths must be determined (1) either by a priori design (i.e., manually) or (2) using training algorithms such as error back-propagation. The more complex the classification or control task, the less obvious it is how to determine an a priori design of an ANN, and, as a consequence, the architecture choice becomes somewhat arbitrary. Furthermore, rather than being able to determine for a given architecture directly the corresponding coupling strengths necessary to perform the classification or control task, these have to be obtained/learned through training of the ANN on test data. We report on the use of a Stochastic Optimization Framework (SOF; Fink, SPIE 2008) for the autonomous self-configuration of Artificial Neural Networks (i.e., the determination of number of hidden layers, number of neurons per hidden layer, interconnections between neurons, and respective coupling strengths) for performing classification or control tasks. This may provide an approach towards cognizant and self-adapting computing architectures and systems.

  17. Prior-to-Secondary School Course Classification System: School Codes for the Exchange of Data (SCED). NFES 2011-801

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Forum on Education Statistics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In this handbook, "Prior-to-Secondary School Course Classification System: School Codes for the Exchange of Data" (SCED), the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and the National Forum on Education Statistics have extended the existing secondary course classification system with codes and descriptions for courses offered at lower grade…

  18. The classification of Crithidia luciliae immunofluorescence test (CLIFT) using a novel automated system

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, there has been an increased demand for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tools to support clinicians in the field of indirect immunofluorescence. To this aim, academic and industrial research is focusing on detecting antinuclear, anti-neutrophil, and anti-double-stranded (anti-dsDNA) antibodies. Within this framework, we present a CAD system for automatic analysis of dsDNA antibody images using a multi-step classification approach. The final classification of a well is based on the classification of all its images, and each image is classified on the basis of the labeling of its cells. Methods We populated a database of 342 images—74 positive (21.6%) and 268 negative (78.4%)— belonging to 63 consecutive sera: 15 positive (23.8%) and 48 negative (76.2%). We assessed system performance by using k-fold cross-validation. Furthermore, we successfully validated the recognition system on 83 consecutive sera, collected by using different equipment in a referral center, counting 279 images: 92 positive (33.0%) and 187 negative (67.0%). Results With respect to well classification, the system correctly classified 98.4% of wells (62 out of 63). Integrating information from multiple images of the same wells recovers the possible misclassifications that occurred at the previous steps (cell and image classification). This system, validated in a clinical routine fashion, provides recognition accuracy equal to 100%. Conclusion The data obtained show that automation is a viable alternative for Crithidia luciliae immunofluorescence test analysis. PMID:24625089

  19. Classification of Contaminated Sites Using a Fuzzy Rule Based System

    SciTech Connect

    Lemos, F.L. de; Van Velzen, K.; Ross, T.

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the general framework of a multi level model to manage contaminated sites that is being developed. A rule based system along with a scoring system for ranking sites for phase 1 ESA is being proposed (Level 1). Level 2, which consists of the recommendation of the consultant based on their phase 1 ESA is reasonably straightforward. Level 3 which consists of classifying sites which already had a phase 2 ESA conducted on them will involve a multi-objective decision making tool. Fuzzy set theory, which includes the concept of membership functions, was adjudged as the best way to deal with uncertain and non-random information. (authors)

  20. Compressed Air System Optimization: Case Study Food Industry in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widayati, Endang; Nuzahar, Hasril

    2016-01-01

    Compressors and compressed air systems was one of the most important utilities in industries or factories. Approximately 10% of the cost of electricity in the industry was used to produce compressed air. Therefore the potential for energy savings in the compressors and compressed air systems had a big challenge. This field was conducted especially in Indonesia food industry or factory. Compressed air system optimization was a technique approach to determine the optimal conditions for the operation of compressors and compressed air systems that included evaluation of the energy needs, supply adjustment, eliminating or reconfiguring the use and operation of inefficient, changing and complementing some equipment and improving operating efficiencies. This technique gave the significant impact for energy saving and costs. The potential savings based on this study through measurement and optimization e.g. system that lowers the pressure of 7.5 barg to 6.8 barg would reduce energy consumption and running costs approximately 4.2%, switch off the compressor GA110 and GA75 was obtained annual savings of USD 52,947 ≈ 455 714 kWh, running GA75 light load or unloaded then obtained annual savings of USD 31,841≈ 270,685 kWh, install new compressor 2x132 kW and 1x 132 kW VSD obtained annual savings of USD 108,325≈ 928,500 kWh. Furthermore it was needed to conduct study of technical aspect of energy saving potential (Investment Grade Audit) and performed Cost Benefit Analysis. This study was one of best practice solutions how to save energy and improve energy performance in compressors and compressed air system.

  1. A new classification scheme for deep geothermal systems based on geologic controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeck, I.

    2012-04-01

    A key element in the characterization, assessment and development of geothermal energy systems is the resource classification. Throughout the past 30 years many classifications and definitions were published mainly based on temperature and thermodynamic properties. In the past classification systems, temperature has been the essential measure of the quality of the resource and geothermal systems have been divided into three different temperature (or enthalpy) classes: low-temperature, moderate-temperature and high-temperature. There are, however, no uniform temperature ranges for these classes. It is still a key requirement of a geothermal classification that resource assessment provides logical and consistent frameworks simplified enough to communicate important aspects of geothermal energy potential to both non-experts and general public. One possible solution may be to avoid classifying geothermal resources by temperature and simply state the range of temperatures at the individual site. Due to technological development, in particular in EGS (Enhanced Geothermal Systems or Engineered Geothermal Systems; both terms are considered synonymously in this thesis) technology, currently there are more geothermal systems potentially economic than 30 years ago. An alternative possibility is to classify geothermal energy systems by their geologic setting. Understanding and characterizing the geologic controls on geothermal systems has been an ongoing focus on different scales from plate tectonics to local tectonics/structural geology. In fact, the geologic setting has a fundamental influence on the potential temperature, on the fluid composition, the reservoir characteristics and whether the system is a predominantly convective or conductive system. The key element in this new classification for geothermal systems is the recognition that a geothermal system is part of a geological system. The structural geological and plate tectonic setting has a fundamental influence on

  2. Topological classification of systems of Kovalevskaya-Yehia type

    SciTech Connect

    Slavina, N S

    2014-01-31

    All the Fomenko-Zieschang invariants are calculated for the Kovalevskaya-Yehia problem, for all noncritical values of the parameters g and λ, by constructing admissible systems of coordinates and determining the mutual disposition of the basis cycles. The family of Kovalevskaya-Yehia systems contains 29 pairwise Liouville non-equivalent foliations. These foliations include those that are equivalent to previously known foliations, which arose in the integrable cases of Kovalevskaya and of Kovalevskaya-Yehia for g = 0, in the Zhukovskiı case, and in the Goryachev-Chaplygin-Sretenskiı case. Eleven new foliations are included in the 29 foliations, new in the sense that they are not Liouville equivalent to any foliations discovered earlier which arose in the known integrable cases of the rigid body. The topological type of the Liouville foliation for the family of Kovalevskaya-Yehia systems stabilizes at large values of the energy H, and this 'high-energy' system is roughly Liouville equivalent, at one of the energy levels, to the Goryachev-Chaplygin-Sretenskiı integrable case, which is already known. Bibliography: 29 titles.

  3. Performance Evaluation of Multimodal Multifeature Authentication System Using KNN Classification

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopal, Gayathri; Palaniswamy, Ramamoorthy

    2015-01-01

    This research proposes a multimodal multifeature biometric system for human recognition using two traits, that is, palmprint and iris. The purpose of this research is to analyse integration of multimodal and multifeature biometric system using feature level fusion to achieve better performance. The main aim of the proposed system is to increase the recognition accuracy using feature level fusion. The features at the feature level fusion are raw biometric data which contains rich information when compared to decision and matching score level fusion. Hence information fused at the feature level is expected to obtain improved recognition accuracy. However, information fused at feature level has the problem of curse in dimensionality; here PCA (principal component analysis) is used to diminish the dimensionality of the feature sets as they are high dimensional. The proposed multimodal results were compared with other multimodal and monomodal approaches. Out of these comparisons, the multimodal multifeature palmprint iris fusion offers significant improvements in the accuracy of the suggested multimodal biometric system. The proposed algorithm is tested using created virtual multimodal database using UPOL iris database and PolyU palmprint database. PMID:26640813

  4. Intellectual Disability: Definition, Classification, and Systems of Supports. Eleventh Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalock, Robert L.; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A.; Bradley, Valerie J.; Buntinx, Wil H. E.; Coulter, David L.; Craig, Ellis M.; Gomez, Sharon C.; Lachapelle, Yves; Luckasson, Ruth; Reeve, Alya; Shogren, Karrie A.; Snell, Martha E.; Spreat, Scott; Tasse, Marc J.; Thompson, James R.; Verdugo-Alonso, Miguel A.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Yeager, Mark H.

    2010-01-01

    This Manual contains the most current and authoritative information and knowledge on intellectual disability, including best practice guidelines on diagnosing and classifying intellectual disability and developing a system of supports for people living with an intellectual disability. Written by a committee of 18 experts, "Intellectual Disability:…

  5. Genetic programming based ensemble system for microarray data classification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun-Hong; Tong, Muchenxuan; Xie, Shu-Tong; Yee Ng, Vincent To

    2015-01-01

    Recently, more and more machine learning techniques have been applied to microarray data analysis. The aim of this study is to propose a genetic programming (GP) based new ensemble system (named GPES), which can be used to effectively classify different types of cancers. Decision trees are deployed as base classifiers in this ensemble framework with three operators: Min, Max, and Average. Each individual of the GP is an ensemble system, and they become more and more accurate in the evolutionary process. The feature selection technique and balanced subsampling technique are applied to increase the diversity in each ensemble system. The final ensemble committee is selected by a forward search algorithm, which is shown to be capable of fitting data automatically. The performance of GPES is evaluated using five binary class and six multiclass microarray datasets, and results show that the algorithm can achieve better results in most cases compared with some other ensemble systems. By using elaborate base classifiers or applying other sampling techniques, the performance of GPES may be further improved.

  6. Rationale and Training Guides for a Nonverbal Classification System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morganstern, Barry F.

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to provide a rationale for the design and use of a nonverbal coder-training system, and second, to present comprehensive coder-training packages theoretically based in the areas of (1) learning theory, (2) nonverbal research, and (3) instructional technology. Specifically, this training program is…

  7. Performance Evaluation of Multimodal Multifeature Authentication System Using KNN Classification.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Gayathri; Palaniswamy, Ramamoorthy

    2015-01-01

    This research proposes a multimodal multifeature biometric system for human recognition using two traits, that is, palmprint and iris. The purpose of this research is to analyse integration of multimodal and multifeature biometric system using feature level fusion to achieve better performance. The main aim of the proposed system is to increase the recognition accuracy using feature level fusion. The features at the feature level fusion are raw biometric data which contains rich information when compared to decision and matching score level fusion. Hence information fused at the feature level is expected to obtain improved recognition accuracy. However, information fused at feature level has the problem of curse in dimensionality; here PCA (principal component analysis) is used to diminish the dimensionality of the feature sets as they are high dimensional. The proposed multimodal results were compared with other multimodal and monomodal approaches. Out of these comparisons, the multimodal multifeature palmprint iris fusion offers significant improvements in the accuracy of the suggested multimodal biometric system. The proposed algorithm is tested using created virtual multimodal database using UPOL iris database and PolyU palmprint database. PMID:26640813

  8. Topological classification of systems of Kovalevskaya-Yehia type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavina, N. S.

    2014-01-01

    All the Fomenko-Zieschang invariants are calculated for the Kovalevskaya-Yehia problem, for all noncritical values of the parameters g and λ, by constructing admissible systems of coordinates and determining the mutual disposition of the basis cycles. The family of Kovalevskaya-Yehia systems contains 29 pairwise Liouville non-equivalent foliations. These foliations include those that are equivalent to previously known foliations, which arose in the integrable cases of Kovalevskaya and of Kovalevskaya-Yehia for g = 0, in the Zhukovskiı case, and in the Goryachev-Chaplygin-Sretenskiı case. Eleven new foliations are included in the 29 foliations, new in the sense that they are not Liouville equivalent to any foliations discovered earlier which arose in the known integrable cases of the rigid body. The topological type of the Liouville foliation for the family of Kovalevskaya-Yehia systems stabilizes at large values of the energy H, and this 'high-energy' system is roughly Liouville equivalent, at one of the energy levels, to the Goryachev-Chaplygin-Sretenskiı integrable case, which is already known. Bibliography: 29 titles.

  9. Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) Munition Classification System enhancements. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vela, O.A.; Huggard, J.C.

    1997-09-18

    Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) is a non-destructive evaluation technology developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This technology has resulted in three generations of instrumentation, funded by the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA), specifically designed for field identification of chemical weapon (CW) munitions. Each generation of ARS instrumentation was developed with a specific user in mind. The ARS1OO was built for use by the U.N. Inspection Teams going into Iraq immediately after the Persian Gulf War. The ARS200 was built for use in the US-Russia Bilateral Chemical Weapons Treaty (the primary users for this system are the US Onsite Inspection Agency (OSIA) and their Russian counterparts). The ARS300 was built with the requirements of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in mind. Each successive system is an improved version of the previous system based on learning the weaknesses of each and, coincidentally, on the fact that more time was available to do a requirements analysis and the necessary engineering development. The ARS300 is at a level of development that warrants transferring the technology to a commercial vendor. Since LANL will supply the computer software to the selected vendor, it is possible for LANL to continue to improve the decision algorithms, add features where necessary, and adjust the user interface before the final transfer occurs. This paper describes the current system, ARS system enhancements, and software enhancements. Appendices contain the Operations Manual (software Version 3.01), and two earlier reports on enhancements.

  10. New challenges to air/gas cleaning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kovach, J.L.

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the need for changes in the design and manufacturing of air and gas cleaning systems to meet waste management and site remediation requirements. Current design and manufacturing practices are primarily directed toward evaluating operational problems with existing systems in nuclear reactor facilities. However, nuclear waste management needs have developed which are much broader in scope and have different processing conditions. Numerous examples of air cleaning needs for waste management activities are provided; the major differences from operating facility needs are the requirement for continuous effluent treatment under widely different processing conditions. Related regulatory issues are also discussed briefly. 1 ref.

  11. Low power, constant-flow air pump systems

    SciTech Connect

    Polito, M.D.; Albert, B.

    1994-01-01

    A rugged, yet small and lightweight constant-flow air pump system has been designed. Flow control is achieved using a novel approach which is three times more power efficient than previous designs. The resultant savings in battery size and weight makes these pumps ideal for sampling air on balloon platforms. The pump package includes meteorological sensors and an onboard computer that stores time and sensor data and turns the constant-flow pump circuit on/off. Some applications of these systems are also presented in this report.

  12. Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of ventilation is dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, there will be different dilution rates and different source strengths in every zone. Most US homes have central HVAC systems, which tend to mix the air thus the indoor conditions between zones. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of exposure depending on the effectiveness of their air distribution systems and the location of sources and occupants. This paper will report on field measurements using a unique multi-tracer measurement system that has the capacity to measure not only the flow of outdoor air to each zone, but zone-to-zone transport. The paper will derive seven different metrics for the evaluation of air distribution. Measured data from two homes with different levels of natural infiltration will be used to evaluate these metrics for three different ASHRAE Standard 62.2 compliant ventilation systems. Such information can be used to determine the effectiveness of different systems so that appropriate adjustments can be made in residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.

  13. Air Cleaning Devices for HVAC Supply Systems in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    Guidelines for maintaining indoor air quality in schools with HVAC air cleaning systems are provided in this document. Information is offered on the importance of air cleaning, sources of air contaminants and indoor pollutants, types of air cleaners and particulate filters used in central HVAC systems, vapor and gas removal, and performance…

  14. A Dualistic Stream Classification System for Oregon: In Support of a Stream Compensatory Mitigation Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, T.; Wigington, P. J.; Comeleo, R. L.; Leibowitz, S. G.; Brooks, J.; Patil, S.; Sobota, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    To meet the goals of the U.S. federal Clean Water Act (CWA) and Oregon's Removal-Fill (R-F) Law, unavoidable impacts to jurisdictional waters, including streams and rivers, must be compensated for through compensatory mitigation under the CWA Section 404 and R-F permitting programs. Compensatory mitigation for impacts to the stream resource is not routinely required, as it generally is for wetlands, and that which does occur is often opportunistic or out-of-kind restoration (e.g. different stream type, wetlands) which does not provide functional replacement for impacts. As part of the effort to improve compensatory mitigation outcomes in Oregon, a stream classification system was needed to inform a more function-based, site level assessment of streams. To meet this need, we have developed a stream/watershed classification system for streams and rivers of various sizes, based in part on a hydrologic landscape classification system, addressing local assessment units, previously developed for Oregon. The system is hierarchical, expandable, and dualistic—providing information at both the local (reach) and watershed (integrative) scales. It recognizes the hydrologic and geologic drivers of stream functions, and meets several a priori criteria established to assure statewide applicability: (1) the same variables are applied regardless of geography to assure consistency across regions, (2) classification is accomplished through an automated GIS process, (3) classes do not require field verification, (4) data used are at appropriate resolution, and (5) classes are consistent with policy intent. Each stream type is defined by basic hydrologic and physical characteristics and determinants of flow regime, and reflects broad functional expectations. Because stream processes are highly influenced by watershed scale parameters, we developed watershed scale data layers to address such questions as annual water surplus availability, seasonality of surplus release, and floodplain

  15. HESTIA Phase I Test Results: The Air Revitalization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Sarah E.; Hansen, Scott W.

    2016-01-01

    In any human spaceflight mission, a number of Environmental Control & Life Support System (ECLSS) technologies work together to provide the conditions astronauts need to live healthily, productively, and comfortably in space. In a long-duration mission, many of these ECLSS technologies may use materials supplied by In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), introducing more interactions between systems. The Human Exploration Spacecraft Test-bed for Integration & Advancement (HESTIA) Project aims to create a test-bed to evaluate ECLSS and ISRU technologies and how they interact in a high-fidelity, closed-loop, human-rated analog habitat. Air purity and conditioning are essential components within any ECLSS and for HESTIA's first test they were achieved with the Air Revitalization System (ARS) described below. The ARS provided four essential functions to the test-bed chamber: cooling the air, removing humidity from the air, removing trace contaminants, and scrubbing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air. In this case, the oxygen supply function was provided by ISRU. In the current configuration, the ARS is a collection of different subsystems. A fan circulates the air, while a condensing heat exchanger (CHX) pulls humidity out of the air. A Trace Contaminant Removal System (TCRS) filters the air of potentially harmful contaminants. Lastly, a Reactive Plastic Lithium Hydroxide (RP-LiOH) unit removes CO2 from the breathing air. During the HESTIA Phase I test in September 2015, the ARS and its individual components each functioned as expected, although further analysis is underway. During the Phase I testing and in prior bench-top tests, the energy balance of heat removed by the CHX was not equal to the cooling it received. This indicated possible instrument error and therefore recalibration of the instruments and follow-up testing is planned in 2016 to address the issue. The ARS was tested in conjunction with two other systems: the Human Metabolic Simulator (HMS) and the

  16. Visualization and Classification of Power System Frequency Data Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, Jason N; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Fernandez, Steven J; Liu, Yilu

    2009-01-01

    Two challenges in the realization of the smart grid technology are the ability to visualize the deluge of expected data streams for global situational awareness and the ability to detect disruptive and classify events from spatially-distributed high-speed power system frequency measurements while minimizing false alarms and eliminating missed detection. This paper presents an interactive visualization model for high speed power system frequency data streams that presents both local and global views of the data streams for decision making process. It also presents a K-Median for clustering and identifying disruptive events in spatially-distributed data streams. The results from experimental evaluation on a variety of datasets show that K-Median achieve better performance and empowers analysts with the ability to make sense of a deluge of frequency measurements in a real-time situation.

  17. Classification of topological phases in periodically driven interacting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Else, Dominic V.; Nayak, Chetan

    2016-05-01

    We consider topological phases in periodically driven (Floquet) systems exhibiting many-body localization, protected by a symmetry G . We argue for a general correspondence between such phases and topological phases of undriven systems protected by symmetry Z ⋊G where the additional Z accounts for the discrete time-translation symmetry. Thus, for example, the bosonic phases in d spatial dimensions without intrinsic topological order [symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases] are classified by the cohomology group Hd +1[Z ⋊G ,U (1 ) ] . For unitary symmetries, we interpret the additional resulting Floquet phases in terms of the lower-dimensional SPT phases that are pumped to the boundary during one time step. These results also imply the existence of novel symmetry-enriched topological (SET) orders protected solely by the periodicity of the drive.

  18. Hybrid Multiagent System for Automatic Object Learning Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Ana; de La Prieta, Fernando; López, Vivian F.

    The rapid evolution within the context of e-learning is closely linked to international efforts on the standardization of learning object metadata, which provides learners in a web-based educational system with ubiquitous access to multiple distributed repositories. This article presents a hybrid agent-based architecture that enables the recovery of learning objects tagged in Learning Object Metadata (LOM) and provides individualized help with selecting learning materials to make the most suitable choice among many alternatives.

  19. Orbit classification in the planar circular Pluto-Charon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotos, Euaggelos E.

    2015-11-01

    We numerically investigate the orbital dynamics of a spacecraft, or a comet, or an asteroid in the Pluto-Charon system in a scattering region around Charon using the planar circular restricted three-body problem. The test particle can move in bounded orbits around Charon or escape through the necks around the Lagrangian points L1 and L2 or even collide with the surface of Charon. We explore four of the five possible Hill's regions configurations depending on the value of the Jacobi constant which is of course related with the total orbital energy. We conduct a thorough numerical analysis on the phase space mixing by classifying initial conditions of orbits and distinguishing between three types of motion: (i) bounded, (ii) escaping and (iii) collisional. In particular, we locate the different basins and we relate them with the corresponding spatial distributions of the escape and collision times. Our results reveal the high complexity of this planetary system. Furthermore, the numerical analysis shows a strong dependence of the properties of the considered basins with the total orbital energy, with a remarkable presence of fractal basin boundaries along all the regimes. Our results are compared with earlier ones regarding the Saturn-Titan planetary system.

  20. Air Purification in Closed Environments: An Overview of Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay L.; LeVan, Douglas; Crumbley, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The primary goal for a collective protection system and a spacecraft environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) are strikingly similar. Essentially both function to provide the occupants of a building or vehicle with a safe, habitable environment. The collective protection system shields military and civilian personnel from short-term exposure to external threats presented by toxic agents and industrial chemicals while an ECLSS sustains astronauts for extended periods within the hostile environment of space. Both have air quality control similarities with various aircraft and 'tight' buildings. This paper reviews basic similarities between air purification system requirements for collective protection and an ECLSS that define surprisingly common technological challenges and solutions. Systems developed for air revitalization on board spacecraft are discussed along with some history on their early development as well as a view of future needs. Emphasis is placed upon two systems implemented by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) onboard the International Space Station (ISS): the trace contaminant control system (TCCS) and the molecular sieve-based carbon dioxide removal assembly (CDRA). Over its history, the NASA has developed and implemented many life support systems for astronauts. As the duration, complexity, and crew size of manned missions increased from minutes or hours for a single astronaut during Project Mercury to days and ultimately months for crews of 3 or more during the Apollo, Skylab, Shuttle, and ISS programs, these systems have become more sophisticated. Systems aboard spacecraft such as the ISS have been designed to provide long-term environmental control and life support. Challenges facing the NASA's efforts include minimizing mass, volume, and power for such systems, while maximizing their safety, reliability, and performance. This paper will highlight similarities and differences among air purification systems