Science.gov

Sample records for air clean water

  1. Cleaning verification by air/water impingement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Lisa L.; Littlefield, Maria D.; Melton, Gregory S.; Caimi, Raoul E. B.; Thaxton, Eric A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper will discuss how the Kennedy Space Center intends to perform precision cleaning verification by Air/Water Impingement in lieu of chlorofluorocarbon-113 gravimetric nonvolatile residue analysis (NVR). Test results will be given that demonstrate the effectiveness of the Air/Water system. A brief discussion of the Total Carbon method via the use of a high temperature combustion analyzer will also be given. The necessary equipment for impingement will be shown along with other possible applications of this technology.

  2. 14 CFR 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean air and water. 1260.34 Section 1260... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C....

  3. 14 CFR 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean air and water. 1260.34 Section 1260... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C....

  4. 14 CFR § 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean air and water. § 1260.34 Section Â... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C....

  5. 14 CFR 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean air and water. 1260.34 Section 1260... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C....

  6. 14 CFR 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Clean air and water. 1260.34 Section 1260.34... Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable only if the award... (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1319(c)), and is...

  7. 78 FR 17229 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Amendment Under the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Amendment Under the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water Act; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; the Missouri Air Conservation Law; the Missouri Clean Water Law and..., the Clean Water Act, the Missouri Clean Water Law, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and...

  8. Food-Growing, Air- And Water-Cleaning Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, R. L.; Scheld, H. W.; Mafnuson, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    Apparatus produces fresh vegetables and removes pollutants from air. Hydroponic apparatus performs dual function of growing fresh vegetables and purifying air and water. Leafy vegetables rooted in granular growth medium grow in light of fluorescent lamps. Air flowing over leaves supplies carbon dioxide and receives fresh oxygen from them. Adaptable to production of food and cleaning of air and water in closed environments as in underwater research stations and submarines.

  9. Plants Clean Air and Water for Indoor Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Wolverton Environmental Services Inc., founded by longtime government environmental scientist B.C. "Bill" Wolverton, is an environmental consulting firm that gives customers access to the results of his decades of cutting-edge bioremediation research. Findings about how to use plants to improve indoor air quality have been published in dozens of NASA technical papers and in the book, "How to Grow Fresh Air: 50 Houseplants That Purify Your Home or Office." The book has now been translated into 12 languages and has been on the shelves of bookstores for nearly 10 years. A companion book, "Growing Clean Water: Nature's Solution to Water Pollution," explains how plants can clean waste water. Other discoveries include that the more air that is allowed to circulate through the roots of the plants, the more effective they are at cleaning polluted air; and that plants play a psychological role in welfare in that people recover from illness faster in the presence of plants. Wolverton Environmental is also working in partnership with Syracuse University, to engineer systems consisting of modular wicking filters tied into duct work and water supplies, essentially tying plant-based filters into heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Also, the company has recently begun to assess the ability of the EcoPlanter to remove formaldehyde from interior environments. Wolverton Environmental is also in talks with designers of the new Stennis Visitor's Center, who are interested in using its designs for indoor air-quality filters

  10. 18 CFR 1316.5 - Clean Air and Water Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... meaning set forth in 40 CFR 15.4. (b) TVA will not award a contract to any offeror whose performance would... is exempt at the time of contract award from the provisions of 40 CFR part 15 as set forth therein... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clean Air and...

  11. 18 CFR 1316.5 - Clean Air and Water Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... meaning set forth in 40 CFR 15.4. (b) TVA will not award a contract to any offeror whose performance would... is exempt at the time of contract award from the provisions of 40 CFR part 15 as set forth therein... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clean Air and...

  12. 78 FR 70960 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, and the Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, and the Resource Conservation... the United States and the State of Illinois under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and relevant state law at facilities formerly owned by PolyOne...

  13. 75 FR 11560 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that... violations of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq., and the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq....

  14. 75 FR 10503 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act... Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q, the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251-1387, the Emergency...

  15. 78 FR 15376 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Amendment Under the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Amendment Under the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water Act; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act; and the... Clean Air Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency...

  16. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274... AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative agreement or...

  17. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et...

  18. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et...

  19. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et...

  20. 14 CFR § 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Â...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et...

  1. 75 FR 42130 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act; Clean Water Act; Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act; Clean Water Act; Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; Safe Drinking Water Act; Toxic Substances Control Act; and the Reporting Requirements of the... U.S.C. 6901 to 6992k; Safe Drinking Water Act (``SDWA''), 42 U.S.C. 300f to 300j-26;...

  2. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  3. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  4. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  5. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  6. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  7. Chicago Clean Air, Clean Water Project: Environmental Monitoring for a Healthy, Sustainable Urban Future

    SciTech Connect

    none, none; Tuchman, Nancy

    2015-11-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy awarded Loyola University Chicago and the Institute of Environmental Sustainability (IES) $486,000.00 for the proposal entitled “Chicago clean air, clean water project: Environmental monitoring for a healthy, sustainable urban future.” The project supported the purchase of analytical instruments for the development of an environmental analytical laboratory. The analytical laboratory is designed to support the testing of field water and soil samples for nutrients, industrial pollutants, heavy metals, and agricultural toxins, with special emphasis on testing Chicago regional soils and water affected by coal-based industry. Since the award was made in 2010, the IES has been launched (fall 2013), and the IES acquired a new state-of-the-art research and education facility on Loyola University Chicago’s Lakeshore campus. Two labs were included in the research and education facility. The second floor lab is the Ecology Laboratory where lab experiments and analyses are conducted on soil, plant, and water samples. The third floor lab is the Environmental Toxicology Lab where lab experiments on environmental toxins are conducted, as well as analytical tests conducted on water, soil, and plants. On the south end of the Environmental Toxicology Lab is the analytical instrumentation collection purchased from the present DOE grant, which is overseen by a full time Analytical Chemist (hired January 2016), who maintains the instruments, conducts analyses on samples, and helps to train faculty and undergraduate and graduate student researchers.

  8. The Clean Air and Clean Water Acts: The "Fifth" and "Eighth" Most Significant Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Laurel A.

    1991-01-01

    The history and impact of this federal legislation are discussed. An assessment of the progress of federal legislation in these areas is presented. Key issues for federal legislation regarding water and air quality are identified. (CW)

  9. 76 FR 26768 - Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under The Clean Water Act, The Clean Air Act, and The...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under The Clean Water Act, The Clean Air Act, and The Federal Pipeline Safety Laws Notice is hereby given that on May 3, 2011, a proposed Consent Decree in United States v. BP... relief for violations of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1311, 1319, 1321, as amended by the Oil...

  10. Nuclear air cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1994-12-31

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters.

  11. 18 CFR 1316.5 - Clean Air and Water Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... meaning set forth in 40 CFR 15.4. (b) TVA will not award a contract to any offeror whose performance would... is exempt at the time of contract award from the provisions of 40 CFR part 15 as set forth therein... Water Acts (a) If performance of this contract would involve the use of facilities which have given...

  12. 78 FR 1251 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act and the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1301 et seq.; and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 42 U.S.C. 6901 et seq... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act On December 31, 2012, the Department of Justice lodged a proposed Consent...

  13. The Clean Air Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalone-King, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Clean Air game which teaches about air quality and its vital importance for life. Introduces students to air pollutants, health of people and environment, and possible actions individuals can take to prevent air pollution. Includes directions for the game. (YDS)

  14. Air Cleaning Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    water molecules and form cluster ions which are attracted to airborne particles. The cluster ion surrounds the airborne particle, and the positive and negative ions react to form hydroxyls. These hydroxyls steal the airborne particle’s hydrogen atom, which creates a hole in the particle’s outer protein membrane, thereby rendering it inactive. Because influenza is primarily acquired by large droplets and direct and indirect contact with an infectious person, any in-room air cleaner will have little benefit in controlling and preventing its spread. Therefore, there is no role for the Plasmacluster ion air purifier or any other in-room air cleaner in the control of the spread of influenza. Accordingly, for purposes of this review, the Medical Advisory Secretariat presents no further analysis of the Plasmacluster. Review Strategy The objective of the systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of in-room air cleaners with built in UVGI lights and HEPA filtration compared with those using HEPA filtration only. The Medical Advisory Secretariat searched the databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, INAHATA (International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment), Biosis Previews, Bacteriology Abstracts, Web of Science, Dissertation Abstracts, and NIOSHTIC 2. A meta-analysis was conducted if adequate data was available from 2 or more studies and where statistical and clinical heterogeneity among studies was not an issue. Otherwise, a qualitative review was completed. The GRADE system was used to summarize the quality of the body of evidence comprised of 1 or more studies. Summary of Findings There were no existing health technology assessments on air cleaning technology located during the literature review. The literature search yielded 59 citations of which none were retained. One study was retrieved from a reference list of a guidance document from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which

  15. Precision cleaning verification of fluid components by air/water impingement and total carbon analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barile, Ronald G.; Fogarty, Chris; Cantrell, Chris; Melton, Gregory S.

    1994-01-01

    NASA personnel at Kennedy Space Center's Material Science Laboratory have developed new environmentally sound precision cleaning and verification techniques for systems and components found at the center. This technology is required to replace existing methods traditionally employing CFC-113. The new patent-pending technique of precision cleaning verification is for large components of cryogenic fluid systems. These are stainless steel, sand cast valve bodies with internal surface areas ranging from 0.2 to 0.9 sq m. Extrapolation of this technique to components of even larger sizes (by orders of magnitude) is planned. Currently, the verification process is completely manual. In the new technique, a high velocity, low volume water stream impacts the part to be verified. This process is referred to as Breathing Air/Water Impingement and forms the basis for the Impingement Verification System (IVS). The system is unique in that a gas stream is used to accelerate the water droplets to high speeds. Water is injected into the gas stream in a small, continuous amount. The air/water mixture is then passed through a converging/diverging nozzle where the gas is accelerated to supersonic velocities. These droplets impart sufficient energy to the precision cleaned surface to place non-volatile residue (NVR) contaminants into suspension in the water. The sample water is collected and its NVR level is determined by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis at 880 C. The TOC, in ppm carbon, is used to establish the NVR level. A correlation between the present gravimetric CFC113 NVR and the IVS NVR is found from experimental sensitivity factors measured for various contaminants. The sensitivity has the units of ppm of carbon per mg/sq ft of contaminant. In this paper, the equipment is described and data are presented showing the development of the sensitivity factors from a test set including four NVRs impinged from witness plates of 0.05 to 0.75 sq m.

  16. Precision Cleaning Verification of Fluid Components by Air/Water Impingement and Total Carbon Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barile, Ronald G.; Fogarty, Chris; Cantrell, Chris; Melton, Gregory S.

    1995-01-01

    NASA personnel at Kennedy Space Center's Material Science Laboratory have developed new environmentally sound precision cleaning and verification techniques for systems and components found at the center. This technology is required to replace existing methods traditionally employing CFC-113. The new patent-pending technique of precision cleaning verification is for large components of cryogenic fluid systems. These are stainless steel, sand cast valve bodies with internal surface areas ranging from 0.2 to 0.9 m(exp 2). Extrapolation of this technique to components of even larger sizes (by orders of magnitude) is planned. Currently, the verification process is completely manual. In the new technique, a high velocity, low volume water stream impacts the part to be verified. This process is referred to as Breathing Air/Water Impingement and forms the basis for the Impingement Verification System (IVS). The system is unique in that a gas stream is used to accelerate the water droplets to high speeds. Water is injected into the gas stream in a small, continuous amount. The air/water mixture is then passed through a converging-diverging nozzle where the gas is accelerated to supersonic velocities. These droplets impart sufficient energy to the precision cleaned surface to place non-volatile residue (NVR) contaminants into suspension in the water. The sample water is collected and its NVR level is determined by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis at 880 C. The TOC, in ppm carbon, is used to establish the NVR level. A correlation between the present gravimetric CFC-113 NVR and the IVS NVR is found from experimental sensitivity factors measured for various contaminants. The sensitivity has the units of ppm of carbon per mg-ft(exp 2) of contaminant. In this paper, the equipment is described and data are presented showing the development of the sensitivity factors from a test set including four NVR's impinged from witness plates of 0.05 to 0.75 m(exp 2).

  17. The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources: clean land, water, and air for healthy people and communities.

    PubMed

    Riegel, Lisa Diaz; Wakild, Charles; Boothe, Laura; Hildebrandt, Heather J; Nicholson, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources works with communities and other agencies to sustain clean air, water, and land. Sustainability efforts include protecting air quality through community design, community enhancement through brownfields revitalization, community development strategies to protect water resources, and the integration of natural resource conservation.

  18. The new Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Padmanabha, A.P. ); Olem, H. )

    1991-05-01

    This article is a title by title review of the new Clean Air Act and how it affects water quality and wastewater treatment. The bill provides for restoring and protecting lakes and rivers by reducing acid-rain-causing emissions and toxics from nonpoint-source runoff. Topics covered include urban smog, mobile sources, air toxics, acid rain, permits, ozone-depleting chemicals, enforcement, and the law's socio-economic impacts.

  19. Clean air strategies study

    SciTech Connect

    Quartucy, G.C.; Chrisman, L.J.P. ); Nylander, J.H.; Keller, W.B. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that San Diego Gas and Electric Company (SDG and E) is evaluating emissions control technologies suitable for retrofit to their utility boilers. This effort is being driven by actions undertaken by the San Diego Air Pollution Control District (SDAPCD) in response to the California Clean Air Act. These actions include the development of two Tactic Evaluations, and the preparation of proposed regulatory limits. Tactic Evaluations are proposed methods to achieve compliance with California ambient air quality standards. Emissions of concern include NO{sub x}, CO, ROG, PM and SO{sub 2}. Of these species, it appears that NO{sub x} is the emission species of primary concern.

  20. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 15) implementing requirements with respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act...

  1. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 15) implementing requirements with respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act...

  2. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 15) implementing requirements with respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act...

  3. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 15) implementing requirements with respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act...

  4. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 15) implementing requirements with respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act...

  5. Plants + microbes: Innovative food crop systems that also clean air and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Wolverton, B. C.

    The limitations that will govern bioregenerative life support applications in space, especially volume and weight, make multi-purpose systems advantageous. This paper outlines two systems which utilize plants and associated microbial communities of root or growth medium to both produce food crops and clean air and water. Underlying these approaches are the large numbers and metabolic diversity of microbes associated with roots and found in either soil or other suitable growth media. It is known that most biogeochemical cycles have a microbial link, and the ability of microbes to metabolize virtually all trace gases, whether of technogenic or biogenic origin, have long been established. Wetland plants and soil/media also been extensively researched for their ability to purify wastewaters of all kinds of potential water pollutants, from nutrients like N and P, to heavy metals and a range of complex industrial pollutants. There is a growing body of research on the ability of higher plants to purify air and water. Associated benefits of these approaches is that by utilizing natural ecological processes, the cleansing of air and water can be done with little or no energy inputs. Soil and root microorganisms respond to changing pollutant types by an increase of the types of organisms with the capacity to use these compounds. Thus living systems have an extraordinary adaptive capacity as long as the starting populations are sufficiently diverse. It is known that tightly sealed environments, from office buildings to spacecraft, can have hundreds or even thousands of potential air pollutants, depending on the materials and machines enclosed. Human waste products carry a plethora of microbes can are readily used in the process of converting its organic load to forms that can be utilized by green plants. Having endogenous means of responding to changing air and water quality conditions represents safety factors which operate without the need for human direction. We will

  6. Plants + soil/wetland microbes: Food crop systems that also clean air and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Wolverton, B. C.

    2011-02-01

    The limitations that will govern bioregenerative life support applications in space, especially volume and weight, make multi-purpose systems advantageous. This paper outlines two systems which utilize plants and associated microbial communities of root or growth medium to both produce food crops and clean air and water. Underlying these approaches are the large numbers and metabolic diversity of microbes associated with roots and found in either soil or other suitable growth media. Biogeochemical cycles have microbial links and the ability of microbes to metabolize virtually all trace gases, whether of technogenic or biogenic origin, has long been established. Wetland plants and the rootzone microbes of wetland soils/media also been extensively researched for their ability to purify wastewaters of a great number of potential water pollutants, from nutrients like N and P, to heavy metals and a range of complex industrial pollutants. There is a growing body of research on the ability of higher plants to purify air and water. Associated benefits of these approaches is that by utilizing natural ecological processes, the cleansing of air and water can be done with little or no energy inputs. Soil and rootzone microorganisms respond to changing pollutant types by an increase of the types of organisms with the capacity to use these compounds. Thus living systems have an adaptive capacity as long as the starting populations are sufficiently diverse. Tightly sealed environments, from office buildings to spacecraft, can have hundreds or even thousands of potential air pollutants, depending on the materials and equipment enclosed. Human waste products carry a plethora of microbes which are readily used in the process of converting its organic load to forms that can be utilized by green plants. Having endogenous means of responding to changing air and water quality conditions represents safety factors as these systems operate without the need for human intervention. We review

  7. Adsorption air cleaning from ozone.

    PubMed

    Baltrenas, Pranas; Paliulis, Dainius; Vasarevicius, Saulius; Simaitis, Ramutis

    2003-01-01

    Not much has been written about air cleaning from ozone. The aim of this paper was to demonstrate the possibility of adsorption air cleaning from ozone. The second aim was to investigate the dependence of the efficiency of ozone removal from the air on the height of the adsorber layer and on concentrations of ozone, and to obtain empirical formulas for calculating the efficiency of ozone treatment. Equipment for air cleaning from ozone and nitrogen and sulphur dioxides is suggested.

  8. Clean Air Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Mike

    According to the Environmental Protection Agency, American electrical utility companies are ahead of schedule in reducing emissions of sulfur dioxide—a major contributor to acid rain—into the atmosphere. By the end of 1995, the 445 boilers with the highest emission levels had cut emissions from 10.9 million tons of SO2 to 5.3 million tons, 39% less emissions than were mandated by the Clean Air Act. Electric utilities account for more than 70% of sulfur dioxide emissions in the United States.

  9. HAVE U.S. SURFACE WATERS RESPONDED TO THE 1990 CLEAN AIR ACT AMENDMENTS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) set target reductions for sulfur and nitrogen emissions from industrial sources as a means of reducing the acidity in deposition. One of the intended effects of the reductions was to decrease the acidity of low alkalinity wate...

  10. Air-cleaning apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, A.G.

    1981-08-18

    An air-cleaning, heat-exchange apparatus includes a main housing portion connected by means of an air inlet fan to the kitchen exhaust stack of a restaurant. The apparatus includes a plurality of heat exchangers through which a heat-absorptive fluid is circulated, simultaneously, by means of a suitable fluid pump. These heat exchangers absorb heat from the hot exhaust gas, out of the exhaust stack of the restaurant, which flows over and through these heat exchangers and transfers this heat to the circulating fluid which communicates with remote heat exchangers. These remote heat exchangers further transfer this heat to a stream of air, such as that from a cold-air return duct for supplementing the conventional heating system of the restaurant. Due to the fact that such hot exhaust gas is heavily grease laden , grease will be deposited on virtually all internal surfaces of the apparatus which this exhaust gas contacts. Consequently, means are provided for spraying these contacted internal surfaces , as well as the hot exhaust gas itself, with a detergent solution in which the grease is soluble, thereby removing grease buildup from these internal surfaces.

  11. Evaluation of six aerator modules built on venturi air injectors using clean water test.

    PubMed

    Dong, C; Zhu, J; Miller, C F

    2009-01-01

    Six aerator modules constructed using venturi air injectors connected in either series or parallel were evaluated and compared for their oxygen transfer coefficients (OTC), standard oxygen transfer rate (SOTR), and standard oxygenation efficiency (SOE) determined by clean water tests. Modules in series (module a, b, c) included one, two, and three venturi injectors, respectively. The aerator module with two (module d) and three (module e, f) venturi injectors in parallel were used, while module f had less friction and more even flow rate in each line compared with module e. The results showed that the OTC, SOTR, and SOE for the six different module configurations (module a, b, c, d, e, f) were 4.54, 3.79, 3.58, 8.37, 5.93 and 11.87 h(-1); 0.10, 0.09, 0.09, 0.18, 0.15, and 0.31 kgO(2)/h; and 0.07, 0.06, 0.06, 0.12, 0.10, and 0.21 kgO(2)/kWh, respectively. The observations indicate that a 3-fold increase in SOTR and 3.5-fold increase in SOE can be obtained by simply changing the way that venturi air injectors are connected, which suggests that it is possible to improve the aeration efficiency of a venturi type aeration system by innovative aerator module designs. In view of the situation that the venturi aeration systems currently used for swine manure lagoons need significant improvement in their performance in order to match the cost-effective requirement, more research in aerator module development is needed so that effective control of odor from liquid swine manure lagoons can be achieved at an affordable cost. The technology such developed can also be applied to other livestock species. PMID:19717924

  12. The Clean Air Mercury Rule

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Rossler

    2005-07-01

    Coming into force on July 15, 2005, the US Clean Air Mercury Rule will use a market-based cap-and-trade approach under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act to reduce mercury emissions from the electric power sector. This article provides a comprehensive summary of the new rule. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. Needed: Clean Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Provides information on air pollution for young readers. Discusses damage to substances and sickness from air pollution, air quality, and what to do in a pollution alert. Includes questions with answers, illustrations, and activities for the learner. (MA)

  14. Air cleaning and radon decay product mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Hopke, P.K. ); Li, C.S. . John B. Pierce Foundation Lab.); Ramamurthi, M. )

    1990-01-01

    We evaluated air cleaning as a means to mitigate risks arising from exposure to indoor radon progeny in several single-family houses in the northeastern United States, using a new, automated, semi-continuous activity-weighted size distribution measurement system. Measurements included radon concentration, condensation nuclei count, and activity-weighted size distribution of radon decay products. Measurements were made with and without the air cleaning system operating. The influence of particles generated by various sources common to normal indoor activities on radon progeny behavior was evaluated. Aerosols were generated by running water in a shower, burning candles, smoking cigarettes, vacuuming, opening doors, and cooking. Both a filtration unit and an electrostatic precipitator were evaluated. Using a room model, the changes in attachment rates, average attachment diameters, and deposition rates of the unattached'' fraction with and without the air cleaning systems were calculated. The air cleaner typically reduced the radon progeny concentrations by 50 to 60%.

  15. Air cleaning and radon decay product mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Hopke, P.K.; Li, C.S.; Ramamurthi, M.

    1990-12-31

    We evaluated air cleaning as a means to mitigate risks arising from exposure to indoor radon progeny in several single-family houses in the northeastern United States, using a new, automated, semi-continuous activity-weighted size distribution measurement system. Measurements included radon concentration, condensation nuclei count, and activity-weighted size distribution of radon decay products. Measurements were made with and without the air cleaning system operating. The influence of particles generated by various sources common to normal indoor activities on radon progeny behavior was evaluated. Aerosols were generated by running water in a shower, burning candles, smoking cigarettes, vacuuming, opening doors, and cooking. Both a filtration unit and an electrostatic precipitator were evaluated. Using a room model, the changes in attachment rates, average attachment diameters, and deposition rates of the ``unattached`` fraction with and without the air cleaning systems were calculated. The air cleaner typically reduced the radon progeny concentrations by 50 to 60%.

  16. Environmental health in China: challenges to achieving clean air and safe water

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Mauzerall, Denise L.; Zhu, Tong; Liang, Song; Ezzati, Majid; Remais, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The health effects of environmental risks, especially those of air and water pollution, remain a major source of morbidity and mortality in China. Biomass fuel and coal are routinely burned for cooking and heating in almost all rural and many urban households resulting in severe indoor air pollution that contributes greatly to the burden of disease. Many communities lack access to safe drinking water and santiation, and thus the risk of waterborne disease in many regions remains high. At the same time, China is rapidly industrializing with associated increases in energy use and industrial waste. While economic growth resulting from industrialization has improved health and quality of life indicators in China, it has also increased the incidence of environmental disasters and the release of chemical toxins into the environment, with severe impacts on health. Air quality in China's cities is among the worst in the world and industrial water pollution has become a widespread health hazard. Moreover, emissions of climate-warming greenhouse gases from energy use are rapidly increasing. Global climate change will inevitably intensify China's environmental health problems, with potentially catastrophic outcomes from major shifts in temperature and precipitation. Facing the overlap of traditional, modern, and emerging environmental problems, China has committed substantial resources to environmental improvement. China has the opportunity to both address its national environmental health challenges and to assume a central role in the international effort to improve the global environment. PMID:20346817

  17. Environmental health in China: progress towards clean air and safe water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L; Zhu, Tong; Liang, Song; Ezzati, Majid; Remais, Justin V

    2010-03-27

    Environmental risk factors, especially air and water pollution, are a major source of morbidity and mortality in China. Biomass fuel and coal are burned for cooking and heating in almost all rural and many urban households, resulting in severe indoor air pollution that contributes greatly to the burden of disease. Many communities lack access to safe drinking water and sanitation, and thus the risk of waterborne disease in many regions is high. At the same time, China is rapidly industrialising with associated increases in energy use and industrial waste. Although economic growth from industrialisation has improved health and quality of life indicators, it has also increased the release of chemical toxins into the environment and the rate of environmental disasters, with severe effects on health. Air quality in China's cities is among the worst in the world, and industrial water pollution has become a widespread health hazard. Moreover, emissions of climate-warming greenhouse gases from energy use are rapidly increasing. Global climate change will inevitably intensify China's environmental health troubles, with potentially catastrophic outcomes from major shifts in temperature and precipitation. Facing the overlap of traditional, modern, and emerging environmental dilemmas, China has committed substantial resources to environmental improvement. The country has the opportunity to address its national environmental health challenges and to assume a central role in the international effort to improve the global environment.

  18. Environmental health in China: progress towards clean air and safe water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L; Zhu, Tong; Liang, Song; Ezzati, Majid; Remais, Justin V

    2010-03-27

    Environmental risk factors, especially air and water pollution, are a major source of morbidity and mortality in China. Biomass fuel and coal are burned for cooking and heating in almost all rural and many urban households, resulting in severe indoor air pollution that contributes greatly to the burden of disease. Many communities lack access to safe drinking water and sanitation, and thus the risk of waterborne disease in many regions is high. At the same time, China is rapidly industrialising with associated increases in energy use and industrial waste. Although economic growth from industrialisation has improved health and quality of life indicators, it has also increased the release of chemical toxins into the environment and the rate of environmental disasters, with severe effects on health. Air quality in China's cities is among the worst in the world, and industrial water pollution has become a widespread health hazard. Moreover, emissions of climate-warming greenhouse gases from energy use are rapidly increasing. Global climate change will inevitably intensify China's environmental health troubles, with potentially catastrophic outcomes from major shifts in temperature and precipitation. Facing the overlap of traditional, modern, and emerging environmental dilemmas, China has committed substantial resources to environmental improvement. The country has the opportunity to address its national environmental health challenges and to assume a central role in the international effort to improve the global environment. PMID:20346817

  19. Enhanced Clean Air Act enforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Faletto, J.S.

    1997-09-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 added new enforcement authorities which will change the way the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the States and environmental groups litigate enforcement actions. EPA, the States and ordinary citizens now have at their disposal an extensive array of enforcement options to deter or penalize those who violate requirements of the Clean Air Act or State Implementation Plans (SIPs). These new enforcement authorities take on even greater significance for major sources covered by the Title V Operating Permit Program.

  20. Clean Air by Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Gary N.

    1995-01-01

    Planning new construction is an opportunity to recognize indoor environmental quality (IEQ) issues. Provides an overview of some common IEQ issues associated with construction projects. A building's heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system is by far the single most common cause of IEQ problems and complaints. (MLF)

  1. The Clean Air Interstate Rule

    SciTech Connect

    Debra Jezouit; Frank Rambo

    2005-07-01

    On May 12, 2005, EPA promulgated the Clean Air Interstate Rule, which overhauls and expands the scope of air emissions trading programs in the eastern United States. The rule imposes statewide caps on emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide to be introduced in two phases, beginning in 2009. This article briefly explains the background leading up to the rule and summarizes its key findings and requirements. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. The clean water handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Arbuckle, J.G.; Randle, R.V. )

    1990-01-01

    The authors offer an explanation of how the clean water laws and regulations affect business operations. This book includes chapters on: Introduction and overview of the Clean Water Act; Enforcement: the power behind the word; toxics water quality standards for industrial and municipal discharges: development and application; Effluent limitations for toxic pollutant discharges from industrial sources: development and application; National pollutant elimination system; Control of stormwater and nonpoint source discharges of water pollution; Reporting and cleanup requirements for releases, spills, or discharges of oil and hazardous substances; Oil spill liability legislation; and Special issues facing publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) and their effect on industrial pretreatment obligations and expenses.

  3. Clean Air Act. Revision 5

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Air Act, as amended, and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. This Reference Book has been completely revised and is current through February 15, 1994.

  4. The Clean Water Act

    SciTech Connect

    Piatt, J.

    1995-12-31

    The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, commonly called the Clean Water Act (CWA), was adopted on 18 October 1972. Since then it has been amended 18 times, the last amendments were adopted on 4 February 1987. As established, its objective is: to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation`s waters. And has, as an interim goal: water quality which provides for the protection and propagation of fish, shellfish, and wildlife and provides for recreation in and on the water. It should be noted that Congress established as the Act`s ultimate goal: the discharge of pollutants into the navigable waters be eliminated. The Act set out to meet this lofty objective and goal through the development and implementation of controls on the point source discharges and the nonpoint source release of pollutants. The regulation of point and nonpoint sources as well as future requirements are discussed.

  5. Cleaning Animals' Cages With Little Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harman, Benjamin J.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed freeze/thaw method for cleaning animals' cages requires little extra weight and consumes little power and water. Cleaning concept developed for maintaining experimental rat cages on extended space missions. Adaptable as well to similar use on Earth. Reduces cleaning time. Makes use of already available facilities such as refrigerator, glove box, and autoclave. Rat waste adheres to steel-wire-mesh floor of cage. Feces removed by loosening action of freezing-and-thawing process, followed by blast of air.

  6. Air/Water Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  7. Water-based cleaning fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, W.B.

    1991-12-01

    A basic description of water-based alkaline cleaning is presented, The nature of soils is described. The compositions of conventional cleaning compounds are given with descriptions of the functions of the ingredients. The mechanisms by which soil is removed are explained. The degrees of cleanliness required, along with the influence of the material being cleaned, are discussed. Tests for cleanliness are described.

  8. The Value of Clean Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindell, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    How can society place a value on clean air? I present a multi-impact economic valuation framework called the Social Cost of Atmospheric Release (SCAR) that extends the Social Cost of Carbon (SCC) used previously for carbon dioxide (CO2) to a broader range of pollutants and impacts. Values consistently incorporate health impacts of air quality along with climate damages. The latter include damages associated with aerosol-induced hydrologic cycle changes that lead to net climate benefits when reducing cooling aerosols. Evaluating a 1% reduction in current global emissions, benefits with a high discount rate are greatest for reductions of co-emitted products of incomplete combustion (PIC), followed by sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and then CO2, ammonia and methane. With a low discount rate, benefits are greatest for CO2 reductions, though the sum of SO2, PIC and methane is substantially larger. These results suggest that efforts to mitigate atmosphere-related environmental damages should target a broad set of emissions including CO2, methane and aerosol/ozone precursors. Illustrative calculations indicate environmental damages are 410-1100 billion yr-1 for current US electricity generation ( 19-46¢ per kWh for coal, 4-24¢ for gas) and 3.80 (-1.80/+2.10) per gallon of gasoline ($4.80 (-3.10/+3.50) per gallon for diesel). These results suggest that total atmosphere-related environmental damages plus generation costs are much greater for coal-fired power than other types of electricity generation, and that damages associated with gasoline vehicles substantially exceed those for electric vehicles.

  9. A Citizen's Guide to Clean Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed as a manual to help citizens participate in air quality control processes. The Clean Air Amendments of 1970 are explained, the first steps in determining a community's air pollution problems are outlined, the basic components of an implementation plan are specified, national and state standards of performance and…

  10. Clean Air Act Amendments of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Carper, Thomas R. [D-DE

    2010-02-04

    03/04/2010 Committee on Environment and Public Works Subcommittee on Clean Air and Nuclear Safety. Hearings held. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    Layering in the Earth's atmosphere is most commonly seen where parts of the atmosphere resist the incursion of air parcels from above and below - for example, when there is an increase in temperature with height over a particular altitude range. Pollutants tend to accumulate underneath the resulting stable layers. which is why visibility often increases markedly above certain altitudes. Here we describe the occurrence of an opposite effect, in which stable layers generate a layer of remarkably clean air (we refer to these layers as clean-air 'slots') sandwiched between layers of polluted air. We have observed clean-air slots in various locations around the world, but they are particularly well defined and prevalent in southern Africa during the dry season August-September). This is because at this time in this region, stable layers are common and pollution from biomass burning is widespread.

  12. 76 FR 40728 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC); Request for Nominations for 2011 Clean Air Excellence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC); Request for Nominations for 2011 Clean Air Excellence... Air Excellence Awards. ] SUMMARY: EPA established the Clean Air Excellence Awards Program in February... progress in achieving clean air. This notice announces the competition for the Year 2011 program....

  13. 75 FR 35025 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC); Request for Nominations for 2010 Clean Air Excellence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC); Request for Nominations for 2010 Clean Air Excellence... Air Excellence Awards. SUMMARY: EPA established the Clean Air Excellence Awards Program in February... progress in achieving clean air. This notice announces the competition for the Year 2010 program....

  14. Clean Air. It's Up to You, Too.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Opportunities for citizen participation in federal environmental decisions relative to air pollution and its control are assessed in this booklet. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as the federal agency charged with enforcement of the Clean Air Act, offers guidelines for responsible citizen action. Designed for groups already organized…

  15. Stakeholder perspectives on the Clean Air Interstate and the Clean Air Mercury Rules

    SciTech Connect

    C.V. Mathai; Jeffrey Holmstead; Michael Shore; Skiles Boyd; Vicky Sullivan; Dan Weiss; John Kinsman; Steve Lomax; Michael Rossler; David Steele; Greg Schaefer; Felice Stadler; David Foerter; William Becker

    2005-08-01

    In a follow-up to last month's detailed overviews of the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR), this month EM presents perspectives on the two rules from representatives of a range of stakeholders, including EPA, the states, the regulated community, and the environmental community. Titles of the perspectives are: A Multipollutant Approach to Emissions Reductions; Clean Air Lessons from the Myth of Sisyphus; Reactions to EPA's Clean Air Interstate and Clean Air Mercury Rules; The Case for Coal Rank Subcategorization to Regulate Mercury Emissions; EPA's Mercury Rule: The Latest Delay Tactic; EPA's Mercury Rule: With Technology Today, We Can Do Better; STAPPA/ALAPCO's Perspectives on CAMR and CAIR. 16 refs.

  16. 75 FR 9208 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is hereby given of a... Waterkeeper, Inc., Clean Water Action, and Chesapeake Climate Action Network (collectively ``Plaintiffs'')...

  17. PERFORMANCE TESTING OF AIR CLEANING PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discuses the application of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program for products that clean ventilation air to the problem of protecting buildings from chemical and biological attack. This program is funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency und...

  18. Senate begins clean air legislation debate

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, M.

    1990-03-01

    This article reports on Senate debate on the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1989. Topics include acid rain provisions, administration objections, costs of the bill including disparity of costs in different regions and cost-sharing proposals, and the effects the current energy policy will have on the bill. Presidential, Senate, and subcommittee views on the bill are presented.

  19. Clean Water Act amendments debated

    SciTech Connect

    Deland, M.R.

    1982-08-01

    A short discussion of the debate taking place between Congress, industry and environmental groups with respect to the amendments to the Clean Water Act is presented. The discussion considers the EPA proposal, the reaction to it, and the prognosis for passage. (KRM)

  20. Floatable, Self-Cleaning, and Carbon-Black-Based Superhydrophobic Gauze for the Solar Evaporation Enhancement at the Air-Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiming; Chen, Jingwei; Guo, Dawei; Cao, Moyuan; Jiang, Lei

    2015-06-24

    Efficient solar evaporation plays an indispensable role in nature as well as the industry process. However, the traditional evaporation process depends on the total temperature increase of bulk water. Recently, localized heating at the air-water interface has been demonstrated as a potential strategy for the improvement of solar evaporation. Here, we show that the carbon-black-based superhydrophobic gauze was able to float on the surface of water and selectively heat the surface water under irradiation, resulting in an enhanced evaporation rate. The fabrication process of the superhydrophobic black gauze was low-cost, scalable, and easy-to-prepare. Control experiments were conducted under different light intensities, and the results proved that the floating black gauze achieved an evaporation rate 2-3 times higher than that of the traditional process. A higher temperature of the surface water was observed in the floating gauze group, revealing a main reason for the evaporation enhancement. Furthermore, the self-cleaning ability of the superhydrophobic black gauze enabled a convenient recycling and reusing process toward practical application. The present material may open a new avenue for application of the superhydrophobic substrate and meet extensive requirements in the fields related to solar evaporation. PMID:26027770

  1. Floatable, Self-Cleaning, and Carbon-Black-Based Superhydrophobic Gauze for the Solar Evaporation Enhancement at the Air-Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiming; Chen, Jingwei; Guo, Dawei; Cao, Moyuan; Jiang, Lei

    2015-06-24

    Efficient solar evaporation plays an indispensable role in nature as well as the industry process. However, the traditional evaporation process depends on the total temperature increase of bulk water. Recently, localized heating at the air-water interface has been demonstrated as a potential strategy for the improvement of solar evaporation. Here, we show that the carbon-black-based superhydrophobic gauze was able to float on the surface of water and selectively heat the surface water under irradiation, resulting in an enhanced evaporation rate. The fabrication process of the superhydrophobic black gauze was low-cost, scalable, and easy-to-prepare. Control experiments were conducted under different light intensities, and the results proved that the floating black gauze achieved an evaporation rate 2-3 times higher than that of the traditional process. A higher temperature of the surface water was observed in the floating gauze group, revealing a main reason for the evaporation enhancement. Furthermore, the self-cleaning ability of the superhydrophobic black gauze enabled a convenient recycling and reusing process toward practical application. The present material may open a new avenue for application of the superhydrophobic substrate and meet extensive requirements in the fields related to solar evaporation.

  2. Air cleaning issues with contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1997-08-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has developed a list of contaminated sites that warrant special USNRC attention because they pose unique or complex decommissioning issues. This list of radiologically contaminated sites is termed the Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP), and was first issued in 1990. A site is placed on the SDMP list if it has; (1) Problems with the viability of the responsible organization (e.g., the licensee for the site is unable or unwilling to pay for the decommissioning); (2) Large amounts of soil contamination or unused settling ponds or burial grounds that may make the waste difficult to dispose of; (3) The long-term presence of contaminated, unused buildings; (4) A previously terminated license; or (5) Contaminated or potential contamination of the ground water from on-site wastes. In deciding whether to add a site to the SDMP list, the NRC also considers the projected length of time for decommissioning and the willingness of the responsible organization to complete the decommissioning in a timely manner. Since the list was established, 9 sites have been removed from the list, and the current SDMP list contains 47 sites in 11 states. The USNRC annually publishes NUREG-1444, {open_quotes}Site Decommissioning Management Plan{close_quotes}, which updates the status of each site. This paper will discuss the philosophical goals of the SDMP, then will concentrate on the regulatory requirements associated with air cleaning issues at the SDMP sites during characterization and remediation. Both effluent and worker protection issues will be discussed. For effluents, the source terms at sites will be characterized, and measurement techniques will be presented. Off-site dose impacts will be included. For worker protection issues, air sampling analyses will be presented in order to show how the workers are adequately protected and their doses measured to satisfy regulatory criteria during decontamination operations. 1 tab.

  3. 76 FR 66717 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... AGENCY Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee Air Monitoring and Methods Subcommittee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... announces a public teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Air Monitoring...

  4. EPA`s clean air power initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Critchfield, L.R.

    1997-12-31

    The Clean Air Power Initiative (CAPI) is a multi-stakeholder project intended to improve air pollution control efforts involving the power generating industry. This paper documents the progress made in the first year of the initiative, which included a number of meetings with interested stakeholders and development and analysis of alternative approaches for more efficient and effective pollution control. The project`s goal is to develop an integrated regulatory strategy or three major pollutants emitted from electric power generators; namely, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and, potentially, mercury. Major reductions in these pollutants are expected to be needed to reduce the detrimental health effects of ground-level ozone, fine particles, and hazardous air pollutants and reduce the environmental effects of acidification, eutrophication, ecosystem, crop, and materials damage, and regional haze. The Clean Air Power Initiative has considered, where feasible, new approaches to pollution control that recognize the long-range transport of many air pollutants and the economic benefits of emissions trading. The project was initiated by EPA`s Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation in 1995. As individual companies develop and implement strategies to participate in more competitive power markets, they could benefit from greater certainty in being able to plan for and reduce costs of future environmental regulations. The EPA is interested in reinventing its regulatory approach to reduce the number, administrative complexity, and cost of its requirements while improving the likelihood of achieving environmental results.

  5. Clean Water for Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Aniruddha B; Kumar, Jyoti Kishen

    2015-01-01

    Availability of safe drinking water, a vital natural resource, is still a distant dream to many around the world, especially in developing countries. Increasing human activity and industrialization have led to a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological pollutants entering water bodies and affecting human lives. Efforts to develop efficient, economical, and technologically sound methods to produce clean water for developing countries have increased worldwide. We focus on solar disinfection, filtration, hybrid filtration methods, treatment of harvested rainwater, herbal water disinfection, and arsenic removal technologies. Simple, yet innovative water treatment devices ranging from use of plant xylem as filters, terafilters, and hand pumps to tippy taps designed indigenously are methods mentioned here. By describing the technical aspects of major water disinfection methods relevant for developing countries on medium to small scales and emphasizing their merits, demerits, economics, and scalability, we highlight the current scenario and pave the way for further research and development and scaling up of these processes. This review focuses on clean drinking water, especially for rural populations in developing countries. It describes various water disinfection techniques that are not only economically viable and energy efficient but also employ simple methodologies that are effective in reducing the physical, chemical, and biological pollutants found in drinking water to acceptable limits. PMID:26247291

  6. Clean Water for Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Aniruddha B; Kumar, Jyoti Kishen

    2015-01-01

    Availability of safe drinking water, a vital natural resource, is still a distant dream to many around the world, especially in developing countries. Increasing human activity and industrialization have led to a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological pollutants entering water bodies and affecting human lives. Efforts to develop efficient, economical, and technologically sound methods to produce clean water for developing countries have increased worldwide. We focus on solar disinfection, filtration, hybrid filtration methods, treatment of harvested rainwater, herbal water disinfection, and arsenic removal technologies. Simple, yet innovative water treatment devices ranging from use of plant xylem as filters, terafilters, and hand pumps to tippy taps designed indigenously are methods mentioned here. By describing the technical aspects of major water disinfection methods relevant for developing countries on medium to small scales and emphasizing their merits, demerits, economics, and scalability, we highlight the current scenario and pave the way for further research and development and scaling up of these processes. This review focuses on clean drinking water, especially for rural populations in developing countries. It describes various water disinfection techniques that are not only economically viable and energy efficient but also employ simple methodologies that are effective in reducing the physical, chemical, and biological pollutants found in drinking water to acceptable limits.

  7. 77 FR 16548 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Request for Nominations to the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: The U.S. Environmental Protection... appointment to its Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC). Applications are due by May 1, 2012 and...

  8. Proposed Clean Air Act reform draws fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    A Congressional hearing on the accomplishments of the U.S. Clean Air Act and subsequent amendments turned into a squabble about whether Bush administration efforts to reform the act would improve or undermine air quality regulations.At the 1 May hearing of the House of Representatives' Subcommittee on Energy and Air Quality, a key sticking point concerned whether an emissions "cap-and-trade" program, which was proposed as part of President George W. Bush's 14 February Clear Skies initiative, would effectively meet air quality standards. The program would provide market-based incentives to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and mercury. Another point of contention was whether such a program would make some current regulations, including new source review of upgraded utility plants, redundant and unnecessary.

  9. Cleaning Contaminated Water at Fukushima

    SciTech Connect

    Rende, Dean; Nenoff, Tina

    2013-11-21

    Crystalline Silico-Titanates (CSTs) are synthetic zeolites designed by Sandia National Laboratories scientists to selectively capture radioactive cesium and other group I metals. They are being used for cleanup of radiation-contaminated water at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. Quick action by Sandia and its corporate partner UOP, A Honeywell Company, led to rapid licensing and deployment of the technology in Japan, where it continues to be used to clean up cesium contaminated water at the Fukushima power plant.

  10. Cleaning Contaminated Water at Fukushima

    ScienceCinema

    Rende, Dean; Nenoff, Tina

    2016-07-12

    Crystalline Silico-Titanates (CSTs) are synthetic zeolites designed by Sandia National Laboratories scientists to selectively capture radioactive cesium and other group I metals. They are being used for cleanup of radiation-contaminated water at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. Quick action by Sandia and its corporate partner UOP, A Honeywell Company, led to rapid licensing and deployment of the technology in Japan, where it continues to be used to clean up cesium contaminated water at the Fukushima power plant.

  11. 75 FR 42132 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Pursuant to 28 CFR 50.7, notice is hereby given... injunctive relief under Section 113(b) of the Clean Air Act (the Act), 42 U.S.C. 7413(b), for failure to... earthmoving, failure to operate a water application system while conducting earthmoving, and failure...

  12. Clean fuel vehicles: The air pollution solution

    SciTech Connect

    Meotti, M.P.

    1995-11-01

    Clean fuels for cars and trucks can do more for air quality, and do it sooner, than any other alternative on the drawing boards today. In much of the country, vehicles are the single biggest cause of air pollution. It`s not the industrial smoke stacks, but the tail pipes on cars that foul the air. Ninety percent of the carbon monoxide, 50% of the volatile organic compounds, and 40% of the ozone in metropolitan areas come from motor vehicles. Many state and local government officials are pursuing vehicle emission inspection, high occupancy vehicle lanes, and carpooling programs to reduce auto pollution. These efforts are valuable and should be continued. But clean fuels can quickly reduce auto emissions at a much lower cost. Alternative fuel vehicles produce fewer emissions, are much less dependent on foreign sources, and have the potential to create new jobs. One alternative fuel, natural gas, emits no particulates, 90% less carbon monoxide, and 85% fewer of the gases that form ozone.

  13. 75 FR 73026 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Clean Air Interstate Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Clean Air... June 29, 2009, to revise the Indiana State Implementation Plan (SIP) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). The... Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR), for which EPA granted limited approval as an abbreviated SIP...

  14. Blue skies, green politics: The Clean Air Act of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Bryner, G.C.

    1995-10-01

    This book presents a discussion framework for the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The author focuses on both an analysis of the problem of air pollution and an examination of the politics that went in to crafting the Clean Air Act Amendments. The book is intended for those not familiar with the problem.

  15. Clean Air Act: Senate mulls revision bill

    SciTech Connect

    Fairley, P.

    1995-12-13

    Senator Lauch Faircloth (R., NC) has circulated a draft summary of possible revisions of the Clean Air Act (CAA). Chemical industry sources say the proposal would provide some regulatory relief but fear that supporting Faircloth could jeopardize their relationship with EPA. Faircloth`s proposal addresses various controversial aspect of CAA`s Title V permit program including the monitoring and permit modification provisions. The proposal would also define a facility`s {open_quotes}potential to emit,{close_quotes} upon which Title V permits are based. In the past year EPA has substantially revised its Title V program to address complaints from industry, the states, and Congress that the monitoring and modification provisions were too burdensome.

  16. Cleaning Up Our Drinking Water

    SciTech Connect

    Manke, Kristin L.

    2007-08-01

    Imagine drinking water that you wring out of the sponge you’ve just used to wash your car. This is what is happening around the world. Rain and snow pass through soil polluted with pesticides, poisonous metals and radionuclides into the underground lakes and streams that supply our drinking water. “We need to understand this natural system better to protect our groundwater and, by extension, our drinking water,” said Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group Manager, Wayne Martin. Biologists, statisticians, hydrologists, geochemists, geologists and computer scientists at PNNL work together to clean up contaminated soils and groundwater. The teams begin by looking at the complexities of the whole environment, not just the soil or just the groundwater. PNNL researchers also perform work for private industries under a unique use agreement between the Department of Energy and Battelle, which operates the laboratory for DOE. This research leads to new remediation methods and technologies to tackle problems ranging from arsenic at old fertilizer plants to uranium at former nuclear sites. Our results help regulators, policy makers and the public make critical decisions on complex environmental issues.

  17. 17th DOE nuclear air cleaning conference: proceedings. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    First, M.W.

    1983-02-01

    Volume 2 contains papers presented at the following sessions: adsorption; noble gas treatment; personnel education and training; filtration and filter testing; measurement and instrumentation; air cleaning equipment response to accident related stress; containment venting air cleaning; and an open end session. Twenty-eight papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. Ten papers had been entered earlier.

  18. Fuel cell clean waste water discharge system

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, A.P.

    1989-08-08

    This patent describes a fuel cell power plant having a power section, and having a water circulating system for cooling the power section. The water circulating system comprising: a water storage tank for storing water used in the circulating system; decontaminating means for cleaning water in the circulating system; first means for carrying water from the storage tank to the decontaminating means; second means for carrying water from the decontaminating means to the power section for cooling the latter; third means for carrying only clean water from the decontaminating means to the storage tank; fourth means for carrying contaminated water from the power section to the storage tank; and discharge means for releasing water to ambient surrounding from the third means when the amount of water in the storage tank exceeds a predetermined volume whereby only clean water is discharged into the ambient surroundings from the power plant.

  19. Identification of Candidate Clean Air Corridors for the Colorado Plateau.

    PubMed

    Gratn, M C; Pitchford, M L; Ashbaugh, L

    1996-05-01

    The U.S. Clean Air Act, amended in 1990, mandated the establishment of the Grand Canyon Visibility Transport Commission (GCVTC). The commission is required to submit a report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency addressing visibility issues in the region, including "the establishment of clean air corridors, in which additional restrictions on increases in emissions may be appropriate to protect visibility in affected Class I areas." This paper presents a methodology to identify candidate geographic areas for consideration for Clean Air Corridor (CAC) status for Colorado Plateau Class I areas. The methodology uses thousands of model determined trajectories over a five year period (1988 to 1992) to indicate the paths taken by air that arrives during clean air conditions at Class I areas. These clean air back-trajectories identify upwind areas where pollution emissions could jeopardize currently pristine visibility. Using this methodology, six candidate areas are identified, ranging in size from 75,000 to 506,000 square miles, and permitting varying levels of visibility protection for clean air days at Grand Canyon, Canyonlands, and Petrified Forest National Parks. Assuming effective emissions management of the CAC, the larger the CAC, the greater the visibility protection during clean air conditions.

  20. Technology: New Ways for Clean Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Amanda S.

    2012-01-01

    Water purification promotes healthy living. While the developing world is working to provide its citizens with future access to clean water sources, the demand for that water is a pressing need today. It should be understood that drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene are interwoven and are all necessary for the overall improved standard of…

  1. 40 CFR 61.152 - Air-cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air-cleaning. 61.152 Section 61.152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.152...

  2. Some impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act and state clean-air regulations on the fertilizer industry

    SciTech Connect

    Breed, C.E.; Kerns, O.S.

    1992-12-31

    The Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 will intensify national efforts to reduce air pollution. They will have major impacts on governmental agencies and on industrial and commercial facilities throughout the country. As with other industries, it is essential for fertilizer dealers and producers to understand how these changes to the Clean Air Act can significantly change the way they do business. This paper is proffered as an overview of ways in which the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act may impact the fertilizer industry. The nonattainment, toxics, and permit provisions of the amended act will be three areas of particular concern to the fertilizer industry. Implementation of the new regulatory requirements of this legislation promises to be a long and onerous process for all concerned. However, it appears that state and local regulations may have a much more profound impact on the fertilizer industry than the new Clean Air Act.

  3. Some impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act and state clean-air regulations on the fertilizer industry

    SciTech Connect

    Breed, C.E.; Kerns, O.S.

    1992-12-01

    The Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 will intensify national efforts to reduce air pollution. They will have major impacts an governmental agencies and on industrial and commercial facilities throughout the country. As with other industries, it is essential for fertilizer dealers and producers to understand how these changes to the Clean Air Act can significantly change the way they do business. This paper is proffered as an overview of ways in which the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act may impact the fertilizer industry. The nonattainment, toxics, and permit provisions of the amended act will be three areas of particular concern to the fertilizer industry. Implementation of the new regulatory requirements of this legislation promises to be a long and onerous process for all concerned. However, it appears that state and local regulations may have a much more profound impact on the fertilizer industry than the new Clean Air Act.

  4. PHASE I PILOT AIR CONVEYANCE SYSTEM DESIGN, CLEANING, AND CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a project to develop and refine surface and airborne contamination
    measurement techniques that can be used to evaluate air conveyance system (ACS) cleaning.
    (NOTE: ACS cleaning is advertized to homeowners as a service having a number of benefits...

  5. 53. VIEW OF ROCK FOUNDATIONS AIR CLEANED FOR MONOLITHS 1722, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. VIEW OF ROCK FOUNDATIONS AIR CLEANED FOR MONOLITHS 17-22, INTERMEDIATE WALL, LOOKING NORTH Photograph No. 12840. September 10, 1948 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 27, Granite City, Madison County, IL

  6. Impact of Clean Air Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in Neuse River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated impacts of Clean Air Act (CAA) nitrogen emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) models were used. Two scenar...

  7. NASA Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Act Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) regulations have greatly impacted materials and processes utilized in the manufacture of aerospace hardware. Code JE/ NASA's Environmental Management Division at NASA Headquarters recognized the need for a formal, Agency-wide review process of CAA regulations. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was selected as the 'Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Act Regulations'. This presentation describes the centralized support provided by MSFC for the management and leadership of NASA's CAA regulation review process.

  8. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2010-10-27

    Approximately ten percent of the energy consumed in U.S. commercial buildings is used by HVAC systems to condition outdoor ventilation air. Reducing ventilation rates would be a simple and broadly-applicable energy retrofit option, if practical counter measures were available that maintained acceptable concentrations of indoor-generated air pollutants. The two general categories of countermeasures are: 1) indoor pollutant source control, and 2) air cleaning. Although pollutant source control should be used to the degree possible, source control is complicated by the large number and changing nature of indoor pollutant sources. Particle air cleaning is already routinely applied in commercial buildings. Previous calculations indicate that particle filtration consumes only 10percent to 25percent of the energy that would otherwise be required to achieve an equivalent amount of particle removal with ventilation. If cost-effective air cleaning technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also available, outdoor air ventilation rates could be reduced substantially and broadly in the commercial building stock to save energy. The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel VOC air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. The minimum required VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50percent reduction in ventilation rate for air cleaning systems installed in the HVAC supply airstream is modest (generally 20percent or less).

  9. 77 FR 71633 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... Sections 301, 309, and 402 of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251, et seq. and under the Mississippi Air and Water Pollution Control Law (``MAWPCL'') (Miss. Code Ann. Sec. Sec. 49-17-1 through 49-17-45... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On November 20, 2012, the...

  10. 78 FR 35315 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under The Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... Miami-Dade County on December 13, 2012 pursuant to Clean Water Act (``CWA'') Sections 309(b) and (d) and 504, 33 U.S.C. 1319(b) and (d) and 1364, and the Florida Air and Water Pollution Control Act, Fla... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under The Clean Water Act On June 6, 2013, the Department...

  11. 75 FR 34673 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... Pollutants: Air Emission Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning Machines: State of Rhode Island... applies to organic solvent cleaning machines in Rhode Island, except for continuous web cleaning machines... General Definitions Rule in place of the Halogenated Solvent NESHAP for organic solvent cleaning...

  12. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    This article investigates the mechanism for those layers in the atmosphere that are free of air borne pollution even though the air above and below them carry pollutants. Atmospheric subsidence is posed as a mechanism for this phenomenon.

  13. 75 FR 4069 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Ambient Air Monitoring & Methods Subcommittee (AAMMS or... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC); Ambient Air Methods and Monitoring Subcommittee (AAMMS); Meeting and Public...

  14. Needed: Clean Water. Problems of Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet utilizes illustrations and captions to indicate the demands currently made on our water resources and the problems associated with that demand. Current and future solutions are described with suggestions for personal conservation efforts to help provide enough clean water for everyone in the future. (CS)

  15. Making markets work for clean water.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, G

    2003-01-01

    Part of the solution to close the gap to meet the UN Millennium safe water goal lies in the domestic consumer marketplace. Multinational corporations must design products for low income consumers to deliver clean water at a household level. The future of business is linked to improving the lives of developing country consumers and to the improved economic status of those consumers.

  16. Prototype air cleaning system for a firing range

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Mishima, J.; Bamberger, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    This report recommends air cleaning system components for the US Army Ballistics Research Laboratory's new large-caliber firing range, which is used for testing depleted uranium (DU) penetrators. The new air cleaning system has lower operating costs during the life of the system compared to that anticipated for the existing air cleaning system. The existing system consists of three banks of filters in series; the first two banks are prefilters and the last are high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The principal disadvantage of the existing filters is that they are not cleanable and reusable. Pacific Northwest Laboratory focused the search for alternate air cleaning equipment on devices that do not employ liquids as part of the particle collection mechanism. Collected dry particles were assumed preferable to a liquid waste stream. The dry particle collection devices identified included electrostatic precipitators; inertial separators using turning vanes or cyclones; and several devices employing a filter medium such as baghouses, cartridge houses, cleanable filters, and noncleanable filters similar to those in the existing system. The economics of practical air cleaning systems employing the dry particle collection devices were evaluated in 294 different combinations. 7 references, 21 figures, 78 tables.

  17. Providing clean water, keeping water clean: an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Thompson, T; Sobsey, M; Bartram, J

    2003-06-01

    Millions of people, most of whom are children in developing countries, die of basic hygiene-related diseases every year. Interventions in hygiene, sanitation and water supply have been shown to control disease burden. Universal access to improved water sources and basic sanitation remains elusive but is an important long-term goal. Studies have shown that improving the microbiological quality of household water by on-site or point-of-use treatment and safe storage in improved vessels reduces diarrhoeal and other waterborne diseases in communities and households of developing and developed countries. The extent to which improving drinking water quality at the household level reduces diarrhoeal disease probably depends on a variety of technology-related and site-specific environmental and demographic factors that require further investigation, characterisation and analyses.

  18. Clean Air Slots Amid Dense Atmospheric Pollution in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2003-01-01

    During the flights of the University of Washington's Convair-580 in the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) in southern Africa, a phenomenon was observed that has not been reported previously. This was the occurrence of thin layers of remarkably clean air, sandwiched between heavily polluted air, which persisted for many hours during the day. Photographs are shown of these clean air slots (CAS), and particle concentrations and light scattering coefficients in and around such slot are presented. An explanation is proposed for the propensity of CAS to form in southern Africa during the dry season.

  19. Clean air amendments put big burden on refinery planners

    SciTech Connect

    Scherr, R.C.; Smalley, G.A. Jr.; Norman, M.E. )

    1991-06-10

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 will not only require the production of reformulated gasoline but also have significant impact on other refinery-related construction. This must be considered when developing sound planning strategy. The three titles of the Clean Air Act Amendments that will have the greatest effect on refining are: Title I: Nonattainment; Title III: Air toxics; Title V: Permitting. To understand the ramifications of these amendments, it is necessary to review the interactions of new requirements with the permitting and construction schedule shown.

  20. 40 CFR 49.3 - General Tribal Clean Air Act authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General Tribal Clean Air Act authority... ASSISTANCE TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY Tribal Authority § 49.3 General Tribal Clean Air Act authority... respect to all provisions of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations, except for those...

  1. 40 CFR 49.10 - EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA review of State Clean Air Act... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY Tribal Authority § 49.10 EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs. A State Clean Air Act program submittal shall not be disapproved because of failure...

  2. A clean air continuous flow propulsion facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauss, R. H.; Mcdaniel, J. C., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Consideration is given to a contaminant-free, high enthalpy, continuous flow facility designed to obtain detailed code validation measurements of high speed combustion. The facility encompasses uncontaminated air temperature control to within 5 K, fuel temperature control to 2 K, a ceramic flow straightener, drying of inlet air, and steady state continuous operation. The air heating method provides potential for independent control of contaminant level by injection, mixing, and heating upstream. Particular attention is given to extension of current capability of 1250 K total air temperature, which simulates Scramjet enthalpy at Mach 5.

  3. CLEAN CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Newer green chemistry approach to accomplish chemical synthesis in water is summarized. Recent global developments pertaining to C-C bond forming reactions using metallic reagents and direct use of the renewable materials such as carbohydrates without derivatization are described...

  4. Clean Water for Remote Locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center engineers are working on creating the Regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support System, a complex system of devices intended to sustain the astronauts living on the ISS and, in the future, sustain those who are blasting off to the Moon or Mars. The devices make use of the available resources, by turning wastewater from respiration, sweat, and urine into drinkable water. One of the devices that Marshall has been working on is the Water Recovery System (WRS). Marshall has teamed with long-time NASA contractor, Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International, Inc., of Windsor Locks, Connecticut. Hamilton Sundstrand, the original designer of the life support devices for the space suits, developed the Water Processor Assembly (WPA). It, along with the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) developed by Marshall, combines to make up the total system, which is about the size of two refrigerators, and will support up to a six-member crew. The system is currently undergoing final testing and verification. "The Water Processor Assembly can produce up to about 28 gallons of potable recycled water each day," said Bob Bagdigian, Marshall Regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support System project manager. After the new systems are installed, annual delivered water to the ISS should decrease by approximately 15,960 pounds, or about 1,600 gallons.

  5. THE FIGHT FOR CLEAN WATER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCHOONOVER, ROBERT A.

    THIS PUBLICATION DISCUSSES IN DEPTH THE PROBLEM OF WATER POLLUTION AS SEEN BY THE FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. DOMESTIC SEWAGE, INDUSTRIAL WASTES, AND ALLEVIATION ACTIVITIES OF THE STATE BOARD OF HEALTH AND COUNTY HEALTH DEPARTMENTS ARE DESCRIBED. SIX APPENDIXES PRESENT CORRESPONDENCE AND REPORTS REGARDING THE PROBLEM. THIS IS AN ISSUE OF…

  6. Measurement of formaldehyde in clean air

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzert, V.; Seiler, W.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the measurement of small amounts of formaldehyde in air has been developed. The method is based on the derivatization of HCHO with 2.4-Denetrophenylhydragine, forming 2.4-Dentrophylhydragine, measured with GC-ECD-technique. HCHO is preconcentrated using a cryogenic sampling technique. The detection limit is 0.05 ppbv for a sampling volume of 200 liter. The method has been applied for measurements in continental and marine air masses showing HCHO mixing ratios of 0.4--5.0 ppbv and 0.2--1.0 ppbv, respectively. HCHO mixing ratios show diurnal variations with maximum values during the early afternoon and minimum values during the early morning. In continental air, HCHO mixing ratios are positively correlated with CO and SO/sub 2/, indicating anthropogenic HCHO sources which are estimated to be 6--11 x 10/sup 12/g/year/sup -1/ on a global scale.

  7. New challenges to air/gas cleaning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kovach, J.L.

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the need for changes in the design and manufacturing of air and gas cleaning systems to meet waste management and site remediation requirements. Current design and manufacturing practices are primarily directed toward evaluating operational problems with existing systems in nuclear reactor facilities. However, nuclear waste management needs have developed which are much broader in scope and have different processing conditions. Numerous examples of air cleaning needs for waste management activities are provided; the major differences from operating facility needs are the requirement for continuous effluent treatment under widely different processing conditions. Related regulatory issues are also discussed briefly. 1 ref.

  8. Clean the Air and Breathe Easier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guevin, John

    1997-01-01

    Failure to prevent indoor air quality problems or act promptly can result in increased chances for long- or short-term health problems for staff and students, reduced productivity, faster plant deterioration, and strained school-community relations. Basic pollution control measures include source management, local exhausts, ventilation, exposure…

  9. Indoor Air Quality in Schools: Clean Air Is Good Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarneiri, Michele A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the effect of poor indoor air quality (IAQ) on student health, the cost of safeguarding good IAQ, the cause of poor IAQ in schools, how to tell whether a school has an IAQ problem, and how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency can help schools improve indoor air quality though the use of their free "Indoor Air Quality Tools for…

  10. Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in Neuse River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated impacts of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) NOx emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina, USA from 1990 to 2020. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-...

  11. Enforcement provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, E.A.; Davis, H.P.

    1994-12-31

    In discussing the provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990, the authors focus on the following: EPA enforcement, including criminal and administrative civil penalties; NJDEPE enforcement authority, including criminal and administrative civil penalties, as well as economic benefit and judicial enforcement; citizens enforcement; and evidence of non compliance.

  12. 36. FIFTH FLOOR BLDG. 27, "CLEAN ROOM" AIR FILTERS LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. FIFTH FLOOR BLDG. 27, "CLEAN ROOM" AIR FILTERS LOOKING SOUTH. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  13. How Do We Clean Our Water and How Clean Does It Need to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitburn, Niki

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, in the United Kingdom, citizens take for granted clean water pumped directly into their homes, but it was not always the case, and is still not so in many countries. Could people clean water themselves if they had to and what could they then use it for? Would it actually be "clean enough" to drink? The author presents children…

  14. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Hazardous Air Pollutant Requirements and the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; DePhillips, M.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Hemenway, A.

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of the US Department of Energy -- Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) is to provide the US energy marketplace with advanced, efficient, and environmentally sound coal-based technologies. The design, construction, and operation of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Projects (CCTDP) will generate data needed to make informed, confident decisions on the commercial readiness of these technologies. These data also will provide information needed to ensure a proactive response by DOE and its industrial partners to the establishment of new regulations or a reactive response to existing regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The objectives of this paper are to: (1) Present a preliminary examination of the potential implications of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) -- Title 3 Hazardous Air Pollutant requirements to the commercialization of CCTDP; and (2) help define options available to DOE and its industrial partners to respond to this newly enacted Legislation.

  15. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Hazardous Air Pollutant Requirements and the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; DePhillips, M.; Fthenakis, V.M. ); Hemenway, A. )

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the US Department of Energy -- Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) is to provide the US energy marketplace with advanced, efficient, and environmentally sound coal-based technologies. The design, construction, and operation of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Projects (CCTDP) will generate data needed to make informed, confident decisions on the commercial readiness of these technologies. These data also will provide information needed to ensure a proactive response by DOE and its industrial partners to the establishment of new regulations or a reactive response to existing regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The objectives of this paper are to: (1) Present a preliminary examination of the potential implications of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) -- Title 3 Hazardous Air Pollutant requirements to the commercialization of CCTDP; and (2) help define options available to DOE and its industrial partners to respond to this newly enacted Legislation.

  16. Rice- and butterfly-wing effect inspired self-cleaning and low drag micro/nanopatterned surfaces in water, oil, and air flow.

    PubMed

    Bixler, Gregory D; Bhushan, Bharat

    2014-01-01

    In search of new solutions to complex challenges, researchers are turning to living nature for inspiration. For example, special surface characteristics of rice leaves and butterfly wings combine the shark skin (anisotropic flow leading to low drag) and lotus leaf (superhydrophobic and self-cleaning) effects, producing the so-called rice and butterfly wing effect. In this paper, we study four microstructured surfaces inspired by rice leaves and fabricated with photolithography techniques. We also present a method of creating such surfaces using a hot embossing procedure for scaled-up manufacturing. Fluid drag, self-cleaning, contact angle, and contact angle hysteresis data are presented to understand the role of sample geometrical dimensions. Conceptual modeling provides design guidance when developing novel low drag, self-cleaning, and potentially antifouling surfaces for medical, marine, and industrial applications.

  17. Rice- and butterfly-wing effect inspired self-cleaning and low drag micro/nanopatterned surfaces in water, oil, and air flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bixler, Gregory D.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2013-12-01

    In search of new solutions to complex challenges, researchers are turning to living nature for inspiration. For example, special surface characteristics of rice leaves and butterfly wings combine the shark skin (anisotropic flow leading to low drag) and lotus leaf (superhydrophobic and self-cleaning) effects, producing the so-called rice and butterfly wing effect. In this paper, we study four microstructured surfaces inspired by rice leaves and fabricated with photolithography techniques. We also present a method of creating such surfaces using a hot embossing procedure for scaled-up manufacturing. Fluid drag, self-cleaning, contact angle, and contact angle hysteresis data are presented to understand the role of sample geometrical dimensions. Conceptual modeling provides design guidance when developing novel low drag, self-cleaning, and potentially antifouling surfaces for medical, marine, and industrial applications.

  18. Clean Water Act 20 years later

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-01

    This volume explores the issues associated with the complex subject of water quality protection in an assessment of the successes and failures of the Clean Water Act over the past twenty years. In addition to examining traditional indicators of water quality, the authors consider how health concerns of the public have been addressed, and present a detailed examination of the ecological health of the waters. Taken together, these measures present a far more complete and balanced picture than raw water quality data alone. As well as reviewing past effectiveness, the book includes specific recommendations for the reauthorization of the Act, which is to be considered by Congress in 1995. This balanced and insightful account will surely shape the debate among legislative and policy experts and citizen activists at all levels who are concerned with issues of water quality.

  19. Cleaning products and air fresheners: exposure to primary and secondary air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazaroff, William W.; Weschler, Charles J.

    Building occupants, including cleaning personnel, are exposed to a wide variety of airborne chemicals when cleaning agents and air fresheners are used in buildings. Certain of these chemicals are listed by the state of California as toxic air contaminants (TACs) and a subset of these are regulated by the US federal government as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). California's Proposition 65 list of species recognized as carcinogens or reproductive toxicants also includes constituents of certain cleaning products and air fresheners. In addition, many cleaning agents and air fresheners contain chemicals that can react with other air contaminants to yield potentially harmful secondary products. For example, terpenes can react rapidly with ozone in indoor air generating many secondary pollutants, including TACs such as formaldehyde. Furthermore, ozone-terpene reactions produce the hydroxyl radical, which reacts rapidly with organics, leading to the formation of other potentially toxic air pollutants. Indoor reactive chemistry involving the nitrate radical and cleaning-product constituents is also of concern, since it produces organic nitrates as well as some of the same oxidation products generated by ozone and hydroxyl radicals. Few studies have directly addressed the indoor concentrations of TACs that might result from primary emissions or secondary pollutant formation following the use of cleaning agents and air fresheners. In this paper, we combine direct empirical evidence with the basic principles of indoor pollutant behavior and with information from relevant studies, to analyze and critically assess air pollutant exposures resulting from the use of cleaning products and air fresheners. Attention is focused on compounds that are listed as HAPs, TACs or Proposition 65 carcinogens/reproductive toxicants and compounds that can readily react to generate secondary pollutants. The toxicity of many of these secondary pollutants has yet to be evaluated. The inhalation

  20. Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404) and those regulations that implement the statutes and appear to be most relevant to US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  1. Unequal State Air Pollution: Adopting and Adapting to State Clean Air Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasgow, Derek John

    This dissertation looks at the relationship between American subnational governments and clean air policy in three different cases. I investigate the impact of state reduction policies on the emission of Greenhouse emissions, the subnational adoption of Greenhouse Gas tracking and reduction policies, and the impact of Clean Air Act standards on the siting of coal-fired power plants. The major finding is that in both the adoption and business response to these policies, a state's political context can limit its ability to regulate air pollution. These factors contribute to the unequal protection of air quality across the United States.

  2. Highlights of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.

    1991-01-01

    The amendments to the Clean Air Act provide for operating permits for stationary sources of pollution, marking a change that is comparable to federal water pollution regulations. The bill addresses acid rain emissions and will phase out production of chemicals contributing to depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer. A major new concept incorporated into the emission limits established by law is a system of tradeable emissions credits. If a facility reduces emissions below the standard or ahead of the timetable set by law, emissions credits are earned that can be applied to future emissions or sold to another facility. The bill also provides strict deadlines for the EPA to meet in promulgating the regulations. These deadlines will seriously strain the personnel and financial resources of the agency. Perhaps the most significant of the miscellaneous items in the law is a provision for extended unemployment benefits under the Job Training Partnership Act for workers who lose their jobs because of the law's provisions. However, this is contingent on the displaced workers' seeking job retraining.

  3. 40 CFR 49.10 - EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs. 49.10 Section 49.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER... of State Clean Air Act programs. A State Clean Air Act program submittal shall not be...

  4. 40 CFR 49.3 - General Tribal Clean Air Act authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General Tribal Clean Air Act authority... ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.3 General Tribal Clean... manner as States with respect to all provisions of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations,...

  5. 40 CFR 49.10 - EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs. 49.10 Section 49.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER... of State Clean Air Act programs. A State Clean Air Act program submittal shall not be...

  6. 40 CFR 49.10 - EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs. 49.10 Section 49.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER... of State Clean Air Act programs. A State Clean Air Act program submittal shall not be...

  7. 40 CFR 49.3 - General Tribal Clean Air Act authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General Tribal Clean Air Act authority... ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.3 General Tribal Clean... manner as States with respect to all provisions of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations,...

  8. 40 CFR 49.9 - EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act... of tribal Clean Air Act applications. (a) The EPA Regional Administrator shall process a request of... apply to all future Clean Air Act applications from that tribe or tribal consortium and no...

  9. 40 CFR 49.3 - General Tribal Clean Air Act authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General Tribal Clean Air Act authority... ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.3 General Tribal Clean... manner as States with respect to all provisions of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations,...

  10. 40 CFR 49.9 - EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act... of tribal Clean Air Act applications. (a) The EPA Regional Administrator shall process a request of... apply to all future Clean Air Act applications from that tribe or tribal consortium and no...

  11. 40 CFR 49.9 - EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act... of tribal Clean Air Act applications. (a) The EPA Regional Administrator shall process a request of... apply to all future Clean Air Act applications from that tribe or tribal consortium and no...

  12. 40 CFR 49.9 - EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act... of tribal Clean Air Act applications. (a) The EPA Regional Administrator shall process a request of... apply to all future Clean Air Act applications from that tribe or tribal consortium and no...

  13. 40 CFR 49.10 - EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs. 49.10 Section 49.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER... of State Clean Air Act programs. A State Clean Air Act program submittal shall not be...

  14. 40 CFR 49.3 - General Tribal Clean Air Act authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General Tribal Clean Air Act authority... ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.3 General Tribal Clean... manner as States with respect to all provisions of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations,...

  15. 40 CFR 49.9 - EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY Tribal Authority § 49.9 EPA review of tribal Clean Air... boundaries of a reservation or tribal jurisdiction over non-reservation areas shall apply to all future...

  16. 75 FR 22787 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... AGENCY Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is... the Clean Air Act and asking the court to enter judgment: (i) Declaring that EPA's failure to...

  17. 78 FR 77448 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection... public meetings of the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC). The EPA established the CAAAC on... implementation of the Clean Air Act of 1990. The Committee advises on economic, environmental,...

  18. 76 FR 9610 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on February 14, 2011... California. The Consent Decree in this Clean Air Act enforcement action resolves allegations by the...''), asserted in a complaint filed together with the Consent Decree, under Section 113(b) of the Clean Air...

  19. 77 FR 39493 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA''), notice is hereby given of a proposed consent... Amended Complaint alleging that EPA failed to perform nondiscretionary duties under the Clean Air...

  20. 76 FR 65722 - Notification of Two Public Teleconferences; Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... AGENCY Notification of Two Public Teleconferences; Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee AGENCY... Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) to discuss its draft review of EPA's Integrated Science... CASAC was established pursuant to the under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1977, codified at 42...

  1. 76 FR 25688 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... AGENCY Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is... to a CAA Title V operating permit issued by the Southwest Clean Air Agency to Transalta...

  2. 77 FR 65684 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA''), notice is hereby given of a proposed consent... Amended Complaint alleging that EPA failed to perform nondiscretionary duties under the Clean Air...

  3. 76 FR 9609 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on February 14, 2011... Consent Decree in this Clean Air Act enforcement action resolves allegations by the Environmental... in a complaint filed together with the Consent Decree, under Section 113(b) of the Clean Air Act,...

  4. 78 FR 49511 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection... public meeting of the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC). The EPA established the CAAAC on November... implementation of the Clean Air Act of 1990. The Committee advises on economic, environmental,...

  5. Air Cleaning Devices for HVAC Supply Systems in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    Guidelines for maintaining indoor air quality in schools with HVAC air cleaning systems are provided in this document. Information is offered on the importance of air cleaning, sources of air contaminants and indoor pollutants, types of air cleaners and particulate filters used in central HVAC systems, vapor and gas removal, and performance…

  6. 75 FR 32857 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revision to Clean Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revision to Clean Air Interstate Rule Sulfur Dioxide Trading Program Correction In final rule document...

  7. 77 FR 54909 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... certain water quality limited waters and the associated pollutant to be listed pursuant to the Clean Water... technology-based pollution controls are not stringent enough to attain or maintain State water...

  8. A pilot study of energy efficient air cleaning for ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Gundel, Lara A.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Katsapov, Gregory Y.; Fisk, William J.

    2002-11-01

    A laboratory pilot study has been undertaken with the material that showed the most promise (high capacity and low pressure drop) based on the literature review and associated calculations. The best-performing air cleaner was a commercially available pleated filter that contained a thin layer of small activated carbon particles between two sheets of non-woven fibrous webbing. We will refer to this unit as the ''ozone filter'' although it is marketed for removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from automobile passenger compartments. This pilot study strongly suggests that ozone air cleaning can be practical in commercial air handling systems; however, further tests are needed to assess air cleaner performance under a wider range of conditions.

  9. Asthma, sulfur dioxide, and the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Boushey, H.

    1982-02-01

    Laboratory findings on the effects of sulfur dioxide in patients with asthma are related to theories about the mechanisms of bronchial hyperreactivity, an abnormality that may be fundamental to the pathogenesis of asthma and then to questions of national policy on air quality. Work has shown that people with asthma are abnormally sensitive to inhalation of sulfur dioxide and that bronchospasm may develop if they pursue activities that require light exercise while breathing air containing a level of sulfur dioxide permitted by current ambient air-quality standards. The provisions of the Clean Air Act of 1970 require that sensitive groups in the population be protected against adverse health effects, and our data therefore indicate the need for a short-term standard for sulfur dioxide.

  10. Ceramic membrane defouling (cleaning) by air Nano Bubbles.

    PubMed

    Ghadimkhani, Aliasghar; Zhang, Wen; Marhaba, Taha

    2016-03-01

    Ceramic membranes are among the most promising technologies for membrane applications, owing to their excellent resistance to mechanical, chemical, and thermal stresses. However, membrane fouling is still an issue that hampers the applications at large scales. Air Nano Bubbles (NBs), due to high mass transfer efficiency, could potentially prevent fouling of ceramic membrane filtration processes. In this study, bench and pilot scale ceramic membrane filtration was performed with air NBs to resist fouling. To simulate fouling, humic acid, as an organic foulant, was applied to the membrane flat sheet surface. Complete membrane clogging was achieved in less than 6 h. Membrane defouling (cleaning) was performed by directly feeding of air NBs to the membrane cells. The surface of the ceramic membrane was superbly cleaned by air NBs, as revealed by atomic force microscope (AFM) images before and after the treatment. The permeate flux recovered to its initial level (e.g., 26.7 × 10(-9) m(3)/m(2)/s at applied pressure of 275.8 kPa), which indicated that NBs successfully unclogged the pores of the membrane. The integrated ceramic membrane and air NBs system holds potential as an innovative sustainable technology.

  11. Ceramic membrane defouling (cleaning) by air Nano Bubbles.

    PubMed

    Ghadimkhani, Aliasghar; Zhang, Wen; Marhaba, Taha

    2016-03-01

    Ceramic membranes are among the most promising technologies for membrane applications, owing to their excellent resistance to mechanical, chemical, and thermal stresses. However, membrane fouling is still an issue that hampers the applications at large scales. Air Nano Bubbles (NBs), due to high mass transfer efficiency, could potentially prevent fouling of ceramic membrane filtration processes. In this study, bench and pilot scale ceramic membrane filtration was performed with air NBs to resist fouling. To simulate fouling, humic acid, as an organic foulant, was applied to the membrane flat sheet surface. Complete membrane clogging was achieved in less than 6 h. Membrane defouling (cleaning) was performed by directly feeding of air NBs to the membrane cells. The surface of the ceramic membrane was superbly cleaned by air NBs, as revealed by atomic force microscope (AFM) images before and after the treatment. The permeate flux recovered to its initial level (e.g., 26.7 × 10(-9) m(3)/m(2)/s at applied pressure of 275.8 kPa), which indicated that NBs successfully unclogged the pores of the membrane. The integrated ceramic membrane and air NBs system holds potential as an innovative sustainable technology. PMID:26741542

  12. Evaluation of surfactant-water mixtures as cleaning agents

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, W.B.

    1993-02-01

    Water solutions of several common surfactants were tested for their capabilities as cleaners in an ultrasonic cleaning process. Glass and stainless steel test specimens were soiled with organic materials, cleaned in a test solution, and evaluated for cleanliness by the water-break test. No surfactant was able to clean all of the specimens sufficiently to pass the test.

  13. Separations Technology for Clean Water and Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvinen, Gordon D

    2012-06-22

    Providing clean water and energy for about nine billion people on the earth by midcentury is a daunting challenge. Major investments in efficiency of energy and water use and deployment of all economical energy sources will be needed. Separations technology has an important role to play in producing both clean energy and water. Some examples are carbon dioxide capture and sequestration from fossil energy power plants and advanced nuclear fuel cycle scemes. Membrane separations systems are under development to improve the economics of carbon capture that would be required at a huge scale. For nuclear fuel cycles, only the PUREX liquid-liquid extraction process has been deployed on a large scale to recover uranium and plutonium from used fuel. Most current R and D on separations technology for used nuclear fuel focuses on ehhancements to a PUREX-type plant to recover the minor actinides (neptunium, americiu, and curium) and more efficiently disposition the fission products. Are there more efficient routes to recycle the actinides on the horizon? Some new approaches and barriers to development will be briefly reviewed.

  14. Clean water bill wins house approval

    SciTech Connect

    Begley, R.

    1995-05-24

    Last week`s house passage of a Clean Water Act rewrite marks the biggest advance so far of the risk and cost-benefit agenda in an environmental law. It requires cost-benefit analyses of all major water regulations. {open_quotes}This is the first major environmental statute to incorporate those principles,{close_quotes} says a CMA-spokesperson. CMA praises the bill for encouraging pollution prevention and innovative technology by making it easier to obtain permit variances; eliminating overlapping federal and state pretreatment requirements; and making the Great Lakes Initiative a guidance document instead of a mandatory requirement. The bill`s future is uncertain, since the chairman of the Senate Environment Committee sees little wrong with the current law and is uninterested in pursuing a broad reauthorization, and President Clinton`s environmental aides are recommending a veto.

  15. Reticle storage in microenvironments with extreme clean dry air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gettel, Astrid; Glüer, Detlev; Honold, Alfred

    2012-11-01

    Haze formation on the patterned metal surface of reticles is a known problem for IC manufacturers that can impact device yield and increase operational costs due to the need for more frequent cleaning of the reticles. Storage of reticles in an ultraclean environment can reduce haze formation and reduce operational costs. We examined the contamination levels of a new type of reticle stocker that stores reticles in microenvironments which are continuously purged with extreme clean dry air (XCDA). Each microenvironment consists of twelve vertically stacked reticle storage slots which can be opened at any slot. The design of the microenvironment includes an XCDA supply that provides a homogeneous horizontal flow of XCDA between the reticles. Figure 1. Reduction of contamination levels inside the storage microenvironment as a function of XCDA flow rate. As shown in Fig. 1, continuous XCDA purge reduces the contaminant levels inside the microenvironment. The amount of reduction depends on the XCDA purge flow rate and the chemical species. Volatile organic substances can be reduced by more than two orders of magnitude. Humidity is reduced less because the plastic material of the storage microenvironment incorporates water in its matrix and can release moisture to the extremely dry atmosphere. Chemical filters applied to mini- or microenvironments typically reduce the contaminant levels only by 95-99% and do not reduce the humidity. To pick and place reticles, the reticle storage microenvironment must be opened. The transient contaminant levels inside the empty microenvironment show an increase at the moment when the microenvironment is opened. Under the given conditions, the microenvironment returns to equilibrium levels with a time constant of 105 seconds (see Fig. 2). Similar dynamic response was measured for IPA and acetone. Figure 2. Transient humidity when the storage microenvironment was opened for reticle handling. The impact of handling on reticles stored inside

  16. 75 FR 51807 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Ambient Air Methods and Monitoring Subcommittee (AAMMS) AGENCY..., 2010, of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Ambient Air Monitoring & Methods... Method for Lead (Pb) in Total Suspended Particulates (TSP). The Clean Air Scientific Advisory...

  17. Clean hydrogen and power from impure water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acar, Canan; Dincer, Ibrahim; Naterer, Greg F.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a new photoelectrochemical (PEC) H2 production system which is capable of providing clean energy and water, and multi-generation of H2, electricity, heat and industrial chemicals from a single clean, abundant and renewable source: sun. This novel system maximizes solar spectrum utilization and increases system efficiencies by generating more outputs from solar energy alone. The hybrid PEC-chloralkali system, coupled with PV/T (Photovoltaic Thermal), is capable of producing H2, Cl2, electricity, and heat simultaneously. Incoming solar light is split into high-energy photons (with wavelengths lower than 400 nm) and low-energy photons. The high-energy portion is used to generate photocurrent in the reactor, and the remaining part is sent to the PV/T. This PV/T supports the electricity needs of the system and also provides electricity output for the end user. Moreover, the heat recovered from PV/T is a system output. The findings suggest that this system is capable of producing H2 and Cl2 as well as heat and electricity with higher efficiencies than the reported PV electrolysis and PEC-based H2 production efficiencies in the literature.

  18. NASA's Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Act Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia

    2003-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was selected as the Principal Center for review of Clean Air Act (CAA) regulations. The CAA Principal Center is tasked to: 1) Provide centralized support to NASA/HDQ Code JE for the management and leadership of NASA's CAA regulation review process; 2) Identify potential impact from proposed CAA regulations to NASA program hardware and supporting facilities. The Shuttle Environmental Assurance Initiative, one of the responsibilities of the NASA CAA Working Group (WG), is described in part of this viewgraph presentation.

  19. Investigation of air cleaning system response to accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Andrae, R.W.; Bolstad, J.W.; Foster, R.D.; Gregory, W.S.; Horak, H.L.; Idar, E.S.; Martin, R.A.; Ricketts, C.I.; Smith, P.R.; Tang, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    Air cleaning system response to the stress of accident conditions are being investigated. A program overview and hghlight recent results of our investigation are presented. The program includes both analytical and experimental investigations. Computer codes for predicting effects of tornados, explosions, fires, and material transport are described. The test facilities used to obtain supportive experimental data to define structural integrity and confinement effectiveness of ventilation system components are described. Examples of experimental results for code verification, blower response to tornado transients, and filter response to tornado and explosion transients are reported.

  20. PROTECTING ECOLOGICAL RESOURCES WITH THE CLEAN AIR ACT: THE ROLE OF SCIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act provides for establishing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect public welfare (including crops, forests, ecosystems, and soils) from adverse effects of air pollutants, including tropospheric ozone. The formulation of policies is science-base...

  1. Applying the Clean Air Act to municipal solid waste landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Heitz, D.R.; Romzick, P.G.

    1998-12-31

    On March 12, 1996, the EPA promulgated the new Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Landfills, the first federal air regulation specifically for MSW landfills. Landfills subject to this regulation which exceeded the threshold design capacity also became subject to the Title V operating permit program. This began the application of the Clean Air Act (CAA) to most of these nontraditional air sources. Unlike landfills, typical air sources have easily defined input capacities that correspond to potential emissions while the process creates a product or output. All these concepts are difficult and confusing to apply to MSW landfills. Applicability of the following CAA regulations are specifically addressed in this paper: NSPS for MSW landfills; new Source Review (NSR)/Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD); landfill Maximum Achievable Control Technologies (MACT); 112(g) Modification of Major Sources of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP); 112(r) Accidental Release Prevention; and Title V. Along with summarizing the potential applicability of each, the main issues are presented along with the current information on the regulations.

  2. Water Motion in a Water Curtain Head for Cleaning a Large Glass Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habuka, Hitoshi; Yoshii, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Shinji; Hattori, Nozomi; Ikuma, Shingo; Kato, Masayuki; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2007-02-01

    Water motion in a water curtain head, which generates a thin and wide water screen to clean a large, thin and flat glass plate, is studied using numerical calculations based on fluid dynamics and experimental observation of the motion of colored water and small air bubbles in the water channel of the water curtain head. The colored water motion, the observed position of the remaining small air bubbles, and the time required to completely remove the air bubbles were in agreement with the behavior derived from the calculations, such as the water flow pattern and the region having low pressure. In conclusion, the most important factor for the design of the water curtain head is the direction of the water recirculation, which is governed by the distance between the small water-ejection pipes arranged along the wall of the water channel. The entire design of a very wide water curtain head can be performed by considering the water flow in a local region.

  3. The high efficiency steel filters for nuclear air cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.; Williams, K.; Violet, C.

    1990-08-01

    We have, in cooperation with industry, developed high-efficiency filters made from sintered stainless-steel fibers for use in several air-cleaning applications in the nuclear industry. These filters were developed to overcome the failure modes in present high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. HEPA filters are made from glass paper and glue, and they may fail when they get hot or wet and when they are overpressured. In developing our steel filters, we first evaluated the commercially available stainless-steel filter media made from sintered powder and sintered fiber. The sintered-fiber media performed much better than sintered-powder media, and the best media had the smallest fiber diameter. Using the best media, we then built prototype filters for venting compressed gases and evaluated them in our automated filter tester. 12 refs., 20 figs.

  4. A breath of fresh air: EPA`s more flexible approach to the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Curreri, J.A.

    1996-05-01

    This article highlights the changes in the Clean Air Act rules as defined by the USEPA. The major changes discussed include the following: definition of a `major source`; streamlined Title V Permits; less detailed descriptions; permit revisions may be reduced; periodic and enhanced monitoring; more practical requirements; case-by-case MACT standards.

  5. 77 FR 14830 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on March 6, 2012, a... against Spectro Alloys Corporation pursuant to Section 113(b) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7413(b... results in emissions of regulated air pollutants, including dioxins and furans, hydrogen...

  6. Clean-air video will interest MDs who treat patients with allergies, respiratory problems.

    PubMed

    Rafuse, J

    1996-03-15

    Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation wants physicians to help raise public awareness abut the importance of indoor air quality to health. Physicians across Canada are being sent a colourful poster that calls attention to indoor air pollution and ways to make a home healthier, included are order forms for the Clean Air Guide and a companion video, This Clean House. PMID:8634972

  7. 78 FR 43200 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... 1997 8-hour ozone national ambient air quality standard in the South Coast. 77 FR 12674 (March 1, 2012... AGENCY Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), notice is...

  8. 78 FR 20912 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice and initial request for public input. SUMMARY: The Clean Water Act requires that States... existing technology-based pollution controls are not stringent enough to attain or maintain State...

  9. 77 FR 15368 - Clean Water Act; Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act; Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... availability of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) proposed decision identifying water quality limited segments and associated pollutants in Oregon to be listed pursuant to section 303(d)(2) of the Clean...

  10. Proceedings of the 21st DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference; Sessions 1--8

    SciTech Connect

    First, M.W.

    1991-02-01

    Separate abstracts have been prepared for the papers presented at the meeting on nuclear facility air cleaning technology in the following specific areas of interest: air cleaning technologies for the management and disposal of radioactive wastes; Canadian waste management program; radiological health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis; filter testing; US standard codes on nuclear air and gas treatment; European community nuclear codes and standards; chemical processing off-gas cleaning; incineration and vitrification; adsorbents; nuclear codes and standards; mathematical modeling techniques; filter technology; safety; containment system venting; and nuclear air cleaning programs around the world. (MB)

  11. Indoor air cleaning using a pulsed discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, Akira; Kisanuki, Yoshiyuki; Noguchi, Masanobu; Katsura, Shinji; Lee, S.H.; Hong, Y.K.; Shin, S.Y.; Kang, J.H.

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a high-efficiency air-cleaning system for air pollutants such as tobacco smoke found in indoor environments. The authors investigated the basic characteristics of treating particulate matter and acetaldehyde (CH{sub 3}CHO) in a one-pass test using a pulse generator and a plasma-driven catalyst reactor, both of which are attachable to an air conditioner. Using a circulation test, the decrease in acetaldehyde concentration was measured in a closed vessel where the reactor had been placed. The removal efficiencies of particulate matter and acetaldehyde in the one-pass test (residence time of 10 ms) were 70% and 27%, respectively. In the circulation test, 98% of the suspended particles were collected after 2 min of operation and the acetaldehyde concentration decreased by 70% after 50 mins. It is believed that the TiO{sub 2} catalyst is excited by plasma-induced high-energy particles (electrons, photons, and metastable molecules), resulting in an enhanced pollutant removal. These test results indicate that the combination of plasma with TiO{sub 2} is a potential alternative in treating the pollutants in environmental tobacco smoke.

  12. Collection and analysis of NASA clean room air samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, L. S.; Keever, J.

    1985-01-01

    The environment of the HALOE assembly clean room at NASA Langley Research Center is analyzed to determine the background levels of airborne organic compounds. Sampling is accomplished by pumping the clean room air through absorbing cartridges. For volatile organics, cartridges are thermally desorbed and then analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, compounds are identified by searching the EPA/NIH data base using an interactive operator INCOS computer search algorithm. For semivolatile organics, cartridges are solvent entracted and concentrated extracts are analyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection, compound identification is made by matching gas chromatogram retention times with known standards. The detection limits for the semivolatile organics are; 0.89 ng cu m for dioctylphlhalate (DOP) and 1.6 ng cu m for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The detection limit for volatile organics ranges from 1 to 50 parts per trillion. Only trace quantities of organics are detected, the DOP levels do not exceed 2.5 ng cu m and the PCB levels do not exceed 454 ng cu m.

  13. 40 CFR 61.152 - Air-cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... filtering air from asbestos ore dryers; and (ii) Ensuring that felted fabric weighs at least 475 grams per... with a unit contacting energy of at least 9.95 kilopascals (40 inches water gage pressure). (2) Use a... Administrator may authorize the use of filtering equipment other than described in paragraphs (a)(1) and...

  14. 40 CFR 61.152 - Air-cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... filtering air from asbestos ore dryers; and (ii) Ensuring that felted fabric weighs at least 475 grams per... with a unit contacting energy of at least 9.95 kilopascals (40 inches water gage pressure). (2) Use a... Administrator may authorize the use of filtering equipment other than described in paragraphs (a)(1) and...

  15. 40 CFR 61.152 - Air-cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... filtering air from asbestos ore dryers; and (ii) Ensuring that felted fabric weighs at least 475 grams per... with a unit contacting energy of at least 9.95 kilopascals (40 inches water gage pressure). (2) Use a... Administrator may authorize the use of filtering equipment other than described in paragraphs (a)(1) and...

  16. 40 CFR 61.152 - Air-cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... filtering air from asbestos ore dryers; and (ii) Ensuring that felted fabric weighs at least 475 grams per... with a unit contacting energy of at least 9.95 kilopascals (40 inches water gage pressure). (2) Use a... Administrator may authorize the use of filtering equipment other than described in paragraphs (a)(1) and...

  17. Project puts Clean Air worst case' rule to test

    SciTech Connect

    Krukowski, J.

    1994-09-01

    DuPont was one of eight companies with plants in the Kanawha Valley that took part in a pioneering effort to company with EPA's proposed Risk Management Programs (RMP) rule (40 CFR Part 68, or section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act). When the rule is finalized, perhaps in early 1996, about 140,000 facilities across the country will have three years to comply. The RMP proposes that companies estimate the potential effects of significant accidental releases'' of 77 acutely toxic chemicals, 63 flammable gases and volatile flammable liquids, and certain explosive substances. A list of the chemicals and threshold quantities was published in the Jan. 31 Federal Register. Companies also must compile and make public a five-year history of releases, and document their prevention and emergency response plans.

  18. Clean Water Action Plan: The first year -- the future

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-01-01

    To commemorate the 25th anniversary of the Clean Water Act, the Vice President asked the federal agencies to develop and implement a comprehensive plan that would help revitalize the nation's commitment to valuable water resources. The result was the Clean Water Action Plan, which was released on February 19, 1998. This report marks the first anniversary of the Clean Water Action Plan. It highlights the progress that has been made toward implementing this ambitious plan and outlines the agenda for the coming year.

  19. 78 FR 16630 - Clean Air Act Grant: South Coast Air Quality Management District; Opportunity for Pubic Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 35 Clean Air Act Grant: South Coast Air Quality Management District; Opportunity for... proposed determination that the reduction in expenditures of non-Federal funds for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) in support of its continuing air program under section 105 of...

  20. 77 FR 43074 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... decree to address a lawsuit filed by Southern Alliance for Clean Energy, et al. v. EPA, No. 1:12-cv-00338-ESH (D.D.C). On or about March 2, 2012, Southern Alliance for Clean Energy, et al. filed a complaint... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  1. A review of potential alternatives for air cleaning at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1990-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted this review in support of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) being designed by Fluor Daniel Inc. for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The literature on air cleaning systems is reviewed to identify potential air cleaning alternatives that might be included in the design of HWVP. An overview of advantages/disadvantages of the various air cleaning technologies follows. Information and references are presented for the following potential air cleaning alternatives: deep-bed glass-fiber filters (DBGF), high-efficiency particulate air filters (HEPA), remote modular filter systems, high-efficiency mist eliminators (HEME), electrostatic precipitators, and the sand filter. Selected information is summarized for systems in the United States, Belgium, Japan, and West Germany. This review addresses high-capacity air cleaning systems currently used in the nuclear industry and emphasizes recent developments. 10 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Optimizing electric utility air toxics compliance with other titles of the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Loeb, A.P.; South, D.W.

    1993-12-31

    This paper provides an overview of regulatory issues under Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments that could affect electric utilities. Title III contains provisions relating to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and provides special treatment for electric utilities. Generally, this discussion documents that if utility toxic emissions are regulated, one of the chief difficulties confronting utilities will be the lack of coordination between Title III and other titles of the Act. The paper concludes that if the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) determines that regulation of utility HAPs is warranted under Title III, savings can be realized from flexible compliance treatment.

  3. Aerosols in clean and smoky air at Bozeman, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, J. A.; Thomas, M.; Lathem, T. L.; Shaw, G. E.; Nenes, A.; Pust, N.; Repasky, K. S.

    2010-12-01

    The northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States is a natural laboratory for studying aerosols in a relatively uncontaminated environment punctuated by episodes of wildfire smoke. In autumn 2009, we conducted a field experiment at Montana State University in Bozeman, Montana to characterize the boundary layer aerosols as they transition from smoky periods to relatively clean background air. Physical and chemical properties of the aerosols were conducted, including high time resolution of Cloud Condensation Nuclei and inter comparison with AERONET data during times of deep atmospheric mixing. The key results of this experiment are: 1) the air in this northern Rocky Mountain location is surprisingly pristine with frequent aerosol size distributions devoid of a an accumulation mode; 2) periods of night-time growth of Aitken-mode aerosols were observed; 3) a persistent diurnal variation occurred, with upslope daytime winds bringing aerosols exhibiting moderate anthropogenic influence , and down slope nighttime winds bringing aerosols with weak accumulation mode; 4) the smoke aerosol was weakly soluble; and 5) satisfactory agreement was found between the inverted estimate of the fine mode aerosol from AERONET solar radiometry with that measured in situ.

  4. Saving energy and improving IAQ through application of advanced air cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J; Destaillats, H.; Sidheswaran, M.A.

    2011-03-01

    In the future, we may be able use air cleaning systems and reduce rates of ventilation (i.e., reduce rates of outdoor air supply) to save energy, with indoor air quality (IAQ) remaining constant or even improved. The opportunity is greatest for commercial buildings because they usually have a narrower range of indoor pollutant sources than homes. This article describes the types of air cleaning systems that will be needed in commercial buildings.

  5. 75 FR 7627 - Notice of Lodging of Material Modification to Consent Decree under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... of Lodging of Material Modification to Consent Decree under the Clean Air Act Pursuant to Department of Justice policy, notice is hereby given that, on February 4, 2010, a proposed First Material... equipment to capture and recycle the vast majority of the hot water that is condensed from its use of...

  6. 77 FR 39657 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Washington; Determination of Clean...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ...; Determination of Clean Data for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particulate Standard for the Tacoma, Pierce County... Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) has clean data for the 2006 24-hour PM 2.5 NAAQS. This proposed determination is based upon quality-assured, quality-controlled, and certified ambient air monitoring...

  7. 40 CFR 23.3 - Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act. 23.3 Section 23.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.3 Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air...

  8. 40 CFR 23.3 - Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act. 23.3 Section 23.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.3 Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air...

  9. 40 CFR 23.3 - Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act. 23.3 Section 23.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.3 Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air...

  10. 40 CFR 23.3 - Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act. 23.3 Section 23.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.3 Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air...

  11. 75 FR 16461 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... AGENCY Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g... title V of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 7661 et seq., to RRI Energy Mid-Atlantic's Portland Generating Station...

  12. 77 FR 47381 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice...

  13. 78 FR 48161 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (CAA or the Act), notice is hereby given of a...

  14. 76 FR 45793 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C....

  15. 75 FR 67719 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (CAA or the Act), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is...

  16. 40 CFR 23.3 - Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act. 23.3 Section 23.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.3 Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air...

  17. 76 FR 51030 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice...

  18. 76 FR 81930 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), notice is...

  19. 76 FR 56757 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is hereby given of...

  20. 78 FR 40140 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), notice is hereby given of...

  1. 78 FR 21419 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act On April 4, 2013, the Department of Justice lodged... Processed Meats, Inc. The United States filed this lawsuit under the Clean Air Act (CAA), 42 U.S.C....

  2. 75 FR 22786 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice...

  3. 75 FR 61774 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on September 28, 2010... Consent Decree in this Clean Air Act enforcement actions against Murphy Oil USA, Inc. (``Murphy... Louisiana asserted in a complaint filed together with the Consent Decree, under Section 113(b) of the...

  4. 77 FR 281 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... 2, 2011, EPA provided notice in accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as...

  5. 75 FR 24946 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is hereby given of...

  6. 75 FR 38520 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (CAA), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is hereby given of...

  7. 76 FR 5609 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on January 26, 2011, a... United States et al. v. HOVENSA L.L.C., Civil Action No. 1:11-cv-6. The Consent Decree in this Clean Air... Agency, asserted in a complaint filed together with the Consent Decree, under section 113(b) of the...

  8. 76 FR 75544 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice...

  9. 76 FR 75545 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice...

  10. 78 FR 53143 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), notice is hereby given of...

  11. 77 FR 46757 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA''), notice is hereby given of a proposed...

  12. 77 FR 56840 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice...

  13. 77 FR 67814 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... Pollution Affecting Visibility and Best Available Retrofit Technology Determinations,'' 76 FR 81,728 (Dec... AGENCY Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), notice is...

  14. 77 FR 66978 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA''), notice is hereby given of a proposed...

  15. 75 FR 38519 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (CAA), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is hereby given of...

  16. 76 FR 58808 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is hereby given of...

  17. Surface cleaning of metals in air with a one atmosphere uniform glow discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, J.R.; Ku, Y.

    1995-12-31

    The authors report the use of active species generated in a one atmosphere uniform glow discharge plasma reactor with a parallel-plate configuration to clean the surface of as-received metal samples from the machine shop floor. The experimental arrangement used to expose the 7 by 10 cm metal samples is shown. The lower parallel-plate electrode is a flat copper plate 22 by 22 cm, covered by a 5mm thick pyrex sheet. The upper electrode is formed by the bare metal sample plate, with the side to be cleaned facing the plasma. To assure plasma uniformity between the electrodes, it was helpful to direct a flow of air on the edges of the plasma volume. The cleanliness of the metal samples was determined with the standard sessile water drop test.

  18. BACT analysis under the Clean Air Act's PCD program

    SciTech Connect

    Simms, P.; Walke, J.

    2006-11-15

    Before a company may build a new major industrial source of air pollution, or make modifications to an existing major source in the USA it must apply for and receive a Clean Air Act (CAA) Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permit. State environmental agencies typically issue such permits, either under state law or by exercising delegated authority to implement the federal PSD program. To fully comply with the CAA, the emissions limits identified as BACT must incorporate consideration of more than just add-on emissions control technology, they must also reflect appropriate considerations of fuel quality (e.g. low-sulfur coal) and process changes (e.g. advanced combustion techniques) as a means of controlling emissions, and must consider the other environmental and public welfare benefits of the identified emissions control options. Several states including New Mexico and Illinois have already determined that innovated technologies, such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), must be considered in connection with the BACT analysis for new coal-fired power plants. Even the notion that BACT is categorically limited in scope to the general type of facility proposed is contrary to EPA precedent. For example, the Environmental Appeals Board (EAB) has explained that permitting authorities retain the discretion under the definition of BACT to require dramatically different facility designs (e.g. a natural gas plant instead of a coal-fired power plant). The best advice for any permit applicant is to include in the BACT analysis a careful and honest examination of better performing alternative processes and/or innovative combustion techniques and to aggressively pursue such options wherever feasible. 17 refs.

  19. Flow-specific trends in river-water quality resulting from the effects of the clean air act in three mesoscale, forested river basins in the northeastern United States through 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murdoch, Peter S.; Shanley, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    Two new methods for assessing temporal trends in stream-solute concentrations at specific streamflow ranges were applied to long (40 to 50-year) but sparse (bi-weekly to quarterly sampling) stream-water quality data collected at three forested mesoscale basins along an atmospheric deposition gradient in the northeastern United States (one in north-central Pennsylvania, one in southeastern New York, and one in eastern Maine). The three data sets span the period since the implementation of the Clean Air Act in 1970 and its subsequent amendments. Declining sulfate (SO2-4) trends since the mid 1960s were identified for all 3 rivers by one or more of the 4 methods of trend detection used. Flow-specific trends were assessed by segmenting the data sets into 3-year and 6-year blocks, then determining concentration-discharge relationships for each block. Declining sulfate (SO2-4) trends at median flow were similar to trends determined using a Seasonal Kendall Tau test and Sen slope estimator. The trend of declining SO2-4 concentrations differed at high, median and low flow since the mid 1980s at YWC and NR, and at high and low flow at WR, but the trends leveled or reversed at high flow from 1999 through 2002. Trends for the period of record at high flows were similar to medium- and low-flow trends for Ca2+ + Mg2+ concentrations at WR, non-significant at YWC, and were more negative at low flow than at high flow at NR; trends in nitrate (NO-3), and alkalinity (ALK) concentrations were different at different flow conditions, and in ways that are consistent with the hydrology and deposition history at each watershed. Quarterly sampling is adequate for assessing average-flow trends in the chemical parameters assessed over long time periods (???decades). However, with even a modest effort at sampling a range of flow conditions within each year, trends at specified flows for constituents with strong concentration-discharge relationships can be evaluated and may allow early

  20. Flow-specific trends in river-water quality resulting from the effects of the Clean Air Act in three mesoscale, forested river basins in the northeastern United States through 2002.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, Peter S; Shanley, James B

    2006-09-01

    Two new methods for assessing temporal trends in stream-solute concentrations at specific streamflow ranges were applied to long (40 to 50-year) but sparse (bi-weekly to quarterly sampling) stream-water quality data collected at three forested mesoscale basins along an atmospheric deposition gradient in the northeastern United States (one in north-central Pennsylvania, one in southeastern New York, and one in eastern Maine). The three data sets span the period since the implementation of the Clean Air Act in 1970 and its subsequent amendments. Declining sulfate (O4(2-)) trends since the mid 1960s were identified for all 3 rivers by one or more of the 4 methods of trend detection used. Flow-specific trends were assessed by segmenting the data sets into 3-year and 6-year blocks, then determining concentration-discharge relationships for each block. Declining sulfate (O4(2-)) trends at median flow were similar to trends determined using a Seasonal Kendall Tau test and Sen slope estimator. The trend of declining O4(2-) concentrations differed at high, median and low flow since the mid 1980s at YWC and NR, and at high and low flow at WR, but the trends leveled or reversed at high flow from 1999 through 2002. Trends for the period of record at high flows were similar to medium- and low-flow trends for Ca2++ Mg2+ concentrations at WR, non-significant at YWC, and were more negative at low flow than at high flow at NR; trends in nitrate (NO3-), and alkalinity (ALK) concentrations were different at different flow conditions, and in ways that are consistent with the hydrology and deposition history at each watershed. Quarterly sampling is adequate for assessing average-flow trends in the chemical parameters assessed over long time periods (approximately decades). However, with even a modest effort at sampling a range of flow conditions within each year, trends at specified flows for constituents with strong concentration-discharge relationships can be evaluated and may allow

  1. Flow-specific trends in river-water quality resulting from the effects of the Clean Air Act in three mesoscale, forested river basins in the northeastern United States through 2002.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, Peter S; Shanley, James B

    2006-09-01

    Two new methods for assessing temporal trends in stream-solute concentrations at specific streamflow ranges were applied to long (40 to 50-year) but sparse (bi-weekly to quarterly sampling) stream-water quality data collected at three forested mesoscale basins along an atmospheric deposition gradient in the northeastern United States (one in north-central Pennsylvania, one in southeastern New York, and one in eastern Maine). The three data sets span the period since the implementation of the Clean Air Act in 1970 and its subsequent amendments. Declining sulfate (O4(2-)) trends since the mid 1960s were identified for all 3 rivers by one or more of the 4 methods of trend detection used. Flow-specific trends were assessed by segmenting the data sets into 3-year and 6-year blocks, then determining concentration-discharge relationships for each block. Declining sulfate (O4(2-)) trends at median flow were similar to trends determined using a Seasonal Kendall Tau test and Sen slope estimator. The trend of declining O4(2-) concentrations differed at high, median and low flow since the mid 1980s at YWC and NR, and at high and low flow at WR, but the trends leveled or reversed at high flow from 1999 through 2002. Trends for the period of record at high flows were similar to medium- and low-flow trends for Ca2++ Mg2+ concentrations at WR, non-significant at YWC, and were more negative at low flow than at high flow at NR; trends in nitrate (NO3-), and alkalinity (ALK) concentrations were different at different flow conditions, and in ways that are consistent with the hydrology and deposition history at each watershed. Quarterly sampling is adequate for assessing average-flow trends in the chemical parameters assessed over long time periods (approximately decades). However, with even a modest effort at sampling a range of flow conditions within each year, trends at specified flows for constituents with strong concentration-discharge relationships can be evaluated and may allow

  2. The Clean Air Act impacts on rail coal

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, R.G. )

    1991-03-01

    These factors are examined in this article. In November 1990, President Bush signed the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 into law. Title IV, concerning acid rain control, calls for a two-phase reduction in power plant sulfur-dioxide emissions, culminating in a nationwide cap after the year 2000. A large part of this reduction will be obtained through substituting low-sulfur coals for the higher-sulfur fuels now used. Most commentators have characterized this legislation as a boon for low-sulfur coal producers and the railroads serving them. If, as projected, up to one-eighth of existing coal-burning plants shift to more distant suppliers, a surge in rail traffic would ensue. Whether this traffic originates at eastern or western mines, rail carriers would obtain longer hauls and greater coal volumes. We have examined the rail transport implications of the amendments and found that the potential rail benefits may be exaggerated. Although traffic volume will grow, margins on some new traffic are likely to be eroded by continued rate competition and reduced productivity. To satisfy coal transport needs in the 1990s, factors that challenge rail productivity must be recognized and resolved.

  3. Air/Superfund national technical guidance study series: Estimation of air impacts for air stripping of contaminated water

    SciTech Connect

    Eklund, B.; Smith, S.; Hunt, M.

    1991-05-01

    Analysis of the air impacts associated with the alternatives to cleaning up Superfund sites is frequently required for planning purposes prior to actual cleanup. Such analyses depend on estimates rather than on field measurements. The report provides procedures for estimating the emissions and ambient air concentrations associated with air stripping - a widely used technique for removing volatile organic compounds (VOC) from contaminated water. Procedures are given to evaluate the effect of the concentration of contaminants in water, the stripping efficiency and the stripping rate on the emission rates and on the ambient air concentrations at selected distances from the air stripper. Henry's Law constants are provided for over 130 compounds to assist in determining stripping efficiencies. Health-based action levels are also provided for the 130 compounds for comparison to the estimated ambient air concentrations. Action levels are also expressed in terms of water concentrations using conservative estimates of emissions and dispersion.

  4. Clean water and energy from hyacinths

    SciTech Connect

    Duffer, W.; Kellogg, J.

    1981-04-01

    Studies in 15 US cities and Japan on the water hyacinth show that the same characteristics which make it a nuisance - its ability to thrive in a variety of water systems - can make it a source of animal feed, soil mulch, energy, and water purification. The plant prefers slow-moving water enriched with the waste water from fields, factories, and residences. A water-hyacinth treatment facility is less expensive and uses less energy than conventional facilities. (DCK)

  5. Window-mounted unit cleans air at hazardous waste site

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglia, J.M. ); Sawyer, P.

    1994-07-01

    Uncontrolled hazardous waste sites present the potential for exposure to numerous airborne chemicals--both identified and unidentified. This was the case at an Elizabeth, N.J., remediation project managed by a major environmental contractor. The four-acre site housed three active manufacturing facilities and was bordered by an operation commuter railroad line. About 6,300 drums of assorted organic chemicals, mostly acid chlorides and bromides, awaited sampling and removal. In addition, 120 tanks and vessels required sampling, characterization and removal. Due to site restrictions, support trailers were located relatively close to active work areas. Damaged drums littering the site contained water-reactive, organic acid chlorides and bromides, and released slight emissions during humid or rainy conditions. Shifting winds could (and did) carry trace releases or trace contaminants toward the trailers, potentially exposing unprotected workers. Efforts were begun to alleviate even trace contaminant at levels in the remediation site's temporary office trailers. One potential solution to managing trace contaminants at the site was to use a window-mounted, air conditioner-type unit that would replenish each trailer with filtered air three times an hour, and provide positive pressure in the trailer to compensate for repeated openings and closings of doors. The design uses common, off-the-shelf components to temper the approximately 10 percent makeup air, which provides positive pressure.

  6. Air Pollution Studies in Metromanila and Catalysis Technology Towards Clean Air Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, S. M.

    - Considerable air quality and emission data gathered in Metropolitan Manila (MM) led to the development of automobile exhaust treatment catalysts as well as their continued improvement. Findings of a 5-year (1993-1998) collaborative work on the development of base metal oxide catalysts for automobile exhaust are summarized here. One study in 1991 reveals an average 16% increase in the number of motor vehicles in MM where 16% are new and the rest are old ones. Another study in 1992 shows the CO and hydrocarbon emission levels from different types of motor vehicles in MM as a function of the age of the vehicle, type of fuel, and the operating condition. Reports of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) and other related studies also provided data showing the quality of air in MM. Currently, there are several requirements to further improve the catalyst performance towards the reduction of NOX and to develop catalyst-sorbent for simultaneous NOX-SOX removal. This is so because of the present condition of rain acidification that is found in certain places in MM. These air quality and emission data are needed not only to establish practical emission standards for motor vehicles and the stationary industries and power plants but also in the development of technologies for air pollution control and other clean technologies for cleaner air in the country.

  7. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Reconstruction is Commenced on or After June 16, 2006 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean... only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Within 60 days after your air curtain...

  8. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Reconstruction is Commenced on or After June 16, 2006 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean... only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Within 60 days after your air curtain...

  9. 40 CFR 52.36 - What are the requirements of the Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) for the Clean Air Interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) for the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) relating to emissions of... What are the requirements of the Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) for the Clean Air Interstate Rule... part 97 of this chapter constitute the Clean Air Interstate Rule Federal Implementation Plan...

  10. 40 CFR 52.36 - What are the requirements of the Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) for the Clean Air Interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) for the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) relating to emissions of... What are the requirements of the Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) for the Clean Air Interstate Rule... part 97 of this chapter constitute the Clean Air Interstate Rule Federal Implementation Plan...

  11. 40 CFR 22.34 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air Act. 22.34 Section 22.34 Protection of... Clean Air Act. (a) Scope. This section shall apply, in conjunction with §§ 22.1 through 22.32, in...) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7413(d), 7524(c), 7545(d), and 7547(d))....

  12. 40 CFR 22.34 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air Act. 22.34 Section 22.34 Protection of... Clean Air Act. (a) Scope. This section shall apply, in conjunction with §§ 22.1 through 22.32, in...) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7413(d), 7524(c), 7545(d), and 7547(d))....

  13. 40 CFR 22.34 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air Act. 22.34 Section 22.34 Protection of... Clean Air Act. (a) Scope. This section shall apply, in conjunction with §§ 22.1 through 22.32, in...) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7413(d), 7524(c), 7545(d), and 7547(d))....

  14. 40 CFR 22.34 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air Act. 22.34 Section 22.34 Protection of... Clean Air Act. (a) Scope. This section shall apply, in conjunction with §§ 22.1 through 22.32, in...) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7413(d), 7524(c), 7545(d), and 7547(d))....

  15. 40 CFR 49.7 - Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval. 49.7 Section 49.7 Protection of Environment... MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.7 Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act... it meets the eligibility requirements of § 49.6 for Clean Air Act program approval. The...

  16. 40 CFR 49.7 - Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval. 49.7 Section 49.7 Protection of Environment... MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.7 Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act... it meets the eligibility requirements of § 49.6 for Clean Air Act program approval. The...

  17. 40 CFR 49.7 - Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval. 49.7 Section 49.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY Tribal Authority § 49.7 Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program...

  18. 40 CFR 49.7 - Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval. 49.7 Section 49.7 Protection of Environment... MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.7 Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act... it meets the eligibility requirements of § 49.6 for Clean Air Act program approval. The...

  19. 40 CFR 52.36 - What are the requirements of the Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) for the Clean Air Interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) for the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) relating to emissions of... What are the requirements of the Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) for the Clean Air Interstate Rule... part 97 of this chapter constitute the Clean Air Interstate Rule Federal Implementation Plan...

  20. 3 CFR - State of California Request for Waiver Under 42 U.S.C. 7543(b), the Clean Air Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....C. 7543(b), the Clean Air Act Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of January 26, 2009 State of California Request for Waiver Under 42 U.S.C. 7543(b), the Clean Air Act Memorandum for the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency Under the Clean Air Act (42...

  1. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy ? FY11 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Cohn, Sebastian; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2011-10-31

    The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel volatile organic compounds (VOCs) air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. we targeted a VOC air cleaning system that could enable a 50% reduction in ventilation rates. In a typical commercial HVAC system that provides a mixture of recirculated and outdoor air, a VOC air cleaner in the supply airstream must have a 15% to 20% VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50% reduction in outdoor air supply.

  2. Keeping the Air Clean and Safe: An Anthrax Smoke Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Scientists at work in the Planetary Protection division at NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) sterilize everything before blasting it to the Red Planet. They take great pains to ensure that all spacecraft are void of bacterial life, especially the microscopic bacteria that can live hundreds of years in their spore states. No one is quite sure what Earthly germs would do on Mars, but scientists agree that it is safest to keep the Martian terrain as undisturbed as possible. Errant Earth germs would also render useless the instruments placed on exploration rovers to look for signs of life, as the life that they registered would be life that came with them from Earth. A team at JPL, headed by Dr. Adrian Ponce, developed a bacterial spore-detection system that uses a simple and robust chemical reaction that visually alerts Planetary Protection crews. It is a simple air filter that traps micron-sized bacterial spores and then submits them to the chemical reaction. When the solution is then viewed under an ultraviolet light, the mixture will glow green if it is contaminated by bacteria. Scientists can then return to the scrubbing and cleaning stages of the sterilization process to remove these harmful bacteria. The detection system is the space-bound equivalent of having your hands checked for cleanliness before being allowed to the table; and although intended to keep terrestrial germs from space, this technology has awesome applications here on Mother Earth. The bacterial spore-detection unit can recognize anthrax and other harmful, spore-forming bacteria and alert people of the impending danger. As evidenced in the anthrax mailings of fall 2001 in the United States, the first sign of anthrax exposure was when people experienced flu-like symptoms, which unfortunately, can take as much as a week to develop after contamination. Anthrax cost 5 people their lives and infected 19 others; and the threat of bioterrorism became a routine concern, with new threats popping up

  3. Reauthorization of Clean Water Act remains debatable, raises objections

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.J. )

    1994-06-13

    With the full Senate poised to begin work on legislation rewriting the Clean Water Act, the House Public Works and Transportation Subcommittee on Water Resources and Environment has jumped back into the debate after a yearlong hiatus. Late last month, the subcommittee held two days of hearings to get input from a number of diverse groups concerning proposed revisions to the Clean Water Quality Act of 1994, H.R. 3948. As the subcommittee once again found out, many groups and organizations have a stake in clean water, and most do not think currently proposed legislation meets their requirements. H.R. 3948 touches on three issues that are currently causing a backlash to environmental laws in general. The issues are unfunded mandates, wetland designations, and risk assessment.

  4. Evaluation of pressurized water cleaning systems for hardware refurbishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillard, Terry W.; Deweese, Charles D.; Hoppe, David T.; Vickers, John H.; Swenson, Gary J.; Hutchens, Dale E.

    1995-01-01

    Historically, refurbishment processes for RSRM motor cases and components have employed environmentally harmful materials. Specifically, vapor degreasing processes consume and emit large amounts of ozone depleting compounds. This program evaluates the use of pressurized water cleaning systems as a replacement for the vapor degreasing process. Tests have been conducted to determine if high pressure water washing, without any form of additive cleaner, is a viable candidate for replacing vapor degreasing processes. This paper discusses the findings thus far of Engineering Test Plan - 1168 (ETP-1168), 'Evaluation of Pressurized Water Cleaning Systems for Hardware Refurbishment.'

  5. VERIFICATION TESTING OF TECHNOLOGIES TO CLEAN OR FILTER VENTILATION AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of the importance of indoor air quality, Research Triangle Institute's Air Pollution Control Technology is adding indoor air products as a new technology category available for testing. This paper discusses RTI's participation in previous Environmental Technology Verifica...

  6. 78 FR 45925 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... waterbodies were added by EPA because the applicable numeric water quality standards marine criterion for... 303(d) List can be obtained at EPA Region 6's Web site at...

  7. 78 FR 27233 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... decree, or settlement agreement required EPA to take action on a list in 2000 (65 FR 17170). Consistent... AGENCY Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... identifying water quality limited segments and associated pollutants in Louisiana to be listed pursuant...

  8. Air-water centrifugal convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrada, Miguel; Shtern, Vladimir

    2014-07-01

    A sealed cylindrical container is filled with air and water. The container rotation and the axial gradient of temperature induce the steady axisymmetric meridional circulation of both fluids due to the thermal buoyancy and surface-tension (Marangoni) effects. If the temperature gradient is small, the water circulation is one-cellular while the air circulation can be one- or two-cellular depending on water fraction Wf. The numerical simulations are performed for the cylinder length-to-radius ratio l = 1 and l = 4. The l = 4 results and the analytical solution for l → ∞ agree in the cylinder's middle part. As the temperature gradient increases, the water circulation becomes one-, two-, or three-cellular depending on Wf. The results are of fundamental interest and can be applied for bioreactors.

  9. Process for gas cleaning with reclaimed water

    SciTech Connect

    Estabrook, L.E.; Marion, C.P.; Richter, G.N.

    1980-06-03

    Dispersions comprising of water and particulate solids i.e. carbon and ash are produced in at least one gas cooling or scrubbing zone by quench cooling or scrubbing, or both the raw gas stream from a partial oxidation gas generator with water. Advantageously, the water may be reclaimed by this process. In one embodiment, the carbon-water dispersion containing any ash is mixed with a liquid organic extractant and a liquid aqueous emulsion. The emulsion breaks up, and in a decanting operation a carbon-extractant-water dispersion containing gaseous impurities separates out and floats on a dilute bottoms water layer containing gaseous impurities and some solids. The carbon extractant-water dispersion is mixed with a heavy liquid hydrocarbon and introduced into a distillation column. The overhead from the distillation column is cooled and separated in a separation vessel into an upper layer of liquid organic extractant, an intermediate layer of aqueous emulsion, a bottom layer of water, and an overhead stream of uncondensed gaseous impurities if any. The liquid aqueous emulsion and the liquid extractant are recycled to the decanting operation. The water layer from the separation vessel and the bottoms water from the decanting operation are separately introduced into a flash column where the water is reclaimed. The flash column includes at least one stripping plate and two chambers at the bottom separated by a weir. The overhead from the flash column is cooled below the dew point and is introduced into said separation vessel. In another scheme, the emulsion is mixed with the bottoms water from the decanting operation and fed to a flash column for reclaiming water. Alternately, the aqueous emulsion is broken-up into water and liquid hydrocarbon by heating.

  10. Chapter A3. Cleaning of Equipment for Water Sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilde, Franceska D.; Radtke, Dean B.; Gibs, Jacob; Iwatsubo, Rick T.

    1998-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) describes protocols and provides guidelines for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. Chapter A3 describes procedures for cleaning the equipment used to collect and process samples of surface water and ground water and procedures for assessing the efficacy of the equipment-cleaning process. This chapter is designed for use with the other chapters of this field manual. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters will be posted on the USGS page 'National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data.' The URL for this page is http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A/ (accessed September 20, 2004).

  11. Cleaning contaminated soil using electrical heating and air stripping

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, H.M.; Daily, W.D.

    1995-08-01

    In the summer of 1992, a proof-of-concept demonstration of direct electrical heating and air stripping was conducted for enhancing the removal of a volatile organic contaminant, trichloroethylene (TCSE), from soil. Six electrodes were buried in shallow boreholes so that a target region 6.1 m in diameter and 3.05 m in height was heated by ohmic dissipation of power-line-frequency electrical currents supplied by a diesel generator. Air stripping of TCE contamination from the same region was accomplished from a single well at the center of the heated volume. The electrical energy used during the demonstration was 3.46 {times} 10{sup 10} J (9,600 kW {center_dot} h), and the temperature of the extracted air rose from 16 C to 38 C. An energy balance shows that input energy is consistent with the temperature rise in the target volume and the amount of water vaporized at the electrodes. Prior to heating, the TCE concentration in the vapor decreased from about 80 parts per million by volume (ppm{sub v}) to around 60 ppm{sub v}. As soon as electrical heating started, TCE concentrations began to increase. Some concentration data were lost shortly after electrical heating began. After the system was repaired, the TCE concentration fell rapidly from about 140 ppm{sub v} to 5 ppm{sub v} over a period of about 25 days. A simple two-dimensional model for calculation of heating rates is also presented and verified experimentally. Finally some of the operation and safety issues associated with electrical heating are discussed.

  12. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean...

  13. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean...

  14. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean...

  15. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean...

  16. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean...

  17. 77 FR 41930 - Bleed Air Cleaning and Monitoring Equipment and Technology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... Privacy Act Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478... industry developers, manufacturers, and the public related to effective air cleaning technology and...

  18. Citizen suit Clean Air Act enforcement: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, W.G. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    Almost every federal environmental statute has a provision that allows citizens to sue violators in lieu of governmental enforcement authorities under certain circumstances. Generally, if the relevant governmental enforcement authority was not deemed to be diligently prosecuting enforcement action against an alleged violator and certain procedural requirements were met a citizens suit could be filed in federal court. If a violation was proved penalties could be assessed against the violator and the plaintiff citizen could receive reimbursement of both his or her attorney's fees and other expenses. Historically, however, the only federal statute that has been the subject of significant citizens suit activity has been the federal Clean Water Act (CWA). This paper will explore a variety of events that are expected to significantly increase the number of citizen suits CAA permitted facilities will face over the next ten years. The paper will briefly address the role the Title V operating permit will play. It will also include a discussion of how this permit will now encompass specific emission limitations along with a mandate to report exceedances. Further, and equally important, will be the role of the 1997 federal Environmental Protection Agency any credible evidence rule which potentially broadens the type, amount, and accessibility available to a CAA citizen suit plaintiff. This rule along with the additional monitoring data that will be generated by the Title V periodic and compliance assurance monitoring requirements will be an issue. Two important CAA citizen suits will be discussed which illustrate the potential role of credible evidence. Also, recent citizen suit decisions involving other federal environmental statutes with implications for the CAA will be examined. Further, the paper will provide some thoughts on how facilities can protect themselves to the extent possible against citizen suits.

  19. Effectiveness of HVAC duct cleaning procedures in improving indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, I; Tansel, B; Mitrani, J D

    2001-12-01

    Indoor air quality has become one of the most serious environmental concerns as an average person spends about 22 hr indoors on a daily basis. The study reported in this article, was conducted to determine the effectiveness of three commercial HVAC (Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning) duct cleaning processes in reducing the level of airborne particulate matter and viable bioaerosols. The three HVAC sanitation processes were: (1) Contact method (use of conventional vacuum cleaning of interior duct surfaces); (2) Air sweep method (use of compressed air to dislodging dirt and debris); (3) Rotary brush method (insertion of a rotary brush into the ductwork to agitate and dislodge the debris). Effectiveness of these sanitation processes was evaluated in terms of airborne particulate and viable bioaerosol concentrations in residential homes. Eight identical homes were selected in the same neighborhood. Two homes were cleaned using each procedure and two were used as controls. It was found that both particle count readings and bioaerosol concentrations were higher when cleaning was being performed than before or after cleaning, which suggests that dirt, debris and other pollutants may become airborne as a result of disturbances caused by the cleaning processes. Particle count readings at 0.3 micron size were found to have increased due to cigarette smoking. Particle counts at 1.0 micron size were reduced due to HVAC duct cleaning. Post-level bioaerosol concentrations, taken two days after cleaning, were found to be lower than the pre-level concentrations suggesting that the cleaning procedures were effective to some extent. Homes cleaned with the Air Sweep procedure showed the highest degree of reduction in bioaerosol concentration among the three procedures investigated.

  20. Radical observations during the Clean air for London project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalley, L. K.; Stone, D.; Clancy, N.; Lee, J. D.; Laufs, S.; Kleffmann, J.; Heard, D. E.

    2012-12-01

    With greater than 50 % of the global population residing in urban conurbations, poor urban air quality has a demonstrable effect on human health. OH and HO2 radicals, (collectively termed HOx) together with RO2 radicals, mediate virtually all of the oxidative chemistry in the atmosphere, being responsible for the transformation of primary emissions into secondary pollutants such as NO2, O3 and particulates. Understanding the chemistry of free-radicals in the atmosphere is essential in improving predictions of the lifetimes of pollutants and spatial scales of their transport within urban areas. Results from earlier field campaigns in urban and polluted regions have demonstrated the significance of HONO photolysis and alkene ozonolysis in the production of HOx radicals. In many cases, however, measurements of HONO have not been made, reducing the ability to evaluate model successes for OH in these environments. Here we present measurements of OH, HO2, RO2 and OH reactivity taken during the wintertime (January - February, 2012) and summertime (July - August, 2012) as part of the Clean air for London (ClearfLo) project in London. RO2 was detected using a newly developed flow-reactor laser-induced fluorescence technique which is able to discriminate between HO2 and organic peroxy radicals [1]. Low concentrations of radicals were observed during the wintertime, midday [OH], [HO2] and [RO2] were ~ 0.04, 0.8 and 1.5 pptv respectively, comparable to observations of radicals at other urban locations in winter [2,3,4], and which displayed a negative correlation with NO concentrations. OH reactivity was high and largely tracked the diurnal profiles of NOx and CO, with the highest reactivity ~100 s-1 observed during the morning rush hour. Analysis of factors controlling OH concentrations during the wintertime suggests that the formation of OH from the photolysis of O3 and subsequent reaction of O(1D) with H2O is a minor contribution both under high and low NOx conditions owing

  1. Research to support Clean Water Act reauthorization

    SciTech Connect

    Lucier, A. )

    1993-05-01

    The forest products industry is supporting a program of investigations to assemble and evaluate existing information of forest management and water quality. Preliminary conclusions from the projects include the following: relative to other land uses, the quality of water from forests is the best in the nation; all states with significant commercial timber harvest activity already have nonpoint-source control programs for forestry. Noncompliance with Best Management Practices by some landowners and loggers is perceived to be the most common cause of forest water quality problems in most areas. Future research will include two high-priority items: determination of costs and benefits of regulatory and non-regulatory approaches to controlling forestry nonpoint sources and developing information and management systems adequate to support site-specific prescriptions that achieve water quality objectives at minimum cost.

  2. Water Power for a Clean Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    2013-04-12

    This document describes some of the accomplishments of the Department of Energy Water Power Program, and how those accomplishments are supporting the advancement of renewable energy generated using hydropower technologies and marine and hydrokinetic technologies.

  3. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA`s Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  4. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA's Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  5. Can commonly-used fan-driven air cleaning technologies improve indoor air quality? A literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinping; Mo, Jinhan; Li, Yuguo; Sundell, Jan; Wargocki, Pawel; Zhang, Jensen; Little, John C.; Corsi, Richard; Deng, Qihong; Leung, Michael H. K.; Fang, Lei; Chen, Wenhao; Li, Jinguang; Sun, Yuexia

    2011-08-01

    Air cleaning techniques have been applied worldwide with the goal of improving indoor air quality. The effectiveness of applying these techniques varies widely, and pollutant removal efficiency is usually determined in controlled laboratory environments which may not be realized in practice. Some air cleaners are largely ineffective, and some produce harmful by-products. To summarize what is known regarding the effectiveness of fan-driven air cleaning technologies, a state-of-the-art review of the scientific literature was undertaken by a multidisciplinary panel of experts from Europe, North America, and Asia with expertise in air cleaning, aerosol science, medicine, chemistry and ventilation. The effects on health were not examined. Over 26,000 articles were identified in major literature databases; 400 were selected as being relevant based on their titles and abstracts by the first two authors, who further reduced the number of articles to 160 based on the full texts. These articles were reviewed by the panel using predefined inclusion criteria during their first meeting. Additions were also made by the panel. Of these, 133 articles were finally selected for detailed review. Each article was assessed independently by two members of the panel and then judged by the entire panel during a consensus meeting. During this process 59 articles were deemed conclusive and their results were used for final reporting at their second meeting. The conclusions are that: (1) None of the reviewed technologies was able to effectively remove all indoor pollutants and many were found to generate undesirable by-products during operation. (2) Particle filtration and sorption of gaseous pollutants were among the most effective air cleaning technologies, but there is insufficient information regarding long-term performance and proper maintenance. (3) The existing data make it difficult to extract information such as Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR), which represents a common benchmark for

  6. Self-scrubbing coal{sup TM}: An integrated approach to clean air. A proposed Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared by the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE), with compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, Council on Environmental Quality (CE) regulations for implementating NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508) and DOE regulations for compliance with NEPA (10 CFR 1021), to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with a proposed demonstration project to be cost-shared by DOE and Custom Coals International (CCI) under the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program of DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy. CCI is a Pennsylvania general partnership located in Pittsburgh, PA engaged in the commercialization of advanced coal cleaning technologies. The proposed federal action is for DOE to provide, through a cooperative agreement with CCI, cost-shared funding support for the land acquisition, design, construction and demonstration of an advanced coal cleaning technology project, {open_quotes}Self-Scrubbing Coal: An Integrated Approach to Clean Air.{close_quotes} The proposed demonstration project would take place on the site of the presently inactive Laurel Coal Preparation Plant in Shade Township, Somerset County, PA. A newly constructed, advanced design, coal preparation plant would replace the existing facility. The cleaned coal produced from this new facility would be fired in full-scale test burns at coal-fired electric utilities in Indiana, Ohio and PA as part of this project.

  7. Improving the Balance between Jobs and Clean Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasinowski, Jerry J.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of the efforts to improve America's air quality can be measured from two perspectives. One considers changes in air quality; the other, the impact of this undertaking on economic growth, jobs, and productivity. (RM)

  8. Clean Water Action Plan: Restoring and protecting America`s waters

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    On October 18, 1997, the 25th anniversary of the enactment of the Clean Water Act, the Vice President called for a renewed effort to restore and protect water quality. The Vice President asked that the Secretary of Agriculture and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), working with other affected agencies, develop a Clean Water Action Plan that builds on clean water successes and addresses three major goals: (1) enhanced protection from public health threats posed by water pollution; (2) more effective control of polluted runoff; and (3) promotion of water quality protection on a watershed basis.

  9. Bioinspired Bifunctional Membrane for Efficient Clean Water Generation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Lou, Jinwei; Ni, Mengtian; Song, Chengyi; Wu, Jianbo; Dasgupta, Neil P; Tao, Peng; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2016-01-13

    Solving the problems of water pollution and water shortage is an urgent need for the sustainable development of modern society. Different approaches, including distillation, filtration, and photocatalytic degradation, have been developed for the purification of contaminated water and the generation of clean water. In this study, we explored a new approach that uses solar light for both water purification and clean water generation. A bifunctional membrane consisting of a top layer of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs), a middle layer of Au NPs, and a bottom layer of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was designed and fabricated through multiple filtration processes. Such a design enables both TiO2 NP-based photocatalytic function and Au NP-based solar-driven plasmonic evaporation. With the integration of these two functions into a single membrane, both the purification of contaminated water through photocatalytic degradation and the generation of clean water through evaporation were demonstrated using simulated solar illumination. Such a demonstration should also help open up a new strategy for maximizing solar energy conversion and utilization. PMID:26646606

  10. Bioinspired Bifunctional Membrane for Efficient Clean Water Generation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Lou, Jinwei; Ni, Mengtian; Song, Chengyi; Wu, Jianbo; Dasgupta, Neil P; Tao, Peng; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2016-01-13

    Solving the problems of water pollution and water shortage is an urgent need for the sustainable development of modern society. Different approaches, including distillation, filtration, and photocatalytic degradation, have been developed for the purification of contaminated water and the generation of clean water. In this study, we explored a new approach that uses solar light for both water purification and clean water generation. A bifunctional membrane consisting of a top layer of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs), a middle layer of Au NPs, and a bottom layer of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was designed and fabricated through multiple filtration processes. Such a design enables both TiO2 NP-based photocatalytic function and Au NP-based solar-driven plasmonic evaporation. With the integration of these two functions into a single membrane, both the purification of contaminated water through photocatalytic degradation and the generation of clean water through evaporation were demonstrated using simulated solar illumination. Such a demonstration should also help open up a new strategy for maximizing solar energy conversion and utilization.

  11. Self-Scrubbing Coal -- an integrated approach to clean air

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, K.E.

    1997-12-31

    Carefree Coal is coal cleaned in a proprietary dense-media cyclone circuit, using ultrafine magnetite slurries, to remove noncombustible material, including up to 90% of the pyritic sulfur. Deep cleaning alone, however, cannot produce a compliance fuel from coals with high organic sulfur contents. In these cases, Self-Scrubbing Coal will be produced. Self-Scrubbing Coal is produced in the same manner as Carefree Coal except that the finest fraction of product from the cleaning circuit is mixed with limestone-based additives and briquetted. The reduced ash content of the deeply-cleaned coal will permit the addition of relatively large amounts of sorbent without exceeding boiler ash specifications or overloading electrostatic precipitators. This additive reacts with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) during combustion of the coal to remove most of the remaining sulfur. Overall, sulfur reductions in the range of 80--90% are achieved. After nearly 5 years of research and development of a proprietary coal cleaning technology coupled with pilot-scale validation studies of this technology and pilot-scale combustion testing of Self-Scrubbing Coal, Custom Coals Corporation organized a team of experts to prepare a proposal in response to DOE`s Round IV Program Opportunity Notice for its Clean Coal Technology Program under Public Law 101-121 and Public Law 101-512. The main objective of the demonstration project is the production of a coal fuel that will result in up to 90% reduction in sulfur emissions from coal-fired boilers at a cost competitive advantage over other technologies designed to accomplish the same sulfur emissions and over naturally occurring low sulfur coals.

  12. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section 60... Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

  13. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section 60... Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

  14. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2971 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a)...

  15. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section 60... Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

  16. 77 FR 59186 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ..., 2011, and submitted by the Environmental Integrity Project and the Southern Alliance for Clean Energy... AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...: Pursuant to Clean Air Act (CAA) Section 505(b)(2), the EPA Administrator signed an Order, dated August...

  17. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2971 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a)...

  18. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section 60... Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

  19. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section 60... Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

  20. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2971 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a)...

  1. Clean Water: Report to Congress - 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This publication, an annual report to Congress, covers measures taken to implement the objectives of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. The report was developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and covers calendar year 1973. A letter introducing and highlighting the report from the EPA Director to the Congress is given at the…

  2. Clean, Safe Water. For How Long?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenke, Pam

    The document presents research and project-oriented activities at the secondary school level for studying Illinois' streams, water pollution, and methods for controlling pollution. Social, economic, and political issues are examined as part of the planning for pollution prevention. Following six teaching objectives, background information traces…

  3. No Need to Wait for the Clean Air Dividend

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, Drew

    2012-01-01

    upfront costs of some measures can be prohibitive even when they eventually pay for themselves. But this can be overcome by mechanisms such as international financing of capital costs. For other measures, the costs are typically borne by a few while the benefits accrue to everybody. In such cases civil society and governments must get involved. Governments are starting to act. In February, the US, Canada, Sweden, Bangladesh, Ghana and Mexico launched the Climate and Clean Air Coalition to support implementation of measures like these. This coalition will hopefully expand and achieve rapid, widespread adoption of measures to cut black carbon and ozone. While the climate benefits will be substantial, it is important to note that these measures cannot substitute for cuts in carbon dioxide. Black carbon, ozone, carbon monoxide and methane stay in the atmosphere for a fairly short time - a few days for black carbon and about a decade for methane. They thus respond quickly to emissions changes and give us substantial leverage over near-term climate change. In contrast, carbon dioxide is very long-lived and so responds slowly to emissions changes. This means that cuts have little immediate impact, but it also means they must be made now to avoid disastrous changes later on. Controlling short-lived climate pollutants is thus an issue of fairness. Much as failure to reduce carbon dioxide emissions soon would condemn future generations to disastrous change, failure to reduce near-term climate change condemns those alive today to suffer worsening effects of the sort already seen. Some wonder if we really can do both. We can, and we must.

  4. 76 FR 21345 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of Two Public Teleconferences of the Clean Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Air Monitoring and Methods Subcommittee AGENCY: Environmental... ] Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces two public teleconference calls of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Air Monitoring and Methods Subcommittee (AMMS) to provide advice on EPA's...

  5. 75 FR 54146 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Ambient Air Monitoring & Methods Subcommittee (AAMMS) to provide advice... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC), Ambient Air Methods and Monitoring Subcommittee (AAMMS) AGENCY:...

  6. WATER AS A REACTION MEDIUM FOR CLEAN CHEMICAL PROCESSES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green chemistry is a rapid developing new field that provides us a pro-active avenue for the sustainable development of future science and technologies. When designed properly, clean chemical technology can be developed in water as a reaction media. The technologies generated f...

  7. EPA Sees No Economic Blocks to Clean Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the Environmental Protection Agency report on the economic impacts of clean water on industries and municipal sewage treatment works. Concludes that the long-term growth of the industry may be slightly impaired, but market trends, technological advances, and productivity will far overshadow these impacts. (CC)

  8. The Public Benefits of Cleaned Water: Emerging Greenway Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deardorff, Howard

    Highlighted are opportunities for greenway development and protection. It encourages careful management in the use of waterfront land, early planning for public access and enjoyment of cleaned rivers, streams, and harbors, and efforts to ensure that these bodies of water are not repolluted by new, indiscriminate development attracted to their…

  9. Underwater self-cleaning scaly fabric membrane for oily water separation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xi; Guo, Zhenyan; Tian, Dongliang; Zhang, Xiaofang; Li, Wenxian; Jiang, Lei

    2015-02-25

    Oily wastewater is always a threat to biological and human safety, and it is a worldwide challenge to solve the problem of disposing of it. The development of interface science brings hope of solving this serious problem, however. Inspired by the capacity for capturing water of natural fabrics and by the underwater superoleophobic self-cleaning property of fish scales, a strategy is proposed to design and fabricate micro/nanoscale hierarchical-structured fabric membranes with superhydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity, by coating scaly titanium oxide nanostructures onto fabric microstructures, which can separate oil/water mixtures efficiently. The microstructures of the fabrics are beneficial for achieving high water-holding capacity of the membranes. More importantly, the special scaly titanium oxide nanostructures are critical for achieving the desired superwetting property toward water of the membranes, which means that air bubbles cannot exist on them in water and there is ultralow underwater-oil adhesion. The cooperative effects of the microscale and nanoscale structures result in the formation of a stable oil/water/solid triphase interface with a robust underwater superoleophobic self-cleaning property. Furthermore, the fabrics are common, commercially cheap, and environmentally friendly materials with flexible but robust mechanical properties, which make the fabric membranes a good candidate for oil/water separation even under strong water flow. This work would also be helpful for developing new underwater superoleophobic self-cleaning materials and related devices.

  10. Underwater self-cleaning scaly fabric membrane for oily water separation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xi; Guo, Zhenyan; Tian, Dongliang; Zhang, Xiaofang; Li, Wenxian; Jiang, Lei

    2015-02-25

    Oily wastewater is always a threat to biological and human safety, and it is a worldwide challenge to solve the problem of disposing of it. The development of interface science brings hope of solving this serious problem, however. Inspired by the capacity for capturing water of natural fabrics and by the underwater superoleophobic self-cleaning property of fish scales, a strategy is proposed to design and fabricate micro/nanoscale hierarchical-structured fabric membranes with superhydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity, by coating scaly titanium oxide nanostructures onto fabric microstructures, which can separate oil/water mixtures efficiently. The microstructures of the fabrics are beneficial for achieving high water-holding capacity of the membranes. More importantly, the special scaly titanium oxide nanostructures are critical for achieving the desired superwetting property toward water of the membranes, which means that air bubbles cannot exist on them in water and there is ultralow underwater-oil adhesion. The cooperative effects of the microscale and nanoscale structures result in the formation of a stable oil/water/solid triphase interface with a robust underwater superoleophobic self-cleaning property. Furthermore, the fabrics are common, commercially cheap, and environmentally friendly materials with flexible but robust mechanical properties, which make the fabric membranes a good candidate for oil/water separation even under strong water flow. This work would also be helpful for developing new underwater superoleophobic self-cleaning materials and related devices. PMID:25643170

  11. An Innovation for Global Clean Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Under contract to NASA, Umpqua Research developed the Microbial Check Valve (MCV) iodine-dispensing system for the Space Shuttle Orbiter, introduced in 1979 to purify astronauts' drinking water. In 1989, NASA awarded the company a new contract to develop a system for continuous iodine release over long periods for use in the International Space Station. In 1993, the company demonstrated the Regenerable Biocide Delivery Unit, and NASA granted it an exclusive license.

  12. Development of an emergency air-cleaning system for liquid-metal reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, R.K.

    1980-11-01

    A novel air cleaning concept has been developed for potential use in venting future commercial liquid metal fast breeder reactor containment buildings in the unlikely event of postulated core disruptive accidents. The passive concept consists of a submerged gravel bed to collect the bulk of particulate contaminates carried by the vented gas. A fibrous scrubber could be combined with the submerged gravel scrubber to enhance collection efficiencies for the smaller sized particles. The submerged gravel scrubber is unique in that water flow through the packed bed is induced by the gas flow, eliminating the need for an active liquid pump. In addition, design gas velocities through the packed bed are 10 to 20 times higher than for a conventional sand bed filter.

  13. In-Water Hull Cleaning & Filtration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Dan George R & D Mining Technology LinkedIn GRD Franmarine have received the following prestigious awards in 2014 for their research & development of an in-water hull cleaning and filtration system "The Envirocart: Golden Gecko Award for Environmental Excellence; WA Innovator of the Year - Growth Sector; Department of Fisheries - Excellence in Marine Biosecurity Award - Innovation Category; Lloyd's List Asia Awards - Environmental Award; The Australian Innovation Challenge - Environment, Agriculture and Food Category; and Australian Shipping and Maritime Industry Award - Environmental Transport Award. The Envirocart developed and patented by GRD Franmarine is a revolutionary new fully enclosed capture and containment in-water hull cleaning technology. The Envirocart enables soft Silicon based antifouling paints and coatings containing pesticides such as Copper Oxide to be cleaned in situ using a contactless cleaning method. This fully containerised system is now capable of being deployed to remote locations or directly onto a Dive Support Vessel and is rated to offshore specifications. This is the only known method of in-water hull cleaning that complies with the Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF) and Department of Fisheries WA (DoF) Guidelines. The primary underwater cleaning tool is a hydraulically powered hull cleaning unit fitted with rotating discs. The discs can be fitted with conventional brushes for glass or epoxy based coatings or a revolutionary new patented blade system which can remove marine biofouling without damaging the antifouling paint (silicone and copper oxide). Additionally there are a patented range of fully enclosed hand cleaning tools for difficult to access niche areas such as anodes and sea chests, providing an innovative total solution that enables in-water cleaning to be conducted in a manner that causes no biological risk to the environment. In full containment mode or when AIS are present, material is pumped

  14. Smogbusters: Grassroots Action for Clean Air and Sustainable Transport in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manners, Eric; Wake, David; Carlisle, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Smogbusters was a national, community-based, government-funded community education program promoting clean air and sustainable transport in Australia from 1994 to 2002. Smogbusters aimed to improve air quality primarily by raising awareness about motor vehicle transport and its negative impacts on health, the environment and communities, and by…

  15. 76 FR 76762 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... Clean Air Act (``CAA''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(b) and 7477. Defendant produces nitric acid, which is used in the production of ammonium nitrate and other fertilizers and explosives. The nitric acid process results in the emissions of regulated air pollutants, including nitrogen oxides (``NO X ''). The...

  16. 75 FR 54871 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... Quality Standards for NO X and SO X : First External Review Draft (March 2010) (75 FR 10479- 10481). CASAC... Office announces a public meeting of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee NO X and SO X Secondary... Assessment for the Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for NO X and SO X :...

  17. 75 FR 51483 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ...' violations of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7411 et seq., and the New Jersey Air Pollution Control Act, N.J.S... to the Consent Decree. Comments should be addressed to the Assistant Attorney General, Environment... at the stated address. Maureen Katz, Assistant Chief, Environmental Enforcement Section,...

  18. Dealing with the Clean Water Act pending reauthorization

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, S.

    1994-09-01

    This report addresses probable changes in the Clean Water Act that may affect federal facilities such as those under the DOE. These changes will be included in a reauthorization of the act. The author draws upon the 1992 National Water Quality Inventory Report to Congress as a source to identify changes in the focus of the reauthorized act on non-point source issues, watershed management, new enforcement mechanisms and an assortment of smaller issues that will have indirect effects on federal facilities.

  19. Your Right to Clean Air, A Manual for Citizen Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1970

    This manual provides the citizen with basic information for taking action against air pollution. A summary of the effects of various concentrations of sulfur oxides, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, photochemical smog, and hydrocarbons is presented. Suggestions are made for obtaining information about community air pollution problems, and how…

  20. Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in the Neuse River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, M. C.; Knightes, C. D.; Dennis, R. L.; Cooter, E. J.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated impacts of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) NOx emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina, USA from 1990 to 2020. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system were used. CMAQ simulated atmospheric chemical transport and nitrogen deposition. This data was entered into SWAT which simulated watershed hydrology and water quality. Two cases were investigated: one that incorporates CAAA regulatory emissions controls in CMAQ simulation (with) and a second case that does not (without). SWAT model results forecasted a 70% decrease in inorganic nitrogen discharge from the Little River watershed and a 50% decrease for the Nahunta watershed by 2020 under the emission control (with) scenario. Denitrification and plant nitrogen uptake played important roles in nitrogen discharge from each watershed. The nitrogen discharge response time following a change in atmospheric nitrogen deposition was 4 years for the Nahunta watershed and 2 years for the Little River watershed. The longer response time for Nahunta is primarily due to a higher percentage of soybean land cover (22.5% [Nahunta]; 1.6% [Little River]). Agricultural land covers had varied nitrogen response times to changes in atmospheric deposition, particularly for soybean, hay and corn. The studied watersheds retained >80% of all nitrogen delivered by agriculture fertilization, biological fixation and atmospheric deposition.

  1. 75 FR 63471 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... in 75 FR 54146-54147, the Ambient Air Methods and Monitoring Subcommittee (AAMMS) of the Clean Air... Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) to conduct a quality review and approve...

  2. 76 FR 21346 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office, Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office, Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air... the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Lead Review Panel to provide consultative advice on EPA's draft Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead...

  3. 76 FR 53452 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Response to Petition To Reopen the 2001 Title V Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Response to Petition To Reopen the 2001 Title V Permit for.... ] SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Clean Air Act (CAA), the Director of the EPA Region III Air Protection Division... Reliant Energy Mid-Atlantic Power Holdings, LLC, for its Portland Generating Station in Northampton...

  4. The regulation of hazardous air pollutants under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Effects on the Portland cement industry

    SciTech Connect

    Mikols, E.H.; Dougherty, A.

    1996-07-01

    Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) addresses the control of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from major sources of air pollution in the US. In the CAAA, Congress defined 189 compounds as hazardous air pollutants in need of additional control by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Congress directed EPA to identify the major source categories which emit HAPs and to prepare regulations that would reduce and control future HAP emissions. This paper outlines the activities undertaken by EPA to regulate HAP emissions from Portland cement plants and the program developed by the Portland cement manufacturing industry to cope with Title III.

  5. Wet-air oxidation cleans up black wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Sterling Organics produces the analgesic paracetamol (acetaminophen) at its Dudley, England, plant. The wastewater from the batch process contains intermediates such as para-aminophenol (PAP) and byproducts such as thiosulfates, sulfites and sulfides. To stay ahead of increasingly strict environmental legislation, Sterling Organics installed a wet-air oxidation system at the Dudley facility in August 1992. The system is made by Zimpro Environmental Inc. (Rothschild, Wis.). Zimpro's wet-air oxidation system finds a way around the limitations of purely chemical or physical processes. In the process, compressed air at elevated temperature and pressure oxidizes the process intermediates and byproducts and removes the color from the wastewater.

  6. Breathless in Los Angeles: The Exhausting Search for Clean Air

    PubMed Central

    Künzli, Nino; McConnell, Rob; Bates, David; Bastain, Tracy; Hricko, Andrea; Lurmann, Fred; Avol, Ed; Gilliland, Frank; Peters, John

    2003-01-01

    Population growth and the proliferation of roadways in Southern California have facilitated a glut of mobile air pollution sources (cars and trucks), resulting in substantial atmospheric pollution. Despite successful efforts over the past 40 years to reduce pollution, an alarming set of health effects attributable to air pollution have been described in Southern California. The Children’s Health Study indicates that reduced lung function growth, increased school absences, asthma exacerbation, and new-onset asthma are occurring at current levels of air pollution, with sizable economic consequences. We describe these findings and urge a more aggressive effort to reduce air pollution exposures to protect our children’s health. Lessons from this “case study” have national implications. PMID:12948969

  7. Eastern States Harness Clean Energy to Promote Air Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-10-01

    States on the East Coast are including renewable energy and energy efficiency projects into their air quality plans that they submit to the EPA to address nonattainment for nitrogen oxides and other pollutants.

  8. Polluter-financed environmentally beneficial expenditures: Effective use or improper abuse of citizen suits under the Clean Water Act

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, D.S. )

    1991-01-01

    In 1970, recognizing the cumbersome and often ineffective enforcement mechanisms in existing federal water and air pollution statutes, Congress passed the first citizen suit provision. This provision of the Clean Water Act was the subject of intense debate and underwent several transitions before it was finally adopted. With the advent of citizen suits in environmental legislation, Congress opened the courts to the public. Citizen suit provisions allowed private citizens to serve as watch-dogs of both industry and government, creating an additional check in the enforcement schemes established by Congress. But the provisions allowed only for enforcement, not for the right to sue for damages. The remedies available to citizen-plaintiffs were injunctive relief and, in the case of the Clean Water Act, civil penalties payable to the US Treasury. Focusing on the Clean Water Act, this Comment explores the use of alternative payments as settlement of Clean Water Act citizen suits: polluter-financed environmentally beneficial expenditures. As established through consent decrees, these expenditures go to local cleanup, research, and educational projects in the area of Clean Water Act violations, in lieu of or in addition to civil penalties. While the US Department of Justice has objected to the use of such settlements, one apellate court has ratified their use. This essay postulates that environmentally beneficial expenditures established through consent decrees are an important and effective use of the Clean Water Act's citizen suit provision, serving the dual goals of deterring polluters and mitigating the effects of past violations.

  9. Cleaning efficacy of high-efficiency particulate air-filtered vacuuming and "dry steam" cleaning on carpet.

    PubMed

    Yiin, Lih-Ming; Yu, Chang Ho; Ashley, Peter; Rhoads, George

    2008-02-01

    Previous studies for lead exposure reduction have indicated the difficulty in reducing surface contamination of carpets with the use of regular vacuum cleaners. To find a solution, a household vacuum cleaner equipped with a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter and a dust finder indicator, and a "dry steam" cleaner previously reported effective in reducing dust mite allergens in carpets and mattresses were tested for effectiveness in reducing lead dust in carpets. Fifty homes of lead-exposed children were tested in New Jersey. A selected carpet in the living area of each home was tested with two interventions: half was cleaned by HEPA vacuuming twice (VAC-VAC) and the other half by dry steaming between the two HEPA vacuumings (VAC-DSC-VAC). Wipe and vacuum samples, representing surface dust and total dust collections, respectively, were taken before and after cleaning. The wipe and vacuum sample data indicated that both cleaning methods substantially reduced dust lead levels (p < 0.001). The mean percent reductions in lead loading were approximately 29% and 40% for the VAC-VAC and VAC-DSC-VAC interventions, respectively. The difference between the two postcleaning levels was statistically significant by wipe sampling (p = 0.038) but was marginally insignificant by vacuum sampling (p = 0.072). A subset of sample data collected before repeat vacuuming (VAC-DSC) suggested that repeat vacuuming after dry steam cleaning is unnecessary. In summary, slow and steady HEPA vacuuming with the help of a dust finder indicator reduces surface and overall lead dust in carpets, and dry steam cleaning further reduces surface lead contamination as compared with HEPA vacuuming alone.

  10. Cleaning efficacy of high-efficiency particulate air-filtered vacuuming and "dry steam" cleaning on carpet.

    PubMed

    Yiin, Lih-Ming; Yu, Chang Ho; Ashley, Peter; Rhoads, George

    2008-02-01

    Previous studies for lead exposure reduction have indicated the difficulty in reducing surface contamination of carpets with the use of regular vacuum cleaners. To find a solution, a household vacuum cleaner equipped with a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter and a dust finder indicator, and a "dry steam" cleaner previously reported effective in reducing dust mite allergens in carpets and mattresses were tested for effectiveness in reducing lead dust in carpets. Fifty homes of lead-exposed children were tested in New Jersey. A selected carpet in the living area of each home was tested with two interventions: half was cleaned by HEPA vacuuming twice (VAC-VAC) and the other half by dry steaming between the two HEPA vacuumings (VAC-DSC-VAC). Wipe and vacuum samples, representing surface dust and total dust collections, respectively, were taken before and after cleaning. The wipe and vacuum sample data indicated that both cleaning methods substantially reduced dust lead levels (p < 0.001). The mean percent reductions in lead loading were approximately 29% and 40% for the VAC-VAC and VAC-DSC-VAC interventions, respectively. The difference between the two postcleaning levels was statistically significant by wipe sampling (p = 0.038) but was marginally insignificant by vacuum sampling (p = 0.072). A subset of sample data collected before repeat vacuuming (VAC-DSC) suggested that repeat vacuuming after dry steam cleaning is unnecessary. In summary, slow and steady HEPA vacuuming with the help of a dust finder indicator reduces surface and overall lead dust in carpets, and dry steam cleaning further reduces surface lead contamination as compared with HEPA vacuuming alone. PMID:18075882

  11. Effect of Pattern Layout and Dissolved Oxygen in CO2 Rinse Water on Cu Corrosion during Post-Etch Cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentaro Tokuri,; Yukinari Yamashita,; Morio Shiohara,; Noriaki Oda,; Seiichi Kondo,; Shuichi Saito,

    2010-05-01

    When post-etch cleaning was carried out in Cu dual-damascene process, Cu at the bottom of isolated via was etched out especially in the wafer edge, and this would become a critical issue as device scale is shrunk. The corrosion was caused in the rinse step rather than chemical cleaning step because dissolved oxygen in rinse water from the air increased oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and CO2 included in the rinse water for preventing wafer electrification decreased pH. The corrosion was found to be suppressed by increasing dummy pattern density and by controlling atmosphere and pH of the rinse water.

  12. 76 FR 30545 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ...Pursuant to section 112(l) of the Clean Air Act (``CAA'') and Federal regulations promulgated thereunder, the Maine Department of Environmental Protection (``ME DEP'') submitted a request for approval to implement and enforce the amended ``Chapter 125: Perchloroethylene Dry Cleaner Regulation'' (Maine Dry Cleaner Rule) as a partial substitution for the amended National Emissions Standards for......

  13. Stability of air toxic gases listed in Title III Clean Air Act Amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Jayanty, R.K.M.; Jaffe, L.B.; Albritton, J.R.; Jackson, M.D.; Midgett, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    A repository of 59 organic compounds has been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use as gas standards in performance audits during field validation of emission concentrations from stationary sources. These compounds are listed in Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment. The compounds are prepared in compressed gas cylinders and recyclable aluminum containers. Three concentration ranges were selected: low (20 to 200 ppb), mid-level (0.5 to 5 ppm), and high (5 to 50 ppm). The recyclable aluminum containers were only prepared in the low range, and pressures were generally below 400 psig. The compressed gas cylinders contained pressures up to 2000 psig. In this program to ensure that the concentration of each gas standard had not changed, each standard was analyzed periodically for stability. The gas mixtures were analyzed by the manufacturer before shipment. They were then analyzed upon receipt, and reanalyzed periodically to determine any change in concentration. The stability data obtained to date indicates that many compounds are stable in the compressed gas cylinders; however, some of the compounds in the recyclable containers are not stable.

  14. Twenty-third DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning and Treatment Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, R.R.; Hayes, J.J.; First, M.W.

    1995-03-24

    This paper presents the details of the Nuclear Air Cleaning and Treatment Conference held in Buffalo, New York during July 1994. Topics discussed include: nuclear air cleaning codes and standards; waste disposal; particulate filter developments; sampling and monitoring of process and effluent streams; off-gasses from fuel reprocessing; adsorbents and adsorption; accident control and analysis; revised source terms for power plant accidents; and the highlight of the conference concerned operations at the West Valley DOE facility where construction is underway to solidify radioactive wastes.

  15. The effect of the clean air act of Erie County, New York on restaurant employment.

    PubMed

    Hyland, A; Vena, C; Cummings, K M; Lubin, A

    2000-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the economic impact of the Erie County, New York, Clean Air Act on the restaurant industry by examining restaurant employment and payroll statistics. Monthly county-specific data were compared between 1996 (before the law), 1997 (after phase 1, which required 80% of indoor restaurant seating to be smoke-free), and 1998 (after phase 2 which prohibited smoking in 100% of indoor restaurant seating). Erie County's Clean Air Act had no adverse economic impact on its restaurant industry. PMID:18019963

  16. Water Conservation and Reuse. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., Middletown. Inst. of State and Regional Affairs.

    Described is a learning session on water conservation intended for citizen advisory groups interested in water quality planning. Topics addressed in this instructor's manual include water conservation needs, benefits, programs, technology, and problems. These materials are components of the Working for Clean Water Project. (Author/WB)

  17. 77 FR 52762 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to The Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to The Clean Water Act In accordance with 28 CFR 50.7, 38 FR....). The Modified Consent Decree addresses, among other things, alleged violations of the federal Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251, et seq., and the Massachusetts Clean Waters Act, Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 21,...

  18. 78 FR 37847 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On June 18, 2013, the Department of...-00584-JPG-SCW. The United States filed this lawsuit under the Clean Water Act. The United States... 301 of the Clean Water Act, at property located approximately five miles east of Johnston City...

  19. 40 CFR 2.302 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Water Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... information obtained under the Clean Water Act. 2.302 Section 2.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... governing certain information obtained under the Clean Water Act. (a) Definitions. For the purposes of this section: (1) Act means the Clean Water Act, as amended, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq. (2)(i) Effluent data...

  20. 40 CFR 2.302 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Water Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... information obtained under the Clean Water Act. 2.302 Section 2.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... governing certain information obtained under the Clean Water Act. (a) Definitions. For the purposes of this section: (1) Act means the Clean Water Act, as amended, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq. (2)(i) Effluent data...

  1. 40 CFR 2.302 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Water Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... information obtained under the Clean Water Act. 2.302 Section 2.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... governing certain information obtained under the Clean Water Act. (a) Definitions. For the purposes of this section: (1) Act means the Clean Water Act, as amended, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq. (2)(i) Effluent data...

  2. 78 FR 34406 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On June 3, 2013, the Department of... International, Inc. (``Davisco'') for penalties pursuant to Section 309 of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1319... Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued by EPA under Section 402 of the Clean Water Act, 33...

  3. Air stripping for treatment of produced water

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, C.S.; Lin, J.H.

    1988-05-01

    In a laboratory study, air stripping shows a promising potential for treatment of produced water to meet new government regulations on total organic carbon (TOC). Reservoir hydrocarbons dissolved in water, such as volatile paraffins and aromatics, can be removed by air stripping through interphase mass transfer. However, air stripping cannot remove many chemicals added to crude oil by the operator.

  4. CAN SORBENT-BASED GAS PHASE AIR CLEANING FOR VOCS SUBSTITUTE FOR VENTILATION IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS?

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William; Fisk, William J.

    2007-08-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge about the suitability of sorbent-based air cleaning for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the air in commercial buildings, as needed to enable reductions in ventilation rates and associated energy savings. The principles of sorbent air cleaning are introduced, criteria are suggested for sorbent systems that can counteract indoor VOC concentration increases from reduced ventilation, major findings from research on sorbent performance for this application are summarized, and related priority research needs are identified. Major conclusions include: sorbent systems can remove a broad range of VOCs with moderate to high efficiency, sorbent technologies perform effectively when challenged with VOCs at the low concentrations present indoors, and there is a large uncertainty about the lifetime and associated costs of sorbent air cleaning systems when used in commercial buildings for indoor VOC control. Suggested priority research includes: experiments to determine sorbent system VOC removal efficiencies and lifetimes considering the broad range and low concentration of VOCs indoors; evaluations of in-situ regeneration of sorbents; and an updated analysis of the cost of sorbent air cleaning relative to the cost of ventilation.

  5. Sorbent-Based Gas Phase Air Cleaning for VOCs in CommercialBuildings

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.

    2006-05-01

    This paper provides a review of current knowledge about the suitability of sorbent-based air cleaning for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the air in commercial buildings as needed to enable reductions in ventilation rates and associated energy savings. The fundamental principles of sorbent air cleaning are introduced, criteria are suggested for sorbent systems that can counteract indoor VOC concentration increases from reduced ventilation, major findings from research on sorbent performance for this application are summarized, novel sorbent technologies are described, and related priority research needs are identified. Major conclusions include: sorbent systems can remove a broad range of VOCs with moderate to high efficiency, sorbent technologies perform effectively when challenged with VOCs at the low concentrations present indoors, and there is a large uncertainty about the lifetime and associated costs of sorbent air cleaning systems when used in commercial buildings for indoor VOC control. Suggested priority research includes: experiments to determine sorbent system VOC removal efficiencies and lifetimes considering the broad range and low concentration of VOCs indoors; evaluations of in-situ regeneration of sorbents; and an updated analysis of the cost of sorbent air cleaning relative to the cost of ventilation.

  6. 40 CFR 49.5 - Tribal requests for additional Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tribal requests for additional Clean... TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY Tribal Authority § 49.5 Tribal requests for additional Clean Air Act... request that the Administrator specify additional provisions of the Clean Air Act for which it would...

  7. Negative pressure of the environmental air in the cleaning area of the materials and sterilization center: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ciofi-Silva, Caroline Lopes; Hansen, Lisbeth Lima; Almeida, Alda Graciele Claudio dos Santos; Kawagoe, Julia Yaeko; Padoveze, Maria Clara; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the scientific evidence on aerosols generated during cleaning activities of health products in the Central Service Department (CSD) and the impact of the negative pressure of the ambient air in the cleaning area to control the dispersion of aerosols to adjacent areas. Method: for this literature systematic review the following searches were done: search guidelines, manuals or national and international technical standards given by experts; search in the portal and databases PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL and Web of Science; and a manual search of scientific articles. Results: the five technical documents reviewed recommend that the CSD cleaning area should have a negative differential ambient air pressure, but scientific articles on the impact of this intervention were not found. The four articles included talked about aerosols formed after the use of a ultrasonic cleaner (an increased in the contamination especially during use) and pressurized water jet (formation of smaller aerosols 5μm). In a study, the aerosols formed from contaminated the hot tap water with Legionella pneumophila were evaluated. Conclusions: there is evidence of aerosol formation during cleanup activities in CSD. Studies on occupational diseases of respiratory origin of workers who work in CSD should be performed. PMID:27598374

  8. 77 FR 15125 - Notice of Lodging of Second Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... of Lodging of Second Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on March 6, 2012, a proposed Second Consent Decree in United States and the State of Kansas v. Coffeyville... matter at its oil refinery located in Coffeyville, Kansas. Under the proposed Second Consent Decree...

  9. 77 FR 61641 - Notice Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... Rico in the lawsuit entitled United States v. Suiza Dairy Corporation, Civil Action No. 3:12-cv-01810... Dairy Corporation, to resolve alleged violations of Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act at dairies in... the two dairies; (2) perform supplemental environmental projects (``SEPs'') that will...

  10. 76 FR 52692 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... on August 17, 2011, a Consent Decree in United States of America v. Erie Coke Corporation, Civil... Pennsylvania. In this action, the United States sought injunctive relief and penalties against Erie Coke Corporation (``Erie Coke'') pursuant to Section 113(b) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7413(b), for...

  11. 76 FR 64010 - Special Rules Governing Certain Information Obtained Under the Clean Air Act: Technical Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... to Special Rules Governing Certain Information Obtained Under the Clean Air Act (76 FR 30782). In... section 307(d). (See 76 FR 30782: ``The Administrator determined that this action is subject to the... for the data. (See 76 FR 30782, 30784, 30815 (May 26, 2011); see also 75 FR 39094, 39098,...

  12. Assessing the Link between Environmental Concerns and Consumers' Decisions to Use Clean-Air Vehicles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plax, Timothy G.; Kearney, Patricia; Ross, Ted J.; Jolly, J. Christopher

    2008-01-01

    A consulting contract with the California Air Resources Board led to a project examining how California drivers' and fleet managers' perceptions, attitudes, and consumer behavior regarding Clean Vehicle Technologies influenced their own energy choices when it came to purchasing vehicles. The consultants examined archival research, conducted focus…

  13. 78 FR 27234 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... solicited nominations for the CASAC NO X Primary NAAQS Review Panel on October 17, 2012 (77 FR 63827-63828...); Oxides of Nitrogen Primary NAAQS Review Panel AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Oxides of Nitrogen (NO X ) Primary...

  14. 75 FR 27580 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... proposed Consent Decree (``Decree'') in United States v. The Pep Boys--Manny, Moe & Jack, and Baja, Inc.... EPA''), sought penalties and injunctive relief under the Clean Air Act (``CAA'') against The Pep Boys... of Justice, Washington, DC 20044-7611, and should refer to United States v. The Pep Boys--Manny,...

  15. 76 FR 45618 - Notice of Lodging of Joint Stipulation Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... of Lodging of Joint Stipulation Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on July 25, 2011, a proposed Joint Stipulation to Modify the Sixth Amendment to the Consent Decree entered in United States v. BP Exploration and Oil Co., et al., (Civil No. 2:96 CV 095 RL) (``Joint Stipulation''),...

  16. 77 FR 66462 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee; Notice of Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee; Notice of Charter Renewal AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of charter renewal. The charter for the U.S. Environmental Protection...

  17. 75 FR 22548 - Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... March 30, 2010, when EPA published a proposed rule (75 FR 15655) amending the Section 112(j) rule (40... as provided in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of the March 30, 2010 (75 FR 15655) Federal... in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) AGENCY:...

  18. 76 FR 61738 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ..., 2011, a proposed Consent Decree in United States and Allegheny County Health Department v. Eastman... County Health Department for violations of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq., alleged in a Complaint filed on September 28, 2011. In the Complaint, the United States and the Allegheny County...

  19. 77 FR 28897 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ..., 2012, a proposed Consent Decree in United States of America v. American Sugar Refining, Inc., Civil... Consent Decree in this Clean Air Act enforcement action against American Sugar Refining, Inc. (``ASR... environmental violations at ASR's sugar refinery in Baltimore, Maryland. In addition to the payment of a...

  20. 75 FR 62421 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... that on September 30, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree in United States of America v. Dakota Ethanol... Dakota Ethanol, LLC pursuant to Sections 111 and 502(a) of the Clean Air Act (the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C... violations of the Act. Dakota Ethanol, LLC owns and operates an ethanol production facility in Lake...

  1. 40 CFR 2.301 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Confidentiality of Business Information § 2.301 Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act. (a) Definitions. For the purpose of this... proposed standard or limitation: (A) Information concerning research, or the results of research, on...

  2. 75 FR 74048 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is..., 42 U.S.C. 7410(k)(2), to take action on certain State Implementation Plan (``SIP'') submittals by...

  3. 78 FR 1883 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... alleges that Wisconsin Public Service Corporation (``WPS'') failed to comply with certain requirements of... regulations. The complaint alleges that WPS failed to obtain appropriate permits and failed to install and... resolve past Clean Air Act violations and would require WPS to reduce harmful emissions of sulfur...

  4. 76 FR 22918 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ..., 2011, a proposed Consent Decree in United States et al. v. Terra Industries Inc. et al., Civ. A. No. 5... and injunctive relief for violations of the Clean Air Act (``CAA'') by Terra Industries Inc. (``Terra Industries''), Terra International (Oklahoma) Inc. (``Terra Oklahoma''), Terra Nitrogen, Limited...

  5. 75 FR 32210 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... proposed Consent Decree (``Decree'') in United States v. The Scrap Yard, LLC, d/b/a/ Cleveland Scrap, Civil.... EPA''), sought penalties and injunctive relief under the Clean Air Act (``CAA'') against The Scrap Yard, LLC, d/b/a/Cleveland Scrap (``Defendant'') relating to Defendant's Cleveland, Ohio...

  6. 75 FR 8994 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... that on February 16, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree in United States v. Belson Steel Center Scrap, Inc... penalty against Belson Steel Center Scrap, Inc. (``Belson''), pursuant to section 113(b) of the Clean Air... (``CFC'') removal equipment, (2) have properly trained operators evacuate CFCs from scrap...

  7. 77 FR 53235 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ..., a proposed consent decree in United States of America and Mecklenburg County v. Emerald Carolina... penalties and injunctive relief for alleged violations of Clean Air Act regulations at Emerald Carolina... applicable to certain equipment at the plant. The proposed consent decree requires Emerald Carolina...

  8. 76 FR 28026 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ...: Open meeting notice; Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. App. 2 Section 10(a)(2), notice is hereby given that the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee will hold their next open ] meeting on Wednesday June 8, 2011 from 8 a... available on a first come, first served basis. The Economic Incentives and Regulatory...

  9. 75 FR 25855 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... Addresses: Open meeting notice; Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. App. 2 Section 10(a)(2), notice is hereby given that the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee will hold its next open meeting on May 27, 2010 from 8 a.m. to 4... available on a first come, first served basis. The Economic Incentives and ] Regulatory...

  10. 75 FR 56530 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ...: Open meeting notice; Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. App. 2 Section 10(a)(2), notice is hereby given that the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee will hold their next open meeting on Wednesday, October 6, 2010 from 8... and Regulatory Innovations subcommittee will meet on Tuesday, October 5, 2010 from 8:30 a.m. to 12...

  11. Driving Students and Parents to Cleaner Air: An Interview with Michelle Waters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2006

    2006-01-01

    After spending three years as a kindergarten teacher and one as a reading specialist, Michelle Waters recently became the education outreach coordinator for the Georgia-based Clean Air Campaign. In that role, she has helped roll out a comprehensive Better Air Schools initiative to 20 Atlanta-area elementary schools. The program includes a…

  12. 76 FR 55799 - Approval of Clean Air Act Prevention of Significant Deterioration Permit Issued to Avenal Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval of Clean Air Act Prevention of Significant Deterioration Permit Issued to Avenal Power Center, LLC To Construct the Avenal Energy Project AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... decision granting the Clean Air Act Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permit...

  13. 75 FR 68093 - Partial Grant and Partial Denial of Clean Air Act Waiver Application Submitted by Growth Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... Protection Agency Partial Grant and Partial Denial of Clean Air Act Waiver Application Submitted by Growth Energy To Increase the Allowable Ethanol Content of Gasoline to 15 Percent; Decision of the Administrator...; ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Partial Grant and Partial Denial of Clean Air Act Waiver Application...

  14. 75 FR 55791 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for Alliant Energy--WPL Edgewater Generating Station AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of final order on petition to object to Clean Air Act operating permit. SUMMARY: This...

  15. 77 FR 5009 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for Duke...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... object to a Clean Air Act (Act) Title V operating permit for Duke Energy Indiana--Edwardsport Generating... AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for Duke Energy Indiana--Edwardsport Generating Station AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)....

  16. 76 FR 43684 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Energy (Xcel)--Pawnee Power Station. Pursuant to section 505(b)(2) of the Clean Air Act (Act or CAA... AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for Public Service Company of Colorado dba Xcel Energy--Pawnee Power Station AGENCY: Environmental...

  17. ESTIMATES OF THE ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION OF SULFUR AND NITROGEN SPECIES: CLEAN AIR STATUS AND TRENDS NETWORK. 1990 THROUGH 2000

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) was established by EPA in response to the requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. To satisfy these requirements CASTNet was designed to assess and report on geographic patterns and long-term, temporal trends in ambient ...

  18. 76 FR 23809 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific... announces a public meeting on May 19 and 20, 2011, of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC... Standards: Scope and Methods Plan for Health Risk and Exposure Assessment (April 2011 Draft), and...

  19. 76 FR 12730 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Objection to State Operating Permit for U.S. Steel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Objection to State Operating Permit for U.S. Steel-Granite.... Steel--Granite City Works (USS). Sections 307(b) and 505(b)(2) of the Clean Air Act (Act) provide that...

  20. 75 FR 19968 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for... April 1, 2009 title V permit issued to Public Service Company of Colorado dba Xcel Energy (Xcel)--Hayden Power Station. Pursuant to section 505(b)(2) of the Clean Air Act (Act), Petitioners may seek...

  1. Does Clean Water Make You Dirty? Water Supply and Sanitation in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Water supply investments in developing countries may inadvertently worsen sanitation if clean water and sanitation are substitutes. This paper examines the negative correlation between the provision of piped water and household sanitary behavior in Cebu, the Philippines. In a model of household sanitation, a local externality leads to a sanitation…

  2. 78 FR 44599 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On July 15, 2013, the Department of... United States filed this lawsuit under the Clean Water Act. The United States' complaint seeks injunctive relief and civil penalties for discharges of pollutants, in violation of Section 301 of the Clean...

  3. 75 FR 68620 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on... Pennsylvania. The United States and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania also filed claims pursuant to the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq, and the Pennsylvania Clean Streams Law, 35 P.S. Sec. Sec. 691.1 et...

  4. 77 FR 75446 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On December 13, 2012, the Department..., Civil Action No. 3:09-cv-1873. The United States filed this lawsuit under the Clean Water Act. The United States' complaint seeks injunctive relief and civil penalties for violations of the Clean...

  5. 77 FR 43860 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Water Act In accordance with 28 CFR 50.7, 38 FR...'') violated Sections 301, 311, and 402 of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1311, 1321, and 1342, applicable... and undertake measures to achieve compliance with the above-referenced provisions of the Clean...

  6. 40 CFR 463.20 - Applicability; description of the cleaning water subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cleaning... the cleaning water subcategory are processes where water comes in contact with the plastic product for... equipment, such as molds and mandrels, that contact the plastic material for the purpose of cleaning...

  7. 40 CFR 463.20 - Applicability; description of the cleaning water subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cleaning... the cleaning water subcategory are processes where water comes in contact with the plastic product for... equipment, such as molds and mandrels, that contact the plastic material for the purpose of cleaning...

  8. 76 FR 72973 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... ``Fort Gay'') for permanent injunctive relief and civil penalties under the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251-387; the Safe Drinking Water Act, 42 U.S.C. 300f-300j-26; the West Virginia Water Pollution... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act Notice is...

  9. Evidence of recovery of Juniperus virginiana trees from sulfur pollution after the Clean Air Act.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Richard B; Spal, Scott E; Smith, Kenneth R; Nippert, Jesse B

    2013-09-17

    Using dendroisotopic techniques, we show the recovery of Juniperus virginiana L. (eastern red cedar) trees in the Central Appalachian Mountains from decades of acidic pollution. Acid deposition over much of the 20th century reduced stomatal conductance of leaves, thereby increasing intrinsic water-use efficiency of the Juniperus trees. These data indicate that the stomata of Juniperus may be more sensitive to acid deposition than to increasing atmospheric CO2. A breakpoint in the 100-y δ(13)C tree ring chronology occurred around 1980, as the legacy of sulfur dioxide emissions declined following the enactment of the Clean Air Act in 1970, indicating a gradual increase in stomatal conductance (despite rising levels of atmospheric CO2) and a concurrent increase in photosynthesis related to decreasing acid deposition and increasing atmospheric CO2. Tree ring δ(34)S shows a synchronous change in the sources of sulfur used at the whole-tree level that indicates a reduced anthropogenic influence. The increase in growth and the δ(13)C and δ(34)S trends in the tree ring chronology of these Juniperus trees provide evidence for a distinct physiological response to changes in atmospheric SO2 emissions since ∼1980 and signify the positive impacts of landmark environmental legislation to facilitate recovery of forest ecosystems from acid deposition.

  10. Evidence of recovery of Juniperus virginiana trees from sulfur pollution after the Clean Air Act.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Richard B; Spal, Scott E; Smith, Kenneth R; Nippert, Jesse B

    2013-09-17

    Using dendroisotopic techniques, we show the recovery of Juniperus virginiana L. (eastern red cedar) trees in the Central Appalachian Mountains from decades of acidic pollution. Acid deposition over much of the 20th century reduced stomatal conductance of leaves, thereby increasing intrinsic water-use efficiency of the Juniperus trees. These data indicate that the stomata of Juniperus may be more sensitive to acid deposition than to increasing atmospheric CO2. A breakpoint in the 100-y δ(13)C tree ring chronology occurred around 1980, as the legacy of sulfur dioxide emissions declined following the enactment of the Clean Air Act in 1970, indicating a gradual increase in stomatal conductance (despite rising levels of atmospheric CO2) and a concurrent increase in photosynthesis related to decreasing acid deposition and increasing atmospheric CO2. Tree ring δ(34)S shows a synchronous change in the sources of sulfur used at the whole-tree level that indicates a reduced anthropogenic influence. The increase in growth and the δ(13)C and δ(34)S trends in the tree ring chronology of these Juniperus trees provide evidence for a distinct physiological response to changes in atmospheric SO2 emissions since ∼1980 and signify the positive impacts of landmark environmental legislation to facilitate recovery of forest ecosystems from acid deposition. PMID:24003125

  11. Environmental Chemistry: Air and Water Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoker, H. Stephen; Seager, Spencer L.

    This is a book about air and water pollution whose chapters cover the topics of air pollution--general considerations, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, sulfur oxides, particulates, temperature inversions and the greenhouse effect; and water pollution--general considerations, mercury, lead, detergents,…

  12. Water gun vs air gun: A comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, D.R.; Detrick, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    The water gun is a relatively new marine seismic sound source that produces an acoustic signal by an implosive rather than explosive mechanism. A comparison of the source characteristics of two different-sized water guns with those of conventional air guns shows the the water gun signature is cleaner and much shorter than that of a comparable-sized air gun: about 60-100 milliseconds (ms) for an 80-in3. (1.31-liter (I)) water gun compared with several hundred ms for an 80-in3. (1.31-1) air gun. The source spectra of water guns are richer in high frequencies (>200 Hz) than are those of air guns, but they also have less energy than those of air guns at low frequencies. A comparison between water gun and air gun reflection profiles in both shallow (Long Island Sound)-and deep (western Bermuda Rise)-water settings suggests that the water gun offers a good compromise between very high resolution, limited penetration systems (e.g. 3.5-kHz profilers and sparkers) and the large volume air guns and tuned air gun arrays generally used where significant penetration is required. ?? 1984 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  13. Watershed management: Clean water`s next act

    SciTech Connect

    Hite, R.W.

    1996-09-23

    14 articles related to watershed management comprise this special advertising section of the Association of Metropolitan Sewerage Agencies. Subtopics include water quality, regulations, US Environmental Protection Agency activities, analysis tools, economics, flooding and erosions, and non-point source pollutions. Articles on arid and coastal are included. Several articles describe municipal watershed programs being planned or in place.

  14. Clean water provision in rural areas of less developed countries.

    PubMed

    Roundy, R W

    1985-01-01

    The decade of the 1980s is declared as a time to solve global domestic water supply problems. By 1990 international goals include the provision of adequate quantities of clean water to every person on earth. Such goals are justified on the basis of human health, economic well being, political development and equity and public safety. Drawing upon observations from Ethiopia, Malaysia and Liberia, cases where attempts to provide domestic water to villagers and rural town dwellers are presented. In all cited cases attempts to provide safe water have failed or are in jeopardy. Conclusions drawn from these cases include acknowledgement that global goals will best be achieved by approaching local problems one-by-one and recognizing the technical, environmental and human constraints upon safe water provision interact differently from one site to another. To properly plan, implement and maintain safe water systems the current technical solutions must be combined with the contributions of social and environmental scientists on a case-by-case basis.

  15. Optimisation of water-cannon cleaning for deposit removal on water walls inside waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Graube, Franziska; Grahl, Sebastian; Rostkowski, Slawomir; Beckmann, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Deposits in municipal waste incinerators are very inhomogeneous in structure and constitution. They cause corrosion and reduce the efficiency, so they need to be removed frequently. Among other systems, operators use water cannons for the deposit removal. Two different removal mechanisms of water-cannon cleaning are suggested: A direct shattering of the deposit by the impact of the water jet, as well as the cracking caused by thermal stresses where droplets cool the deposits. As the contribution of each of the aforementioned mechanisms to the overall cleaning efficiency is unknown, we performed empirical investigations to determine the dominating effect. In a first experimental setup focusing on thermal stress, cold droplets were applied onto hot deposits taken from a waste incinerator. Results showed that the cleaning effect strongly depends on the deposit thickness and structure, so that the deposits could be categorised in three different groups. A second measurement campaign focused on the influence of deposit material, deposit temperature and water jet momentum. It could be shown that both deposit material and temperature have a significant effect on the cleaning efficiency, whereas an increase in water jet momentum only led to modest improvements. The combination of these two parameter studies implies that the influence of the thermal stress outweighs that of the momentum. This knowledge is applicable to the cleaning setup by increasing the temperature gradient. PMID:26608897

  16. Water Power for a Clean Energy Future (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Water Power Program's water power research activities. Water power is the nation's largest source of clean, domestic, renewable energy. Harnessing energy from rivers, manmade waterways, and oceans to generate electricity for the nation's homes and businesses can help secure America's energy future. Water power technologies fall into two broad categories: conventional hydropower and marine and hydrokinetic technologies. Conventional hydropower facilities include run-of-the-river, storage, and pumped storage. Most conventional hydropower plants use a diversion structure, such as a dam, to capture water's potential energy via a turbine for electricity generation. Marine and hydrokinetic technologies obtain energy from waves, tides, ocean currents, free-flowing rivers, streams and ocean thermal gradients to generate electricity. The United States has abundant water power resources, enough to meet a large portion of the nation's electricity demand. Conventional hydropower generated 257 million megawatt-hours (MWh) of electricity in 2010 and provides 6-7% of all electricity in the United States. According to preliminary estimates from the Electric Power Resource Institute (EPRI), the United States has additional water power resource potential of more than 85,000 megawatts (MW). This resource potential includes making efficiency upgrades to existing hydroelectric facilities, developing new low-impact facilities, and using abundant marine and hydrokinetic energy resources. EPRI research suggests that ocean wave and in-stream tidal energy production potential is equal to about 10% of present U.S. electricity consumption (about 400 terrawatt-hours per year). The greatest of these resources is wave energy, with the most potential in Hawaii, Alaska, and the Pacific Northwest. The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Water Power Program works with industry, universities, other federal agencies, and DOE

  17. Clean option: Berkeley Pit water treatment and resource recovery strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.A.; Orth, R.J.; Elmore, M.R.; Monzyk, B.F.

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Technology Development, established the Resource Recovery Project (RRP) in 1992 as a five-year effort to evaluate and demonstrate multiple technologies for recovering water, metals, and other industrial resources from contaminated surface and groundwater. Natural water resources located throughout the DOE complex and the and western states have been rendered unusable because of contamination from heavy metals. The Berkeley Pit, a large, inactive, open pit copper mine located in Butte, Montana, along with its associated groundwater system, has been selected by the RRP for use as a feedstock for a test bed facility located there. The test bed facility provides the infrastructure needed to evaluate promising technologies at the pilot plant scale. Data obtained from testing these technologies was used to assess their applicability for similar mine drainage water applications throughout the western states and at DOE. The objective of the Clean Option project is to develop strategies that provides a comprehensive and integrated approach to resource recovery using the Berkeley Pit water as a feedstock. The strategies not only consider the immediate problem of resource recovery from the contaminated water, but also manage the subsequent treatment of all resulting process streams. The strategies also employ the philosophy of waste minimization to optimize reduction of the waste volume requiring disposal, and the recovery and reuse of processing materials.

  18. PremAir{trademark} catalyst systems: A new approach to clean air

    SciTech Connect

    Poles, T.; Anderson, D.R.; Durilla, M.; Heck, R.; Hoke, J.; Ober, R.; Rudy, W.

    1996-12-01

    PremAir{trademark} catalyst systems represents a new approach to air pollution control--one that focuses on destroying pollutants already in the air. PremAir is the trademark for a family of developmental catalysts capable of reducing ozone, carbon monoxide and potentially other pollutants in ambient air that comes into contact with catalyst-coated surfaces. The more air that comes into contact with the surface the more pollutants that can be destroyed. For this reason, Engelhard has focused its attention on heat-exchange equipment such as automotive radiators and air-conditioner condensers. It is because of advances in catalysis achieved at Engelhard that PremAir catalysts are active at the low temperatures found in these environments. In Los Angeles, which has the country`s worst smog problem, approximately one trillion cubic feet per day of air pass through car radiators and five trillion cubic feet per day pass through air conditioners. Most of the research, development and testing work performed to date has been on ozone catalysts and their application to car radiators. This paper discusses that work and the potential benefits associated with the PremAir technology. In addition, preliminary work on stationary applications of this new technology is discussed.

  19. Impending impacts of Title III and Title V of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 on the coal industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kerch, R.L.

    1994-12-31

    The coal industry has already begun to feel the affects of the acid deposition title, particularly in Illinois. Two challenges to the producers and sellers of coal; i.e., (1) Title III, Hazardous Air Pollutants and what is in store for customers, and (2) Title V, Operating Permits, which may affect production facilities are discussed. The utilities are temporarily exempted from Title III. The Great Waters report suggests that mercury will be regulated, and it looks like risk assessments will be based on coal analysis rather than on actual emission measurements. Stack sampling is difficult, expensive and slow. Coal cleaning is important in reducing trace elements. Electrostatic precipitators also remove trace elements. ESPs are less effective for mercury and selenium because they are emitted in the gas phase. FGD can remove hazardous air pollutants, but it is not well documented.

  20. 75 FR 34647 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    .... See 64 FR 67793. Continuous web cleaning machines are solvent cleaning machines in which parts such as... FR 49839. Accordingly, RI DEM has satisfied the up-front approval criteria of 40 CFR 63.91(d...'s proposed Subpart E amendments on January 12, 1999. See 64 FR 1908. IV. EPA Determination of...

  1. A Multilevel Test of Constrained Choices Theory: The Case of Tobacco Clean Air Restrictions.

    PubMed

    Vuolo, Mike; Kadowaki, Joy; Kelly, Brian C

    2016-09-01

    According to Bird and Rieker's sociology of constrained choices, decisions and priorities concerning health are shaped by the contexts-including policy, community, and work/family-in which they are formulated. While each level received attention in the original and subsequent research, we contend their constrained choices theory provides a powerful multilevel framework for modeling health outcomes. We apply this framework to tobacco clean air restrictions, combining a comprehensive database of tobacco policies with the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 from ages 19 to 31. Using multilevel panel models, we find that clean air policies lower the odds of past 30 day smoking and dependence while controlling for other policy-, city-, and individual-level constraints. We also find unique between- and within-person effects, as well as gender effects, for the constraint levied by smoking bans. We argue for the theory's broad applicability beyond commonly cited findings regarding gender and biological influences. PMID:27601410

  2. A Multilevel Test of Constrained Choices Theory: The Case of Tobacco Clean Air Restrictions.

    PubMed

    Vuolo, Mike; Kadowaki, Joy; Kelly, Brian C

    2016-09-01

    According to Bird and Rieker's sociology of constrained choices, decisions and priorities concerning health are shaped by the contexts-including policy, community, and work/family-in which they are formulated. While each level received attention in the original and subsequent research, we contend their constrained choices theory provides a powerful multilevel framework for modeling health outcomes. We apply this framework to tobacco clean air restrictions, combining a comprehensive database of tobacco policies with the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 from ages 19 to 31. Using multilevel panel models, we find that clean air policies lower the odds of past 30 day smoking and dependence while controlling for other policy-, city-, and individual-level constraints. We also find unique between- and within-person effects, as well as gender effects, for the constraint levied by smoking bans. We argue for the theory's broad applicability beyond commonly cited findings regarding gender and biological influences.

  3. Setting the Course for Clean Water: A Citizen's Guide to the Section 208 Water Quality Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donley, Diane L.; Albright, Catherine

    This is a citizen's guide to the section 208 water quality management program. Section 208 refers to that section of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (the Clean Water Act) which calls for public participation in water quality management planning. Included in this guide are chapters on controlling pollution through the Clean Water…

  4. Analysis of S.1844, the Clear Skies Act of 2003; S. 843, the Clean Air Planning Act of 2003; and S. 366, the Clean Power Act of 2003

    EIA Publications

    2004-01-01

    Senator James M. Inhofe requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) undertake analysis of S.843, the Clean Air Planning Act of 2003, introduced by Senator Thomas Carper; S.366, the Clean Power Act of 2003, introduced by Senator James Jeffords; and S.1844, the Clear Skies Act of 2003, introduced by Senator James M. Inhofe. The EIA received this request on March 19, 2004. This Service Report responds to his request.

  5. Application of magnetic iron-based nanosorbents for water cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedeva, Irina; Bakhteeva, Iuliia; Revvo, Anastasya; Byzov, Ilya; Baerner, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Iron-based magnetic nanopowders (Fe, γ-Fe2O3, γ-Fe3O4) are effective sorbents for the cleaning of water from heavy metal ions, radionuclides, organic and biological materials. The sorption capacity of the powder is defined by the specific surface which for particle diameter in nanosized range comes up to hundreds of m2/g. However, the small particle size creates difficulties to separate the solid phase from the water suspension using conventional mechanical filtration and sedimentation methods without additional reagents. If the nanoparticles have magnetic moments, their separation from aqueous solution can be enhanced in gradient magnetic fields. This will help to avoid a secondary water pollution by coagulants and flocculants. The sedimentation dynamics of the magnetite (Fe3O4) nanopowders with different particle sizes (10-100 nm) in water in gradient magnetic fields of different configurations ( radial and strip), with the strengths H = 0.5-6 kOe, and gradients up to dH/dz= 2 kOe/cm was studied by optical and by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) methods. . In the gravitation field the suspensions of the small particles (~ 10-20 nm) remain stable for over 20 hours. The sedimentation process can be greatly accelerated by the action of a vertical gradient magnetic field, and the sedimentation time is reduced down to several minutes. In a gradient magnetic field enhanced by a steel grid the sedimentation of the nanopowder (c0= 0.1 g/l) for 180 minutes resulted in the reduction of the iron concentration in water down to 0.4 mg/l. In the flowing water regime the residual iron concentration in water 0.3 mg/l is reached after 80 minutes. This corresponds to the hygienic and environmental standards for drinking water and fishery.

  6. 40 CFR 49.4 - Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Clean Air Act provisions for which it... PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.4 Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to... following provisions of the Clean Air Act and any implementing regulations thereunder: (a) Specific...

  7. 40 CFR 49.4 - Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clean Air Act provisions for which it... PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.4 Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to... following provisions of the Clean Air Act and any implementing regulations thereunder: (a) Specific...

  8. 40 CFR 49.4 - Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Clean Air Act provisions for which it... PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.4 Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to... following provisions of the Clean Air Act and any implementing regulations thereunder: (a) Specific...

  9. 40 CFR 49.4 - Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clean Air Act provisions for which it... PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.4 Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to... following provisions of the Clean Air Act and any implementing regulations thereunder: (a) Specific...

  10. 40 CFR 62.14480 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations? 62.14480 Section... the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations? This subpart requires you to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations (“title V permit”) unless you...

  11. 40 CFR 62.14480 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations? 62.14480 Section... the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations? This subpart requires you to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations (“title V permit”) unless you...

  12. 40 CFR 49.4 - Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clean Air Act provisions for which it... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY Tribal Authority § 49.4 Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in...

  13. 76 FR 54465 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ...In accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), notice is hereby given of a proposed settlement agreement to address a lawsuit filed by Sierra Club and WildEarth Guardians in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California: Sierra Club et al. v. Jackson, No. 3:10-cv-04060-CRB (N.D. Cal.). On August 10, 2011, Plaintiffs filed......

  14. 40 CFR 2.301 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sections 114(c) and 307(d) of the Clean Air Act that information submitted under 40 CFR part 98 is entitled... submitted under 40 CFR part 98. (1) Sections 2.201 through 2.215 do not apply to data submitted under 40 CFR... (d)(4) of this section, §§ 2.201 through 2.215 do not apply to data submitted under 40 CFR part...

  15. 40 CFR 2.301 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sections 114(c) and 307(d) of the Clean Air Act that information submitted under 40 CFR part 98 is entitled... submitted under 40 CFR part 98. (1) Sections 2.201 through 2.215 do not apply to data submitted under 40 CFR... (d)(4) of this section, §§ 2.201 through 2.215 do not apply to data submitted under 40 CFR part...

  16. 40 CFR 2.301 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sections 114(c) and 307(d) of the Clean Air Act that information submitted under 40 CFR part 98 is entitled... submitted under 40 CFR part 98. (1) Sections 2.201 through 2.215 do not apply to data submitted under 40 CFR... (d)(4) of this section, §§ 2.201 through 2.215 do not apply to data submitted under 40 CFR part...

  17. Proactive industrial strategies for the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.

    PubMed

    Ruch, R B; Howell, J S

    1991-07-01

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 was signed into law by President Bush on November 15, 1990. These amendments potentially will have a major impact on virtually every industrial and many commercial facilities throughout the country. The regulations developed to implement this legislation will encompass new approaches to nonattainment, air toxics, accidental releases, acid rain, permits and enforcement. Because of the impact of this legislation the regulations will be implemented over a ten-year period. This paper is an overview of the amendments and recommended proactive strategies for industry.

  18. Clean air and energy: from conflict to reconciliation. [Cost benefit analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kolstad, C.D.; Schulze, W.D.; Williams, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    Unconstrained energy resource development in the Rocky Mountain west is likely to threaten the environment and the health and well-being of the people. Impacts may be associated with visibility degradation, toxic concentrations of gases, and deposition of acidic or toxic substances. Because the possible benefits of energy development in the region are very large, there is great concern that constraints imposed by air quality regulation may preclude the use of important resources or make unduly expensive energy produced from the region. The conflict between energy and clean air in the region is exacerbated by non-energy sources, such as copper smelters and urban areas, that already pose significant environmental threats. The hard policy question is not how to preserve clean air resources or how to develop energy but how to achieve and balance both goals. The effects and regulatory costs and benefits of air pollution control are discussed, and policy directions to protect air quality while pursuing energy development are presented.

  19. The Clean Water Act, Flow, and the Quest for Integrity of U. S. Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, D. J.

    2005-05-01

    The federal Clean Water Act (Public Law 92-500, amended in 1977 and 1987) contains one of the broadest goals for ecological protection found in American environmental legislation: to restore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of U.S. waters. The act also refers to attaining water quality sufficient to propagate fish and wildlife and provides for a wide array of regulatory and non-regulatory protection tools. Despite the broad ecological connotations of its goals, its diverse toolbox, and its many successes, the Clean Water Act is not uniformly applicable to all forms of aquatic impairment because its most potent regulations are highly oriented toward controlling pollutants. Flow alterations and their biotic impacts are common examples of non-pollutant impairments that fit the Clean Water Act goal, but not its tools. Nevertheless, the lack of authority to regulate flow under the act has stimulated innovative, indirect approaches to the restoration of flow-related impairments. The presentation will address the limits of the Clean Water Act in addressing flow as well as a variety of examples of working within the scope of the act to overcome those limits.

  20. Water and Air Measures That Make 'PureSense'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Each day, we read about mounting global concerns regarding the ability to sustain supplies of clean water and to reduce air contamination. With water and air serving as life s most vital elements, it is important to know when these environmental necessities may be contaminated, in order to eliminate exposure immediately. The ability to respond requires an understanding of the conditions impacting safety and quality, from source to tap for water, and from outdoor to indoor environments for air. Unfortunately, the "time-to-know" is not immediate with many current technologies, which is a major problem, given the greater likelihood of risky situations in today s world. Accelerating alert and response times requires new tools, methods, and technologies. New solutions are needed to engage in more rapid detection, analysis, and response. This is the focus of a company called PureSense Environmental, Inc., which evolved out of a unique relationship with NASA. The need for real-time management and operations over the quality of water and air, and the urgency to provide new solutions, were reinforced by the events of September 11, 2001. This, and subsequent events, exposed many of the vulnerabilities facing the multiple agencies tasked with working in tandem to protect communities from harmful disaster. Much has been done since September 11 to accelerate responses to environmental contamination. Partnerships were forged across the public and private sectors to explore, test, and use new tools. Methods and technologies were adopted to move more astutely from proof-of-concept to working solutions.

  1. [Clean water. What are the Kempische Steenkoolmijnen doing for this?].

    PubMed

    Michiels, J

    1980-01-01

    Social obligations about the environment have always been a point of major concern at the N.V. Kempense Steenkoolenmijnen; so the company could not ignore environmental standards and existing regulations. This paper focusses attention on the importance of clean water for human health and civilization. Natural water occurs as rainwater, groundwater, surface water and seawater. Waterpollution, its measurement and the possible sources of this pollution are briefly discussed. Attention is also paid to existing regulations which implicate the introduction of discharge conditions. The N.V. Kempense Steenkoolenmijnen can't deny being a polluter. The company produces five types of wastewater, which are discharged into several surface waters. This is a specific contamination containing salts and coal particles. Flow rates are high but variable. To fight this pollution the N.V. Kempense Steenkoolenmijnen has worked out an investment program for each of its five collieries. The treatment of wastewater at a settling basin of the Zolder-colliery is described as an example.

  2. 78 FR 62661 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... (``Defendants'' or ``ConAgra'') for violations of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1321, and Spill Prevention... Petroleum Institute's (``API'') formal standard 653. ConAgra will be required to submit a report annually to..., P.O. Box 7611, Washington, DC 20044-7611. During the public comment period, the Consent Decree...

  3. 75 FR 65480 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of Two Public Teleconferences of the Clean Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... teleconferences of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee NO X and SO x Secondary National Ambient Air... is hereby given that the CASAC NO X & SO X Secondary NAAQS Review Panel will hold a teleconference on... Assessment supporting development of secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for NO X and...

  4. 75 FR 52735 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection... EPA's decision identifying 12 water quality limited waterbodies and associated pollutants in South Dakota to be listed pursuant to the Clean Water Act Section 303(d)(2), and requests public...

  5. UTILIZING INFORMATION COLLECTED UNDER THE CLEAN WATER ACT FOR PUBLIC HEALTH ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Water Act was established to "restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters". Under Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act, the U.S.Environmental Protection Agency collects information from each state regarding the intended ...

  6. 77 FR 1948 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... violations of Sections 301, 308, and 402(p) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (the ``Clean Water Act'' or the ``Act''), 33 U.S.C. 1311, 1318 & 1342(p), and implementing regulations. See 40... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on December...

  7. 78 FR 23957 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... establish a Storm Water Pollution Protection Plan (``SWPPP'') addressing all elements specified in the CD... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On April 4, 2013, the Department of...) and (d) of the Clean Water Act (``CWA'' or ``Act''), 33 U.S.C. 1319(b) and (d). The United...

  8. 76 FR 51397 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ...., at its sewer system and water pollution control plant. To resolve the United States' claims, the... pollution control plant to eliminate violations of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Justice will... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on August 11,...

  9. 75 FR 60452 - Clean Water Act; Contractor Access to Confidential Business Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act; Contractor Access to Confidential Business Information AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Water... standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA). Interested persons may submit comments on this intended...

  10. 76 FR 74057 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-30

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection... action identifying water quality limited segments and associated pollutants in Louisiana to be listed pursuant to Clean Water Act Section 303(d), and request for public comment. Section 303(d) requires...

  11. Development of a cleaning process for uranium chips machined with a glycol-water-borax coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.A.

    1984-12-01

    A chip-cleaning process has been developed to remove the new glycol-water-borax coolant from oralloy chips. The process involves storing the freshly cut chips in Freon-TDF until they are cleaned, washing with water, and displacing the water with Freon-TDF. The wash water can be reused many times and still yield clean chips and then be added to the coolant to make up for evaporative losses. The Freon-TDF will be cycled by evaporation. The cleaning facility is currently being designed and should be operational by April 1985.

  12. Should the Clean Water Act Follow Stream Water Underground? Managing Beyond the Stream Banks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taptich, M. N.; Gooseff, M. N.

    2010-12-01

    The Clean Water Act was designed to protect the integrity of surface waters of the United States. Originally limited to solely waters that were traditionally navigable, the jurisdictional bounds of the Clean Water Act have been expanded to include many other ‘waters of the United States,’ some of which are in fact unnavigable. This expansion of the definition of ‘navigable waters’ has brought many litigative challenges to the true jurisdictional limits of the Act. The recent Supreme Court opinions in Rapanos v. United States (2006) and the subsequent interpretation by lower federal courts have set the precedent for a new approach to jurisdictional determinations, where considerations of function and effect act as gatekeepers for inclusion under the CWA. Justice Kennedy’s significant nexus standard from Rapanos (2006) limits jurisdictional coverage under the Clean Water Act to ‘waters that have a significant nexus with traditional navigable waters.’ Thus, establishing a ‘significant nexus’ between a water body in question and traditionally navigable waters satisfies the requisites needed for inclusion within the scope of the Clean Water Act. By and large there has been a lack of consideration for the near subsurface components of streams when discussing the application of the significant nexus standard. We propose that hyporheic zones, a volume of alluvial aquifer that hosts the exchange of stream water, should be covered under the Clean Water Act, since these zones are intimately connected with their adjoining surface waters and facilitate many processes that are key to supporting healthy stream ecosystems and good water quality. Given the opinions rendered in Rapanos (2006) and the guidance offered by the EPA and Corps following the decision, we demonstrate that the hyporheic zone fulfills each of the functional and ecological example factors used to establish a significant nexus. The implications of this argument include the conversion of our

  13. Indoor secondary pollutants from cleaning product and air freshener use in the presence of ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Brett C.; Coleman, Beverly K.; Destaillats, Hugo; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W.

    This study investigated the formation of secondary pollutants resulting from household product use in the presence of ozone. Experiments were conducted in a 50-m 3 chamber simulating a residential room. The chamber was operated at conditions relevant to US residences in polluted areas during warm-weather seasons: an air exchange rate of 1.0 h -1 and an inlet ozone concentration of approximately 120 ppb, when included. Three products were used in separate experiments. An orange oil-based degreaser and a pine oil-based general-purpose cleaner were used for surface cleaning applications. A plug-in scented-oil air freshener (AFR) was operated for several days. Cleaning products were applied realistically with quantities scaled to simulate residential use rates. Concentrations of organic gases and secondary organic aerosol from the terpene-containing consumer products were measured with and without ozone introduction. In the absence of reactive chemicals, the chamber ozone level was approximately 60 ppb. Ozone was substantially consumed following cleaning product use, mainly by homogeneous reaction. For the AFR, ozone consumption was weaker and heterogeneous reaction with sorbed AFR-constituent VOCs was of similar magnitude to homogeneous reaction with continuously emitted constituents. Formaldehyde generation resulted from product use with ozone present, increasing indoor levels by the order of 10 ppb. Cleaning product use in the presence of ozone generated substantial fine particle concentrations (more than 100 μg m -3) in some experiments. Ozone consumption and elevated hydroxyl radical concentrations persisted for 10-12 h following brief cleaning events, indicating that secondary pollutant production can persist for extended periods.

  14. Air-water flow in subsurface systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, A.; Mishra, P.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater traces its roots to tackle challenges of safe and reliable drinking water and food production. When the groundwater level rises, air pressure in the unsaturated Vadose zone increases, forcing air to escape from the ground surface. Abnormally high and low subsurface air pressure can be generated when the groundwater system, rainfall, and sea level fluctuation are favorably combined [Jiao and Li, 2004]. Through this process, contamination in the form of volatile gases may diffuse from the ground surface into residential areas, or possibly move into groundwater from industrial waste sites. It is therefore crucial to understand the combined effects of air-water flow in groundwater system. Here we investigate theoretically and experimentally the effects of air and water flow in groundwater system.

  15. Cleaning Products and Air Fresheners: Emissions and ResultingConcentrations of Glycol Ethers and Terpenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Brett C.; Destaillat, Hugo; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nazaroff,William W.

    2005-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to quantify emissions and concentrations of glycol ethers and terpenoids from cleaning product and air freshener use in a 50-m{sup 3} room ventilated at {approx}0.5 h{sup -1}. Five cleaning products were applied full-strength (FS); three were additionally used in dilute solution. FS application of pine-oil cleaner (POC) yielded 1-h concentrations of 10-1300 {micro}g m{sup -3} for individual terpenoids, including {alpha}-terpinene (90-120), d-limonene (1000-1100), terpinolene (900-1300), and {alpha}-terpineol (260-700). One-hour concentrations of 2-butoxyethanol and/or dlimonene were 300-6000 {micro}g m{sup -3} after FS use of other products. During FS application including rinsing with sponge and wiping with towels, fractional emissions (mass volatilized/dispensed) of 2-butoxyethanol and d-limonene were 50-100% with towels retained, {approx}25-50% when towels were removed after cleaning. Lower fractions (2-11%) resulted from dilute use. Fractional emissions of terpenes from FS use of POC were {approx}35-70% with towels retained, 20-50% with towels removed. During floor cleaning with dilute solution of POC, 7-12% of dispensed terpenes were emitted. Terpene alcohols were emitted at lower fractions: 7-30% (FS, towels retained), 2-9% (FS, towels removed), and 2-5% (dilute). During air-freshener use, d-limonene, dihydromyrcenol, linalool, linalyl acetate, and {beta}-citronellol were emitted at 35-180 mg d{sup -1} over three days while air concentrations averaged 30-160 {micro}g m{sup -3}.

  16. Improvements in biosolids quality resulting from the Clean Water Act.

    PubMed

    Hundal, Lakhwinder S; Kumar, Kuldip; Cox, Albert; Zhang, Heng; Granato, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Promulgation of the Clean Water Act (CWA) authorized the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) to regulate quality standards for surface waters and establish regulations limiting the amounts and types of pollutants entering the nation's waters. U.S. EPA imposed national pretreatment standards on industrial wastes discharged to the collection systems of publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) and promulgated General Pretreatment Regulations in 1978. This study analyzed trace metals data from the National Sewage Sludge Surveys conducted by U.S. EPA and the American Metropolitan Sewage Agencies (AMSA) to evaluate the effect of implementation of the national industrial pretreatment standards on concentrations of trace metals in sludges generated by POTWs in the United States. The data showed that implementation of pretreatment programs has been highly effective in reducing the amount of pollutants that enter POTWs and has resulted in a substantial reduction in the levels of trace metals in the municipal sludges. Concentrations of chromium, lead, and nickel in sludge declined by 78, 73, and 63%, respectively, within a year after promulgation of General Pretreatment Regulations. Resulting from these measures, metal concentrations in the sludges generated by a majority of POTWs in the United States are sufficiently low that the sludges can be classified as biosolids and also meet the U.S. EPA's exceptional quality criteria for trace metals in biosolids. This improvement gives POTWs the option to use their biosolids beneficially through land application. PMID:24645543

  17. How to clean surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Jean M.

    2004-06-01

    Various cleaning methods are available depending on the sizes of the parts, mounted or unmounted, and purpose of the cleaning. Dust and other particle contamination affect scattering and act as nuclei for defects in optical coatings. In some cases, these defects can initiate laser damage. Noncontact cleaning methods to eliminate particle contamination include blowing large particles from surfaces with an air bulb, "canned air," or a nitrogen gas jet, for a gentle cleaning and CO2 snow for more aggressive particle removal. Laser assisted particle removal is a new high tech method. A strip coating material applied to the surface and subsequently removed will remove large fresh particles and often fingerprints. Contamination films affect the quality and adherence of optical coatings. These are usually removed (from unmounted optics) by cleaning the surface in a detergent and water bath followed by extensive rinsing and non-contact drying. Alternate methods when immersion in water is not possible are drag wiping, or spraying or squirting organic solvents over the surface. Before cleaning, surfaces must be visually inspected to determine the type and location of the contamination, to decide if cleaning is necessary, and what type of cleaning technique to use. Finally, bad cleaning is much worse than no cleaning! Illustrations of the cleaning methods described above will be given.

  18. 76 FR 14427 - Revision to Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Clean Air Act, Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    .../Notices/page 13208). Maureen Katz, Assistant Section Chief, Environmental Enforcement Section, Environment... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Revision to Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Clean Air Act, Comprehensive...

  19. 77 FR 58988 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... (Petition), submitted under title V of the Clean Air Act (Act) by WildEarth Guardians (Petitioner), to.... EPA received a petition from WildEarth Petitioner dated August 4, 2011, requesting that EPA object...

  20. The enforcement provisions of the Clean Air Act - not the same old Section 113

    SciTech Connect

    Benthul, H.R.

    1996-08-01

    The Clean Air Act ({open_quotes}CAA{close_quotes}) of 1990 was in many respects a major overhaul of the previous versions of the Clean Air Act although it retained most of the preexisting major programs such as the basic National Ambient Air Quality Standards ({open_quotes}NAAQS{close_quotes}) scheme, PSD, new source performance standards, regulation of toxic air pollutants, and the like. The 1990 Act strengthened the enforcement provisions of the Act by enhancing the enforcement powers of the Environmental Protection Agency ({open_quotes}EPA{close_quotes}) of {section}113. For example, the criminal enforcement provisions of {section}113 are expanded both in the range of punishment and in the kinds of activities which are subject to criminal enforcement. Moreover, the Act now contains a number of additional enforcement provisions in addition to those found in {section}113. The purpose of this paper is to discuss both the {section}113 provision and as well, identify those enforcement provisions found outside {section}113. The latter provisions will be taken up first and addressed by Titles of the Act. The discussion of specific sections and subsections of the CAA are necessarily brief and in the nature of highlighting of particular features; like the rest of the CAA, careful reading and analysis is a requirement for full understanding.

  1. A public health context for residual risk assessment and risk management under the clean air act.

    PubMed

    Charnley, G; Goldstein, B D

    1998-09-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act required the EPA to institute new pollution control technology requirements for industrial sources of air pollution. In part because agreement could not be reached on the best way for the EPA to determine whether any significant risks to human health will remain after the technology controls are in place, the amendments also created a Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management and gave the commission a broad mandate to review and make recommendations concerning risk assessment and risk management in federal regulatory programs. In its March 1997 final report to Congress and the administration, the commission recommended a tiered approach to assessing such residual risks. That approach included the idea that when decisions about managing residual risks are made, emissions should be evaluated in the context of other sources of air pollution. Evaluating risks in their larger contexts is consistent with what the commission called a public health approach to environmental risk management. This paper describes the public health approach and how it applies to evaluating residual risks under the Clean Air Act. PMID:9721251

  2. Repellent materials. Robust self-cleaning surfaces that function when exposed to either air or oil.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao; Sathasivam, Sanjayan; Song, Jinlong; Crick, Colin R; Carmalt, Claire J; Parkin, Ivan P

    2015-03-01

    Superhydrophobic self-cleaning surfaces are based on the surface micro/nanomorphologies; however, such surfaces are mechanically weak and stop functioning when exposed to oil. We have created an ethanolic suspension of perfluorosilane-coated titanium dioxide nanoparticles that forms a paint that can be sprayed, dipped, or extruded onto both hard and soft materials to create a self-cleaning surface that functions even upon emersion in oil. Commercial adhesives were used to bond the paint to various substrates and promote robustness. These surfaces maintained their water repellency after finger-wipe, knife-scratch, and even 40 abrasion cycles with sandpaper. The formulations developed can be used on clothes, paper, glass, and steel for a myriad of self-cleaning applications. PMID:25745169

  3. Repellent materials. Robust self-cleaning surfaces that function when exposed to either air or oil.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao; Sathasivam, Sanjayan; Song, Jinlong; Crick, Colin R; Carmalt, Claire J; Parkin, Ivan P

    2015-03-01

    Superhydrophobic self-cleaning surfaces are based on the surface micro/nanomorphologies; however, such surfaces are mechanically weak and stop functioning when exposed to oil. We have created an ethanolic suspension of perfluorosilane-coated titanium dioxide nanoparticles that forms a paint that can be sprayed, dipped, or extruded onto both hard and soft materials to create a self-cleaning surface that functions even upon emersion in oil. Commercial adhesives were used to bond the paint to various substrates and promote robustness. These surfaces maintained their water repellency after finger-wipe, knife-scratch, and even 40 abrasion cycles with sandpaper. The formulations developed can be used on clothes, paper, glass, and steel for a myriad of self-cleaning applications.

  4. Robust self-cleaning surfaces that function when exposed to either air or oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yao; Sathasivam, Sanjayan; Song, Jinlong; Crick, Colin R.; Carmalt, Claire J.; Parkin, Ivan P.

    2015-03-01

    Superhydrophobic self-cleaning surfaces are based on the surface micro/nanomorphologies; however, such surfaces are mechanically weak and stop functioning when exposed to oil. We have created an ethanolic suspension of perfluorosilane-coated titanium dioxide nanoparticles that forms a paint that can be sprayed, dipped, or extruded onto both hard and soft materials to create a self-cleaning surface that functions even upon emersion in oil. Commercial adhesives were used to bond the paint to various substrates and promote robustness. These surfaces maintained their water repellency after finger-wipe, knife-scratch, and even 40 abrasion cycles with sandpaper. The formulations developed can be used on clothes, paper, glass, and steel for a myriad of self-cleaning applications.

  5. Proceedings of the 21st DOE/NRC nuclear air cleaning conference; Volume 2, Sessions 9--16

    SciTech Connect

    First, M.W.

    1991-02-01

    The 21st meeting of the Department of Energy/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (DOE/NRC) Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference was held in San Diego, CA on August 13--16, 1990. The proceedings have been published as a two volume set. Volume 2 contains sessions covering adsorbents, nuclear codes and standards, modelling, filters, safety, containment venting and a review of nuclear air cleaning programs around the world. Also included is the list of attendees and an index of authors and speakers. (MHB)

  6. 76 FR 54462 - Notification of a Public Teleconference; Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee; Air Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... network in support of a newly revised National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for 1-hour NO 2 (75 FR... or topography, meteorology, population exposure and other factors in determining where a...

  7. Evaluation of control parameters for Spray-In-Air (SIA) aqueous cleaning for shuttle RSRM hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, S. J.; Deweese, C. D.

    1995-01-01

    HD-2 grease is deliberately applied to Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) D6AC steel hardware parts as a temporary protective coating for storage and shipping. This HD-2 grease is the most common form of surface contamination on RSRM hardware and must be removed prior to subsequent surface treatment. Failure to achieve an acceptable level of cleanliness (HD-2 calcium grease removal) is a common cause of defect incidence. Common failures from ineffective cleaning include poor adhesion of surface coatings, reduced bond performance of structural adhesives, and failure to pass cleanliness inspection standards. The RSRM hardware is currently cleaned and refurbished using methyl chloroform (1,1,1-trichloroethane). This chlorinated solvent is mandated for elimination due to its ozone depleting characteristics. This report describes an experimental study of an aqueous cleaning system (which uses Brulin 815 GD) as a replacement for methyl chloroform. Evaluation of process control parameters for this cleaner are discussed as well as cleaning mechanisms for a spray-in-air process.

  8. Methods for measuring performance of vehicle cab air cleaning systems against aerosols and vapours.

    PubMed

    Bémer, D; Subra, I; Régnier, R

    2009-06-01

    Vehicle cabs equipped with an effective air cleaning and pressurization system, fitted to agricultural and off-road machineries, isolate drivers from the polluted environment, in which they are likely to work. These cabs provide protection against particulate and gaseous pollutants generated by these types of work activities. Two laboratory methods have been applied to determining the performance characteristics of two cabs of different design, namely, optical counting-based measurement of a potassium chloride (KCl) aerosol and fluorescein aerosol-based tracing. Results of cab confinement efficiency measurements agreed closely for these two methods implemented in the study. Measurements showed that high confinement efficiencies can be achieved with cabs, which are properly designed in ventilation/cleaning/airtightness terms. We also noted the importance of filter mounting airtightness, in which the smallest defect is reflected by significant degradation in cab performance. Determination of clean airflow rate by monitoring the decrease in test aerosol concentration in the test chamber gave excellent results. This method could represent an attractive alternative to methods involving gas tracing or air velocity measurement at blowing inlets.

  9. Methods for measuring performance of vehicle cab air cleaning systems against aerosols and vapours.

    PubMed

    Bémer, D; Subra, I; Régnier, R

    2009-06-01

    Vehicle cabs equipped with an effective air cleaning and pressurization system, fitted to agricultural and off-road machineries, isolate drivers from the polluted environment, in which they are likely to work. These cabs provide protection against particulate and gaseous pollutants generated by these types of work activities. Two laboratory methods have been applied to determining the performance characteristics of two cabs of different design, namely, optical counting-based measurement of a potassium chloride (KCl) aerosol and fluorescein aerosol-based tracing. Results of cab confinement efficiency measurements agreed closely for these two methods implemented in the study. Measurements showed that high confinement efficiencies can be achieved with cabs, which are properly designed in ventilation/cleaning/airtightness terms. We also noted the importance of filter mounting airtightness, in which the smallest defect is reflected by significant degradation in cab performance. Determination of clean airflow rate by monitoring the decrease in test aerosol concentration in the test chamber gave excellent results. This method could represent an attractive alternative to methods involving gas tracing or air velocity measurement at blowing inlets. PMID:19406910

  10. The politics of markets: The acid rain control policy in the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Kete, N.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis is a review and critique of the development of the acid rain control policy codified as Title IV of the Clean Air Act. The amendments include provisions to address acid rain-air pollution that has been transformed and transported over long distances. Title IV also embodies the first large scale adoption of market principles and economic incentives in the cause of environmental protection. The acid rain control amendments are being hailed as a break with past environmental protection practice and are being offered as a model for further regulatory reform. The thesis looks at the roots of the acid rain policy and considers the set of legal, social, and economic relations embedded in the policy which define the nature of its legal controls over pollution and its inverse, environmental quality. It explores whether the creation of the emissions allowance trading system changes the social relationships that prevailed under the pre-amended Clean Air Act. It responds to and rebuts the concerns of some critics that the policy represents an alienation of the public's right to clean air. A review of the acid rain policymaking process provides a recent and concrete example of the two central concerns inherent in public policy: the making of decisions that establish institutional arrangements, or structures, that both constrain and liberate individual action at the operational level; and the search for the boundary between autonomous behavior and collective decision making. The policy responds to regulatory reform recommendations concerned with improving the effectiveness, accountability, and cost-effectiveness of environmental protection. As a model for future policymaking, the policy goes beyond and encompasses more than the welfare economics ideal of static economic efficiency and the [open quotes]free market environmentalism[close quotes] emphasis on private property and common law.

  11. Interaction between Titles 2 and 3 of the Clean Air Act as amended, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1996-02-01

    This report examines Some issues that would I affect the refining industry if the requirements for hazardous air pollutants set out in Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments were to impede the market entrance of oxygenated fuels, as me; required by Title II. It describes the mandate for reformulated gasoline; considers gasoline characteristics in light of component shifts in refining; examines the supply of, demand for, and cost of various feedstocks and blendstocks; and identifies the emissions and atmospheric impacts that might result from the production and use of reformulated gasoline. Attention is focused on methanol and MTBE, two potential blendstocks that are also hazardous air pollutants, and on maximum achievable control technology standards, which might be applied to the stationary sources that produce them.

  12. New clean air efforts face tough challenges, say senators and former EPA administrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-02-01

    With the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) coming under repeated attack from some members of Congress and others for perceived heavy-handed regulatory actions, two moderate U.S. senators and two former EPA administrators recently noted the need for continued measures to improve air quality. However, they also acknowledged the difficulty in moving forward with new legislative efforts to revise the federal Clean Air Act to further reduce air pollution in the current polarized political climate. "Nobody who wants to see constructive changes [to the act] would dare touch it or propose it in the current climate," said former EPA administrator William Reilly at a 23 January forum sponsored by the World Resources Institute. Reilly, who served as EPA administrator from 1989 to 1992, noted that bipartisan congressional support had been key to addressing many environmental problems up until the mid-1990s.

  13. An introduction to the design, commissioning and operation of nuclear air cleaning systems for Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Xinliang Chen; Jiangang Qu; Minqi Shi

    1995-02-01

    This paper introduces the design evolution, system schemes and design and construction of main nuclear air cleaning components such as HEPA filter, charcoal adsorber and concrete housing etc. for Qinshan 300MW PWR Nuclear Power Plant (QNPP), the first indigenously designed and constructed nuclear power plant in China. The field test results and in-service test results, since the air cleaning systems were put into operation 18 months ago, are presented and evaluated. These results demonstrate that the design and construction of the air cleaning systems and equipment manufacturing for QNPP are successful and the American codes and standards invoked in design, construction and testing of nuclear air cleaning systems for QNPP are applicable in China. The paper explains that the leakage rate of concrete air cleaning housings can also be assured if sealing measures are taken properly and embedded parts are designed carefully in the penetration areas of the housing and that the uniformity of the airflow distribution upstream the HEPA filters can be achieved generally no matter how inlet and outlet ducts of air cleaning unit are arranged.

  14. 77 FR 25750 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on April 19, 2012... the Clean Water Act and Kansas state law. The proposed Consent Decree settles these claims in...

  15. 77 FR 37439 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on June 6... City of Perth Amboy's (Perth Amboy) Clean Water Act (CWA) violations stemming from its failure...

  16. 75 FR 43206 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on July 20, 2010... National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit issued under the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251,...

  17. 75 FR 26275 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on April... Sites throughout the country. The Consent Decree addresses Hovnanian's violations of the Clean Water...

  18. 78 FR 40769 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On July 1, 2013, the Department of... projects. The complaint alleged violations of Section 301(a) and 402 of the Clean Water Act...

  19. 76 FR 10390 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Water Act Pursuant to 28 CFR 50.7, notice... violations of the federal Clean Water Act and state permits issued in North Carolina and South...

  20. 77 FR 43860 - Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that a proposed... claims under Sections 301, 309 and 402 of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251, et seq., against the...

  1. 77 FR 11158 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on... under Section 311(b) of the Clean Water Act, ] 33 U.S.C. 1321(b), against multiple parties,...

  2. 77 FR 38084 - Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on June 20, 2012... (``NPDES'') permits which are federally-enforceable under Section 309 of the Clean Water Act (``CWA''),...

  3. 77 FR 25751 - Amended Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Amended Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Water Act On April 24, 2012, at Federal... Section 301, 309, and 402 of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1311, 1319, and 1342; and Tenn. Code...

  4. 78 FR 20140 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On March 28, 2013, the Department of... against Marisco, Ltd. for injunctive relief and civil penalties based on violations of the Clean Water...

  5. 78 FR 46369 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On July 23, 2013, the Department of... to Sections 301 and 309 of the Clean Water Act (``CWA''), 33 U.S.C. Sec. Sec. 1311 and 1319,...

  6. 78 FR 21150 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on December 20... Authority''), violated various provisions of a permit issued under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act, 33...

  7. 77 FR 36575 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on May 29, 2012, a... of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1311, 1319, 1321, stemming from three discharges of...

  8. 75 FR 79390 - Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on December 13...Kalb County for the Clean Water Act violations involving its sanitary sewer system, alleged in...

  9. 76 FR 27350 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on April 27, 2011... National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit issued under the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251,...

  10. 75 FR 37837 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on June 2, 2010, a..., pursuant to Section 309(b) and (d) of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1319(b) and (d), for civil...

  11. 76 FR 63954 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on September 21... the Clean Water Act (``CWA''), 33 U.S.C. 1319 and 1342. The United States alleged that by failing...

  12. 78 FR 57176 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act On September 9, 2013, the Department... violations of Sections 301 and 402 of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1311 and 1342, and Sections 48-1-50...

  13. 77 FR 50531 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Water Act In accordance with 28 CFR 50.7, 38 FR...) and (d) of the Clean Water Act (``CWA''), 33 U.S.C. 1309(b) and (d), and applicable regulations... works (``POTW'') to collect and treat sanitary sewage and industrial wastes. The consent decree...

  14. 78 FR 62931 - Pacific Clean Water Technologies, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Pacific Clean Water Technologies, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading October 11, 2013. It... concerning the securities of Pacific Clean Water Technologies, Inc. (``PCWT'') because of questions...

  15. 78 FR 62629 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Clean Water Act Section 404 State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... AGENCY Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Clean Water Act Section 404 State... Environmental Protection Agency is planning to submit an information collection request (ICR), ``Clean Water Act... information collection as described below. This is a proposed extension of the ICR, which is...

  16. 77 FR 809 - Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on December 29... injunctive relief for violations of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq., Title 13 of the Indiana Code... requires South Bend to pay a total civil penalty of $88,200 split equally between the United States and...

  17. 40 CFR 23.2 - Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Water Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Water Act. 23.2 Section 23.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.2 Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Water Act. Unless the Administrator...

  18. 40 CFR 23.2 - Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Water Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Water Act. 23.2 Section 23.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.2 Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Water Act. Unless the Administrator...

  19. 40 CFR 23.2 - Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Water Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Water Act. 23.2 Section 23.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.2 Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Water Act. Unless the Administrator...

  20. Analysis of UV filters in tap water and other clean waters in Spain.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Llorca, Marta; Barceló, Damià

    2012-03-01

    The present paper describes the development of a method for the simultaneous determination of five hormonally active UV filters namely benzophenone-3 (BP3), 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor (4MBC), 2-ethylhexyl 4-(dimethylamino) benzoate (OD-PABA), 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and octocrylene (OC) by means of solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-electron impact ionization-mass spectrometry. Under optimized conditions, this methodology achieved low method limits of detection (needed for clean waters, especially drinking water analysis), between 0.02 and 8.42 ng/L, and quantitative recovery rates higher than 73% in all cases. Inter- and intraday precision for all compounds were lower than 7% and 11%, respectively. The optimized methodology was applied to perform the first survey of UV absorbing compounds in tap water from the metropolitan area and the city of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain). In addition, other types of clean water matrices (mineral bottled water, well water and tap water treated with an ion-exchange resin) were investigated as well. Results evidenced that all the UV filters investigated were detected in the water samples analyzed. The compounds most frequently found were EHMC and OC. Maximum concentrations reached in tap water were 290 (BP3), 35 (4MBC), 110 (OD-PABA), 260 (EHMC), and 170 ng/L (OC). This study constitutes the first evidence of the presence of UV filter residues in tap water in Europe.

  1. Clearing the Air: The Impact of the Clean Air Act on Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, John C., Ed.; And Others

    This compendium has been prepared to summarize the notable aspects of the U. S. Clear Air Amendments of 1970 for members of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and others. The work is not a complete explanation of the law and all of its ramifications; it is, rather, an expedient means to gain rapid insight into the more…

  2. A PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS OF THE CLEAN AIR STATUS AND TRENDS NETWORK (CASTNET) AIR CONCENTRATION DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spatial and temporal variability of ambient air concentrations of SO2, SO42-, NO3, HNO3, and NH4+ obtained from EPA's CASTNet was examined using an objective, statistically based technique...

  3. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it? 60.3064... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and...

  4. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it? 60.3064... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and...

  5. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it? 60.3064... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and...

  6. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it? 60.3064... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and...

  7. 40 CFR 49.5 - Tribal requests for additional Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tribal requests for additional Clean... additional Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as States. Any tribe may request that the Administrator specify additional provisions of the Clean Air...

  8. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it? 60.3064... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and...

  9. Air and water cooled modulator

    DOEpatents

    Birx, Daniel L.; Arnold, Phillip A.; Ball, Don G.; Cook, Edward G.

    1995-01-01

    A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air.

  10. Air and water cooled modulator

    DOEpatents

    Birx, D.L.; Arnold, P.A.; Ball, D.G.; Cook, E.G.

    1995-09-05

    A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method are disclosed for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air. 9 figs.

  11. Action for Environmental Quality. Standards and Enforcement for Air and Water Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for setting and enforcing environmental quality standards for the nation. With the Clean Air Act of 1970 (P.L. 91-604) and the Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (P.L. 92-500), the first truly nationwide control programs were established. This booklet is designed to inform the public…

  12. Investigation of the Shockley surface state on clean and air-exposed Au (1 1 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalczyk, P. J.; Puchalski, M.; Kozłowski, W.; Dąbrowski, P.; Klusek, Z.; Olejniczak, W.

    2008-05-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) carried out in vacuum and air were used to study the electronic structure of the Au (1 1 1) surface in the range of 0.0-0.7 eV below the Fermi level. The STS experiment carried out in UHV showed the existence of the Shockley surface state (SS) located 0.48 eV below the Fermi level. STS carried out in air showed strong local maximum located 0.35 eV below the Fermi level. This maximum was ascribed to the SS shifted toward lower energy due to carbon and oxygen overlayer. To confirm that the SS could exist on the sample exposed to air we did ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) experiment on air-treated and clean Au (1 1 1). Our results suggest that the SS position initially measured at 0.38 eV below the Fermi level was shifted to 0.27 eV after air treatment. Additionally, the level of contamination was measured using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  13. 76 FR 16768 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) to conduct a quality review and approve... (NO X -SO X Panel) and the CASAC Air Monitoring and Methods Subcommittee (AMMS). DATES: The...

  14. 77 FR 27054 - Notice of Approval of Clean Air Act Outer Continental Shelf Permits Issued to Shell Offshore, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... AGENCY Notice of Approval of Clean Air Act Outer Continental Shelf Permits Issued to Shell Offshore, Inc. for the Kulluk Conical Drilling Unit AGENCY: United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Title V air quality operating permit to Shell Offshore, Inc. (``Shell'') for operation of the...

  15. Evaluating the Impact of Air Pollution on Human Health in China: the Price of Clean Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Hu, Y.; Russell, A. G.; Woo, J.; Streets, D. G.

    2003-12-01

    Population growth, rapid urbanization and economic development are contributing to increased energy consumption in China. One of the unintended consequences is poor air quality due to a lack of environmental controls. The coal dependent energy structure in China only worsens the situation. Quantification of the environmental costs resulting from air pollution is needed in order to provide a mechanism for making strategic energy policy that accounts for the life-cycle cost of energy use. However, few such studies have been conducted for China that examine the entire energy system. Here we examine the extent to which public health has been compromised due to elevated air pollution and how China could incorporate environmental costs into future energy and environmental policies. Taking the Shandong region in eastern China as a case study, we develop a high-resolution regional inventory for anthropogenic emissions of NOx, CO, PM2.5, PM10, VOCs, NH3 and SO2. SMOKE (Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions Modeling System) is used to process spatial and temporal distributions and chemical speciation of the regional emissions, MM5 (the Fifth-Generation NCAR/Penn State Meso-scale Model, Version 3) is used to generate meteorology and Models3/CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality Modeling System) is used to simulate ambient concentrations of particulates and other gaseous species in this region. We then estimate the mortality and morbidity in this region resulting from exposure to these air pollutants. We also estimate the monetary values associated with the resulting mortality and morbidity and quantify the contributions from various economic sectors (i.e. power generation, transportation, industry, residential and others). Finally, we examine the potential health benefits that adoption of best available or advanced energy (coal-based, in particular) and environmental technologies in different sectors could bring about. The results of these analyses are intended to provide

  16. Cleaning air from multicomponent impurities of volatile organic compounds by pulsed corona discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatov, I. E.; Uvarin, V. V.; Kuznetsov, D. L.

    2016-09-01

    The relative efficiency of the removal of impurities from airflow under the action of pulsed corona discharge has been studied by processing model mixtures of air with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A method is proposed that allows the influence of the VOC structure on its reactivity to be directly determined. For this purpose, it is suggested to calculate a relative energy parameter characterizing the reactivity of a given impurity component in the framework of the method employed. This approach significantly intensifies the process of determination of the energy parameters of impurity removal and can be used as a criterion for comparative estimation of the efficiency of various methods employing nonequilibrium plasma for cleaning air from VOCs.

  17. An overview of 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments as related to engineering and maintenance aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, Y.M. )

    1994-03-01

    Titles I and III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments will regulate nonattainment-area pollutants (ozone, CO, PM-10, SO[sub 2], NO[sub x], and lead) and hazardous air pollutants, respectively. These regulations will have a significant impact on existing and new pulp and paper facilities. Several states have already addressed Title I requirements in their State Implementation Plans. As for Title III, the Environmental Protection Agency plans to propose emission standards for chemical pulping/bleaching facilities by Oct. 1993, with promulgation by Sept. 1995. This report summarizes the anticipated requirements and highlights their impact on the pulp and paper industry. The new regulations will require many facilities to modify existing equipment and/or install new pollution-control devices.

  18. The Clean Air Act strictly regulates electric utility emissions and utilities are reducing their emissions significantly

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsman, J.D.

    1998-12-31

    Electric utility SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions have been reduced tremendously, beginning before the first deadlines (1995 for SO{sub 2} and 1996 for NO{sub x}) of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. For the Acid Rain Program, EPA reports that: (1) all 445 affected facilities demonstrated 100 percent compliance for both pollutants and even exceeded the compliance targets; (2) the Acid Rain Program has been very successful; and (3) due to these and other controls, air quality has improved in the United States. Furthermore, the new 8-hour ozone standard, the new PM2.5 standards, the EPA`s 22-state regional NO{sub x} program, the Northeast state petitions for upwind NO{sub x} reductions and EPA`s regional haze proposal will likely lead to substantially greater reductions of utility SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}.

  19. AIRS total precipitable water over high latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, H.; Fetzer, E. J.; Bromwich, D. H.; Fishbein, E.; Olsen, E. T.; Granger, S.; Lee, S.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Chen, L.

    2006-12-01

    Given the importance of atmospheric conditions over the Arctic and Antarctica to the global climate system, hydrological cycles, and cryopspheric dynamics, and the poor coverage of traditional data over these region, AIRS data will play a significant role in filling the information gaps. In this study, we examine the quality of AIRS total atmospheric precipitable water (PWV) and explore its potential applications over the Antarctica and Arctic. For Antarctica, both Level II matching files and Level III gridded products of AIRS are compared with radiosonde records at Dome C and ECMWF's analysis products during December 10, 2003 to January 26, 2004. Results will testify to the quality of AIRS moisture data over glacial surfaces. For the Arctic region, AIRS level III data are used to compare with AMSR-E data and ECMWF analysis product during September of 2004. Results will reveal the quality of AIRS data over high-latitude water, sea ice, and land surfaces. The potential of AIRS data to improve model simulation will be discussed.

  20. Characterization of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in cleaning reagents and air fresheners in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yu; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Ho, Kin Fai; Lee, Shun Cheng; Gao, Yuan; Cheng, Yan; Chan, C. S.

    2011-11-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from cleaning products and air fresheners indoors are prone to oxidation resulting in the formation of secondary pollutants that can pose health risks on residents. In this study, a solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) method was applied for the determination of BVOCs compositions in three categories of cleaning products including floor cleaners (FC), kitchen cleaners (KC) and dishwashing detergents (DD), and also air fresheners (AF). The analysis results demonstrated that chemical composition and concentration of individual BVOC varied broadly with household products in the view of their different functions and scents as indicated on the labels. The concentration of total BVOCs for sample FC1 was the highest up to 4146.0 μg g -1, followed by FC2 of 264.6 μg g -1, FC4 of 249.3 μg g -1 and FC3 of 139.2 μg g -1. D-limonene was the most abundant detected BVOCs in KC samples with the chemical composition varying from 19.6 ± 1.0 to 1513.0 ± 37.1 μg g -1. For dishwashing detergents, only D-limonene was detected and quantified. The BVOCs compositions of air freshener samples are much more complicated. It was estimated that the consumption of floor cleaners contributed 51% of the total BVOCs amount indoors in Hong Kong, followed by air fresheners 42%, kitchen cleaners 5% and dishwashing detergents 2%.