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Sample records for air cleaner efficiency

  1. PARTICLE-SIZE DEPENDENT EFFICIENCY OF AIR CLEANERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of tests with media filters, electrostatic filters, and electronic air cleaners. t also discusses results from system qualification tests to detect system artifacts. he collection efficiency of air cleaners as a function of particle diameter must be known ...

  2. FRACTIONAL AEROSOL FILTRATION EFFICIENCY OF IN-DUCT VENTILATION AIR CLEANERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The filtration efficiency of ventilation air cleaners is highly particle-size dependent over the 0.01 to 3 μm diameter size range. Current standardized test methods, which determine only overall efficiencies for ambient aerosol or other test aerosols, provide data of limited util...

  3. Environmental Technology Verification: Supplement to Test/QA Plan for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners; Bioaerosol Inactivation Efficiency by HVAC In-Duct Ultraviolet Light Air Cleaners

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center has selected general ventilation air cleaners as a technology area. The Generic Verification Protocol for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners is on the Environmental Technology Verification we...

  4. Cleaner, More Efficient Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Musculus, Mark

    2013-08-13

    Mark Musculus, an engine combustion scientist at Sandia National Laboratories, led a study that outlines the science base for auto and engine manufacturers to build the next generation of cleaner, more efficient engines using low-temperature combustion. Here, Musculus discusses the work at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility.

  5. Cleaner, More Efficient Diesel Engines

    ScienceCinema

    Musculus, Mark

    2014-02-26

    Mark Musculus, an engine combustion scientist at Sandia National Laboratories, led a study that outlines the science base for auto and engine manufacturers to build the next generation of cleaner, more efficient engines using low-temperature combustion. Here, Musculus discusses the work at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility.

  6. Primary and secondary consequences of indoor air cleaners.

    PubMed

    Siegel, J A

    2016-02-01

    Air cleaning is broadly applied to reduce contaminant concentrations in many buildings. Although diverse in underlying technology, mode of application, target contaminants, and effectiveness, there are also commonalities in the framework for understanding their primary impact (i.e. concentration reductions) and secondary impacts (e.g. energy use and by-product production). Furthermore, both primary and secondary impacts are moderated by the specific indoor context in which an air cleaner is used. This investigation explores the dynamics of removal efficiency in a variety of air cleaners and combines efficiency and flow rate to put air cleaning in the context of real indoor environments. This allows for the direct comparison to other indoor pollutant loss mechanisms (ventilation and deposition) and further suggests that effective air cleaner use is context and contaminant specific. The concentration reduction impacts of air cleaning need to be contrasted with the secondary consequences that arise from the use of air cleaners. This study emphasizes two important secondary consequences: energy use of the air cleaning process and primary and secondary emissions from air cleaners. This study also identifies current research challenges and areas for large leaps in our understanding of the role of air cleaners in improving indoor environmental quality. PMID:25689321

  7. You Can Help Keep the Air Cleaner -- Every Day

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can Help Keep the Air Cleaner -- Every Day! Air pollution can affect your health and the environment. There ... every one of us can take to reduce air pollution and keep the air cleaner, and precautionary measures ...

  8. Enzymes Enhance Biofilm Removal Efficiency of Cleaners

    PubMed Central

    Stiefel, Philipp; Mauerhofer, Stefan; Schneider, Jana; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Rosenberg, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Efficient removal of biofilms from medical devices is a big challenge in health care to avoid hospital-acquired infections, especially from delicate devices like flexible endoscopes, which cannot be reprocessed using harsh chemicals or high temperatures. Therefore, milder solutions such as enzymatic cleaners have to be used, which need to be carefully developed to ensure efficacious performance. In vitro biofilm in a 96-well-plate system was used to select and optimize the formulation of novel enzymatic cleaners. Removal of the biofilm was quantified by crystal violet staining, while the disinfecting properties were evaluated by a BacTiter-Glo assay. The biofilm removal efficacy of the selected cleaner was further tested by using European standard (EN) for endoscope cleaning EN ISO 15883, and removal of artificial blood soil was investigated by treating TOSI (Test Object Surgical Instrument) cleaning indicators. Using the process described here, a novel enzymatic endoscope cleaner was developed, which removed 95% of Staphylococcus aureus and 90% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in the 96-well plate system. With a >99% reduction of CFU and a >90% reduction of extracellular polymeric substances, this cleaner enabled subsequent complete disinfection and fulfilled acceptance criteria of EN ISO 15883. Furthermore, it efficiently removed blood soil and significantly outperformed comparable commercial products. The cleaning performance was stable even after storage of the cleaner for 6 months. It was demonstrated that incorporation of appropriate enzymes into the cleaner enhanced performance significantly. PMID:27044552

  9. Enzymes Enhance Biofilm Removal Efficiency of Cleaners.

    PubMed

    Stiefel, Philipp; Mauerhofer, Stefan; Schneider, Jana; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Rosenberg, Urs; Ren, Qun

    2016-06-01

    Efficient removal of biofilms from medical devices is a big challenge in health care to avoid hospital-acquired infections, especially from delicate devices like flexible endoscopes, which cannot be reprocessed using harsh chemicals or high temperatures. Therefore, milder solutions such as enzymatic cleaners have to be used, which need to be carefully developed to ensure efficacious performance. In vitro biofilm in a 96-well-plate system was used to select and optimize the formulation of novel enzymatic cleaners. Removal of the biofilm was quantified by crystal violet staining, while the disinfecting properties were evaluated by a BacTiter-Glo assay. The biofilm removal efficacy of the selected cleaner was further tested by using European standard (EN) for endoscope cleaning EN ISO 15883, and removal of artificial blood soil was investigated by treating TOSI (Test Object Surgical Instrument) cleaning indicators. Using the process described here, a novel enzymatic endoscope cleaner was developed, which removed 95% of Staphylococcus aureus and 90% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in the 96-well plate system. With a >99% reduction of CFU and a >90% reduction of extracellular polymeric substances, this cleaner enabled subsequent complete disinfection and fulfilled acceptance criteria of EN ISO 15883. Furthermore, it efficiently removed blood soil and significantly outperformed comparable commercial products. The cleaning performance was stable even after storage of the cleaner for 6 months. It was demonstrated that incorporation of appropriate enzymes into the cleaner enhanced performance significantly. PMID:27044552

  10. 21 CFR 880.5045 - Medical recirculating air cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical recirculating air cleaner. 880.5045... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5045 Medical recirculating air cleaner. (a) Identification. A medical recirculating air cleaner is a device used to remove particles from the air for medical purposes. The device...

  11. 21 CFR 880.5045 - Medical recirculating air cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical recirculating air cleaner. 880.5045... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5045 Medical recirculating air cleaner. (a) Identification. A medical recirculating air cleaner is a device used to remove particles from the air for medical purposes. The device...

  12. 21 CFR 880.5045 - Medical recirculating air cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical recirculating air cleaner. 880.5045... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5045 Medical recirculating air cleaner. (a) Identification. A medical recirculating air cleaner is a device used to remove particles from the air for medical purposes. The device...

  13. Transport solutions for cleaner air.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Frank J; Zhu, Tong

    2016-05-20

    In cities across the globe, road transport remains an important source of air pollutants that are linked with acute and chronic health effects. Decreasing vehicle emissions--while maintaining or increasing commuter journeys--remains a major challenge for city administrators. In London, congestion-charging and a citywide low-emission zone failed to bring nitrogen dioxide concentrations under control. In Beijing, controls on the purchase and use of cars have not decreased transport emissions to a sufficient extent. As cities continue to grow, not even zero-emission vehicles are the solution. Moving increasingly large numbers of people efficiently around a city can only be achieved by expanding mass transit systems. PMID:27199415

  14. Integrated Technology Air Cleaners (ITAC): Design and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Cohn, Sebastian; Destaillats, Hugo; Henzel, Victor; Sidheswaran, Meera; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2013-09-13

    The primary objective of this project was to design, build, and test an air cleaner for residential use with the potential to substantially improve indoor air quality, or maintain indoor air quality unchanged, when outdoor air ventilation rates are reduced to save energy. Two air cleaners were designed and fabricated. The design targets for airflow rate, fan power, and projected cost were met. In short term laboratory studies, both units performed as expected; however, during field studies in homes, the formaldehyde removal performance of the air cleaners was much lower than expected. In subsequent laboratory studies, incomplete decomposition of some indoor air volatile organic compounds, with formaldehyde as a product of partial decomposition of volatile organic compounds, was confirmed as the explanation for the poor formaldehyde removal performance in the field studies. The amount of formaldehyde produced per unit of decomposition of other volatile organic compounds was substantially diminished by increasing the amount of catalyst on the filter and also by decreasing the air velocity. Together, these two measures reduced formaldehyde production, per unit destruction of other volatile organic compounds, by a factor of four, while increasing the removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds by a factor of 1.4. A company with a southern California office is conducting studies in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with the goal of incorporating the ITAC catalytic air cleaning technology in their future commercial products.

  15. Guide to Air Cleaners in the Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Air Duct Cleaning Asthma Health, Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Flood Cleanup Home Remodel Indoor airPLUS Mold Radon ... menu Learn the Issues Air Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Emergencies Greener Living Health and Safety Land and ...

  16. 21 CFR 880.5045 - Medical recirculating air cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical recirculating air cleaner. 880.5045... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5045 Medical recirculating air cleaner. (a) Identification. A medical...

  17. 21 CFR 880.5045 - Medical recirculating air cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical recirculating air cleaner. 880.5045... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5045 Medical recirculating air cleaner. (a) Identification. A medical...

  18. Ultrafine particle removal and generation by portable air cleaners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waring, Michael S.; Siegel, Jeffrey A.; Corsi, Richard L.

    Portable air cleaners can both remove and generate pollutants indoors. To investigate these phenomena, we conducted a two-phase investigation in a 14.75 m 3 stainless steel chamber. In the first phase, particle size-resolved (12.6-514 nm diameter) clean air delivery rates (CADR) and efficiencies were determined, as were ozone emission rates, for two high-efficiency particle arresting (HEPA) filters, one electrostatic precipitator with a fan, and two ion generators without fans. The two HEPA air cleaners had count average CADR (standard deviation) of 188 (30) and 324 (44) m 3 h -1; the electrostatic precipitator 284 (62) m 3 h -1; and the two ion generators 41 (11) and 35 (13) m 3 h -1. The electrostatic precipitator emitted ozone at a rate of 3.8±0.2 mg h -1, and the two ion generators 3.3±0.2 and 4.3±0.2 mg h -1. Ozone initiates reactions with certain unsaturated organic compounds that produce ultrafine and fine particles, carbonyls, other oxidized products, and free radicals. During the second phase, five different ion generators were operated separately in the presence of a plug-in liquid or solid air freshener, representing a strong terpene source. For air exchange rates of between 0.49 and 0.96 h -1, three ion generators acted as steady-state net particle generators in the entire measured range of 4.61-157 nm, and two generated particles in the range of approximately 10 to 39-55 nm. Terpene and aldehyde concentrations were also sampled for one ion generator, and concentrations of terpenes decreased and formaldehyde increased. Given these results, the pollutant removal benefits of ozone-generating air cleaners may be outweighed by the generation of indoor pollution.

  19. On-site application of air cleaner emitting plasma ion to reduce airborne contaminants in pig building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Man Su; Ko, Han Jong; Kim, Daekeun; Kim, Ki Youn

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this field study is to evaluate temporal reduction efficiency of air cleaner emitting plasma ion on airborne pollutants emitted from pig building. The operation principle of air cleaner based on plasma ion is that hydrogen atoms and oxygen ions combine to form hydroperoxyl radicals (HOO-), which surround and attach to surface of airborne microorganisms and eliminate them by breaking the hydrogen bond in their protein structure. In gaseous pollutants, it was found that there is no reduction effect of the air cleaner on ammonia and hydrogen sulfide (p > 0.05). In particulate pollutants, the air cleaner showed mean 79%(±6.1) and 78%(±3.0) of reduction efficiency for PM2.5. and PM1, respectively, compared to the control without air cleaner (p < 0.05). However, there is no significant difference in TSP and PM10 between the treatment with air cleaner and the control without air cleaner (p > 0.05). In biological pollutants, the mean reduction efficiencies for airborne bacteria and fungi by application of air cleaner were 22%(±6.6) and 25%(±8.7), respectively (p < 0.05). Based on the results obtained from this study, it was concluded that the air cleaner had a positive reduction effect on PM2.5, PM1, airborne bacteria and airborne fungi among airborne pollutants distributed in pig building while it did not lead to significant reduction of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide.

  20. Control of asthma triggers in indoor air with air cleaners: a modeling analysis

    PubMed Central

    Myatt, Theodore A; Minegishi, Taeko; Allen, Joseph G; MacIntosh, David L

    2008-01-01

    Background Reducing exposure to environmental agents indoors shown to increase asthma symptoms or lead to asthma exacerbations is an important component of a strategy to manage asthma for individuals. Numerous investigations have demonstrated that portable air cleaning devices can reduce concentrations of asthma triggers in indoor air; however, their benefits for breathing problems have not always been reproducible. The potential exposure benefits of whole house high efficiency in-duct air cleaners for sensitive subpopulations have yet to be evaluated. Methods We used an indoor air quality modeling system (CONTAM) developed by NIST to examine peak and time-integrated concentrations of common asthma triggers present in indoor air over a year as a function of natural ventilation, portable air cleaners, and forced air ventilation equipped with conventional and high efficiency filtration systems. Emission rates for asthma triggers were based on experimental studies published in the scientific literature. Results Forced air systems with high efficiency filtration were found to provide the best control of asthma triggers: 30–55% lower cat allergen levels, 90–99% lower risk of respiratory infection through the inhalation route of exposure, 90–98% lower environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) levels, and 50–75% lower fungal spore levels than the other ventilation/filtration systems considered. These results indicate that the use of high efficiency in-duct air cleaners provide an effective means of controlling allergen levels not only in a single room, like a portable air cleaner, but the whole house. Conclusion These findings are useful for evaluating potential benefits of high efficiency in-duct filtration systems for controlling exposure to asthma triggers indoors and for the design of trials of environmental interventions intended to evaluate their utility in practice. PMID:18684328

  1. RESIDENTIAL AIR CLEANERS: A SUMMARY OF AVAILABLE INFORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication will provide up-to-date information on the types of air cleaners available to the consumer, provides available information on their general effectiveness in removing indoor air pollutants, discusses some factors to consider in deciding whether to use an air-clean...

  2. AIR CLEANER RESEARCH (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using air cleaners to remove pollutants from indoor air is part an integrated indoor air quality strategy. Air cleaners can be used either alone or in combination with other control options when source control and improvements in ventilation are insufficient, impractical, or oth...

  3. Control of Respirable Particles in Indoor Air with Portable AirCleaners

    SciTech Connect

    Offermann, F.J.; Sextro, R.G.; Fisk, W.J.; Grimsrud, D.T.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Revzan, K.L.; Yater, J.

    1984-10-01

    Eleven portable air cleaning devices have been evaluated for control of indoor concentrations of respirable particles using in situ chamber decay tests. Following injection of cigarette smoke in a room-size chamber, decay rates for particle concentrations were obtained for total number concentration and for number concentration by particle size with and without air cleaner operation. The size distribution of the tobacco smoke particles was log normal with a count median diameter of 0.15 {micro}m and a geometric standard deviation of 2.0. Without air cleaner operation, the natural mass-averaged surface deposition rate of particles was observed to be 0.1 h{sup -1}. Air cleaning rates for particles were found to be negligible for several small panel-filter devices, a residential-sized ion-generator, and a pair of mixing fans. Electrostatic precipitators and extended surface filters removed particles at substantial rates, and a HEPA-type filter was the most efficient air cleaner studied.

  4. Typical household vacuum cleaners: the collection efficiency and emissions characteristics for fine particles.

    PubMed

    Lioy, P J; Wainman, T; Zhang, J; Goldsmith, S

    1999-02-01

    The issue of fine particle (PM2.5) exposures and their potential health effects is a focus of scientific research because of the recently promulgated National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM2.5. Before final implementation, the health and exposure basis for the standard will be reviewed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency within the next five years. As part of this process, it is necessary to understand total particle exposure issues and to determine the relative importance of the origin of PM2.5 exposure in various micro-environments. The results presented in this study examine emissions of fine particles from a previously uncharacterized indoor source: the residential vacuum cleaner. Eleven standard vacuum cleaners were tested for the emission rate of fine particles by their individual motors and for their efficiency in collecting laboratory-generated fine particles. An aerosol generator was used to introduce fine potassium chloride (KCl) particles into the vacuum cleaner inlet for the collection efficiency tests. Measurements of the motor emissions, which include carbon, and the KCl aerosol were made using a continuous HIAC/Royco 5130 A light-scattering particle detector. All tests were conducted in a metal chamber specifically designed to completely contain the vacuum cleaner and operate it in a stationary position. For the tested vacuum cleaners, fine particle motor emissions ranged from 9.6 x 10(4) to 3.34 x 10(8) particles/min, which were estimated to be 0.028 to 176 micrograms/min for mass emissions, respectively. The vast majority of particles released were in the range of 0.3-0.5 micron in diameter. The lowest particle emission rate was obtained for a vacuum cleaner that had a high efficiency (HEPA) filter placed after the vacuum cleaner bag and the motor within a sealed exhaust system. This vacuum cleaner removed the KCl particles that escaped the vacuum cleaner bag and the particles emitted by the motor. Results obtained for the KCl

  5. Dynamic monitoring of the dust pickup efficiency of vacuum cleaners.

    PubMed

    Reponen, Tiina; Trakumas, Saulius; Willeke, Klaus; Grinshpun, Sergey A; Choe, Kyoo T; Friedman, Warren

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated a new method that uses an optical aerosol photometer for dynamically monitoring dust pickup efficiency during vacuuming. In the first stage of this study the new method was compared with built-in dirt sensors installed by vacuum cleaner manufacturers. Through parallel testing it has been shown that the widely available built-in dirt sensors are not sensitive enough to register small (< 53 microm) dust particles. Therefore, only the optical photometer was used in the rest of the experiments of this study to monitor the dust pickup efficiency while the vacuum cleaner was operated with different nozzles on clean and soiled carpet and vinyl sheet flooring. This method also was used to monitor dust pickup efficiency when vacuuming carpets originating from lead-contaminated homes. The dust pickup efficiencies obtained with the optical aerosol photometer have been compared with the surface lead concentrations found during different stages of cleaning. Results indicate that the dust mass concentration registered with the optical aerosol photometer at the nozzle outlet correlates well with the dust mass collected in the vacuum cleaner filter bag and with the surface lead level. Therefore, dynamic dust pickup monitoring can provide valuable information about the efficiency of cleaning when a vacuum cleaner is used. This suggests that a small aerosol photometer similar to a light-scattering smoke detector would be beneficial in vacuum cleaners used for cleaning surfaces contaminated with leaded dust and biological particles (including allergens). PMID:12570075

  6. AIR CLEANERS FOR INDOOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL (CHAPTER 10)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter describes an experimental study to evaluate performance characteristics of currently available controls for indoor air pollutants, including both particles and gases. he study evaluated the particle-size-dependent collection efficiency of seven commercially available ...

  7. Cleaner Air for Home and Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Increased insulation has led to higher concentrations in homes and offices of toxic chemicals caused by emissions from synthetic building components. Recent NASA research regarding future interplanetary manned spacecraft has shown that certain plants can absorb gasses, reducing indoor air pollution. After working with water purifying water hyacinths, Dr. B. C. Wolverton at NSTL developed a carbon/plant filter system to remove chemicals, smoke, etc. Two companies have commercialized the system. Bio-safe provides plants, a bed of activated carbon and an air pump installed near the plant's roots. Pollutants are trapped by the charcoal and either digested by the roots or broken down by microorganisms. Purified air is then directed back into the room. Applied Indoor Resource Company markets Bio-Pure, which includes plants on a layer of patented soil medium with activated carbon. Legumes and mosses filter the air; a blower moves air through the filtering system for cleansing by microorganisms. Research at NSTL continues, and the system may eventually be enlarged.

  8. IMPROVED TEST METHODS FOR ELECTRONIC AIR CLEANERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to develop a fractional filtration efficiency test protocol for residential electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) that avoids the limitations of the ASHRAE 52.2 method. Specifically, the objectives were to a) determine the change in efficiency that ...

  9. Control of respirable particles and radon progeny with portable air cleaners

    SciTech Connect

    Offermann, F.J.; Sextro, R.G.; Fisk, W.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Revzan, K.L.; Yater, J.

    1984-02-01

    Eleven portable air cleaning devices have been evaluated for control of indoor concentrations of respirable particles and radon progeny. Following injection of cigarette smoke and radon in a room-size chamber, decay rates for particles and radon progeny concentrations were measured with and without air cleaner operation. Particle concentrations were obtained for total number concentration and for number concentration by particle size. In tests with no air cleaner the natural decay rate for cigarette smoke was observed to be 0.2 hr/sup -1/. Air cleaning rates for particles were found to be negligible for several small panel-filters, a residential ion-generator, and a pair of mixing fans. The electrostatic precipitators and extended surface filters tested had significant particle removal rates, and a HEPA-type filter was the most efficient air cleaner. The evaluation of radon progeny control produced similar results; the air cleaners which were effective in removing particles were also effective in removing radon progeny. At low particle concentrations plateout of the unattached radon progeny is an important removal mechanism. Based on data from these tests, the plateout rate for unattached progeny was found to be 15 hr/sup -1/. The unattached fraction and the overall removal rate due to deposition of attached and unattached nuclides have been estimated for each radon decay product as a function of particle concentration. While air cleaning can be effective in reducing total radon progeny, concentrations of unattached radon progeny can increase with increasing air cleaning. 39 references, 26 figures, 9 tables.

  10. Enzyme catalysis: Cleaner, safer, energy efficient

    SciTech Connect

    Lalonde, J.

    1997-09-01

    Protein catalysts, more commonly referred to as enzymes, are the driving force behind the myriad of chemical reactions occurring in living organisms. By using their ability to distinguish between similar biochemical compounds and optical isomers (enantiomers), with virtually complete discrimination, enzymes are efficient catalysts, making them an attractive alternative for synthetic ones. Tapping into the natural abilities of enzymes, the chemical process industries (CPI) are beginning to realize that enzymes are not only effective for catalyzing reactions of natural compounds within living systems, but that they can also be used to catalyze reactions of unnatural compounds. Enzymes are novel among catalysts in that they are capable of directing asymmetric transformations with complete activity under ambient conditions. As a result, bioconversions, such as the hydroxylation of unactivated hydrocarbon centers, to give alcohols in high optical purity, have few counterparts in traditional chemical catalysis. And unlike most chemical manufacturing catalysts, enzymes work in water, at ambient temperature and near neutral pH. Also, they are easy to dispose of, since they are composed of biodegradable protein. Thus, biocatalysts are the ideal green catalyst, producing less waste and consuming less energy.

  11. Air cleaners for indoor-air-pollution control (Chapter 10). Book chapter, Feb 89-Jul 90

    SciTech Connect

    Viner, A.S.; Ramanathan, K.; Hanley, J.T.; Smith, D.D.; Ensor, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    The chapter describes an experimental study to evaluate performance characteristics of currently available controls for indoor air pollutants, including both particles and gases. The study evaluated the particle-size-dependent collection efficiency of seven commercially available devices for particulate control: a common furnace filter, four industrial filters, and two electronic air cleaners (EACs). The furnance filter had negligible effect on particles with diameters between 0.1 and 1 micrometer. The industrial filters, with ASHRAE ratings of 95, 85, 65, and 40% showed minimum efficiency at about 0.1 micrometer, which was substantially less than the ASHRAE efficiency. One EAC, essentially a furnance filter with a high-voltage electrode, reached a maximum efficiency of 30% at low flowrates (7 cu m/min); however, it had a negligible effect at higher flowrates. The other EAC, similar to an industrial ESP, showed efficiencies of 80-90% over the entire size range at low to moderate flowrates. At the highest flowrate, a minimum efficiency was detected at 0.35 micrometer. The study also evaluated the suitability of commerically available carbon-based sorbents (wood, coal, and coconut) for removing low concentrations of volatile organic compounds (benzene, acetaldehyde, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane).

  12. Evaluation of a Combined Ultraviolet Photocatalytic Oxidation(UVPCO)/Chemisorbent Air Cleaner for Indoor Air Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Destaillats, Hugo; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Fisk,William J.

    2007-02-01

    We previously reported that gas-phase byproducts of incomplete oxidation were generated when a prototype ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaner was operated in the laboratory with indoor-relevant mixtures of VOCs at realistic concentrations. Under these conditions, there was net production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, two important indoor air toxicants. Here, we further explore the issue of byproduct generation. Using the same UVPCO air cleaner, we conducted experiments to identify common VOCs that lead to the production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde and to quantify their production rates. We sought to reduce the production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde to acceptable levels by employing different chemisorbent scrubbers downstream of the UVPCO device. Additionally, we made preliminary measurements to estimate the capacity and expected lifetime of the chemisorbent media. For most experiments, the system was operated at 680-780 m{sup 3}/h (400-460 cfm). A set of experiments was conducted with common VOCs introduced into the UVPCO device individually and in mixture. Compound conversion efficiencies and the production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were determined by comparison of compound concentrations upstream and downstream of the reactor. There was general agreement between compound conversions efficiencies determined individually and in the mixture. This suggests that competition among compounds for active sites on the photocatalyst surface will not limit the performance of the UVPCO device when the total VOC concentration is low. A possible exception was the very volatile alcohols, for which there were some indications of competitive adsorption. The results also showed that formaldehyde was produced from many commonly encountered VOCs, while acetaldehyde was generated by specific VOCs, particularly ethanol. The implication is that formaldehyde concentrations are likely to increase when an effective UVPCO air cleaner is used in

  13. POLLUTION PREVENTION FOR CLEANER AIR: EPA'S AIR AND ENERGY ENGINEERING RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses the role of EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in pollution prevention research for cleaner air. For more than 20 years, AEERL has been conducting research to identify control approaches for the pollutants and sources which contribu...

  14. Removing seed coat fragments with a lint cleaner grid bar air knife

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed coat fragments (SCF) in ginned lint cause spinning problems at the textile mill and undesirable defects in finished goods. Work continued on developing an air knife that may help remove SCF from ginned lint. The air knife is mounted on the 1st lint cleaner grid bar of a saw-type lint cleaner,...

  15. The effectiveness of an air cleaner in controlling droplet/aerosol particle dispersion emitted from a patient's mouth in the indoor environment of dental clinics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun; Zhao, Bin; Cui, Weilin; Dong, Lei; An, Na; Ouyang, Xiangying

    2010-01-01

    Dental healthcare workers (DHCWs) are at high risk of occupational exposure to droplets and aerosol particles emitted from patients' mouths during treatment. We evaluated the effectiveness of an air cleaner in reducing droplet and aerosol contamination by positioning the device in four different locations in an actual dental clinic. We applied computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to solve the governing equations of airflow, energy and dispersion of different-sized airborne droplets/aerosol particles. In a dental clinic, we measured the supply air velocity and temperature of the ventilation system, the airflow rate and the particle removal efficiency of the air cleaner to determine the boundary conditions for the CFD simulations. Our results indicate that use of an air cleaner in a dental clinic may be an effective method for reducing DHCWs' exposure to airborne droplets and aerosol particles. Further, we found that the probability of droplet/aerosol particle removal and the direction of airflow from the cleaner are both important control measures for droplet and aerosol contamination in a dental clinic. Thus, the distance between the air cleaner and droplet/aerosol particle source as well as the relative location of the air cleaner to both the source and the DHCW are important considerations for reducing DHCWs' exposure to droplets/aerosol particles emitted from the patient's mouth during treatments. PMID:20031985

  16. Mist control at a machining center, Part 2: Mist control following installation of air cleaners.

    PubMed

    Yacher, J M; Heitbrink, W A; Burroughs, G E

    2000-01-01

    At a machining center used to produce transaxle and transmission parts, aerosol instrumentation was used to quantitatively evaluate size-dependent mist generation of a synthetic metalworking fluid (MWF) consisting primarily of water and triethanolamine (TEA). This information was used to select an air cleaner for controlling the mist. During most machining operations, the MWF was flooded over the part. These machining operations were performed in a nearly complete enclosure that was exhausted to an air cleaner consisting of three sections: a fall-out chamber, a trifilter section to capture metal chips and mist, and a 1.13 m3/sec (2400 ft3/min) blower. The partnering company requested that National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) researchers perform an evaluation of the effectiveness of a commercially available air cleaner. After NIOSH researchers characterized mist generation at the machining centers and found that performance of a test air cleaner appeared to be suitable, the company installed more than 25 air cleaners on different machining centers in this plant and enclosed the corresponding fluid filtration unit. The facility also has implemented a maintenance program for the air cleaners that involves regularly scheduled filter changes; performance is ensured by monitoring static pressure. A NIOSH-conducted air sampling evaluation showed that area TEA concentrations were reduced from a geometric mean of 0.25 to 0.03 mg/m3. Personal total particulate concentrations were reduced from a geometric mean of 0.22 to 0.06 mg/m3. These results show the effectiveness of this combination of enclosure, ventilation, and filtration to greatly reduce the exposure to MWF mist generated in modern machining centers. PMID:10782201

  17. Thoron ( 220Rn) progeny reduction by an air cleaner of the polarized media filter type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigu, J.

    1993-02-01

    The effect of an air cleaner on 220Rn progeny atmospheres has been studied in a Radon/Thoron Test Facility (RTTF) of the walk-in type. The air cleaner consists basically of a fan and a special filter material sandwiched between two metal screens, to which an electric field is applied. The filter is of the polarized media type and uses fibreglass as material. The fan and filter system are housed in a metal case. Air is drawn from the back of the case by means of the fan and forced through the "electrical" filter where removal of the 220Rn progeny occurs. Radon-220 progeny "depleted" air is discharged at the top of the device. Tests were conducted in 220Rn/ 220Rn progeny atmospheres when the air cleaner was operating, and when it was turned off. Very pronounced effects were observed during the operation of the device, namely: a dramatic decrease in the 220Rn progeny concentrations and the total aerosol concentration, as well as a large increase in the 220Rn progeny unattached fractions and the plate-out of these radionuclides on the walls of the RTTF. The air cleaner has potential in industrial applications, which should be explored.

  18. IMPACT OF AN OZONE GENERATOR AIR CLEANER ON STYRENE CONCENTRATIONS IN AN INDOOR AIR QUALITY RESEARCH CHAMBER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an investigation of the impact of an ozone generator air cleaner on vapor-phase styrene concentrations in a full-scale indoor air quality test chamber. The time history of the concentrations of styrene and ozone is well predicted by a simulation model u...

  19. Service the Carburetor Air Cleaner. Fuel System. Student Manual 1. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual, part of a small-engine repair series on servicing fuel systems, is designed for use by special needs students in Texas. The manual explains in pictures and short sentences, written on a low reading level, the job of servicing carburetor air cleaners. Along with the steps of this repair job, specific safety and caution…

  20. Evaluation of ozone generation and indoor organic compounds removal by air cleaners based on chamber tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kuo-Pin; Lee, Grace Whei-May; Hsieh, Ching-Pei; Lin, Chi-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Ozone can cause many health problems, including exacerbation of asthma, throat irritation, cough, chest ache, shortness of breath, and respiratory infections. Air cleaners are one of the sources of indoor ozone, and thus the evaluation of ozone generated by air cleaners is desired significant issue. Most evaluation methods proposed are based on chamber tests. However, the adsorption and desorption of ozone on the wall of test chamber and the deposition of ozone resulted from the surface reaction can influence the evaluation results. In this study, we developed a mass balance model that took the adsorption, desorption and deposition of ozone into consideration to evaluate the effective ozone emission rates of six selected air cleaners. The experiments were conducted in a stainless steel chamber with a volume of 11.3 m 3 at 25 °C and 60% relative humidity. The adsorption, desorption and deposition rate constants of ozone obtained by fitting the model to the experimental data were k a = 0.149 ± 0.052 m h -1, k d = 0.013 ± 0.007 h -1, and k r = 0.050 ± 0.020 h -1, respectively. The effective ozone emission rates of Air Cleaners No. 1, 2, and 3 ranged between 13,400-24,500 μg h -1, 7190-10,400 μg h -1, and 4880-6560 μg h -1, respectively, which were more stable than those of No.4, 5, and 6. The effective ozone emission rates of Air Cleaners No. 4, 5, and 6 increased with the time of operation which might be relevant to the decrease of ozone removal by the "aging" filter installed in these cleaners. The removal of toluene and formaldehyde by these six air cleaners were also evaluated and the clean air delivery rates (CADRs) of these two pollutants ranged from non-detectable to 0.42 ± 0.08 m 3 h -1, and from non-detectable to 0.75 ± 0.07 m 3 h -1, respectively. The CADRs showed an insignificant relationship with the effective ozone emission rates. Thus, the removal of toluene and formaldehyde might be resulted from the adsorption on the filters and the

  1. Cleaner Air in California May Mean Healthier Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... all, Berhane said, the study suggests that curbing air pollution may benefit kids' respiratory health. "To parents, that ... and 2003-2012. Over that 20-year period, air pollution levels fell substantially, the study found. "Fine particle" ...

  2. New Technology Sparks Smoother Engines and Cleaner Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Automotive Resources, Inc. (ARI) has developed a new device for igniting fuel in engines-the SmartPlug.TM SmartPlug is a self-contained ignition system that may be retrofitted to existing spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines. The SmartPlug needs as little as six watts of power for warm-up, and requires no electricity at all when the engine is running. Unlike traditional spark plugs, once the SmartPlug ignites the engine, and the engine heats up, the power supply for the plug is no longer necessary. In the utility industry, SmartPlugs can be used in tractors, portable generators, compressors, and pumps. In addition to general-purpose applications, such as lawn mowers and chainsaws, SmartPlugs can also be used in the recreational, marine, aviation, and automotive industries. Unlike traditional ignition systems, the SmartPlug system requires no distributor, coil points, or moving parts. SmartPlugs are non-fouling, with a faster and cleaner burn than traditional spark plugs. They prevent detonation and are not sensitive to moisture, allowing them to be used on a variety of engines. Other advantages include no electrical noise, no high voltage, exceptionally high altitude capabilities, and better cold-start statistics than those of standard spark ignition systems. Future applications for the SmartPlug are being evaluated by manufacturers in the snowmobile industry.

  3. The trickle-down theory of cleaner air.

    PubMed Central

    Frazer, L

    2000-01-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments prompted an increased urgency to find new ways to treat airstreams containing volatile organic compounds, which affect the nitrogen photolytic cycle and help produce ground-level ozone, hazardous air pollutants, and odorous air emissions such as hydrogen sulfide. Scientists at the New Jersey company Envirogen have adapted traditional biofiltration technology to perform airborne waste stream cleanup. Preliminary research on pollutants such as phenol, methylene chloride, benzene, and toluene indicates that Envirogen's biotrickling filter may remove an average of about 94% of total hazardous air pollutants. Scientists are working to identify microbes that will clean up more stubborn pollutants. PMID:10753107

  4. Effects of HEPA Air Cleaners on Unscheduled Asthma Visits and Asthma Symptoms for Children Exposed to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Hornung, Richard W.; Khoury, Jane; Yolton, Kimberly; Lierl, Michelle; Kalkbrenner, Amy

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goal was to test the effects of high-efficiency, particulate-arresting (HEPA) air cleaners on unscheduled asthma visits and symptoms among children with asthma exposed to secondhand smoke. METHODS: We enrolled 225 eligible children who were 6 to 12 years of age, had physician-diagnosed asthma, and were exposed to ≥5 cigarettes per day. We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial. Children were assigned randomly to receive 2 active or inactive HEPA air cleaners. RESULTS: Of 225 enrolled children, 110 (49%) were assigned to the intervention group and 115 (51%) to the control group; 215 (95%) completed the trial. During the trial, there were 42 fewer unscheduled asthma visits among children in the intervention group (18.5% [95% confidence interval: 1.25%–82.75%]; P = .043), compared with those in the control group, after adjustment for baseline differences. There was a significant difference in the reductions of levels of particles of >0.3 μm according to group assignment; there was a 25% reduction in particle levels in the intervention group, compared with a 5% reduction in the control group (P = .026). There were no significant differences in parent-reported asthma symptoms, exhaled nitric-oxide levels, air nicotine levels, or cotinine levels according to group assignment. CONCLUSIONS: These results hold promise for using HEPA air cleaners as part of a multifaceted strategy to reduce asthma morbidity, but further research is necessary before they can be recommended routinely for the medical management of asthma. PMID:21149427

  5. The Diesel Paradox: Why Dieselization Will Lead to Cleaner Air

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, James J.

    2000-08-20

    There are challenges facing the U.S. and the world that are brought on by the growing demand for transporting people and goods. These include the growing consumption of petroleum, urban air pollution, and global climate change.

  6. Reassessing the human health benefits from cleaner air.

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis Anthony

    2012-05-01

    Recent proposals to further reduce permitted levels of air pollution emissions are supported by high projected values of resulting public health benefits. For example, the Environmental Protection Agency recently estimated that the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) will produce human health benefits in 2020, from reduced mortality rates, valued at nearly $2 trillion per year, compared to compliance costs of $65 billion ($0.065 trillion). However, while compliance costs can be measured, health benefits are unproved: they depend on a series of uncertain assumptions. Among these are that additional life expectancy gained by a beneficiary (with median age of about 80 years) should be valued at about $80,000 per month; that there is a 100% probability that a positive, linear, no-threshold, causal relation exists between PM(2.5) concentration and mortality risk; and that progress in medicine and disease prevention will not greatly diminish this relationship. We present an alternative uncertainty analysis that assigns a positive probability of error to each assumption. This discrete uncertainty analysis suggests (with probability >90% under plausible alternative assumptions) that the costs of CAAA exceed its benefits. Thus, instead of suggesting to policymakers that CAAA benefits are almost certainly far larger than its costs, we believe that accuracy requires acknowledging that the costs purchase a relatively uncertain, possibly much smaller, benefit. The difference between these contrasting conclusions is driven by different approaches to uncertainty analysis, that is, excluding or including discrete uncertainties about the main assumptions required for nonzero health benefits to exist at all. PMID:22050234

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF OZONE EMISSIONS FROM AIR CLEANERS EQUIPPED WITH OZONE GENERATORS AND SENSOR AND FEEDBACK CONTROL CIRCUITRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper give results of a characterization of ozone emissions from air cleaners equipped with ozone generators and sensor and feedback control circuitry. Ozone emission rates of several consumer appliances, marketed as indoor air treatment or air purification systems, were det...

  8. Functional morphology and efficiency of the antenna cleaner in Camponotus rufifemur ants

    PubMed Central

    Hackmann, Alexander; Delacave, Henry; Robinson, Adam; Labonte, David; Federle, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of body surfaces can negatively affect many physiological functions. Insects have evolved different adaptations for removing contamination, including surfaces that allow passive self-cleaning and structures for active cleaning. Here, we study the function of the antenna cleaner in Camponotus rufifemur ants, a clamp-like structure consisting of a notch on the basitarsus facing a spur on the tibia, both bearing cuticular ‘combs’ and ‘brushes’. The ants clamp one antenna tightly between notch and spur, pull it through, and subsequently clean the antenna cleaner itself with the mouthparts. We simulated cleaning strokes by moving notch or spur over antennae contaminated with fluorescent particles. The notch removed particles more efficiently than the spur, but both components eliminated more than 60% of the particles with the first stroke. Ablation of bristles, brush and comb strongly reduced the efficiency, indicating that they are essential for cleaning. To study how comb and brush remove particles of different sizes, we contaminated antennae of living ants, and anaesthetized them immediately after they had performed the first cleaning stroke. Different-sized beads were trapped in distinct zones of the notch, consistent with the gap widths between cuticular outgrowths. This suggests that the antenna cleaner operates like a series of sieves that remove the largest objects first, followed by smaller ones, down to the smallest particles that get caught by adhesion. PMID:26587270

  9. Air transportation energy efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy efficiency of air transportation, results of the recently completed RECAT studies on improvement alternatives, and the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Research Program to develop the technology for significant improvements in future aircraft were reviewed.

  10. Traffic-related air pollution: Exposure and health effects in Copenhagen street cleaners and cemetery workers

    SciTech Connect

    Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Nielsen, M.L.; Gehl, J.

    1995-05-01

    This questionaire-based study found a significantly higher prevalence of chronic bronchitis, asthma, and several other symptoms in 116 Copenhagen street cleaners who were exposed to traffic-related air pollution at levels that were slightly lower than the 1987 World Health Organization-recommended threshold values, compared with 115 Copenhagen cemetery workers exposed to lower pollution levels. Logistic regression analysis, controlling for age and smoking, was conducted, and odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to be 2.5 for chronic bronchitis (95% confidence interval = 1.2-5.1), 2.3 for asthma (95% confidence interval = 1.0-5.1), and 1.8-7.9 for other symptoms (95% confidence interval = 1.0-28.2). Except for exposure to air pollution, the two groups were comparable, i.e., they had similar terms of employment and working conditions. the exposure ranges during an 8-h work day, averaged from readings taken at five monitored street positions, were: 41-257 ppb nitric oxide (1-h max: 865 ppb); 23-43 ppb nitrogen dioxide (1-h max: 208 ppb); 1.0-4.3 ppm carbon monoxide (8-h max: 7.1 ppm); 14-28 ppb sulfur dioxide (1-h max; 112 ppb); and 10-38 ppb ozone (1-h max: 72 ppb). 33 refs., 7 tabs.

  11. Experimental Study on Ultrafine Particle Removal Performance of Portable Air Cleaners with Different Filters in an Office Room.

    PubMed

    Ma, Huan; Shen, Henggen; Shui, Tiantian; Li, Qing; Zhou, Liuke

    2016-01-01

    Size- and time-dependent aerodynamic behaviors of indoor particles, including PM1.0, were evaluated in a school office in order to test the performance of air-cleaning devices using different filters. In-situ real-time measurements were taken using an optical particle counter. The filtration characteristics of filter media, including single-pass efficiency, volume and effectiveness, were evaluated and analyzed. The electret filter (EE) medium shows better initial removal efficiency than the high efficiency (HE) medium in the 0.3-3.5 μm particle size range, while under the same face velocity, the filtration resistance of the HE medium is several times higher than that of the EE medium. During service life testing, the efficiency of the EE medium decreased to 60% with a total purifying air flow of 25 × 10⁴ m³/m². The resistance curve rose slightly before the efficiency reached the bottom, and then increased almost exponentially. The single-pass efficiency of portable air cleaner (PAC) with the pre-filter (PR) or the active carbon granule filter (CF) was relatively poor. While PAC with the pre-filter and the high efficiency filter (PR&HE) showed maximum single-pass efficiency for PM1.0 (88.6%), PAC with the HE was the most effective at removing PM1.0. The enhancement of PR with HE and electret filters augmented the single-pass efficiency, but lessened the airflow rate and effectiveness. Combined with PR, the decay constant of large-sized particles could be greater than for PACs without PR. Without regard to the lifetime, the electret filters performed better with respect to resource saving and purification improvement. A most penetrating particle size range (MPPS: 0.4-0.65 μm) exists in both HE and electret filters; the MPPS tends to become larger after HE and electret filters are combined with PR. These results serve to provide a better understanding of the indoor particle removal performance of PACs when combined with different kinds of filters in school

  12. Experimental Study on Ultrafine Particle Removal Performance of Portable Air Cleaners with Different Filters in an Office Room

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Huan; Shen, Henggen; Shui, Tiantian; Li, Qing; Zhou, Liuke

    2016-01-01

    Size- and time-dependent aerodynamic behaviors of indoor particles, including PM1.0, were evaluated in a school office in order to test the performance of air-cleaning devices using different filters. In-situ real-time measurements were taken using an optical particle counter. The filtration characteristics of filter media, including single-pass efficiency, volume and effectiveness, were evaluated and analyzed. The electret filter (EE) medium shows better initial removal efficiency than the high efficiency (HE) medium in the 0.3–3.5 μm particle size range, while under the same face velocity, the filtration resistance of the HE medium is several times higher than that of the EE medium. During service life testing, the efficiency of the EE medium decreased to 60% with a total purifying air flow of 25 × 104 m3/m2. The resistance curve rose slightly before the efficiency reached the bottom, and then increased almost exponentially. The single-pass efficiency of portable air cleaner (PAC) with the pre-filter (PR) or the active carbon granule filter (CF) was relatively poor. While PAC with the pre-filter and the high efficiency filter (PR&HE) showed maximum single-pass efficiency for PM1.0 (88.6%), PAC with the HE was the most effective at removing PM1.0. The enhancement of PR with HE and electret filters augmented the single-pass efficiency, but lessened the airflow rate and effectiveness. Combined with PR, the decay constant of large-sized particles could be greater than for PACs without PR. Without regard to the lifetime, the electret filters performed better with respect to resource saving and purification improvement. A most penetrating particle size range (MPPS: 0.4–0.65 μm) exists in both HE and electret filters; the MPPS tends to become larger after HE and electret filters are combined with PR. These results serve to provide a better understanding of the indoor particle removal performance of PACs when combined with different kinds of filters in school

  13. QFD analysis of RSRM aqueous cleaners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrs, Roy D.; Jones, Randy K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) analysis of the final down-selected aqueous cleaners to be used on the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) program. The new cleaner will replace solvent vapor degreasing. The RSRM Ozone Depleting Compound Elimination program is discontinuing the methyl chloroform vapor degreasing process and replacing it with a spray-in-air aqueous cleaning process. Previously, 15 cleaners were down-selected to two candidates by passing screening tests involving toxicity, flammability, cleaning efficiency, contaminant solubility, corrosion potential, cost, and bond strength. The two down-selected cleaners were further evaluated with more intensive testing and evaluated using QFD techniques to assess suitability for cleaning RSRM case and nozzle surfaces in preparation for adhesive bonding.

  14. Cleaner production and methodological proposal of eco-efficiency measurement in a Mexican petrochemical complex.

    PubMed

    Morales, M A; Herrero, V M; Martínez, S A; Rodríguez, M G; Valdivieso, E; Garcia, G; de los Angeles Elías, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In the frame of the Petróleos Mexicanos Institutional Program for Sustainable Development, processes were evaluated in the manufacture operation of the petrochemical industry, with the purpose of reducing their ecological fingerprint. Thirteen cleaner production opportunities were registered in six process plants: ethylene oxide and glycols, acetaldehyde, ethylene, high density polyethylene, polypropylene switch and acrylonitrile, and 45 recommendations in the waste water treatment plant. Morelos is the second most important petrochemical complex in the Mexican and Latin American petrochemical industry. A tool was developed to obtain eco-efficiency indicators in operation processes, and as a result, potential savings were obtained based on best performance, as well as the integrated distribution of Sankey diagrams. Likewise, a mechanism of calculation to obtain economic savings based on the reduction of residues during the whole productive process is proposed. These improvement opportunities and recommendations will result in economic and environmental benefits minimising the use of water, efficient use of energy, raw materials and reducing residues from source, generating less environmental impacts during the process. PMID:16862769

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION--GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL FOR BIOLOGICAL AND AEROSOL TESTING OF GENERAL VENTILATION AIR CLEANERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program, Research Triangle Institute (RTI) will operate the Air Pollution Control Technology Center to verify the filtration efficiency and bioaerosol inactivation efficiency of heating, ventilation and air conditioning air cleane...

  16. High efficiency air cycle air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rannenberg, G. C.

    1985-11-19

    An air cycle air conditioning system is provided with regenerative heat exchangers upstream and downstream of an expansion turbine. A closedloop liquid circulatory system serially connects the two regenerative heat exchangers for regeneration without the bulk associated with air-to-air heat exchange. The liquid circulatory system may also provide heat transport to a remote sink heat exchanger and from a remote load as well as heat exchange within the sink heat exchanger and load for enhanced compactness and efficiency.

  17. The potential of a new air cleaner to reduce airborne microorganisms in pig house air: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Jochen; Bao, Endong; Clauss, Marcus; Hartung, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for technical solutions to reduce the concentrations of bioaerosols in the air and in the exhaust air of livestock buildings. A prototype of an air washer combined with a UV-irradiation system was positioned in a commercial pig fattening unit to test its efficiency of reducing culturable airborne microorganisms. No significant reduction in airborne bacteria and fungi was observed when untreated air passed through the device. However, when the air washer or the UV-irradiation system was activated, the concentrations of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and mesophilic aerotolerant cocci were reduced significantly (p < 0.01). Washing the air reduced bacteria by 84 to 96% and the relative reduction due to UV-irradiation ranged between 55 and 90%. The highest relative reduction in airborne bacteria (90 to 99%) was detected when the air washer and the UV-irradiation systems were in simultaneous operation. The concentration of total airborne fungi was reduced significantly (p < 0.05) only when the air was washed and UV-irradiated. Although these preliminary results provided significant and comprehensible findings, long-term studies are required to assess the efficiency of the device in more detail.The combination of air washing and UV-irradiation seem to be a useful technique for abating airborne microorganisms within or emitting from piggery buildings. However, some technical problems remain, such as the deposition of particulate matter on the surface of UV-irradiators and the consumption of fresh water by the air washer. These issues must be resolved before the system may be implemented for general practice. PMID:23540197

  18. Diethylene glycol mono butyl ether concentrations in room air from application of cleaner formulations to hard surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gibson, W B; Keller, P R; Foltz, D J; Harvey, G J

    1991-07-01

    Diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (DGBE) is a solvent used in some liquid hard surface cleaners. We evaluated the inhalation component of consumer exposure in the home to DGBE from the use of cleaning products containing up to 9% DGBE. Several experiments were conducted with restricted room air flow, exaggerated amounts of cleaning solutions, and no rinsing in order to develop an exposure scenario that would exceed exposures likely encountered by consumers. DGBE vapors in the air were monitored by collection on charcoal tubes, followed by desorption and quantitation by gas chromatography. Air was collected from the centre of the room and from the breathing zone of the person doing the washing task. Room air concentrations of DGBE showed peak values between one and three hours after task initiation; DGBE concentrations then gradually decreased with time. Peak concentrations did not exceed 1.6 ppmv. The total DGBE in the air at the time of maximum air concentrations accounted for only 1 to 3% of the DGBE on the washed surfaces. The person doing the washing task was exposed to average DGBE concentrations in the breathing zone below 0.8 ppmv in all experiments. The methods described for measuring DGBE concentrations in air are generally applicable to other solvents and easily adaptable to various experimental situations. PMID:1824325

  19. Tractor-Maintenance: Operation & Daily Care [and] Servicing Air Cleaner & Lubrication. Student Materials. V. A. III. [V-C-1 through V-C-4].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    Designed for use by students in vocational agricultural classes, this manual deals with tractor maintenance. Operation and daily care are the topics of the first section. Safety is also covered. In the final part of the manual, servicing the air cleaner and lubricating the engine are discussed. Both sections conclude with a quiz. (PLB)

  20. Improving Vacuum Cleaners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Under a Space Act Agreement between the Kirby company and Lewis Research Center, NASA technology was applied to a commercial vacuum cleaner product line. Kirby engineers were interested in advanced operational concepts, such as particle flow behavior and vibration, critical factors to improve vacuum cleaner performance. An evaluation of the company 1994 home care system, the Kirby G4, led to the refinement of the new G5 and future models. Under the cooperative agreement, Kirby had access to Lewis' holography equipment, which added insight into how long a vacuum cleaner fan would perform, as well as advanced computer software that can simulate the flow of air through fans. The collaboration resulted in several successes including fan blade redesign and continuing dialogue on how to improve air-flow traits in various nozzle designs.

  1. Driving Students and Parents to Cleaner Air: An Interview with Michelle Waters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2006

    2006-01-01

    After spending three years as a kindergarten teacher and one as a reading specialist, Michelle Waters recently became the education outreach coordinator for the Georgia-based Clean Air Campaign. In that role, she has helped roll out a comprehensive Better Air Schools initiative to 20 Atlanta-area elementary schools. The program includes a…

  2. The transfer of carbon fibers through a commercial aircraft water separator and air cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The fraction of carbon fibers passing through a water separator and an air filter was determined in order to estimate the proportion of fibers outside a closed aircraft that are transmitted to the electronics through the air conditioning system. When both devices were used together and only fibers 3 mm or larger were considered, a transfer function of .001 was obtained.

  3. Effectiveness of auxiliary air cleaners in reducing ETS components in offices

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, W.M.; Janczewski, J.N.; Roethlisberger, B.; Pelton, M.; Kunstel, K.

    1996-11-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of several auxiliary air cleaning services in reducing components of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) within a designated smoking lounge and ambient areas in an office suite. Monitoring was performed for the ETS components nicotine, respirable particulate and carbon monoxide. Nicotine and RSP samples were collected in a smoking lounge for two eight-hour periods for each of the following conditions: (1) no smoking in the office suite with no air cleaning devices operating; (2) smoking in the smoking lounge with no clean air devices operating; and (3) smoking in the smoking lounge with one of four air cleaning devices operating. Eight-hour general area and personal samples were also collected to determine levels of nicotine and RSP in ambient, non-smoking areas. Continuous monitoring, with one minute averaging, was performed for carbon monoxide using a direct reading air quality monitor.

  4. Effects on well-being of investing in cleaner air in India.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Warren; Striessnig, Erich; Schöpp, Wolfgang; Amann, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, India has experienced rapid economic growth along with increases in levels of air pollution. Our goal is to examine how alternative policies for air pollution abatement affect well-being there. In particular, we estimate the effects of policies to reduce the levels of ambient fine particulates (PM2.5), which are especially harmful to human health, on well-being, quantified using the United Nations' human development index (HDI). Two of the three dimensions of this index are based on gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and life expectancy. Our approach allows reductions in PM2.5 to affect both of them. In particular, economic growth is affected negatively through the costs of the additional pollution control measures and positively through the increased productivity of the population. We consider three scenarios of PM2.5 abatement, corresponding to no further control, current Indian legislation, and current European legislation. The overall effect in both control scenarios is that growth in GDP is virtually unaffected relative to the case of no further controls, life expectancy is higher, and well-being, as measured by the HDI, is improved. In India, air pollution abatement investments clearly improve well-being. PMID:24144316

  5. Benefits and technological challenges in the implementation of TiO2-based ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaners

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, Al; Destaillats, Hugo; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Fisk, William J.

    2008-10-01

    Heating, ventilating, and cooling classrooms in California consume substantial electrical energy. Indoor air quality (IAQ) in classrooms affects student health and performance. In addition to airborne pollutants that are emitted directly by indoor sources and those generated outdoors, secondary pollutants can be formed indoors by chemical reaction of ozone with other chemicals and materials. Filters are used in nearly all classroom heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems to maintain energy-efficient HVAC performance and improve indoor air quality; however, recent evidence indicates that ozone reactions with filters may, in fact, be a source of secondary pollutants. This project quantitatively evaluated ozone deposition in HVAC filters and byproduct formation, and provided a preliminary assessment of the extent to which filter systems are degrading indoor air quality. The preliminary information obtained will contribute to the design of subsequent research efforts and the identification of energy efficient solutions that improve indoor air quality in classrooms and the health and performance of students.

  6. Air filters and air cleaners: Rostrum by the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Indoor Allergen Committee

    PubMed Central

    Sublett, James L.; Seltzer, James; Burkhead, Robert; Williams, P. Brock; Wedner, H. James; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    The allergist is generally recognized as possessing the greatest expertise in relating airborne contaminants to respiratory health, both atopic and nonatopic. Consequently, allergists are most often asked for their professional opinions regarding the appropriate use of air-cleaning equipment. This rostrum serves as a resource for the allergist and other health care professionals seeking a better understanding of air filtration. PMID:19910039

  7. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  8. Development of a Modified Vacuum Cleaner for Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lee, Steve A.; Edgerly, Rachel D.

    2009-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to expand space exploration will return humans to the Moon with the goal of maintaining a long-term presence. One challenge that NASA will face returning to the Moon is managing the lunar regolith found on the Moon's surface, which will collect on extravehicular activity (EVA) suits and other equipment. Based on the Apollo experience, the issues astronauts encountered with lunar regolith included eye/lung irritation, and various hardware failures (seals, screw threads, electrical connectors and fabric contamination), which were all related to inadequate lunar regolith mitigation. A vacuum cleaner capable of detaching, transferring, and efficiently capturing lunar regolith has been proposed as a method to mitigate the lunar regolith problem in the habitable environment on lunar surface. In order to develop this vacuum, a modified "off-the-shelf" vacuum cleaner has been used to determine detachment efficiency, vacuum requirements, and optimal cleaning techniques to ensure efficient dust removal in habitable lunar surfaces, EVA spacesuits, and air exchange volume. During the initial development of the Lunar Surface System vacuum cleaner, systematic testing was performed with varying flow rates on multiple surfaces (fabrics and metallics), atmospheric (14.7 psia) and reduced pressures (10.2 and 8.3 psia), different vacuum tool attachments, and several vacuum cleaning techniques to determine the performance requirements for the vacuum cleaner. The data recorded during testing was evaluated by calculating percent removal, relative to the retained simulant on the tested surface. In addition, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging was used to determine particle size distribution retained on the surface. The scope of this paper is to explain the initial phase of vacuum cleaner development, including historical Apollo mission data, current state-of-the-art vacuum cleaner technology, and vacuum cleaner

  9. Development of a Modified Vacuum Cleaner for Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lee, Steve A.; Edgerly, Rachel D.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to expand space exploration will return humans to the Moon with the goal of maintaining a long-term presence. One challenge that NASA will face returning to the Moon is managing the lunar regolith found on the Moon's surface, which will collect on extravehicular activity (EVA) suits and other equipment. Based on the Apollo experience, the issues astronauts encountered with lunar regolith included eye/lung irritation, and various hardware failures (seals, screw threads, electrical connectors and fabric contamination), which were all related to inadequate lunar regolith mitigation. A vacuum cleaner capable of detaching, transferring, and efficiently capturing lunar regolith has been proposed as a method to mitigate the lunar regolith problem in the habitable environment on lunar surface. In order to develop this vacuum, a modified "off-the-shelf' vacuum cleaner will be used to determine detachment efficiency, vacuum requirements, and optimal cleaning techniques to ensure efficient dust removal in habitable lunar surfaces, EVA spacesuits, and air exchange volume. During the initial development of the Lunar Surface System vacuum cleaner, systematic testing was performed with varying flow rates on multiple surfaces (fabrics and metallics), atmospheric (14.7 psia) and reduced pressures (10.2 and 8.3 psia), different vacuum tool attachments, and several vacuum cleaning techniques in order to determine the performance requirements for the vacuum cleaner. The data recorded during testing was evaluated by calculating particulate removal, relative to the retained simulant on the tested surface. In addition, optical microscopy was used to determine particle size distribution retained on the surface. The scope of this paper is to explain the initial phase of vacuum cleaner development, including historical Apollo mission data, current state-of-the-art vacuum cleaner technology, and vacuum cleaner testing that has

  10. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these

  11. Quantification of emission reduction potentials of primary air pollutants from residential solid fuel combustion by adopting cleaner fuels in China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guofeng

    2015-11-01

    Residential low efficient fuel burning is a major source of many air pollutants produced during incomplete combustions, and household air pollution has been identified as one of the top environmental risk factors. Here we compiled literature-reported emission factors of pollutants including carbon monoxide (CO), total suspended particles (TSPs), PM2.5, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for different household energy sources, and quantified the potential for emission reduction by clean fuel adoption. The burning of crop straws, firewood and coal chunks in residential stoves had high emissions per unit fuel mass but lower thermal efficiencies, resulting in high levels of pollution emissions per unit of useful energy, whereas pelletized biofuels and coal briquettes had lower pollutant emissions and higher thermal efficiencies. Briquetting coal may lead to 82%-88% CO, 74%-99% TSP, 73%-76% PM2.5, 64%-98% OC, 92%-99% EC and 80%-83% PAH reductions compared to raw chunk coal. Biomass pelletizing technology would achieve 88%-97% CO, 73%-87% TSP, 79%-88% PM2.5, 94%-96% OC, 91%-99% EC and 63%-96% PAH reduction compared to biomass burning. The adoption of gas fuels (i.e., liquid petroleum gas, natural gas) would achieve significant pollutant reduction, nearly 96% for targeted pollutants. The reduction is related not only to fuel change, but also to the usage of high efficiency stoves. PMID:26574082

  12. Efficient one-day sampling of mechanical job exposure data--a study based on upper trapezius activity in cleaners and office workers.

    PubMed

    Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Burdorf, Alex; van der Beek, Allard J; Hansson, Gert-Ake

    2003-01-01

    This ergonomics exposure assessment study compared the efficiency of eight 1-day-only strategies, that is, the relationship between the number of data collected per subject and the precision of the resulting mean exposure estimate. Whole-day electromyographic recordings from the right upper trapezius muscle in 24 cleaners and 23 office workers were processed to give minute-by-minute values of gap time and jerk time-parameters representing the level and frequency dimensions of muscle activation, respectively. On-site observations provided data on time spent in each of eight exhaustive task categories in the job, seven of which were associated with activities during work, and the last comprising breaks. On average, sampling at fixed intervals without regard to tasks doubled efficiency as compared with random sampling, which in turn was several times as efficient as consecutive sampling. Stratified sampling according to the two broad categories, work and breaks, increased efficiency for random and fixed-interval sampling, but the gain was distinct only among cleaners (about 20%). The commonly used strategy in ergonomic studies of sampling consecutively for short periods within tasks was highly inefficient. Further classification of work into the seven subcategories resulted in marginal additional increases in efficiency; on average less than 2%. A decision algorithm is given for determining appropriate sampling strategies in different types of jobs. PMID:12688844

  13. High Efficiency Room Air Conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This project was undertaken as a CRADA project between UT-Battelle and Geberal Electric Company and was funded by Department of Energy to design and develop of a high efficiency room air conditioner. A number of novel elements were investigated to improve the energy efficiency of a state-of-the-art WAC with base capacity of 10,000 BTU/h. One of the major modifications was made by downgrading its capacity from 10,000 BTU/hr to 8,000 BTU/hr by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity (8,000 BTU/hr) but high efficiency compressor having an EER of 9.7 as compared with 9.3 of the original compressor. However, all heat exchangers from the original unit were retained to provide higher EER. The other subsequent major modifications included- (i) the AC fan motor was replaced by a brushless high efficiency ECM motor along with its fan housing, (ii) the capillary tube was replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and (iii) the unit was tested with a drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration)/R125 (10% molar concentration). The WAC was tested in the environmental chambers at ORNL as per the design rating conditions of AHAM/ASHRAE (Outdoor- 95F and 40%RH, Indoor- 80F, 51.5%RH). All these modifications resulted in enhancing the EER of the WAC by up to 25%.

  14. Performance of a Pin Cylinder Lint Cleaner

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saw-type lint cleaners are efficient cleaners, but their aggressive nature also causes more fiber damage and wastage. As the U. S. cotton market shifts to overseas where customers are interested in longer fiber with fewer neps and fiber damage, there was a renewed interest to re-evaluate the perfor...

  15. Drain cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002779.htm Drain cleaner poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Drain cleaners contain very dangerous chemicals that can be ...

  16. Metal cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Metal cleaners are very strong chemical products that contain acids. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or ... Metal cleaners contain organic compounds called hydrocarbons, including: 1,2-butylene oxide Boric acid Cocoyl sarcosine Dicarboxylic ...

  17. A pilot study of energy efficient air cleaning for ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Gundel, Lara A.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Katsapov, Gregory Y.; Fisk, William J.

    2002-11-01

    A laboratory pilot study has been undertaken with the material that showed the most promise (high capacity and low pressure drop) based on the literature review and associated calculations. The best-performing air cleaner was a commercially available pleated filter that contained a thin layer of small activated carbon particles between two sheets of non-woven fibrous webbing. We will refer to this unit as the ''ozone filter'' although it is marketed for removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from automobile passenger compartments. This pilot study strongly suggests that ozone air cleaning can be practical in commercial air handling systems; however, further tests are needed to assess air cleaner performance under a wider range of conditions.

  18. Qualification of environmentally friendly cleaners

    SciTech Connect

    De Marquis, G.; Lopez, E.P.

    1995-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has traditionally used chlorinated and fluorinated organic solvents for general degreasing applications. Many of these solvents have been labeled by the Federal Government as ozone depleting chemicals and as toxic and/or suspected carcinogens. As a result, these solvents will no longer be recommended for use within the DOE weapons complex. There are three major classes of materials that are of concern for cleaning: organics, metals and ceramics. Each of these materials has its own special cleaning problems. Solvents that were used in the past, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were extremely efficient at removing everything from oils and greases to salts without leaving corrosive residues or permanently absorbing into the materials. These traditional degreasing solvents were essentially ``all-inone`` cleaners: quick, reliable, and easy to use. Unfortunately, a ``drop-in`` cleaner for such a wide variety of materials and contaminants will probably never be identified. So far, it has been difficult to identify environmentally conscious cleaners that clean as well as TCE and TCA. Most alternative cleaners require more volume to do the job, and also require longer exposure to get the job done. With these things in mind, we are hoping to identify and qualify new cleaners that will take care of general classes of materials.

  19. Effect of Seed Cotton Cleaner Speeds on Machine Performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Past research has shown that increasing seed cotton cleaner speeds can improve cleaning efficiency. Advances in process control may make cleaner speed control feasible; however, an improved understanding of seed cotton cleaner performance at higher operating speeds is needed. The objectives of this ...

  20. Energy-Efficient Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Krigger, J.; Stewart, K.

    1999-06-30

    Many people buy or use air conditioners without understanding their designs, components, and operating principles. Proper sizing, selection, installation, maintenance, and correct use are keys to cost-effective operation and lower overall costs. This publication discusses both central and room air conditioners. Heat pumps, which provide both home cooling and heating, are not covered in this publication. Contact www.eren.doe.gov/consumerinfo for more information.

  1. ASBESTOS FIBER RELEASE DURING CHANGE-OUT OF FILTER BAGS FROM HEPA-FILTERED VACUUM CLEANERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered vacuum cleaners are the primary tool used to clean up asbestos containing material during operations and maintenance (O&M) activities. he change-out of vacuum bags is a potential source of airborne asbestos contamination. n 1989 and...

  2. Improving air handler efficiency in houses

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.

    2004-05-01

    Although furnaces, air conditioners and heat pumps have become significantly more efficient over the last couple of decades, residential air handlers have typical efficiencies of only 10% to 15% due to poor electric motor performance and aerodynamically poor fans and fan housings. Substantial increases in performance could be obtained through improved air handler design and construction. A prototype residential air handler intended to address these issues has recently been developed. The prototype and a standard production fan were tested in a full-scale duct system and test chamber at LBNL specifically designed for testing heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. The laboratory tests compared efficiency, total airflow, sensitivity to duct system flow resistance, and the effects of installation in a smaller cabinet. The test results showed that the prototype air handler had about twice the efficiency of the standard air handler (averaged over a wide range of operating conditions) and was less sensitive to duct system flow resistance changes. The performance of both air handlers was significantly reduced by reducing the clearance between the air handler and cabinet it was placed in. These test results showed that in addition to the large scope for performance improvement, air handler fans need to be tested in the cabinets they operate in.

  3. Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.

  4. Efficient Vent Unloading of Air Compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muhonen, Alvin J.

    1987-01-01

    Method for unloading one-and two-stage reciprocating air compressors increases energy efficiency and inhibits deterioration of components. In new unloader configuration, compressor vented to atmosphere on downstream side. Method implemented expeditiously as modification of existing systems.

  5. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... or breathes in its fumes. These cleaners contain chlorine and acids. Chlorine is more likely than the acids to cause ... are: Bromine Calcium chloride Calcium hypochlorite Chelated copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  6. Metal cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Metal cleaners contain organic compounds called hydrocarbons, including: 1,2-butylene oxide Boric acid Cocoyl sarcosine Dicarboxylic fatty acid Dimethoxymethane Dodecanedioic acid N-propyl bromide Sodium hydroxide T-butanol

  7. A New Grid Bar Design for a Modified Cylinder Cleaner

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grid bars having a chisel shape and sharp cutting edge were designed and installed in a modified cylinder cleaner. The modified cleaner’s seed cotton and lint cleaning performances were evaluated in two tests. Results indicated that seed-cotton cleaning efficiency of the modified cylinder cleaner ...

  8. Air transportation energy efficiency - Alternatives and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    Results from recent studies of air transportation energy efficiency alternatives are discussed, along with some of the implications of these alternatives. The fuel-saving alternatives considered include aircraft operation, aircraft modification, derivative aircraft, and new aircraft. In the near-term, energy efficiency improvements should be possible through small improvements in fuel-saving flight procedures, higher density seating, and higher load factors. Additional small near-term improvements could be obtained through aircraft modifications, such as the relatively inexpensive drag reduction modifications. Derivatives of existing aircraft could meet the requirements for new aircraft and provide energy improvements until advanced technology is available to justify the cost of a completely new design. In order to obtain significant improvements in energy efficiency, new aircraft must truly exploit advanced technology in such areas as aerodynamics, composite structures, active controls, and advanced propulsion.

  9. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the technical development of a high efficiency window air conditioner. In order to achieve higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of the R410A unit was downgraded by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. The other subsequent major modifications included – the AC fan motor being replaced with a brushless high efficiency electronically commuted motor (ECM) motor, the capillary tube being replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, andmore » R410A being replaced with drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (85% molar concentration)/R125 (15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant EER enhancement of the modified unit.« less

  10. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the technical development of a high efficiency window air conditioner. In order to achieve higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of the R410A unit was downgraded by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. The other subsequent major modifications included – the AC fan motor being replaced with a brushless high efficiency electronically commuted motor (ECM) motor, the capillary tube being replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and R410A being replaced with drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (85% molar concentration)/R125 (15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant EER enhancement of the modified unit.

  11. SUBMERGED GRAVEL SCRUBBER DEMONSTRATION AS A PASSIVE AIR CLEANER FOR CONTAINMENT VENTING AND PURGING WITH SODIUM AEROSOLS -- CSTF TESTS AC7 - AC10

    SciTech Connect

    HILLIARD, R K.; MCCORMACK, J D.; POSTMA, A K.

    1981-11-01

    Four large-scale air cleaning tests (AC7 - AC10) were performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility (CS'lF) to demonstrate the performance of a Submerged Gravel Scrubber for cleaning the effluent gas from a vented and purged breeder reactor containment vessel. The test article, comprised of a Submerged Gravel Scrubber (SGS) followed by a high efficiency fiber demister, had a design gas flow rate of 0.47 m{sup 3}/s (1000 ft{sup 3}/min) at a pressure drop of 9.0 kPa (36 in. H{sub 2}O). The test aerosol was sodium oxide, sodium hydroxide, or sodium carbonate generated in the 850-m{sup 3} CSTF vessel by continuously spraying sodium into the air-filled vessel while adding steam or carbon dioxide. Approximately 4500 kg (10,000 lb) of sodium was sprayed over a total period of 100 h during the tests. The SGS/Demister system was shown to be highly efficient (removing ~99.98% of the entering sodium aerosol mass), had a high mass loading capacity, and operated in a passive manner, with no electrical requirement. Models for predicting aerosol capture, gas cooling, and pressure drop are developed and compared with experimental results.

  12. Ultrasonic cleaner evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, T. J.

    1980-10-01

    A method to evaluate the capabilities of ultrasonic cleaners is described. This method utilizes a ceramic plate on which a metallized coating has been deposited. The plate is immersed in a beaker filled with DI water and a few drops of liquid detergent. The plate is then subjected to a two-minute cleaning cycle. Measurement of the amount of metallized coating that is removed is determined with an image enhancement system. Use of this test reveals several factors that influence cleaning capabilities. These include system frequency, use of a wetting agent in the bath, bath temperature, fixture materials and fixture mounting.

  13. EER, COP, and the Second Law Efficiency for Air Conditioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leff, Harvey S.; Teeters, William D.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the relationship existing between coefficient of performance (COP) and energy efficiency ratio (EER) in air conditioning units and introduces new efficiency parameters measured relative to the energy extracted from the primary energy source. (SL)

  14. Cleaner in Hall of Residence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotel and Catering Industry Training Board, Wembley (England).

    This syllabus is intended for the use of training personnel in drawing up training programs for cleaners in halls of residence. Its main objective is to produce fully trained cleaners, thereby maintaining and raising standards. The syllabus is divided into three sections: Introduction to Housekeeping Employees, and Tasks Performed by the Majority…

  15. Diesel exhaust cleaner with burner vortex chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Riddel, J.W.

    1983-05-17

    A diesel engine exhaust cleaner and burner system includes at least one exhaust cleaner member with a filter positioned therein to effect removal of particulates from a stream of exhaust gas delivered thereto via an inlet manifold. A fuel burner supplied with fuel by a fuel nozzle is operatively associated with the inlet manifold to supply the necessary heat to effect incineration of particulates collected on the filter. A cyclone duct providing a vortex chamber therein is operatively positioned downstream of the fuel nozzle and is supplied with sufficient air so as to effect both the complete combustion of the fuel and the controlled incineration of the particulates by increasing the residence time of the fuel in the reaction region within the vortex chamber and also effecting a more uniform distribution of the heat of combustion across the inlet face of the filter for the uniform heating of the particulates thereon to their combustion temperature.

  16. Supersonic-Spray Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caimi, Raoul E. B.; Lin, Feng-Nan; Thaxton, Eric A.

    1995-01-01

    Spraying system for cleaning mechanical components uses less liquid and operates at pressures significantly lower. Liquid currently used is water. Designed to replace chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvent-based cleaning and cleanliness verification methods. Consists of spray head containing supersonic converging/diverging nozzles, source of gas at regulated pressure, pressurized liquid tank, and various hoses, fittings, valves, and gauges. Parameters of nozzles set so any of large variety of liquids and gases combined in desired ratio and rate of flow. Size and number of nozzles varied so system built in configurations ranging from small hand-held spray heads to large multinozzle cleaners. Also used to verify part adequately cleaned. Runoff liquid from spray directed at part collected. Liquid analyzed for presence of contaminants, and part recleaned if necessary.

  17. Whole house particle removal and clean air delivery rates for in-duct and portable ventilation systems.

    PubMed

    Macintosh, David L; Myatt, Theodore A; Ludwig, Jerry F; Baker, Brian J; Suh, Helen H; Spengler, John D

    2008-11-01

    A novel method for determining whole house particle removal and clean air delivery rates attributable to central and portable ventilation/air cleaning systems is described. The method is used to characterize total and air-cleaner-specific particle removal rates during operation of four in-duct air cleaners and two portable air-cleaning devices in a fully instrumented test home. Operation of in-duct and portable air cleaners typically increased particle removal rates over the baseline rates determined in the absence of operating a central fan or an indoor air cleaner. Removal rates of 0.3- to 0.5-microm particles ranged from 1.5 hr(-1) during operation of an in-duct, 5-in. pleated media filter to 7.2 hr(-1) for an in-duct electrostatic air cleaner in comparison to a baseline rate of 0 hr(-1) when the air handler was operating without a filter. Removal rates for total particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) mass concentrations were 0.5 hr(-1) under baseline conditions, 0.5 hr(-1) during operation of three portable ionic air cleaners, 1 hr(-1) for an in-duct 1-in. media filter, 2.4 hr(-1) for a single high-efficiency particle arrestance (HEPA) portable air cleaner, 4.6 hr(-1) for an in-duct 5-in. media filter, 4.7 hr(-1) during operation of five portable HEPA filters, 6.1 hr(-1) for a conventional in-duct electronic air cleaner, and 7.5 hr(-1) for a high efficiency in-duct electrostatic air cleaner. Corresponding whole house clean air delivery rates for PM2.5 attributable to the air cleaner independent of losses within the central ventilation system ranged from 2 m3/min for the conventional media filter to 32 m3/min for the high efficiency in-duct electrostatic device. Except for the portable ionic air cleaner, the devices considered here increased particle removal indoors over baseline deposition rates. PMID:19044163

  18. Evaluation of Alkaline Cleaner Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partz, Earl

    1998-01-01

    Alkaline cleaners used to process aluminum substrates have contained chromium as the corrosion inhibitor. Chromium is a hazardous substance whose use and control are described by environmental laws. Replacement materials that have the characteristics of chromated alkaline cleaners need to be found that address both the cleaning requirements and environmental impacts. This report will review environmentally friendly candidates evaluated as non-chromium alkaline cleaner replacements and methods used to compare those candidates one versus another. The report will also list characteristics used to select candidates based on their declared contents. It will also describe and evaluate methods used to discriminate among the large number of prospective candidates.

  19. The general efficiency curve for air propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, Walter S

    1924-01-01

    This report presents a formula which may be used to obtain a "general efficiency curve" in addition to the well-known maximum efficiency curve. These two curves, when modified somewhat by experimental data, enable performance calculations to be made without detailed knowledge of the propeller. The curves may also be used to estimate the improvement in efficiency due to reduction gearing, or to judge the performance of a new propeller design.

  20. Microporous coordination polymers as efficient sorbents for air dehumidification.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ping; Wong-Foy, Antek G; Matzger, Adam J

    2014-03-01

    Air drying is a widespread and critical industrial process. Removal of water from air is commonly accomplished by passage through a desiccant such as alumina; modest water capacity and energy intensive regeneration are limitations of currently used sorbents. Microporous coordination polymers (MCPs) are demonstrated here to be efficient desiccants for the dehumidification of air, and a comparison of their capacity, regenerability, and efficiency with commercial activated alumina is conducted. Complete regeneration using dry air with mild heating is achieved. The attainment of high capacity for the adsorption of water coupled to facile regeneration indicates that gas dehumidification may be an important application for MCPs. PMID:24517543

  1. Efficiency at Sorting Cards in Compressed Air

    PubMed Central

    Poulton, E. C.; Catton, M. J.; Carpenter, A.

    1964-01-01

    At a site where compressed air was being used in the construction of a tunnel, 34 men sorted cards twice, once at normal atmospheric pressure and once at 3½, 2½, or 2 atmospheres absolute pressure. An additional six men sorted cards twice at normal atmospheric pressure. When the task was carried out for the first time, all the groups of men performing at raised pressure were found to yield a reliably greater proportion of very slow responses than the group of men performing at normal pressure. There was reliably more variability in timing at 3½ and 2½ atmospheres absolute than at normal pressure. At 3½ atmospheres absolute the average performance was also reliably slower. When the task was carried out for the second time, exposure to 3½ atmospheres absolute pressure had no reliable effect. Thus compressed air affected performance only while the task was being learnt; it had little effect after practice. No reliable differences were found related to age, to length of experience in compressed air, or to the duration of the exposure to compressed air, which was never less than 10 minutes at 3½ atmospheres absolute pressure. PMID:14180485

  2. Improving air handler efficiency in residential HVAC applications

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.; Mingee, Michael D.; Brenner, Douglas E.

    2003-08-01

    In continuing the development of energy efficiency standards, consideration has turned to air handlers used for heating and air conditioning of consumer residences. These air handlers have typical efficiencies of about 10% to 15% due to poor electric motor performance and aerodynamically poor fans and fan housings. This study was undertaken to examine some of these performance issues, under carefully controlled laboratory conditions, to support potential regulatory changes. In addition, this study examined the performance of a prototype air handler fan assembly that offers the potential for substantial increases in performance. This prototype and a standard production fan were tested in a full-scale duct system and test chamber at LBNL which was specifically designed for testing heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. The laboratory tests compared efficiency, total airflow, sensitivity to duct system flow resistance, and the effects of installation in a smaller cabinet. The test results showed that, averaged over a wide range of operating conditions, the prototype air handler had about twice the efficiency of the standard air handler and was less sensitive to duct system flow resistance changes. The performance of both air handlers was significantly reduced by reducing the space between the air handler and the cabinet it was installed in. Therefore any fan rating needs to be performed using the actual cabinet it will be used in.

  3. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 86-005-1679, Dutch Girl Cleaners, Springdale, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, G.A.; Todd, W.

    1986-03-01

    An environmental survey at Dutch Girl Cleaners in the Thriftway Mini Mall, Springdale, Ohio, was conducted on October 25, 1985, and air samples collected on October 30, 1985 from the cleaners, an adjacent supermarket and the enclosed pedestrian mall were analyzed for perchloroethylene.

  4. Air Force Achieves Fuel Efficiency through Industry Best Practices

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Air Force’s Air Mobility Command (AMC) is changing the way it does business. It is saving energy and money through an aircraft fleet fuel-efficiency program inspired by private industry best practices and ideas resulting from the empowered fuel savings culture.

  5. Efficient Conversation: The Talk between Pilots and Air Traffic Controllers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, James L.

    Two-way radio communications between air traffic controllers using radar on the ground to give airplane pilots instructions are of interest within the developing framework of the sociology of language. The main purpose of air traffic control language is efficient communication to promote flight safety. This study describes the standardized format…

  6. CONCENTRATION OF TETRACHLOROETHYLENE IN INDOOR AIR AT A FORMER DRY CLEANER FACILITY AS A FUNCTION OF SUBSURFACE CONTAMINATION: A CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field study was performed to evaluate indoor air concentrations and vapor intrusion (VI) of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and other chlorinated solvents at a commercial retail site in Dallas, TX. The building is approximately 40 years old and once housed a dry cleaning operation. R...

  7. Influence of grid bar shape on field cleaner performance - field testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A test was conducted to evaluate the influence of grid bar cross sectional shape on cotton stripper field cleaner performance in terms of cleaning efficiency, seed cotton loss, and fiber and yarn quality. Three field cleaner configurations were tested on a cotton stripper harvester operating under f...

  8. Vacuum Cleaner Fan Being Improved

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the technology utilization program at the NASA Lewis Research Center, efforts are underway to transfer aerospace technologies to new areas of practical application. One such effort involves using advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes for turbomachinery to analyze the internal fluid dynamics of low-speed fans and blowers. This year, the Kirby Company in Cleveland, Ohio, approached NASA with a request for technologies that could help them improve their vacuum cleaners. Of particular interest to Kirby is the high-frequency blade-passing noise generation of their vacuum cleaner fan at low airflow rates.

  9. Coping with Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... itself. Household chemical cleaners Use baking soda or vinegar and water as household cleaners. For a job ... after each use by using one-part white vinegar to three-parts water. Let the pieces air- ...

  10. Air Cleaning Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  11. 7 CFR 2902.30 - Glass cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Glass cleaners. 2902.30 Section 2902.30 Agriculture... Glass cleaners. (a) Definition. Cleaning products designed specifically for use in cleaning glass... qualifying biobased glass cleaners. By that date, Federal agencies that have the responsibility for...

  12. 7 CFR 2902.30 - Glass cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Glass cleaners. 2902.30 Section 2902.30 Agriculture... Glass cleaners. (a) Definition. Cleaning products designed specifically for use in cleaning glass... qualifying biobased glass cleaners. By that date, Federal agencies that have the responsibility for...

  13. Robotic Water Blast Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, M. H.; Roberts, M. L.; Hill, W. E.; Jackson, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    Water blasting system under development removes hard, dense, extraneous material from surfaces. High pressure pump forces water at supersonic speed through nozzle manipulated by robot. Impact of water blasts away unwanted material from workpiece rotated on air bearing turntable. Designed for removing thermal-protection material, system is adaptable to such industrial processes as cleaning iron or steel castings.

  14. Aging Effects of Environmentally-Friendly Cleaners on Adhesive Bond Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biegert, L. L.; Anderson, G. L.; Evans, K. B.; Olsen, B. D.; Weber, B. L.; McCool, A. A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Because of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment many chlorinated solvents are being phased out of use in manufacturing industries. Replacement of the ODC (ozone- depleting chemicals) with less volatile, non-ozone depleting cleaners has been extensively studied over the past nine years at Thiokol Propulsion, Cordant Technologies. Many of the non-ODC cleaners contain compounds that can potentially degrade over time under conditions of high temperature, humidity and exposure to light. The chemical composition of environmentally conditioned cleaners and the subsequent effect on aluminum/amine-cured epoxy bond integrity as measured by Tapered Double Cantilever Beam were evaluated. From this study it is observed that moisture content increases for those cleaners containing polar compounds. Non-volatile residue content increases as stabilizers are depleted and the chemical compound limonene is oxidized. A change in aluminum/ amine-cured epoxy bond fracture toughness is observed as some of these cleaners age with increases in moisture and NVR content.

  15. Creating a Window Cleaner Company.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarquis, A. M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Provides a description of a project used in the Cool Science and Technology Camps in which campers are presented with the challenge of developing and marketing their own brand of window cleaner. Topics such as chemistry, marketing, and cost analysis are intertwined as students prepare and plan their approach to product development. (DDR)

  16. REDUCING INK AND CLEANER WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changing from alcohol-based inks and cleaners can reduce the amount and toxicity of emissions and waste, while also improving product quality and saving money. his article explores how a flexographic printer successfully made the switch without incurring significant capital costs...

  17. A Cleaner Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Describes how school restrooms can get a fresher and healthier look with new technologies and better-trained custodial workers. Examples include more automated, no-touch systems and efficient cleaning products. (EV)

  18. Effect of air flow on tubular solar still efficiency

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An experimental work was reported to estimate the increase in distillate yield for a compound parabolic concentrator-concentric tubular solar still (CPC-CTSS). The CPC dramatically increases the heating of the saline water. A novel idea was proposed to study the characteristic features of CPC for desalination to produce a large quantity of distillate yield. A rectangular basin of dimension 2 m × 0.025 m × 0.02 m was fabricated of copper and was placed at the focus of the CPC. This basin is covered by two cylindrical glass tubes of length 2 m with two different diameters of 0.02 m and 0.03 m. The experimental study was operated with two modes: without and with air flow between inner and outer tubes. The rate of air flow was fixed throughout the experiment at 4.5 m/s. On the basis of performance results, the water collection rate was 1445 ml/day without air flow and 2020 ml/day with air flow and the efficiencies were 16.2% and 18.9%, respectively. Findings The experimental study was operated with two modes: without and with air flow between inner and outer tubes. The rate of air flow was fixed throughout the experiment at 4.5 m/s. Conclusions On the basis of performance results, the water collection rate was 1445 ml/day without air flow and 2020 ml/day with air flow and the efficiencies were 16.2% and 18.9%, respectively. PMID:23587020

  19. High efficiency, down flow air filter sealing and support system

    SciTech Connect

    Mattison, A.H.

    1986-07-15

    An assembly of high efficiency air filter units through which essentially all air entering a clean space below the units must pass to remove particulate matter down to sub-micron size from the air, the assembly comprising: (a) a plurality of air filter units each having a filter core of pleated media sealed in air-tight engagement on four sides to a surrounding, box-like, rigid frame, having side and end members; (b) means for supporting the filter units adjacent the upper surfaces thereof from structure above the space with adjacent units having the side and end members thereof providing adjoining vertical surfaces in closely spaced relation with the lower surfaces of the units in essentially the same horizontal plane to form at least a portion of the top of the space; and (c) a caulking material filling all spaces between the adjoining vertical surfaces of adjacent filter units, effectively sealing the spaces and providing the sole means preventing passage of air around the units.

  20. The high efficiency steel filters for nuclear air cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.; Williams, K.; Violet, C.

    1990-08-01

    We have, in cooperation with industry, developed high-efficiency filters made from sintered stainless-steel fibers for use in several air-cleaning applications in the nuclear industry. These filters were developed to overcome the failure modes in present high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. HEPA filters are made from glass paper and glue, and they may fail when they get hot or wet and when they are overpressured. In developing our steel filters, we first evaluated the commercially available stainless-steel filter media made from sintered powder and sintered fiber. The sintered-fiber media performed much better than sintered-powder media, and the best media had the smallest fiber diameter. Using the best media, we then built prototype filters for venting compressed gases and evaluated them in our automated filter tester. 12 refs., 20 figs.

  1. Cleaner Energy for Cars

    SciTech Connect

    Cropley, Cecelia

    2013-07-18

    Representing the Center for Catalytic Hydrocarbon Functionalization (CCHF), this document is one of the entries in the Ten Hundred and One Word Challenge. As part of the challenge, the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers were invited to represent their science in images, cartoons, photos, words and original paintings, but any descriptions or words could only use the 1000 most commonly used words in the English language, with the addition of one word important to each of the EFRCs and the mission of DOE: energy. The mission of CCHF is to develop, validate, and optimize new methods to rearrange the bonds of hydrocarbons, implement enzymatic strategies into synthetic systems, and design optimal environments for catalysts that can be used to reversibly functionalize hydrocarbons, especially for more efficient use of natural gas including low temperature conversion to liquid fuels.

  2. Air exchange rates in new energy-efficient manufactured housing

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, D.; Bailey, S.

    1990-10-01

    During the 1989--1990 heating season, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, for the Bonneville Power Administration, measured the ventilation characteristics of 139 newly constructed energy-efficient manufactured homes and a control sample of 35 newer manufactured homes. A standard door fan pressurization technique was used to estimate shell leakiness, and a passive perfluorocarbon tracer technique was used to estimate overall air exchange rates. A measurement of the designated whole-house exhaust system flow rate was taken as well as an occupant and structure survey. The energy-efficient manufactured homes have very low air exchange rates, significantly lower than either existing manufactured homes or site-built homes. The standard deviation of the effective leakage area for this sample of homes is small (25% to 30% of the mean), indicating that the leakiness of manufactured housing stock can be confidently characterized by the mean value. There is some indication of increased ventilation due to the energy-efficient whole-house ventilation specification, but not directly related to the operation of the whole-house system. The mechanical systems as installed and operated do not provide the intended ventilation; consequently indoor air quality could possibly be adversely impacted and moisture/condensation in the living space is a potential problem. 6 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. MTBE: The headache of cleaner air

    SciTech Connect

    Kneiss, J.

    1995-07-01

    Gasoline with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) has been sold in the United States since 1979, when it was added to fuels as an octane enhancer after lead was phased out of motor fuels. Recently it has been introduced as a means of reducing carbon monoxide emissions during the winter months in targeted US cities. However, there is concern over health complaints including headaches, dizziness and nausea from residents of some areas. These reports have launched an era of assidious research by scientists and public health officials across the country to learn more about MTBE`s short-term and long-term, and possibly carcinogenic, health effects. New research should help weigh the risk of MTBE as a possible carcinogen and the effectiveness of MTBE-blended fuels in reducing carbon monoxide levels. The question is whether, in minimizing one risk, is another risk - however small - being introduced?

  4. Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Boeder, A; Zimm, C

    2006-09-30

    Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate

  5. Calorimetric measurement of energy of ultrasonic cleaners

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, W.B.

    1994-11-01

    The development of a calorimeter that measured the power within an ultrasonic cleaning tank is presented. The principle involved is explained. Several types of calorimeter that were tested are described. Measurement of the power in an ultrasonic cleaner permits: (1) comparing different ultrasonic cleaners; (2) monitoring the performance of a specific cleaner; (3) measuring the distribution of power in a cleaning tank, and (4) evaluating the effects of process variables on the power.

  6. Investigation of key parameters influencing the efficient photocatalytic oxidation of indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    SciTech Connect

    Quici, Natalia; Kibanova, Daria; Vera, Maria Laura; Choi, Hyeok; Dionysiou, Dionysios D.; Litter, Marta I.; Cervini-Silva, Javiera; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Destaillats, Hugo; Destaillats, Hugo

    2008-06-01

    Photocatalytic oxidation of indoor VOCs has the potential to eliminate pollutants from indoor environments, thus effectively improving and/or maintaining indoor air quality while reducing ventilation energy costs. Design and operation of UV photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaners requires optimization of various parameters to achieve highest pollutant removal efficiencies while avoiding the formation of harmful secondary byproducts and maximizing catalyst lifetime.

  7. Wet/Dry Vacuum Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reimers, Harold; Andampour, Jay; Kunitser, Craig; Thomas, Ike

    1995-01-01

    Vacuum cleaner collects and retains dust, wet debris, and liquids. Designed for housekeeping on Space Station Freedom, it functions equally well in normal Earth Gravity or in microgravity. Generates acoustic noise at comfortably low levels and includes circuitry that reduces electromagnetic interference to other electronic equipment. Draws materials into bag made of hydrophobic sheet with layers of hydrophilic super-absorbing pads at downstream end material. Hydrophilic material can gel many times its own weight of liquid. Blower also provides secondary airflow to cool its electronic components.

  8. A novel cleaner production process of citric acid by recycling its treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Su, Xian-Feng; Bao, Jia-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Xin; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a novel cleaner production process of citric acid was proposed to completely solve the problem of wastewater management in citric acid industry. In the process, wastewater from citric acid fermentation was used to produce methane through anaerobic digestion and then the anaerobic digestion effluent was further treated with air stripping and electrodialysis before recycled as process water for the later citric acid fermentation. This proposed process was performed for 10 batches and the average citric acid production in recycling batches was 142.4±2.1g/L which was comparable to that with tap water (141.6g/L). Anaerobic digestion was also efficient and stable in operation. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate was 95.1±1.2% and methane yield approached to 297.7±19.8mL/g TCODremoved. In conclusion, this novel process minimized the wastewater discharge and achieved the cleaner production in citric acid industry. PMID:27054882

  9. 7 CFR 3201.30 - Glass cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Glass cleaners. 3201.30 Section 3201.30 Agriculture... Items § 3201.30 Glass cleaners. (a) Definition. Cleaning products designed specifically for use in cleaning glass surfaces, such as windows, mirrors, car windows, and computer monitors. (b) Minimum...

  10. 7 CFR 3201.30 - Glass cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Glass cleaners. 3201.30 Section 3201.30 Agriculture... Items § 3201.30 Glass cleaners. (a) Definition. Cleaning products designed specifically for use in cleaning glass surfaces, such as windows, mirrors, car windows, and computer monitors. (b) Minimum...

  11. 7 CFR 3201.30 - Glass cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Glass cleaners. 3201.30 Section 3201.30 Agriculture... Items § 3201.30 Glass cleaners. (a) Definition. Cleaning products designed specifically for use in cleaning glass surfaces, such as windows, mirrors, car windows, and computer monitors. (b) Minimum...

  12. 7 CFR 2902.49 - Industrial cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Industrial cleaners. 2902.49 Section 2902.49... Items § 2902.49 Industrial cleaners. (a) Definition. Products used to remove contaminants, such as... water in pressure washers, or in hand wiping applications in industrial or manufacturing settings,...

  13. 7 CFR 3201.49 - Industrial cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Industrial cleaners. 3201.49 Section 3201.49... Designated Items § 3201.49 Industrial cleaners. (a) Definition. Products used to remove contaminants, such as... water in pressure washers, or in hand wiping applications in industrial or manufacturing settings,...

  14. 7 CFR 2902.49 - Industrial cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Industrial cleaners. 2902.49 Section 2902.49... Items § 2902.49 Industrial cleaners. (a) Definition. Products used to remove contaminants, such as... water in pressure washers, or in hand wiping applications in industrial or manufacturing settings,...

  15. 7 CFR 3201.49 - Industrial cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Industrial cleaners. 3201.49 Section 3201.49... Designated Items § 3201.49 Industrial cleaners. (a) Definition. Products used to remove contaminants, such as... water in pressure washers, or in hand wiping applications in industrial or manufacturing settings,...

  16. 7 CFR 3201.49 - Industrial cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Industrial cleaners. 3201.49 Section 3201.49... Designated Items § 3201.49 Industrial cleaners. (a) Definition. Products used to remove contaminants, such as... water in pressure washers, or in hand wiping applications in industrial or manufacturing settings,...

  17. Chemical Aging of Environmentally Friendly Cleaners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biegert, L. L.; Evans, K. B.; Olsen, B. D.; Weber, B. L.

    2001-01-01

    Use of cleaners in the manufacturing area demands bottles that will hold a sufficient amount of material and allow for easy and controlled dispensing by the operator without contamination or material leaching from the bottle. The manufacturing storage conditions are also a factor that may affect cleaner chemical integrity and its potential to leave a residue on the part. A variety of squeeze bottles stored in mild (72 F, 10% R.H., dark) and harsh (105 F, 50% R.H., fluorescent lighting) conditions were evaluated to determine the effect of environment and bottle exposure on ozone depleting chemicals (ODC) cleaners chemical composition. Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) bottles were found to be quite permeable to all the cleaners evaluated in this study indicating this bottle type should not be used in the manufacturing area. Fluorinated Polyethylene (FLPE) bottles showed little cleaner loss and change in cleaner chemical composition over time suggesting these bottles would be acceptable for use. Chemical analysis indicates limonene containing cleaners show increased non-volatile residue (NVR) content with storage under harsh conditions. Some cleaners use BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) as stabilizer and to protect against limonene oxidation. Under harsh conditions, BHT was quickly depleted resulting in higher NVR levels.

  18. 7 CFR 2902.50 - Multipurpose cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multipurpose cleaners. 2902.50 Section 2902.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES... Items § 2902.50 Multipurpose cleaners. (a) Definition. Products used to clean dirt, grease, and...

  19. 7 CFR 2902.45 - Food cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Food cleaners. 2902.45 Section 2902.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF... Food cleaners. (a) Definition. Anti-microbial products designed to clean the outer layer of...

  20. 7 CFR 2902.50 - Multipurpose cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Multipurpose cleaners. 2902.50 Section 2902.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES... Items § 2902.50 Multipurpose cleaners. (a) Definition. Products used to clean dirt, grease, and...

  1. 7 CFR 2902.45 - Food cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Food cleaners. 2902.45 Section 2902.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF... Food cleaners. (a) Definition. Anti-microbial products designed to clean the outer layer of...

  2. GUIDE TO CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES: ALTERNATIVE METAL FINISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A cleaner technology is a source reduction or recycle method applied to eliminate or significantly reduce the amount of any hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant released to the environment. The emphasis of cleaner technologies is on process changes that can prevent poll...

  3. Multibar sawless lint cleaner: Field testing results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Multibar Sawless Lint Cleaner (MBSLC) is a prototype spiked-tooth lint cleaner initially designed to replace the first stage lint cleaning in a cotton gin. Previous studies conducted in the ginning laboratory in Lubbock, Texas, demonstrated improvements in some fiber properties, as well as minim...

  4. 7 CFR 3201.45 - Food cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Food cleaners. 3201.45 Section 3201.45 Agriculture... Items § 3201.45 Food cleaners. (a) Definition. Anti-microbial products designed to clean the outer layer of various food products, such as fruit, vegetables, and meats. (b) Minimum biobased content....

  5. 7 CFR 3201.45 - Food cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Food cleaners. 3201.45 Section 3201.45 Agriculture... Items § 3201.45 Food cleaners. (a) Definition. Anti-microbial products designed to clean the outer layer of various food products, such as fruit, vegetables, and meats. (b) Minimum biobased content....

  6. 7 CFR 3201.45 - Food cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Food cleaners. 3201.45 Section 3201.45 Agriculture... Items § 3201.45 Food cleaners. (a) Definition. Anti-microbial products designed to clean the outer layer of various food products, such as fruit, vegetables, and meats. (b) Minimum biobased content....

  7. Energy saving opportunities of energy efficient air nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slootmaekers, Tim; Slaets, Peter; Bartsoen, Tom; Malfait, Lieven; Vanierschot, Maarten

    2015-12-01

    Compressed air is a common energy medium. The production of compressed air itself is not a very efficient process. Avoiding any unnecessary losses of air can lead to large reductions in electricity consumption. Since blowing applications are one of the main domains were compressed-air is used, any reduction in the mass flow needed for operation can lead to significant energy savings. In this paper the normal volumetric flow rate and generated impact force are compared between a stepped nozzle and a so called energy saving nozzle which allows extra air from the surroundings to be entrained. These two different nozzle geometries are used in industrial blowing applications. Until now there was no study available which compares the impact forces and volumetric flow rates for these types of nozzles. The flow field of the two nozzles was calculated by CFD simulations. The impact forces and volumetric flow rates are calculated out of this flow field. Each nozzle was simulated with three different input pressures. The nozzles were simulated with an input pressure of 3, 4 and 5 barg. The energy saving nozzle consumes only 1 % less volumetric flow rate then the stepped nozzle at the same inlet pressure. The replacement of a stepped nozzle with an energy saving nozzle will not immediately result in a decrease in input volumetric flow rate. The pressure at the inlet of the energy saving nozzle has to be reduced as well. After reducing the input pressure the energy saving nozzle generates the same impact force than the stepped nozzle. Hereby a decrease of 4.5 % in input volumetric flow rate was possible. The energy cost will decrease with 4.5 % as well because the normal volumetric flow rate is directly proportional to the energy cost. The replacement of a stepped nozzle with an energy saving nozzle while maintaining the same inlet pressure is only useful when the impact force from the stepped nozzle is not sufficient. The energy saving nozzle can generate 5.6 % more impact

  8. Chemical Aging of Environmentally Friendly Cleaners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, K.; Biegert, L.; Olsen, B.; Weber, B.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Use of cleaners in the manufacturing area demands bottles that will hold a sufficient amount of material and allow for easy and controlled dispensing by the operator without contamination or material leaching from the bottle. The manufacturing storage conditions are also a factor that may affect cleaner chemical integrity and its potential to leave a residue on the part. A variety of squeeze bottles stored in mild (72 F, 10 % R.H., dark) and harsh (105 F, 50 % R.H., fluorescent lighting) conditions were evaluated to determine the effect of environment and bottle exposure on the chemical composition of TCA (1,1,1 trichloroethane) replacement solvents. Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) bottles were found to be quite permeable to all the cleaners evaluated in this study indicating this bottle type should not be used in the manufacturing area. Fluorinated Polyethylene (FLPE) bottles showed little cleaner loss and change in cleaner chemical composition over time suggesting these bottles would be acceptable for use. Chemical analysis indicates limonene-containing cleaners show increased non-volatile residue (NVR) content with storage under harsh conditions. Some cleaners use BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) as stabilizer and to protect against limonene oxidation. Under harsh conditions, BHT was quickly depleted resulting in higher NVR levels.

  9. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector...

  10. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector...

  11. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector...

  12. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector...

  13. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector...

  14. Reduction of Microbial Aerosols by Automatic Toilet Bowl Cleaners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahya, Moyasar; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study of the impact of automatic toilet bowl cleaners on aerosol generation. Three toilet bowl cleaners containing 2.5, 6.7 or 18.2 percent surfactant materials were evaluated. Results indicate these cleaners significantly (p 0.05) reduce bacteria ejected from the bowl, and the cleaner containing the greatest amount of surfactant was the most…

  15. GUIDE TO CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES: ORGANIC COATING REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A cleaner technology is a source reduction or recycle method |applied to eliminate or significantly reduce hazardous waste generation. Source reduction includes product changes and source control. Source control can be further characterized as input material changes, technology...

  16. Small airblast fuel nozzle with high efficiency inner air swirler

    SciTech Connect

    Koblish, T.R.; Bell, L.D.

    1992-09-08

    This patent describes a gas turbine engine wherein upon cold ignition a stagnation air pressure of generally about 1 to about 1 [1/2] inches of water is supplied by the compressor to airblast fuel nozzles communicating with the combustor, means for introducing fuel into the chamber and air inlet passages space apart around the nozzle body upstream of the fuel discharge orifice and extending from the chamber to the exterior of the nozzle body for receiving air at the the stagnation air pressure, each air passage having converging sections canted relative to one another effective to provide an air pressure in the inner air swirl chamber of at least about 70% of the stagnation air pressure for enhancing inner air swirl strength for fuel atomization and cold ignition of the engine.

  17. Update on asthma and cleaners

    PubMed Central

    Zock, Jan-Paul; Vizcaya, David; Le Moual, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review This paper summarises the recent literature on the relation between cleaning exposures and respiratory health, in particular asthma, including reviews, epidemiological surveys, surveillance programmes and exposure studies. The authors also aimed to identify gaps in the current knowledge and to recommend future research on the topic. Recent findings A large international general population study showed an increased risk of new-onset asthma associated with cleaning work, with professional use of cleaning products, and with domestic use of cleaning sprays. Three surveillance studies confirm the recognition of occupational asthma cases among cleaners and among others who use cleaning products at work. Six workforce-based studies show that respiratory symptoms are partly work-related, and are associated with certain specific exposures including sprays, chlorine bleach and other disinfectants. Summary Recent studies have strengthened the evidence of asthma and other adverse respiratory effects in cleaning workers. Similar effects were seen in other settings where cleaning products are used such as healthcare professionals and homemakers. Both new-onset asthma and work-exacerbated asthma due to cleaning exposures may play a role. Exposure to cleaning sprays, chlorine bleach and other disinfectants may be particularly relevant. The predominant effect mechanisms remain largely unclear and may include both specific sensitisation and irritant-related features. PMID:20093933

  18. Small airblast fuel nozzle with high efficiency inner air swirler

    SciTech Connect

    Koblish, T.R.; Bell, L.D.

    1992-02-11

    This patent describes a airblast fuel nozzle for a gas turbine engine. It comprises: a nozzle body having a longitudinal inner air swirl chamber with a downstream discharge orifice, means for discharging fuel from the nozzle body and a plurality of air inlet passages circumferentially spaced apart around the nozzle body upstream of the fuel discharge orifice and extending from the inner air swirl chamber to the exterior of the nozzle body for receiving air flow, each air inlet passage having an inner section converging toward and intersecting with the inner air swirl chamber and an outer section converging toward and intersecting with the inner section, the inner section having an outlet communicating with the inner air swirl chamber and an inlet communicating with the outer section, the outer section having an outlet communicating with the inlet of the inner section and an inlet on the exterior of the nozzle body for receiving the air flow, the convergence of the outer section and inner section being selected to provide an effective air flow area through the outer section greater than the effective air flow area through the inner section, the inner section and outer section of each air inlet passage being relatively canted in the same circumferential direction and oriented relative to the air swirl chamber to, in effect, provide a distance X between centerlines of the air swirl chamber and the inner section that increases the air swirl strength achievable in the air swirl chamber at a given air pressure value at the inlet of the outer section.

  19. Towards cleaner technologies via heterogeneous catalytic oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Tasi, M.; Lednor, P.W.; Grift, C.J.G. van der

    1995-12-31

    In order to solve the environmental problems of many conventional processes and to secure the future of the chemical industry, a great deal of today`s research efforts is devoted to develop cleaner technologies. Oxidation/reduction is simply one of the most important tools to achieve such targets. On one hand, the challenging task is to develop such processes, where molecular oxygen can be economically utilized thereby minimising waste and/or the number of process steps. On the other hand, effluents already formed have to be efficiently treated to end up in products harmless for the environment. Both aspects are being actively pursued within Shell, for which examples will be given. Development and application of a versatile heterogeneous catalyst system will be discussed, that can be used to transform lower olefins to the corresponding aldehyde or ketone derivatives with very high, well above 90% selectivities in a gasphase oxidation process, as well as to effectively reduce nitrogen oxides in effluent gases.

  20. Optimum air-demand ratio for maximum aeration efficiency in high-head gated circular conduits.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Fahri; Tuna, M Cihat; Baylar, Ahmet; Ozturk, Mualla

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen is an important component of water quality and its ability to sustain life. Water aeration is the process of introducing air into a body of water to increase its oxygen saturation. Water aeration can be accomplished in a variety of ways, for instance, closed-conduit aeration. High-speed flow in a closed conduit involves air-water mixture flow. The air flow results from the subatmospheric pressure downstream of the gate. The air entrained by the high-speed flow is supplied by the air vent. The air entrained into the flow in the form of a large number of bubbles accelerates oxygen transfer and hence also increases aeration efficiency. In the present work, the optimum air-demand ratio for maximum aeration efficiency in high-head gated circular conduits was studied experimentally. Results showed that aeration efficiency increased with the air-demand ratio to a certain point and then aeration efficiency did not change with a further increase of the air-demand ratio. Thus, there was an optimum value for the air-demand ratio, depending on the Froude number, which provides maximum aeration efficiency. Furthermore, a design formula for aeration efficiency was presented relating aeration efficiency to the air-demand ratio and Froude number. PMID:25225935

  1. Efficiencies of free-air gas fumigation devices

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F.W.; Hendrey, G.R.; Lewin, K.F.; Nagy, J.

    1992-03-01

    One of the key uncertainties relative to future increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} is the extent to which growth in future emissions will be accommodated by increased uptake by terrestrial vegetation, the so-called ``fertilization`` effect. Research on this issue is currently pursued by many research groups around the world, using various experimental protocols and devices. These range from leaf cuvettes to various types of enclosures and glass-houses to various types of open-field gas enrichment or fumigation systems. As research priorities move from crops to forests and natural ecosystems, these experimental devices tend to become large and enrichment gas (i.e., CO{sub 2}) requirements and costs become a major factor in experimental design. This paper considers the relative efficiencies of gas usage for different types of systems currently in use. One of these is the Free Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment System (FACE) designed and developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). In this paper, we develop some nondimensional groups of parameters for the purpose of characterizing performance, i.e., enrichment gas usage. These nondimensional groups are then used as figures of merit and basically allow the required flow rates of CO{sub 2} to be predicted based on the geometry of the device, wind speed, and the incremental gas concentration desired. The parameters chosen to comprise a useful nondimensional group must not only have the correct dimensions, they must also represent an appropriate physical relationship.

  2. Efficiencies of free-air gas fumigation devices

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F.W.; Hendrey, G.R.; Lewin, K.F.; Nagy, J.

    1992-03-01

    One of the key uncertainties relative to future increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} is the extent to which growth in future emissions will be accommodated by increased uptake by terrestrial vegetation, the so-called fertilization'' effect. Research on this issue is currently pursued by many research groups around the world, using various experimental protocols and devices. These range from leaf cuvettes to various types of enclosures and glass-houses to various types of open-field gas enrichment or fumigation systems. As research priorities move from crops to forests and natural ecosystems, these experimental devices tend to become large and enrichment gas (i.e., CO{sub 2}) requirements and costs become a major factor in experimental design. This paper considers the relative efficiencies of gas usage for different types of systems currently in use. One of these is the Free Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment System (FACE) designed and developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). In this paper, we develop some nondimensional groups of parameters for the purpose of characterizing performance, i.e., enrichment gas usage. These nondimensional groups are then used as figures of merit and basically allow the required flow rates of CO{sub 2} to be predicted based on the geometry of the device, wind speed, and the incremental gas concentration desired. The parameters chosen to comprise a useful nondimensional group must not only have the correct dimensions, they must also represent an appropriate physical relationship.

  3. Monitoring and evaluation of replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency air conditioners in single-family detached houses in Austin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, R.; Hough, R.E. and Associates, Inc., Syracuse, NY )

    1991-10-01

    The US DOE initiated this project to evaluate the performance of an air conditioner retrofit program in Austin, Texas. The City's Austin's Resource Management Department pursued this project to quantify the retrofit effect of replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency air conditioners in single-family detached homes. If successfully implemented, this retrofit program could help defer construction of a new power plant which is a major goal of this department. The project compares data collected from 12 houses during two cooling seasons under pre-retrofit and then post-retrofit air conditioner units. The existing low-efficiency air conditioners were monitored during the 1987 cooling season, replaced during the 1987--88 heating season with new, smaller sized, high-efficiency units, and then monitored again during the 1988 cooling season. Results indicated that the air conditioner retrofits reduce the annual air conditioner electric consumption and peak electric demand by an average of 38%. When normalized to the nominal capacity of the air conditioner, average demand savings were 1.12 W/ft{sup 2} and estimated annual energy savings were 1.419 kWh/ft{sup 2}. Individual air conditioner power requirements were found to be a well defined function of outdoor temperature as expected. In the absence of detailed data, estimates of the peak demand reductions of new air conditioners can be made from the manufacturer's specifications. Air conditioner energy consumption proved to be strongly linear as a function of the outdoor temperature as expected when taken as an aggregate. No noticeable differences in the diversity factor of the air conditioner usage were found. Analysis of the retrofit effect using PRISM yields estimates of the reduction in normalized annual consumption (NAC) and annual cooling consumption of 12% and 30%. 2 refs., 11 figs., 17 tabs.

  4. Substitutes for ozone depleting aerosol electrical contact cleaners and cleaner/lubricants. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bevilacqua, P.; Clark, K.G.

    1996-01-24

    With the production of Class I Ozone Depleting Substances discontinued as of January 1996, it became necessary to identify suitable replacements for chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-113) and trichloroethane (TCA) based electrical contact cleaners and cleaner/lubricant products. Two hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC-141b) blends were identified as substitutes and recommended for interim use.

  5. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness in women cooks and cleaners.

    PubMed

    Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Minov, Jordan; Risteska-Kuc, Snezana; Stoleski, Saso; Mijakoski, Dragan

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) in 43 women cleaners (aged 26 to 57) and 37 women cooks (aged 29 to 55) and compare them with 45 controls (women office workers aged 27 to 58). The evaluation of all subjects included a questionnaire, skin prick tests to common aeroallergens, spirometry, and histamine challenge (PC20 < or = 8 mg mL(-1)). We found higher BHR prevalence in cleaners and cooks than in office workers (30.2 % and 29.7 %, vs. 17.7 %, respectively), but statistical significance was not reached. The prevalence of mild and moderate to severe BHR was similar in all groups. Borderline BHR prevalence was significantly higher in cleaners than in controls (16.2 % vs. 6.6 %, P=0.032) whereas the difference was on the verge of significance in cooks (13.5 % vs. 6.6 %, P=0.081). Moderate to severe BHR was strongly associated with positive family history of asthma and atopy in all groups. Mild BHR was significantly associated with daily smoking in cleaners (P=0.031) and cooks (P=0.021), as well as with the duration of exposure in cleaners (P=0.038). Borderline BHR was closely related to daily smoking and duration of exposure in both cleaners and cooks. Our findings indicate an important role of workplace exposure in borderline BHR development, as well as the significant effect of smoking on mild BHR development in women cleaners and cooks. PMID:17562606

  6. POTENTIAL INHALATION EXPOSURE TO VOLATILE CHEMICALS IN WATER-BASED HARD-SURFACE CLEANERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Potential inhalation exposure of building occupants to volatile chemicals in water-based hard-surface cleaners was evaluated by analyzing 267 material safety data sheets (MSDSs). Among the 154 chemicals reported, 44 are volatile or semi-volatile. Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) r...

  7. High-Efficiency Rooftop Air Conditioners: Small Commercial ACs Could Add Up to Big Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Hollomon, J Bradford; Gilbride, Theresa L.

    2003-04-01

    This paper describes a technology procurement conducted by DOE, PNNL, and the Defense Logistics Agency to increase the availability of energy-efficient, packaged, unitary ''rooftop'' air conditioners. The procurement encourages air conditioner manufacturers to produce equipment that exceeds federal energy efficiency standards by at least 25 percent at a lower first cost. Program developers have also sought to aggregate market demand by organizing groups of large-volume buyers of air conditioning equipment. A Cost Estimator tool developed by PNNL to help consumers determine the cost effectiveness, based on local climate conditions, of purchasing energy efficient air conditioners for their own facilities is also described.

  8. Transparent air filter for high-efficiency PM2.5 capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chong; Hsu, Po-Chun; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Ye, Meng; Zheng, Guangyuan; Liu, Nian; Li, Weiyang; Cui, Yi

    2015-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution has raised serious concerns for public health. Although outdoor individual protection could be achieved by facial masks, indoor air usually relies on expensive and energy-intensive air-filtering devices. Here, we introduce a transparent air filter for indoor air protection through windows that uses natural passive ventilation to effectively protect the indoor air quality. By controlling the surface chemistry to enable strong PM adhesion and also the microstructure of the air filters to increase the capture possibilities, we achieve transparent, high air flow and highly effective air filters of ~90% transparency with >95.00% removal of PM2.5 under extreme hazardous air-quality conditions (PM2.5 mass concentration >250 μg m-3). A field test in Beijing shows that the polyacrylonitrile transparent air filter has the best PM2.5 removal efficiency of 98.69% at high transmittance of ~77% during haze occurrence.

  9. Field assessment of induction motor efficiency through air-gap torque

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.S.; Sorenson, P.L.

    1995-11-01

    Induction motors are the most popular motors used in industry. This paper further suggests the use of air-gap torque method to evaluate their efficiency and load changes. The fundamental difference between Method E and the air-gap torque method is discussed. Efficiency assessments conducted on induction motors under various conditions show the accuracy and potential of the air-gap torque method.

  10. What is an effective portable air cleaning device? A review.

    PubMed

    Shaughnessy, R J; Sextro, R G

    2006-04-01

    The use of portable air cleaning devices in residential settings has been steadily growing over the last 10 years. Three out of every 10 households now contain a portable air cleaning device. This increased use of air cleaners is accompanied by, if not influenced by, a fundamental belief by consumers that the air cleaners are providing an improved indoor air environment. However, there is a wide variation in the performance of air cleaners that is dependent on the specific air cleaner design and various indoor factors. The most widely used method in the United States to assess the performance of new air cleaners is the procedure described in the American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) AC-1-2002. This method describes both the test conditions and the testing protocol. The protocol yields a performance metric that is based on the measured decay rate of contaminant concentrations with the air cleaner operating compared with the measured decay rate with the air cleaner turned off. The resulting metric, the clean air delivery rate (CADR), permits both an intercomparison of performance among various air cleaners and a comparison of air cleaner operation to other contaminant removal processes. In this article, we comment on the testing process, discuss its applicability to various contaminants, and evaluate the resulting performance metrics for effective air cleaning. PMID:16531290

  11. Study on the Efficient Drive of a Desiccant Air Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jong-Soo; Saito, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Sunao

    This paper constructs the static simulation model of a desiccant air conditioning system and gives the guidelines for the efficient drive of the desiccant air conditioning system. The desiccant air conditioning system is composed of a desiccant wheel, a heat exchanger, two evaporative coolers and a heater. The process air and regeneration air are supplied to this system. The desiccant is Silica gel. In the simulation model, two-dimensional model in space is adopted for the desiccant wheel. As the simulation result, it is clarified that optimum outlet temperature of the regeneration air in the heater, rotational speed of the desiccant wheel, the rejected air flow rate of the regeneration air, the process and regeneration air flow rate that maximize COP exist. For example, in case that the regeneration temperature is 63°C and relative humidity is 55% maximum COP is about 0.62.

  12. Life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of European regulation.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Azapagic, Adisa

    2016-07-15

    Energy efficiency of vacuum cleaners has been declining over the past decades while at the same time their number in Europe has been increasing. The European Commission has recently adopted an eco-design regulation to improve the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. In addition to the existing directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), the regulation could potentially have significant effects on the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. However, the scale of the effects is currently unknown, beyond scant information on greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, this paper considers for the first time life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of the implementation of these regulations at the European level. The effects of electricity decarbonisation, product lifetime and end-of-life disposal options are also considered. The results suggest that the implementation of the eco-design regulation alone will reduce significantly the impacts from vacuum cleaners (37%-44%) by 2020 compared with current situation. If business as usual continued and the regulation was not implemented, the impacts would be 82%-109% higher by 2020 compared to the impacts with the implementation of the regulation. Improvements associated with the implementation of the WEEE directive will be much smaller (<1% in 2020). However, if the WEEE directive did not exist, then the impacts would be 2%-21% higher by 2020 relative to the impacts with the implementation of the directive. Further improvements in most impacts (6%-20%) could be achieved by decarbonising the electricity mix. Therefore, energy efficiency measures must be accompanied by appropriate actions to reduce the environmental impacts of electricity generation; otherwise, the benefits of improved energy efficiency could be limited. Moreover, because of expected lower life expectancy of vacuum cleaners and limited availability of some raw materials, the eco-design regulation should be

  13. 21 CFR 872.3530 - Mechanical denture cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mechanical denture cleaner. 872.3530 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3530 Mechanical denture cleaner. (a) Identification. A mechanical denture cleaner is a device, usually AC-powered, that consists of a container...

  14. Lint Cleaning Performance of a Modified Cylinder Cleaner

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of the experiments were to evaluate the lint cleaning performance of a modified cylinder cleaner with sharp cleaning-edge grid bars and compare the performance of one cylinder cleaner to two cylinder cleaners in series operating at one or two speeds. Overall, in comparison to the base...

  15. 21 CFR 878.4410 - Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner. 878.4410... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4410 Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner. (a) Identification. A low energy ultrasound wound cleaner is a device that...

  16. 21 CFR 880.6150 - Ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6150 Ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments is a device intended for cleaning medical... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments....

  17. 21 CFR 880.6150 - Ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6150 Ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments is a device intended for cleaning medical... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments....

  18. 21 CFR 880.6150 - Ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6150 Ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments is a device intended for cleaning medical... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments....

  19. 21 CFR 880.6150 - Ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6150 Ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments is a device intended for cleaning medical... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments....

  20. 21 CFR 880.6150 - Ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6150 Ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments is a device intended for cleaning medical... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ultrasonic cleaner for medical instruments....

  1. 21 CFR 878.4410 - Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner. 878.4410... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4410 Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner. (a) Identification. A low energy ultrasound wound cleaner is a device that...

  2. 21 CFR 878.4410 - Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner. 878.4410... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4410 Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner. (a) Identification. A low energy ultrasound wound cleaner is a device that...

  3. 21 CFR 878.4410 - Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner. 878.4410... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4410 Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner. (a) Identification. A low energy ultrasound wound cleaner is a device that...

  4. 21 CFR 878.4410 - Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner. 878.4410... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4410 Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner. (a) Identification. A low energy ultrasound wound cleaner is a device that...

  5. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  6. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  7. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  8. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  9. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and labeled for retail sale are exempt from the requirements of § 500.15a...

  10. Toward cleaner, quieter skies: An international debate

    SciTech Connect

    Aylesworth, H. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    The paper summarizes infrastructure and technology changes in the aerospace industry aimed at reducing fuel consumption and nitrous oxide emissions. Growth of total air traffic is predicted over the next 20 years; however, emissions are predicted to grow less rapidly due to increased fuel efficiency and operational productivity. Engine technology leading to fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and noise reduction is described. Regulations pertinent to these issues are outlined, and international efforts in these areas are also briefly described. 4 figs.

  11. GUIDE TO CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES: ORGANIC COATING REPLACEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This guide describes available and emerging cleaner technologies that can be used to reduce emissions and wastes from paint and coatings applications. Environmental concerns and increasing costs of organic chemicals and metals are leading to changes in the formulation of organic ...

  12. High-Efficiency Rooftop Air Conditioners: Innovative Procurement to Achieve Advances in Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hollomon, Brad

    2003-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Defense Logistics Agency, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recently conducted a technology procurement to increase the availability of energy-efficient, packaged unitary ''rooftop'' air conditioners. The procurement encouraged air conditioner manufacturers to produce equipment that exceeded US energy efficiency standards by at least 25% at a lower life-cycle cost. An outgrowth of the project, a web-based cost estimator tool is now available to help consumers determine the cost-effectiveness of purchasing energy-efficient air conditioners based on climate conditions and other factors at their own locations.

  13. Regenerating using aqueous cleaners with ozone and electrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcginness, Michael P.

    1994-01-01

    A new process converts organic oil and grease contaminates in used water based cleaners into synthetic surfactants. This permits the continued use of a cleaning solution long after it would have been dumped using previously known methods. Since the organic soils are converted from contaminates to cleaning compounds the need for frequent bath dumps is totally eliminated. When cleaning solutions used in aqueous cleaning systems are exhausted and ready for disposal, they will always contain the contaminates removed from the cleaned parts and drag-in from prior cleaning steps. Even when the cleaner is biodegradable these contaminants will frequently cause the waste cleaning solution to be a hazardous waste. Chlorinated solvents are rapidly being replaced by aqueous cleaners to avoid the new ozone-depletion product-labeling-law. Many industry standard halocarbon based solvents are being completely phased out of production, and their prices have nearly tripled. Waste disposal costs and cradle-to-grave liability are also major concerns for industry today. This new process reduces the amount of water and chemicals needed to maintain the cleaning process. The cost of waste disposal is eliminated because the water and cleaning compounds are reused. Energy savings result by eliminating the need for energy currently used to produce and deliver fresh water and chemicals as well as the energy used to treat and destroy the waste from the existing cleaning processes. This process also allows the cleaning bath to be maintained at the peak performance of a new bath resulting in decreased cycle times and decreased energy consumption needed to clean the parts. This results in a more efficient and cost effective cleaning process.

  14. Efficiency of dust sampling inlets in calm air.

    PubMed

    Breslin, J A; Stein, R L

    1975-08-01

    Measurement of airborne dust concentrations usually involves drawing a sample of the dust-laden air into the measuring instrument through an inlet. Even if the surrounding air is calm, theoretical calculations predict that large particles may not be sampled accurately due to the combined effects of gravity and inertia on the particles near the sampling inlet. Tests were conducted to determine the conditions of particle size, inlet radius, and flow rare necessary for accurate dust sampling. A coal-dust aerosol was sampled simultaneously through inlets of different diameters at the same volume flow-rate and collected on filters. The dust was removed from the filters and the particles were counted and sized with a Coulter counter. Results showed that published criteria for inlet conditions for correct sampling are overly restrictive and that respirable-size particles are sampled correctly in the normal range or operation of most dust sampling instruments. PMID:1227283

  15. Efficient sensitivity computations in 3D air quality models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kioutsioukis, Ioannis; Melas, Dimitrios; Zerefos, Christos; Ziomas, Ioannis

    2005-04-01

    The prediction of ground level ozone for air quality monitoring and assessment is simulated through an integrated system of gridded models (meteorological, photochemical), where the atmosphere is represented with a three-dimensional grid that may include thousands of grid cells. The continuity equation solved by the Photochemical Air Quality Model (PAQM) reproduces the atmospheric processes (dynamical, physical, chemical and radiative), such as moving and mixing air parcels from one grid cell to another, calculating chemical reactions, injecting new emissions. The whole modeling procedure includes several sources of uncertainty, especially in the large data sets that describe the status of the domain (boundary conditions, emissions, chemical reaction rates and several others). The robustness of the photochemical simulation is addressed in this work through the deterministic approach of sensitivity analysis. The automatic differentiation tool ADIFOR is applied on the 3D PAQM CAMx and augments its Fortran 77 code by introducing new lines of code that additionally calculate, in only one run, the gradient of the solution vector with respect to its input parameters. The applicability of the approach is evaluated through a sensitivity study of the modeled concentrations to perturbations at the boundary conditions and the emissions, for three essentially dissimilar European Metropolises of the Auto-Oil II programme (Athens, Milan, and London).

  16. Efficient high voltage pulser for piezoelectric air coupled transducer.

    PubMed

    Svilainis, Linas; Chaziachmetovas, Andrius; Dumbrava, Vytautas

    2013-01-01

    The design of high voltage pulser for air coupled ultrasound imaging is presented. It is dedicated for air-coupled ultrasound applications when piezoelectric transducer design is used. Two identical N-channel MOSFETs are used together with 1200V high and low side driver IC. Simple driving pulses' delay and skew circuit is used to reduce the cross-conduction. Analysis of switch peak current and channel resistance relation to maximum operation frequency and load capacitance is given. PSPICE simulation was used to analyze the gate driver resistance, gate pulse skew, pulse amplitude influence on energy consumption when loaded by capacitive load. Experimental investigation was verified against simulation and theoretical predictions. For 500pF capacitance, which is most common for piezoelectric air coupled transducers, pulser consumes 650μJ at 1kV pulse and 4μJ at 50V. Pulser is capable to produce up to 1MHz pulse trains with positive 50V-1kV pulses with up to 10A peak output current. When loaded by 200kHz transducer at 1kV pulse amplitude rise time is 40ns and fall time is 32ns which fully satisfies desired 1MHz bandwidth. PMID:22742963

  17. States Address Air Pollution from Energy through Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-12-01

    This fact sheet highlights how renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies can and are being used to reduce air emissions and meet environmental goals, showcasing case studies and technology-specific topics.

  18. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile – High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This Top Innovation profile explains how comprehensive performance testing by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory led to simple, affordable methods that homeowners could employ for increasing the energy efficiency of window air conditioners.

  19. Influence of Ventilation Ratio on Desiccant Air Conditioning System's Efficiency Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Thien Nha; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao; Hamamoto, Yoshinori

    Ventilation air is a concern for engineers since ventilated air controls indoor air contamination; additional ventilation, however, increases the energy consumption of buildings. The study investigates the energy efficiency performance of the desiccant dehumidification air conditioning system in the context of ventilation for a hot-humid climate such as summer in Japan. The investigation focuses on the variable ratio of ventilation air as required by the application of air conditioning system. The COP of the desiccant air conditioning system is determined. The evaluation is subsequently performed by comparing the desiccant based system with the conventional absorption cooling system and the vapor compression cooling system. Based on 12 desiccant rotor simulations, it is found that the desiccant regeneration temperature required varies between 47°C to 85°C as ventilation ratio increases from 0. 0 to 100%, and up to 52. 5°C as the ventilation ratio achieves 14%. The heat required for regenerating desiccant accounts for 55% and higher of the system's total heat consumption; the system is expected to be energy efficient by using wasted heat from the absorption chiller for desiccant regeneration; and its energy efficiency expands as the ratio of ventilation air rises above 15% compared with the conventional absorption cooling system. The energy efficiency also benefits as the ratio rises beyond 70% against the conventional vapor compression cooling system.

  20. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy ? FY11 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Cohn, Sebastian; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2011-10-31

    The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel volatile organic compounds (VOCs) air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. we targeted a VOC air cleaning system that could enable a 50% reduction in ventilation rates. In a typical commercial HVAC system that provides a mixture of recirculated and outdoor air, a VOC air cleaner in the supply airstream must have a 15% to 20% VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50% reduction in outdoor air supply.

  1. Catalysts for cleaner combustion of coal, wood and briquettes sulfur dioxide reduction options for low emission sources

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.V.

    1995-12-31

    Coal fired, low emission sources are a major factor in the air quality problems facing eastern European cities. These sources include: stoker-fired boilers which feed district heating systems and also meet local industrial steam demand, hand-fired boilers which provide heat for one building or a small group of buildings, and masonary tile stoves which heat individual rooms. Global Environmental Systems is marketing through Global Environmental Systems of Polane, Inc. catalysts to improve the combustion of coal, wood or fuel oils in these combustion systems. PCCL-II Combustion Catalysts promotes more complete combustion, reduces or eliminates slag formations, soot, corrosion and some air pollution emissions and is especially effective on high sulfur-high vanadium residual oils. Glo-Klen is a semi-dry powder continuous acting catalyst that is injected directly into the furnace of boilers by operating personnel. It is a multi-purpose catalyst that is a furnace combustion catalyst that saves fuel by increasing combustion efficiency, a cleaner of heat transfer surfaces that saves additional fuel by increasing the absorption of heat, a corrosion-inhibiting catalyst that reduces costly corrosion damage and an air pollution reducing catalyst that reduces air pollution type stack emissions. The reduction of sulfur dioxides from coal or oil-fired boilers of the hand fired stoker design and larger, can be controlled by the induction of the Glo-Klen combustion catalyst and either hydrated lime or pulverized limestone.

  2. Combustion Chemistry Diagnostics for Cleaner Processes.

    PubMed

    Kohse-Höinghaus, Katharina

    2016-09-12

    Climate change, environmental problems, urban pollution, and the dependence on fossil fuels demand cleaner, renewable energy strategies. However, they also ask for urgent advances in combustion science to reduce emissions. For alternative fuels and new combustion regimes, crucial information about the chemical reactions from fuel to exhaust remains lacking. Understanding such relations between combustion process, fuel, and emissions needs reliable experimental data from a wide range of conditions to provide a firm basis for predictive modeling of practical combustion processes. PMID:27440049

  3. Preparation of Fiber Based Binder Materials to Enhance the Gas Adsorption Efficiency of Carbon Air Filter.

    PubMed

    Lim, Tae Hwan; Choi, Jeong Rak; Lim, Dae Young; Lee, So Hee; Yeo, Sang Young

    2015-10-01

    Fiber binder adapted carbon air filter is prepared to increase gas adsorption efficiency and environmental stability. The filter prevents harmful gases, as well as particle dusts in the air from entering the body when a human inhales. The basic structure of carbon air filter is composed of spunbond/meltblown/activated carbon/bottom substrate. Activated carbons and meltblown layer are adapted to increase gas adsorption and dust filtration efficiency, respectively. Liquid type adhesive is used in the conventional carbon air filter as a binder material between activated carbons and other layers. However, it is thought that the liquid binder is not an ideal material with respect to its bonding strength and liquid flow behavior that reduce gas adsorption efficiency. To overcome these disadvantages, fiber type binder is introduced in our study. It is confirmed that fiber type binder adapted air filter media show higher strip strength, and their gas adsorption efficiencies are measured over 42% during 60 sec. These values are higher than those of conventional filter. Although the differential pressure of fiber binder adapted air filter is relatively high compared to the conventional one, short fibers have a good potential as a binder materials of activated carbon based air filter. PMID:26726459

  4. Nano-textured copper oxide nanofibers for efficient air cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Seongpil; Jo, Hong Seok; Al-Deyab, Salem S.; Yarin, Alexander L.; Yoon, Sam S.

    2016-02-01

    Ever decreasing of microelectronics devices is challenged by overheating and demands an increase in heat removal rate. Herein, we fabricated highly efficient heat-removal coatings comprised of copper oxide-plated polymer nanofiber layers (thorny devil nanofibers) with high surface-to-volume ratio, which facilitate heat removal from the underlying hot surfaces. The electroplating time and voltage were optimized to form fiber layers with maximal heat removal rate. The copper oxide nanofibers with the thorny devil morphology yielded a superior cooling rate compared to the pure copper nanofibers with the smooth surface morphology. This superior cooling performance is attributed to the enhanced surface area of the thorny devil nanofibers. These nanofibers were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and a thermographic camera.

  5. Designing a leaner, cleaner machine

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1997-05-01

    With factories cutting back on emissions and municipalities stepping up recycling efforts, environmentalists have cast automobiles as the primary pollution culprit. A concept car called the XCAR, which incorporates a fuel-efficient, low-pollution engine from Australia, may one day rehabilitate automobiles` bad environmental reputation. The XCAR is being designed by XCORP in Malibu, Calif. The company was founded in 1991 to transfer cutting-edge aerospace and defense technologies to business and manufacturing applications. Their goals are to design a next-generation automobile that will use less energy; provide a higher degree of safety by being more impact-resistant; reduce stress on roads, highways, and bridges by its lighter weight, thus extending the life of infrastructure; and be easily recycled and repaired. The company is developing a roadster, a subcompact coupe, and a sports/utility version of the XCAR for American civilian use, as well as a general-purpose version for the US military and a multipurpose car for developing nations. The design of the XCAR includes molded thermoplastic panels, which reduces the vehicle`s overall weight. Thermoplastic also lowers the energy needed to stamp steel parts by eliminating the by-products generated from spot-welding, drilling, and riveting, such as welding fumes and spent machining oils. Using large, molded thermoplastic/aluminum sections for much of the chassis and body assemblies will also reduce the number of parts required by a third compared to conventional autos. In addition, paint application and its attendant solvents are eliminated because the color is molded into the plastic body.

  6. Cooking fuels and the push for cleaner alternatives: a case study from Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Shelby; Sié, Ali; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Introduction More than 95% of the population in Burkina Faso uses some form of solid biomass fuel. When these fuels are burned in traditional, inefficient stoves, pollutant levels within and outside the home can be very high. This can have important consequences for both health and climate change. Thus, the push to switch to cleaner burning fuels is advantageous. However, there are several considerations that need to be taken into account when considering the use and promotion of different fuel types. Objective In the setting of the semi-urban area of Nouna, Burkina Faso, we examine the common fuel types used (wood, charcoal and liquid petroleum gas (LPG)) in terms of consumption, energy, availability, air pollution and climate change. Results and conclusion Although biomass solid fuel does offer some advantages over LPG, the disadvantages make this option much less desirable. Lower energy efficiencies, higher pollutant emission levels, the associated health consequences and climate change effects favour the choice of LPG over solid biomass fuel use. Further studies specific to Burkina Faso, which are lacking in this region, should also be undertaken in this area to better inform policy decisions. PMID:22778710

  7. Lighting energy efficiency opportunities at Cheyenne Mountain Air Station

    SciTech Connect

    Molburg, J.C.; Rozo, A.J.; Sarles, J.K.; Haffenden, R.A.; Thimmapuram, P.R.; Cavallo, J.D.

    1996-06-01

    CMAS is an intensive user of electricity for lighting because of its size, lack of daylight, and 24-hour operating schedule. Argonne National Laboratory recently conducted a lighting energy conservation evaluation at CMAS. The evaluation included inspection and characterization of existing lighting systems, analysis of energy-efficient retrofit options, and investigation of the environmental effects that these lighting system retrofits could have when they are ready to be disposed of as waste. Argonne devised three retrofit options for the existing lighting systems at various buildings: (1) minimal retrofit--limited fixture replacement; (2) moderate retrofit--more extensive fixture replacement and limited application of motion detectors; and (3) advanced retrofit--fixture replacement, reduction in the number of lamps, expansion of task lighting, and more extensive application of motion detectors. Argonne used data on electricity consumption to analyze the economic and energy effects of these three retrofit options. It performed a cost analysis for each retrofit option in terms of payback. The analysis showed that lighting retrofits result in savings because they reduce electricity consumption, cooling load, and maintenance costs. The payback period for all retrofit options was found to be less than 2 years, with the payback period decreasing for more aggressive retrofits. These short payback periods derived largely from the intensive (24-hours-per-day) use of electric lighting at the facility. Maintenance savings accounted for more than half of the annual energy-related savings under the minimal and moderate retrofit options and slightly less than half of these savings under the advanced retrofit option. Even if maintenance savings were excluded, the payback periods would still be impressive: about 4.4 years for the minimal retrofit option and 2 years for the advanced option. The local and regional environmental impacts of the three retrofit options were minimal.

  8. A cost-efficiency and health benefit approach to improve urban air quality.

    PubMed

    Miranda, A I; Ferreira, J; Silveira, C; Relvas, H; Duque, L; Roebeling, P; Lopes, M; Costa, S; Monteiro, A; Gama, C; Sá, E; Borrego, C; Teixeira, J P

    2016-11-01

    When ambient air quality standards established in the EU Directive 2008/50/EC are exceeded, Member States are obliged to develop and implement Air Quality Plans (AQP) to improve air quality and health. Notwithstanding the achievements in emission reductions and air quality improvement, additional efforts need to be undertaken to improve air quality in a sustainable way - i.e. through a cost-efficiency approach. This work was developed in the scope of the recently concluded MAPLIA project "Moving from Air Pollution to Local Integrated Assessment", and focuses on the definition and assessment of emission abatement measures and their associated costs, air quality and health impacts and benefits by means of air quality modelling tools, health impact functions and cost-efficiency analysis. The MAPLIA system was applied to the Grande Porto urban area (Portugal), addressing PM10 and NOx as the most important pollutants in the region. Four different measures to reduce PM10 and NOx emissions were defined and characterized in terms of emissions and implementation costs, and combined into 15 emission scenarios, simulated by the TAPM air quality modelling tool. Air pollutant concentration fields were then used to estimate health benefits in terms of avoided costs (external costs), using dose-response health impact functions. Results revealed that, among the 15 scenarios analysed, the scenario including all 4 measures lead to a total net benefit of 0.3M€·y(-1). The largest net benefit is obtained for the scenario considering the conversion of 50% of open fire places into heat recovery wood stoves. Although the implementation costs of this measure are high, the benefits outweigh the costs. Research outcomes confirm that the MAPLIA system is useful for policy decision support on air quality improvement strategies, and could be applied to other urban areas where AQP need to be implemented and monitored. PMID:27348699

  9. Cleaner cooking solutions to achieve health, climate, and economic cobenefits.

    PubMed

    Anenberg, Susan C; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Jetter, James; Masera, Omar; Mehta, Sumi; Moss, Jacob; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran

    2013-05-01

    Nearly half the world's population must rely on solid fuels such as biomass (wood, charcoal, agricultural residues, and animal dung) and coal for household energy, burning them in inefficient open fires and stoves with inadequate ventilation. Household solid fuel combustion is associated with four million premature deaths annually; contributes to forest degradation, loss of habitat and biodiversity, and climate change; and hinders social and economic progress as women and children spend hours every day collecting fuel. Several recent studies, as well as key emerging national and international efforts, are making progress toward enabling wide-scale household adoption of cleaner and more efficient stoves and fuels. While significant challenges remain, these efforts offer considerable promise to save lives, improve forest sustainability, slow climate change, and empower women around the world. PMID:23551030

  10. Relative dose efficiencies of antiscatter grids and air gaps in pediatric radiography

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, D.L.; Cohen, G.; Wagner, L.K.; Robinson, L.H.

    1984-07-01

    The relative dose efficiencies (RDE) of various antiscatter grids and air gaps were determined for conditions simulating those found in pediatric radiography, using phantoms representing a newborn child, a 5-yr-old and a 10-yr-old child. Our data indicate than an air gap is best for the newborn, due to the low levels of scatter. The 8:1 fiber grid or 15.2-cm air gap without a grid can improve dose efficiency (DE) for the 5-yr-old child by 20%--25% relative to the 3.3-cm air gap and no-grid technique, while for the 10-yr-old child, DE can be improved by 40% with an 8:1 fiber grid.

  11. Product lifetime, energy efficiency and climate change: A case study of air conditioners in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Daisuke

    2016-10-01

    This study proposed a modelling technique for estimating life-cycle CO2 emissions of durable goods by considering changes in product lifetime and energy efficiency. The stock and flow of durable goods was modelled by Weibull lifetime distributions and the trend in annual energy efficiency (i.e., annual electricity consumption) of an "average" durable good was formulated as a reverse logistic curve including a technologically critical value (i.e., limit energy efficiency) with respect to time. I found that when the average product lifetime is reduced, there is a trade-off between the reduction in emissions during product use (use phase), due to the additional purchases of new, more energy-efficient air conditioners, and the increase in emissions arising from the additional production of new air conditioners stimulated by the reduction of the average product lifetime. A scenario analysis focused on residential air conditioners in Japan during 1972-2013 showed that for a reduction of average lifetime of 1 year, if the air conditioner energy efficiency limit can be improved by 1.4% from the estimated current efficiency level, then CO2 emissions can be reduced by approximately the same amount as for an extension of average product lifetime of 1 year. PMID:27423771

  12. Antimicrobial nanoparticle-coated electrostatic air filter with high filtration efficiency and low pressure drop.

    PubMed

    Sim, Kyoung Mi; Park, Hyun-Seol; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Jung, Jae Hee

    2015-11-15

    In this study, we demonstrated an antimicrobial nanoparticle-coated electrostatic (ES) air filter. Antimicrobial natural-product Sophora flavescens nanoparticles were produced using an aerosol process, and were continuously deposited onto the surface of air filter media. For the electrostatic activation of the filter medium, a corona discharge electrification system was used before and after antimicrobial treatment of the filter. In the antimicrobial treatment process, the deposition efficiency of S. flavescens nanoparticles on the ES filter was ~12% higher than that on the pristine (Non-ES) filter. In the evaluation of filtration performance using test particles (a nanosized KCl aerosol and submicron-sized Staphylococcus epidermidis bioaerosol), the ES filter showed better filtration efficiency than the Non-ES filter. However, antimicrobial treatment with S. flavescens nanoparticles affected the filtration efficiency of the filter differently depending on the size of the test particles. While the filtration efficiency of the KCl nanoparticles was reduced on the ES filter after the antimicrobial treatment, the filtration efficiency was improved after the recharging process. In summary, we prepared an antimicrobial ES air filter with >99% antimicrobial activity, ~92.5% filtration efficiency (for a 300-nm KCl aerosol), and a ~0.8 mmAq pressure drop (at 13 cm/s). This study provides valuable information for the development of a hybrid air purification system that can serve various functions and be used in an indoor environment. PMID:26172593

  13. Improving Compressed Air Energy Efficiency in Automotive Plants - Practical Examples and Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Kissock, Professor Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The automotive industry is the largest industry in the United States in terms of the dollar value of production [1]. U.S. automakers face tremendous pressure from foreign competitors, which have an increasing manufacturing presence in this country. The Big Three North American Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler are reacting to declining sales figures and economic strain by working more efficiently and seeking out opportunities to reduce production costs without negatively affecting the production volume or the quality of the product. Successful, cost-effective investment and implementation of the energy efficiency technologies and practices meet the challenge of maintaining the output of high quality product with reduced production costs. Automotive stamping and assembly plants are typically large users of compressed air with annual compressed air utility bills in the range of $2M per year per plant. This paper focuses on practical methods that the authors have researched, analyzed and implemented to improve compressed air system efficiency in automobile manufacturing facilities. It describes typical compressed air systems in automotive stamping and assembly plants, and compares these systems to best practices. The paper then presents a series of examples, organized using the method of inside-out approach, which strategically identifies the energy savings in the compressed air system by first minimizing end-use demand, then minimizing distribution losses, and finally making improvements to primary energy conversion equipment, the air compressor plant.

  14. Into Thin Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Shows how schools are working to avoid the types of equipment, supplies, and maintenance practices that harm indoor air quality. Simple steps to maintaining a cleaner indoor air environment are highlighted as are steps to reducing the problem air quality and the occurrence of asthma. (GR)

  15. 10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section 431.76 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.76 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency...

  16. 10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section 431.76 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.76 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency...

  17. 10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section 431.76 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.76 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency...

  18. 10 CFR 431.96 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial air conditioners and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. 431.96 Section 431.96 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial... energy efficiency of commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. (a) Scope. This section contains...

  19. 10 CFR 431.96 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial air conditioners and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. 431.96 Section 431.96 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial... energy efficiency of commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. (a) Scope. This section contains...

  20. 10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section 431.76 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.76 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency...

  1. 10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section 431.76 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.76 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency...

  2. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  3. Technical, occupational health and environmental aspects of metal degreasing with aqueous cleaners.

    PubMed

    Lavoué, Jérôme; Bégin, Denis; Géerin, Michel

    2003-08-01

    Aqueous cleaners used for metal degreasing are detergent formulations containing surfactants (such as linear alkylbenzene sulphonates, alkylphenol ethoxylates or alcohol ethoxylates), builders (such as hydroxides, phosphates or silicates), sequestrants (such as EDTA or NTA), anti-corrosive agents (such as ethanolamines), solvents (such as glycol ethers or d-limonene) and other specialty additives. Generally sold as concentrates, they are typically diluted between 3 and 20 times in water, leading to solutions containing only a few per cent active products. The cleaning efficiency depends on physicochemical phenomena such as wetting, solubilization, emulsification, dispersion, sequestration and saponification, and is enhanced by thermal and mechanical energy. Cleaning equipment is based on spraying or immersion of the parts and may include drying and rinsing steps. Because of the complexity and variability of the mixtures, the occupational health and environmental evaluation of aqueous cleaners is based on the study of their components. Aqueous cleaners are generally believed to present a low risk to workers' health and to the environment. However, some anionic surfactants and strong alkalis are skin and eye irritants, ethanolamines are allergenic and several glycol ethers of the ethylene glycol family are proven systemic toxicants that are easily absorbed through the skin. Although most components of aqueous cleaners are biodegradable and of low ecotoxicity, alkylphenol ethoxylates degrade into persistent and toxic compounds. Phosphates, if released directly into the environment, may cause eutrophication of rivers and lakes. Waste recycling or treatment by specialized facilities is usually required for spent solutions containing contaminants such as oils and heavy metals. From a technical, toxicological and environmental standpoint, aqueous cleaners can be used successfully to replace traditional organic solvents used in metal degreasing. PMID:12890654

  4. CLEANER-Hydrologic Observatory Joint Science Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welty, C.; Dressler, K.; Hooper, R.

    2005-12-01

    The CLEANER-Hydrologic Observatory* initiative is a distributed network for research on complex environmental systems that focuses on the intersecting water-related issues of both the CUAHSI and CLEANER communities. It emphasizes research on the nation's water resources related to human-dominated natural and built environments. The network will be comprised of: interacting field sites with an integrated cyberinfrastructure; a centralized technical resource staff and management infrastructure to support interdisciplinary research through data collection from advanced sensor systems, data mining and aggregation from multiple sources and databases; cyber-tools for analysis, visualization, and predictive multi-scale modeling that is dynamically driven. As such, the network will transform 21st century workforce development in the water-related intersection of environmental science and engineering, as well as enable substantial educational and engagement opportunities for all age levels. The scientific goal and strategic intent of the CLEANER-Hydrologic Observatory Network is to transform our understanding of the earth's water cycle and associated biogeochemical cycles across spatial and temporal scales-enabling quantitative forecasts of critical water-related processes, especially those that affect and are affected by human activities. This strategy will develop scientific and engineering tools that will enable more effective adaptive approaches for resource management. The need for the network is based on three critical deficiencies in current abilities to understand large-scale environmental processes and thereby develop more effective management strategies. First we lack basic data and the infrastructure to collect them at the needed resolution. Second, we lack the means to integrate data across scales from different media (paper records, electronic worksheets, web-based) and sources (observations, experiments, simulations). Third, we lack sufficiently accurate

  5. 7 CFR 3201.80 - Electronic components cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electronic components cleaners. 3201.80 Section 3201... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.80 Electronic components cleaners. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to wash or remove dirt or extraneous matter from electronic parts, devices, circuits, or...

  6. 7 CFR 3201.80 - Electronic components cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electronic components cleaners. 3201.80 Section 3201... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.80 Electronic components cleaners. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to wash or remove dirt or extraneous matter from electronic parts, devices, circuits, or...

  7. 7 CFR 3201.65 - Concrete and asphalt cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Concrete and asphalt cleaners. 3201.65 Section 3201... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.65 Concrete and asphalt cleaners. (a) Definition. Chemicals used in concrete etching as well as to remove petroleum-based soils, lubricants, paints, mastics, organic...

  8. 7 CFR 3201.65 - Concrete and asphalt cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Concrete and asphalt cleaners. 3201.65 Section 3201... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.65 Concrete and asphalt cleaners. (a) Definition. Chemicals used in concrete etching as well as to remove petroleum-based soils, lubricants, paints, mastics, organic...

  9. 7 CFR 3201.65 - Concrete and asphalt cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Concrete and asphalt cleaners. 3201.65 Section 3201... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.65 Concrete and asphalt cleaners. (a) Definition. Chemicals used in concrete etching as well as to remove petroleum-based soils, lubricants, paints, mastics, organic...

  10. 7 CFR 3201.69 - Floor cleaners and protectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.69 Floor cleaners and protectors. (a) Definition. Cleaning solutions for... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Floor cleaners and protectors. 3201.69 Section 3201.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT...

  11. 7 CFR 3201.83 - Furniture cleaners and protectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Furniture cleaners and protectors. 3201.83 Section 3201.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.83 Furniture cleaners and protectors. (a) Definition. Products designed...

  12. 7 CFR 3201.69 - Floor cleaners and protectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.69 Floor cleaners and protectors. (a) Definition. Cleaning solutions for... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Floor cleaners and protectors. 3201.69 Section 3201.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT...

  13. 7 CFR 3201.69 - Floor cleaners and protectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.69 Floor cleaners and protectors. (a) Definition. Cleaning solutions for... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Floor cleaners and protectors. 3201.69 Section 3201.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT...

  14. 7 CFR 3201.83 - Furniture cleaners and protectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Furniture cleaners and protectors. 3201.83 Section 3201.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.83 Furniture cleaners and protectors. (a) Definition. Products designed...

  15. Performance of a Modified Cylinder Cleaner, Part I

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A chisel-shape grid bar with a sharp cutting edge was designed and installed in a modified cylinder cleaner. The cleaner’s seed cotton and lint cleaning performances were evaluated in two tests. Results indicated that a cylinder cleaner with narrowly spaced chisel-shape grid bars connected in seri...

  16. 7 CFR 2902.35 - Bathroom and spa cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bathroom and spa cleaners. 2902.35 Section 2902.35 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES... Items § 2902.35 Bathroom and spa cleaners. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to clean...

  17. 7 CFR 2902.35 - Bathroom and spa cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bathroom and spa cleaners. 2902.35 Section 2902.35 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES... Items § 2902.35 Bathroom and spa cleaners. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to clean...

  18. Saw-type Lint Cleaner Damage by Machinery Components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saw-type lint cleaners are commonly used to improve the overall quality of ginned lint by removing non-lint content and less desirable short fibers; however saw-type lint cleaners discard a certain amount of good lint while removing foreign matter and short fiber from the good lint. The saw-type li...

  19. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air-Conditioning (DEVap): Evaluation of a New Concept in Ultra Efficient Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Burch, J.; Boranian, A.; Merrigan, T.

    2011-01-01

    NREL has developed the novel concept of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) with the objective of combining the benefits of liquid desiccant and evaporative cooling technologies into an innovative 'cooling core.' Liquid desiccant technologies have extraordinary dehumidification potential, but require an efficient cooling sink. DEVap's thermodynamic potential overcomes many shortcomings of standard refrigeration-based direct expansion cooling. DEVap decouples cooling and dehumidification performance, which results in independent temperature and humidity control. The energy input is largely switched away from electricity to low-grade thermal energy that can be sourced from fuels such as natural gas, waste heat, solar, or biofuels.

  20. Materials Compatibility Testing in RSRM ODC: Free Cleaner Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keen, Jill M.; Sagers, Neil W.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Government regulations have mandated production phase-outs of a number of solvents, including 1,1,1-trichloroethane, an ozone-depleting chemical (ODC). This solvent was used extensively in the production of the Reusable Solid Rocket Motors (RSRMs) for the Space Shuttle. Many tests have been performed to identify replacement cleaners. One major area of concern in the selection of a new cleaner has been compatibility. Some specific areas considered included cleaner compatibility with non-metallic surfaces, painted surfaces, support materials such as gloves and wipers as well as corrosive properties of the cleaners on the alloys used on these motors. The intent of this paper is to summarize the test logic, methodology, and results acquired from testing the many cleaner and material combinations.

  1. Flow Visualization Proposed for Vacuum Cleaner Nozzle Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    In 1995, the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Kirby Company (a major vacuum cleaner company) began negotiations for a Space Act Agreement to conduct research, technology development, and testing involving the flow behavior of airborne particulate flow behavior. Through these research efforts, we hope to identify ways to improve suction, flow rate, and surface agitation characteristics of nozzles used in vacuum cleaner nozzles. We plan to apply an advanced visualization technology, known as Stereoscopic Imaging Velocimetry (SIV), to a Kirby G-4 vacuum cleaner. Resultant data will be analyzed with a high-speed digital motion analysis system. We also plan to evaluate alternative vacuum cleaner nozzle designs. The overall goal of this project is to quantify both velocity fields and particle trajectories throughout the vacuum cleaner nozzle to optimize its "cleanability"--its ability to disturb and remove embedded dirt and other particulates from carpeting or hard surfaces. Reference

  2. Indoor air-quality measurements in energy-efficient residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, J.V.; Hollowell, C.D.; Pepper, J.H.; Young, R.

    1980-05-01

    The potential impact on indoor air quality of energy-conserving measures that reduce ventilation is being assessed in a field-monitoring program conducted by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Using a mobile laboratory, on-site monitoring of infiltration rate, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, total aldehydes, and particulates was conducted in three houses designed to be energy-efficient. Preliminary results show that energy-conserving design features that reduce air-exchange rates compromise indoor air quality; specifically, indoor levels of several pollutants were found to exceed levels detected outdoors. Although the indoor levels of most pollutants are within limits established by present outdoor air-quality standards, considerable work remains to be accomplished before health-risk effects can be accurately assessed and broad-scale regulatory guidelines revised to comply with energy-conservation goals.

  3. Technical and economic analysis of energy efficiency of Chinese room air conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Fridley, David G.; Rosenquist, Gregory; Jiang, Lin; Li, Aixian; Xin, Dingguo; Cheng, Jianhong

    2001-02-01

    China has experienced tremendous growth in the production and sales of room air conditioners over the last decade. Although minimum room air conditioner energy efficiency standards have been in effect since 1989, no efforts were made during most of the 1990's to update the standard to be more reflective of current market conditions. In 1999, China's State Bureau of Technical Supervision (SBTS) included in their annual plan the development and revision of the 1989 room air conditioner standard, and experts from SBTS worked together with LBNL to analyze the new standards. Based on the engineering and life cycle-cost analyses performed, the most predominant type of room air conditioner in the Chinese market (split-type with a cooling capacity between 2500 and 4500 W (8500 Btu/h and 15,300Btu/h)) can have its efficiency increased cost-effectively to an energy efficiency ratio (EER) of 2.92 W/W (9.9 Btu/hr/W). If an EER standard of 2.92 W/W became effective in 2001, Chinese consumers would be estimated to save over 3.5 billion Yuan (420 million U.S. dollars) over the period of 2001-2020. Carbon emissions over the same period would be reduced by approximately 12 million metric tonnes.

  4. RESEARCH ON IMPACT OF OZONE GENERATORS ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone-generating air cleaners are marketed to homeowners as well as business establishments ostensibly to remove odors and other contaminants from indoor air. A typical air cleaner consists of an ozone generator, fan, housing, and controls. Units may also employ filters to remov...

  5. The evolution of air resonance power efficiency in the violin and its ancestors

    PubMed Central

    Nia, Hadi T.; Jain, Ankita D.; Liu, Yuming; Alam, Mohammad-Reza; Barnas, Roman; Makris, Nicholas C.

    2015-01-01

    The fact that acoustic radiation from a violin at air-cavity resonance is monopolar and can be determined by pure volume change is used to help explain related aspects of violin design evolution. By determining the acoustic conductance of arbitrarily shaped sound holes, it is found that air flow at the perimeter rather than the broader sound-hole area dominates acoustic conductance, and coupling between compressible air within the violin and its elastic structure lowers the Helmholtz resonance frequency from that found for a corresponding rigid instrument by roughly a semitone. As a result of the former, it is found that as sound-hole geometry of the violin's ancestors slowly evolved over centuries from simple circles to complex f-holes, the ratio of inefficient, acoustically inactive to total sound-hole area was decimated, roughly doubling air-resonance power efficiency. F-hole length then slowly increased by roughly 30% across two centuries in the renowned workshops of Amati, Stradivari and Guarneri, favouring instruments with higher air-resonance power, through a corresponding power increase of roughly 60%. By evolution-rate analysis, these changes are found to be consistent with mutations arising within the range of accidental replication fluctuations from craftsmanship limitations with subsequent selection favouring instruments with higher air-resonance power. PMID:25792964

  6. Improving Energy Efficiency in Pharmaceutical ManufacturingOperations -- Part I: Motors, Drives and Compressed Air Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Chang, Sheng-chien; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet,Eric

    2006-04-01

    In Part I of this two-part series, we focus on efficient use of motors, drives and pumps, both for process equipment and compressed air systems. Pharmaceutical manufacturing plants in the U.S. spend nearly $1 billion each year for the fuel and electricity they need to keep their facilities running (Figure 1, below). That total that can increase dramatically when fuel supplies tighten and oil prices rise, as they did last year. Improving energy efficiency should be a strategic goal for any plant manager or manufacturing professional working in the drug industry today. Not only can energy efficiency reduce overall manufacturing costs, it usually reduces environmental emissions, establishing a strong foundation for a corporate greenhouse-gas-management program. For most pharmaceutical manufacturing plants, Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) is typically the largest consumer of energy, as shown in Table 1 below. This two-part series will examine energy use within pharmaceutical facilities, summarize best practices and examine potential savings and return on investment. In this first article, we will focus on efficient use of motors, drives and pumps, both for process equipment and compressed air systems. Part 2, to be published in May, will focus on overall HVAC systems, building management and boilers.

  7. Beyond Symbiosis: Cleaner Shrimp Clean Up in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Militz, Thane A.; Hutson, Kate S.

    2015-01-01

    Cleaner organisms exhibit a remarkable natural behaviour where they consume ectoparasites attached to “client” organisms. While this behaviour can be utilized as a natural method of parasitic disease control (or biocontrol), it is not known whether cleaner organisms can also limit reinfection from parasite eggs and larvae within the environment. Here we show that cleaner shrimp, Lysmata amboinensis, consume eggs and larvae of a harmful monogenean parasite, Neobenedenia sp., in aquaculture. Shrimp consumed parasite eggs under diurnal (63%) and nocturnal (14%) conditions as well as infectious larvae (oncomiracidia) diurnally (26%). Furthermore, we trialled the inclusion of cleaner shrimp for preventative parasite management of ornamental fish, Pseudanthias squamipinnis, and found shrimp reduced oncomiracidia infection success of host fish by half compared to controls (held without shrimp). Fish held without cleaner shrimp exhibited pigmentation changes as a result of infection, possibly indicative of a stress response. These results provide the first empirical evidence that cleaner organisms reduce parasite loads in the environment through non-symbiotic cleaning activities. Our research findings have relevance to aquaculture and the marine ornamental trade, where cleaner shrimp could be applied for prophylaxis and control of ectoparasite infections. PMID:25706952

  8. Beyond symbiosis: cleaner shrimp clean up in culture.

    PubMed

    Militz, Thane A; Hutson, Kate S

    2015-01-01

    Cleaner organisms exhibit a remarkable natural behaviour where they consume ectoparasites attached to "client" organisms. While this behaviour can be utilized as a natural method of parasitic disease control (or biocontrol), it is not known whether cleaner organisms can also limit reinfection from parasite eggs and larvae within the environment. Here we show that cleaner shrimp, Lysmata amboinensis, consume eggs and larvae of a harmful monogenean parasite, Neobenedenia sp., in aquaculture. Shrimp consumed parasite eggs under diurnal (63%) and nocturnal (14%) conditions as well as infectious larvae (oncomiracidia) diurnally (26%). Furthermore, we trialled the inclusion of cleaner shrimp for preventative parasite management of ornamental fish, Pseudanthias squamipinnis, and found shrimp reduced oncomiracidia infection success of host fish by half compared to controls (held without shrimp). Fish held without cleaner shrimp exhibited pigmentation changes as a result of infection, possibly indicative of a stress response. These results provide the first empirical evidence that cleaner organisms reduce parasite loads in the environment through non-symbiotic cleaning activities. Our research findings have relevance to aquaculture and the marine ornamental trade, where cleaner shrimp could be applied for prophylaxis and control of ectoparasite infections. PMID:25706952

  9. Cleaner wrasse influence habitat selection of young damselfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, D.; Cheney, K. L.; Werminghausen, J.; McClure, E. C.; Meekan, M. G.; McCormick, M. I.; Cribb, T. H.; Grutter, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    The presence of bluestreak cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, on coral reefs increases total abundance and biodiversity of reef fishes. The mechanism(s) that cause such shifts in population structure are unclear, but it is possible that young fish preferentially settle into microhabitats where cleaner wrasse are present. As a first step to investigate this possibility, we conducted aquarium experiments to examine whether settlement-stage and young juveniles of ambon damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis, selected a microhabitat near a cleaner wrasse (adult or juvenile). Both settlement-stage (0 d post-settlement) and juvenile (~5 weeks post-settlement) fish spent a greater proportion of time in a microhabitat adjacent to L. dimidiatus than in one next to a control fish (a non-cleaner wrasse, Halichoeres melanurus) or one where no fish was present. This suggests that cleaner wrasse may serve as a positive cue during microhabitat selection. We also conducted focal observations of cleaner wrasse and counts of nearby damselfishes (1 m radius) to examine whether newly settled fish obtained direct benefits, in the form of cleaning services, from being near a cleaner wrasse. Although abundant, newly settled recruits (<20 mm total length) were rarely (2 %) observed being cleaned in 20 min observations compared with larger damselfishes (58 %). Individual damselfish that were cleaned were significantly larger than the median size of the surrounding nearby non-cleaned conspecifics; this was consistent across four species. The selection by settlement-stage fish of a microhabitat adjacent to cleaner wrasse in the laboratory, despite only being rarely cleaned in the natural environment, suggests that even rare cleaning events and/or indirect benefits may drive their settlement choices. This behaviour may also explain the decreased abundance of young fishes on reefs from which cleaner wrasse had been experimentally removed. This study reinforces the potentially important role of

  10. Use of GC/MS and Microtome Techniques as Methods to Evaluate ODC Free Cleaner Diffusion and Evaporation in Insulation and Phenolic Case Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biegert, L. L.

    2001-01-01

    Because of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) many chlorinated solvents used in the aerospace industry are being phased out. Replacement of the ODC (ozone-depleting chemicals) with less volatile, non-ozone depleting cleaners has been extensively studied over the past seven years at Thiokol Propulsion, a Division of Cordant Technologies, Inc. The down selection of ODC replacement cleaners has been based on several factors including the diffusion evaporation of the cleaners in selected substrates. Methodologies were developed to evaluate the cleaner content in substrates. Methods of cutting thin slices of material (microtoming) were combined with GC/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy) analysis. Substrates evaluated in this study include potential solid rocket motor materials: ASNBR (asbestos-filled nitrile butadiene rubber) and CFEPDM (carbon-filled ethylene propylene dimonomer) insulation and glass (GCP), carbon (CCP) and silica (SCP) cloth phenolic substrates with fibers either parallel (0 deg) or perpendicular (90 deg) to the surface. Residue profiles indicate both cleaner and substrate composition affect the diffusion and subsequent evaporation of the cleaner from the substrate surface.

  11. Increasing round trip efficiency of hybrid Li-air battery with bifunctional catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, K; Li, YF; Xing, YC

    2013-07-30

    Previously it was shown that Pt as cathode catalyst ha's a large overpotential during charge in rechargeable hybrid Li-air battery with sulfuric acid catholyte. This article demonstrates that a bifunctional catalyst composed of Pt and IrO2 supported on carbon nanotubes can address this problem. The specially designed and synthesized bifunctional catalyst showed significant overpotential reduction and achieved a round trip energy efficiency of 81% after 10 cycles, higher than many achieved in aprotic Li-O-2 batteries. The hybrid Li-air battery was discharged and recharged for 20 cycles at 0.2 mA/cm(2), showing a fairly stable cell performance. A specific capacity of 306 mAh/g and a specific energy of 1110 Wh/kg were obtained for the hybrid Li-air battery in terms of acid weight. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Carbon Dioxide and Ionic Liquid Refrigerants: Compact, Efficient Air Conditioning with Ionic Liquid-Based Refrigerants

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    BEETIT Project: Notre Dame is developing an air-conditioning system with a new ionic liquid and CO2 as the working fluid. Synthetic refrigerants used in air conditioning and refrigeration systems are potent GHGs and can trap 1,000 times more heat in the atmosphere than CO2 alone—making CO2 an attractive alternative for synthetic refrigerants in cooling systems. However, operating cooling systems with pure CO2 requires prohibitively high pressures and expensive hardware. Notre Dame is creating a new fluid made of CO2 and ionic liquid that enables the use of CO2 at low pressures and requires minimal changes to existing hardware and production lines. This new fluid also produces no harmful emissions and can improve the efficiency of air conditioning systems— enabling new use of CO2 as a refrigerant in cooling systems.

  13. Roll-to-Roll Transfer of Electrospun Nanofiber Film for High-Efficiency Transparent Air Filter.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinwei; Liu, Chong; Hsu, Po-Chun; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Rufan; Liu, Yayuan; Cui, Yi

    2016-02-10

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution in air has become a serious environmental issue calling for new type of filter technologies. Recently, we have demonstrated a highly efficient air filter by direct electrospinning of polymer fibers onto supporting mesh although its throughput is limited. Here, we demonstrate a high throughput method based on fast transfer of electrospun nanofiber film from roughed metal foil to a receiving mesh substrate. Compared with the direct electrospinning method, the transfer method is 10 times faster and has better filtration performance at the same transmittance, owing to the uniformity of transferred nanofiber film (>99.97% removal of PM2.5 at ∼73% of transmittance). With these advantages, large area freestanding nanofiber film and roll-to-roll production of air filter are demonstrated. PMID:26789781

  14. Ozone Generators That Are Sold as Air Cleaners

    MedlinePlus

    ... possible even when a user follows the manufacturer’s operating instructions . There are many brands and models of ... suggests that users err on the side of operating a more powerful machine than would normally be ...

  15. ERMS guidebook: Cleaner air, reduced cost, Illinois EPA

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The Illinois EPA has prepared this guidebook to help participants in the Emissions Reduction Market System and other interested persons understand how the system is designed and going to be operated. This guidebook serves as a supplement to other important reference materials such as the ERMS regulations (35 Ill. Admin. Code 205) and the Environmental Protection Act (Sec. 98.).

  16. An efficient new automobile air-conditioning system based on CO{sub 2} vapor compression

    SciTech Connect

    Pettersen, J.

    1994-12-31

    A new, efficient, and environmentally safe automobile air-conditioning system based on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) vapor compression has been developed. Although working pressures and component design are different, the basic principles are similar to those of current chlorofluorocarbon/hydrofluorocarbon (CFC/HFC) units. With the construction and testing of a laboratory prototype, it has been documented that the new system is highly competitive with current CFC-12 and HFC-134a units in terms of efficiency, capacity, cost, weight, and dimensions. The CO{sub 2} concept thus offers a solution to the environmental problem associated with automobile air conditioning and eliminates all uncertainties with respect to possible unforeseen effects from new refrigerant compounds. Further advantages of the natural fluid CO{sub 2} as a refrigerant are: no need for recycling or recovery, low cost of fluid, excellent availability, well-known properties, and more compact machinery and components.

  17. Efficient organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells processed in air.

    PubMed

    Seetharaman S, Madhu; Nagarjuna, Puvvala; Kumar, P Naresh; Singh, Surya Prakash; Deepa, Melepurath; Namboothiry, Manoj A G

    2014-12-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells with fluorine doped tin oxide/titanium dioxide/CH3NH3PbI3-xClx/poly(3-hexylthiophene)/silver were made in air with more than 50% humidity. The best devices showed an open circuit voltage of 640 mV, a short circuit current density of 18.85 mA cm(-2), a fill factor of 0.407 and a power conversion efficiency of 5.67%. The devices showed external quantum efficiency varying from 60 to 80% over a wavelength region of 350 nm to 750 nm of the solar spectrum. The morphology of the perovskite was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and it was found to be porous in nature. This study provides insights into air-stability of perovskite solar cells. PMID:25315711

  18. A helium freeze-out cleaner operating at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauvergne, J. P.; Delikaris, D.; Haug, F.; Knoops, S.

    A low pressure helium purification system has been designed at CERN. The helium gas recovered by means of a set of vacuum pumps from subatmospheric cryogenic circuits is cleaned at purity levels permitting direct re-liquefaction into the main cryo-plant cycle. The gas to be cleaned is close to ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. It is cooled down to 33K by counterflow heat exchanger with the processed gas plus a small amount of cold helium gas derived from the main cryoplant. Impurities in the gas to be processed are condensed on the cold surfaces, and purification is secured by a filtering. The processed gas returns directly to the low pressure suction flow of the cryo-plant compressor. So far two freeze-out cleaners have been designed and built and are currently in operation at two independent cryo-plants with liquifaction capacities of approximately 3.5 g/s. The results obtained on purification performance and "lifetime" before subsequent regeneration of the device, pressure drop depending on impurity contents, cold gas requirements and heat exchanger performance compare well with theoretical predictions. Helium gas with impurity levels of up to close to 13000 ppm by weight have been treated. At 2300 ppm and a processed helium gas flow of 0.7 g/s life times of close to 24 hours could be obtained permitting the deposition of 135 g of solid air. Regeneration cycles with respect to life time are short (15 minutes).

  19. Effects of air tightness of the building envelope as witnessed through an energy efficiency retrofit program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzak, Adam

    Air leakage through the building envelope has been identified as a major factor affecting the energy consumption of buildings. This study explored homes located in Central Indiana that were recipients of government-sponsored grants to perform energy efficient upgrades. To combat the issue of air leakage, many homes were retrofitted with air sealing packages. A certified energy auditor performed before and after blower door tests to measure the air leakage of each home. An analysis of the 63 homes measured resulted in the conclusion that the overall improvement in blower door test results was greater than 20%. In addition to blower door tests, the energy auditor inspected each home and generated a list of recommended energy efficient upgrades (within the scope of the grant) as well as their respective installation costs. An analysis was performed investigating the auditor's accuracy at estimating these costs. Based on data from 33 homes, the conclusion was made that the energy auditor was not proficient in the role of a construction estimator. The disparity between estimated and actual costs was not within the 10-15% target range.

  20. Increased Efficiency in SI Engine with Air Replaced by Oxygen in Argon Mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Killingsworth, N J; Rapp, V H; Flowers, D L; Aceves, S M; Chen, J; Dibble, R

    2010-01-13

    Basic engine thermodynamics predicts that spark ignited engine efficiency is a function of both the compression ratio of the engine and the specific heat ratio of the working fluid. In practice the compression ratio of the engine is often limited due to knock. Both higher specific heat ratio and higher compression ratio lead to higher end gas temperatures and increase the likelihood of knock. In actual engine cycles, heat transfer losses increase at higher compression ratios and limit efficiency even when the knock limit is not reached. In this paper we investigate the role of both the compression ratio and the specific heat ratio on engine efficiency by conducting experiments comparing operation of a single-cylinder variable-compression-ratio engine with both hydrogen-air and hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures. For low load operation it is found that the hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures result in higher indicated thermal efficiencies. Peak efficiency for the hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures is found at compression ratio 5.5 whereas for the hydrogen-air mixture with an equivalence ratio of 0.24 the peak efficiency is found at compression ratio 13. We apply a three-zone model to help explain the effects of specific heat ratio and compression ratio on efficiency. Operation with hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures at low loads is more efficient because the lower compression ratio results in a substantially larger portion of the gas to reside in the adiabatic core rather than in the boundary layer and in the crevices, leading to less heat transfer and more complete combustion.

  1. Efficient removal of gaseous formaldehyde in air using hierarchical titanate nanospheres with in situ amine functionalization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Liu, Shengwei; Yu, Jiaguo

    2016-07-21

    Removing formaldehyde (HCHO) in air by efficient and recyclable adsorbents is crucial for improving indoor air quality. Nanosized adsorbents with a higher surface area and abundant functional groups are highly desirable. In this report, hierarchical titanate nanospheres (HTS) were prepared as effective adsorbents by the diethylenetriamine (DETA) mediated one-pot solvothermal process. Typically, the HTS adsorbents were assembled by titanate nanosheets with abundant in situ grafted amine groups. Impressively, because of their hierarchical assembled structure, considerable specific surface area and pore volume, and abundant surface amine groups, the optimized HTS adsorbents exhibited excellent HCHO adsorption properties, with nearly 100% removal efficiency for HCHO in air at room temperature. Moreover, the recyclability of optimized HTS adsorbents is considerable, with only a very slight decrease in removal efficiency after 6 cycles. The DETA introduced into the synthesis system is crucial for both chemical and textural modifications of HTS adsorbents. Specifically, the DETA mediator not only affects significantly the phase, morphology, and textural properties of the obtained titanate products, but also induces in situ grafted surface amine groups. As a consequence, the adsorption capacity and recyclability of HTS adsorbents can be largely modified by adding different amounts of DETA to the synthesis system. PMID:27331932

  2. Improving Best Air Conditioner Efficiency by 20-30% through a High Efficiency Fan and Diffuser Stage Coupled with an Evaporative Condenser Pre-Cooler

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Danny S; Sherwin, John R; Raustad, Richard

    2014-04-10

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) conducted a research project to improve the best residential air conditioner condenser technology currently available on the market by retrofitting a commercially-available unit with both a high efficiency fan system and an evaporative pre-cooler. The objective was to integrate these two concepts to achieve an ultra-efficient residential air conditioner design. The project produced a working prototype that was 30% more efficient compared to the best currently-available technologies; the peak the energy efficiency ratio (EER) was improved by 41%. Efficiency at the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) standard B-condition which is used to estimate seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER), was raised from a nominal 21 Btu/Wh to 32 Btu/Wh.

  3. Energy Efficiency in Buildings as an Air Quality Compliance Approach: Opportunities for the U.S. Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, Edward

    2002-05-01

    Increasing the energy efficiency of end-use equipment in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors can reduce air pollution emissions and greenhouse gases significantly. Because energy efficiency is an effective means of reducing multi-pollutant emissions, it is important to ensure that energy efficiency is a fully engaged component of emission-reduction programs. However, while energy-efficiency measures are perceived by many stakeholders to be important options for improving air quality, some members in the air quality community are concerned about the ability of these measures to fit in a regulatory framework-in particular, the ability of emissions reductions from energy-efficiency measures to be real, quantifiable, certifiable, and enforceable. Hence, there are few air quality programs that include energy efficiency as a tool for complying with air quality regulations. This paper describes the connection between energy consumption and air quality, the potential role of energy-efficiency measures to meet air quality regulations, the barriers and challenges to the use of these measures in the air quality regulatory environment, and the potential role that the U.S. Department of Energy's (USDOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Building Technology, State and Community Programs (EERE-Buildings) could play in this area. EERE-Buildings can play a very important role in promoting energy efficiency in the air quality community, in ways that are fully consistent with its overall mission. EERE-Buildings will need to work with other stakeholders to aggressively promote energy efficiency via multiple means: publications, analytical tools, pilot programs, demonstrations, and program and policy analysis and evaluation. EERE-Buildings and state energy officials have considerable experience in implementing and monitoring energy-savings projects, as well as in designing documentation and verification requirements of energy-efficiency improvements. The

  4. 7 CFR 3201.100 - Aircraft and boat cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... content for all aircraft and boat cleaners shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in the product as a percent of the weight (mass) of the total organic carbon in the finished product....

  5. 16. INTERIOR VIEW, BASEMENT, LOOKING NORTHWEST AT 'SMUT MILL' CLEANER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR VIEW, BASEMENT, LOOKING NORTHWEST AT 'SMUT MILL'- CLEANER FOR BUCKWHEAT, AND GRAIN CHUTES. GRAIN ELEVATOR TURN-AROUND AT BASE. - Schech's Mill, Beaver Creek State Park, La Crescent, Houston County, MN

  6. Detail exterior view looking northwest showing field gas cleaner in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail exterior view looking northwest showing field gas cleaner in the center. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  7. Evaluation of aqueous cleaners as alternatives to vapor degreasing

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, R.A.; Schneider, T.W.; Frye, G.C.

    1996-05-01

    As part of the preparation process during assembly of thermally activated batteries, the stainless steel piece parts are normally cleaned by vapor degreasing with trichloroethylene. Severe restrictions on the use of chlorinated and fluorinated hydrocarbons in recent years prompted the evaluation of a number of aqueous cleaners as a replacement technology for this application. A total of seven commercial aqueous degreasers was evaluated in this study at several dilution ratios and temperatures. One organic cleaner was also examined under ambient conditions. The effectiveness of the cleaner was determined by the use of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which is a surface analytical technique that is very sensitive to low levels of surface contaminants. A quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) that is immersed in the cleaning bath was evaluated as a tool for monitoring the bath cleanliness. The best overall cleaning results were obtained with Micro, Impro-Clean 3800, and Sonicor cleaners.

  8. Evaluation of aqueous cleaners as alternatives to vapor degreasing

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, R.A.; Schneider, T.W.; Frye, G.C.

    1996-02-01

    As part of the preparation process during assembly of thermally activated batteries, the stainless steel piece parts are normally cleaned by vapor degreasing with trichloroethylene. Severe restrictions on the use of chlorinated and fluorinated hydrocarbons in recent years prompted the evaluation of a number of aqueous cleaners as a replacement technology for this application. A total of seven commercial aqueous degreasers was evaluated in this study at several dilution ratios and temperatures. One organic cleaner was also examined under ambient conditions. The effectiveness of the cleaner was determined by the use of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which is a surface analytical technique that is very sensitive to low levels of surface contaminants. A quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) that is immersed in the cleaning bath was evaluated as a tool for monitoring the bath cleanliness. The best overall cleaning results were obtained with Micro, Impro-Clean 3800, and Sonicor cleaners.

  9. 7 CFR 2902.34 - Carpet and upholstery cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... upholstery cleaners shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in the product as a percent of the weight (mass) of the total organic carbon in the finished product. The applicable minimum...

  10. ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON RIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON RIGHT, LOOKING NORTH. NOTE ONE STYLE OF DENVER AGITATOR IN LOWER RIGHT CELL. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  11. LEAD CLEANER CELLS, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHWEST. NOTE SMALL HANDWHEELS FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LEAD CLEANER CELLS, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHWEST. NOTE SMALL HANDWHEELS FOR GATE VALVES USED TO ADJUST FLOW BETWEEN INDIVIDUAL CELLS. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  12. Statistical estimate of mercury removal efficiencies for air pollution control devices of municipal solid waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Fumitake; Kida, Akiko; Shimaoka, Takayuki

    2010-10-15

    Although representative removal efficiencies of gaseous mercury for air pollution control devices (APCDs) are important to prepare more reliable atmospheric emission inventories of mercury, they have been still uncertain because they depend sensitively on many factors like the type of APCDs, gas temperature, and mercury speciation. In this study, representative removal efficiencies of gaseous mercury for several types of APCDs of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) were offered using a statistical method. 534 data of mercury removal efficiencies for APCDs used in MSWI were collected. APCDs were categorized as fixed-bed absorber (FA), wet scrubber (WS), electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and fabric filter (FF), and their hybrid systems. Data series of all APCD types had Gaussian log-normality. The average removal efficiency with a 95% confidence interval for each APCD was estimated. The FA, WS, and FF with carbon and/or dry sorbent injection systems had 75% to 82% average removal efficiencies. On the other hand, the ESP with/without dry sorbent injection had lower removal efficiencies of up to 22%. The type of dry sorbent injection in the FF system, dry or semi-dry, did not make more than 1% difference to the removal efficiency. The injection of activated carbon and carbon-containing fly ash in the FF system made less than 3% difference. Estimation errors of removal efficiency were especially high for the ESP. The national average of removal efficiency of APCDs in Japanese MSWI plants was estimated on the basis of incineration capacity. Owing to the replacement of old APCDs for dioxin control, the national average removal efficiency increased from 34.5% in 1991 to 92.5% in 2003. This resulted in an additional reduction of about 0.86Mg emission in 2003. Further study using the methodology in this study to other important emission sources like coal-fired power plants will contribute to better emission inventories. PMID:20713298

  13. Replacing Chlorinated-Solvent-Based Cleaners And Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaton, Harley; Davidson, Fred

    1995-01-01

    Brief report describes tests conducted to assess feasibility of using selected chemicals as replacements for selected cleaners, primers, and adhesives containing chlorinated solvents. Cleaners, primers, and adhesives in question used in bonding insulating material in steel cases of solid-fuel rocket motors. Necessary to phase out use of chlorinated solvents because of concerns over toxicity and adverse effects on ozone layer in upper atmosphere.

  14. High efficiency air stable organic photovoltaics with an aqueous inorganic contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayawardena, K. D. G. Imalka; Li, Siying; Sam, Laurent F.; Smith, Christopher T. G.; Beliatis, Michail J.; Gandhi, Keyur K.; Prabhath, M. R. Ranga; Pozegic, Thomas R.; Chen, Sujie; Xu, Xiaoli; Dabera, G. Dinesha M. R.; Rozanski, Lynn J.; Sporea, Radu A.; Mills, Christopher A.; Guo, Xiaojun; Silva, S. Ravi P.

    2015-08-01

    We report a ZnO interfacial layer based on an environmentally friendly aqueous precursor for organic photovoltaics. Inverted PCDTBT devices based on this precursor show power conversion efficiencies of 6.8-7%. Unencapsulated devices stored in air display prolonged lifetimes extending over 200 hours with less than 20% drop in efficiency compared to devices based on the standard architecture.We report a ZnO interfacial layer based on an environmentally friendly aqueous precursor for organic photovoltaics. Inverted PCDTBT devices based on this precursor show power conversion efficiencies of 6.8-7%. Unencapsulated devices stored in air display prolonged lifetimes extending over 200 hours with less than 20% drop in efficiency compared to devices based on the standard architecture. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental methods, performance of standard architecture, inverted architecture with TiOx interlayer, onset of s-curves for the standard architecture, photoluminescence of the ZnO film, field effect characteristics of the ZnO thin films, thermogravimetric analysis of ZnO. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01239b

  15. High-efficiency gas heat pump air-conditioner equipped with absorption refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Yosuke; Ohashi, Toshinori; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Hihara, Eiji; Kawakami, Ryuichiro

    On conventional gas heat pump(GHP), waste heat from gas engine that uses as driving source is emitted into outside. So from the standpoint of efficient use of waste heat, it is assumed that waste heat from gas engine is used as driving source of absorption chiller, and high temperature condensate refrigerant in GHP is subcooled to middle temperature by cold source from absorption cycle, and as a result, GHP makes more efficiency. However, in equipping GHP with absorption cycle, downsizing and high-efficiency of absorption cycle is required. In this study, air-cooled subcooled adiabatic absorber is focused and physical phenomenon in it is analyzed, and finally one perception of the optimized designing is shown.

  16. TagCleaner: Identification and removal of tag sequences from genomic and metagenomic datasets

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sequencing metagenomes that were pre-amplified with primer-based methods requires the removal of the additional tag sequences from the datasets. The sequenced reads can contain deletions or insertions due to sequencing limitations, and the primer sequence may contain ambiguous bases. Furthermore, the tag sequence may be unavailable or incorrectly reported. Because of the potential for downstream inaccuracies introduced by unwanted sequence contaminations, it is important to use reliable tools for pre-processing sequence data. Results TagCleaner is a web application developed to automatically identify and remove known or unknown tag sequences allowing insertions and deletions in the dataset. TagCleaner is designed to filter the trimmed reads for duplicates, short reads, and reads with high rates of ambiguous sequences. An additional screening for and splitting of fragment-to-fragment concatenations that gave rise to artificial concatenated sequences can increase the quality of the dataset. Users may modify the different filter parameters according to their own preferences. Conclusions TagCleaner is a publicly available web application that is able to automatically detect and efficiently remove tag sequences from metagenomic datasets. It is easily configurable and provides a user-friendly interface. The interactive web interface facilitates export functionality for subsequent data processing, and is available at http://edwards.sdsu.edu/tagcleaner. PMID:20573248

  17. A novel cleaner for colloidal silica abrasive removal in post-Cu CMP cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haiwen, Deng; Baimei, Tan; Baohong, Gao; Chenwei, Wang; Zhangbing, Gu; Yan, Zhang

    2015-10-01

    A novel cleaning solution, named FA/O alkaline cleaner, was proposed and demonstrated in the removal of colloidal silica abrasives. In order to remove both the chemical and physical absorbed colloidal silica abrasives, an FA/OII chelating agent and non-ionic surfactant were added into the cleaner. By varying the concentration of chelating agent and non-ionic surfactant, a series of experiments were performed to determine the best cleaning results. This paper discusses the mechanism of the removal of colloidal silica abrasives with a FA/O alkaline cleaner. Based on the experiment results, it is concluded that both the FA/OII chelating and non-ionic surfactant could benefit the removal of colloidal silica abrasives. When the concentration of FA/OII chelating agent and FA/O non-ionic surfactant reached the optima value, it was demonstrated that silica abrasives could be removed efficiently by this novel cleaning solution. Project supported by the Specific Project Items No. 2 in National Long-Term Technology Development Plan (No. 2009zx02308-003) and the Hebei Province Department of Education Fund (No. QN2014208).

  18. Aeromonas salmonicida infection levels in pre- and post-stocked cleaner fish assessed by culture and an amended qPCR assay.

    PubMed

    Gulla, S; Duodu, S; Nilsen, A; Fossen, I; Colquhoun, D J

    2016-07-01

    Due to increasing resistance to chemical therapeutants, the use of 'cleaner fish' (primarily wrasse, Labridae, species) has become popular in European salmon farming for biocontrol of the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer). While being efficient de-licers, cleaner fish mortality levels in salmon cages are commonly high, and systemic bacterial infections constitute a major problem. Atypical furunculosis, caused by Aeromonas salmonicida A-layer types V and VI, is among the most common diagnoses reached in clinical investigations. A previously described real-time PCR (qPCR), targeting the A. salmonicida A-layer gene (vapA), was modified and validated for specific and sensitive detection of all presently recognized A-layer types of this bacterium. Before stocking and during episodes of increased mortality in salmon cages, cleaner fish (primarily wild-caught wrasse) were sampled and screened for A. salmonicida by qPCR and culture. Culture indicated that systemic bacterial infections are mainly contracted after salmon farm stocking, and qPCR revealed A. salmonicida prevalences of approximately 4% and 68% in pre- and post-stocked cleaner fish, respectively. This underpins A. salmonicida's relevance as a contributing factor to cleaner fish mortality and emphasizes the need for implementation of preventive measures (e.g. vaccination) if current levels of cleaner fish use are to be continued or expanded. PMID:26514414

  19. Converting sensitive waste into cleaner energy

    SciTech Connect

    Schriner, D.; Skinner, R.

    1997-10-01

    The destruction of sensitive unclassified information (SUI) has always been expensive due to the need for special controls to ensure its protection from disclosure to unauthorized persons. The sensitive documents were shredded, buried at the landfill, or sent to a recycling company. The Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), operated by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO), has created an innovative method to dispose of its sensitive unclassified paper waste which has security, economic, and environmental benefits. A new cubing facility at the INEEL converts office and industrial waste into compact cubes which are then combined with coal and burned as a source of heat and process steam to run the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) facility. The process-engineered fuel, consisting of 25% cubes and 75% coal, bums cleaner than coal with lower emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. The alternative fuel also reduces fuel costs, eliminates paying a recycling company, reduces the expense of landfill disposal, increases the life of the landfill, and provides energy to operate a large facility. The Operations Security (OPSEC) team capitalized on this waste to energy technology by recommending that the large quantities of sensitive information (documents) generated at the INEEL be disposed of in this manner. In addition to the economic and environmental benefits, this disposal method minimizes the vulnerabilities of SUI from disclosure to unauthorized personnel. The {open_quotes}cuber{close_quotes} technology has potential application in government and industry for protection of SUI.

  20. Oxygen Systems Cleaners for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Samuel E.; Lowery, Freida

    1997-01-01

    New environmental regulations have forced extensive evaluations of many different cleaning agents for use in oxygen systems. This is no simple process because pure oxygen is a very strong oxidizer, and when placed in contact with a foreign substance, the combination may be explosive. This foreign substance can easily be a cleaning agent residue left over in the oxygen system after cleaning. This paper focuses on the factors that must be considered when selecting a cleaning agent for oxygen systems, as well as the approval processes which are currently being utilized by NASA for oxygen compatibility of materials. This paper will provide a working description of how to begin selecting a cleaning agent for oxygen systems. The paper will present the following: Background information on the necessity of a stringent selection process for oxygen system cleaners; Specifications and regulations concerning cleaning for oxygen service; Changing oxygen cleaning specifications given current environmental concerns; Testing for cleanliness in oxygen systems, Cleaning agents that have been tested for oxygen systems, including an extensive list of some of the newer 'environmentally friendly' cleaning agents; and Test results and conclusions from the testing. The paper will also provide instructions on the proper procedures for obtaining NASA approval on a candidate oxygen systems cleaning agent.

  1. Genesis Ultrapure Water Megasonic Wafer Spin Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, Judith H.; Stansbery, Eileen K.; Calaway, Michael J.; Rodriquez, Melissa C.

    2013-01-01

    A device removes, with high precision, the majority of surface particle contamination greater than 1-micron-diameter in size from ultrapure semiconductor wafer materials containing implanted solar wind samples returned by NASA's Genesis mission. This cleaning device uses a 1.5-liter/minute flowing stream of heated ultrapure water (UPW) with 1- MHz oscillating megasonic pulse energy focused at 3 to 5 mm away from the wafer surface spinning at 1,000 to 10,000 RPM, depending on sample size. The surface particle contamination is removed by three processes: flowing UPW, megasonic cavitations, and centripetal force from the spinning wafer. The device can also dry the wafer fragment after UPW/megasonic cleaning by continuing to spin the wafer in the cleaning chamber, which is purged with flowing ultrapure nitrogen gas at 65 psi (.448 kPa). The cleaner also uses three types of vacuum chucks that can accommodate all Genesis-flown array fragments in any dimensional shape between 3 and 100 mm in diameter. A sample vacuum chuck, and the manufactured UPW/megasonic nozzle holder, replace the human deficiencies by maintaining a consistent distance between the nozzle and wafer surface as well as allowing for longer cleaning time. The 3- to 5-mm critical distance is important for the ability to remove particles by megasonic cavitations. The increased UPW sonication time and exposure to heated UPW improve the removal of 1- to 5-micron-sized particles.

  2. Field Measurements of Heating Efficiency of Electric Forced-Air Furnaces in Six Manufactured Homes.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Bob; Palmiter, Larry S.; Siegel, Jeff

    1994-07-26

    This report presents the results of field measurements of heating efficiency for six manufactured homes in the Pacific Northwest heated with electric forced-air systems. This is the first in a series of regional and national efforts to measure in detail the heating efficiency of manufactured homes. Only six homes were included in this study because of budgetary constraints; therefore this is not a representative sample. These investigations do provide some useful information on the heating efficiency of these homes. Useful comparisons can be drawn between these study homes and site-built heating efficiencies measured with a similar protocol. The protocol used to test these homes is very similar to another Ecotope protocol used in the study conducted in 1992 and 1993 for the Bonneville Power Administration to test the heating efficiency of 24 homes. This protocol combined real-time power measurements of furnace energy usage with energy usage during co-heat periods. Accessory data such as house and duct tightness measurements and tracer gas measurements were used to describe these homes and their heating system efficiency. Ensuring that manufactured housing is constructed in an energy and resource efficient manner is of increasing concern to manufactured home builders and consumers. No comparable work has been done to measure the heating system efficiency of MCS manufactured homes, although some co-heat tests have been performed on manufactured homes heated with natural gas to validate HUD thermal standards. It is expected that later in 1994 more research of this kind will be conducted, and perhaps a less costly and less time-consuming method for testing efficiencies will be develops.

  3. The impact of micromachined ultrasonic radiators on the efficiency of transducers in air.

    PubMed

    Je, Yub; Lee, Haksue; Moon, Wonkyu

    2013-08-01

    The use of micromachined thin-film ultrasonic radiators to improve the efficiency of conventional in-air acoustic transducers is investigated. We conduct a theoretical investigation of the parameters that determine the efficiency of thin-film transducers, using a lumped parameter model, and show that the efficiency can be improved by choosing a radiating plate thickness that can be realized by micromachining. We also identified the problems that should be overcome to design and fabricate a micromachined ultrasonic transducer with the theoretically predicted efficiency. Based on the lumped parameter model, we showed that the problems can be resolved via an appropriate design scheme. A piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer is designed and fabricated to demonstrate the impact of the proposed design method. Test results for the fabricated radiator indicated that it provided an electroacoustic efficiency of 58.4%, up to 300% greater than either the unit previously fabricated by the authors or conventional unimorph ultrasonic transducers. An array of the proposed transducers was also designed, fabricated, and tested as a source transducer for a parametric array, since transducer efficiency is important for practical applications of a parametric array. The test results for the proposed transducer demonstrate its potential for improving the practicality of parametric array sources, such as parametric loudspeakers and directional ultrasonic ranging sensors. PMID:23541961

  4. Efficient and reusable polyamide-56 nanofiber/nets membrane with bimodal structures for air filtration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bowen; Zhang, Shichao; Wang, Xueli; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2015-11-01

    Nanofibrous media that both possess high airborne particle interception efficiency and robust air permeability would have broad technological implications for areas ranging from individual protection and industrial security to environmental governance; however, creating such filtration media has proved extremely challenging. Here we report a strategy to construct the bio-based polyamide-56 nanofiber/nets (PA-56 NFN) membranes with bimodal structures for effective air filtration via one-step electrospinning/netting. The PA-56 membranes are composed of completely covered two-dimensional (2D) ultrathin (∼20 nm) nanonets which are optimized by facilely regulating the solution concentration, and the bonded scaffold fibers constructed cavity structures which are synchronously created by using the CH3COOH inspiration. With integrated properties of small aperture, high porosity, and bonded scaffold, the resulting PA-56 NFN membranes exhibit high filtration efficiency of 99.995%, low pressure drop of 111 Pa, combined with large dust holding capacity of 49 g/m(2) and dust-cleaning regeneration ability, for filtrating ultrafine airborne particles in the most safe manner involving sieving principle and surface filtration. The successful synthesis of PA-56 NFN medium would not only make it a promising candidate for air filtration, but also provide new insights into the design and development of nanonet-based bimodal structures for various applications. PMID:26188726

  5. New efficient ligand for sub-mol % copper-catalyzed C-N cross-coupling reactions running under air.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Per-Fredrik; Astvik, Peter; Norrby, Per-Ola

    2012-01-01

    A new efficient ligand, N,N''-dimethyldiethylene triamine (DMDETA), has been synthesized and evaluated for sub-mol % copper-catalyzed C-N cross-coupling reactions. The efficiency of the ligand was determined by kinetic methods. DMDETA proved to display efficiency similar to DMEDA and, in addition, the resulting catalyst was tolerant to air. PMID:23209530

  6. New efficient ligand for sub-mol % copper-catalyzed C–N cross-coupling reactions running under air

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Per-Fredrik; Astvik, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Summary A new efficient ligand, N,N’’-dimethyldiethylene triamine (DMDETA), has been synthesized and evaluated for sub-mol % copper-catalyzed C–N cross-coupling reactions. The efficiency of the ligand was determined by kinetic methods. DMDETA proved to display efficiency similar to DMEDA and, in addition, the resulting catalyst was tolerant to air. PMID:23209530

  7. Study on an Efficient Dehumidifying Air-conditioning System utilizing Phase Change of Intermediate Pressure Refrigerant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Kensaku; Inaba, Hideo

    The present study has proven a new dehumidifying system that aimed to reduce the sensible heat factor(SHF) of cooling process without using additional heat to relieve the internationally indicated conflict between energy saving and dehumidification necessary for keeping adequate indoor air quality (IAQ). In this system, we used intermediate pressure refrigerant in a vapor compression refrigerating cycle as heat transfer medium of a characteristic heat exchanger to precool the process air entering into an evaporator as well as to reheat the process air leaving from the evaporator. By this system, the present results achieved higher moisture removal and consequently higher efficiency of dehumidifying process. In addition to this fact, since this system has capability of integration into air-conditioning apparatus(HVAC system), it will be able to work for wide range of cooling load by variable SHF function. In the present paper, technical information, experimental results, and simulation results which assumed to apply this system into HVAC system are reported.

  8. Soy-Protein-Based Nanofabrics for Highly Efficient and Multifunctional Air Filtration.

    PubMed

    Souzandeh, Hamid; Johnson, Kyle S; Wang, Yu; Bhamidipaty, Keshava; Zhong, Wei-Hong

    2016-08-10

    Proteins are well-known by their numerous active functional groups along the polypeptide chain. The variety of functional groups of proteins provides a great potential for proteins to interact with airborne pollutants with varying surface properties. However, to our knowledge, a successful demonstration of this potential has not been reported before. In this work, soy protein, a type of abundant plant protein, has been employed for the first time to fabricate multifunctional air-filtration materials. To take advantage of the functional groups of soy protein for air filtration, the soy protein was first well denatured to unfold the polypeptide chains and then fabricated into nanofibers with the help of poly(vinyl alcohol). It was found that the resultant nanofabrics showed high filtration efficiency not only for airborne particulates with a broad range of size but also for various toxic gaseous chemicals (e.g., formaldehyde and carbon monoxide), a capability that has not been realized by conventional air-filtering materials. This study indicates that protein-based nanofabrics are promising nanomaterials for multifunctional air-filtration applications. PMID:27439677

  9. Improving Energy Efficiency of Compressed Air System Based onSystem Audit

    SciTech Connect

    Shanghai, Hongbo Qin; McKane, Aimee

    2007-06-01

    Industrial electric motor systems consume more than 600billion kWh annually, accounting for more than 50 percent of China selectricity use. The International Energy Agency estimates thatoptimizing motor systems results in an improvement of 20-25 percent,which is well-supported by experience in both the U.S. and China.Compressed air systems in China use 9.4 percent of all electricity.Compressed air use in China is growing rapidly, as new industrial plantsare built and the production processes of existing plants expand andchange. Most of these systems, whether existing or new, are not optimizedfor energy efficiency. This paper will present a practitioner'sperspective on theemergence of compressed air auditing services inChina, specifically as it pertains to Shanghai and surrounding areas.Both the methodology used and the market development of these compressedair system services will be addressed. Finally, the potential for energysaving opportunities will be described based on highlights from over 50compressed air system energy audits completed by Shanghai EnergyConservation Service Center, both during the United Nations IndustrialDevelopment Organization (UNIDO) China Motor System Energy ConservationProgram, and after this training program was completed.

  10. Dual fan, dual-duct system meets air quality, energy-efficiency needs

    SciTech Connect

    Schuler, M.

    1996-03-01

    Canada`s Space Centre in Saint-Hubert Quebec is a 300,000 ft{sup 2} (27,871 m{sup 2}) complex that houses the headquarters of the Canadian Space Agency, the Canadian Astronaut Training Centre, mission ground control installations, research facilities, offices and the required support facilities. A comfortable, pleasant research environment was a primary concern for the Space Centre, given its elite clientele. The objectives were high indoor-air quality, design flexibility, energy efficiency and low capital costs. Dual duct systems which are the heart of the mechanical concept allowed the designers to meet these objectives. The Space Centre`s offices, laboratories and conference center are all served by dual-duct systems. All operate using an air economizer cycle. Gas boilers provide them with hot water for heating and steam for humidification while centrifugal chillers provide chilled water for cooling. This article describes the design.

  11. Efficient and stable perovskite solar cells prepared in ambient air irrespective of the humidity.

    PubMed

    Tai, Qidong; You, Peng; Sang, Hongqian; Liu, Zhike; Hu, Chenglong; Chan, Helen L W; Yan, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Poor stability of organic-inorganic halide perovskite materials in humid condition has hindered the success of perovskite solar cells in real applications since controlled atmosphere is required for device fabrication and operation, and there is a lack of effective solutions to this problem until now. Here we report the use of lead (II) thiocyanate (Pb(SCN)2) precursor in preparing perovskite solar cells in ambient air. High-quality CH3NH3PbI3-x(SCN)x perovskite films can be readily prepared even when the relative humidity exceeds 70%. Under optimized processing conditions, we obtain devices with an average power conversion efficiency of 13.49% and the maximum efficiency over 15%. In comparison with typical CH3NH3PbI3-based devices, these solar cells without encapsulation show greatly improved stability in humid air, which is attributed to the incorporation of thiocyanate ions in the crystal lattice. The findings pave a way for realizing efficient and stable perovskite solar cells in ambient atmosphere. PMID:27033249

  12. Efficient and stable perovskite solar cells prepared in ambient air irrespective of the humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Qidong; You, Peng; Sang, Hongqian; Liu, Zhike; Hu, Chenglong; Chan, Helen L. W.; Yan, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Poor stability of organic-inorganic halide perovskite materials in humid condition has hindered the success of perovskite solar cells in real applications since controlled atmosphere is required for device fabrication and operation, and there is a lack of effective solutions to this problem until now. Here we report the use of lead (II) thiocyanate (Pb(SCN)2) precursor in preparing perovskite solar cells in ambient air. High-quality CH3NH3PbI3-x(SCN)x perovskite films can be readily prepared even when the relative humidity exceeds 70%. Under optimized processing conditions, we obtain devices with an average power conversion efficiency of 13.49% and the maximum efficiency over 15%. In comparison with typical CH3NH3PbI3-based devices, these solar cells without encapsulation show greatly improved stability in humid air, which is attributed to the incorporation of thiocyanate ions in the crystal lattice. The findings pave a way for realizing efficient and stable perovskite solar cells in ambient atmosphere.

  13. Efficient and stable perovskite solar cells prepared in ambient air irrespective of the humidity

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Qidong; You, Peng; Sang, Hongqian; Liu, Zhike; Hu, Chenglong; Chan, Helen L. W.; Yan, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Poor stability of organic–inorganic halide perovskite materials in humid condition has hindered the success of perovskite solar cells in real applications since controlled atmosphere is required for device fabrication and operation, and there is a lack of effective solutions to this problem until now. Here we report the use of lead (II) thiocyanate (Pb(SCN)2) precursor in preparing perovskite solar cells in ambient air. High-quality CH3NH3PbI3−x(SCN)x perovskite films can be readily prepared even when the relative humidity exceeds 70%. Under optimized processing conditions, we obtain devices with an average power conversion efficiency of 13.49% and the maximum efficiency over 15%. In comparison with typical CH3NH3PbI3-based devices, these solar cells without encapsulation show greatly improved stability in humid air, which is attributed to the incorporation of thiocyanate ions in the crystal lattice. The findings pave a way for realizing efficient and stable perovskite solar cells in ambient atmosphere. PMID:27033249

  14. Effects of floc and bubble size on the efficiency of the dissolved air flotation (DAF) process.

    PubMed

    Han, Mooyoung; Kim, Tschung-il; Kim, Jinho

    2007-01-01

    Dissolved air flotation (DAF) is a method for removing particles from water using micro bubbles instead of settlement. The process has proved to be successful and, since the 1960s, accepted as an alternative to the conventional sedimentation process for water and wastewater treatment. However, limited research into the process, especially the fundamental characteristics of bubbles and particles, has been carried out. The single collector collision model is not capable of determining the effects of particular characteristics, such as the size and surface charge of bubbles and particles. Han has published a set of modeling results after calculating the collision efficiency between bubbles and particles by trajectory analysis. His major conclusion was that collision efficiency is maximum when the bubbles and particles are nearly the same size but have opposite charge. However, experimental verification of this conclusion has not been carried out yet. This paper describes a new method for measuring the size of particles and bubbles developed using computational image analysis. DAF efficiency is influenced by the effect of the recycle ratio on various average floc sizes. The larger the recycle ratio, the higher the DAF efficiency at the same pressure and particle size. The treatment efficiency is also affected by the saturation pressure, because the bubble size and bubble volume concentration are controlled by the pressure. The highest efficiency is obtained when the floc size is larger than the bubble size. These results, namely that the highest collision efficiency occurs when the particles and bubbles are about the same size, are more in accordance with the trajectory model than with the white water collector model, which implies that the larger the particles, the higher is the collision efficiency. PMID:18048983

  15. Air sampling filtration media: Collection efficiency for respirable size-selective sampling

    PubMed Central

    Soo, Jhy-Charm; Monaghan, Keenan; Lee, Taekhee; Kashon, Mike; Harper, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The collection efficiencies of commonly used membrane air sampling filters in the ultrafine particle size range were investigated. Mixed cellulose ester (MCE; 0.45, 0.8, 1.2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polycarbonate (0.4, 0.8, 2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE; 0.45, 1, 2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polyvinyl chloride (PVC; 0.8 and 5 μm pore sizes), and silver membrane (0.45, 0.8, 1.2, and 5 μm pore sizes) filters were exposed to polydisperse sodium chloride (NaCl) particles in the size range of 10–400 nm. Test aerosols were nebulized and introduced into a calm air chamber through a diffusion dryer and aerosol neutralizer. The testing filters (37 mm diameter) were mounted in a conductive polypropylene filter-holder (cassette) within a metal testing tube. The experiments were conducted at flow rates between 1.7 and 11.2 l min−1. The particle size distributions of NaCl challenge aerosol were measured upstream and downstream of the test filters by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Three different filters of each type with at least three repetitions for each pore size were tested. In general, the collection efficiency varied with airflow, pore size, and sampling duration. In addition, both collection efficiency and pressure drop increased with decreased pore size and increased sampling flow rate, but they differed among filter types and manufacturer. The present study confirmed that the MCE, PTFE, and PVC filters have a relatively high collection efficiency for challenge particles much smaller than their nominal pore size and are considerably more efficient than polycarbonate and silver membrane filters, especially at larger nominal pore sizes. PMID:26834310

  16. High efficiency perfluorocyclobutyl air-trench splitters for use in compact ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmanian, Nazli

    Planar lightwave circuits with higher integration, lower cost, and added functionality can reduce costs in optical network components. To facilitate large scale integration of planar lightwave circuits the size of their fundamental building blocks such as splitters and bends needs to be reduced. In this dissertation compact air trench splitters are demonstrated in perfluorocyclobutyl (PFCB) polymers. To realize these high efficiency splitters we have developed a very high aspect ratio (18:1) anisotropic PFCB etch for submicron features using a CO/O2 etch chemistry in an inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etcher (ICP-RIE). A low loss of 0.45 dB/splitter (90.1% efficiency) has been measured on splitters fabricated on silicon substrates. The etch process was successfully transferred to Ultem substrates to reduce the effects of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch between PFCB and silicon. An ultra-compact ring resonator was demonstrated in PFCB with a splitting ratio of 85% to 15% (85-15) air-trench splitters and air-trench bends. The ring resonator size is only 70 mum x 100 mum. Measurements show a 7.2 nm free spectral range (FSR) in agreement with 2-dimensional finite difference time domain (2-D FDTD) simulation results. A 1.8 nm full width at half maximum (FWHM) and ˜10 dB insertion loss for the drop port was measured. The source of loss is explained with comparison to analytical calculations and measurement results. The ring resonator size is reduced by a factor of 1700 compared to a traditionally designed RR in the same material system due to the size reduction provided by the air-trench splitters and bends.

  17. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-Conditioning Electricity Savings from Standard Energy Conservation Measures, Radiant Barriers, and High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    A field test involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMs) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The average measured pre-weatherization air-conditioning electricity consumption was 1664 kWh/year ($119/year). Ten percent of the houses used less than 250 kWh/year, while another 10% used more than 3000 kWh/year. An average reduction in air-conditioning electricity consumption of 535 kWh/year ($38/year and 28% of pre-weatherization consumption) was obtained from replacement of one low-efficiency window air conditioner (EER less than 7.0) per house with a high-efficiency unit (EER greater than 9.0). For approximately the same cost, savings tripled to 1503 kWh/year ($107/year and 41% of pre-weatherization consumption) in those houses with initial air-conditioning electricity consumption greater than 2750 kWh/year. For these houses, replacement of a low-efficiency air conditioner with a high-efficiency unit was cost effective using the incremental cost of installing a new unit now rather than later; the average installation cost for these houses under a weatherization program was estimated to be $786. The

  18. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Waste Composition and High Efficiency Particulate Air Filter Loading

    SciTech Connect

    ZIMMERMAN, B.D.

    2000-12-11

    This analysis evaluates the effect of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) waste isotopic composition on Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) accidents involving high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter failure in Double-Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRTs). The HEPA Filter Failure--Exposure to High Temperature or Pressure, and Steam Intrusion From Interfacing Systems accidents are considered. The analysis concludes that dose consequences based on the PFP waste isotopic composition are bounded by previous FSAR analyses. This supports USQD TF-00-0768.

  19. Towards energy efficient operation of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning systems via advanced supervisory control design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswiecinska, A.; Hibbs, J.; Zajic, I.; Burnham, K. J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents conceptual control solution for reliable and energy efficient operation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems used in large volume building applications, e.g. warehouse facilities or exhibition centres. Advanced two-level scalable control solution, designed to extend capabilities of the existing low-level control strategies via remote internet connection, is presented. The high-level, supervisory controller is based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) architecture, which is the state-of-the-art for indoor climate control systems. The innovative approach benefits from using passive heating and cooling control strategies for reducing the HVAC system operational costs, while ensuring that required environmental conditions are met.

  20. Cleaner production: Minimizing hazardous waste in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Bratasida, D.L.

    1996-12-31

    In the second long-term development plan, industry plays a significant role in economic growth. In Indonesia, industries grow very fast; such fast growth can adversely effect the environment. Exploitation of assets can mean depletion of natural resources and energy, which, if incorrectly managed, can endanger human life and the environment. The inefficient use of natural resources will accelerate their exhaustion and generate pollution, resulting in environmental damage and threats to economic development and human well being. In recent years, changes in the approach used to control pollution have been necessary because of the increasing seriousness of the problems. Initial environmental management strategies were based on a carrying capacity approach; the natural assimilative capacity accommodated the pollution load that was applied. The environmental management strategies adopted later included technologies applied to the end of the discharge point (so-called {open_quotes}end-of-pipe{close_quotes} treatments). Until now, environmental management strategies focused on end-of-pipe approaches that control pollutants after they are generated. These approaches concentrate on waste treatment and disposal to control pollution and environmental degradation. However, as industry develops, waste volumes continue to increase, thereby creating further environmental problems. In addition, the wastes produced tend to have more complex characteristics and are potentially more difficult to treat for a reasonable cost. There are often technical and financial obstacles to regulatory compliance if waste treatment is relied on as the only means of achieving environmental objectives. Consequently, the reactive end-of-pipe treatment approach has been changed to a proactive cleaner production approach. This approach is based on the concept of sustainable development and is designed to prevent pollution as well as to protect natural resources and the quality of the environment.

  1. Assessment of Nanoparticle Exposure in Nanosilica Handling Process: Including Characteristics of Nanoparticles Leaking from a Vacuum Cleaner

    PubMed Central

    KIM, Boowook; KIM, Hyunwook; YU, Il Je

    2013-01-01

    Nanosilica is one of the most widely used nanomaterials across the world. However, their assessment data on the occupational exposure to nanoparticles is insufficient. The present study performed an exposure monitoring in workplace environments where synthetic powders are prepared using fumed nanosilica. Furthermore, after it was observed during exposure monitoring that nanoparticles were emitted through leakage in a vacuum cleaner (even with a HEPA-filter installed in it), the properties of the leaked nanoparticles were also investigated. Workers were exposed to high-concentration nanosilica emitted into the air while pouring it into a container or transferring the container. The use of a vacuum cleaner with a leak (caused by an inadequate sealing) was found to be the origin of nanosilica dispersion in the indoor air. While the particle size of the nanosilica that emitted into the air (during the handling of nanosilica by a worker) was mostly over 100 nm or several microns (µm) due to the coagulation of particles, the size of nanosilica that leaked out of vacuum cleaner was almost similar to the primary size (mode diameter 11.5 nm). Analysis of area samples resulted in 20% (60% in terms of peak concentration) less than the analysis of the personals sample. PMID:24366536

  2. On the efficiency and correction of vertically oriented blunt bioaerosol samplers in moving air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Dominik; Rotach, Mathias W.; Gehrig, Regula; Vogt, Roland

    2012-11-01

    The aspiration efficiency of vertical and wind-oriented Air-O-Cell samplers was investigated in a field study using the pollen of hazel, sweet chestnut and birch. Collected pollen numbers were compared to measurements of a Hirst-type Burkard spore trap. The discrepancy between pollen counts is substantial in the case of vertical orientation. The results indicate a strong influence of wind velocity and inlet orientation relative to the freestream on the aspiration efficiency. Various studies reported on inertial effects on aerosol motion as function of wind velocity. The measurements were compared to a physically based model for the limited case of vertical blunt samplers. Additionally, a simple linear model based on pollen counts and wind velocity was developed. Both correction models notably reduce the error of vertically oriented samplers, whereas only the physically based model can be used on independent datasets. The study also addressed the precision error of the instruments used, which was substantial for both sampler types.

  3. Pneumatic colon injury following high pressure blow gun dust cleaner spray to the perineum

    PubMed Central

    Sy, Edgar D.; Chiu, Yin-I.; Shan, Yan-Shen; Ong, Roger L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A pneumatic tool or air tool such as blow gun dust cleaner is a tool driven by compressed air and spraying of the perineum can insufflate the colon due to its high pressure and high flow rate. Presentation of case We present a case of 4 year old boy who developed sudden onset of tense abdominal distention and developed peritonitis. Patient’s family initially denied a history of trauma. Radiologic examination showed pneumoperitoneum and colon dilatation. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a tension pneumoperitoneum, bloody ascitic fluid, multiple site of ecchymosis and serosal tear of the colon and a minute perforation of transverse colon. Postoperative reinvestigation revealed that the patient’s perineum was sprayed, using blow gun dust cleaner. Discussion Air from pneumatic tools produces column of air at pressure of 3.5–8.8 kg/cm2 and pressure greater than the resting anal pressure of 0.109 kg/cm2 force air to enter the colon when the perineum is sprayed. Different degree of colon injury results when airflow is greater than 1.46 L/m, and/or intraluminal pressure greater than 0.109 kg/cm2. In most children, initial anxiety to tell the truth result in difficulty to obtain good history. Conclusion Spraying of the perianal with excessive pneumatic force of greater than the resting anal pressure and high air flow rate causes multiple site colon injury and tension pneumoperitoneum due to colon perforation. Parent should be caution in children playing with high pressure pneumatic tool, and the importance of history is emphases for early correct diagnosis. PMID:25544492

  4. Integrating affordability, energy and environmental efficiency, air quality and disaster resistance into residential design and construction

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, G.D.

    1995-12-31

    Much has been researched and written about the individual qualities of good home design and construction in terms of: energy efficiency; affordability; indoor air quality; sustainability; and wind, fire, and flood resistance. The real challenge is to integrate all these characteristics into the ideal house. The purpose of this paper is to review the characteristics of each of the above features and explore the integration of them into the ideal residential structure. The house would take the shape of a compact two story structure. A geometrically compact structure uses less construction materials per floor area, presents less area for improved thermal efficiency, and less profile for wind and flood resistance. The first floor would be constructed using insulated strong high thermal mass masonry system resistant to flood, wind, fire, and termite damage. The second story would be constructed using a lighter reinforced wood frame system with between stud insulation coupled with exterior insulated sheathing to minimize thermal bridging across studs. Optimizing floor plan such as separating living and sleeping areas present opportunities for efficient split HVAC zoning, natural ventilation, and solar passive adaptation. The design would emphasize the 4, 8, and 12 foot dimensioning for waste reduction; selection of environmentally friendly building materials, such as cellulose insulation; and efficient lighting and appliances. Features providing improved indoor air quality such as prudent duct selection, design and location, use of radon barriers, omission of carpeting, and control of moisture would be addressed. The design philosophy, concepts and rationale for the integration of these and many other features of the ideal residence will be addressed and illustrated.

  5. High-Performing Polycarbazole Derivatives for Efficient Solution-Processing of Organic Solar Cells in Air.

    PubMed

    Burgués-Ceballos, Ignasi; Hermerschmidt, Felix; Akkuratov, Alexander V; Susarova, Diana K; Troshin, Pavel A; Choulis, Stelios A

    2015-12-21

    The application of conjugated materials in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) is usually demonstrated in lab-scale spin-coated devices that are processed under controlled inert conditions. Although this is a necessary step to prove high efficiency, testing of promising materials in air should be done in the early stages of research to validate their real potential for low-cost, solution-processed, and large-scale OPVs. Also relevant for approaching commercialization needs is the use of printing techniques that are compatible with upscaling. Here, solution processing of organic solar cells based on three new poly(2,7-carbazole) derivatives is efficiently transferred, without significant losses, to air conditions and to several deposition methods using a simple device architecture. High efficiencies in the range between 5.0 % and 6.3 % are obtained in (rigid) spin-coated, doctor-bladed, and (flexible) slot-die-coated devices, which surpass the reference devices based on poly[N-9'-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT). In contrast, inkjet printing does not provide reliable results with the presented polymers, which is attributed to their high molecular weight. When the device area in the best-performing system is increased from 9 mm(2) to 0.7 cm(2), the efficiency drops from 6.2 % to 5.0 %. Photocurrent mapping reveals inhomogeneous current generation derived from changes in the thickness of the active layer. PMID:26663820

  6. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-conditioning electricity savings from standard energy conservation measures, radiant barriers, and high-efficiency window air conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.P.; Levins, W.P.

    1992-08-01

    A field test Involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMS) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) programs directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption should be targeted at clients with high consumption to improve cost effectiveness; (2) replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency units should be considered an option in a weatherization program directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption; (3) ECMs currently being installed under the Oklahoma WAP (chosen based on effectiveness at reducing space-heating energy consumption) should continue to be justified based on their space-heating energy savings potential only; and (4) attic radiant barriers should not be included in the Oklahoma WAP if alternatives with verified savings are available or until further testing demonstrates energy savings or other benefits in this typo of housing.

  7. Hidden Savings from a Cleaner America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Thomas L.

    1972-01-01

    Need for air and water cleanup campaigns are advocated, allowing taxpayers/consumers financial savings on pollution damages. Estimates show $113./year/family saved on air cleanup by 1976 and $87./year/family saved on water cleanup by 1980. (BL)

  8. Image scoring and cooperation in a cleaner fish mutualism.

    PubMed

    Bshary, Redouan; Grutter, Alexandra S

    2006-06-22

    Humans are highly social animals and often help unrelated individuals that may never reciprocate the altruist's favour. This apparent evolutionary puzzle may be explained by the altruist's gain in social image: image-scoring bystanders, also known as eavesdroppers, notice the altruistic act and therefore are more likely to help the altruist in the future. Such complex indirect reciprocity based on altruistic acts may evolve only after simple indirect reciprocity has been established, which requires two steps. First, image scoring evolves when bystanders gain personal benefits from information gathered, for example, by finding cooperative partners. Second, altruistic behaviour in the presence of such bystanders may evolve if altruists benefit from access to the bystanders. Here, we provide experimental evidence for both of the requirements in a cleaning mutualism involving the cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus. These cleaners may cooperate and remove ectoparasites from clients or they may cheat by feeding on client mucus. As mucus may be preferred over typical client ectoparasites, clients must make cleaners feed against their preference to obtain a cooperative service. We found that eavesdropping clients spent more time next to 'cooperative' than 'unknown cooperative level' cleaners, which shows that clients engage in image-scoring behaviour. Furthermore, trained cleaners learned to feed more cooperatively when in an 'image-scoring' than in a 'non-image-scoring' situation. PMID:16791194

  9. Microbial Contents of Vacuum Cleaner Bag Dust and Emitted Bioaerosols and Their Implications for Human Exposure Indoors

    PubMed Central

    Veillette, Marc; Knibbs, Luke D.; Pelletier, Ariane; Charlebois, Remi; Blais Lecours, Pascale; He, Congrong; Morawska, Lidia

    2013-01-01

    Vacuum cleaners can release large concentrations of particles, both in their exhaust air and from resuspension of settled dust. However, the size, variability, and microbial diversity of these emissions are unknown, despite evidence to suggest they may contribute to allergic responses and infection transmission indoors. This study aimed to evaluate bioaerosol emission from various vacuum cleaners. We sampled the air in an experimental flow tunnel where vacuum cleaners were run, and their airborne emissions were sampled with closed-face cassettes. Dust samples were also collected from the dust bag. Total bacteria, total archaea, Penicillium/Aspergillus, and total Clostridium cluster 1 were quantified with specific quantitative PCR protocols, and emission rates were calculated. Clostridium botulinum and antibiotic resistance genes were detected in each sample using endpoint PCR. Bacterial diversity was also analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), image analysis, and band sequencing. We demonstrated that emission of bacteria and molds (Penicillium/Aspergillus) can reach values as high as 1E5 cell equivalents/min and that those emissions are not related to each other. The bag dust bacterial and mold content was also consistent across the vacuums we assessed, reaching up to 1E7 bacterial or mold cell equivalents/g. Antibiotic resistance genes were detected in several samples. No archaea or C. botulinum was detected in any air samples. Diversity analyses showed that most bacteria are from human sources, in keeping with other recent results. These results highlight the potential capability of vacuum cleaners to disseminate appreciable quantities of molds and human-associated bacteria indoors and their role as a source of exposure to bioaerosols. PMID:23934489

  10. 76 FR 30545 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ...Pursuant to section 112(l) of the Clean Air Act (``CAA'') and Federal regulations promulgated thereunder, the Maine Department of Environmental Protection (``ME DEP'') submitted a request for approval to implement and enforce the amended ``Chapter 125: Perchloroethylene Dry Cleaner Regulation'' (Maine Dry Cleaner Rule) as a partial substitution for the amended National Emissions Standards for......

  11. Challenges Achieved By Innovative Technologies Our Link to a Safer, Cleaner, Healthier Tomorrow - 12369

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Heidi; Shoffner, Peggy; Lagos, Leonel E.

    2012-07-01

    The River Corridor Closure Project is the nation's largest environmental cleanup closure project where innovative technologies are being utilized to overcome DOE's environmental clean-up challenges. DOE provides a Technology Needs Statement that specifies their on-site challenges and the criteria to overcome those challenges. This allows for both the private sector and federally funded organizations to respond with solutions that meet their immediate needs. DOE selects the company based on their ability to reduce risk to human health and the environment, improve efficiency of the cleanup, and lower costs. These technologies are our link to a cleaner, safer, healthier tomorrow. (authors)

  12. Benefits of two mitigation strategies for container vessels: cleaner engines and cleaner fuels.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Yusuf; Giordano, Michael; Gutierrez, James; Welch, William A; Asa-Awuku, A; Miller, J Wayne; Cocker, David R

    2012-05-01

    Emissions from ocean-going vessels (OGVs) are a significant health concern for people near port communities. This paper reports the emission benefits for two mitigation strategies, cleaner engines and cleaner fuels, for a 2010 container vessel. In-use emissions were measured following International Organization for Standardization (ISO) protocols. The overall in-use nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emission factor was 16.1 ± 0.1 gkW(-1) h(-1), lower than the Tier 1 certification (17 gkW(-1) h(-1)) and significantly lower than the benchmark value of 18.7 gkW(-1) h(-1) commonly used for estimating emission inventories. The in-use particulate matter (PM(2.5)) emission was 1.42 ± 0.04 gkW(-1) h(-1) for heavy fuel oil (HFO) containing 2.51 wt % sulfur. Unimodal (∼30 nm) and bimodal (∼35 nm; ∼75 nm) particle number size distributions (NSDs) were observed when the vessel operated on marine gas oil (MGO) and HFO, respectively. First-time emission measurements during fuel switching (required 24 nautical miles from coastline) showed that concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and particle NSD took ∼55 min to reach steady-state when switching from MGO to HFO and ∼84 min in the opposite direction. Therefore, if OGVs commence fuel change at the regulated boundary, then vessels can travel up to 90% of the distance to the port before steady-state values are re-established. The transient behavior follows a classic, nonlinear mixing function driven by the amount of fuel in day tank and the fuel consumption rate. Hence, to achieve the maximum benefits from a fuel change regulation, fuel switch boundary should be further increased to provide the intended benefits for the people living near the ports. PMID:22468877

  13. GUIDE TO CALCULATING TRANSPORT EFFICIENCY OF AEROSOLS IN OCCUPATIONAL AIR SAMPLING SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Hogue, M.; Hadlock, D.; Thompson, M.; Farfan, E.

    2013-11-12

    This report will present hand calculations for transport efficiency based on aspiration efficiency and particle deposition losses. Because the hand calculations become long and tedious, especially for lognormal distributions of aerosols, an R script (R 2011) will be provided for each element examined. Calculations are provided for the most common elements in a remote air sampling system, including a thin-walled probe in ambient air, straight tubing, bends and a sample housing. One popular alternative approach would be to put such calculations in a spreadsheet, a thorough version of which is shared by Paul Baron via the Aerocalc spreadsheet (Baron 2012). To provide greater transparency and to avoid common spreadsheet vulnerabilities to errors (Burns 2012), this report uses R. The particle size is based on the concept of activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD). The AMAD is a particle size in an aerosol where fifty percent of the activity in the aerosol is associated with particles of aerodynamic diameter greater than the AMAD. This concept allows for the simplification of transport efficiency calculations where all particles are treated as spheres with the density of water (1g cm-3). In reality, particle densities depend on the actual material involved. Particle geometries can be very complicated. Dynamic shape factors are provided by Hinds (Hinds 1999). Some example factors are: 1.00 for a sphere, 1.08 for a cube, 1.68 for a long cylinder (10 times as long as it is wide), 1.05 to 1.11 for bituminous coal, 1.57 for sand and 1.88 for talc. Revision 1 is made to correct an error in the original version of this report. The particle distributions are based on activity weighting of particles rather than based on the number of particles of each size. Therefore, the mass correction made in the original version is removed from the text and the calculations. Results affected by the change are updated.

  14. China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Pierrot, Andre

    2010-06-07

    of all countries energy strategies. As we all know, a very large amount of total energy consumption is due to energy consuming products and equipment, which account for about 50% of China's total energy consumption. However, the current average energy utilization efficiency of this sector is only about 60%, 10 percent lower than the international advanced level. Therefore, China's energy consuming products and equipment sector holds great energy-saving potential. On the other hand, the energy supplied to these products is mainly from fossil fuel combustion, a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Therefore, improving the energy efficiency and augmenting the market share of market-dominant energy consuming products is of significant importance to achieving China's energy saving and emission reduction target and is an effective means to deal with energy and environmental constraints and climate change issues. Main energy consuming products generally include widely-used home appliances, industrial equipment, office equipment, transportation vehicles, etc. China is one of the major manufacturers and exporters of energy end-using products such as air-conditioners, refrigerators, televisions, etc. Their overall energy efficiency is comparatively low and the products are poorly designed, leading to great energy-saving potential. For example, electricity consumption of air conditioners accounts for about 20% of China's total electricity consumption and 40% of the summer electricity peak load in large and medium cities. However, less than 5% of units sold in the domestic market in 2009 reached the standard's highly efficient level of grade 2 above. The electricity consumption of electric motors and their related drive systems accounts for about 60% of China's total electricity consumption; however, less than 2% of the domestic market share consists of energy-efficient electric motor products. Promoting the energy efficiency and market shares of main energy

  15. High Efficiency Liquid-Desiccant Regenerator for Air Conditioning and Industrial Drying

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Lowenstein

    2005-12-19

    Over 2 quads of fossil fuels are used each year for moisture removal. This includes industrial and agricultural processes where feedstocks and final products must be dried, as well as comfort conditioning of indoor spaces where the control of humidity is essential to maintaining healthy, productive and comfortable working conditions. Desiccants, materials that have a high affinity for water vapor, can greatly reduce energy use for both drying and dehumidification. An opportunity exists to greatly improve the competitiveness of advanced liquid-desiccant systems by increasing the efficiency of their regenerators. It is common practice within the chemical process industry to use multiple stage boilers to improve the efficiency of thermal separation processes. The energy needed to regenerate a liquid desiccant, which is a thermal separation process, can also be reduced by using a multiple stage boiler. In this project, a two-stage regenerator was developed in which the first stage is a boiler and the second stage is a scavenging-air regenerator. The only energy input to this regenerator is the natural gas that fires the boiler. The steam produced in the boiler provides the thermal energy to run the second-stage scavenging-air regenerator. This two-stage regenerator is referred to as a 1?-effect regenerator. A model of the high-temperature stage of a 1?-effect regenerator for liquid desiccants was designed, built and successfully tested. At nominal operating conditions (i.e., 2.35 gpm of 36% lithium chloride solution, 307,000 Btu/h firing rate), the boiler removed 153 lb/h of water from the desiccant at a gas-based efficiency of 52.9 % (which corresponds to a COP of 0.95 when a scavenging-air regenerator is added). The steam leaving the boiler, when condensed, had a solids concentration of less than 10 ppm. This low level of solids in the condensate places an upper bound of about 6 lb per year for desiccant loss from the regenerator. This low loss will not create

  16. GUIDELINES FOR INDUSTRIAL BOILER PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT. (BOILER ADJUSTMENT PROCEDURES TO MINIMIZE AIR POLLUTION AND TO ACHIEVE EFFICIENT USE OF FUEL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recommended procedures for improving industrial boiler performance to minimize air pollution and to achieve efficient use of fuel are given. It is intended for use by industrial boiler operators to perform an efficiency and emissions tune-up on boilers firing gas, oil, or coal. P...

  17. ABB`s LEBS technologies: Practical solutions for controlling air emissions and increasing efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, J.W.; Hein, R.J. von; Wesnor, J.D.

    1997-07-01

    When evaluating candidate technologies for controlling air emissions and increasing thermal efficiency the main criteria used by most utility and industrial decision makers are: (1) total installed cost of the system and (2) the impact the system may have on O&M costs, on unit forced outage rate/availability and on unit efficiency. Generally speaking, simpler is better. Designs which have fewer and simpler process steps and components will almost always have lower first cost, reduced maintenance cost, reduced operating labor cost, and fewer forced outages/higher availability. This paper describes technologies developed for the control of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions and for increased efficiency in the designs prepared by the ABB team for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project titled {open_quote}Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems{close_quote} (LEBS). The primary objectives of the LEBS project are to reduce emissions to approximately one-fifth of current new source performance standards and to increase efficiency, all without increasing the cost of electricity. The project encompasses the use of Pulverized coal combustion and development of near-term technologies. The team selected an advanced low-NO{sub x} firing system and an advanced dry scrubber system to meet the emissions objectives and a Kalina cycle to achieve the efficiency and cost of electricity objectives. The development and design of these technologies, witch are suited to new or retrofit applications, are described in the paper.

  18. Interactions between energy efficiency and emission trading under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Hillsman, E.L.; Alvic, D.R.

    1994-08-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments affect electric utilities in numerous ways. The feature that probably has received the greatest attention is the provision to let utilities trade emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), while at the same time requiring them to reduce S0{sub 2} emissions in 2000 by an aggregate 43%. The emission trading system was welcomed by many as a way of reducing the cost of reducing emissions, by providing greater flexibility than past approaches. This report examines some of the potential interactions between trading emissions and increasing end-use energy efficiency. The analysis focuses on emission trading in the second phase of the trading program, which begins in 2000. The aggregate effects, calculated by an emission compliance and trading model, turn out to be rather small. Aggressive improvement of end-use efficiency by all utilities might reduce allowance prices by $22/ton (1990 dollars), which is small compared to the reduction that has occurred in the estimates of future allowance prices and when compared to the roughly $400/ton price we estimate as a base case. However, the changes in the allowance market that result are large enough to affect some compliance decisions. If utilities in only a few states improve end-use efficiency aggressively, their actions may not have a large effect on the price of an allowance, but they could alter the demand for allowances and thereby the compliance decisions of utilities in other states. The analysis shows how improving electricity end-use efficiency in some states can cause smaller emission reductions in other states, relative to what would have happened without the improvements. Such a result, while not surprising given the theory behind the emission trading system, is upsetting to people who view emissions, environmental protection, and energy efficiency in moral rather than strictly economic terms.

  19. Efficient polymer light-emitting diode with air-stable aluminum cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbaszadeh, D.; Wetzelaer, G. A. H.; Doumon, N. Y.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2016-03-01

    The fast degradation of polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) in ambient conditions is primarily due to the oxidation of highly reactive metals, such as barium or calcium, which are used as cathode materials. Here, we report the fabrication of PLEDs using an air-stable partially oxidized aluminum (AlOx) cathode. Usually, the high work function of aluminum (4.2 eV) imposes a high barrier for injecting electrons into the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the emissive polymer (2.9 eV below the vacuum level). By partially oxidizing aluminum, its work function is decreased, but not sufficiently low for efficient electron injection. Efficient injection is obtained by inserting an electron transport layer of poly[(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-(benzo[2,1,3]thiadiazol-4,8-diyl)] (F8BT), which has its LUMO at 3.3 eV below vacuum, between the AlOx cathode and the emissive polymer. The intermediate F8BT layer not only serves as a hole-blocking layer but also provides an energetic staircase for electron injection from AlOx into the emissive layer. PLEDs with an AlOx cathode and F8BT interlayer exhibit a doubling of the efficiency as compared to conventional Ba/Al PLEDs, and still operate even after being kept in ambient atmosphere for one month without encapsulation.

  20. Heterogeneous photocatalysis for air and water treatment: Fundamental needs for quantum efficiency enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Ollis, D.F.

    1996-09-01

    In the remediation industries, a useful treatment technology must be {open_quotes}general, robust, and cheap{close_quotes}. Among oxidation processes, heterogeneous photocatalysis is now broadly demonstrated to destroy common water and air contaminants. The potential process uses of highly stable titania, long lived lamps (one year), and room temperature operation, indicating a simple and robust process. We are left to address the third criterion: Can photocatalysis be {open_quotes}cheap{close_quotes}? In both liquid phase and gas phase treatment and purification by photocatalysis, it is established that the primary barrier to commercialization is often cost. Cost in return is dominated by the efficiency with which solar or lamp photons are harvested for productive light, and subsequent dark, reactions. This paper therefore defines fundamental needs in photocatalysis for pollution control in terms of activities which could lead to quantum efficiency enhancement. We first recall three related definitions. The quantum yield (QY) is the ratio of molecules of reactant converted per photon absorbed, a fundamental quantity. A less fundamental, but more easily measured variable is the quantum efficiency (QE), the ratio of molecules converted per photon entering the reactor. A third variable is the energy required per order of magnitude pollutant reduction, or EEO, a definition which provides for easy energy cost comparisons among different technologies. Each measure cited here reflects the photon, and thus the electrical, cost of this photochemistry.

  1. Experimental Study on Efficiency Improvement of R410A Scroll Compressor for Air Conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawai, Kiyoshi; Sakuda, Atsushi; Iida, Noboru; Hiwata, Akira; Morimoto, Takashi; Ishii, Noriaki

    In scroll compressors, an increase in oil flow rate into thecompression chamber improves sealing effectsand decreases refrigerant leakage. On the other hand, as the oil supplies the heat energy, the suction refrigerantis heated and the volumetric efficiency degreases. In the present study, we made an apparatus which suppliesthe oil into the compression chamber while measuring the mass flow rate, thus investigating the relationshipbetween the oil flow rate and the compressor performance. Experimental results indicated that the presentR410A scroll compressor provided higher performance as the oil flow rate decreased under the rated conditionof the air-conditioner. In addition, based on the experimental results, we discussed that the oil flow in thecapillary installed in the orbiting scroll was considered to be a laminar flow, and the volumetric efficiencywould degrease by the effect of a quarter of the oil heat energy.

  2. Preparation of Nanofibrous Metal-Organic Framework Filters for Efficient Air Pollution Control.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yuan, Shuai; Feng, Xiao; Li, Haiwei; Zhou, Junwen; Wang, Bo

    2016-05-11

    Environmental challenges especially air pollution (particulate matter (PM) and toxic gases) pose serious threats to public health globally. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are crystalline materials with high porosity, tunable pore size, and rich functionalities, holding the promise for poisonous pollutants capture. Here, nanocrystals of four unique MOF structures are processed into nanofibrous filters (noted as MOFilter) with high MOF loadings (up to 60 wt %). The MOFilters show high PM removal efficiencies up to 88.33 ± 1.52% and 89.67 ± 1.33% for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively, in the hazy environment, and the performance remains largely unchanged over 48 h of continuous filtration. For the first time, the interactions between such porous crystalline material and particulate pollutants were explored. These thin MOFilters can further selectively capture and retain SO2 when exposed to a stream of SO2/N2 mixture, and their hierarchical nanostructures can easily permeate fresh air at high gas flow rate with the pressure drop <20 Pa. PMID:27090776

  3. A computationally-efficient secondary organic aerosol module for three-dimensional air quality models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.; Zhang, Y.

    2008-04-01

    Accurately simulating secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in three-dimensional (3-D) air quality models is challenging due to the complexity of the physics and chemistry involved and the high computational demand required. A computationally-efficient yet accurate SOA module is necessary in 3-D applications for long-term simulations and real-time air quality forecasting. A coupled gas and aerosol box model (i.e., 0-D CMAQ-MADRID 2) is used to optimize relevant processes in order to develop such a SOA module. Solving the partitioning equations for condensable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and calculating their activity coefficients in the multicomponent mixtures are identified to be the most computationally-expensive processes. The two processes can be speeded up by relaxing the error tolerance levels and reducing the maximum number of iterations of the numerical solver for the partitioning equations for organic species; turning on organic-inorganic interactions only when the water content associated with organic compounds is significant; and parameterizing the calculation of activity coefficients for organic mixtures in the hydrophilic module. The optimal speed-up method can reduce the total CPU cost by up to a factor of 29.7 with ±15% deviation from benchmark results. These speedup methods are applicable to other SOA modules that are based on partitioning theories.

  4. A computationally-efficient secondary organic aerosol module for three-dimensional air quality models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.; Zhang, Y.

    2008-07-01

    Accurately simulating secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in three-dimensional (3-D) air quality models is challenging due to the complexity of the physics and chemistry involved and the high computational demand required. A computationally-efficient yet accurate SOA module is necessary in 3-D applications for long-term simulations and real-time air quality forecasting. A coupled gas and aerosol box model (i.e., 0-D CMAQ-MADRID 2) is used to optimize relevant processes in order to develop such a SOA module. Solving the partitioning equations for condensable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and calculating their activity coefficients in the multicomponent mixtures are identified to be the most computationally-expensive processes. The two processes can be speeded up by relaxing the error tolerance levels and reducing the maximum number of iterations of the numerical solver for the partitioning equations for organic species; conditionally activating organic-inorganic interactions; and parameterizing the calculation of activity coefficients for organic mixtures in the hydrophilic module. The optimal speed-up method can reduce the total CPU cost by up to a factor of 31.4 from benchmark under the rural conditions with 2 ppb isoprene and by factors of 10 71 under various test conditions with 2 10 ppb isoprene and >40% relative humidity while maintaining ±15% deviation. These speed-up methods are applicable to other SOA modules that are based on partitioning theories.

  5. Efficient remediation of pentachlorophenol contaminated soil with tetrapolyphosphate washing and subsequent ZVI/Air treatment.

    PubMed

    Cao, Menghua; Wang, Li; Ai, Zhihui; Zhang, Lizhi

    2015-07-15

    In this study, we demonstrate that pentachlorophenol contaminated soil can be efficiently remediated with tetrapolyphosphate washing and subsequent zerovalent iron (ZVI)/Air treatment. 2 mmol L(-1) of tetrapolyphosphate could wash away 52.8% of pentachlorophenol (PCP) at pH 7.0 and 84.2% of pentachlorophenol at pH 11.0 from contaminated soil owing to the promotion effect of tetrapolyphosphate on the soil matrix dispersion and the subsequent solubilization of pentachlorophenol. More importantly, tetrapolyphosphate ions remained in the washing effluent could greatly enhance the molecular oxygen activation by ZVI to oxidize the desorbed PCP without any pH adjustment, and also avoid the competitive consumption of reactive oxygen species, as caused by the common organic surfactants in the washing effluent. Therefore, 85.1% of pentachlorophenol could be aerobically removed from the washing effluent by merely using 5 g L(-1) of ZVI. We also interestingly found that the dissolved iron ions released from the soil could enhance the oxidation of pentachlorophenol in the washing effluent, but the dissolved organic matter had the opposite effect. This study suggests the coupling tetrapolyphosphate washing and subsequent ZVI/Air treatment is an optional approach to remediate pentachlorophenol contaminated soil in view of its low cost and environmental benign. PMID:25781373

  6. High-efficiency particulate air filter test stand and aerosol generator for particle loading studies.

    PubMed

    Arunkumar, R; Hogancamp, Kristina U; Parsons, Michael S; Rogers, Donna M; Norton, Olin P; Nagel, Brian A; Alderman, Steven L; Waggoner, Charles A

    2007-08-01

    This manuscript describes the design, characterization, and operational range of a test stand and high-output aerosol generator developed to evaluate the performance of 30 x 30 x 29 cm(3) nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters under variable, highly controlled conditions. The test stand system is operable at volumetric flow rates ranging from 1.5 to 12 standard m(3)/min. Relative humidity levels are controllable from 5%-90% and the temperature of the aerosol stream is variable from ambient to 150 degrees C. Test aerosols are produced through spray drying source material solutions that are introduced into a heated stainless steel evaporation chamber through an air-atomizing nozzle. Regulation of the particle size distribution of the aerosol challenge is achieved by varying source solution concentrations and through the use of a postgeneration cyclone. The aerosol generation system is unique in that it facilitates the testing of standard HEPA filters at and beyond rated media velocities by consistently providing, into a nominal flow of 7 standard m(3)/min, high mass concentrations (approximately 25 mg/m(3)) of dry aerosol streams having count mean diameters centered near the most penetrating particle size for HEPA filters (120-160 nm). Aerosol streams that have been generated and characterized include those derived from various concentrations of KCl, NaCl, and sucrose solutions. Additionally, a water insoluble aerosol stream in which the solid component is predominantly iron (III) has been produced. Multiple ports are available on the test stand for making simultaneous aerosol measurements upstream and downstream of the test filter. Types of filter performance related studies that can be performed using this test stand system include filter lifetime studies, filtering efficiency testing, media velocity testing, evaluations under high mass loading and high humidity conditions, and determination of the downstream particle size distributions. PMID

  7. High-efficiency particulate air filter test stand and aerosol generator for particle loading studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunkumar, R.; Hogancamp, Kristina U.; Parsons, Michael S.; Rogers, Donna M.; Norton, Olin P.; Nagel, Brian A.; Alderman, Steven L.; Waggoner, Charles A.

    2007-08-01

    This manuscript describes the design, characterization, and operational range of a test stand and high-output aerosol generator developed to evaluate the performance of 30×30×29cm3 nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters under variable, highly controlled conditions. The test stand system is operable at volumetric flow rates ranging from 1.5to12standardm3/min. Relative humidity levels are controllable from 5%-90% and the temperature of the aerosol stream is variable from ambient to 150°C. Test aerosols are produced through spray drying source material solutions that are introduced into a heated stainless steel evaporation chamber through an air-atomizing nozzle. Regulation of the particle size distribution of the aerosol challenge is achieved by varying source solution concentrations and through the use of a postgeneration cyclone. The aerosol generation system is unique in that it facilitates the testing of standard HEPA filters at and beyond rated media velocities by consistently providing, into a nominal flow of 7standardm3/min, high mass concentrations (˜25mg/m3) of dry aerosol streams having count mean diameters centered near the most penetrating particle size for HEPA filters (120-160nm). Aerosol streams that have been generated and characterized include those derived from various concentrations of KCl, NaCl, and sucrose solutions. Additionally, a water insoluble aerosol stream in which the solid component is predominantly iron (III) has been produced. Multiple ports are available on the test stand for making simultaneous aerosol measurements upstream and downstream of the test filter. Types of filter performance related studies that can be performed using this test stand system include filter lifetime studies, filtering efficiency testing, media velocity testing, evaluations under high mass loading and high humidity conditions, and determination of the downstream particle size distributions.

  8. INDOOR AIR QUALITY MODELING (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Indoor Environment Management Branch of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has developed an indoor air quality (IAQ) model for analyzing the impact of sources, sinks, ventilation, and air cleaners on indoor air quality. Early ...

  9. Development of a high-capacity extractor cleaner for cotton strippers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton strippers have used extractor type cleaners for many years to remove large foreign material from harvested seed cotton. These machines are commonly referred to as "field cleaners" and are similar in design and operation to stick machines used in gins. The field cleaners used on modern cotton ...

  10. Multibar sawless lint cleaner: fiber quality analysis after 3rd year of field testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After two years of field testing a prototype spiked-tooth lint cleaner, the Multibar Sawless Lint Cleaner (MBSLC), a final year of field evaluation was conducted at commercial cotton gin in West Texas located approximately 30 miles Southwest of Lubbock, Texas.The cotton lint cleaner was tested in a ...

  11. Cleaner Technology in the Hard Disk Drive Manufacturing Industry: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moolla, Premchai; Chompu-inwai, Rungchat

    2010-10-01

    The objectives of this research are to improve raw material and energy consumption efficiency, as well as reduce defects and the use of chemicals in the arm coil assembly process of hard disk drive manufacturing in the case study company by applying the Cleaner Technology concepts. The four main sequential steps used in this research were: (1) pre-assessment, (2) assessment, (3) feasibility study, and (4) implementation. In the first step, raw data, such as process flows, raw material usage and defects data were collected. In the second step, the loss during production and causes of loss were analyzed. Opportunities to reduce raw material, chemical and energy wastage could then be recommended. The next step was to evaluate the feasibility and potential benefits of a particular Cleaner Technology opportunity. Finally, in the last step, after a thorough evaluation and implementation of the opportunities to apply Cleaner Technology, the results showed that arm coil defects could be reduced by improving the production process using the ECRS technique. ECRS stands for Eliminate, Combine, Rearrange and Simplify. This improvement reduced arm coil defect rates from 0.48% to 0.15%, thus saving approximately 139,638 Thai Baht per month. In addition, production stoppage decision made by workers was used to increase employee involvement in defect detection. Allowing workers to participate in such a decision was an effective way to reduce defect rate and could motivate workers to produce a better quality job. This resulted in arm coil defects reducing from 0.41% to 0.025%, with about 74,562 Thai Baht per month saving. Additionally, an increase in the efficiency of electricity consumption occurred, by increasing the speed of the infrared oven conveyor belt, improving average productivity from 533 pieces/hour to 560 pieces/hour, without adversely affecting product costs and quality, thus producing products of up to the value of 206,242 Thai Baht per month. Furthermore, the new

  12. U.S. EPA POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CLEANER PRODUCTION TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation was made at the 2002 annual meeting of the NATO CCMS Pilot Study on Clean Products and Processes, held on May 12-16, 2002 in Vilnius, Lithuania. The presentation covered six pollution prevention and cleaner production tools developed by NRMRL.

  13. 7 CFR 3201.72 - Oven and grill cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oven and grill cleaners. 3201.72 Section 3201.72 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.72 Oven and...

  14. 7 CFR 2902.48 - General purpose household cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose household cleaners. 2902.48 Section 2902.48 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY... to clean multiple common household surfaces. This designated item does not include products that...

  15. 7 CFR 2902.48 - General purpose household cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General purpose household cleaners. 2902.48 Section 2902.48 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY... to clean multiple common household surfaces. This designated item does not include products that...

  16. Determination of Ammonia in Household Cleaners: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Richard C.; DePew, Steven

    1983-01-01

    Briefly discusses three techniques for assessing amount of ammonia present in household cleaners. Because of disadvantages with these methods, the thermometric titration technique is suggested in which students judge the best buy based on relative cost of ammonia present in samples. Laboratory procedures, typical results, and reactions involved…

  17. 7 CFR 3201.104 - Metal cleaners and corrosion removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Definition. (1) Products that are designed to clean and remove grease, oil, dirt, stains, soils, and rust..., dirt, stains, and soils from stainless steel surfaces. (iii) Other metal cleaners. Products that are designed to clean and remove grease, oil, dirt, stains, and soils from metal surfaces other than...

  18. INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUE TO EVALUATE LINT CLEANER GRID BAR DESIGNS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Photographic techniques were used to show the path that fibers attached to a gin saw take as they are drawn over a lint cleaner cleaning grid bar. A 1979 study showed that fibers were swept backwards, closer to the saw, as saw speed increased. The angle between the tip of the saw tooth and the fib...

  19. PROCESS AND EQUIPMENT CHANGES FOR CLEANER PRODUCTION IN FEDERAL FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses process and equipment changes for cleaner production in federal facilities. During the 1990s, DoD and EPA conducted joint research and development, aimed at reducing the discharge of hazardous and toxic pollutants from military production and maintenance faci...

  20. Energy-Efficient Supermarket Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning in Humid Climates in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.

    2015-03-01

    Supermarkets are energy-intensive buildings that consume the greatest amount of electricity per square foot of building of any building type in the United States and represent 5% of total U.S. commercial building primary energy use (EIA 2005). Refrigeration and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are responsible for a large proportion of supermarkets’ total energy use. These two systems sometimes work together and sometimes compete, but the performance of one system always affects the performance of the other. To better understand these challenges and opportunities, the Commercial Buildings team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory investigated several of the most promising strategies for providing energy-efficient HVAC for supermarkets and quantified the resulting energy use and costs using detailed simulations. This research effort was conducted on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) (Baechler et al. 2012; Parrish et al. 2013; Antonopoulos et al. 2014; Hirsch et al. 2014). The goal of CBP was to reduce energy use in the commercial building sector by creating, testing, and validating design concepts on the pathway to net zero energy commercial buildings. Several CBP partners owned or operated buildings containing supermarkets and were interested in optimizing the energy efficiency of supermarket HVAC systems in hot-humid climates. These partners included Walmart, Target, Whole Foods Market, SUPERVALU, and the Defense Commissary Agency.

  1. A MultiAir®/MultiFuel Approach to Enhancing Engine System Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, Ronald

    2015-05-20

    FCA US LLC (formally known as Chrysler Group LLC, and hereinafter “Chrysler”) was awarded an American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funded project by the Department of Energy (DOE) titled “A MultiAir®/MultiFuel Approach to Enhancing Engine System Efficiency” (hereinafter “project”). This award was issued after Chrysler submitted a proposal for Funding Opportunity Announcement DE-FOA- 0000079, “Systems Level Technology Development, Integration, and Demonstration for Efficient Class 8 Trucks (SuperTruck) and Advanced Technology Powertrains for Light-Duty Vehicles (ATP-LD).” Chrysler started work on this project on June 01, 2010 and completed testing activities on August 30, 2014. Overall objectives of this project were; Demonstrate a 25% improvement in combined Federal Test Procedure (FTP) City and Highway fuel economy over a 2009 Chrysler minivan; Accelerate the development of highly efficient engine and powertrain systems for light-duty vehicles, while meeting future emissions standards; and Create and retain jobs in accordance with the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

  2. COREXIT 9580 shoreline cleaner: Development, application, and status

    SciTech Connect

    Canevari, G.P.; Fiocco, R.J.; Lessard, R.R.; Fingas, M.

    1995-06-01

    This paper will describe research on chemical beach cleaners for treatment of oiled shorelines that was initiated in support of the cleaning activities in Prince William Sound (PWS) following the Valdez oil spill in March 1989. The concept for using beach cleaners for shoreline cleanup is to apply a pre-soak to the weathered crude oil on shore and then flush with sea water to wash the oil into a boomed area for subsequent recovery. Criteria imposed on the use of chemical beach cleaners for the cleanup of the Valdez spill were: (1) effective rock cleaning agents should have very little or no toxicity to marine and terrestrial life, (2) there should be no dispersion of the oil washed from the shoreline into the water column; oil was to be recovered by techniques such as skimming or sorbents, and (3) the agents should be on the EPA National Contingency Plan (NCP) list. A laboratory-scale rock washing test was developed to measure cleaner effectiveness and dispersion. A large number of commercially available formulated products were evaluated, as well as development formulations. The commercial products included all of the available NCP-listed products which could function as cleaners. None of the commercial products completely satisfied all the requirements established by the agencies for beach cleaning. However, a new formula, called COREXIT 9580, consisting of two surfactants and a solvent was developed. It exhibited low fish toxicity, low dispersancy and effective rock cleaning capability. The paper reviews the laboratory and field testing to explore the potential use of the COREXIT 9580 to save and restore oiled vegetation.

  3. Nanofiber Air Filters with High-Temperature Stability for Efficient PM2.5 Removal from the Pollution Sources.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rufan; Liu, Chong; Hsu, Po-Chun; Zhang, Chaofan; Liu, Nian; Zhang, Jinsong; Lee, Hye Ryoung; Lu, Yingying; Qiu, Yongcai; Chu, Steven; Cui, Yi

    2016-06-01

    Here, we developed high-efficiency (>99.5%) polyimide-nanofiber air filters for the high temperature PM2.5 removal. The polyimide nanofibers exhibited high thermal stability, and the PM2.5 removal efficiency was kept unchanged when temperature ranged from 25-370 °C. These filters had high air flux with very low pressure drop. They could continuously work for >120 h for PM2.5 index >300. A field-test showed that they could effectively remove >99.5% PM particles from car exhaust at high temperature. PMID:27167892

  4. Influence Of Adsorbent Materials On Streamers Propagation In Air And Induced Chemical Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guaitella, O.; Marinov, I.; Dong, B.; Rousseau, A.

    2010-07-01

    materials, give a new insight on the main role played by the dielectric in the development and the chemical efficiency of streamers ignited in DBD for air treatment.

  5. Efficient air pollution regulation of coal-fired power in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Therese

    This dissertation evaluates monetary external costs of electricity generation in the People's Republic of China and implications for efficient pollution control policy. It presents an integrated assessment of environmental damages of air emissions of a representative new coal-fired plant in urban areas of north and south China. The simulation evaluates the nature and magnitude of damages in China, transboundary effects in Japan and Korea, and global greenhouse gas warming impacts. The valuation is used to identify efficient abatement policy for Chinese plants over time; evaluate benefits of differentiated policies; and consider the importance of dynamic policy. Potential annual damages of operating a 600-MW power plant without controls in China today would be 43-45 million (U.S. 1995). Annual local damages of 37-40 million far exceed transboundary or greenhouse gas damages (1.4 million and $4.6 million respectively). The largest component of damages is the risk of human mortality and chronic morbidity from long-term exposure to fine particles. Efficient pollution control minimizes the sum of abatement costs and residual unabated damages. Because monetary damages reflect sufferers' willingness to pay to avoid environmental risks, the choice of efficient controls is fundamentally tied to societal values and preferences. The optimal path for Chinese abatement moves from modest dispersion measures at present to combined dispersion and emission controls approaching those of current-day United States, by 2050. The inclusion of transboundary and greenhouse damages does not substantively alter local policies. Welfare benefits are gained by differentiating abatement policy by pollutant, meteorological parameters, and by population density. An analysis of optimal one-time investment in abatement for a plant in a growing economy suggests that some investment is optimal at all incomes but no single level of abatement is suitable for all economies. Forward-looking policy

  6. Landscaping for energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This publication by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory addresses the use of landscaping for energy efficiency. The topics of the publication include minimizing energy expenses; landscaping for a cleaner environment; climate, site, and design considerations; planning landscape; and selecting and planting trees and shrubs. A source list for more information on landscaping for energy efficiency and a reading list are included.

  7. Low-Pressure Generator Makes Cleanrooms Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Scientists at NASA's Kennedy Space Center work in cleanrooms: laboratories with high degrees of cleanliness provided by strict control of particles such as dust, lint, or human skin. They are contaminant-free facilities, where the air is repeatedly filtered, and surfaces are smooth to prevent particles from getting lodged. Technicians working in these environments wear specially designed cleanroom "bunny suits" and booties over their street clothes, as well as gloves and face masks to avoid any contamination that may be imparted from the outside world. Even normal paper is not allowed in cleanrooms, only cleanroom low-particulate paper. These are sensitive environments where precision work, like the production of silicon chips or hard disk drives, is performed. Often in cleanrooms, positive air pressure is used to force particles outside of the isolated area. The air pressure in the Kennedy cleanrooms is monitored using high-accuracy, low-differential pressure transducers that require periodic calibration. Calibration of the transducers is a tricky business. In prior years, the analysis was performed by sending the transducers to the Kennedy Standards Laboratory, where a very expensive cross-floated, labor- intensive, dead-weight test was conducted. In the early 1990s, scientists at Kennedy determined to develop a technique and find equipment to perform qualification testing on new low-differential pressure transducers in an accurate, cost-effective manner onsite, without requiring an environmentally controlled room. They decided to use the highly accurate, cost-effective Setra Model C264 as the test transducer. For qualification testing of the Setra, though, a portable, lower-cost calibrator was needed that could control the differential pressure to a high degree of resolution and transfer the accuracy of the Standards Laboratory testing to the qualification testing. The researchers decided that, to generate the low-differential pressure setpoints needed for

  8. Green chemicals: Searching for cleaner solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, A.

    1994-10-05

    While increased pressure from EPA has solvents producers scrambling to find greener alternatives, many say the cost effectiveness and performance characteristics of traditional technologies are such that they will not disappear quickly. Though a variety of alternative {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} solvents have been developed and commercialized, better means of solvent recovery have also come along, ensuring continued use of many organic solvents. The 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA), designed to eliminate volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone depleters, and other hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), has put limits on many organic solvents. Those most under fire are chlorinated solvents, such as methylene chloride, 1,1,1 trichloroethylene (methyl chloroform), and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-113. Producers have been developing a variety of lower VOC solvents to replace those being phased out or regulated. Among those likely to experience most growth are aliphatic hydrocarbons to replace chlorinated solvents in cleaning applications. Growth is also expected for alcohols, esters, and glycol ethers for other end-use applications.

  9. Bacterial filtration efficiency of green soy protein based nanofiber air filter.

    PubMed

    Lubasova, D; Netravali, A; Parker, J; Ingel, B

    2014-07-01

    High bacterial filtration efficiency (BFE) filters, based on nanofibers derived from blends of grain proteins and poly-ethylene-oxide (PEO), were produced by an electrospinning process. Specifically, polymer blends consisting of purified soy flour/PEO with a ratio of 7/3 were spun into nanofibers and characterized. A new laboratory based experimental apparatus for testing BFE was designed and used to test BFE of bacterial aerosols consisting of Escherichia coli (E. coli). Performances of soy protein based nanofiber filters with nanofiber mass varying from 1 to 5 g/m2 as well as a nanofiber filters prepared from pure PEO were compared. The results showed that BFE values for filters containing 5 g/m2 protein based nanofibers and PEO nanofiber filter were 100 and 81.5%, respectively. The results also indicated that the BFE increased as the protein content in the nanofiber filter increased. These novel protein based nanofiber filters have demonstrated a clear potential for effective removal and retention of E. coli bacteria during air-filtration. These filters can be effectively deployed in environments such as hospitals and senior residential areas to reduce bacterial infections. PMID:24757959

  10. High-Efficiency Variable Dehumidification for Air Conditioners: ClimaStat

    SciTech Connect

    West, Michael K., Ph.D. P.E.

    2006-04-30

    Advantek has successfully developed the first low-cost technology offering significant improvement in both Seasonal Energy Efficiency (SEER) and comfort & humidity control. A production prototype was constructed based on a commercial roof top package unit. The prototype was operated under a wide range of psychrometric conditions. Test data was analyzed to identify refinements, which were implemented to further improve performance in an iterative procedure that resulted in a fully optimized technology. The latest results show an increase in dehumidification capacity of 56% with ClimaStat™ in full dehumidify mode vs. with ClimaStat™ off. Dehumidification improved by a factor of 1.7 to 1.9 – meaning that the unit can provide nearly twice the water removal per unit of sensible cooling load. Performance testing results have been consistent, verifiable and repeatable. . ClimaStat™ cost-effectively controls humidity on-demand and improves indoor air quality while reducing annual energy costs. Test data clearly shows that ClimaStat™ costs 20% to 60% less to operate. ClimaStat™ is ready for market.

  11. Efficiency of air/liquid interfaces in detaching bacteria from a surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodaparast, Sepideh; Stone, Howard

    2015-11-01

    Gas/liquid interfaces are known to be significantly more effective than shear stress in detaching microscale colloids from substrates by inducing surface tension forces. Providing that a three-phase contact at the interface of a gas bubble, the liquid phase and the particle occurs, the magnitude of the surface tension force can potentially exceed by orders of magnitude the adhesion force, which keeps the micro particles on the surface. We investigate the ability of a moving air/liquid interface to stimulate the detachment of bacteria from a surface. Bacteria are micron-sized living organisms with strong tendency to attach to almost any substrate that they come into contact with. Attachment of bacteria on the surface is a complex process regulated by diverse characteristics of their growth medium, substrate, and cell surface. Moreover, once fixed on the surface, the microorganisms evolve in time to create intricate biofilm structures, which are highly challenging to be removed. The objective of this study to characterise the efficiency of this detachment process as a function of bacterial attachment as well as hydrodynamic parameters such the surface tension and the interface velocity. Swiss National Science Foundation P2ELP2-158896.

  12. CMOS Amperometric ADC With High Sensitivity, Dynamic Range and Power Efficiency for Air Quality Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Li, Haitao; Boling, C Sam; Mason, Andrew J

    2016-08-01

    Airborne pollutants are a leading cause of illness and mortality globally. Electrochemical gas sensors show great promise for personal air quality monitoring to address this worldwide health crisis. However, implementing miniaturized arrays of such sensors demands high performance instrumentation circuits that simultaneously meet challenging power, area, sensitivity, noise and dynamic range goals. This paper presents a new multi-channel CMOS amperometric ADC featuring pixel-level architecture for gas sensor arrays. The circuit combines digital modulation of input currents and an incremental Σ∆ ADC to achieve wide dynamic range and high sensitivity with very high power efficiency and compact size. Fabricated in 0.5 [Formula: see text] CMOS, the circuit was measured to have 164 dB cross-scale dynamic range, 100 fA sensitivity while consuming only 241 [Formula: see text] and 0.157 [Formula: see text] active area per channel. Electrochemical experiments with liquid and gas targets demonstrate the circuit's real-time response to a wide range of analyte concentrations. PMID:27352395

  13. THE EFFECT OF WATER/RESIDUAL OIL EMULSIONS ON AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS AND EFFICIENCY OF COMMERCIAL BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of tests of two commercially available water-in-oil emulsifiers to determine the effect of water/residual oil emulsions on air pollutant emissions and thermal efficiency of a packaged boiler. Of the two emulsifiers, one (Cottell reactor) used low pressure ...

  14. Preliminary analysis of problem of determining experimental performance of air-cooled turbine III : methods for determining power and efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr; Ziemer, Robert R

    1950-01-01

    Suggested formula are given for determining air-cooled turbine-performance characteristics, such as power and efficiency, as functions of certain parameters. These functions, generally being unknown, are determined from experimental data obtained from specific investigations. Special plotting methods for isolating the effect of each parameter are outlined.

  15. Membrane Dehumidifier: High-Efficiency, On-Line Membrane Air Dehumidifier Enabling Sensible Cooling for Warm and Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: ADMA Products is developing a foil-like membrane for air conditioners that efficiently removes moisture from humid air. ADMA Products’s metal foil-like membrane consists of a paper thin, porous metal sheet coated with a layer of water-loving molecules. This new membrane allows water vapor to permeate across the membrane at high fluxes and at the same time, blocks air penetration efficiently resulting in high selectivity. The high selectivity of the membrane translates to less energy use, while the high permeation fluxes result in a more compact device. The new materials and the flat foil-like nature of the membrane facilitate the mass production of a low-coast compact dehumidification device

  16. A cleaner two-step synthesis of high purity diallyldimethylammonium chloride monomers for flocculant preparation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Bing-hui; Fan, Bin; Peng, Xian-jia; Luan, Zhao-kun

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the flocculation efficiency of polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC), high molecular weight PDADMAC should be prepared from high purity diallyldimethylammonium chloride(DADMAC) monomers. In this paper, a cleaner method with microwave irradiation and alkali solidification was proposed for preparing high pure DADMAC by selective heating under low temperature, and the prepared high purity DADMAC is characterized using FTIR and atomic absorption spectrometry. The new method provides a solution to the key technical problem of PDADMAC synthesis. Comparing with the conventional methods, the results showed that the advantages of the novel synthesis include: (a) high purity DADMAC is improved from 57% to 71%; (b) reaction time of tertiary amine preparation is shortened from 6 h to 7 min; (c) water instead of acetone was used as reaction medium; (d) toxic by-products, wastewater and waste gas are eliminated. Flocculant made from the synthesized high purity DADMAC monomers was proved more efficient in flocculation tests. PMID:16313006

  17. Trochanteric Stress Fracture in a Female Window Cleaner

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bong-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Stress fractures may occur at various sites in the femur including the head, neck, shaft, supracondylar and condylar regions. To the best of our knowledge, stress fracture occurring in the trochanteric region has not been previously reported. We report here a case of trochanteric stress fracture in a 53-year-old female window cleaner treated with hip nailing without adverse consequences. Careful consideration of this entity is needed when evaluating patients who have repetitive jumping up and down.

  18. Air pollution and chronic airway diseases: what should people know and do?

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xu-Qin; Feng, Di

    2016-01-01

    The health effects of air pollution remain a public health concern worldwide. Exposure to air pollution has many substantial adverse effects on human health. Globally, seven million deaths were attributable to the joint effects of household and ambient air pollution. Subjects with chronic respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are especially vulnerable to the detrimental effects of air pollutants. Air pollution can induce the acute exacerbation of COPD and onset of asthma, increase the respiratory morbidity and mortality. The health effects of air pollution depend on the components and sources of pollutants, which varied with countries, seasons, and times. Combustion of solid fuels is a major source of air pollutants in developing countries. To reduce the detrimental effects of air pollution, people especially those with COPD or asthma should be aware of the air quality and take extra measures such as reducing the time outdoor and wearing masks when necessary. For reducing the air pollutants indoor, people should use clean fuels and improve the stoves so as to burn fuel more efficiently and vent emissions to the outside. Air cleaners that can improve the air quality efficiently are recommended. PMID:26904251

  19. Efficiency characteristics of speed modulated drives at predicted torque conditions for air-to-air heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, C. K.

    Examples of system (motor + inverter drive) efficiencies of two types of adjustable speed control are compared for predicted compressor and indoor blower load profiles. The two classifications are inverter-driven induction motors (IDIMs) and permanent-magnet electronically commutated motors (PM-ECMs). Reference sine-wave-driven induction motor (SWDIM) efficiencies are also given. Available bench data on late 70's IDIM compressor drives are compared to recent data on IDIM and PM-ECM drives. The drive efficiencies are compared over common operating torque requirements for heating and cooling. A modulating heat pump model was used to develop predicted reciprocating compressor torque/drive-frequency mappings and the expected operating torque ranges. The variation in modulating compressor torque requirements is analyzed. Ways to adjust the torque relation for different compressor types and sizing strategies are also discussed. Modulating blower performance data on an early '80s generation modulating heat pump with an IDIM drive (and SWDIM reference drive) were obtained and compared to bench data on recent IDIM and PM-ECM drives under similar torque conditions. In both compressor and blower applications, the combined system efficiency of the PM-ECM drives is nearly equal to or higher than that of the reference SWDIM cases and significantly better than IDIMs available in the late '70s. When compared to more recent IDIMs, the PM-ECM efficiency advantage over IDIM compressors has been reduced 40 to 50 percent between half and nominal speed (3600 rpm) but still remains 14 to 9 percent higher, respectively.

  20. Comparative in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of commercial ear cleaners.

    PubMed

    Swinney, Alison; Fazakerley, Jennifer; McEwan, Neil; Nuttall, Tim

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of ear cleaners against Staphylococcus intermedius, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Malassezia pachydermatis. Single isolates of each organism were incubated in duplicate at 38 degrees C for 30 min with each ear cleaner diluted 1/2 to 1/256 in phosphate-buffered saline. Positive and negative controls were included. Aliquots were then incubated for 16-18 h on sheep blood agar (bacteria) or for 3 days on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (Malassezia) at 38 degrees C. The lowest dilutions exhibiting 100% antimicrobial efficacy for S. intermedius were: Cleanaural Dog 1/32; Sancerum 1/16; Otoclean 1/4; EpiOtic 1/2; MalAcetic 1/2; and Triz Plus 1/2. The results for P. aeruginosa were Sancerum and Triz Plus 1/16; Cleanaural Dog and EpiOtic 1/8; Otoclean 1/4; and MalAcetic 1/2. Results for M. pachydermatis were: Cleanaural Dog 1/32; Sancerum, Otoclean, EpiOtic and Triz Plus 1/8; and MalAcetic 1/4. Cleanaural Cat, MalAcetic HC and Triz EDTA did not display any antimicrobial activity at any dilution. Antimicrobial activity appeared to be associated with the presence of isopropyl alcohol, parachlorometaxylenol and a low pH. The results of this study may help clinicians make evidence-based decisions when selecting ear cleaners for use in individual cases. PMID:19055612

  1. Biting cleaner fish use altruism to deceive image-scoring client reef fish.

    PubMed Central

    Bshary, Redouan

    2002-01-01

    Humans are more likely to help those who they have observed helping others previously. Individuals may thus benefit from being altruistic without direct reciprocity of recipients but due to gains in 'image' and associated indirect reciprocity. I suggest, however, that image-scoring individuals may be exploitable by cheaters if pay-offs vary between interactions. I illustrate this point with data on cleaner-client reef fish interactions. I show the following: (i) there is strong variation between cleaners with respect to cheating of clients (i.e. feeding on client tissue instead of parasites); (ii) clients approach cleaners, that they observe cooperating with their current client and avoid cleaners that they observe cheating; (iii) cleaners that cheat frequently are avoided more frequently than more cooperative cleaners (iv) cleaners that cheat frequently behave altruistically towards their smallest client species; (v) altruistic acts are followed by exploitative interactions. Thus, it appears that cleaners indeed have an image score, which selects for cooperative cleaners. However, cheating cleaners use altruism in potentially low-pay-off interactions to deceive and attract image-scoring clients that will be exploited. PMID:12396482

  2. Biting cleaner fish use altruism to deceive image-scoring client reef fish.

    PubMed

    Bshary, Redouan

    2002-10-22

    Humans are more likely to help those who they have observed helping others previously. Individuals may thus benefit from being altruistic without direct reciprocity of recipients but due to gains in 'image' and associated indirect reciprocity. I suggest, however, that image-scoring individuals may be exploitable by cheaters if pay-offs vary between interactions. I illustrate this point with data on cleaner-client reef fish interactions. I show the following: (i) there is strong variation between cleaners with respect to cheating of clients (i.e. feeding on client tissue instead of parasites); (ii) clients approach cleaners, that they observe cooperating with their current client and avoid cleaners that they observe cheating; (iii) cleaners that cheat frequently are avoided more frequently than more cooperative cleaners (iv) cleaners that cheat frequently behave altruistically towards their smallest client species; (v) altruistic acts are followed by exploitative interactions. Thus, it appears that cleaners indeed have an image score, which selects for cooperative cleaners. However, cheating cleaners use altruism in potentially low-pay-off interactions to deceive and attract image-scoring clients that will be exploited. PMID:12396482

  3. Comparison of soft toothbrush and new ultra-soft cleaner in ability to remove plaque from teeth.

    PubMed

    Stewart, William J; Gratzel, Kristen; Gearity, Erin J; Akerman, Meredith; Hill, Jennifer M

    2014-11-01

    In this single-blind, crossover study, the difference between a brushless tooth cleaner and a soft toothbrush was studied to compare plaque removal efficiency. The sample was composed of 15 human subjects who were categorized into two groups. Group 1 was composed of subjects randomly assigned to the brushless tooth cleaner for the first two weeks. Group 2 was composed of those randomly assigned to begin the study using the soft toothbrush. After two weeks of brushing with their assigned device, subjects returned to their normal modality to brush their teeth for one week. For the last two weeks of the study, subjects were told to brush with the opposite device they were originally assigned to at the beginning of the trial. Investigators recorded the subjects' gingival indices (based on probe depths) and Quigley scores (based on plaque indices using disclosing solution) at the beginning of week one, the end of week two, the end of week three and the end of week five. The main outcomes in this study were the Silness Loe Index (SLI) and the Quigley Hein Index (QHI). The SLI was assessed on the buccal, lingual, mesial and distal surfaces of six teeth, for a total of 24 surfaces. The QHI was assessed on the buccal and lingual surfaces of six teeth, for a total of 12 surfaces. Each index was measured at each visit by the sum total score divided by the total number of surfaces. The data were analyzed separately using a mixed-effects repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA) for crossover designs. Results indicate that, according to the SLI, there is no significant difference between the two treatments after the first or second weeks. However, based on the QHI, statistically significant differences existed between the two treatments after week one and two. After week one, the soft toothbrush use had a higher QHI than the brushless tooth cleaner. After week two, the brushless tooth cleaner had a higher QHI than the soft toothbrush. PMID:25675612

  4. Development of a highly efficient brushless dc motor utilizing both radial and axial air gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, K. J.; Jang, G. H.; Sung, S. J.; Chang, J. H.

    2012-04-01

    This research proposes an effective structure for a brushless dc motor utilizing both radial and axial air gaps. The proposed motor generates torque in both the radial and axial air gaps, while the conventional motor generates torque only in the radial air gap. The proposed motor was optimized to minimize the electromagnetic loss of the motor to increase the effective air gap length and fill-factor of the coil while decreasing the saturation of the core at the same time. The electromagnetic loss was reduced by 35% in comparison with a conventional motor.

  5. Interactions Between Energy Efficiency and Emission Trading Under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Hillsman, E L

    1994-01-01

    Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (P.L. 101-549) requires electric utilities to reduce emissions of precursors of acid precipitation, specifically sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), starting at 261 generating units in 1995 and covering most fossil-fired units in 2000. The Amendments take a conventional command-and-control approach to reducing NO{sub x}, but they established a market-based regulatory system to reduce SO{sub 2}. Under this system, utilities that own fossil-fired power plants in the conterminous 48 states and the District of Columbia are granted the right, in the form of allowances, to emit a specified number of tons of SO{sub 2}. A utility that wants to do so may reduce emissions more than required by the number of allowances it receives and then either sell its excess allowances to other utilities or bank them for future use. Alternatively, it can buy additional allowances from other utilities who may wish to sell, and emit more than its original allocation would have permitted, provided that it holds enough allowances from some source to cover emissions. The research described here attempts to estimate how large these interacting effects might be and how they might affect the choices that utilities make when complying with Title IV of the Amendments. They do so using a model that was designed to estimate what options electric utilities might choose in complying with Title IV, and what effects compliance would have on electricity costs. The model assumes that the allowance trading system would work as smoothly as the economic theory on which the system is based. Actual compliance decisions announced to date have been somewhat different from what theory and the model project. They discuss some of the reasons for these differences and the likely effects these differences may have on the interaction between allowance trading and energy efficiency.

  6. Summary of efficiency testing of standard and high-capacity high-efficiency particulate air filters subjected to simulated tornado depressurization and explosive shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.R.; Gregory, W.S.

    1985-04-01

    Pressure transients in nuclear facility air cleaning systems can originate from natural phenomena such as tornadoes or from accident-induced explosive blast waves. This study was concerned with the effective efficiency of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters during pressure surges resulting from simulated tornado and explosion transients. The primary objective of the study was to examine filter efficiencies at pressure levels below the point of structural failure. Both standard and high-capacity 0.61-m by 0.61-m HEPA filters were evaluated, as were several 0.2-m by 0.2-m HEPA filters. For a particular manufacturer, the material release when subjected to tornado transients is the same (per unit area) for both the 0.2-m by 0.2-m and the 0.61-m by 0.61-m filters. For tornado transients, the material release was on the order of micrograms per square meter. When subjecting clean HEPA filters to simulated tornado transients with aerosol entrained in the pressure pulse, all filters tested showed a degradation of filter efficiency. For explosive transients, the material release from preloaded high-capacity filters was as much as 340 g. When preloaded high-capacity filters were subjected to shock waves approximately 50% of the structural limit level, 1 to 2 mg of particulate was released.

  7. Energy-Efficiency and Air-Pollutant Emissions-Reduction Opportunities for the Ammonia Industry in China

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Ding; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Chen, Wenying

    2015-06-01

    As one of the most energy-intensive and polluting industries, ammonia production is responsible for significant carbon dioxide (CO2) and air-pollutant emissions. Although many energy-efficiency measures have been proposed by the Chinese government to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality, lack of understanding of the cost-effectiveness of such improvements has been a barrier to implementing these measures. Assessing the costs, benefits, and cost-effectiveness of different energy-efficiency measures is essential to advancing this understanding. In this study, a bottom-up energy conservation supply curve model is developed to estimate the potential for energy savings and emissions reductions from 26 energy-efficiency measures that could be applied in China’s ammonia industry. Cost-effective implementation of these measures saves a potential 271.5 petajoules/year for fuel and 5,443 gigawatt-hours/year for electricity, equal to 14% of fuel and 14% of electricity consumed in China’s ammonia industry in 2012. These reductions could mitigate 26.7 million tonnes of CO2 emissions. This study also quantifies the co-benefits of reducing air-pollutant emissions and water use that would result from saving energy in China’s ammonia industry. This quantitative analysis advances our understanding of the cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures and can be used to augment efforts to reduce energy use and environmental impacts.

  8. Trapping Efficiency of 1,3-Dichloropropene Isomers by XAD-4 Sorbent Tubes for Air Sampling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emission monitoring is necessary to evaluate the impact of air pollutants such as soil fumigants on the environment. Quantifying fumigant emissions often involves the use of air sampling tubes filled with sorbents to trap fumigants. 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) are being increas...

  9. Air Conditioning with Magnetic Refrigeration : An Efficient, Green Compact Cooling System Using Magnetic Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Astronautics is developing an air conditioning system that relies on magnetic fields. Typical air conditioners use vapor compression to cool air. Vapor compression uses a liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb the heat, and pump the heat out into the external environment. Astronautics’ design uses a novel property of certain materials, called “magnetocaloric materials”, to achieve the same result as liquid refrigerants. These magnetocaloric materials essentially heat up when placed within a magnetic field and cool down when removed, effectively pumping heat out from a cooler to warmer environment. In addition, magnetic refrigeration uses no ozone-depleting gases and is safer to use than conventional air conditioners which are prone to leaks.

  10. New Plasma Technology for a Cleaner Environmant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, Daniel R.

    2000-04-01

    Onboard hydrogen production using compact plasmatron fuel converters has the potential to significantly improve the environmental quality of automobiles, trucks and buses. Plasmatron electric discharge technology has been employed to develop compact, rapid response and efficient devices which convert of a wide range of fuels into hydrogen-rich gas. Hydrogen rich gas has beneficial effects on engine operation and may also be useful in exhaust aftertreatment. Use of compact plasmatron fuel converters with present spark ignition engine technology could facilitate a 70-90% reduction in nitrogen oxide emissions from automobiles. Nitrogen oxides are a major ingredient in the production of smog. Hydrocarbon emissions could also be significantly reduced. Hydrogen-rich gas could also be employed to reduce pollution from Diesel engine vehicles. There could also be applications to hybrid and fuel cell powered vehicles. In addition, hydrogen generation using compact plasmatron fuel converters might be employed to facilitate the use of biomass derived fuels including oils by onboard conversion into hydrogen-rich gas. Use of biomass derived fuels on board could lead to a net reduction in CO2 production. Compact plasmatron fuel converters facilitate hydrogen production from partial oxidation of hydrocarbon fuels by providing increased reactive species, mixing and increased temperatures. Experimental studies of hydrogen production from compact plasmatron fuel converters and effects on laboratory engine operation will be discussed.

  11. Urban air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenger, Jes

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate

  12. Mega-supramolecules for safer, cleaner fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornfield, Julie

    Guided by the statistical mechanics of ring-chain equilibrium, we designed and synthesized polymers that self-assemble into ``mega-supramolecules'' (>=5,000 kg/mol) at low concentration (<=0.3%wt) in hydrocarbon liquids. Experimental results accord with model predictions that end-functional polymers, which distribute among cyclic and linear supramolecules, can form a significant population of mega-supramolecules at low total polymer concentration--if, and only if , the backbones are long (>400 kg/mol) and end-association strength is optimal (16-18kT). Hydrocarbon liquid fuels are the world's dominant power source (34% of global energy consumption). Transportation relies heavily on such liquids, presenting the risk of explosive post-impact fires. The collapse of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001 inspired us to revisit polymers for mist control to mitigate post-impact fuel explosions. Rheological and both light and neutron scattering measurements of long end-functional polymers having polycyclooctadiene backbones and acid or amine end groups verify formation of mega-supramolecules. Post-impact flame propagations experiments show that mega-supramolecules control misting. Turbulent flow measurements show that mega-supramolecules reduce drag like ultra-long covalent polymers. With individual building blocks short enough to avoid hydrodynamic chain scission (400efficiency or emissions in diesel engines. In fact, they gave a 12% reduction in diesel soot. Thus, long end-associative polymers may open the way to fuel additives that reduce pollution and improve transportation safety and security.

  13. Ambient air and its potential effects on conception in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cohen, J; Gilligan, A; Esposito, W; Schimmel, T; Dale, B

    1997-08-01

    Incidences of chemical air contamination (CAC) are common in assisted reproductive technology, but not reported in peer review format. Justified fear of car and industrial emissions clearly exists among reproductive specialists, but standards for air contents and gaseous emission limits have not been reported. Here, we describe air sampling methods and assay systems which can be applied to any laboratory or laboratory item. It was found that unfiltered outside air may be cleaner than high efficiency particulate air filtration (HEPA) filtered laboratory air or air obtained from incubators, due to accumulation of volatile organic compounds derived from adjacent spaces or specific laboratory products such as compressed CO2, sterile Petri dishes and other materials or devices known to release gaseous emissions. Specific groups of products such as anaesthetic gases, refrigerants, cleaning agents, hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds such as benzene and toluene are described. The latter were shown to accumulate specifically in incubators. Isopropyl alcohol was the most dominant product found, though it was not used by the laboratory staff. Concentrations of this agent were low in incubator air, indicating that it was probably absorbed by the water in the pan or by culture medium. Measures to counter CAC are proposed, including the use of activated carbon filters and oxidizing material placed in the central air handling systems, in separate free-standing units or even inside the incubators. PMID:9308805

  14. System for improving internal combustion engine fuel efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Meek, J.S.

    1980-10-28

    A motor vehicle internal combustion engine is described having a pair of heat risers on the exhaust manifold and a plenum chamber positioned about the carburator fuel reservoir. Air from one of the heat risers is directed into the front of the air cleaner assembly. Air from the other heat riser is directed into the plenum where it preheats the fuel in the reservoir, and then exhausts into the air cleaner assembly where it is mixed with the air received from the first heat riser. Significant savings in fuel consumed by the engine have been noted by thus preheating the air and the fuel without vapor lock occurrences.

  15. Cruise-Efficient Short Takeoff and Landing (CESTOL): Potential Impact on Air Traffic Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couluris, G. J.; Signor, D.; Phillips, J.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is investigating technological and operational concepts for introducing Cruise-Efficient Short Takeoff and Landing (CESTOL) aircraft into a future US National Airspace System (NAS) civil aviation environment. CESTOL is an aircraft design concept for future use to increase capacity and reduce emissions. CESTOL provides very flexible takeoff, climb, descent and landing performance capabilities and a high-speed cruise capability. In support of NASA, this study is a preliminary examination of the potential operational impact of CESTOL on airport and airspace capacity and delay. The study examines operational impacts at a subject site, Newark Liberty Intemational Airport (KEWR), New Jersey. The study extends these KEWR results to estimate potential impacts on NAS-wide network traffic operations due to the introduction of CESTOL at selected major airports. These are the 34 domestic airports identified in the Federal Aviation Administration's Operational Evolution Plan (OEP). The analysis process uses two fast-time simulation tools to separately model local and NAS-wide air traffic operations using predicted flight schedules for a 24-hour study period in 2016. These tools are the Sen sis AvTerminal model and NASA's Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES). We use both to simulate conventional-aircraft-only and CESTOL-mixed-with-conventional-aircraft operations. Both tools apply 4-dimension trajectory modeling to simulate individual flight movement. The study applies AvTerminal to model traffic operations and procedures for en route and terminal arrival and departures to and from KEWR. These AvTerminal applications model existing arrival and departure routes and profiles and runway use configurations, with the assumption jet-powered, large-sized civil CESTOL aircraft use a short runway and standard turboprop arrival and departure procedures. With these rules, the conventional jet and CESTOL aircraft are procedurally

  16. Integrating NiCo Alloys with Their Oxides as Efficient Bifunctional Cathode Catalysts for Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xien; Park, Minjoon; Kim, Min Gyu; Gupta, Shiva; Wu, Gang; Cho, Jaephil

    2015-08-10

    The lack of high-efficient, low-cost, and durable bifunctional electrocatalysts that act simultaneously for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is currently one of the major obstacles to commercializing the electrical rechargeability of zinc-air batteries. A nanocomposite CoO-NiO-NiCo bifunctional electrocatalyst supported by nitrogen-doped multiwall carbon nanotubes (NCNT/CoO-NiO-NiCo) exhibits excellent activity and stability for the ORR/OER in alkaline media. More importantly, real air cathodes made from the bifunctional NCNT/CoO-NiO-NiCo catalysts further demonstrated superior performance to state-of-the-art Pt/C or Pt/C+IrO2 catalysts in primary and rechargeable zinc-air batteries. PMID:26118973

  17. Effects of energy-efficient ventilation rates on indoor air quality at an Ohio elementary school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, J. V.; Young, R.; Hollowell, C. D.; Turiel, I.; Pepper, J.

    1980-04-01

    A mobile laboratory was used to monitor air outdoors and at three indoor sites (two classrooms and a large multipurpose room); tests were made at three different ventilation rates. The parameters measured were outside air flow rates, odor perception, microbial burden, particulate mass, total aldehydes, carbon dioxide, ozone, and nitrogen oxides. The results of these measurements are given and compared with the existing outdoor air quality standards. Carbon dioxide concentrations increased as the ventilation rate decreased, but still did not exceed current standards. Odor perceptibility increased slightly at the lowest ventilation rate. Other pollutants showed very low concentrations, which did not change with reductions in ventilation rate.

  18. An approach to fault diagnosis of vacuum cleaner motors based on sound analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benko, Uros̆; Petrovc̆ic̆, Janko; Juričić, Đani; Tavčar, Joža; Rejec, Jožica

    2005-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of the detailed quality end-test of vacuum cleaner motors at the end of the manufacturing cycle. For the prototyping purposes a test rig has been constructed and is presented in short. The diagnostic system built hereto takes advantage of vibration, sound and commutation analysis as well as parity relation checks. The paper focuses on the sound analysis module and provides two main contributions. First, an analysis of sound sources is performed and a set of appropriate features is suggested. Second, efficient signal processing algorithms are developed in order to detect and localise bearing faults, defects in fan impeller, improper brush-commutator contacts and rubbing of rotating surfaces. A thorough laboratory study shows that the underlying diagnostic modules provide accurate diagnosis, high sensitivity with respect to faults, and good diagnostic resolution.

  19. Ablation efficiency of α-Al2O3 in liquid phase and ambient air by nanosecond laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajti, Csaba László; Sattari, Ramin; Chichkov, Boris; Barcikowski, Stephan

    2010-07-01

    Ablation efficiency and influences of laser parameters on a material removal rate by a nanosecond laser irradiation of α-Al2O3 are studied in gas and liquid phases. The laser ablation in the air yields maximum material removal rate of 12 ng/pulse using a 4.6-mJ pulse energy at 4-kHz repetition rate, compared to 88 ng/pulse in the water flow. Using a specific interpulse distance and a laser repetition rate further increase material removal rate by factor of 3 and 65, respectively, owing to an optimized lattice temperature and laser pulse interactions with the generated cavitation bubble. For the ablation in the air, these parameters do not significantly affect the ablation efficiency.

  20. Photosynthesis, transpiration and water use efficiencies of a plant canopy and plant leaves under restricted air current conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Shibuya, Toshio; Tsuruyama, Joshin

    A fundamental study was conducted to obtain the knowledge for culturing plants and exchanging gases with plants under restricted air circulation conditions in space agriculture. The effects of air velocities less than 1.3 m s-1 on net photosynthetic rates (Pn), transpiration rates (Tr) and Pn/Tr, water use efficiencies (WUE), of a canopy of cucumber seedlings and of single leaves of cucumber, sweet potato and barley were assessed with assimilation chamber methods in ground based experiments. The cucumber seedling canopy, which had a LAI of 1.4 and height of 0.1 m, was set in a wind tunnel installed in a plant canopy assimilation chamber. Each of the attached single leaves was set in a leaf assimilation chamber. The Pn and Tr of the plant canopy increased to 1.2 and 2.8 times, respectively, and WUE decreased to 0.4 times with increasing the air velocity from 0.02 to 1.3 m s-1. The Pn and Tr of the single leaves of all the species increased by 1.3-1.7 and 1.9-2.2 times, respectively, and WUE decreased to 0.6-0.8 times as the air velocity increased from 0.05 to 0.8 m s-1. The effect of air velocity was more significant on Tr than on Pn and thus WUE decreased with increasing air velocity in both the plant canopy and the individual leaves. The leaf boundary layer resistance was approximately proportional to the minus 1/3 power of the air velocity. Stomatal resistance was almost constant during the experiment. The CO2 concentrations in the sub-stomatal cavity in leaves of cucumber, sweet potato and barley, respectively, were 43, 31 and 58 mmol mol-1 lower at the air velocity of 0.05 m s-1 than at the air velocity of 0.8 m s-1, while the water vapor pressure in the sub-stomatal cavity was constant. We concluded that the change in the CO2 concentration in the sub-stomatal cavity was a cause of the different effect of the air velocity on Pn and Tr, and thus on WUE. The phenomenon will be more remarkable under restricted air convection conditions at lower gravity in space.

  1. Systematic experimental study on a highly efficient terahertz source based on two-color laser-induced air plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jun; Fan, Wen-Hui; Chen, Xu

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, highly efficient terahertz radiation generated by two-color femtosecond laser-induced air plasma is reported. A number of variables that can obviously influence terahertz generation and detection have been investigated systematically. The dependence on experimental parameters, including pulse energy, the rotation angle of beta-barium boron oxide (BBO) crystal, the distance between BBO crystal and laser-induced plasma, focal length, chopper frequency, and detection angle are presented, and the optimal values of these parameters have also been obtained experimentally. Finally, a highly efficient terahertz source has been achieved and can be utilized to carry out further investigation on terahertz sensing, spectroscopy, and imaging.

  2. In-place HEPA (high efficiency, particulate air) filter testing at Hanford: Operating experiences, calibrations, and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, D.S.; Decelis, D.G.

    1989-10-01

    High Efficiency, Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters provide a minimum of 99.97% removal efficiency for particles greater than or equal to .3 microns in diameter. Each HEPA filter installation at Hanford is, at specified intervals, functionally tested for leaks. The test procedure involves a dioctylphthalate (DOP) smoke generator and a calibrated airborne particle detector. The DOP generator produces smoke of a known quantitative particle size distribution upstream of the filter. The airborne particle detector is first placed upstream, and then downstream of the filter to determine percent penetration. The smoke generator is characterized using a calibrated laser spectrometer, and the particle detector is calibrated using a calibrated picoammeter. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  3. A novel carbon black graphite hybrid air-cathode for efficient hydrogen peroxide production in bioelectrochemical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nan; An, Jingkun; Zhou, Lean; Li, Tian; Li, Junhui; Feng, Cuijuan; Wang, Xin

    2016-02-01

    Carbon black and graphite hybrid air-cathode is proved to be effective for H2O2 production in bioelectrochemical systems. The optimal mass ratio of carbon black to graphite is 1:5 with the highest H2O2 yield of 11.9 mg L-1 h-1 cm-2 (12.3 mA cm-2). Continuous flow is found to improve the current efficiency due to the avoidance of H2O2 accumulation. In the biological system, the highest H2O2 yield reaches 3.29 mg L-1h-1 (0.079 kg m-3day-1) with a current efficiency of 72%, which is higher than the abiotic system at the same current density. H2O2 produced in this system is mainly from the oxygen diffused through this air-cathode (>66%), especially when a more negative cathode potential is applied (94% at -1.0 V). This hybrid air-cathode has advantages of high H2O2 yield, high current density and no need of aeration, which make the synthesis of H2O2 more efficient and economical.

  4. High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filter Generation, Characterization, and Disposal Experiences at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, D. E.

    2002-02-28

    High Efficiency Particulate Air filtration is an essential component of the containment and ventilation systems supporting the research and development activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. High Efficiency Particulate Air filters range in size from 7.6cm (3 inch) by 10.2 cm (4 inch) cylindrical shape filters to filter array assemblies up to 2.1 m (7 feet) high by 1.5 m (5 feet) wide. Spent filters are grouped by contaminates trapped in the filter media and become one of the components in the respective waste stream. Waste minimization and pollution prevention efforts are applied for both radiological and non-radiological applications. Radiological applications include laboratory hoods, glove boxes, and hot cells. High Efficiency Particulate Air filters also are generated from intake or pre-filtering applications, decontamination activities, and asbestos abatement applications. The disposal avenues include sanitary/industrial waste, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and Toxic Substance Control Act, regulated waste, solid low-level waste, contact handled transuranic, and remote handled transuranic waste. This paper discusses characterization and operational experiences associated with the disposal of the spent filters across multiple applications.

  5. Diesel engine dual path exhaust cleaner and burner system

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, T.L.

    1983-02-15

    A dual filter element exhaust cleaner and burner system for diesel engines provides for the trapping of particulates in the engine exhaust gases by their passage through filter elements, as selectively controlled by means of a four-way valve. Collected particulates in a non-active particulate filter element are incinerated by means of a heater, with this filter element, during incineration, being supplied with exhaust gases through a constant flow exhaust gas regulator whereby incineration of the particulates will occur at a controlled rate independent of engine speed.

  6. Design study of the KAGRA output mode cleaner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumeta, Ayaka; Bond, Charlotte; Somiya, Kentaro

    2015-02-01

    Most second-generation gravitational-wave detectors employ an optical resonator called an output mode cleaner (OMC), which filters out junk light from the signal and the reference light, before it reaches the detection photodiode located at the asymmetric port of the large-scale interferometer. The optical parameters of the OMC should be carefully chosen to satisfy the requirements to filter out unwanted light whilst transmitting the gravitational-wave signal. We use the simulation program FINESSE and realistic mirror phase maps that have the same surface quality as the KAGRA test masses to find out a proper design of the KAGRA OMC.

  7. Air Cleaning Devices for HVAC Supply Systems in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    Guidelines for maintaining indoor air quality in schools with HVAC air cleaning systems are provided in this document. Information is offered on the importance of air cleaning, sources of air contaminants and indoor pollutants, types of air cleaners and particulate filters used in central HVAC systems, vapor and gas removal, and performance…

  8. Operationally efficient propulsion system study (OEPSS) data book. Volume 10; Air Augmented Rocket Afterburning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhangi, Shahram; Trent, Donnie (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    A study was directed towards assessing viability and effectiveness of an air augmented ejector/rocket. Successful thrust augmentation could potentially reduce a multi-stage vehicle to a single stage-to-orbit vehicle (SSTO) and, thereby, eliminate the associated ground support facility infrastructure and ground processing required by the eliminated stage. The results of this preliminary study indicate that an air augmented ejector/rocket propulsion system is viable. However, uncertainties resulting from simplified approach and assumptions must be resolved by further investigations.

  9. 42 CFR 84.181 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate filter efficiency level determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... sodium chloride or equivalent solid aerosol at 25 ±5 °C and relative humidity of 30 ±10 percent that has... further decrease in efficiency. (g) The sodium chloride test aerosol shall have a particle size...-purifying particulate respirator model shall be tested for filter efficiency against: (1) A solid...

  10. 42 CFR 84.181 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate filter efficiency level determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... sodium chloride or equivalent solid aerosol at 25 ±5 °C and relative humidity of 30 ±10 percent that has... further decrease in efficiency. (g) The sodium chloride test aerosol shall have a particle size...-purifying particulate respirator model shall be tested for filter efficiency against: (1) A solid...

  11. 42 CFR 84.181 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate filter efficiency level determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... sodium chloride or equivalent solid aerosol at 25 ±5 °C and relative humidity of 30 ±10 percent that has... further decrease in efficiency. (g) The sodium chloride test aerosol shall have a particle size...-purifying particulate respirator model shall be tested for filter efficiency against: (1) A solid...

  12. Energy efficiency and the environment: Innovative ways to improve air quality in the Los Angeles Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ritschard, R.

    1993-02-01

    This paper focuses on novel, innovative approaches for reducing or delaying the production of photochemical smog in the Los Angeles Basin. These approaches include modifying the surface characteristics of the basin by increasing surface albedo and an extensive tree-planting program. The changes in surface conditions are designed to reduce the basin air temperatures, especially during the summer months, which will result in two possible effects. First, a decrease in temperature would lead to a reduction in energy use with an associated decline in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and a lowering of evaporative emission of reactive organic gases. Reductions in these smog precursors could improve the air quality of the basin without imposing additional emissions regulations. The second effect is associated with the possible causal relationship between air temperature and smog formation (i.e., lower temperatures and lower incidence of smog). Since this approach to mitigating air emissions is broad, the studies to date have concentrated on how changes in surface characteristics affect the meteorological conditions of the basin and on how these meteorological changes subsequently affect smog production. A geographic information system database of key surface characteristics (i.e., vegetative cover, albedo, moisture availability, and roughness) was compiled, and these characteristics were evaluated using prognostic meteorological models. The results of two- and three-dimensional meteorological simulations will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  13. Energy efficiency and the environment: Innovative ways to improve air quality in the Los Angeles Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ritschard, R.

    1993-02-01

    This paper focuses on novel, innovative approaches for reducing or delaying the production of photochemical smog in the Los Angeles Basin. These approaches include modifying the surface characteristics of the basin by increasing surface albedo and an extensive tree-planting program. The changes in surface conditions are designed to reduce the basin air temperatures, especially during the summer months, which will result in two possible effects. First, a decrease in temperature would lead to a reduction in energy use with an associated decline in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) and a lowering of evaporative emission of reactive organic gases. Reductions in these smog precursors could improve the air quality of the basin without imposing additional emissions regulations. The second effect is associated with the possible causal relationship between air temperature and smog formation (i.e., lower temperatures and lower incidence of smog). Since this approach to mitigating air emissions is broad, the studies to date have concentrated on how changes in surface characteristics affect the meteorological conditions of the basin and on how these meteorological changes subsequently affect smog production. A geographic information system database of key surface characteristics (i.e., vegetative cover, albedo, moisture availability, and roughness) was compiled, and these characteristics were evaluated using prognostic meteorological models. The results of two- and three-dimensional meteorological simulations will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  14. Air pollution from aircraft. [jet exhaust - aircraft fuels/combustion efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Chigier, N. A.

    1975-01-01

    A model which predicts nitric oxide and carbon monoxide emissions from a swirl can modular combustor is discussed. A detailed analysis of the turbulent fuel-air mixing process in the swirl can module wake region is reviewed. Hot wire anemometry was employed, and gas sampling analysis of fuel combustion emissions were performed.

  15. 40 CFR 1066.845 - AC17 air conditioning efficiency test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... voluntary procedure for measuring the net impact of air conditioner operation on CO2 emissions. See 40 CFR... tests according to 40 CFR 86.132-00(a) through (g). If the vehicle has been tested within the last 36... solar heating is disabled for certain test intervals as described in this section. (d) Interior...

  16. Energy efficiency assessment methods and tools evaluation. Bolling Air Force Base. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    McMordie, K.L.; Richman, E.E.; Keller, J.M.; Dixon, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to facilitate energy-efficiency improvements at federal facilities. This is accomplished by a balanced program of technology development, facility assessment, and use of cost-sharing procurement mechanisms. Technology development focuses upon the tools, software, and procedures used to identify and evaluate energy-efficiency technologies and improvements. For facility assessment, FEMP provides metering equipment and trained analysts to federal agencies exhibiting a commitment to improve energy use efficiency. To assist in procurement of energy-efficiency measures, FEMP helps federal agencies devise and implement performance contracting and utility demand-side management strategies. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) supports the FEMP mission of energy systems modernization. Under this charter, the Laboratory and its contractors work with federal facility energy managers to assess and implement energy-efficiency improvements at federal facilities nationwide.

  17. Assemblies of protective anion exchange membrane on air electrode for its efficient operation in aqueous alkaline electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolotti, Bruno; Chikh, Linda; Vancaeyzeele, Cédric; Alfonsi, Séverine; Fichet, Odile

    2015-01-01

    Aqueous alkaline metal-air batteries represent promising energy storage devices when supplied with atmospheric air. However, under this condition, the air electrode shows a very short life time (i.e. 50 h of operation in 5 M LiOH at -10 mA cm-2), mainly due to the precipitation of carbonates inside the electrode porosity. The air electrode can then be protected by an anion exchange membrane on the electrolyte side. In this paper, we demonstrate that the efficiency of this protective membrane depends on the assembly method on the electrode. When a modified poly(epichlorohydrin) (PECH) network is synthesized directly on the electrode, the polymer seeps inside the electrode porosity, and a suitable interface inducing negligible additional polarization in comparison with classical pressure-assembled membranes is obtained. This protected electrode shows improved stability of up to 160 h of operation in 5 M LiOH. This performance is improved to 350 h by adjusting the conductivity and the ionic exchange capacity. Finally, the interest of interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) architecture compared to a single network is confirmed. Indeed, an electrode protected with a PECH/poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) IPN is stable for 650 h in 5 M LiOH. In addition, degradation process becomes reversible since the assembly can be regenerated, which is not possible for the bare electrode.

  18. Impact of a Saw-type Lint Cleaner's Operation on Fiber Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The saw-type lint cleaner is the primary method of cleaning lint at gins. Two one-year studies were conducted to examine fiber quality properties produced by a saw-type lint cleaner in response to variations in: feed rate, saw speed, combing ratio, variety and lint moisture. One hairy-leaf and two...

  19. Saw-Type Lint Cleaner Damage as Related to Saw Speed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saw-type lint cleaners are commonly used to improve the overall quality of ginned lint by removing foreign matter and less desirable short fiber. Saw-type lint cleaners inflict damage on some good lint. The removal of foreign matter improves the leaf grade of the lint and removal of short fibers i...

  20. TESTING ANTIMICROBIAL CLEANER EFFICACY ON GYPSUM WALLBOARD CONTAMINATED WITH STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reducing occupant exposure to indoor mold growth is the goal of this research, through the efficacy testing of antimicrobial cleaners. Often mold contaminated building materials are not properly removed, but instead surface cleaners are applied in an attempt to alleviate the prob...

  1. Survival and stress responses of E. coli exposed to alkaline cleaners

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were undertaken to evaluate the effects of alkaline cleaners commonly used in food processing environments on survival and stress responses of the foodborne pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7. Alkaline cleaners containing either sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide and hypochlorite had gre...

  2. STUDY OF A WIRE BRUSH GRID BAR REPLACEMENT FOR SAW-TYPE LINT CLEANERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saw type lint cleaners are commonly used to improve the overall quality of ginned lint through the removal of non-lint material and short fibers. A standard saw type lint cleaner is made up of several components: the feed works, saws, and grid bars. Slover Manufacturing (Lamesa, TX) has designed an...

  3. Efficient new process for the desulfurization of mixtures of air and hydrogen sulfide via a dielectric barrier discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahle, S.

    2015-10-01

    The efficient removal of hydrogen sulfide, H2S, from streams of H2S in air via a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma has been investigated using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. A suitable plasma device with a reservoir for storing sorbent powder of various kinds within the plasma region was constructed. Plasma treatments of gas streams with high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide in air yielded a removal of more than 98% of the initial hydrogen sulfide and a deposition of sulfur at the surface of the dielectric, while small amounts of sulfur dioxide were generated. The presence of calcium carbonate within the plasma region of the DBD device resulted in the removal of over 99% of the initial hydrogen sulfide content and the removal of 98% of the initial sulfur dioxide impurities from the gas mixture.

  4. Hydrogen oxidation mechanism with applications to (1) the chaperon efficiency of carbon dioxide and (2) vitiated air testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brabbs, Theodore A.; Lezberg, Erwin A.; Bittker, David A.; Robertson, Thomas F.

    1987-01-01

    Ignition delay times for the hydrogen/oxygen/carbon dioxide/argon system were obtained behind reflected shock waves. A detailed kinetic mechanism modeled the experimental hydrogen/oxygen data, Skinner and Ringrose's high-pressure data, and Slack and Grillo's hydrogen/air data. A carbon dioxide chaperon efficiency of 7.0 +/- 0.2 was determined. The reaction pathway H2O yields H2O2 yields OH yields H was required to model the high-pressure data. It is suggested that some of the lowest temperature data points (1.0 and 0.5 atm) for Slack and Grillo's hydrogen/air experiments are in error. It was found that the technique of simplifying a detailed kinetic mechanism for a limited range of experimental data may render the model useless for other test conditions.

  5. Fine filtration fabric options designed to help meet the increased demand for more efficient air pollution control equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, A.

    1999-07-01

    The ability to successfully design, purchase, install, and operate air pollution control equipment while still maintaining clean air requirements has become a real challenge to the production sector. Fabric selection for fabric filter dust collectors is part of the air pollution control equipment decision that must be made on a site-specific basis and cannot be generalized from dust collector to dust collector. Filter bags/elements represent a major investment as well as a highly technical decision, which warrants extensive evaluation. After choosing the correct filter bags/elements, it is equally important to protect them in order to keep production at maximum capacity while keeping emissions as low as possible. This paper will discuss the fact that each dust collector has its own set of characteristics and system parameters that are important to evaluate in order to choose a fabric that is best suited for the system. Some of the variables include: Temperature; Moisture Level; Particulate Size; Gas Stream Chemistry; Air-To-Cloth Ratio; Particulate Abrasiveness; and mechanical factors, such as cleaning style, installation, etc. All of these variables will be discussed as they relate to fabric selection and dust collector operation. The specific characteristics of traditional filtration fabrics will also be reviewed to give the audience a proper understanding of what products are available in the marketplace. The main focus of the paper will then be devoted to the developments in filtration technology that have improved the efficiency and operation of dust collection systems in all industries and applications. These developments have been mostly in the areas of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane for fine particulate collection and pleated filter elements utilizing spun bonded media to increase cloth area and efficiency.

  6. The feasibility of using a photoelectric cigarette smoke detector for energy-efficient air quality control

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.M.; Alevantis, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    The object of this study was to determine the feasibility of using a smoke sensor to monitor and control cigarette smoke levels in occupied spaces and also to determine whether the use of such a detector could result in energy savings. A smoke detector was built and tested. The experimental results show that the smoke sensor output is a function of cigarette smoke concentration and that the smoke sensor gives a rapid and continuous response. In addition, a computer program that simulates the transient mass and energy interactions in buildings was modified so that the impact of ventilation strategies on indoor air quality and energy consumption could be studied when smokers are present. The results of the numerical modeling for an arbitrary test case show that the use of a smoke sensor to detect cigarette smoke particulates and to control ventilation can allow indoor air quality to be continuously maintained at acceptable levels while minimizing energy consumption.

  7. Sara Lee: Improved Compressed Air System Increases Efficiency and Saves Energy at an Industrial Bakery

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-07-01

    This case study was prepared for the Industrial Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); it describes the energy and costs savings resulting from improving the compressed air system of a large Sara Lee bakery in Sacramento, California. The compressed air system supports many operations of the bread-making machines, and it had been performing poorly. A specialist from Draw Professional Services, a DOE Allied Partner, evaluated the system, and his suggestions included repairing a controller, fixing leaks, and replacing a compressor with a new one fitted with an energy-saving variable-speed drive. As a result, the bakery has reduced its energy use by 471,000 kilowatt-hours annually and is saving $50,000 per year in operating and maintenance costs.

  8. Improving the Operating Efficiency of Packaged Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Wang, Weimin; Vowles, Mira

    2014-03-10

    This article discusses several control strategies that can significantly reduce energy consumption associated with packaged rooftop units RTUs). Although all of the considered strategies are widely used in built-up air-handing units, they are not commonly used in existing RTUs. Both simulation and field evaluations show that adding these control strategies to existing RTUs can reduce their energy consumption by between 30% and 60%.

  9. Evaluation of the effect of media velocity on filter efficiency and most penetrating particle size of nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air filters.

    PubMed

    Alderman, Steven L; Parsons, Michael S; Hogancamp, Kristina U; Waggoner, Charles A

    2008-11-01

    High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters are widely used to control particulate matter emissions from processes that involve management or treatment of radioactive materials. Section FC of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers AG-1 Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment currently restricts media velocity to a maximum of 2.5 cm/sec in any application where this standard is invoked. There is some desire to eliminate or increase this media velocity limit. A concern is that increasing media velocity will result in higher emissions of ultrafine particles; thus, it is unlikely that higher media velocities will be allowed without data to demonstrate the effect of media velocity on removal of ultrafine particles. In this study, the performance of nuclear grade HEPA filters, with respect to filter efficiency and most penetrating particle size, was evaluated as a function of media velocity. Deep-pleat nuclear grade HEPA filters (31 cm x 31 cm x 29 cm) were evaluated at media velocities ranging from 2.0 to 4.5 cm/sec using a potassium chloride aerosol challenge having a particle size distribution centered near the HEPA filter most penetrating particle size. Filters were challenged under two distinct mass loading rate regimes through the use of or exclusion of a 3 microm aerodynamic diameter cut point cyclone. Filter efficiency and most penetrating particle size measurements were made throughout the duration of filter testing. Filter efficiency measured at the onset of aerosol challenge was noted to decrease with increasing media velocity, with values ranging from 99.999 to 99.977%. The filter most penetrating particle size recorded at the onset of testing was noted to decrease slightly as media velocity was increased and was typically in the range of 110-130 nm. Although additional testing is needed, these findings indicate that filters operating at media velocities up to 4.5 cm/sec will meet or exceed current filter efficiency requirements. Additionally

  10. Efficient Computation of Separation-Compliant Speed Advisories for Air Traffic Arriving in Terminal Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadovsky, Alexander V.; Davis, Damek; Isaacson, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    A class of problems in air traffic management asks for a scheduling algorithm that supplies the air traffic services authority not only with a schedule of arrivals and departures, but also with speed advisories. Since advisories must be finite, a scheduling algorithm must ultimately produce a finite data set, hence must either start with a purely discrete model or involve a discretization of a continuous one. The former choice, often preferred for intuitive clarity, naturally leads to mixed-integer programs, hindering proofs of correctness and computational cost bounds (crucial for real-time operations). In this paper, a hybrid control system is used to model air traffic scheduling, capturing both the discrete and continuous aspects. This framework is applied to a class of problems, called the Fully Routed Nominal Problem. We prove a number of geometric results on feasible schedules and use these results to formulate an algorithm that attempts to compute a collective speed advisory, effectively finite, and has computational cost polynomial in the number of aircraft. This work is a first step toward optimization and models refined with more realistic detail.

  11. Reflector for efficient coupling of a laser beam to air or other fluids

    DOEpatents

    Kare, J.T.

    1992-10-06

    A reflector array is disclosed herein that provides a controlled region or regions of plasma breakdowns from a laser beam produced at a remotely-based laser source. The plasma may be applied to produce thrust to propel a spacecraft, or to diagnose a laser beam, or to produce shock waves. The spacecraft propulsion system comprises a reflector array attached to the vehicle. The reflector array comprises a plurality of reflectors spaced apart on a reflective surface, with each reflector acting as an independent focusing mirror. The reflectors are spaced closely together to form a continuous or partially-continuous surface. The reflector array may be formed from a sheet of reflective material, such as copper or aluminum. In operation, a beam of electromagnetic energy, such as a laser beam, is directed at the reflectors which focus the reflected electromagnetic energy at a plurality of regions off the surface. The energy concentrated in the focal region causes a breakdown of the air or other fluid in the focal region, creating a plasma. Electromagnetic energy is absorbed in the plasma and it grows in volume, compressing and heating the adjacent fluid thereby providing thrust. Laser pulses may be applied repetitively. After each such thrust pulse, fresh air can be introduced next to the surface either laterally, or through a perforated surface. If air or some other gas or vapor is supplied, for example from a tank carried on board a vehicle, this invention may also be used to provide thrust in a vacuum environment. 10 figs.

  12. Reflector for efficient coupling of a laser beam to air or other fluids

    DOEpatents

    Kare, Jordin T.

    1992-01-01

    A reflector array is disclosed herein that provides a controlled region or regions of plasma breakdowns from a laser beam produced at a remotely-based laser source. The plasma may be applied to produce thrust to propel a spacecraft, or to diagnose a laser beam, or to produce shockwaves. The spacecraft propulsion system comprises a reflector array attached to the vehicle. The reflector array comprises a plurality of reflectors spaced apart on a reflective surface, with each reflector acting as an independent focusing mirror. The reflectors are spaced closely together to form a continuous or partially-continuous surface. The reflector array may be formed from a sheet of reflective material, such as copper or aluminum. In operation, a beam of electromagnetic energy, such as a laser beam, is directed at the reflectors which focus the reflected electromagnetic energy at a plurality of regions off the surface. The energy concentrated in the focal region causes a breakdown of the air or other fluid in the focal region, creating a plasma. Electromagnetic energy is absorbed in the plasma and it grows in volume, compressing and heating the adjacent fluid thereby providing thrust. Laser pulses may be applied repetitively. After each such thrust pulse, fresh air can be introduced next to the surface either laterally, or through a perforated surface. If air or some other gas or vapor is supplied, for example from a tank carried on board a vehicle, this invention may also be used to provide thrust in a vacuum environment.

  13. 19. MILL NO. 1, 3rd FLOOR, CEILING TRACKING WITH AIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. MILL NO. 1, 3rd FLOOR, CEILING TRACKING WITH AIR CLEANER (BLEW DUST/LINT DOWNWARD WHILE TRAVELING ON TRACK OVER MILL MACHINERY). - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  14. Laboratory evaluation of welder's exposure and efficiency of air duct ventilation for welding work in a confined space.

    PubMed

    Ojima, J; Shibata, N; Iwasaki, T

    2000-01-01

    CO2 arc welding in a confined space was simulated in a laboratory by manipulating a welding robot which worked in a small chamber to experimentally evaluate the welder's exposure to welding fumes, ozone and carbon monoxide (CO). The effects of the welding arc on the air temperature rise and oxygen (O2) concentration in the chamber were also investigated. The measuring points for these items were located in the presumed breathing zone of a welder in a confined space. The time averaged concentrations of welding fumes, ozone and CO during the arcing time were 83.55 mg/m3, 0.203 ppm and 0.006%, respectively, at a welding current of 120A-200A. These results suggest serious exposure of a welder who operates in a confined space. Air temperature in the chamber rose remarkably due to the arc heat and the increase in the welding current. No clear decrease in the O2 concentration in the chamber was recognized during this welding operation. A model of air duct ventilation was constructed in the small chamber to investigate the strategy of effective ventilation for hazardous welding contaminants in a confined space. With this model we examined ventilation efficiency with a flow rate of 1.08-1.80 m3/min (ventilation rate for 0.40-0.67 air exchanges per minute) in the chamber, and proved that the exposure level was not drastically reduced during arcing time by this air duct ventilation, but the residual contaminants were rapidly exhausted after the welding operation. PMID:10680307

  15. Efficiency of automotive cabin air filters to reduce acute health effects of diesel exhaust in human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Rudell, B.; Wass, U.; Horstedt, P.; Levin, J. O.; Lindahl, R.; Rannug, U.; Sunesson, A. L.; Ostberg, Y.; Sandstrom, T.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficiency of different automotive cabin air filters to prevent penetration of components of diesel exhaust and thereby reduce biomedical effects in human subjects. Filtered air and unfiltered diluted diesel exhaust (DDE) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively, and were compared with exposure to DDE filtered with four different filter systems. METHODS: 32 Healthy non- smoking subjects (age 21-53) participated in the study. Each subject was exposed six times for 1 hour in a specially designed exposure chamber: once to air, once to unfiltered DDE, and once to DDE filtered with the four different cabin air filters. Particle concentrations during exposure to unfiltered DDE were kept at 300 micrograms/m3. Two of the filters were particle filters. The other two were particle filters combined with active charcoal filters that might reduce certain gaseous components. Subjective symptoms were recorded and nasal airway lavage (NAL), acoustic rhinometry, and lung function measurements were performed. RESULTS: The two particle filters decreased the concentrations of diesel exhaust particles by about half, but did not reduce the intensity of symptoms induced by exhaust. The combination of active charcoal filters and a particle filter significantly reduced the symptoms and discomfort caused by the diesel exhaust. The most noticable differences in efficacy between the filters were found in the reduction of detection of an unpleasant smell from the diesel exhaust. In this respect even the two charcoal filter combinations differed significantly. The efficacy to reduce symptoms may depend on the abilities of the filters investigated to reduce certain hydrocarbons. No acute effects on NAL, rhinometry, and lung function variables were found. CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that the use of active charcoal filters, and a particle filter, clearly reduced the intensity of symptoms induced by diesel exhaust. Complementary studies on vehicle

  16. Eggplant-derived microporous carbon sheets: towards mass production of efficient bifunctional oxygen electrocatalysts at low cost for rechargeable Zn-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Geng, Dongsheng; Lee, Xinjing Shannon; Ge, Xiaoming; Chai, Jianwei; Wang, Zhijuan; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Zhaolin; Hor, T S Andy; Zong, Yun

    2015-05-25

    We report 2D microporous carbon sheets with high surface area, derived from eggplant via simple carbonization and KOH activation, as low cost yet efficient bifunctional catalysts for high performance rechargeable zinc-air batteries. PMID:25920952

  17. Energy efficiency of engines and appliances for transport on land, water, and in air.

    PubMed

    Furfari, Samuele

    2016-01-01

    The transport sector is fundamental for the economy but also for personal life. With a growing population and the globalization process, it is not surprising that the demand of transport is set to grow in the near future and certainly until 2050. This paper focuses on the huge potential of progress in the sector of technology for transport. As the principal sector for transport will remain on roads, the paper emphasizes the progress in the automotive sector. Since car manufacturers are investing massively into research and technology development to offer ever more efficient cars--not only energy efficient but also efficient in terms of safety and comfort--the car of tomorrow will be very different from the present one. The increasing role of electronics in cars will synergistically cooperate with that of so-called smart cities. The potential development of methane in the transport sector, mainly used for heavy transportation is discussed. PMID:26667061

  18. Perspective: Maintaining surface-phase purity is key to efficient open air fabricated cuprous oxide solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hoye, Robert L. Z. E-mail: jld35@cam.ac.uk; Ievskaya, Yulia; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L. E-mail: jld35@cam.ac.uk; Brandt, Riley E.; Buonassisi, Tonio; Heffernan, Shane; Musselman, Kevin P.

    2015-02-01

    Electrochemically deposited Cu{sub 2}O solar cells are receiving growing attention owing to a recent doubling in efficiency. This was enabled by the controlled chemical environment used in depositing doped ZnO layers by atomic layer deposition, which is not well suited to large-scale industrial production. While open air fabrication with atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition overcomes this limitation, we find that this approach is limited by an inability to remove the detrimental CuO layer that forms on the Cu{sub 2}O surface. Herein, we propose strategies for achieving efficiencies in atmospherically processed cells that are equivalent to the high values achieved in vacuum processed cells.

  19. Air stable organic salt as an n-type dopant for efficient and stable organic light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Bin, Zhengyang; Duan, Lian; Qiu, Yong

    2015-04-01

    Air-stable and low-temperature-evaporable n-type dopants are highly desired for efficient and stable organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this work, 2-(2-Methoxyphenyl)-1,3-dimethyl-1H-benzoimidazol-3-ium iodide (o-MeO-DMBI-I), a thermally decomposable precursor of organic radical o-MeO-DMBI, has been employed as a novel n-type dopant in OLEDs, because of its air stability, low decomposition temperature, and lack of atom diffusion. The n-type electrical doping is evidenced by the rapid increase in current density of electron-only devices and the large improvement in conductivity, originated from increased electron concentration in electron-transport layer (ETL) and reduced electron injection barrier. A highly efficient and stable OLED is created using o-MeO-DMBI as an n-type dopant in Bphen. Compared with the control device with its high-temperature-evaporable n-type dopant cesium carbonate (Cs2CO3), o-MeO-DMBI-doped device showed an incredible boom in current efficiency from 28.6 to 42.2 cd/A. Moreover, the lifetime (T(70%)) of o-MeO-DMBI-doped device is 45 h, more than 20 times longer than that of the Cs2CO3-doped device (2 h). The enhanced efficiency and stability are attributed to the improved balance of holes and electrons in the emissive layer, and the eliminated atom diffusion of cesium. PMID:25768295

  20. Compressed Air System Enhancement Increase Efficiency and Provides Energy Savings at a Circuit Board Manufacturer

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-01

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the circuit board manufacturer (Sanmina Plant) project.

  1. Compressed Air System Modifications Improve Efficiency at a Plastics Blow Molding Plant (Southeastern Container Plant)

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-01

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the plastics blow molding plant project.

  2. Radon water to air transfer measured in a bathroom in an energy-efficient home with a private well.

    PubMed

    Harley, Naomi H; Chittaporn, Passaporn; Cook, Gordon B; Fisenne, Isabel M

    2014-07-01

    Monthly measurements of radon in kitchen and bath tap water along with indoor air concentrations were made from 1994 to 1996 in an energy-efficient home with a private well. The well supplies all water to the home. The radon in cold and hot kitchen water averaged 69±2 and 52±2 Bq l(-1), respectively. Radon in cold and hot water from the bath/shower room shower head averaged 60±1 and 38±2 Bq l(-1), respectively, whereas hot water collected in the shower at the tub base averaged 5±1 Bq l(-1) or a 92% radon loss to air. While the calculated transfer factor of 1/10,000, i.e. radon concentration in air to radon in water, conventionally applies to the whole house, measurements for the specific water release during showering in a bathroom exhibit a larger transfer factor of 1/2300, due to smaller room volume. PMID:24803512

  3. Energy-efficient wastewater treatment via the air-based, hybrid membrane biofilm reactor (hybrid MfBR).

    PubMed

    Aybar, M; Pizarro, G; Boltz, J P; Downing, L; Nerenberg, R

    2014-01-01

    We used modeling to predict the energy and cost savings associated with the air-based, hybrid membrane-biofilm reactor (hybrid MfBR). This process is obtained by replacing fine-bubble diffusers in conventional activated sludge with air-supplying, hollow-fiber membrane modules. Evaluated processes included removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), combined COD and total nitrogen (TN) removal, and hybrid growth (biofilm and suspended). Target concentrations of COD and TN were based on high-stringency water reuse scenarios. Results showed reductions in power requirements as high as 86%. The decrease mainly resulted from the dramatically lower air flows for the MBfR, resulting from its higher oxygen-transfer efficiencies. When the MBfR was used for COD and TN removal, savings up to US$200/1,000 m(3) of treated water were predicted. Cost savings were highly sensitive to the costs of the membrane modules and electrical power. The costs were also very sensitive to membrane oxidation flux for ammonia, and the membrane life. These results suggest the hybrid MBfR may provide significant savings in energy and costs. Further research on the identified key parameters can help confirm these modeling predictions and facilitate scale-up. PMID:24759536

  4. Evolution and diversification of National Cleaner Production Centres (NCPCs).

    PubMed

    Van Berkel, Rene

    2010-07-01

    Since 1994 UNIDO and UNEP cooperate in a Programme to establish National Cleaner Production Centres (NCPCs) as a mechanism for delivery of Cleaner Production (CP) services to businesses, governments and other organisations. In 2007, 38 NCPCs were operational in 37 developing and transition countries. While initially set up in near-identical ways in each country, over time NCPCs evolved in response to both programme-internal and country-level factors. The resulting diversity among NCPCs is described and analysed here. Differentiation and specialisation had occurred in service areas or topics both within and between NCPCs, however without a clear strategy for integration and synergy. NCPCs were becoming part of expanding networks of business services providers nationally forcing some to focus on audit and training services (tier 1), and others on specialist services in CP technology and/or policy (tier 2) and/or networking services (tier 3). All NCPCs were on a trajectory from a project management organisation to a nationally-owned entity. The different management requirements were not proactively managed and technical aspects of CP service delivery overshadowed institutional and governance aspects of establishing and operating the NCPC institution. Differences in service delivery methods between NCPCs are most evident in three service areas: CP assessments; policy advice; and transfer of Environmentally Sound Technologies. It is argued here that understanding root causes and benefits of this presently-observed differentiation, could lay the foundation for capturing and advancing best practice CP concepts, methods and policies. This in turn would enable strategic planning for customised interventions and support at the national level. PMID:20346575

  5. Field Demonstration of a High-Efficiency Packaged Rooftop Air Conditioning Unit at Fort Gordon, Augusta, GA

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Peter R.; Sullivan, Gregory P.; Parker, Graham B.

    2006-03-31

    As part of a larger program targeting the market transformation of packaged rooftop air conditioning, five high-efficiency rooftop air conditioning products were selected in 2002 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Unitary Air Conditioner (UAC) Technology Procurement (http://www.pnl.gov/uac). In February 2003, Fort Gordon in Augusta, Georgia was chosen as the demonstration site. With the goal of validating the field performance and operation of one of the awarded products, a 10-ton high-efficiency packaged rooftop unit (RTU) manufactured by Global Energy Group (GEG) was installed at Fort Gordon in October 2003. Following equipment installation, power metering, air- and refrigerant-side instrumentation was installed on the GEG RTU and a 4-year old typical-efficiency 20-ton RTU manufactured by AAON . The GEG and AAON units were instrumented identically and operated May through July, 2005, to observe performance under a range of conditions. Based on the data collected as part of this demonstration, the GEG equipment performed at least 8% better in stage-1 (single compressor running) cooling and at least 16% better in stage-2 (both compressors running) than the baseline AAON equipment. Performance comparisons are based on what we call application EER normalized to equivalent specific fan power. The full-load, specific-fan-power-normalized application EERs at ARI design conditions were 10.48 Btu/Wh for the GEG and 9.00 Btu/Wh for the baseline machine. With a cost premium of nearly 50%, and slightly higher maintenance costs, the life-cycle cost analysis shows that the GEG technology pays for itself--a positive net-present value (NPV)--only in climates and buildings with long cooling seasons. Manufacture of this equipment on a larger scale can be expected to reduce costs to the point where it is more broadly cost-effective. The assumed 10-ton baseline and new-technology unit costs are $3824.00 and $5525.00 respectively. If the new technology cost is assumed

  6. Evaluation of Ag nanoparticle coated air filter against aerosolized virus: Anti-viral efficiency with dust loading.

    PubMed

    Joe, Yun Haeng; Park, Dae Hoon; Hwang, Jungho

    2016-01-15

    In this study, the effect of dust loading on the anti-viral ability of an anti-viral air filter was investigated. Silver nanoparticles approximately 11 nm in diameter were synthesized via a spark discharge generation system and were used as anti-viral agents coated onto a medium air filter. The pressure drop, filtration efficiency, and anti-viral ability of the filter against aerosolized bacteriophage MS2 virus particles were tested with dust loading. The filtration efficiency and pressure drop increased with dust loading, while the anti-viral ability decreased. Theoretical analysis of anti-viral ability with dust loading was carried out using a mathematical model based on that presented by Joe et al. (J. Hazard. Mater.; 280: 356-363, 2014). Our model can be used to compare anti-viral abilities of various anti-viral agents, determine appropriate coating areal density of anti-viral agent on a filter, and predict the life cycle of an anti-viral filter. PMID:26434534

  7. Extraction of semivolatile organic compounds from high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters by supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, J.B.

    1997-09-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using unmodified carbon dioxide has been explored as an alternative method for the extraction of semivolatile organic compounds from high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. HEPA filters provide the final stage of containment on many exhaust systems in US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities by preventing the escape of chemical and radioactive materials entrained in the exhausted air. The efficiency of the filters is tested by the manufacturer and DOE using dioctylphthalate (DOP), a substance regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Therefore, the filters must be analyzed for semivolatile organics before disposal. Ninety-eight acid, base, and neutral semivolatile organics were spiked onto blank HEPA material and extracted using SFE, Soxhlet, automated Soxhlet, and sonication techniques. The SFE conditions were optimized using a Dionex SFE-703 instrument. Average recoveries for the 98 semivolatile compounds are 82.7% for Soxhlet, 74.0% for sonication, 70.2% for SFE, and 62.9% for Soxtec. Supercritical fluid extraction reduces the extraction solvent volume to 10--15 mL, a factor of 20--30 less than Soxhlet and more than 5 times less than Soxtec and sonication. Extraction times of 30--45 min are used compared to 16--18 h for Soxhlet extraction.

  8. Evaluation of clay-TiO2 nanocomposite efficiency on the photocatalytic elimination of a model hydrophobic air pollutant.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervini-Silva, J.; Kibanova, D.; Destaillats, H.

    2008-12-01

    Clay-supported TiO2 photocatalysts can potentially improve the performance of air treatment technologies due to enhanced adsorption and reactivity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this study, a bench-top photocatalytic flow reactor was used to evaluate hectorite-TiO2 and kaolinite-TiO2, two novel composite materials synthesized in our laboratory. Toluene, a model hydrophobic VOC and a common indoor air pollutant, was introduced in the air stream at realistic concentrations and reacted under UVA (?max = 365 nm) or UVC (?max = 254 nm) irradiation. The UVC lamp presented secondary emission at 185 nm, leading to the formation of ozone and other short-lived reactive species. Performance of clay-TiO2 composites was compared with that of pure TiO2 (Degussa P25) and with UV irradiation in the absence of photocatalyst under identical conditions. Films of clay-TiO2 composites and of P25 were prepared by a dip- coating method on the surface of Raschig rings placed inside the flow reactor. An upstream toluene concentration of 150 ppbv was generated by diluting a constant vapor flow with dry air, or with humid air at 10, 33, and 66 % relative humidity (RH). Toluene concentrations downstream were determined by collecting Tenax-TA ® sorbent tubes and subsequent thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) analysis. The fraction of toluene removed, %R, and the reaction rate, Tr, were calculated for each experimental condition from the concentration changes registered with and without UV irradiation. Use of UVC light (UV/TiO2/O3) led to overall higher reactivity, which can be partially attributed to contribution of gas phase reactions by O3 and other short-lived species. When the reaction rate was normalized by the light irradiance, Tr/Iλ, the UV/TiO2 reaction under UVA irradiation was more efficient for samples with a higher content of TiO2 (P25 and Hecto-TiO2), but not for Kao-TiO2. Considering the effect of relative humidity, in all cases reaction

  9. Development of a high-efficiency, gas-fired, heat pipe, warm-air heating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, S.; Becker, F.

    1985-01-01

    With the introduction by Borg-Warner of the Heatpipe Furnace, one of the major goals of this program was achieved. This milestone was reached after a 105,000 Btu/hr, 85 percent efficient manufacturing prototype heat pipe furnace was designed, fabricated, and tested by Thermo Electron. Other prototype units of different capacities were also designed. The prototypes underwent extensive field testing and in-house accelerated life-cycle testing, indicating that they were reliable, safe, and cost-competitive. Specific issues like freeze protection and oil contamination were addressed. Two different prototype ultrahigh-efficiency condensing furnaces were designed, fabricated and tested. One approach utilized a fluorocarbon-filled heat pipe as a secondary-stage heat exchanger; the other used a plate finned tube coil as the heat exchanger.

  10. Automated Cooperative Trajectories for a More Efficient and Responsive Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Automated Cooperative Trajectories project is developing a prototype avionics system that enables multi-vehicle cooperative control by integrating 1090 MHz ES ADS-B digital communications with onboard autopilot systems. This cooperative control capability will enable meta-aircraft operations for enhanced airspace utilization, as well as improved vehicle efficiency through wake surfing. This briefing describes the objectives and approach to a flight evaluation of this system planned for 2016.

  11. Comparison of European national legislation efficiency on the reduction of air pollutant emissions.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Miguel; Rodrigues, Ricardo; Ferreira, Joana; Lopes, Myriam; Borrego, Carlos

    2006-03-01

    Since 1995, the Institute for Environment and Development in Portugal has obtained >300 stack samples from various point sources of Portuguese industries. A coherent database was made with the collected results. The limit values fixed by several European legal documents consulted, Portuguese, Spanish, French, Italian, and Dutch emission legislation, were applied to the Institute for Environment and Development stack sampling inventory (from 1995 to 2000) to evaluate the efficiency of these standards in promoting the control and reduction of atmospheric pollutants emissions, especially regarding nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter. The conclusion was that the original Portuguese legislation was not restrictive enough and not very efficient regarding emissions reduction. In contrast, the Dutch and Italian legislations are quite restrictive but very efficient concerning emission control for the three pollutants analyzed. One of the outcomes of this study was the publication of a new law in Portugal regulating the emissions of atmospheric pollutants. The strategy of this emissions control law follows the conclusions found in this study including the concept of a mass flow threshold and different approaches depending on source dimension. PMID:16573194

  12. Fuel Efficient Strategies for Reducing Contrail Formations in United States Air Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Chen, Neil Y.; Ng, Hok K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a class of strategies for reducing persistent contrail formation in the United States airspace. The primary objective is to minimize potential contrail formation regions by altering the aircraft's cruising altitude in a fuel-efficient way. The results show that the contrail formations can be reduced significantly without extra fuel consumption and without adversely affecting congestion in the airspace. The contrail formations can be further reduced by using extra fuel. For the day tested, the maximal reduction strategy has a 53% contrail reduction rate. The most fuel-efficient strategy has an 8% reduction rate with 2.86% less fuel-burnt compared to the maximal reduction strategy. Using a cost function which penalizes extra fuel consumed while maximizing the amount of contrail reduction provides a flexible way to trade off between contrail reduction and fuel consumption. It can achieve a 35% contrail reduction rate with only 0.23% extra fuel consumption. The proposed fuel-efficient contrail reduction strategy provides a solution to reduce aviation-induced environmental impact on a daily basis.

  13. Electret Polyvinylidene Fluoride Nanofibers Hybridized by Polytetrafluoroethylene Nanoparticles for High-Efficiency Air Filtration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan; Zhao, Xinglei; Yin, Xia; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2016-09-14

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) pollution has become a severe environmental concern calling for electret fibrous materials with high filtration efficiency and low pressure drop. However, restraining the dissipation of the electric charges in service to ensure the stabilized electrostatic force of the fibers for effectively adsorbing particles is extremely important and also challenging. Herein, we report novel electret nanofibrous membranes with numerous charges and desirable charge stability using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as the matrix polymer and polytetrafluoroethylene nanoparticles (PTFE NPs) as an inspiring charge enhancer through the in situ charging technology of electrospinning. Benefiting from the employment of PTFE NPs and optimized injection energy, the fibrous membranes are endowed with elevated surface potentials from 0.42 to 3.63 kV and reduced decrement of charges from 75.4 to 17.5%, which contribute to the ameliorative stability of filtration efficiency. Significantly, an electret mechanism is proposed, while deepened depth of the energy level and incremental polarized dipole charges with increasing PTFE NP concentrations and injection energy have been confirmed through the measurement of open-circuit thermally stimulated discharge and surface potential decay. Ultimately, the resultant fibrous membrane exhibited a high filtration efficiency of 99.972%, a low pressure drop of 57 Pa, a satisfactory quality factor of 0.14 Pa(-1), and superior long-term service performance. The successful fabrication of such an intriguing material may provide a new approach for the design and development of electret materials for PM2.5 governance. PMID:27552028

  14. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT II, MAINTAINING THE AIR SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE AIR SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) OPERATION AND FUNCTION, (2) AIR CLEANER, (3) AIR SHUT-DOWN HOUSING, (4) EXHAUST SYSTEM, (5) BLOWER, (6) TURBOCHARGER, AND (7) TROUBLE-SHOOTING TIPS ON THE AIR SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A…

  15. Adult Cleaner Wrasse Outperform Capuchin Monkeys, Chimpanzees and Orang-utans in a Complex Foraging Task Derived from Cleaner – Client Reef Fish Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, Darby; Essler, Jennifer; Pinto, Ana I.; Wismer, Sharon; Stoinski, Tara; Brosnan, Sarah F.; Bshary, Redouan

    2012-01-01

    The insight that animals' cognitive abilities are linked to their evolutionary history, and hence their ecology, provides the framework for the comparative approach. Despite primates renowned dietary complexity and social cognition, including cooperative abilities, we here demonstrate that cleaner wrasse outperform three primate species, capuchin monkeys, chimpanzees and orang-utans, in a foraging task involving a choice between two actions, both of which yield identical immediate rewards, but only one of which yields an additional delayed reward. The foraging task decisions involve partner choice in cleaners: they must service visiting client reef fish before resident clients to access both; otherwise the former switch to a different cleaner. Wild caught adult, but not juvenile, cleaners learned to solve the task quickly and relearned the task when it was reversed. The majority of primates failed to perform above chance after 100 trials, which is in sharp contrast to previous studies showing that primates easily learn to choose an action that yields immediate double rewards compared to an alternative action. In conclusion, the adult cleaners' ability to choose a superior action with initially neutral consequences is likely due to repeated exposure in nature, which leads to specific learned optimal foraging decision rules. PMID:23185293

  16. Change in NO2 reveals Parade Blue is cleaner than APEC Blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haoran; Liu, Cheng; Xie, Zhouqing; Xie, Pinhua; Xing, Chengzhi; Xu, Jin; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-04-01

    The spectacular Parade Blue (blue sky), and APEC Blue (blue sky) were renowned worldwide caused by the limiting discharge policy of the Chinese government. For evaluating the reduction of these two events, we analyzed the variation of NO2 columns Beijing by looking at a long-term monitoring using Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite observations from August 2014 to November 2015, covering Grand Military Parade (GMP, September 2015) and APEC (November 2014) period. We found that the NO2 columns abruptly decreased both GMP and APEC. However, change in the MAX-DOAS and the OMI NO2 during GMP was larger than during APEC via comparison with the same period in 2014, indicating Parade Blue is cleaner than APEC Blue. The spatial distribution of NO2 and backward trajectories together with meterological parameters suggested that GMP Blue may be due to the regional significant decreasing discharge in peripheral cities. No weekend effect during GMP further confirmed the role of controlling discharge. This study provides direct evidence that it is possible to clean air in China.

  17. Energetics and efficiency analysis of a cobaloxime-modified semiconductor under simulated air mass 1.5 illumination.

    PubMed

    Krawicz, Alexandra; Cedeno, Diana; Moore, Gary F

    2014-08-14

    We report on the energetics and efficiency of a p-type (100) gallium phosphide (GaP) semiconductor functionalized with molecular hydrogen production catalysts via polymer grafting. The catalysts belong to the cobaloxime class of compounds that have recently shown promise in electrocatalysis and solar-to-fuel applications. Attachment of the complex to a semiconductor surface allows direct photoelectrochemical (PEC) measurements of performance. Under simulated air mass 1.5 illumination, the catalyst-modified photocathode yields a 0.92 mA cm(-2) current density when operating at the equilibrium potential for the hydrogen production half reaction. The open circuit photovoltage (VOC) is 0.72 V vs. a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) and the fill factor (FF) is 0.33 (a 258% increase compared to polymer-modified electrodes, without cobaloxime treatment). The external quantum efficiency (EQE), measured under a reverse bias of +0.17 vs. RHE, shows a maximum of 67% under 310 nm illumination. Product analysis of the head-space gas yields a lower limit on the Faradaic efficiency of 88%. In addition, the near linear photoresponse of the current density upon increasing illumination indicates that photocarrier transport to the interface can limit performance. These results give insights into the design of improved photocatalytic constructs with additional performance gains. PMID:24619031

  18. The effect of debris accumulation on and filter resistance to airflow for four commercially available vacuum cleaners.

    PubMed

    Heitbrink, William A; Santalla-Elias, Javier

    2009-06-01

    Mortar removal with right-angle grinders can cause excessive exposure to respirable crystalline silica. To control this dust exposure, vacuum cleaners need to exhaust 2.3 m(3)/min (80 cubic feet per minute) from the grinder's exhaust hood. Maintaining this airflow while collecting as much as 15.9 kg (35 lb) of debris in the vacuum cleaner has been problematic. A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate how mortar debris affects vacuum cleaner airflow and filter pressure loss. Four vacuum cleaners were tested. Two of the vacuum cleaners used vacuum cleaner bags as a prefilter; the other two vacuum cleaners used cyclones to reduce the amount of debris that reaches the filter. Test debris was collected by a masonry restoration contractor during actual mortar removal using a grinder fitted with a hood. The hood is attached to a vacuum cleaner with cyclonic pre-separation. The vacuum cleaner fan curves were obtained experimentally to learn how pressure loss affects vacuum cleaner airflows. Then, 15.9 kg (35 lb) of mortar removal debris was sucked into the vacuum cleaner in 2.27-kg (5-lb) increments. Before and after adding each 2.27-kg (5-lb) increment of debris, vacuum cleaner airflows were measured with a venturi meter, and vacuum cleaner static pressures were measured at the inlet to the vacuum cleaner motor, and before and after each filter. The vacuum cleaners equipped with cyclonic pre-separation were unaffected by the mass of debris collected in the vacuum cleaner and were able to maintain airflows in excess of 1.98 m(3)/min (70 cfm) throughout the testing program. As debris accumulated in the vacuum cleaners that used bags, airflow decreased from 2.3 m(3)/min (80 cfm) to as little as 0.85 m(3)/min (30 cfm). This airflow loss is caused by the increased airflow resistance of the bags that increased from less 0.03 kPa/m(3)/min (0.1 inches of water per cfm) to 16.7 kPa/m(3)/min (1.9 inches of water/cfm). Apparently, vacuum cleaners using bags should be used in

  19. Will cheap gas and efficient cars imperil air-quality goals under relaxed emission standards

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, S.J.; Saricks, C.L.; Moses, D.O.

    1983-04-01

    Long-term trends, to the year 2000, of urban household travel were forecast for prototype metropolitan areas under several sets of energy prices, auto fuel economy, and emission standards. Dramatic improvements in air quality were forecast due to redistribution of travel and lowered emissions. The exception to this trend to rapidly growing cities, such as those in the west and southwest experiencing sprawl development that characterized many urbanized areas in the industrial northeast and midwest during the 1950's and 1960's. In one test city, where the rate of urbanization has slowed significantly, analysis indicated that relaxation of the light-duty-vehicle NO/sub x/ standard from 1.0 gm/mi to 2.0 gm/mi would not severely threaten attainment of the ambient NO/sub x/ standards by 1987 owing to redistribution of population and activities. The difference in total energy impacts was determined to be negligible, assuming moderate increase in petroleum prices through 1995 (3.1%/year). In another policy test, without changing emission standards, an increase in fuel price of 3.75%/year from 1980 to 2000 reduced travel and provided a 4% decrease in energy use and a corresponding decrease in CO, HC and NO/sub x/. Virtually all of the reduction in travel and emissions was due to non-work travel, which fell 9%. The price increase damped the increase in auto travel per person that would occur as autos become cheaper to operate and as household wealth increases, making the answer to the title a cautious yes, given steady or slowly rising fuel prices.

  20. Efficiency of clay-TiO2 nanocomposites on the photocatalytic eliminationof a model hydrophobic air pollutant

    SciTech Connect

    Kibanova, Daria; Cervini-Silva, Javiera; Destaillats, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    Clay-supported TiO2 photocatalysts can potentially improve the performance of air treatment technologies via enhanced adsorption and reactivity of target volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this study, a bench-top photocatalytic flow reactor was used to evaluate the efficiency of hectorite-TiO2 and kaolinite-TiO2, two novel composite materials synthesized in our laboratory. Toluene, a model hydrophobic VOC and a common indoor air pollutant, was introduced in the air stream at realistic concentrations, and reacted under UVA (gamma max = 365 nm) or UVC (gamma max = 254 nm) irradiation. The UVC lamp generated secondary emission at 185 nm, leading to the formation of ozone and other short-lived reactive species. Performance of clay-TiO2 composites was compared with that of pure TiO2 (Degussa P25), and with UV irradiation in the absence of photocatalyst under identical conditions. Films of clay-TiO2 composites and of P25 were prepared by a dip-coating method on the surface of Raschig rings, which were placed inside the flow reactor. An upstream toluene concentration of ~;;170 ppbv was generated by diluting a constant flow of toluene vapor from a diffusion source with dry air, or with humid air at 10, 33 and 66percent relative humidity (RH). Toluene concentrations were determined by collecting Tenax-TA (R) sorbent tubes downstream of the reactor, with subsequent thermal desorption -- GC/MS analysis. The fraction of toluene removed, percentR, and the reaction rate, Tr, were calculated for each experimental condition from the concentration changes measured with and without UV irradiation. Use of UVC light (UV/TiO2/O3) led to overall higher reactivity, which can be partially attributed to the contribution of gas phase reactions by short-lived radical species. When the reaction rate was normalized to the light irradiance, Tr/I gamma, the UV/TiO2 reaction under UVA irradiation was more efficient for samples with a higher content of TiO2 (P25 and Hecto-TiO2), but not for Kao

  1. Novel method utilizing microbial treatment for cleaner production of diosgenin from Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H. Wright (DZW).

    PubMed

    Wei, Mi; Bai, Yun; Ao, Mingzhang; Jin, Wenwen; Yu, Panpan; Zhu, Min; Yu, Longjiang

    2013-10-01

    A novel method utilizing microbial treatment for cleaner production of diosgenin from Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H. Wright (DZW) was presented. A new Bacillus pumilus HR19, which has the great ability to secrete pectinase, was screened and applied in the microbial treatment. Low-pressure steam expansion pretreatment (LSEP) was employed in advance to assist microbial treatment efficiently in releasing saponins, which are the precursors of diosgenin. Compared with the traditional process of acid hydrolysis, this novel process reduced the consumptions of water, acid and organic solvent by more than 92.5%, 97.0%, 97.0%, respectively, while simultaneously increasing the diosgenin yield by 6.21%. In addition, the microbial treatment was more efficient than enzymatic treatment, which arised from that microorganisms could be induced to secrete related enzymes by the compositions of DZW and relieve product inhibition by utilizing enzyme hydrolysates. PMID:23973974

  2. Self-Compensation of Astigmatism in Mode-Cleaners for Advanced Interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barriga, P.; Zhao, Chunnong; Ju, Li; Blair, David G.

    2006-03-01

    Using a conventional mode-cleaner with the output beam taken through a diagonal mirror it is impossible to achieve a non-astigmatic output. The geometrical astigmatism of triangular mode-cleaners for gravitational wave detectors can be self-compensated by thermally induced astigmatism in the mirrors substrates. We present results from finite element modelling of the temperature distribution of the suspended mode-cleaner mirrors and the associated beam profiles. We use these results to demonstrate and present a self-compensated mode-cleaner design. We show that the total astigmatism of the output beam can be reduced to 5×10-3 for ±10% variation of input power about a nominal value when using the end mirror of the cavity as output coupler.

  3. EVALUATION OF USFILTER MEMBRALOX SILVERBACK MODEL 900 AKALINE CLEANER RECYCLING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Membralox Silverback Model 900 (Silverback Unit) is a microfiltration system for recycling used alkaline cleaning solutions (cleaners). Alkaline cleaning is performed on metal parts at different times during the manufacturing process to remove oils, coolants and other metalwo...

  4. Adhesion Performance of Solid Film Lubricants on Substrates Cleaned With Environmentally Compliant Cleaners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, P. B.; Thom, R. L.

    1997-01-01

    Solid film adhesion testing was used to determine the effect different environmentally compliant cleaners have on the adhesion properties of solid film lubricants used for several NASA programs. In an action to remove ozone depleting chemicals from aerospace processes, a replacement cleaner must be identified that does not affect the adhesion of solid film lubricants used on flight critical NASA hardware. ASTM D251083 Standard Test Method for Adhesion of Solid Film Lubricants was used to evaluate the cleaners. Two different lubricants - Inlox 88 and Boosterlube - were tested using various commercially available cleaners. Inlox 88 is produced by E/M Corporation and is a liquid oxygen compatible lubricant used in the Space Shuttle Main Engine, and Boosterlube is a new lubricant being implemented for use on the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster. These lubricants were selected because of their specific use on flight critical NASA components. Results of this testing are presented in the paper.

  5. ASSESSMENT OF STACHYBOTRYS REGROWTH ON CONTAMINATED WALLBOARD AFTER TREATMENT WITH COMMON SURFACE CLEANERS/DISINFECTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes results of experiments assessing the efficacy of treating mold-contaminated gypsum wallboard with cleaners and/or disinfectants. Although the accepted recommendations for handling Stachybotrys chartarum contaminated gypsum wallboard are removal and replacement...

  6. IMPACT OF COSOLVENT FLUSHING ON SUBSURFACE MICROBIAL ECOLOGY AT THE FORMER SAGE'S DRY CLEANER SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Solvent Extraction Residual Biotreatment (SERB) technology was evaluated at the former Sage's Dry Cleaner site in Jacksonville, FL where an area of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) contamination was identified. The SERB technology is a treatment train approach to complete site rest...

  7. IMPACT OF COSOLVENT FLUSHING ON SUBSURFACE MICROBIAL ECOLOGY AT A FORMER DRY CLEANER SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Solvent Extraction Residual Biotreatment (SERB) technology was evaluated at a former dry cleaner site in Jacksonville, FL where an area of tetrachloroethene (PCE) contamination was identified. The SERB technology is a treatment train approach to complete site restoration, wh...

  8. 76 FR 71342 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; River Forest Dry Cleaners Site, River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; River Forest Dry Cleaners Site, River Forest, Cook County, IL AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice; request for public... proposed administrative settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning the River Forest...

  9. Experimental und numerical investigations on cooling efficiency of Air-Mist nozzles on steel during continuous casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arth, G.; Taferner, M.; Bernhard, C.; Michelic, S.

    2016-07-01

    Cooling strategies in continuous casting of steel can vary from rapid cooling to slow cooling, mainly controlled by adjusting the amount of water sprayed onto the surface of the product. Inadequate adjustment however can lead to local surface undercooling or reheating, leading to surface and inner defects. This paper focuses on cooling efficiency of Air-Mist nozzles on casted steel and the experimental and numerical prediction of surface temperature distributions over the product width. The first part explains the determination of heat transfer coefficients (HTC) on laboratory scale, using a so called nozzle measuring stand (NMS). Based on measured water distributions and determined HTC's for air-mist nozzles using the NMS, surface temperatures are calculated by a transient 2D-model on a simple steel plate, explained in the second part of this paper. Simulations are carried out varying water impact density and spray water distribution, consequently influencing the local HTC distribution over the plate width. Furthermore, these results will be interpreted with regard to their consequence for surface and internal quality of the cast product. The results reveal the difficulty of correct adjustment of the amount of sprayed water, concurrent influencing water distribution and thus changing HTC distribution and surface temperature.

  10. Efficient salt removal in a continuously operated upflow microbial desalination cell with an air cathode.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Kyle S; Drew, David M; He, Zhen

    2011-01-01

    Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) hold great promise for drinking water production because of potential energy savings during the desalination process. In this study, we developed a continuously operated MDC--upflow microbial desalination cell (UMDC) for the purpose of salt removal. During the 4-month operation, the UMDC constantly removed salts and generated bio-electricity. At a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4 days (salt solution) and current production of ∼62 mA, the UMDC was able to remove more than 99% of NaCl from the salt solution that had an initial salt concentration of 30 g total dissolved solids (TDS)/L. In addition, the TDS removal rate was 7.50 g TDSL(-1)d(-1) (salt solution volume) or 5.25 g TDSL(-1)d(-1) (wastewater volume), and the desalinated water met the drinking water standard, in terms of TDS concentration. A high charge transfer efficiency of 98.6% or 81% was achieved at HRT 1 or 4d. The UMDC produced a maximum power density of 30.8 W/m(3). The phenomena of bipolar electrodialysis and proton transport in the UMDC were discussed. These results demonstrated the potential of the UMDC as either a sole desalination process or a pre-desalination reactor for downstream desalination processes. PMID:20584603

  11. Using elastin protein to develop highly efficient air cathodes for lithium-O2 batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Guilue; Yao, Xin; Ang, Huixiang; Tan, Huiteng; Zhang, Yu; Guo, Yuanyuan; Fong, Eileen; Yan, Qingyu

    2016-01-01

    Transition metal-nitrogen/carbon (M-N/C, M = Fe, Co) catalysts are synthesized using environmentally friendly histidine-tag-rich elastin protein beads, metal sulfate and water soluble carbon nanotubes followed by post-annealing and acid leaching processes. The obtained catalysts are used as cathode materials in lithium-O2 batteries. It has been discovered that during discharge, Li2O2 nanoparticles first nucleate and grow around the bead-decorated CNT regions (M-N/C centres) and coat on the catalysts at a high degree of discharge. The Fe-N/C catalyst-based cathodes deliver a capacity of 12 441 mAh g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1. When they were cycled at a limited capacity of 800 mAh g-1 at current densities of 200 or 400 mA g-1, these cathodes showed stable charge voltages of ˜3.65 or 3.90 V, corresponding to energy efficiencies of ˜71.2 or 65.1%, respectively. These results are considerably superior to those of the cathodes based on bare annealed CNTs, which prove that the Fe-N/C catalysts developed here are promising for use in non-aqueous lithium-O2 battery cathodes.

  12. Mobile Source Air Toxics (MSATs) from High Efficiency Clean Combustion: Catalytic Exhaust Treatment Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Parks, II, James E; Barone, Teresa L; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y

    2008-01-01

    High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) strategies such as homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and pre-mixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) offer much promise for the reduction of NOx and PM from diesel engines. While delivering low PM and low NOx, these combustion modes often produce much higher levels of CO and HC than conventional diesel combustion modes. In addition, partially oxygenated species such as formaldehyde (an MSAT) and other aldehydes increase with HECC modes. The higher levels of CO and HCs have the potential to compromise the performance of the catalytic aftertreatment, specifically at low load operating points. As HECC strategies become incorporated into vehicle calibrations, manufacturers need to avoid producing MSATs in higher quantities than found in conventional combustion modes. This paper describes research on two different HECC strategies, HCCI and PCCI. Engine-out data for several MSAT species (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, naphthalene, PAHs, diesel PM) as well as other HC species are presented and compared when possible with conventional operation. In addition, catalyst-out values were measured to assess the destruction of individual MSATs over the catalyst. At low engine loads, MSATs were higher and catalyst performance was poorer. Particle sizing results identify large differences between PM from conventional and HECC operation.

  13. Using elastin protein to develop highly efficient air cathodes for lithium-O2 batteries.

    PubMed

    Guo, Guilue; Yao, Xin; Ang, Huixiang; Tan, Huiteng; Zhang, Yu; Guo, Yuanyuan; Fong, Eileen; Yan, Qingyu

    2016-01-29

    Transition metal-nitrogen/carbon (M-N/C, M = Fe, Co) catalysts are synthesized using environmentally friendly histidine-tag-rich elastin protein beads, metal sulfate and water soluble carbon nanotubes followed by post-annealing and acid leaching processes. The obtained catalysts are used as cathode materials in lithium-O2 batteries. It has been discovered that during discharge, Li2O2 nanoparticles first nucleate and grow around the bead-decorated CNT regions (M-N/C centres) and coat on the catalysts at a high degree of discharge. The Fe-N/C catalyst-based cathodes deliver a capacity of 12,441 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1). When they were cycled at a limited capacity of 800 mAh g(-1) at current densities of 200 or 400 mA g(-1), these cathodes showed stable charge voltages of ∼3.65 or 3.90 V, corresponding to energy efficiencies of ∼71.2 or 65.1%, respectively. These results are considerably superior to those of the cathodes based on bare annealed CNTs, which prove that the Fe-N/C catalysts developed here are promising for use in non-aqueous lithium-O2 battery cathodes. PMID:26657319

  14. Spectral sensitivity, spatial resolution and temporal resolution and their implications for conspecific signalling in cleaner shrimp.

    PubMed

    Caves, Eleanor M; Frank, Tamara M; Johnsen, Sönke

    2016-02-01

    Cleaner shrimp (Decapoda) regularly interact with conspecifics and client reef fish, both of which appear colourful and finely patterned to human observers. However, whether cleaner shrimp can perceive the colour patterns of conspecifics and clients is unknown, because cleaner shrimp visual capabilities are unstudied. We quantified spectral sensitivity and temporal resolution using electroretinography (ERG), and spatial resolution using both morphological (inter-ommatidial angle) and behavioural (optomotor) methods in three cleaner shrimp species: Lysmata amboinensis, Ancylomenes pedersoni and Urocaridella antonbruunii. In all three species, we found strong evidence for only a single spectral sensitivity peak of (mean ± s.e.m.) 518 ± 5, 518 ± 2 and 533 ± 3 nm, respectively. Temporal resolution in dark-adapted eyes was 39 ± 1.3, 36 ± 0.6 and 34 ± 1.3 Hz. Spatial resolution was 9.9 ± 0.3, 8.3 ± 0.1 and 11 ± 0.5 deg, respectively, which is low compared with other compound eyes of similar size. Assuming monochromacy, we present approximations of cleaner shrimp perception of both conspecifics and clients, and show that cleaner shrimp visual capabilities are sufficient to detect the outlines of large stimuli, but not to detect the colour patterns of conspecifics or clients, even over short distances. Thus, conspecific viewers have probably not played a role in the evolution of cleaner shrimp appearance; rather, further studies should investigate whether cleaner shrimp colour patterns have evolved to be viewed by client reef fish, many of which possess tri- and tetra-chromatic colour vision and relatively high spatial acuity. PMID:26747903

  15. Rotor hover performance and system design of an efficient coaxial rotary wing micro air vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohorquez, Felipe

    2007-12-01

    Rotary-wing Micro air vehicles (MAVs) due to their unique hovering and low-speed flight capabilities are specially suited for missions that require operation in constrained spaces. Size restrictions force MAVs to operate in a low Reynolds number aerodynamic regime where viscous effects are dominant. This results in poor aerodynamic performance of conventional airfoils and rotor configurations. This dissertation explores the design issues that affect the hover performance of small-scale rotors and the implementation of a working coaxial MAV prototype. A computerized hover test stand was used for the systematic testing of single and coaxial small-scale rotors. Thin circular arcs were chosen for blade manufacturing because of their good aerodynamic characteristics at low Reynolds numbers, and simplified parameterization. Influence of airfoil geometry on single rotor hover performance was studied on untwisted rectangular blades. Non rectangular blades were used to study coupled airfoil and blade parameters. Tip tapered geometries were manufactured by removing material from baseline rectangular blades producing a coupling between blade planform, twist distribution, and spanwise airfoil shape. Performance gains were obtained by introducing large negative twist angles over short radial distances at the blade tips. A parametric study of the blade geometries resulted in maximum figures of merit of 0.65. Coaxial rotor performance at torque equilibrium was explored for different trims and operating conditions. It was found that the upper rotor was marginally affected by the lower one at spacings larger than 35% of the rotor radius, and that it produced about 60% of the total thrust. Experiments showed that power loading was maximized when higher collectives were used at the lower rotor, resulting in sizable differences in rotational speed between rotors. The CFD solver INS2d was used for a two-dimensional parametric aerodynamic study of circular arc airfoils. Lift, drag, and

  16. Energy cost of speec skating and efficiency of work against air resistance.

    PubMed

    Di Prampero, P E; Cortili, G; Mognoni, P; Saibene, F

    1976-04-01

    The energy expenditure during speed ice skating (PB=650 mmHg; T=-5 degrees C) was measured on 13 athletes (speed range: 4-12 m/s) from VO2 and (for speeds greater than 10 m/s) from blood lactic acid concentration. The energy spent (O2 equivalents) per unit body wt and unit distance (Etot/V, ml/kg-min) increases with the speed (v, m/s): Etot/v=0.049 + 0.44 X 10(-3) V2. At 10 m/s, Vtot/v amounts then to 0.093 ml/kg-m: about half the value of running. The constant 0.049 ml/kg-m is interpreted as the energy spent against gravitational and inertial forces. The term 0.44 X 10(-3) v2 indicates the energy spent against the wind, the constant 0.44 X 10(-3) ml-s2-kg-1-m-3 being a measure of k/e, where k is the coefficient relating drag to v2, and e the efficiency of work against the wind. From a direct estimate of k in a wind tunnel, e was calculated as 0.11. In running, skating, and cycling k/e is similar (approximately 0.020 ml-s2-m-3 per m2 body area), hence at a given speed the energy spent against the wind is equal. On the contrary, the energy spent against other forces decreases in the above order: 0.19, 0.05, 0.018 ml-m-1 per kg body wt. This explains the different speeds attained in these exercises with the same power output. PMID:931878

  17. Arginine vasotocin reduces levels of cooperative behaviour in a cleaner fish.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Sónia C; Paitio, José R; Oliveira, Rui F; Bshary, Redouan; Soares, Marta C

    2015-02-01

    Cooperation between unrelated individuals usually involves investments that often mean a decrease in immediate payoffs, but ensure future benefits. Here we investigated the potential role of the neuropeptides Arginine-vasotocin (AVT) and Isotocin (IT) as proximate agents affecting individuals' cooperative levels in the Indo-pacific bluestreak cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus. Their 'client' reef fish partners only benefit from interacting if cleaners eat ectoparasites and refrain from gleaning preferred client mucus. Thus, cleaners must control their impulse to eat according to their preference, and eat less preferred items to maintain ongoing interactions and avoid clients' leaving or punishing. We found that solely the experimental transient higher dosage of AVT led to a decrease of cleaners' willingness to feed against their preference, while IT and AVT antagonists had no significant effects. The sole effect of AVT on cleaner's performance may imply a link between AVT's influence and a potential activation of a stress response. Our results confirm the importance of the AVT/AVP system as an agent affecting levels of cooperation, offering a potential mechanistic pathway for the reported flexible service quality that cleaners provide their clients. PMID:25449412

  18. Ammonium Laurate Surfactant for Cleaner Deposition of Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Hanna M; Meany, Brendan; Ticey, Jeremy; Sun, Chuan-Fu; Wang, YuHuang; Cumings, John

    2015-06-30

    Experiments probing the properties of individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and those measuring bulk composites show vastly different results. One major issue limiting the results is that the procedures required to separate and test CNTs introduce contamination that changes the properties of the CNT. These contamination residues often come from the resist used in lithographic processing and the surfactant used to suspend and deposit the CNTs, commonly sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Here we present ammonium laurate (AL), a surfactant that has previously not been used for this application, which differs from SDS only by substitution of ionic constituents but shows vastly cleaner depositions. In addition, we show that compared to SDS, AL-suspended CNTs have greater shelf stability and more selective dispersion. These results are verified using transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, ζ-potential measurements, and Raman and absorption optical spectroscopy. This surfactant is simple to prepare, and the nanotube solutions require minimal sonication and centrifugation in order to outperform SDS. PMID:26020583

  19. High efficiency power generation from coal and wastes utilizing high temperature air combustion technology (Part 2: Thermal performance of compact high temperature air preheater and MEET boiler)

    SciTech Connect

    Iwahashi, Takashi; Kosaka, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Nobuhiro

    1998-07-01

    The compact high temperature air preheater and the MEET boiler, which are critical components of the MEET system, are the direct evolutions of the high temperature air combustion technology. Innovative hardware concept for a compact high temperature air preheater has been proposed, and preliminary experiment using the MEET-I high temperature air preheater based on this concept successfully demonstrated continuous high temperature air generation with almost no temperature fluctuation. A preliminary heat transfer calculation for the MEET boiler showed that regenerative combustion using high temperature air is quite effective for radiative heat transfer augmentation in a boiler, which will lead to significant downsizing of a boiler. The heat transfer characteristics in the MEET boiler were experimentally measured and the heat transfer promotion effect and the uniform heat transfer field were confirmed. Moreover, it was understood that excellent combustion with the low BTU gas of about 3,000 kcal/m{sup 3} was done.

  20. On the air cleansing efficiency of an extended green wall: a CFD analysis of mechanistic details of transport processes.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Saumitra V; Ghosh, Sat

    2014-11-21

    The detrimental impact of rising air pollution levels in urban landscapes has become conspicuous over the last decade, particularly in developing countries. This novel numerical study quantifies the cleansing efficiency of green façades draped with a copiously growing tropical creeper Vernonia elaeagnifolia. Turbulent transport of SO2 to the leaf boundary layer and subsequent diffusion across stomatal pores into the mesophyllic cells is modeled at the micro level, including its ionic dissociation in the leaf׳s interior. A SEM analysis indicates stomatal dimensions and density. Whilst previous studies have used either spatially averaged equations or resistance models, a spatially discretized computational approach is adopted in this study. The resulting concentration distribution is used to calculate the deposition velocity on stomatal pores, which is then extrapolated over the entire façade to yield bulk pollutant removal rates. A deposition velocity of 1.53mms(-1) and 0.72mms(-1) is obtained for open and closed pores respectively, with removal rates equal to 1.11×10(-6)s(-1) and 1.05×10(-6)s(-1) for dry and humid weather respectively. Sensitivity studies on the removal rate are carried out based on humidity, stomatal aperture and leaf temperature. The removal rate dependence on the Leaf Area Index (LAI) is also investigated. It is inferred from simulations that vegetated façades are efficient at mitigation of residual pollution. PMID:25084039

  1. Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countriesand what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in theResidential Sector

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2007-05-01

    The dynamics of air conditioning are of particular interestto energy analysts, both because of the high energy consumption of thisproduct, but also its disproportionate impact on peak load. This paperaddresses the special role of this end use as a driver of residentialelectricity consumption in rapidly developing economies. Recent historyhas shown that air conditioner ownership can grow grows more rapidly thaneconomic growth in warm-climate countries. In 1990, less than a percentof urban Chinese households owned an air conditioner; by 2003 this numberrose to 62 percent. The evidence suggests a similar explosion of airconditioner use in many other countries is not far behind. Room airconditioner purchases in India are currently growing at 20 percent peryear, with about half of these purchases attributed to the residentialsector. This paper draws on two distinct methodological elements toassess future residential air conditioner 'business as usual' electricityconsumption by country/region and to consider specific alternative 'highefficiency' scenarios. The first component is an econometric ownershipand use model based on household income, climate and demographicparameters. The second combines ownership forecasts and stock accountingwith geographically specific efficiency scenarios within a uniqueanalysis framework (BUENAS) developed by LBNL. The efficiency scenariomodule considers current efficiency baselines, available technologies,and achievable timelines for development of market transformationprograms, such as minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) andlabeling programs. The result is a detailed set of consumption andemissions scenarios for residential air conditioning.

  2. Tandem air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction as an efficient method for determination of acidic drugs in complicated matrices.

    PubMed

    Bazregar, Mohammad; Rajabi, Maryam; Yamini, Yadollah; Asghari, Alireza; Hemmati, Maryam

    2016-04-21

    A rapid and simple microextraction method with a high sample clean-up, termed as tandem air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction (TAALLME), is described. This method is based upon the tandem implementation of the air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction (AALLME), and this approach improves the applicability of the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) methods in complicated matrices. With very simple tools, the three non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs diclofenac, ibuprofen, and mefenamic acid were efficiently extracted, with an overall extraction time of 7 min. By performing the first AALLME, these acidic analytes, contained in an aqueous sample solution (donor phase, 8.0 mL), were extracted into the organic solvent (1,2-dichloroethane, 37 μL), and their simple back-extraction into the aqueous acceptor solution (pH, 10.01, 51 μL) was obtained in 2 min by a second implementation of AALLME. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimization of the experimental parameters. The pH values 2.94 and 10.01 were obtained for the donor and acceptor phases, respectively, and the volumes 99.5 and 51 μL were obtained for the organic solvent and the acceptor phase, respectively, as the optimal extraction conditions. Under the optimized conditions, tandem AALLME-HPLC-UV provided a good linearity in the range of 0.5-4000 ng mL(-1), limits of detection (0.1-0.3 ng mL(-1)), extraction repeatabilities (relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 7.7%, n = 5), and the enrichment factors (EFs) of 80-104. Finally, the applicability of the proposed method was evaluated by the extraction and determination of the drugs under study in the wastewater and human plasma samples. PMID:27026599

  3. Improving the energy efficiency of refrigeration plants by decreasing the temperature difference in air-cooled condensers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishov, V. V.; Talyzin, M. S.

    2015-09-01

    The electric energy consumption efficiency is estimated in comparing the real refrigeration machine cycle with the theoretical inverse Carnot cycle. The potential for saving electricity in using aircooled condensers with different values of temperature difference is shown. A procedure for calculating a refrigerating system with the evaporation temperature equal to -10°C, which corresponds at this temperature level to the thermal load of a standard supermarket, is described. The calculation was carried out taking into account the annual profile of temperatures in the indicated locality and based on the possibility of adjusting the condenser capacity for maintaining constant condensation temperature. The payback period in case of using condensers with different values of temperature difference is calculated; for example, in using condensers with a temperature difference of less than 15 K, the payback period will be less than one year. Decreasing the temperature difference results, on one hand, in a larger annual consumption of electric energy by the condenser fans, and on the other hand, it results in a lower condensation pressure, which leads to a smaller annual consumption of energy by the compressor unit. As a result, the total amount of energy consumed by the refrigeration system decreases so that despite a higher cost of condensers designed to operate at lower values of temperature difference, it becomes possible to achieve the above-mentioned payback period. Additionally, the payback period in case of using an air-cooled microchannel aluminum condenser was calculated: in case of using such a condenser with a temperature difference of 8 K instead of the condenser with the temperature difference equal to 15 K, the payback period will be less than half a year. Recommendations for designing new refrigeration systems equipped with air-cooled condensers are given.

  4. The thermodynamic efficiency of the condensing process circuits of binary combined-cycle plants with gas-assisted heating of cycle air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalevskii, V. P.

    2011-09-01

    The thermal efficiencies of condensing-type circuits of binary combined-cycle plants containing one, two, and three loops with different pressure levels and equipped with a GTE-160 (V94.2) gas turbine unit, and with preheating of cycle air are analyzed by way of comparison in a wide range of initial steam pressures. The variation of the combined-cycle plant efficiency, stream wetness, conditional overall heating surface of the heat-recovery boiler, and other parameters is presented.

  5. Energy, energy efficiency, and the built environment.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Paul; Smith, Kirk R; Beevers, Sean; Tonne, Cathryn; Oreszczyn, Tadj

    2007-09-29

    Since the last decades of the 19th century, technological advances have brought substantial improvements in the efficiency with which energy can be exploited to service human needs. That trend has been accompanied by an equally notable increase in energy consumption, which strongly correlates with socioeconomic development. Nonetheless, feasible gains in the efficiency and technology of energy use in towns and cities and in homes have the potential to contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse-gas emissions, and to improve health, for example, through protection against temperature-related morbidity and mortality, and the alleviation of fuel poverty. A shift towards renewable energy production would also put increasing focus on cleaner energy carriers, especially electricity, but possibly also hydrogen, which would have benefits to urban air quality. In low-income countries, a vital priority remains the dissemination of affordable technology to alleviate the burdens of indoor air pollution and other health effects in individuals obliged to rely on biomass fuels for cooking and heating, as well as the improvement in access to electricity, which would have many benefits to health and wellbeing. PMID:17868820

  6. Highly efficient photocatalytic TiO2 coatings deposited by open air atmospheric pressure plasma jet with aerosolized TTIP precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhouri, H.; Ben Salem, D.; Carton, O.; Pulpytel, J.; Arefi-Khonsari, F.

    2014-07-01

    A simple method to deposit photocatalytic TiO2 coatings, at a high rate (20-40 µm s-1), and with a high porosity, is reported in this paper. This method, which allows the treatment of membranes (with an 800 nm pore size), is based on the introduction of a liquid precursor sprayed into an open-air atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ). The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 thin films prepared by APPJ have been compared with our best N-doped TiO2 thin films, deposited by reactive radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering, previously reported in the literature. The morphology, chemical composition, photoelectrochemical, and photocatalytic properties of the coatings have been studied in this paper. Significant control of the porosity and crystallinity was achieved by varying the deposition parameters and the annealing temperature. Under optimized conditions, the TiO2 coatings deposited by APPJ are characterized by a higher photocatalytic activity as compared to the optimized thin films deposited by RF sputtering. This difference can be explained by the higher specific surface of the APPJ coatings. Finally, the most interesting characteristic of this APPJ-liquid spray process is its capacity to treat membranes without blocking the pores, and to produce photocatalytic membranes which can efficiently combine filtration and photocatalysis for water treatment.

  7. Evaluation of a high efficiency cabin air (HECA) filtration system for reducing particulate pollutants inside school buses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eon S; Fung, Cha-Chen D; Zhu, Yifang

    2015-03-17

    An increasing number of studies have reported deleterious health effects of vehicle-emitted particulate matter (PM), including PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter≤2.5 μm), black carbon (BC), and ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter≤100 nm). When commuting inside school buses, children are exposed to high level of these pollutants due to emissions from both school bus itself and other on-road vehicles. This study developed an on-board high efficiency cabin air (HECA) filtration system for reducing children's exposure inside school buses. Six school buses were driven on two typical routes to evaluate to what extent the system reduces particulate pollutant levels inside the buses. The testing routes included freeways and major arterial roadways in Los Angeles, CA. UFP number concentrations and size distributions as well as BC and PM2.5 concentrations were monitored concurrently inside and outside of each bus. With the HECA filtration system on, in-cabin UFP and BC levels were reduced by 88±6% and 84±5% on averages across all driving conditions, respectively. The system was less effective for PM2.5 (55±22%) but successfully kept its levels below 12 μg/m3 inside all the buses. For all three types of particulate pollutants, in-cabin reductions were higher on freeways than on arterial roadways. PMID:25728749

  8. Controllable Growth of Perovskite Films by Room-Temperature Air Exposure for Efficient Planar Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Bin; Dyck, Ondrej; Poplawsky, Jonathan; Keum, Jong; Das, Sanjib; Puretzky, Alexander; Aytug, Tolga; Joshi, Pooran C.; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Duscher, Gerd; Geohegan, David B.; Xiao, Kai

    2015-12-01

    A two-step-solution-processing approach has been established to grow void-free perovskite films for low-cost and high-performance planar heterojunction photovoltaic devices. We generally applied a high-temperature thermal annealing treatment in order to drive the diffusion of CH3NH3I precursor molecules into the compact PbI2 layer to form perovskite films. But, thermal annealing for extended periods would lead to degraded device performance due to the defects generated by decomposition of perovskite into PbI2. In this work, we explored a controllable layer-by-layer spin-coating method to grow bilayer CH3NH3I/PbI2 films, and then drive the interdiffusion between PbI2 and CH3NH3I layers by a simple room-temperature-air-exposure for making well-oriented, highly-crystalline perovskite films without thermal annealing. This high degree of crystallinity resulted in a carrier diffusion length of ~ 800 nm and high device efficiency of 15.6%, which is comparable to the reported values from thermally-annealed perovskite films based counterparts. Finally, the simplicity and high device performance of this processing approach is highly promising for direct integration into industrial-scale device manufacture.

  9. Controllable Growth of Perovskite Films by Room-Temperature Air Exposure for Efficient Planar Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yang, Bin; Dyck, Ondrej; Poplawsky, Jonathan; Keum, Jong; Das, Sanjib; Puretzky, Alexander; Aytug, Tolga; Joshi, Pooran C.; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Duscher, Gerd; et al

    2015-12-01

    A two-step-solution-processing approach has been established to grow void-free perovskite films for low-cost and high-performance planar heterojunction photovoltaic devices. We generally applied a high-temperature thermal annealing treatment in order to drive the diffusion of CH3NH3I precursor molecules into the compact PbI2 layer to form perovskite films. But, thermal annealing for extended periods would lead to degraded device performance due to the defects generated by decomposition of perovskite into PbI2. In this work, we explored a controllable layer-by-layer spin-coating method to grow bilayer CH3NH3I/PbI2 films, and then drive the interdiffusion between PbI2 and CH3NH3I layers by a simple room-temperature-air-exposure for makingmore » well-oriented, highly-crystalline perovskite films without thermal annealing. This high degree of crystallinity resulted in a carrier diffusion length of ~ 800 nm and high device efficiency of 15.6%, which is comparable to the reported values from thermally-annealed perovskite films based counterparts. Finally, the simplicity and high device performance of this processing approach is highly promising for direct integration into industrial-scale device manufacture.« less

  10. An efficient dye-sensitized BiOCl photocatalyst for air and water purification under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Guisheng; Jiang, Bo; Xiao, Shuning; Lian, Zichao; Zhang, Dieqing; Yu, Jimmy C; Li, Hexing

    2014-08-01

    A photosensitized BiOCl catalyst was found to be effective for photocatalytic water purification and air remediation under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). Prepared by a solvothermal method, the BiOCl crystals possessed a 3D hierarchical spherical structure with the highly active facets exposed. When sensitized by Rhodamine B (RhB), the photocatalyst system was more active than N-doped TiO2 for breaking down 4-chlorophenol (4-CP, 200 ppm) and nitric monoxide (NO, 500 ppb). The high activity could be attributed to the hierarchical structure (supplying feasible reaction tunnels for adsorption and transition of reactants or products) and the efficient exposure of the {001} facets. The former provides an enriched oxygen atom density that promotes adsorption of cationic dye RhB, and creates an oxygen vacancy state. The HO˙ and ˙O2(-) radicals produced from the injected electrons from the excited dye molecule (RhB*) into the conduction band of BiOCl were responsible for the excellent photocatalytic performance of the RhB-BiOCl system. PMID:24934740

  11. Pipeliners and gas processors target even cleaner operations

    SciTech Connect

    True, R.W.

    1991-12-16

    With the recent passage of amendments to the federal Clean Air Act and the reauthorization next year of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, pipelines and gas processors are looking at more ways to tighten operations and avoid polluting surface water or air. This paper reports that some companies are not waiting for the final rules but are taking actions which anticipate tougher standards.

  12. Particle Collection Efficiency of a Lens-Liquid Filtration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ross Y. M.; Ng, Moses L. F.; Chao, Christopher Y. H.; Li, Z. G.

    2011-09-01

    Clinical and epidemiological studies have shown that indoor air quality has substantial impact on the health of building occupants [1]. Possible sources of indoor air contamination include hazardous gases as well as particulate matters (PMs) [2]. Experimental studies show that the size distribution of PMs in indoor air ranges from tens of nanometers to a few hundreds of micrometers [3]. Vacuum cleaners can be used as a major tool to collect PMs from floor/carpets, which are the main sources of indoor PMs. However, the particle collection efficiency of typical cyclonic filters in the vacuums drops significantly for particles of diameter below 10 μm. In this work, we propose a lens-liquid filtration system (see Figure 1), where the flow channel is formed by a liquid free surface and a planar plate with fin/lens structures. Computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed by using FLUENT to optimize the structure of the proposed system toward high particle collection efficiency and satisfactory pressure drop. Numerical simulations show that the system can collect 250 nm diameter particles with collection efficiency of 50%.

  13. Energy Efficiency and Indoor Environmental Quality in Schools. A Joint EPA Working Paper from Energy Star[R] and Indoor Air Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.

    This paper describes how to protect and enhance indoor environmental quality without sacrificing energy performance, lists the common pollutants and their sources, and explores how energy efficiency projects affect indoor environmental quality. Also highlighted are study figures showing the energy costs of outdoor air ventilation and an…

  14. Presence of cleaner wrasse increases the recruitment of damselfishes to coral reefs

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Derek; Cheney, Karen L.; Werminghausen, Johanna; Meekan, Mark G.; McCormick, Mark I.; Cribb, Thomas H.; Grutter, Alexandra S.

    2015-01-01

    Mutualisms affect the biodiversity, distribution and abundance of biological communities. However, ecological processes that drive mutualism-related shifts in population structure are often unclear and must be examined to elucidate how complex, multi-species mutualistic networks are formed and structured. In this study, we investigated how the presence of key marine mutualistic partners can drive the organisation of local communities on coral reefs. The cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, removes ectoparasites and reduces stress hormones for multiple reef fish species, and their presence on coral reefs increases fish abundance and diversity. Such changes in population structure could be driven by increased recruitment of larval fish at settlement, or by post-settlement processes such as modified levels of migration or predation. We conducted a controlled field experiment to examine the effect of cleaners on recruitment processes of a common group of reef fishes, and showed that small patch reefs (61–285 m2) with cleaner wrasse had higher abundances of damselfish recruits than reefs from which cleaner wrasse had been removed over a 12-year period. However, the presence of cleaner wrasse did not affect species diversity of damselfish recruits. Our study provides evidence of the ecological processes that underpin changes in local population structure in the presence of a key mutualistic partner. PMID:26289440

  15. Presence of cleaner wrasse increases the recruitment of damselfishes to coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Sun, Derek; Cheney, Karen L; Werminghausen, Johanna; Meekan, Mark G; McCormick, Mark I; Cribb, Thomas H; Grutter, Alexandra S

    2015-08-01

    Mutualisms affect the biodiversity, distribution and abundance of biological communities. However, ecological processes that drive mutualism-related shifts in population structure are often unclear and must be examined to elucidate how complex, multi-species mutualistic networks are formed and structured. In this study, we investigated how the presence of key marine mutualistic partners can drive the organisation of local communities on coral reefs. The cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, removes ectoparasites and reduces stress hormones for multiple reef fish species, and their presence on coral reefs increases fish abundance and diversity. Such changes in population structure could be driven by increased recruitment of larval fish at settlement, or by post-settlement processes such as modified levels of migration or predation. We conducted a controlled field experiment to examine the effect of cleaners on recruitment processes of a common group of reef fishes, and showed that small patch reefs (61-285 m(2)) with cleaner wrasse had higher abundances of damselfish recruits than reefs from which cleaner wrasse had been removed over a 12-year period. However, the presence of cleaner wrasse did not affect species diversity of damselfish recruits. Our study provides evidence of the ecological processes that underpin changes in local population structure in the presence of a key mutualistic partner. PMID:26289440

  16. The effect of air flow on the temperature distribution and the harmonic conversion efficiency of the ADP crystal with large aperture in the temperature control scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fuzhong; Zhang, Peng; Lu, Lihua; Xiang, Yong; Bai, Qingshun

    2016-03-01

    This paper presented a temperature control scheme for ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) crystal of Ф80 mm in diameter, and the influence of the air flow was also studied. This research aims to obtain the high energy, high frequency laser with large aperture under the non-critical phase matching (NCPM). Firstly, thermal analysis was carried out to investigate the air flow property in the cavity, as well as the effect of ambient temperature was analyzed. Secondly, the temperature distributions of air flow were achieved using the Finite Volume Method (FVM), and this prediction was validated by the experiment results. Finally, the effect of air flow in the cavity was obtained from the heating method, and the variation of harmonic conversion efficiency caused by the ambient temperature was also highlighted.

  17. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction HEPA filtered vacuum radioactive air emission units

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, R.E.

    1999-09-01

    This notice of construction (NOC) requests a categorical approval for construction and operation of certain portable high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered vacuum radionuclide airborne emission units (HVUs). Approval of this NOC application is intended to allow operation of the HVUs without prior project-specific approval. This NOC does not request replacement or supersedence of any previous agreements/approvals by the Washington State Department of Health for the use of vacuums on the Hanford Site. These previous agreement/approvals include the approved NOCs for the use of EuroClean HEPA vacuums at the T Plant Complex (routine technical meeting 12/10/96) and the Kelly Decontamination System at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant (routine technical meeting 06/25/96). Also, this NOC does not replace or supersede the agreement reached regarding the use of HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners for routine cleanup activities conducted by the Environmental Restoration Project. Routine cleanup activities are conducted during the surveillance and maintenance of inactive waste sites (Radioactive Area Remedial Action Project) and inactive facilities. HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners are used to clean up spot surface contamination areas found during outdoor radiological field surveys, and to clean up localized radiologically contaminated material (e.g., dust, dirt, bird droppings, animal feces, liquids, insects, spider webs, etc.). This agreement, documented in the October 12, 1994 Routine Meeting Minutes, is based on routine cleanup consisting of spot cleanup of low-level contamination provided that, in each case, the source term potential would be below 0.1 millirem per year.

  18. Power and temptation cause shifts between exploitation and cooperation in a cleaner wrasse mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Gingins, Simon; Werminghausen, Johanna; Johnstone, Rufus A.; Grutter, Alexandra S.; Bshary, Redouan

    2013-01-01

    In many instances of cooperation, only one individual has both the potential and the incentive to ‘cheat’ and exploit its partner. Under these asymmetric conditions, a simple model predicts that variation in the temptation to cheat and in the potential victim's capacity for partner control leads to shifts between exploitation and cooperation. Here, we show that the threat of early termination of an interaction was sufficient to induce cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus to feed selectively against their preference (which corresponds to cooperatively eating client fish ectoparasites), provided that their preference for alternative food was weak. Under opposite conditions, cleaners fed selectively according to their own preference (which corresponds to cheating by eating client mucus). By contrast, a non-cleaning fish species, Halichoeres melanurus, failed to adjust its foraging behaviour under these same conditions. Thus, cleaners appear to have evolved the power to strategically adjust their levels of cooperation according to the circumstances. PMID:23615288

  19. Determining the EDTA Content in a Consumer Shower Cleaner. An Introductory Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, Willis A.

    2000-10-01

    At Altoona College, Chemistry 11 is offered to students as a preparatory course for the University's Chemical Principles course, Chem 12. A relevant laboratory is a source of motivation for the students to learn the chemistry. One way of making the laboratory relevant is to analyze the chemical components of consumer products. Several new shower-cleaning products have been introduced, which advertise that cleaning the shower is no longer necessary. The cleaners work using a combination of surfactants, alcohols, and a chelating agent. The Web site of a popular shower cleaner lists EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetate ion) as the chelating agent. The classic EDTA/calcium complexometric titration can be used to determine the EDTA content of the cleaner. This article describes the experiment to determine the EDTA content in a shower-cleaning product.

  20. Collaborative Large-scale Engineering Analysis Network for Environmental Research (CLEANER)Science Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnoor, J. L.; Minsker, B. S.; Haas, C. N.

    2005-12-01

    The Project Office of the Collaborative Large-scale Engineering Analysis Network for Environmental Research (CLEANER) was awarded a cooperative agreement from the National Science Foundation (NSF)and began operations on August 1, 2005. Since that time we have organized six standing committees and an executive committee with an advisory board. The first all-hands meeting of CLEANER took place at NSF and the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) Access facility in Arlington, Virginia, in September. Among the initial tasks of CLEANER is to join with the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrological Sciences Incorporated (CUAHSI) in developing a joint science plan for a national observatory for environmental research utilizing NSF Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction (MREFC) funds slated for 2011. This presentation describes our initial thinking on the science plan and our vision for the national environmental observatory and cyberinfrastructure.

  1. Groundwater cleanup by in-situ sparging. VIII. Effect of air channeling on dissolved volatile organic compounds removal efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.J.; Gomez-Lahoz, C.; Rodriguez-Maroto, J.M. )

    1994-12-01

    A mathematical model for removal of dissolved volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated aquifers by in-situ air sparging is described. The model assumes that the sparging air moves through persistent channels in the aquifer, and that VOC transport to the sparging air is by diffusion/dispersion and air-induced circulation of the water in the vicinity of the sparging well. The dependence of model results on the parameters of the model is explored. The use of pulsed air flow in sparging as a means to increase VOC transport by dispersion is suggested. An extension and modification of the Sellers-Schreiber preliminary screening model for in-situ air sparging is also described. The revised model includes an improved method for calculating bubble residence times in the aquifer, and also permits the modeling of nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) removal.

  2. Enabling the environmentally clean air transportation of the future: a vision of computational fluid dynamics in 2030.

    PubMed

    Slotnick, Jeffrey P; Khodadoust, Abdollah; Alonso, Juan J; Darmofal, David L; Gropp, William D; Lurie, Elizabeth A; Mavriplis, Dimitri J; Venkatakrishnan, Venkat

    2014-08-13

    As global air travel expands rapidly to meet demand generated by economic growth, it is essential to continue to improve the efficiency of air transportation to reduce its carbon emissions and address concerns about climate change. Future transports must be 'cleaner' and designed to include technologies that will continue to lower engine emissions and reduce community noise. The use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) will be critical to enable the design of these new concepts. In general, the ability to simulate aerodynamic and reactive flows using CFD has progressed rapidly during the past several decades and has fundamentally changed the aerospace design process. Advanced simulation capabilities not only enable reductions in ground-based and flight-testing requirements, but also provide added physical insight, and enable superior designs at reduced cost and risk. In spite of considerable success, reliable use of CFD has remained confined to a small region of the operating envelope due, in part, to the inability of current methods to reliably predict turbulent, separated flows. Fortunately, the advent of much more powerful computing platforms provides an opportunity to overcome a number of these challenges. This paper summarizes the findings and recommendations from a recent NASA-funded study that provides a vision for CFD in the year 2030, including an assessment of critical technology gaps and needed development, and identifies the key CFD technology advancements that will enable the design and development of much cleaner aircraft in the future. PMID:25024413

  3. Effect of Air Cooling of Turbine Disk on Power and Efficiency of Turbine from Turbo Engineering Corporation TT13-18 Turbosupercharger.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkey, William E.

    1949-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of turbine-disk cooling with air on the efficiency and the power output of the radial-flow turbine from the Turbo Engineering Corporation TT13-18 turbosupercharger. The turbine was operated at a constant range of ratios of turbine-inlet total pressure to turbine-outlet static pressure of 1,5 and 2.0, turbine-inlet total pressure of 30 inches mercury absolute, turbine-inlet total temperature of 12000 to 20000 R, and rotor speeds of 6000 to 22,000 rpm, Over the normal operating range of the turbine, varying the corrected cooling-air weight flow from approximately 0,30 to 0.75 pound per second produced no measurable effect on the corrected turbine shaft horsepower or the turbine shaft adiabatic efficiency. Varying the turbine-inlet total temperature from 12000 to 20000 R caused no measurable change in the corrected cooling-air weight flow. Calculations indicated that the cooling-air pumping power in the disk passages was small and was within the limits of the accuracy of the power measurements. For high turbine power output, the power loss to the compressor for compressing the cooling air was approximately 3 percent of the total turbine shaft horsepower.

  4. Application of a high-efficiency cabin air filter for simultaneous mitigation of ultrafine particle and carbon dioxide exposures inside passenger vehicles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eon S; Zhu, Yifang

    2014-02-18

    Modern passenger vehicles are commonly equipped with cabin air filters but their filtration efficiency for ultrafine particle (UFP) is rather low. Although setting the vehicle ventilation system to recirculation (RC) mode can reduce in-cabin UFPs by ∼ 90%, passenger-exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2) can quickly accumulate inside the cabin. Using outdoor air (OA) mode instead can provide sufficient air exchange to prevent CO2 buildup, but in-cabin UFP concentrations would increase. To overcome this dilemma, we developed a simultaneous mitigation method for UFP and CO2 using high-efficiency cabin air (HECA) filtration in OA mode. Concentrations of UFP and other air pollutants were simultaneously monitored in and out of 12 different vehicles under 3 driving conditions: stationary, on local roadways, and on freeways. Under each experimental condition, data were collected with no filter, in-use original equipment manufacturer (OEM) filter, and two types of HECA filters. The HECA filters offered an average in-cabin UFP reduction of 93%, much higher than the OEM filters (∼ 50% on average). Throughout the measurements, the in-cabin CO2 concentration remained in the range of 620-930 ppm, significantly lower than the typical level of 2500-4000 ppm observed in the RC mode. PMID:24471775

  5. GAS-PHASE AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS DURING APPLICATION OF A WATER-BASED CLEANER WITH A HAND-PUMP SPRAYER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of tests in a controlled environment test room to measure concentrations of 2-butoxyethanol and particles during application of a cleaner to realistic surfaces (counter tops, glass, walls). (NOTE: Users of water-based cleaners applied with hand-pump spray...

  6. Correlation of chain length compatibility and surface properties of mixed foaming agents with fluid displacement efficiency and effective air mobility in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, M.K.; Bringham, W.E.; Shah, D.O.

    1984-05-01

    The effects of chain length compatibility and surface properties of mixed foaming agents on fluid displacement efficiency and effective air mobility in porous media were investigated. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (C/sub 12/H/sub 25/SO/sub 4/Na) and various alkyl alcohols (e.g., C/sub 8/OH,C/sub 10/OH,C/sub 12/OH,C/sub 14/OH, and C/sub 16/OH) were used as mixed foaming agents. It was observed that the surface properties of surfactant solutions and flow behavior of foams through porous media were influenced by the chain length compatibility of the surfactant molecules. The increase in the length of porous media improved fluid displacement efficiency while breakthrough time per unit length decreased slightly with increase in the length of porous media. For mixed surfactant systems, a minimum in surface tension, a maximum in surface viscosity, a minimum in bubble size, a maximum in breakthrough time, a maximum in fluid displacement efficiency, and a minimum in effective air mobility were observed when the two components of the surfactant system had the same chain length. These results indicate that the surface properties of foaming solutions and molecular packing at interfaces exhibit a striking correlation with breakthrough time, fluid displacement efficiency, and effective air mobility in porous media.

  7. 40 CFR 86.1868-12 - CO2 credits for improving the efficiency of air conditioning systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... years. (1) The manufacturer shall perform the AC17 test specified in 40 CFR 1066.845 on each unique air... calculations required in 40 CFR 1066.845 must also be reported. In each subsequent model year additional air... Procedure specified in 40 CFR 1066.845, according to the requirements of this paragraph (g). (2)...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL FOR BIOLOGICAL AND AEROSOL TESTING OF GENERAL VENTILATION AIR CLEANERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency established the Environmental Technology Verification Program to accelerate the development and commercialization of improved environmental technology through third party verification and reporting of product performance. Research Triangl...

  9. The road to Clean Cities: Promoting energy security and cleaner air through alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, C.A.

    1997-12-31

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Cities Program is a locally-based government/industry partnership program coordinated by DOE to expand the use of alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuel. By combining local decision-making with the voluntary action of partners, the Clean Cities grass roots approach departs from traditional government programs. It creates an effective plan, carried out at the local level, to establish a sustainable alternative fuels market. The broad goals of the Clean Cities Program are to: reduce dependence on foreign oil, improve the environment, and increase economic growth and competitiveness. The key element of success for this program is partnerships -- public/private partnerships that engage the necessary market forces to accomplish the infusion of new alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) technologies. DOE does not provide direct funding for acquisition of AFVs and products, but rather, provides market development assistance. DOE technical and management resources are targeted at building local coalitions, coordinating technology product suppliers, and improving market and customer information. Clean Cities works directly with local governments and local businesses and shares innovations along the network of Clean Cities coalitions. Since 1993, Clean Cities has made great strides in diversifying transportation fuel consumption. Voluntary Clean Cities partnerships around the United States have heightened public awareness of alternative fuel usage, increased the number of AFVs on the road, and developed alternative fuels infrastructure throughout North America. The Clean Cities Program encourages sustainable development by reducing a community`s dependence on nonrenewable fossil fuels (both domestic and imported), cleaning up the local and global environment, and boosting local economies through the development of alternative fuels industries.

  10. The catalogCleaner: Separating the Sheep from the Goats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, K.; Hankin, S. C.; Schweitzer, R.; Koyuk, H.

    2012-12-01

    possible. However, it quickly became obvious, through the sheer volume of data servers available, that the manual process of building a master catalog was not scalable. Thus, the idea for the catalogCleaner tool was born. The goal of this tool is to automatically crawl a remote OPeNDAP or THREDDS server, and from the information in the server build a "clean" catalog of data that will be: a) served through uniform access services; b) have CF compliant metadata; c) directly link the data to common visualization tools thereby allowing users to immediately begin exploring actual data. In addition, the UAF-generated clean catalog can then be used to drive data discovery tools such as Geoportal, GI-CAT, etc. This presentation will further explore the motivation of creating this tool, the implementation of this tool, as well as the myriad of challenges and difficulties there were encountered along the way.

  11. Experimental investigation of the formaldehyde removal mechanisms in a dynamic botanical filtration system for indoor air purification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Pei, Jingjing; Zhang, Jensen S

    2014-09-15

    Botanical filtration has been proved to be effective for indoor gas pollutant removal. To understand the roles of different transport, storage and removal mechanism by a dynamic botanical air filter, a series of experimental investigations were designed and conducted in this paper. Golden Pothos (Epipremnum aureum) plants was selected for test, and its original soil or activated/pebbles root bed was used in different test cases. It was found that flowing air through the root bed with microbes dynamically was essential to obtain meaningful formaldehyde removal efficiency. For static potted plant as normally place in rooms, the clean air delivery rate (CADR), which is often used to quantify the air cleaning ability of portable air cleaners, was only ∼ 5.1m(3)/h per m(2) bed, while when dynamically with air flow through the bed, the CADR increased to ∼ 233 m(3)/h per m(2) bed. The calculated CADR due to microbial activity is ∼ 108 m(3)/h per m(2) bed. Moisture in the root bed also played an important role, both for maintaining a favorable living condition for microbes and for absorbing water-soluble compounds such as formaldehyde. The role of the plant was to introduce and maintain a favorable microbe community which effectively degraded the volatile organic compounds adsorbed or absorbed by the root bed. The presence of the plant increased the removal efficiency by a factor of two based on the results from the bench-scale root bed experiments. PMID:25164387

  12. Visibility and social recognition as psychosocial work environment factors among cleaners in a multi-ethnic workplace intervention.

    PubMed

    Hviid, Kirsten; Smith, Louise Hardman; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants' low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention called "Make a Difference" designed to improve the work environment among cleaners at a multi-ethnic workplace. We used semi-structured interviews, photo logs, observation and participation to investigate how the cleaners experienced their work environment. The cleaners reported an overload of heavy work, related to the concept of a classroom's "readiness for cleaning", and they expressed strained social relations and communication in addition to a lack of social recognition and invisibility at the workplace, a school. We analysed these psychosocial work environmental problems by investigating the different forms of social relationships and communication within the group of cleaners, and between the cleaners and the teachers and pupils at the school. Moreover, we discussed why the intervention, based on training of language and cleaning skills and social interaction, only partially improved the cleaners' psychosocial work environment problems. In this article, we argue that social divisions based on ethnicity between the new and the established group of cleaners, combined with their marginal position and poor work organisation at the school, reinforced the cleaners' experiences of psychosocial work environment problems. This article suggests that increased effort towards social inclusion at work and improved work organisation, especially for the new labour migrants from newer EU-countries, should be considered. PMID:23263660

  13. A cleaner production approach to urban water management: potential for application in Harare, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nhapi, Innocent; Hoko, Zvikomborero

    Water quality is an urgent problem in the Lake Chivero catchment, Zimbabwe, whilst water scarcity will be a problem soon. This study focused on assessing the potential impacts of the application of cleaner production principles in urban water supply and sanitation in the context of sustainable management of water resources. The cleaner production principles are explained together with how they can be applied to urban water management. Data from City of Harare and previous studies were collected and analysed. The study focused mainly on water, nitrogen and phosphorus. About 304,000 m 3/d of wastewater, containing 30,000 kg/d TN and 3600 kg/d TP are currently produced and treated at five sewage treatment works in Harare. Water conservation, treatment and reuse strategies were developed for different land uses starting from water-saving devices, regulation, leak detection and repair, to wastewater treatment and reuse. This study showed that the application of the cleaner production principles would reduce total wastewater production from 487,000 m 3/d to 379,000 m 3/d (a 27% reduction) based on year 2015 projections. A very large investment in treatment infrastructure can be postponed for about 10 years. In terms of amounts treated and discharged at central level this translates to reductions of 47% on flows, 34% on TN, and 44% on TP. River discharges can be eliminated. It was concluded that a cleaner production approach could substantially reduce current water pollution and long-term scarcity problems in Harare.

  14. 40 CFR 761.378 - Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decontamination, reuse, and disposal...-Porous Surfaces § 761.378 Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment. (a) Decontamination. Decontaminate solvents and non-porous surfaces on equipment in accordance with the standards...

  15. 40 CFR 761.378 - Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Decontamination, reuse, and disposal...-Porous Surfaces § 761.378 Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment. (a) Decontamination. Decontaminate solvents and non-porous surfaces on equipment in accordance with the standards...

  16. 40 CFR 761.378 - Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Decontamination, reuse, and disposal...-Porous Surfaces § 761.378 Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment. (a) Decontamination. Decontaminate solvents and non-porous surfaces on equipment in accordance with the standards...

  17. 40 CFR 761.378 - Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decontamination, reuse, and disposal...-Porous Surfaces § 761.378 Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment. (a) Decontamination. Decontaminate solvents and non-porous surfaces on equipment in accordance with the standards...

  18. 40 CFR 761.378 - Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Decontamination, reuse, and disposal...-Porous Surfaces § 761.378 Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment. (a) Decontamination. Decontaminate solvents and non-porous surfaces on equipment in accordance with the standards...

  19. Evaluation of a sporicidal peracetic acid/hydrogen peroxide-based daily disinfectant cleaner.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Abhishek; Mana, Thriveen S C; Cadnum, Jennifer L; Jencson, Annette C; Sitzlar, Brett; Fertelli, Dennis; Hurless, Kelly; Kundrapu, Sirisha; Sunkesula, Venkata C K; Donskey, Curtis J

    2014-11-01

    OxyCide Daily Disinfectant Cleaner, a novel peracetic acid/hydrogen peroxide-based sporicidal disinfectant, was as effective as sodium hypochlorite for in vitro killing of Clostridium difficile spores, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and vancomcyin-resistant enterococci. OxyCide was minimally affected by organic load and was effective in reducing pathogen contamination in isolation rooms. PMID:25333438

  20. Investigation of fiber maturity effect on saw-type lint cleaner fiber damage and yarn properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One-half of plots of two cotton cultivars with similar mature fiber length were harvested after two defoliation treatments (early/late) to get less and more mature cottons. These seed cotton lots were ginned with the same seed cotton cleaning but with 0, 1, or 3 saw-type lint cleaners with low dryi...