Science.gov

Sample records for air cleaning devices

  1. Air Cleaning Devices for HVAC Supply Systems in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    Guidelines for maintaining indoor air quality in schools with HVAC air cleaning systems are provided in this document. Information is offered on the importance of air cleaning, sources of air contaminants and indoor pollutants, types of air cleaners and particulate filters used in central HVAC systems, vapor and gas removal, and performance…

  2. Active cleaning technique device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, R. L.; Gillette, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop a laboratory demonstration model of an active cleaning technique (ACT) device. The principle of this device is based primarily on the technique for removing contaminants from optical surfaces. This active cleaning technique involves exposing contaminated surfaces to a plasma containing atomic oxygen or combinations of other reactive gases. The ACT device laboratory demonstration model incorporates, in addition to plasma cleaning, the means to operate the device as an ion source for sputtering experiments. The overall ACT device includes a plasma generation tube, an ion accelerator, a gas supply system, a RF power supply and a high voltage dc power supply.

  3. Air Cleaning Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    zoster, whereas close contact is required for the direct transmission of infectious diseases transmitted by droplets, such as influenza (the flu) and SARS. The Technology In-room air cleaners are supplied as portable or fixed devices. Fixed devices can be attached to either a wall or ceiling and are preferred over portable units because they have a greater degree of reliability (if installed properly) for achieving adequate room air mixing and airflow patterns, which are important for optimal effectiveness. Through a method of air recirculation, an in-room air cleaner can be used to increase room ventilation rates and if used to exhaust air out of the room it can create a negative-pressure room for airborne infection isolation (AII) when the building’s HVAC system cannot do so. A negative-pressure room is one where clean air flows into the room but contaminated air does not flow out of it. Contaminated room air is pulled into the in-room air cleaner and cleaned by passing through a series of filters, which remove the airborne infectious pathogens. The cleaned air is either recirculated into the room or exhausted outside the building. By filtering contaminated room air and then recirculating the cleaned air into the room, an in-room air cleaner can improve the room’s ventilation. By exhausting the filtered air to the outside the unit can create a negative-pressure room. There are many types of in-room air cleaners. They vary widely in the airflow rates through the unit, the type of air cleaning technology used, and the technical design. Crucial to maximizing the efficiency of any in-room air cleaner is its strategic placement and set-up within a room, which should be done in consultation with ventilation engineers, infection control experts, and/or industrial hygienists. A poorly positioned air cleaner may disrupt airflow patterns within the room and through the air cleaner, thereby compromising its air cleaning efficiency. The effectiveness of an in-room air cleaner

  4. Nuclear air cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1994-12-31

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters.

  5. The Clean Air Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalone-King, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Clean Air game which teaches about air quality and its vital importance for life. Introduces students to air pollutants, health of people and environment, and possible actions individuals can take to prevent air pollution. Includes directions for the game. (YDS)

  6. Road-Cleaning Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…

  7. Clean air strategies study

    SciTech Connect

    Quartucy, G.C.; Chrisman, L.J.P. ); Nylander, J.H.; Keller, W.B. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that San Diego Gas and Electric Company (SDG and E) is evaluating emissions control technologies suitable for retrofit to their utility boilers. This effort is being driven by actions undertaken by the San Diego Air Pollution Control District (SDAPCD) in response to the California Clean Air Act. These actions include the development of two Tactic Evaluations, and the preparation of proposed regulatory limits. Tactic Evaluations are proposed methods to achieve compliance with California ambient air quality standards. Emissions of concern include NO{sub x}, CO, ROG, PM and SO{sub 2}. Of these species, it appears that NO{sub x} is the emission species of primary concern.

  8. CACD (Complex Air Cleaning Devices) of the GTE (Gas turbine electrostation)-110: Problems and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budakov, I. V.; Neuimin, V. M.

    2015-12-01

    The paper considers CACD of the compressor of the GTE-110 gas turbine. The CACD efficiency has been tested under different conditions of the GTE-325 of the Ivanovo combined cycle plant (CCP) JSC INTER RAO-Electrogeneration Exploitation. It sets out the requirements for the dust collector, de-icing system, and air intake tract CACD. De-icing and air preparation methods are shown.

  9. Adsorption air cleaning from ozone.

    PubMed

    Baltrenas, Pranas; Paliulis, Dainius; Vasarevicius, Saulius; Simaitis, Ramutis

    2003-01-01

    Not much has been written about air cleaning from ozone. The aim of this paper was to demonstrate the possibility of adsorption air cleaning from ozone. The second aim was to investigate the dependence of the efficiency of ozone removal from the air on the height of the adsorber layer and on concentrations of ozone, and to obtain empirical formulas for calculating the efficiency of ozone treatment. Equipment for air cleaning from ozone and nitrogen and sulphur dioxides is suggested.

  10. Clean Air Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Mike

    According to the Environmental Protection Agency, American electrical utility companies are ahead of schedule in reducing emissions of sulfur dioxide—a major contributor to acid rain—into the atmosphere. By the end of 1995, the 445 boilers with the highest emission levels had cut emissions from 10.9 million tons of SO2 to 5.3 million tons, 39% less emissions than were mandated by the Clean Air Act. Electric utilities account for more than 70% of sulfur dioxide emissions in the United States.

  11. Air-cleaning apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, A.G.

    1981-08-18

    An air-cleaning, heat-exchange apparatus includes a main housing portion connected by means of an air inlet fan to the kitchen exhaust stack of a restaurant. The apparatus includes a plurality of heat exchangers through which a heat-absorptive fluid is circulated, simultaneously, by means of a suitable fluid pump. These heat exchangers absorb heat from the hot exhaust gas, out of the exhaust stack of the restaurant, which flows over and through these heat exchangers and transfers this heat to the circulating fluid which communicates with remote heat exchangers. These remote heat exchangers further transfer this heat to a stream of air, such as that from a cold-air return duct for supplementing the conventional heating system of the restaurant. Due to the fact that such hot exhaust gas is heavily grease laden , grease will be deposited on virtually all internal surfaces of the apparatus which this exhaust gas contacts. Consequently, means are provided for spraying these contacted internal surfaces , as well as the hot exhaust gas itself, with a detergent solution in which the grease is soluble, thereby removing grease buildup from these internal surfaces.

  12. The Clean Air Mercury Rule

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Rossler

    2005-07-01

    Coming into force on July 15, 2005, the US Clean Air Mercury Rule will use a market-based cap-and-trade approach under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act to reduce mercury emissions from the electric power sector. This article provides a comprehensive summary of the new rule. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. Needed: Clean Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Provides information on air pollution for young readers. Discusses damage to substances and sickness from air pollution, air quality, and what to do in a pollution alert. Includes questions with answers, illustrations, and activities for the learner. (MA)

  14. Enhanced Clean Air Act enforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Faletto, J.S.

    1997-09-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 added new enforcement authorities which will change the way the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the States and environmental groups litigate enforcement actions. EPA, the States and ordinary citizens now have at their disposal an extensive array of enforcement options to deter or penalize those who violate requirements of the Clean Air Act or State Implementation Plans (SIPs). These new enforcement authorities take on even greater significance for major sources covered by the Title V Operating Permit Program.

  15. Clean Air by Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Gary N.

    1995-01-01

    Planning new construction is an opportunity to recognize indoor environmental quality (IEQ) issues. Provides an overview of some common IEQ issues associated with construction projects. A building's heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system is by far the single most common cause of IEQ problems and complaints. (MLF)

  16. The new Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Padmanabha, A.P. ); Olem, H. )

    1991-05-01

    This article is a title by title review of the new Clean Air Act and how it affects water quality and wastewater treatment. The bill provides for restoring and protecting lakes and rivers by reducing acid-rain-causing emissions and toxics from nonpoint-source runoff. Topics covered include urban smog, mobile sources, air toxics, acid rain, permits, ozone-depleting chemicals, enforcement, and the law's socio-economic impacts.

  17. The Clean Air Interstate Rule

    SciTech Connect

    Debra Jezouit; Frank Rambo

    2005-07-01

    On May 12, 2005, EPA promulgated the Clean Air Interstate Rule, which overhauls and expands the scope of air emissions trading programs in the eastern United States. The rule imposes statewide caps on emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide to be introduced in two phases, beginning in 2009. This article briefly explains the background leading up to the rule and summarizes its key findings and requirements. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Clean Air Act. Revision 5

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Air Act, as amended, and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. This Reference Book has been completely revised and is current through February 15, 1994.

  19. Graphene packed needle trap device as a novel field sampler for determination of perchloroethylene in the air of dry cleaning establishments.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Mahmoud; Bahrami, Abdolrahman; Ghiasvand, Ali Reza; Emam, Maryam Rafiei; Shahna, Farshid Ghorbani; Soltanian, Ali Reza

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe the application of a needle trap microextraction device packed with graphene nanoplatelets for the sampling and analysis of perchloroethylene in dry cleaning. The study was carried out in two phases. First the parameters for the sampling and analysis of perchloroethylene by NTD were evaluated and optimized in the laboratory. Then the sampler was used to determine the levels of perchloroethylene in a dry-cleaning shop. In the laboratory phase of the study the performance of the NTD packed with the proposed sorbent was examined in a variety of sampling conditions to evaluate the technique. The technique was also compared with NTDs packed with PDMS as well as SPME with Carboxen/PDMS-coated fibers. Both the NTDs and SPME performed better at lower sampling temperatures and relative humidity levels. The post-sampling storage times for a 95% recovery of the analyte were 5, 5 and 3 days for NTD-graphene, NTD-PDMS and SPME-CAR/PDMS respectively. The optimum desorption time was 3 min for NTDs packed with either graphene or PDMS and 1 min for SPME-CAR/PDMS. The limits of detection for the GC/MS detection system were 0.023 and 0.25 ng mL(-1) for NTDs packed with graphene and PDMS and 0.014 ng mL(-1) for SPME coated with CAR/PDMS. In the second stage of the study the evaluated technique was applied to the sampling and analysis of perchloroethylene in dry cleaning. In this environment the performance of the NTD-graphene as a field sampler for PCE was similar to that of the SPME-CA/PDMS, and better than the NIOSH 1003 method which had greater measurement variations. The results show that a NTD packed with carbonic graphene nanoplatelets and used as an active exhaustive sampling technique is effective for determination of VOC and HVOC occupational/environmental pollutants in air.

  20. Prototype air cleaning system for a firing range

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Mishima, J.; Bamberger, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    This report recommends air cleaning system components for the US Army Ballistics Research Laboratory's new large-caliber firing range, which is used for testing depleted uranium (DU) penetrators. The new air cleaning system has lower operating costs during the life of the system compared to that anticipated for the existing air cleaning system. The existing system consists of three banks of filters in series; the first two banks are prefilters and the last are high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The principal disadvantage of the existing filters is that they are not cleanable and reusable. Pacific Northwest Laboratory focused the search for alternate air cleaning equipment on devices that do not employ liquids as part of the particle collection mechanism. Collected dry particles were assumed preferable to a liquid waste stream. The dry particle collection devices identified included electrostatic precipitators; inertial separators using turning vanes or cyclones; and several devices employing a filter medium such as baghouses, cartridge houses, cleanable filters, and noncleanable filters similar to those in the existing system. The economics of practical air cleaning systems employing the dry particle collection devices were evaluated in 294 different combinations. 7 references, 21 figures, 78 tables.

  1. The Value of Clean Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindell, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    How can society place a value on clean air? I present a multi-impact economic valuation framework called the Social Cost of Atmospheric Release (SCAR) that extends the Social Cost of Carbon (SCC) used previously for carbon dioxide (CO2) to a broader range of pollutants and impacts. Values consistently incorporate health impacts of air quality along with climate damages. The latter include damages associated with aerosol-induced hydrologic cycle changes that lead to net climate benefits when reducing cooling aerosols. Evaluating a 1% reduction in current global emissions, benefits with a high discount rate are greatest for reductions of co-emitted products of incomplete combustion (PIC), followed by sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and then CO2, ammonia and methane. With a low discount rate, benefits are greatest for CO2 reductions, though the sum of SO2, PIC and methane is substantially larger. These results suggest that efforts to mitigate atmosphere-related environmental damages should target a broad set of emissions including CO2, methane and aerosol/ozone precursors. Illustrative calculations indicate environmental damages are 410-1100 billion yr-1 for current US electricity generation ( 19-46¢ per kWh for coal, 4-24¢ for gas) and 3.80 (-1.80/+2.10) per gallon of gasoline ($4.80 (-3.10/+3.50) per gallon for diesel). These results suggest that total atmosphere-related environmental damages plus generation costs are much greater for coal-fired power than other types of electricity generation, and that damages associated with gasoline vehicles substantially exceed those for electric vehicles.

  2. Air bag restraint device

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Richardson, John G.

    1995-01-01

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle's rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump.

  3. Air bag restraint device

    DOEpatents

    Marts, D.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1995-10-17

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle`s rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump. 8 figs.

  4. A Citizen's Guide to Clean Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed as a manual to help citizens participate in air quality control processes. The Clean Air Amendments of 1970 are explained, the first steps in determining a community's air pollution problems are outlined, the basic components of an implementation plan are specified, national and state standards of performance and…

  5. Clean Air Act Amendments of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Carper, Thomas R. [D-DE

    2010-02-04

    03/04/2010 Committee on Environment and Public Works Subcommittee on Clean Air and Nuclear Safety. Hearings held. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    Layering in the Earth's atmosphere is most commonly seen where parts of the atmosphere resist the incursion of air parcels from above and below - for example, when there is an increase in temperature with height over a particular altitude range. Pollutants tend to accumulate underneath the resulting stable layers. which is why visibility often increases markedly above certain altitudes. Here we describe the occurrence of an opposite effect, in which stable layers generate a layer of remarkably clean air (we refer to these layers as clean-air 'slots') sandwiched between layers of polluted air. We have observed clean-air slots in various locations around the world, but they are particularly well defined and prevalent in southern Africa during the dry season August-September). This is because at this time in this region, stable layers are common and pollution from biomass burning is widespread.

  7. 76 FR 40728 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC); Request for Nominations for 2011 Clean Air Excellence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC); Request for Nominations for 2011 Clean Air Excellence... Air Excellence Awards. ] SUMMARY: EPA established the Clean Air Excellence Awards Program in February... progress in achieving clean air. This notice announces the competition for the Year 2011 program....

  8. 75 FR 35025 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC); Request for Nominations for 2010 Clean Air Excellence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC); Request for Nominations for 2010 Clean Air Excellence... Air Excellence Awards. SUMMARY: EPA established the Clean Air Excellence Awards Program in February... progress in achieving clean air. This notice announces the competition for the Year 2010 program....

  9. Clean Air. It's Up to You, Too.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Opportunities for citizen participation in federal environmental decisions relative to air pollution and its control are assessed in this booklet. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as the federal agency charged with enforcement of the Clean Air Act, offers guidelines for responsible citizen action. Designed for groups already organized…

  10. Air cleaning and radon decay product mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Hopke, P.K. ); Li, C.S. . John B. Pierce Foundation Lab.); Ramamurthi, M. )

    1990-01-01

    We evaluated air cleaning as a means to mitigate risks arising from exposure to indoor radon progeny in several single-family houses in the northeastern United States, using a new, automated, semi-continuous activity-weighted size distribution measurement system. Measurements included radon concentration, condensation nuclei count, and activity-weighted size distribution of radon decay products. Measurements were made with and without the air cleaning system operating. The influence of particles generated by various sources common to normal indoor activities on radon progeny behavior was evaluated. Aerosols were generated by running water in a shower, burning candles, smoking cigarettes, vacuuming, opening doors, and cooking. Both a filtration unit and an electrostatic precipitator were evaluated. Using a room model, the changes in attachment rates, average attachment diameters, and deposition rates of the unattached'' fraction with and without the air cleaning systems were calculated. The air cleaner typically reduced the radon progeny concentrations by 50 to 60%.

  11. Air cleaning and radon decay product mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Hopke, P.K.; Li, C.S.; Ramamurthi, M.

    1990-12-31

    We evaluated air cleaning as a means to mitigate risks arising from exposure to indoor radon progeny in several single-family houses in the northeastern United States, using a new, automated, semi-continuous activity-weighted size distribution measurement system. Measurements included radon concentration, condensation nuclei count, and activity-weighted size distribution of radon decay products. Measurements were made with and without the air cleaning system operating. The influence of particles generated by various sources common to normal indoor activities on radon progeny behavior was evaluated. Aerosols were generated by running water in a shower, burning candles, smoking cigarettes, vacuuming, opening doors, and cooking. Both a filtration unit and an electrostatic precipitator were evaluated. Using a room model, the changes in attachment rates, average attachment diameters, and deposition rates of the ``unattached`` fraction with and without the air cleaning systems were calculated. The air cleaner typically reduced the radon progeny concentrations by 50 to 60%.

  12. Fuel-air control device

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, J.

    1981-12-15

    The invention concerns a device for controlling the vehicles fuel-air mixture by regulating the air in the ventilation passage leading to the engine air intake from the crankcase. In a vehicle provided with a PCV valve, the device is located in the ventilation passage leading from the crankcase to the engine air intake and the device is downstream of the PCV valve. The device admits outside air to the ventilation passage to lean the gas mixture when the engine creates a vacuum less than 8 psi in the ventilation passage.

  13. Stakeholder perspectives on the Clean Air Interstate and the Clean Air Mercury Rules

    SciTech Connect

    C.V. Mathai; Jeffrey Holmstead; Michael Shore; Skiles Boyd; Vicky Sullivan; Dan Weiss; John Kinsman; Steve Lomax; Michael Rossler; David Steele; Greg Schaefer; Felice Stadler; David Foerter; William Becker

    2005-08-01

    In a follow-up to last month's detailed overviews of the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR), this month EM presents perspectives on the two rules from representatives of a range of stakeholders, including EPA, the states, the regulated community, and the environmental community. Titles of the perspectives are: A Multipollutant Approach to Emissions Reductions; Clean Air Lessons from the Myth of Sisyphus; Reactions to EPA's Clean Air Interstate and Clean Air Mercury Rules; The Case for Coal Rank Subcategorization to Regulate Mercury Emissions; EPA's Mercury Rule: The Latest Delay Tactic; EPA's Mercury Rule: With Technology Today, We Can Do Better; STAPPA/ALAPCO's Perspectives on CAMR and CAIR. 16 refs.

  14. Cleaning verification by air/water impingement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Lisa L.; Littlefield, Maria D.; Melton, Gregory S.; Caimi, Raoul E. B.; Thaxton, Eric A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper will discuss how the Kennedy Space Center intends to perform precision cleaning verification by Air/Water Impingement in lieu of chlorofluorocarbon-113 gravimetric nonvolatile residue analysis (NVR). Test results will be given that demonstrate the effectiveness of the Air/Water system. A brief discussion of the Total Carbon method via the use of a high temperature combustion analyzer will also be given. The necessary equipment for impingement will be shown along with other possible applications of this technology.

  15. PERFORMANCE TESTING OF AIR CLEANING PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discuses the application of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program for products that clean ventilation air to the problem of protecting buildings from chemical and biological attack. This program is funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency und...

  16. Senate begins clean air legislation debate

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, M.

    1990-03-01

    This article reports on Senate debate on the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1989. Topics include acid rain provisions, administration objections, costs of the bill including disparity of costs in different regions and cost-sharing proposals, and the effects the current energy policy will have on the bill. Presidential, Senate, and subcommittee views on the bill are presented.

  17. 76 FR 66717 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... AGENCY Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee Air Monitoring and Methods Subcommittee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... announces a public teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Air Monitoring...

  18. EPA`s clean air power initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Critchfield, L.R.

    1997-12-31

    The Clean Air Power Initiative (CAPI) is a multi-stakeholder project intended to improve air pollution control efforts involving the power generating industry. This paper documents the progress made in the first year of the initiative, which included a number of meetings with interested stakeholders and development and analysis of alternative approaches for more efficient and effective pollution control. The project`s goal is to develop an integrated regulatory strategy or three major pollutants emitted from electric power generators; namely, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and, potentially, mercury. Major reductions in these pollutants are expected to be needed to reduce the detrimental health effects of ground-level ozone, fine particles, and hazardous air pollutants and reduce the environmental effects of acidification, eutrophication, ecosystem, crop, and materials damage, and regional haze. The Clean Air Power Initiative has considered, where feasible, new approaches to pollution control that recognize the long-range transport of many air pollutants and the economic benefits of emissions trading. The project was initiated by EPA`s Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation in 1995. As individual companies develop and implement strategies to participate in more competitive power markets, they could benefit from greater certainty in being able to plan for and reduce costs of future environmental regulations. The EPA is interested in reinventing its regulatory approach to reduce the number, administrative complexity, and cost of its requirements while improving the likelihood of achieving environmental results.

  19. 14 CFR 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean air and water. 1260.34 Section 1260... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C....

  20. 14 CFR 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean air and water. 1260.34 Section 1260... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C....

  1. 14 CFR § 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean air and water. § 1260.34 Section Â... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C....

  2. 14 CFR 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean air and water. 1260.34 Section 1260... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C....

  3. 77 FR 16548 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Request for Nominations to the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: The U.S. Environmental Protection... appointment to its Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC). Applications are due by May 1, 2012 and...

  4. Proposed Clean Air Act reform draws fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    A Congressional hearing on the accomplishments of the U.S. Clean Air Act and subsequent amendments turned into a squabble about whether Bush administration efforts to reform the act would improve or undermine air quality regulations.At the 1 May hearing of the House of Representatives' Subcommittee on Energy and Air Quality, a key sticking point concerned whether an emissions "cap-and-trade" program, which was proposed as part of President George W. Bush's 14 February Clear Skies initiative, would effectively meet air quality standards. The program would provide market-based incentives to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and mercury. Another point of contention was whether such a program would make some current regulations, including new source review of upgraded utility plants, redundant and unnecessary.

  5. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1990-05-22

    An inertial impactor is designed which is to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air. The device may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  6. Clean fuel vehicles: The air pollution solution

    SciTech Connect

    Meotti, M.P.

    1995-11-01

    Clean fuels for cars and trucks can do more for air quality, and do it sooner, than any other alternative on the drawing boards today. In much of the country, vehicles are the single biggest cause of air pollution. It`s not the industrial smoke stacks, but the tail pipes on cars that foul the air. Ninety percent of the carbon monoxide, 50% of the volatile organic compounds, and 40% of the ozone in metropolitan areas come from motor vehicles. Many state and local government officials are pursuing vehicle emission inspection, high occupancy vehicle lanes, and carpooling programs to reduce auto pollution. These efforts are valuable and should be continued. But clean fuels can quickly reduce auto emissions at a much lower cost. Alternative fuel vehicles produce fewer emissions, are much less dependent on foreign sources, and have the potential to create new jobs. One alternative fuel, natural gas, emits no particulates, 90% less carbon monoxide, and 85% fewer of the gases that form ozone.

  7. 75 FR 73026 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Clean Air Interstate Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Clean Air... June 29, 2009, to revise the Indiana State Implementation Plan (SIP) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). The... Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR), for which EPA granted limited approval as an abbreviated SIP...

  8. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Dewhurst, Katharine H.

    1990-01-01

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  9. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1987-12-10

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  10. Blue skies, green politics: The Clean Air Act of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Bryner, G.C.

    1995-10-01

    This book presents a discussion framework for the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The author focuses on both an analysis of the problem of air pollution and an examination of the politics that went in to crafting the Clean Air Act Amendments. The book is intended for those not familiar with the problem.

  11. 14 CFR 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Clean air and water. 1260.34 Section 1260.34... Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable only if the award... (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1319(c)), and is...

  12. Clean Air Act: Senate mulls revision bill

    SciTech Connect

    Fairley, P.

    1995-12-13

    Senator Lauch Faircloth (R., NC) has circulated a draft summary of possible revisions of the Clean Air Act (CAA). Chemical industry sources say the proposal would provide some regulatory relief but fear that supporting Faircloth could jeopardize their relationship with EPA. Faircloth`s proposal addresses various controversial aspect of CAA`s Title V permit program including the monitoring and permit modification provisions. The proposal would also define a facility`s {open_quotes}potential to emit,{close_quotes} upon which Title V permits are based. In the past year EPA has substantially revised its Title V program to address complaints from industry, the states, and Congress that the monitoring and modification provisions were too burdensome.

  13. 17th DOE nuclear air cleaning conference: proceedings. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    First, M.W.

    1983-02-01

    Volume 2 contains papers presented at the following sessions: adsorption; noble gas treatment; personnel education and training; filtration and filter testing; measurement and instrumentation; air cleaning equipment response to accident related stress; containment venting air cleaning; and an open end session. Twenty-eight papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. Ten papers had been entered earlier.

  14. 78 FR 17229 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Amendment Under the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Amendment Under the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water Act; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; the Missouri Air Conservation Law; the Missouri Clean Water Law and..., the Clean Water Act, the Missouri Clean Water Law, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and...

  15. Air cleaning issues with contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1997-08-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has developed a list of contaminated sites that warrant special USNRC attention because they pose unique or complex decommissioning issues. This list of radiologically contaminated sites is termed the Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP), and was first issued in 1990. A site is placed on the SDMP list if it has; (1) Problems with the viability of the responsible organization (e.g., the licensee for the site is unable or unwilling to pay for the decommissioning); (2) Large amounts of soil contamination or unused settling ponds or burial grounds that may make the waste difficult to dispose of; (3) The long-term presence of contaminated, unused buildings; (4) A previously terminated license; or (5) Contaminated or potential contamination of the ground water from on-site wastes. In deciding whether to add a site to the SDMP list, the NRC also considers the projected length of time for decommissioning and the willingness of the responsible organization to complete the decommissioning in a timely manner. Since the list was established, 9 sites have been removed from the list, and the current SDMP list contains 47 sites in 11 states. The USNRC annually publishes NUREG-1444, {open_quotes}Site Decommissioning Management Plan{close_quotes}, which updates the status of each site. This paper will discuss the philosophical goals of the SDMP, then will concentrate on the regulatory requirements associated with air cleaning issues at the SDMP sites during characterization and remediation. Both effluent and worker protection issues will be discussed. For effluents, the source terms at sites will be characterized, and measurement techniques will be presented. Off-site dose impacts will be included. For worker protection issues, air sampling analyses will be presented in order to show how the workers are adequately protected and their doses measured to satisfy regulatory criteria during decontamination operations. 1 tab.

  16. Identification of Candidate Clean Air Corridors for the Colorado Plateau.

    PubMed

    Gratn, M C; Pitchford, M L; Ashbaugh, L

    1996-05-01

    The U.S. Clean Air Act, amended in 1990, mandated the establishment of the Grand Canyon Visibility Transport Commission (GCVTC). The commission is required to submit a report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency addressing visibility issues in the region, including "the establishment of clean air corridors, in which additional restrictions on increases in emissions may be appropriate to protect visibility in affected Class I areas." This paper presents a methodology to identify candidate geographic areas for consideration for Clean Air Corridor (CAC) status for Colorado Plateau Class I areas. The methodology uses thousands of model determined trajectories over a five year period (1988 to 1992) to indicate the paths taken by air that arrives during clean air conditions at Class I areas. These clean air back-trajectories identify upwind areas where pollution emissions could jeopardize currently pristine visibility. Using this methodology, six candidate areas are identified, ranging in size from 75,000 to 506,000 square miles, and permitting varying levels of visibility protection for clean air days at Grand Canyon, Canyonlands, and Petrified Forest National Parks. Assuming effective emissions management of the CAC, the larger the CAC, the greater the visibility protection during clean air conditions.

  17. Self-cleaning feed distributing delivery device for glass melters

    DOEpatents

    Mensink, Daniel L.

    1992-01-01

    A self cleaning, plug resistant, adjustable parameter feed distributing and delivery apparatus for a glass melter comprising a housing with a passage therethrough for a glass slurry, a cold finger within the passage for creating a dispersion pattern of the slurry, a movable slotted tube for controlling the confluence of air propellant and slurry in the passage, and a plurality of ribs that extend through the slots in the slotted tube to urge the slurry forward if it becomes stuck or resists forward movement. Coolant passages in the housing and the cold finger maintain the slurry temperature below that of the melter plenum. The cold finger is axially movable to adjust the dispersion pattern to the desired consistency. Other design features of size can be applied for use in situations requiring different parameters of pattern, particle size, rate, and feed consistencies. The device utilizes air as both a propellant and a surface cleansing mechanism. Other fluids may be used as propellants where process compatibility requires.

  18. 40 CFR 61.152 - Air-cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air-cleaning. 61.152 Section 61.152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.152...

  19. ELECTROSTATIC AIR CLEANING DEVICE AND METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Silverman, L.; Anderson, D.M.

    1961-07-18

    A method and apparatus for utilizing friction-charged particulate material from an aerosol are described. A bed of the plastic spheres is prepared, and the aerosol is passed upwardly through the bed at a rate just large enough to maintain the bed in a fluidized state wim over-all circulation of the balls. Wire members criss-crossing through the bed rub against the balls and maintain their surfaces with electrostatic charges. The particulate material in the aerosol adheres to the surfaces of the balls.

  20. Some impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act and state clean-air regulations on the fertilizer industry

    SciTech Connect

    Breed, C.E.; Kerns, O.S.

    1992-12-31

    The Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 will intensify national efforts to reduce air pollution. They will have major impacts on governmental agencies and on industrial and commercial facilities throughout the country. As with other industries, it is essential for fertilizer dealers and producers to understand how these changes to the Clean Air Act can significantly change the way they do business. This paper is proffered as an overview of ways in which the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act may impact the fertilizer industry. The nonattainment, toxics, and permit provisions of the amended act will be three areas of particular concern to the fertilizer industry. Implementation of the new regulatory requirements of this legislation promises to be a long and onerous process for all concerned. However, it appears that state and local regulations may have a much more profound impact on the fertilizer industry than the new Clean Air Act.

  1. Some impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act and state clean-air regulations on the fertilizer industry

    SciTech Connect

    Breed, C.E.; Kerns, O.S.

    1992-12-01

    The Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 will intensify national efforts to reduce air pollution. They will have major impacts an governmental agencies and on industrial and commercial facilities throughout the country. As with other industries, it is essential for fertilizer dealers and producers to understand how these changes to the Clean Air Act can significantly change the way they do business. This paper is proffered as an overview of ways in which the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act may impact the fertilizer industry. The nonattainment, toxics, and permit provisions of the amended act will be three areas of particular concern to the fertilizer industry. Implementation of the new regulatory requirements of this legislation promises to be a long and onerous process for all concerned. However, it appears that state and local regulations may have a much more profound impact on the fertilizer industry than the new Clean Air Act.

  2. Simultaneous specimen and stage cleaning device for analytical electron microscope

    DOEpatents

    Zaluzec, Nestor J.

    1996-01-01

    An improved method and apparatus are provided for cleaning both a specimen stage, a specimen and an interior of an analytical electron microscope (AEM). The apparatus for cleaning a specimen stage and specimen comprising a plasma chamber for containing a gas plasma and an air lock coupled to the plasma chamber for permitting passage of the specimen stage and specimen into the plasma chamber and maintaining an airtight chamber. The specimen stage and specimen are subjected to a reactive plasma gas that is either DC or RF excited. The apparatus can be mounted on the analytical electron microscope (AEM) for cleaning the interior of the microscope.

  3. PHASE I PILOT AIR CONVEYANCE SYSTEM DESIGN, CLEANING, AND CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a project to develop and refine surface and airborne contamination
    measurement techniques that can be used to evaluate air conveyance system (ACS) cleaning.
    (NOTE: ACS cleaning is advertized to homeowners as a service having a number of benefits...

  4. 53. VIEW OF ROCK FOUNDATIONS AIR CLEANED FOR MONOLITHS 1722, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. VIEW OF ROCK FOUNDATIONS AIR CLEANED FOR MONOLITHS 17-22, INTERMEDIATE WALL, LOOKING NORTH Photograph No. 12840. September 10, 1948 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 27, Granite City, Madison County, IL

  5. NASA Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Act Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) regulations have greatly impacted materials and processes utilized in the manufacture of aerospace hardware. Code JE/ NASA's Environmental Management Division at NASA Headquarters recognized the need for a formal, Agency-wide review process of CAA regulations. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was selected as the 'Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Act Regulations'. This presentation describes the centralized support provided by MSFC for the management and leadership of NASA's CAA regulation review process.

  6. The control of radon progeny by air treatment devices.

    PubMed

    Rajala, M; Janka, K; Lehtimäki, M; Kulmala, V; Graeffe, G; Keskinen, J

    1985-10-01

    The effect of air treatment devices on the behaviour of radon decay products has been studied in laboratory conditions. An HEPA filter and an electrostatic precipitator were used. Both of the filters were found to decrease the equilibrium factor of daughters and increase the unattached fraction of decay products. In a clean air they also decreased the activity of unattached daughters. The effect of the devices on the health risk caused by radon progeny was estimated by dosimetric calculations. The results corresponding to different models show considerable discrepancy, mainly due to different assumptions about the influence of unattached decay products on the dose.

  7. 78 FR 70960 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, and the Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, and the Resource Conservation... the United States and the State of Illinois under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and relevant state law at facilities formerly owned by PolyOne...

  8. 75 FR 11560 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that... violations of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq., and the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq....

  9. 75 FR 10503 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act... Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q, the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251-1387, the Emergency...

  10. 78 FR 15376 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Amendment Under the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Amendment Under the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water Act; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act; and the... Clean Air Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency...

  11. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2010-10-27

    Approximately ten percent of the energy consumed in U.S. commercial buildings is used by HVAC systems to condition outdoor ventilation air. Reducing ventilation rates would be a simple and broadly-applicable energy retrofit option, if practical counter measures were available that maintained acceptable concentrations of indoor-generated air pollutants. The two general categories of countermeasures are: 1) indoor pollutant source control, and 2) air cleaning. Although pollutant source control should be used to the degree possible, source control is complicated by the large number and changing nature of indoor pollutant sources. Particle air cleaning is already routinely applied in commercial buildings. Previous calculations indicate that particle filtration consumes only 10percent to 25percent of the energy that would otherwise be required to achieve an equivalent amount of particle removal with ventilation. If cost-effective air cleaning technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also available, outdoor air ventilation rates could be reduced substantially and broadly in the commercial building stock to save energy. The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel VOC air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. The minimum required VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50percent reduction in ventilation rate for air cleaning systems installed in the HVAC supply airstream is modest (generally 20percent or less).

  12. Food-Growing, Air- And Water-Cleaning Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, R. L.; Scheld, H. W.; Mafnuson, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    Apparatus produces fresh vegetables and removes pollutants from air. Hydroponic apparatus performs dual function of growing fresh vegetables and purifying air and water. Leafy vegetables rooted in granular growth medium grow in light of fluorescent lamps. Air flowing over leaves supplies carbon dioxide and receives fresh oxygen from them. Adaptable to production of food and cleaning of air and water in closed environments as in underwater research stations and submarines.

  13. 75 FR 34673 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... Pollutants: Air Emission Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning Machines: State of Rhode Island... applies to organic solvent cleaning machines in Rhode Island, except for continuous web cleaning machines... General Definitions Rule in place of the Halogenated Solvent NESHAP for organic solvent cleaning...

  14. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    This article investigates the mechanism for those layers in the atmosphere that are free of air borne pollution even though the air above and below them carry pollutants. Atmospheric subsidence is posed as a mechanism for this phenomenon.

  15. 75 FR 4069 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Ambient Air Monitoring & Methods Subcommittee (AAMMS or... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC); Ambient Air Methods and Monitoring Subcommittee (AAMMS); Meeting and Public...

  16. [Hygienic relevance of devices for indoor air treatment].

    PubMed

    Wegner, J

    1982-01-01

    Shortcomings regarding design, construction, operation (including emissions), maintenance/repair and control of buildings with rooms for the accommodation of persons may be the reason to install air conditioning devices. According to manufacturers' data, such devices may be applied for various purposes, e.g. the creation of a defined air temperature or humidity, an increase of the supply of outdoor air, the cleaning and deodorization of indoor air or the alteration of the so-called electric climate of a room. The hygienic health evaluation of the different types of air conditioning devices should establish whether --there are aspects of health necessitating alterations of the microclimate of a room; --such alterations could be brought about in a more economic way by purely constructional or individual measures; --the function of individual apparatuses could be accomplished in a better way by replacing them by a larger device serving several rooms; --the operation of such devices may produce adverse health effects such as nuisance by noise, formation of undesirable gases (ozone), danger owing to non-adherence to electric safety rules; --there will be no damage to rooms and furniture, e.g. by water droplets. A look at a number of commercially available devices shows that they are generally dispensable. There are, however, special rare cases where the use of such devices may result in an improvement of the quality of indoor environments.

  17. Laser cleaning in the process of electronic device production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, Ion G.; Ulieru, Dumitru G.; Dabu, Razvan V.; Ungureanu, Constantin; Rusen, L.

    2002-08-01

    Due to the continuous technological development in microelectronics and generally in precise materials micromachining there is a continuous need to develop more effective techniques to clean impurities from the surface. Current cleaning techniques used in microelectric devices fabrication lines have an integrated action on the whole surface or on a great part of it, are polluting the ambient and are not efficient for submicron particles. Due to this needs we have studied laser cleaning of silicon wafers with regards to direct applications in semiconductor manufacturing. We have analyzed the ablation effect of laser radiation of 1.06 micrometers on different materials currently used in microelectronic industry and the cleaning effect on a silicon support.

  18. Assessing a pneumatic fractionator as a lint cleaning device

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study assessed a pneumatic fractionator as a lint cleaning device for ginned lint. Results from a test that used two line pressures and three fractionation times showed that higher line pressure and longer fractionation time produced fiber that was shorter in staple length, contained more neps, a...

  19. Clean Air Slots Amid Dense Atmospheric Pollution in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2003-01-01

    During the flights of the University of Washington's Convair-580 in the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) in southern Africa, a phenomenon was observed that has not been reported previously. This was the occurrence of thin layers of remarkably clean air, sandwiched between heavily polluted air, which persisted for many hours during the day. Photographs are shown of these clean air slots (CAS), and particle concentrations and light scattering coefficients in and around such slot are presented. An explanation is proposed for the propensity of CAS to form in southern Africa during the dry season.

  20. Clean air amendments put big burden on refinery planners

    SciTech Connect

    Scherr, R.C.; Smalley, G.A. Jr.; Norman, M.E. )

    1991-06-10

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 will not only require the production of reformulated gasoline but also have significant impact on other refinery-related construction. This must be considered when developing sound planning strategy. The three titles of the Clean Air Act Amendments that will have the greatest effect on refining are: Title I: Nonattainment; Title III: Air toxics; Title V: Permitting. To understand the ramifications of these amendments, it is necessary to review the interactions of new requirements with the permitting and construction schedule shown.

  1. 40 CFR 49.3 - General Tribal Clean Air Act authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General Tribal Clean Air Act authority... ASSISTANCE TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY Tribal Authority § 49.3 General Tribal Clean Air Act authority... respect to all provisions of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations, except for those...

  2. 40 CFR 49.10 - EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA review of State Clean Air Act... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY Tribal Authority § 49.10 EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs. A State Clean Air Act program submittal shall not be disapproved because of failure...

  3. A clean air continuous flow propulsion facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauss, R. H.; Mcdaniel, J. C., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Consideration is given to a contaminant-free, high enthalpy, continuous flow facility designed to obtain detailed code validation measurements of high speed combustion. The facility encompasses uncontaminated air temperature control to within 5 K, fuel temperature control to 2 K, a ceramic flow straightener, drying of inlet air, and steady state continuous operation. The air heating method provides potential for independent control of contaminant level by injection, mixing, and heating upstream. Particular attention is given to extension of current capability of 1250 K total air temperature, which simulates Scramjet enthalpy at Mach 5.

  4. A simple novel device for air sampling by electrokinetic capture

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Julian; Gandhi, Prasanthi; Shekhawat, Gajendra; Frazier, Angel; Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad; Gilbert, Jack A.

    2015-12-27

    A variety of different sampling devices are currently available to acquire air samples for the study of the microbiome of the air. All have a degree of technical complexity that limits deployment. Here, we evaluate the use of a novel device, which has no technical complexity and is easily deployable. An air-cleaning device powered by electrokinetic propulsion has been adapted to provide a universal method for collecting samples of the aerobiome. Plasma-induced charge in aerosol particles causes propulsion to and capture on a counter-electrode. The flow of ions creates net bulk airflow, with no moving parts. A device and electrode assembly have been re-designed from air-cleaning technology to provide an average air flow of 120 lpm. This compares favorably with current air sampling devices based on physical air pumping. Capture efficiency was determined by comparison with a 0.4 μm polycarbonate reference filter, using fluorescent latex particles in a controlled environment chamber. Performance was compared with the same reference filter method in field studies in three different environments. For 23 common fungal species by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), there was 100 % sensitivity and apparent specificity of 87%, with the reference filter taken as “gold standard.” Further, bacterial analysis of 16S RNA by amplicon sequencing showed equivalent community structure captured by the electrokinetic device and the reference filter. Unlike other current air sampling methods, capture of particles is determined by charge and so is not controlled by particle mass. We analyzed particle sizes captured from air, without regard to specific analyte by atomic force microscopy: particles at least as low as 100 nM could be captured from ambient air. This work introduces a very simple plug-and-play device that can sample air at a high-volume flow rate with no moving parts and collect particles down to the sub-micron range. In conclusion, the performance of the

  5. A simple novel device for air sampling by electrokinetic capture

    DOE PAGES

    Gordon, Julian; Gandhi, Prasanthi; Shekhawat, Gajendra; Frazier, Angel; Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad; Gilbert, Jack A.

    2015-12-27

    A variety of different sampling devices are currently available to acquire air samples for the study of the microbiome of the air. All have a degree of technical complexity that limits deployment. Here, we evaluate the use of a novel device, which has no technical complexity and is easily deployable. An air-cleaning device powered by electrokinetic propulsion has been adapted to provide a universal method for collecting samples of the aerobiome. Plasma-induced charge in aerosol particles causes propulsion to and capture on a counter-electrode. The flow of ions creates net bulk airflow, with no moving parts. A device and electrodemore » assembly have been re-designed from air-cleaning technology to provide an average air flow of 120 lpm. This compares favorably with current air sampling devices based on physical air pumping. Capture efficiency was determined by comparison with a 0.4 μm polycarbonate reference filter, using fluorescent latex particles in a controlled environment chamber. Performance was compared with the same reference filter method in field studies in three different environments. For 23 common fungal species by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), there was 100 % sensitivity and apparent specificity of 87%, with the reference filter taken as “gold standard.” Further, bacterial analysis of 16S RNA by amplicon sequencing showed equivalent community structure captured by the electrokinetic device and the reference filter. Unlike other current air sampling methods, capture of particles is determined by charge and so is not controlled by particle mass. We analyzed particle sizes captured from air, without regard to specific analyte by atomic force microscopy: particles at least as low as 100 nM could be captured from ambient air. This work introduces a very simple plug-and-play device that can sample air at a high-volume flow rate with no moving parts and collect particles down to the sub-micron range. In conclusion, the performance of

  6. Can commonly-used fan-driven air cleaning technologies improve indoor air quality? A literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinping; Mo, Jinhan; Li, Yuguo; Sundell, Jan; Wargocki, Pawel; Zhang, Jensen; Little, John C.; Corsi, Richard; Deng, Qihong; Leung, Michael H. K.; Fang, Lei; Chen, Wenhao; Li, Jinguang; Sun, Yuexia

    2011-08-01

    comparing the performance of different air cleaning technologies. (4) To compare and select suitable indoor air cleaning devices, a labeling system accounting for characteristics such as CADR, energy consumption, volume, harmful by-products, and life span is necessary. For that purpose, a standard test room and condition should be built and studied. (5) Although there is evidence that some air cleaning technologies improve indoor air quality, further research is needed before any of them can be confidently recommended for use in indoor environments.

  7. Measurement of formaldehyde in clean air

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzert, V.; Seiler, W.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the measurement of small amounts of formaldehyde in air has been developed. The method is based on the derivatization of HCHO with 2.4-Denetrophenylhydragine, forming 2.4-Dentrophylhydragine, measured with GC-ECD-technique. HCHO is preconcentrated using a cryogenic sampling technique. The detection limit is 0.05 ppbv for a sampling volume of 200 liter. The method has been applied for measurements in continental and marine air masses showing HCHO mixing ratios of 0.4--5.0 ppbv and 0.2--1.0 ppbv, respectively. HCHO mixing ratios show diurnal variations with maximum values during the early afternoon and minimum values during the early morning. In continental air, HCHO mixing ratios are positively correlated with CO and SO/sub 2/, indicating anthropogenic HCHO sources which are estimated to be 6--11 x 10/sup 12/g/year/sup -1/ on a global scale.

  8. New challenges to air/gas cleaning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kovach, J.L.

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the need for changes in the design and manufacturing of air and gas cleaning systems to meet waste management and site remediation requirements. Current design and manufacturing practices are primarily directed toward evaluating operational problems with existing systems in nuclear reactor facilities. However, nuclear waste management needs have developed which are much broader in scope and have different processing conditions. Numerous examples of air cleaning needs for waste management activities are provided; the major differences from operating facility needs are the requirement for continuous effluent treatment under widely different processing conditions. Related regulatory issues are also discussed briefly. 1 ref.

  9. Clean the Air and Breathe Easier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guevin, John

    1997-01-01

    Failure to prevent indoor air quality problems or act promptly can result in increased chances for long- or short-term health problems for staff and students, reduced productivity, faster plant deterioration, and strained school-community relations. Basic pollution control measures include source management, local exhausts, ventilation, exposure…

  10. Indoor Air Quality in Schools: Clean Air Is Good Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarneiri, Michele A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the effect of poor indoor air quality (IAQ) on student health, the cost of safeguarding good IAQ, the cause of poor IAQ in schools, how to tell whether a school has an IAQ problem, and how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency can help schools improve indoor air quality though the use of their free "Indoor Air Quality Tools for…

  11. Plants Clean Air and Water for Indoor Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Wolverton Environmental Services Inc., founded by longtime government environmental scientist B.C. "Bill" Wolverton, is an environmental consulting firm that gives customers access to the results of his decades of cutting-edge bioremediation research. Findings about how to use plants to improve indoor air quality have been published in dozens of NASA technical papers and in the book, "How to Grow Fresh Air: 50 Houseplants That Purify Your Home or Office." The book has now been translated into 12 languages and has been on the shelves of bookstores for nearly 10 years. A companion book, "Growing Clean Water: Nature's Solution to Water Pollution," explains how plants can clean waste water. Other discoveries include that the more air that is allowed to circulate through the roots of the plants, the more effective they are at cleaning polluted air; and that plants play a psychological role in welfare in that people recover from illness faster in the presence of plants. Wolverton Environmental is also working in partnership with Syracuse University, to engineer systems consisting of modular wicking filters tied into duct work and water supplies, essentially tying plant-based filters into heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Also, the company has recently begun to assess the ability of the EcoPlanter to remove formaldehyde from interior environments. Wolverton Environmental is also in talks with designers of the new Stennis Visitor's Center, who are interested in using its designs for indoor air-quality filters

  12. Enforcement provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, E.A.; Davis, H.P.

    1994-12-31

    In discussing the provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990, the authors focus on the following: EPA enforcement, including criminal and administrative civil penalties; NJDEPE enforcement authority, including criminal and administrative civil penalties, as well as economic benefit and judicial enforcement; citizens enforcement; and evidence of non compliance.

  13. 36. FIFTH FLOOR BLDG. 27, "CLEAN ROOM" AIR FILTERS LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. FIFTH FLOOR BLDG. 27, "CLEAN ROOM" AIR FILTERS LOOKING SOUTH. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  14. 18 CFR 1316.5 - Clean Air and Water Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... meaning set forth in 40 CFR 15.4. (b) TVA will not award a contract to any offeror whose performance would... is exempt at the time of contract award from the provisions of 40 CFR part 15 as set forth therein... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clean Air and...

  15. 18 CFR 1316.5 - Clean Air and Water Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... meaning set forth in 40 CFR 15.4. (b) TVA will not award a contract to any offeror whose performance would... is exempt at the time of contract award from the provisions of 40 CFR part 15 as set forth therein... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clean Air and...

  16. Personal cooling air filtering device

    DOEpatents

    Klett, James [Knoxville, TN; Conway, Bret [Denver, NC

    2002-08-13

    A temperature modification system for modifying the temperature of fluids includes at least one thermally conductive carbon foam element, the carbon foam element having at least one flow channel for the passage of fluids. At least one temperature modification device is provided, the temperature modification device thermally connected to the carbon foam element and adapted to modify the temperature of the carbon foam to modify the temperature of fluids flowing through the flow channels. Thermoelectric and/or thermoionic elements can preferably be used as the temperature modification device. A method for the reversible temperature modification of fluids includes the steps of providing a temperature modification system including at least one thermally conductive carbon foam element having flow channels and at least one temperature modification device, and flowing a fluid through the flow channels.

  17. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Hazardous Air Pollutant Requirements and the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; DePhillips, M.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Hemenway, A.

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of the US Department of Energy -- Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) is to provide the US energy marketplace with advanced, efficient, and environmentally sound coal-based technologies. The design, construction, and operation of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Projects (CCTDP) will generate data needed to make informed, confident decisions on the commercial readiness of these technologies. These data also will provide information needed to ensure a proactive response by DOE and its industrial partners to the establishment of new regulations or a reactive response to existing regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The objectives of this paper are to: (1) Present a preliminary examination of the potential implications of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) -- Title 3 Hazardous Air Pollutant requirements to the commercialization of CCTDP; and (2) help define options available to DOE and its industrial partners to respond to this newly enacted Legislation.

  18. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Hazardous Air Pollutant Requirements and the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; DePhillips, M.; Fthenakis, V.M. ); Hemenway, A. )

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the US Department of Energy -- Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) is to provide the US energy marketplace with advanced, efficient, and environmentally sound coal-based technologies. The design, construction, and operation of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Projects (CCTDP) will generate data needed to make informed, confident decisions on the commercial readiness of these technologies. These data also will provide information needed to ensure a proactive response by DOE and its industrial partners to the establishment of new regulations or a reactive response to existing regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The objectives of this paper are to: (1) Present a preliminary examination of the potential implications of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) -- Title 3 Hazardous Air Pollutant requirements to the commercialization of CCTDP; and (2) help define options available to DOE and its industrial partners to respond to this newly enacted Legislation.

  19. Cleaning products and air fresheners: exposure to primary and secondary air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazaroff, William W.; Weschler, Charles J.

    Building occupants, including cleaning personnel, are exposed to a wide variety of airborne chemicals when cleaning agents and air fresheners are used in buildings. Certain of these chemicals are listed by the state of California as toxic air contaminants (TACs) and a subset of these are regulated by the US federal government as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). California's Proposition 65 list of species recognized as carcinogens or reproductive toxicants also includes constituents of certain cleaning products and air fresheners. In addition, many cleaning agents and air fresheners contain chemicals that can react with other air contaminants to yield potentially harmful secondary products. For example, terpenes can react rapidly with ozone in indoor air generating many secondary pollutants, including TACs such as formaldehyde. Furthermore, ozone-terpene reactions produce the hydroxyl radical, which reacts rapidly with organics, leading to the formation of other potentially toxic air pollutants. Indoor reactive chemistry involving the nitrate radical and cleaning-product constituents is also of concern, since it produces organic nitrates as well as some of the same oxidation products generated by ozone and hydroxyl radicals. Few studies have directly addressed the indoor concentrations of TACs that might result from primary emissions or secondary pollutant formation following the use of cleaning agents and air fresheners. In this paper, we combine direct empirical evidence with the basic principles of indoor pollutant behavior and with information from relevant studies, to analyze and critically assess air pollutant exposures resulting from the use of cleaning products and air fresheners. Attention is focused on compounds that are listed as HAPs, TACs or Proposition 65 carcinogens/reproductive toxicants and compounds that can readily react to generate secondary pollutants. The toxicity of many of these secondary pollutants has yet to be evaluated. The inhalation

  20. Unequal State Air Pollution: Adopting and Adapting to State Clean Air Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasgow, Derek John

    This dissertation looks at the relationship between American subnational governments and clean air policy in three different cases. I investigate the impact of state reduction policies on the emission of Greenhouse emissions, the subnational adoption of Greenhouse Gas tracking and reduction policies, and the impact of Clean Air Act standards on the siting of coal-fired power plants. The major finding is that in both the adoption and business response to these policies, a state's political context can limit its ability to regulate air pollution. These factors contribute to the unequal protection of air quality across the United States.

  1. 40 CFR 49.10 - EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs. 49.10 Section 49.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER... of State Clean Air Act programs. A State Clean Air Act program submittal shall not be...

  2. 40 CFR 49.3 - General Tribal Clean Air Act authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General Tribal Clean Air Act authority... ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.3 General Tribal Clean... manner as States with respect to all provisions of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations,...

  3. 40 CFR 49.10 - EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs. 49.10 Section 49.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER... of State Clean Air Act programs. A State Clean Air Act program submittal shall not be...

  4. 40 CFR 49.10 - EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs. 49.10 Section 49.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER... of State Clean Air Act programs. A State Clean Air Act program submittal shall not be...

  5. 40 CFR 49.3 - General Tribal Clean Air Act authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General Tribal Clean Air Act authority... ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.3 General Tribal Clean... manner as States with respect to all provisions of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations,...

  6. 40 CFR 49.9 - EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act... of tribal Clean Air Act applications. (a) The EPA Regional Administrator shall process a request of... apply to all future Clean Air Act applications from that tribe or tribal consortium and no...

  7. 40 CFR 49.3 - General Tribal Clean Air Act authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General Tribal Clean Air Act authority... ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.3 General Tribal Clean... manner as States with respect to all provisions of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations,...

  8. 40 CFR 49.9 - EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act... of tribal Clean Air Act applications. (a) The EPA Regional Administrator shall process a request of... apply to all future Clean Air Act applications from that tribe or tribal consortium and no...

  9. 40 CFR 49.9 - EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act... of tribal Clean Air Act applications. (a) The EPA Regional Administrator shall process a request of... apply to all future Clean Air Act applications from that tribe or tribal consortium and no...

  10. 40 CFR 49.9 - EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act... of tribal Clean Air Act applications. (a) The EPA Regional Administrator shall process a request of... apply to all future Clean Air Act applications from that tribe or tribal consortium and no...

  11. 40 CFR 49.10 - EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs. 49.10 Section 49.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER... of State Clean Air Act programs. A State Clean Air Act program submittal shall not be...

  12. 40 CFR 49.3 - General Tribal Clean Air Act authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General Tribal Clean Air Act authority... ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.3 General Tribal Clean... manner as States with respect to all provisions of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations,...

  13. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274... AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative agreement or...

  14. 40 CFR 49.9 - EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY Tribal Authority § 49.9 EPA review of tribal Clean Air... boundaries of a reservation or tribal jurisdiction over non-reservation areas shall apply to all future...

  15. 75 FR 22787 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... AGENCY Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is... the Clean Air Act and asking the court to enter judgment: (i) Declaring that EPA's failure to...

  16. 78 FR 77448 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection... public meetings of the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC). The EPA established the CAAAC on... implementation of the Clean Air Act of 1990. The Committee advises on economic, environmental,...

  17. 76 FR 9610 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on February 14, 2011... California. The Consent Decree in this Clean Air Act enforcement action resolves allegations by the...''), asserted in a complaint filed together with the Consent Decree, under Section 113(b) of the Clean Air...

  18. 77 FR 39493 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA''), notice is hereby given of a proposed consent... Amended Complaint alleging that EPA failed to perform nondiscretionary duties under the Clean Air...

  19. 76 FR 65722 - Notification of Two Public Teleconferences; Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... AGENCY Notification of Two Public Teleconferences; Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee AGENCY... Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) to discuss its draft review of EPA's Integrated Science... CASAC was established pursuant to the under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1977, codified at 42...

  20. 76 FR 25688 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... AGENCY Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is... to a CAA Title V operating permit issued by the Southwest Clean Air Agency to Transalta...

  1. 77 FR 65684 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA''), notice is hereby given of a proposed consent... Amended Complaint alleging that EPA failed to perform nondiscretionary duties under the Clean Air...

  2. 76 FR 9609 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on February 14, 2011... Consent Decree in this Clean Air Act enforcement action resolves allegations by the Environmental... in a complaint filed together with the Consent Decree, under Section 113(b) of the Clean Air Act,...

  3. 78 FR 49511 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection... public meeting of the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC). The EPA established the CAAAC on November... implementation of the Clean Air Act of 1990. The Committee advises on economic, environmental,...

  4. 75 FR 32857 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revision to Clean Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revision to Clean Air Interstate Rule Sulfur Dioxide Trading Program Correction In final rule document...

  5. A pilot study of energy efficient air cleaning for ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Gundel, Lara A.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Katsapov, Gregory Y.; Fisk, William J.

    2002-11-01

    A laboratory pilot study has been undertaken with the material that showed the most promise (high capacity and low pressure drop) based on the literature review and associated calculations. The best-performing air cleaner was a commercially available pleated filter that contained a thin layer of small activated carbon particles between two sheets of non-woven fibrous webbing. We will refer to this unit as the ''ozone filter'' although it is marketed for removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from automobile passenger compartments. This pilot study strongly suggests that ozone air cleaning can be practical in commercial air handling systems; however, further tests are needed to assess air cleaner performance under a wider range of conditions.

  6. Asthma, sulfur dioxide, and the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Boushey, H.

    1982-02-01

    Laboratory findings on the effects of sulfur dioxide in patients with asthma are related to theories about the mechanisms of bronchial hyperreactivity, an abnormality that may be fundamental to the pathogenesis of asthma and then to questions of national policy on air quality. Work has shown that people with asthma are abnormally sensitive to inhalation of sulfur dioxide and that bronchospasm may develop if they pursue activities that require light exercise while breathing air containing a level of sulfur dioxide permitted by current ambient air-quality standards. The provisions of the Clean Air Act of 1970 require that sensitive groups in the population be protected against adverse health effects, and our data therefore indicate the need for a short-term standard for sulfur dioxide.

  7. Ceramic membrane defouling (cleaning) by air Nano Bubbles.

    PubMed

    Ghadimkhani, Aliasghar; Zhang, Wen; Marhaba, Taha

    2016-03-01

    Ceramic membranes are among the most promising technologies for membrane applications, owing to their excellent resistance to mechanical, chemical, and thermal stresses. However, membrane fouling is still an issue that hampers the applications at large scales. Air Nano Bubbles (NBs), due to high mass transfer efficiency, could potentially prevent fouling of ceramic membrane filtration processes. In this study, bench and pilot scale ceramic membrane filtration was performed with air NBs to resist fouling. To simulate fouling, humic acid, as an organic foulant, was applied to the membrane flat sheet surface. Complete membrane clogging was achieved in less than 6 h. Membrane defouling (cleaning) was performed by directly feeding of air NBs to the membrane cells. The surface of the ceramic membrane was superbly cleaned by air NBs, as revealed by atomic force microscope (AFM) images before and after the treatment. The permeate flux recovered to its initial level (e.g., 26.7 × 10(-9) m(3)/m(2)/s at applied pressure of 275.8 kPa), which indicated that NBs successfully unclogged the pores of the membrane. The integrated ceramic membrane and air NBs system holds potential as an innovative sustainable technology.

  8. Ceramic membrane defouling (cleaning) by air Nano Bubbles.

    PubMed

    Ghadimkhani, Aliasghar; Zhang, Wen; Marhaba, Taha

    2016-03-01

    Ceramic membranes are among the most promising technologies for membrane applications, owing to their excellent resistance to mechanical, chemical, and thermal stresses. However, membrane fouling is still an issue that hampers the applications at large scales. Air Nano Bubbles (NBs), due to high mass transfer efficiency, could potentially prevent fouling of ceramic membrane filtration processes. In this study, bench and pilot scale ceramic membrane filtration was performed with air NBs to resist fouling. To simulate fouling, humic acid, as an organic foulant, was applied to the membrane flat sheet surface. Complete membrane clogging was achieved in less than 6 h. Membrane defouling (cleaning) was performed by directly feeding of air NBs to the membrane cells. The surface of the ceramic membrane was superbly cleaned by air NBs, as revealed by atomic force microscope (AFM) images before and after the treatment. The permeate flux recovered to its initial level (e.g., 26.7 × 10(-9) m(3)/m(2)/s at applied pressure of 275.8 kPa), which indicated that NBs successfully unclogged the pores of the membrane. The integrated ceramic membrane and air NBs system holds potential as an innovative sustainable technology. PMID:26741542

  9. Microwave Regenerable Air Purification Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, James E.; Holtsnider, John T.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The feasibility of using microwave power to thermally regenerate sorbents loaded with water vapor, CO2, and organic contaminants has been rigorously demonstrated. Sorbents challenged with air containing 0.5% CO2, 300 ppm acetone, 50 ppm trichloroethylene, and saturated with water vapor have been regenerated, singly and in combination. Microwave transmission, reflection, and phase shift has also been determined for a variety of sorbents over the frequency range between 1.3-2.7 GHz. This innovative technology offers the potential for significant energy savings in comparison to current resistive heating methods because energy is absorbed directly by the material to be heated. Conductive, convective and radiative losses are minimized. Extremely rapid heating is also possible, i.e., 1400 C in less than 60 seconds. Microwave powered thermal desorption is directly applicable to the needs of Advance Life Support in general, and of EVA in particular. Additionally, the applicability of two specific commercial applications arising from this technology have been demonstrated: the recovery for re-use of acetone (and similar solvents) from industrial waste streams using a carbon based molecular sieve; and the separation and destruction of trichloroethylene using ZSM-5 synthetic zeolite catalyst, a predominant halocarbon environmental contaminant. Based upon these results, Phase II development is strongly recommended.

  10. A STERILIZATION STANDARD FOR ENDOSCOPES AND OTHER DIFFICULT TO CLEAN MEDICAL DEVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An array of difficult to clean devices are used for diagnostic and surgical procedures involving various degrees of invasiveness. These range from prophylaxis angles used for cleaning and polishing teeth to flexible fiberoptic endoscopes for surgical procedures that penetrate the...

  11. Reticle storage in microenvironments with extreme clean dry air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gettel, Astrid; Glüer, Detlev; Honold, Alfred

    2012-11-01

    Haze formation on the patterned metal surface of reticles is a known problem for IC manufacturers that can impact device yield and increase operational costs due to the need for more frequent cleaning of the reticles. Storage of reticles in an ultraclean environment can reduce haze formation and reduce operational costs. We examined the contamination levels of a new type of reticle stocker that stores reticles in microenvironments which are continuously purged with extreme clean dry air (XCDA). Each microenvironment consists of twelve vertically stacked reticle storage slots which can be opened at any slot. The design of the microenvironment includes an XCDA supply that provides a homogeneous horizontal flow of XCDA between the reticles. Figure 1. Reduction of contamination levels inside the storage microenvironment as a function of XCDA flow rate. As shown in Fig. 1, continuous XCDA purge reduces the contaminant levels inside the microenvironment. The amount of reduction depends on the XCDA purge flow rate and the chemical species. Volatile organic substances can be reduced by more than two orders of magnitude. Humidity is reduced less because the plastic material of the storage microenvironment incorporates water in its matrix and can release moisture to the extremely dry atmosphere. Chemical filters applied to mini- or microenvironments typically reduce the contaminant levels only by 95-99% and do not reduce the humidity. To pick and place reticles, the reticle storage microenvironment must be opened. The transient contaminant levels inside the empty microenvironment show an increase at the moment when the microenvironment is opened. Under the given conditions, the microenvironment returns to equilibrium levels with a time constant of 105 seconds (see Fig. 2). Similar dynamic response was measured for IPA and acetone. Figure 2. Transient humidity when the storage microenvironment was opened for reticle handling. The impact of handling on reticles stored inside

  12. Impact of Air Filter Material on Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) Device Characteristics in HF Vapor Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Chih-Wen; Lou, Jen-Chung; Yeh, Ching-Fa; Hsieh, Chih-Ming; Lin, Shiuan-Jeng; Kusumi, Toshio

    2004-05-01

    Airborne molecular contamination (AMC) is becoming increasingly important as devices are scaled down to the nanometer generation. Optimum ultra low penetration air (ULPA) filter technology can eliminate AMC. In a cleanroom, however, the acid vapor generated from the cleaning process may degrade the ULPA filter, releasing AMC to the air and the surface of wafers, degrading the electrical characteristics of devices. This work proposes the new PTFE ULPA filter, which is resistant to acid vapor corrosion, to solve this problem. Experimental results demonstrate that the PTFE ULPA filter can effectively eliminate the AMC and provide a very clean cleanroom environment.

  13. 75 FR 51807 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Ambient Air Methods and Monitoring Subcommittee (AAMMS) AGENCY..., 2010, of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Ambient Air Monitoring & Methods... Method for Lead (Pb) in Total Suspended Particulates (TSP). The Clean Air Scientific Advisory...

  14. 75 FR 9208 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is hereby given of a... Waterkeeper, Inc., Clean Water Action, and Chesapeake Climate Action Network (collectively ``Plaintiffs'')...

  15. NASA's Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Act Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia

    2003-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was selected as the Principal Center for review of Clean Air Act (CAA) regulations. The CAA Principal Center is tasked to: 1) Provide centralized support to NASA/HDQ Code JE for the management and leadership of NASA's CAA regulation review process; 2) Identify potential impact from proposed CAA regulations to NASA program hardware and supporting facilities. The Shuttle Environmental Assurance Initiative, one of the responsibilities of the NASA CAA Working Group (WG), is described in part of this viewgraph presentation.

  16. Investigation of air cleaning system response to accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Andrae, R.W.; Bolstad, J.W.; Foster, R.D.; Gregory, W.S.; Horak, H.L.; Idar, E.S.; Martin, R.A.; Ricketts, C.I.; Smith, P.R.; Tang, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    Air cleaning system response to the stress of accident conditions are being investigated. A program overview and hghlight recent results of our investigation are presented. The program includes both analytical and experimental investigations. Computer codes for predicting effects of tornados, explosions, fires, and material transport are described. The test facilities used to obtain supportive experimental data to define structural integrity and confinement effectiveness of ventilation system components are described. Examples of experimental results for code verification, blower response to tornado transients, and filter response to tornado and explosion transients are reported.

  17. PROTECTING ECOLOGICAL RESOURCES WITH THE CLEAN AIR ACT: THE ROLE OF SCIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act provides for establishing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect public welfare (including crops, forests, ecosystems, and soils) from adverse effects of air pollutants, including tropospheric ozone. The formulation of policies is science-base...

  18. Applying the Clean Air Act to municipal solid waste landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Heitz, D.R.; Romzick, P.G.

    1998-12-31

    On March 12, 1996, the EPA promulgated the new Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Landfills, the first federal air regulation specifically for MSW landfills. Landfills subject to this regulation which exceeded the threshold design capacity also became subject to the Title V operating permit program. This began the application of the Clean Air Act (CAA) to most of these nontraditional air sources. Unlike landfills, typical air sources have easily defined input capacities that correspond to potential emissions while the process creates a product or output. All these concepts are difficult and confusing to apply to MSW landfills. Applicability of the following CAA regulations are specifically addressed in this paper: NSPS for MSW landfills; new Source Review (NSR)/Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD); landfill Maximum Achievable Control Technologies (MACT); 112(g) Modification of Major Sources of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP); 112(r) Accidental Release Prevention; and Title V. Along with summarizing the potential applicability of each, the main issues are presented along with the current information on the regulations.

  19. The high efficiency steel filters for nuclear air cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.; Williams, K.; Violet, C.

    1990-08-01

    We have, in cooperation with industry, developed high-efficiency filters made from sintered stainless-steel fibers for use in several air-cleaning applications in the nuclear industry. These filters were developed to overcome the failure modes in present high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. HEPA filters are made from glass paper and glue, and they may fail when they get hot or wet and when they are overpressured. In developing our steel filters, we first evaluated the commercially available stainless-steel filter media made from sintered powder and sintered fiber. The sintered-fiber media performed much better than sintered-powder media, and the best media had the smallest fiber diameter. Using the best media, we then built prototype filters for venting compressed gases and evaluated them in our automated filter tester. 12 refs., 20 figs.

  20. 75 FR 42130 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act; Clean Water Act; Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act; Clean Water Act; Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; Safe Drinking Water Act; Toxic Substances Control Act; and the Reporting Requirements of the... U.S.C. 6901 to 6992k; Safe Drinking Water Act (``SDWA''), 42 U.S.C. 300f to 300j-26;...

  1. A breath of fresh air: EPA`s more flexible approach to the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Curreri, J.A.

    1996-05-01

    This article highlights the changes in the Clean Air Act rules as defined by the USEPA. The major changes discussed include the following: definition of a `major source`; streamlined Title V Permits; less detailed descriptions; permit revisions may be reduced; periodic and enhanced monitoring; more practical requirements; case-by-case MACT standards.

  2. Extended-life nuclear air cleaning filters via dynamic exclusion prefilters

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, S.R.; Crouch, H.S.; Bond, J.H.

    1997-08-01

    The primary objective of this investigation was to ascertain if a dynamic, self-cleaning particulate exclusion precleaner, designed for relatively large dust removal (2 to 100+ {mu}m diameter particles) from helicopter turbine inlets, could be extended to submicron filtration. The improved device could be used as a prefilter for HEPA filtration systems, significantly increasing service life. In nuclear air cleaning, its use would reduce the amount of nuclear particulate matter that would otherwise be entrapped in the HEPA filter cartridge/panel, causing fouling and increased back pressure, as well as requiring subsequent disposal of the contaminated media at considerable expense. A unique (patent-pending) mechanical separation device has recently been developed to extract particulate matter from fluid process streams based on a proprietary concept called Boundary Layer Momentum Transfer (BLMT). The device creates multiple boundary layers that actively exclude particles from entering the perimeter of the device, while allowing air to traverse the boundaries relatively unimpeded. A modified two-dimensional (2-D) computerized flow simulation model was used to assist in the prototype design. Empirical results are presented from particle breakthrough and AP experiments obtained from a reduced-scale prototype filter. Particles larger than 0.23 {mu}m were actively excluded by the prototype, but at a higher pressure drop than anticipated. Experimental data collected indicates that the filter housing and the inlet flow configuration may contribute significantly to improvements in device particle separation capabilities. Furthermore, preliminary experiments have shown that other downstream pressure drop considerations (besides those just across the spinning filtration disks) must be included to accurately portray the AP across the device. Further detailed quantitative investigations on a larger scale (1,000 CFM) prototype are warranted. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. 77 FR 14830 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on March 6, 2012, a... against Spectro Alloys Corporation pursuant to Section 113(b) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7413(b... results in emissions of regulated air pollutants, including dioxins and furans, hydrogen...

  4. Clean-air video will interest MDs who treat patients with allergies, respiratory problems.

    PubMed

    Rafuse, J

    1996-03-15

    Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation wants physicians to help raise public awareness abut the importance of indoor air quality to health. Physicians across Canada are being sent a colourful poster that calls attention to indoor air pollution and ways to make a home healthier, included are order forms for the Clean Air Guide and a companion video, This Clean House. PMID:8634972

  5. 78 FR 43200 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... 1997 8-hour ozone national ambient air quality standard in the South Coast. 77 FR 12674 (March 1, 2012... AGENCY Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), notice is...

  6. Whole house particle removal and clean air delivery rates for in-duct and portable ventilation systems.

    PubMed

    Macintosh, David L; Myatt, Theodore A; Ludwig, Jerry F; Baker, Brian J; Suh, Helen H; Spengler, John D

    2008-11-01

    A novel method for determining whole house particle removal and clean air delivery rates attributable to central and portable ventilation/air cleaning systems is described. The method is used to characterize total and air-cleaner-specific particle removal rates during operation of four in-duct air cleaners and two portable air-cleaning devices in a fully instrumented test home. Operation of in-duct and portable air cleaners typically increased particle removal rates over the baseline rates determined in the absence of operating a central fan or an indoor air cleaner. Removal rates of 0.3- to 0.5-microm particles ranged from 1.5 hr(-1) during operation of an in-duct, 5-in. pleated media filter to 7.2 hr(-1) for an in-duct electrostatic air cleaner in comparison to a baseline rate of 0 hr(-1) when the air handler was operating without a filter. Removal rates for total particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) mass concentrations were 0.5 hr(-1) under baseline conditions, 0.5 hr(-1) during operation of three portable ionic air cleaners, 1 hr(-1) for an in-duct 1-in. media filter, 2.4 hr(-1) for a single high-efficiency particle arrestance (HEPA) portable air cleaner, 4.6 hr(-1) for an in-duct 5-in. media filter, 4.7 hr(-1) during operation of five portable HEPA filters, 6.1 hr(-1) for a conventional in-duct electronic air cleaner, and 7.5 hr(-1) for a high efficiency in-duct electrostatic air cleaner. Corresponding whole house clean air delivery rates for PM2.5 attributable to the air cleaner independent of losses within the central ventilation system ranged from 2 m3/min for the conventional media filter to 32 m3/min for the high efficiency in-duct electrostatic device. Except for the portable ionic air cleaner, the devices considered here increased particle removal indoors over baseline deposition rates. PMID:19044163

  7. Proceedings of the 21st DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference; Sessions 1--8

    SciTech Connect

    First, M.W.

    1991-02-01

    Separate abstracts have been prepared for the papers presented at the meeting on nuclear facility air cleaning technology in the following specific areas of interest: air cleaning technologies for the management and disposal of radioactive wastes; Canadian waste management program; radiological health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis; filter testing; US standard codes on nuclear air and gas treatment; European community nuclear codes and standards; chemical processing off-gas cleaning; incineration and vitrification; adsorbents; nuclear codes and standards; mathematical modeling techniques; filter technology; safety; containment system venting; and nuclear air cleaning programs around the world. (MB)

  8. Indoor air cleaning using a pulsed discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, Akira; Kisanuki, Yoshiyuki; Noguchi, Masanobu; Katsura, Shinji; Lee, S.H.; Hong, Y.K.; Shin, S.Y.; Kang, J.H.

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a high-efficiency air-cleaning system for air pollutants such as tobacco smoke found in indoor environments. The authors investigated the basic characteristics of treating particulate matter and acetaldehyde (CH{sub 3}CHO) in a one-pass test using a pulse generator and a plasma-driven catalyst reactor, both of which are attachable to an air conditioner. Using a circulation test, the decrease in acetaldehyde concentration was measured in a closed vessel where the reactor had been placed. The removal efficiencies of particulate matter and acetaldehyde in the one-pass test (residence time of 10 ms) were 70% and 27%, respectively. In the circulation test, 98% of the suspended particles were collected after 2 min of operation and the acetaldehyde concentration decreased by 70% after 50 mins. It is believed that the TiO{sub 2} catalyst is excited by plasma-induced high-energy particles (electrons, photons, and metastable molecules), resulting in an enhanced pollutant removal. These test results indicate that the combination of plasma with TiO{sub 2} is a potential alternative in treating the pollutants in environmental tobacco smoke.

  9. Collection and analysis of NASA clean room air samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, L. S.; Keever, J.

    1985-01-01

    The environment of the HALOE assembly clean room at NASA Langley Research Center is analyzed to determine the background levels of airborne organic compounds. Sampling is accomplished by pumping the clean room air through absorbing cartridges. For volatile organics, cartridges are thermally desorbed and then analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, compounds are identified by searching the EPA/NIH data base using an interactive operator INCOS computer search algorithm. For semivolatile organics, cartridges are solvent entracted and concentrated extracts are analyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection, compound identification is made by matching gas chromatogram retention times with known standards. The detection limits for the semivolatile organics are; 0.89 ng cu m for dioctylphlhalate (DOP) and 1.6 ng cu m for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The detection limit for volatile organics ranges from 1 to 50 parts per trillion. Only trace quantities of organics are detected, the DOP levels do not exceed 2.5 ng cu m and the PCB levels do not exceed 454 ng cu m.

  10. Project puts Clean Air worst case' rule to test

    SciTech Connect

    Krukowski, J.

    1994-09-01

    DuPont was one of eight companies with plants in the Kanawha Valley that took part in a pioneering effort to company with EPA's proposed Risk Management Programs (RMP) rule (40 CFR Part 68, or section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act). When the rule is finalized, perhaps in early 1996, about 140,000 facilities across the country will have three years to comply. The RMP proposes that companies estimate the potential effects of significant accidental releases'' of 77 acutely toxic chemicals, 63 flammable gases and volatile flammable liquids, and certain explosive substances. A list of the chemicals and threshold quantities was published in the Jan. 31 Federal Register. Companies also must compile and make public a five-year history of releases, and document their prevention and emergency response plans.

  11. Chicago Clean Air, Clean Water Project: Environmental Monitoring for a Healthy, Sustainable Urban Future

    SciTech Connect

    none, none; Tuchman, Nancy

    2015-11-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy awarded Loyola University Chicago and the Institute of Environmental Sustainability (IES) $486,000.00 for the proposal entitled “Chicago clean air, clean water project: Environmental monitoring for a healthy, sustainable urban future.” The project supported the purchase of analytical instruments for the development of an environmental analytical laboratory. The analytical laboratory is designed to support the testing of field water and soil samples for nutrients, industrial pollutants, heavy metals, and agricultural toxins, with special emphasis on testing Chicago regional soils and water affected by coal-based industry. Since the award was made in 2010, the IES has been launched (fall 2013), and the IES acquired a new state-of-the-art research and education facility on Loyola University Chicago’s Lakeshore campus. Two labs were included in the research and education facility. The second floor lab is the Ecology Laboratory where lab experiments and analyses are conducted on soil, plant, and water samples. The third floor lab is the Environmental Toxicology Lab where lab experiments on environmental toxins are conducted, as well as analytical tests conducted on water, soil, and plants. On the south end of the Environmental Toxicology Lab is the analytical instrumentation collection purchased from the present DOE grant, which is overseen by a full time Analytical Chemist (hired January 2016), who maintains the instruments, conducts analyses on samples, and helps to train faculty and undergraduate and graduate student researchers.

  12. Influence of the inlet air in efficiency of photocatalytic devices for mineralization of VOCs in air-conditioning installations.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Relinque, E; Castellote, M

    2014-10-01

    Nowadays, a large proportion of photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) devices are being implemented in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems. However, no systematic studies have been carried out regarding the influence of inlet air preconditioning. To analyse the impact of the inlet air-conditions into photocatalytic efficiency, a simulated air-conditioning duct with flowing gas through inside was designed. Isobutylene was chosen as the target VOCs. The concentration in the gas phase was monitored using a photoionization detector. The influence of flow rate, relative humidity and temperature on the VOC removal efficiency was analysed. Experimental results were presented in terms of gas-removal efficiency (η) and clean air delivery rate (CADR) and analysed on a kinetic basis. From them, the weight of each parameter in the global process has been determined, from bigger to smaller contribution, flow>temperature>relative humidity. Also, the relevance of the inlet air conditions has been illustrated in a model room in order to determinate the time necessary to obtain a threshold value accomplishing with enough air quality and the energy consumption of the device. Additionally, the photocatalytic decontamination has been assimilated to the "air exchange rate", a parameter commonly used in indoor air quality studies. The results show that preconditioning of air can improve the efficiency of photocatalytic devices and bring important energy savings.

  13. 78 FR 16630 - Clean Air Act Grant: South Coast Air Quality Management District; Opportunity for Pubic Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 35 Clean Air Act Grant: South Coast Air Quality Management District; Opportunity for... proposed determination that the reduction in expenditures of non-Federal funds for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) in support of its continuing air program under section 105 of...

  14. 77 FR 43074 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... decree to address a lawsuit filed by Southern Alliance for Clean Energy, et al. v. EPA, No. 1:12-cv-00338-ESH (D.D.C). On or about March 2, 2012, Southern Alliance for Clean Energy, et al. filed a complaint... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  15. A review of potential alternatives for air cleaning at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1990-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted this review in support of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) being designed by Fluor Daniel Inc. for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The literature on air cleaning systems is reviewed to identify potential air cleaning alternatives that might be included in the design of HWVP. An overview of advantages/disadvantages of the various air cleaning technologies follows. Information and references are presented for the following potential air cleaning alternatives: deep-bed glass-fiber filters (DBGF), high-efficiency particulate air filters (HEPA), remote modular filter systems, high-efficiency mist eliminators (HEME), electrostatic precipitators, and the sand filter. Selected information is summarized for systems in the United States, Belgium, Japan, and West Germany. This review addresses high-capacity air cleaning systems currently used in the nuclear industry and emphasizes recent developments. 10 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. An overview of 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments as related to engineering and maintenance aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, Y.M. )

    1994-03-01

    Titles I and III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments will regulate nonattainment-area pollutants (ozone, CO, PM-10, SO[sub 2], NO[sub x], and lead) and hazardous air pollutants, respectively. These regulations will have a significant impact on existing and new pulp and paper facilities. Several states have already addressed Title I requirements in their State Implementation Plans. As for Title III, the Environmental Protection Agency plans to propose emission standards for chemical pulping/bleaching facilities by Oct. 1993, with promulgation by Sept. 1995. This report summarizes the anticipated requirements and highlights their impact on the pulp and paper industry. The new regulations will require many facilities to modify existing equipment and/or install new pollution-control devices.

  17. Optimizing electric utility air toxics compliance with other titles of the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Loeb, A.P.; South, D.W.

    1993-12-31

    This paper provides an overview of regulatory issues under Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments that could affect electric utilities. Title III contains provisions relating to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and provides special treatment for electric utilities. Generally, this discussion documents that if utility toxic emissions are regulated, one of the chief difficulties confronting utilities will be the lack of coordination between Title III and other titles of the Act. The paper concludes that if the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) determines that regulation of utility HAPs is warranted under Title III, savings can be realized from flexible compliance treatment.

  18. Aerosols in clean and smoky air at Bozeman, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, J. A.; Thomas, M.; Lathem, T. L.; Shaw, G. E.; Nenes, A.; Pust, N.; Repasky, K. S.

    2010-12-01

    The northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States is a natural laboratory for studying aerosols in a relatively uncontaminated environment punctuated by episodes of wildfire smoke. In autumn 2009, we conducted a field experiment at Montana State University in Bozeman, Montana to characterize the boundary layer aerosols as they transition from smoky periods to relatively clean background air. Physical and chemical properties of the aerosols were conducted, including high time resolution of Cloud Condensation Nuclei and inter comparison with AERONET data during times of deep atmospheric mixing. The key results of this experiment are: 1) the air in this northern Rocky Mountain location is surprisingly pristine with frequent aerosol size distributions devoid of a an accumulation mode; 2) periods of night-time growth of Aitken-mode aerosols were observed; 3) a persistent diurnal variation occurred, with upslope daytime winds bringing aerosols exhibiting moderate anthropogenic influence , and down slope nighttime winds bringing aerosols with weak accumulation mode; 4) the smoke aerosol was weakly soluble; and 5) satisfactory agreement was found between the inverted estimate of the fine mode aerosol from AERONET solar radiometry with that measured in situ.

  19. Saving energy and improving IAQ through application of advanced air cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J; Destaillats, H.; Sidheswaran, M.A.

    2011-03-01

    In the future, we may be able use air cleaning systems and reduce rates of ventilation (i.e., reduce rates of outdoor air supply) to save energy, with indoor air quality (IAQ) remaining constant or even improved. The opportunity is greatest for commercial buildings because they usually have a narrower range of indoor pollutant sources than homes. This article describes the types of air cleaning systems that will be needed in commercial buildings.

  20. Gaseous fuel and air proportioning device

    SciTech Connect

    Lassanske, G. G.; Poshlman, A. G.

    1984-01-10

    The device for proportioning a gaseous fuel and air for combustion in an internal combustion engine includes a plate-like first member having a peripheral edge portion and a second member cooperating with the first member having a peripheral edge portion and a second member cooperating with the first member to define a mixing chamber having an outlet adapted to be connected in communication with the air intake of the engine carburetor. The second member also includes an annular portion having an arcuate first wall which is convex to and spaced from the peripheral edge portion of the first member to define an annular venturi having an inlet in communication with the atmosphere and an annular outlet in communication with the mixing chamber. A base member or second wall cooperates with the arcuate wall to form a substantially closed, annular plenum chamber into which a gaseous fuel, such as natural gas, is admitted when the engine is to be operated on the gaseous fuel. The gaseous fuel is admitted into the mixing chamber from the plenum chamber through one or more ports in the arcuate wall at or in the vicinity of the throat of the annular venturi. A pair of circumferentially spaced radially extending partitions located on the opposite sides of each port define a radially extending venturi which has a throat located at or in the vicinity of the port and serves to induce flow of the gaseous fuel through the corresponding port. The proportioning device preferably is arranged to fit inside the housing of an existing air cleaner.

  1. Fuel tank air pocket removal device

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.N. II.

    1991-10-08

    This paper describes a device for the removal of air pockets from filled underground fuel storage tanks. It comprises: a hollow rigid guide column of sufficient length to extend through a fuel inlet opening of the storage tank to the bottom thereof; a rotatable assembly affixed to the lower end of the column and containing guide means for facilitating the passage of a hose from the guide column to the most distant point of the walls of the storage tank; a hose slidably mounted within and extendable from and retractable into the guide column and having means for maintaining the air hose in a plane essentially parallel to the bottom of the storage tank; a first end of a tubular means connected to a first end of the hose, the tubular means comprising flotation means, the flotation means causing a second end of the tubular means to contact the air pocket; and means on a second end of the hose for extending and retracting the hose through the guide column so as to reach any point within the storage tank.

  2. 77 FR 39657 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Washington; Determination of Clean...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ...; Determination of Clean Data for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particulate Standard for the Tacoma, Pierce County... Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) has clean data for the 2006 24-hour PM 2.5 NAAQS. This proposed determination is based upon quality-assured, quality-controlled, and certified ambient air monitoring...

  3. 40 CFR 23.3 - Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act. 23.3 Section 23.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.3 Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air...

  4. 40 CFR 23.3 - Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act. 23.3 Section 23.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.3 Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air...

  5. 40 CFR 23.3 - Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act. 23.3 Section 23.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.3 Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air...

  6. 40 CFR 23.3 - Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act. 23.3 Section 23.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.3 Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air...

  7. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  8. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et...

  9. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  10. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  11. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et...

  12. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et...

  13. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  14. 14 CFR § 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Â...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et...

  15. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  16. 75 FR 16461 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... AGENCY Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g... title V of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 7661 et seq., to RRI Energy Mid-Atlantic's Portland Generating Station...

  17. 75 FR 42132 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Pursuant to 28 CFR 50.7, notice is hereby given... injunctive relief under Section 113(b) of the Clean Air Act (the Act), 42 U.S.C. 7413(b), for failure to... earthmoving, failure to operate a water application system while conducting earthmoving, and failure...

  18. 77 FR 47381 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice...

  19. 78 FR 48161 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (CAA or the Act), notice is hereby given of a...

  20. 76 FR 45793 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C....

  1. 75 FR 67719 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (CAA or the Act), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is...

  2. 40 CFR 23.3 - Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act. 23.3 Section 23.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.3 Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air...

  3. 76 FR 51030 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice...

  4. 76 FR 81930 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), notice is...

  5. 76 FR 56757 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is hereby given of...

  6. 78 FR 40140 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), notice is hereby given of...

  7. 78 FR 21419 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act On April 4, 2013, the Department of Justice lodged... Processed Meats, Inc. The United States filed this lawsuit under the Clean Air Act (CAA), 42 U.S.C....

  8. 75 FR 22786 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice...

  9. 75 FR 61774 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on September 28, 2010... Consent Decree in this Clean Air Act enforcement actions against Murphy Oil USA, Inc. (``Murphy... Louisiana asserted in a complaint filed together with the Consent Decree, under Section 113(b) of the...

  10. 77 FR 281 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... 2, 2011, EPA provided notice in accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as...

  11. 75 FR 24946 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is hereby given of...

  12. 75 FR 38520 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (CAA), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is hereby given of...

  13. 76 FR 5609 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on January 26, 2011, a... United States et al. v. HOVENSA L.L.C., Civil Action No. 1:11-cv-6. The Consent Decree in this Clean Air... Agency, asserted in a complaint filed together with the Consent Decree, under section 113(b) of the...

  14. 76 FR 75544 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice...

  15. 76 FR 75545 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice...

  16. 78 FR 53143 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), notice is hereby given of...

  17. 77 FR 46757 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA''), notice is hereby given of a proposed...

  18. 77 FR 56840 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice...

  19. 77 FR 67814 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... Pollution Affecting Visibility and Best Available Retrofit Technology Determinations,'' 76 FR 81,728 (Dec... AGENCY Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), notice is...

  20. 77 FR 66978 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA''), notice is hereby given of a proposed...

  1. 75 FR 38519 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (CAA), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is hereby given of...

  2. 76 FR 58808 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is hereby given of...

  3. BACT analysis under the Clean Air Act's PCD program

    SciTech Connect

    Simms, P.; Walke, J.

    2006-11-15

    Before a company may build a new major industrial source of air pollution, or make modifications to an existing major source in the USA it must apply for and receive a Clean Air Act (CAA) Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permit. State environmental agencies typically issue such permits, either under state law or by exercising delegated authority to implement the federal PSD program. To fully comply with the CAA, the emissions limits identified as BACT must incorporate consideration of more than just add-on emissions control technology, they must also reflect appropriate considerations of fuel quality (e.g. low-sulfur coal) and process changes (e.g. advanced combustion techniques) as a means of controlling emissions, and must consider the other environmental and public welfare benefits of the identified emissions control options. Several states including New Mexico and Illinois have already determined that innovated technologies, such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), must be considered in connection with the BACT analysis for new coal-fired power plants. Even the notion that BACT is categorically limited in scope to the general type of facility proposed is contrary to EPA precedent. For example, the Environmental Appeals Board (EAB) has explained that permitting authorities retain the discretion under the definition of BACT to require dramatically different facility designs (e.g. a natural gas plant instead of a coal-fired power plant). The best advice for any permit applicant is to include in the BACT analysis a careful and honest examination of better performing alternative processes and/or innovative combustion techniques and to aggressively pursue such options wherever feasible. 17 refs.

  4. Highlights of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.

    1991-01-01

    The amendments to the Clean Air Act provide for operating permits for stationary sources of pollution, marking a change that is comparable to federal water pollution regulations. The bill addresses acid rain emissions and will phase out production of chemicals contributing to depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer. A major new concept incorporated into the emission limits established by law is a system of tradeable emissions credits. If a facility reduces emissions below the standard or ahead of the timetable set by law, emissions credits are earned that can be applied to future emissions or sold to another facility. The bill also provides strict deadlines for the EPA to meet in promulgating the regulations. These deadlines will seriously strain the personnel and financial resources of the agency. Perhaps the most significant of the miscellaneous items in the law is a provision for extended unemployment benefits under the Job Training Partnership Act for workers who lose their jobs because of the law's provisions. However, this is contingent on the displaced workers' seeking job retraining.

  5. The Clean Air Act impacts on rail coal

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, R.G. )

    1991-03-01

    These factors are examined in this article. In November 1990, President Bush signed the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 into law. Title IV, concerning acid rain control, calls for a two-phase reduction in power plant sulfur-dioxide emissions, culminating in a nationwide cap after the year 2000. A large part of this reduction will be obtained through substituting low-sulfur coals for the higher-sulfur fuels now used. Most commentators have characterized this legislation as a boon for low-sulfur coal producers and the railroads serving them. If, as projected, up to one-eighth of existing coal-burning plants shift to more distant suppliers, a surge in rail traffic would ensue. Whether this traffic originates at eastern or western mines, rail carriers would obtain longer hauls and greater coal volumes. We have examined the rail transport implications of the amendments and found that the potential rail benefits may be exaggerated. Although traffic volume will grow, margins on some new traffic are likely to be eroded by continued rate competition and reduced productivity. To satisfy coal transport needs in the 1990s, factors that challenge rail productivity must be recognized and resolved.

  6. Characterization of an oxygen plasma process for cleaning packaged semiconductor devices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.E.

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to experimentally determine the operating {open_quotes}window{close_quotes} for an oxygen plasma cleaning process to be used on microelectronics components just prior to wire bonding. The process was being developed to replace one that used vapor degreasing with trichlorotrifluoroethane, an ozone-depleting substance. A Box-Behnken experimental design was used to generate data from which the oxygen plasma cleaning process could be characterized. Auger electron spectrophotometry was used to measure the contamination thickness on the dice after cleaning. An empirical equation correlating the contamination thickness on the die surface with the operating parameters of the plasma system was developed from the collected Auger data, and optimum settings for cleaning semiconductor devices were determined. Devices were also tested for undesirable changes in electrical parameters resulting from cleaning in the plasma system. An increase in leakage current occurred for bipolar transistors and diodes after exposure to the oxygen plasma. Although an increase in leakage current occurred, each device`s parameter remained well below the acceptable specification limit. Based upon the experimental results, the optimum settings for the plasma cleaning process were determined to be 200 watts of power applied for five minutes in an enclosure maintained at 0.7 torr. At these settings, all measurable contamination was removed without compromising the reliability of the devices.

  7. Air Pollution Studies in Metromanila and Catalysis Technology Towards Clean Air Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, S. M.

    - Considerable air quality and emission data gathered in Metropolitan Manila (MM) led to the development of automobile exhaust treatment catalysts as well as their continued improvement. Findings of a 5-year (1993-1998) collaborative work on the development of base metal oxide catalysts for automobile exhaust are summarized here. One study in 1991 reveals an average 16% increase in the number of motor vehicles in MM where 16% are new and the rest are old ones. Another study in 1992 shows the CO and hydrocarbon emission levels from different types of motor vehicles in MM as a function of the age of the vehicle, type of fuel, and the operating condition. Reports of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) and other related studies also provided data showing the quality of air in MM. Currently, there are several requirements to further improve the catalyst performance towards the reduction of NOX and to develop catalyst-sorbent for simultaneous NOX-SOX removal. This is so because of the present condition of rain acidification that is found in certain places in MM. These air quality and emission data are needed not only to establish practical emission standards for motor vehicles and the stationary industries and power plants but also in the development of technologies for air pollution control and other clean technologies for cleaner air in the country.

  8. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Reconstruction is Commenced on or After June 16, 2006 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean... only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Within 60 days after your air curtain...

  9. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Reconstruction is Commenced on or After June 16, 2006 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean... only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Within 60 days after your air curtain...

  10. 40 CFR 52.36 - What are the requirements of the Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) for the Clean Air Interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) for the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) relating to emissions of... What are the requirements of the Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) for the Clean Air Interstate Rule... part 97 of this chapter constitute the Clean Air Interstate Rule Federal Implementation Plan...

  11. 40 CFR 52.36 - What are the requirements of the Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) for the Clean Air Interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) for the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) relating to emissions of... What are the requirements of the Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) for the Clean Air Interstate Rule... part 97 of this chapter constitute the Clean Air Interstate Rule Federal Implementation Plan...

  12. 40 CFR 22.34 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air Act. 22.34 Section 22.34 Protection of... Clean Air Act. (a) Scope. This section shall apply, in conjunction with §§ 22.1 through 22.32, in...) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7413(d), 7524(c), 7545(d), and 7547(d))....

  13. 40 CFR 22.34 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air Act. 22.34 Section 22.34 Protection of... Clean Air Act. (a) Scope. This section shall apply, in conjunction with §§ 22.1 through 22.32, in...) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7413(d), 7524(c), 7545(d), and 7547(d))....

  14. 40 CFR 22.34 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air Act. 22.34 Section 22.34 Protection of... Clean Air Act. (a) Scope. This section shall apply, in conjunction with §§ 22.1 through 22.32, in...) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7413(d), 7524(c), 7545(d), and 7547(d))....

  15. 40 CFR 22.34 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air Act. 22.34 Section 22.34 Protection of... Clean Air Act. (a) Scope. This section shall apply, in conjunction with §§ 22.1 through 22.32, in...) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7413(d), 7524(c), 7545(d), and 7547(d))....

  16. 40 CFR 49.7 - Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval. 49.7 Section 49.7 Protection of Environment... MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.7 Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act... it meets the eligibility requirements of § 49.6 for Clean Air Act program approval. The...

  17. 40 CFR 49.7 - Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval. 49.7 Section 49.7 Protection of Environment... MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.7 Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act... it meets the eligibility requirements of § 49.6 for Clean Air Act program approval. The...

  18. 40 CFR 49.7 - Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval. 49.7 Section 49.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY Tribal Authority § 49.7 Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program...

  19. 40 CFR 49.7 - Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval. 49.7 Section 49.7 Protection of Environment... MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.7 Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act... it meets the eligibility requirements of § 49.6 for Clean Air Act program approval. The...

  20. 40 CFR 52.36 - What are the requirements of the Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) for the Clean Air Interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) for the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) relating to emissions of... What are the requirements of the Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) for the Clean Air Interstate Rule... part 97 of this chapter constitute the Clean Air Interstate Rule Federal Implementation Plan...

  1. 3 CFR - State of California Request for Waiver Under 42 U.S.C. 7543(b), the Clean Air Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....C. 7543(b), the Clean Air Act Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of January 26, 2009 State of California Request for Waiver Under 42 U.S.C. 7543(b), the Clean Air Act Memorandum for the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency Under the Clean Air Act (42...

  2. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy ? FY11 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Cohn, Sebastian; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2011-10-31

    The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel volatile organic compounds (VOCs) air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. we targeted a VOC air cleaning system that could enable a 50% reduction in ventilation rates. In a typical commercial HVAC system that provides a mixture of recirculated and outdoor air, a VOC air cleaner in the supply airstream must have a 15% to 20% VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50% reduction in outdoor air supply.

  3. Keeping the Air Clean and Safe: An Anthrax Smoke Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Scientists at work in the Planetary Protection division at NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) sterilize everything before blasting it to the Red Planet. They take great pains to ensure that all spacecraft are void of bacterial life, especially the microscopic bacteria that can live hundreds of years in their spore states. No one is quite sure what Earthly germs would do on Mars, but scientists agree that it is safest to keep the Martian terrain as undisturbed as possible. Errant Earth germs would also render useless the instruments placed on exploration rovers to look for signs of life, as the life that they registered would be life that came with them from Earth. A team at JPL, headed by Dr. Adrian Ponce, developed a bacterial spore-detection system that uses a simple and robust chemical reaction that visually alerts Planetary Protection crews. It is a simple air filter that traps micron-sized bacterial spores and then submits them to the chemical reaction. When the solution is then viewed under an ultraviolet light, the mixture will glow green if it is contaminated by bacteria. Scientists can then return to the scrubbing and cleaning stages of the sterilization process to remove these harmful bacteria. The detection system is the space-bound equivalent of having your hands checked for cleanliness before being allowed to the table; and although intended to keep terrestrial germs from space, this technology has awesome applications here on Mother Earth. The bacterial spore-detection unit can recognize anthrax and other harmful, spore-forming bacteria and alert people of the impending danger. As evidenced in the anthrax mailings of fall 2001 in the United States, the first sign of anthrax exposure was when people experienced flu-like symptoms, which unfortunately, can take as much as a week to develop after contamination. Anthrax cost 5 people their lives and infected 19 others; and the threat of bioterrorism became a routine concern, with new threats popping up

  4. VERIFICATION TESTING OF TECHNOLOGIES TO CLEAN OR FILTER VENTILATION AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of the importance of indoor air quality, Research Triangle Institute's Air Pollution Control Technology is adding indoor air products as a new technology category available for testing. This paper discusses RTI's participation in previous Environmental Technology Verifica...

  5. 49 CFR 179.220-17 - Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air inlet devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., venting and air inlet devices. 179.220-17 Section 179.220-17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-17 Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air...

  6. 49 CFR 179.200-16 - Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air inlet devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., venting and air inlet devices. 179.200-16 Section 179.200-16 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.200-16 Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air...

  7. 49 CFR 179.220-17 - Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air inlet devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., venting and air inlet devices. 179.220-17 Section 179.220-17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-17 Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air...

  8. 49 CFR 179.200-16 - Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air inlet devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., venting and air inlet devices. 179.200-16 Section 179.200-16 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.200-16 Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air...

  9. 49 CFR 179.200-16 - Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air inlet devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., venting and air inlet devices. 179.200-16 Section 179.200-16 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.200-16 Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air...

  10. 49 CFR 179.220-17 - Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air inlet devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., venting and air inlet devices. 179.220-17 Section 179.220-17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-17 Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air...

  11. 49 CFR 179.200-16 - Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air inlet devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., venting and air inlet devices. 179.200-16 Section 179.200-16 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.200-16 Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air...

  12. 49 CFR 179.220-17 - Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air inlet devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., venting and air inlet devices. 179.220-17 Section 179.220-17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-17 Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air...

  13. 77 FR 41930 - Bleed Air Cleaning and Monitoring Equipment and Technology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... Privacy Act Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478... industry developers, manufacturers, and the public related to effective air cleaning technology and...

  14. 76 FR 26768 - Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under The Clean Water Act, The Clean Air Act, and The...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under The Clean Water Act, The Clean Air Act, and The Federal Pipeline Safety Laws Notice is hereby given that on May 3, 2011, a proposed Consent Decree in United States v. BP... relief for violations of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1311, 1319, 1321, as amended by the Oil...

  15. Effectiveness of HVAC duct cleaning procedures in improving indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, I; Tansel, B; Mitrani, J D

    2001-12-01

    Indoor air quality has become one of the most serious environmental concerns as an average person spends about 22 hr indoors on a daily basis. The study reported in this article, was conducted to determine the effectiveness of three commercial HVAC (Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning) duct cleaning processes in reducing the level of airborne particulate matter and viable bioaerosols. The three HVAC sanitation processes were: (1) Contact method (use of conventional vacuum cleaning of interior duct surfaces); (2) Air sweep method (use of compressed air to dislodging dirt and debris); (3) Rotary brush method (insertion of a rotary brush into the ductwork to agitate and dislodge the debris). Effectiveness of these sanitation processes was evaluated in terms of airborne particulate and viable bioaerosol concentrations in residential homes. Eight identical homes were selected in the same neighborhood. Two homes were cleaned using each procedure and two were used as controls. It was found that both particle count readings and bioaerosol concentrations were higher when cleaning was being performed than before or after cleaning, which suggests that dirt, debris and other pollutants may become airborne as a result of disturbances caused by the cleaning processes. Particle count readings at 0.3 micron size were found to have increased due to cigarette smoking. Particle counts at 1.0 micron size were reduced due to HVAC duct cleaning. Post-level bioaerosol concentrations, taken two days after cleaning, were found to be lower than the pre-level concentrations suggesting that the cleaning procedures were effective to some extent. Homes cleaned with the Air Sweep procedure showed the highest degree of reduction in bioaerosol concentration among the three procedures investigated.

  16. Radical observations during the Clean air for London project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalley, L. K.; Stone, D.; Clancy, N.; Lee, J. D.; Laufs, S.; Kleffmann, J.; Heard, D. E.

    2012-12-01

    With greater than 50 % of the global population residing in urban conurbations, poor urban air quality has a demonstrable effect on human health. OH and HO2 radicals, (collectively termed HOx) together with RO2 radicals, mediate virtually all of the oxidative chemistry in the atmosphere, being responsible for the transformation of primary emissions into secondary pollutants such as NO2, O3 and particulates. Understanding the chemistry of free-radicals in the atmosphere is essential in improving predictions of the lifetimes of pollutants and spatial scales of their transport within urban areas. Results from earlier field campaigns in urban and polluted regions have demonstrated the significance of HONO photolysis and alkene ozonolysis in the production of HOx radicals. In many cases, however, measurements of HONO have not been made, reducing the ability to evaluate model successes for OH in these environments. Here we present measurements of OH, HO2, RO2 and OH reactivity taken during the wintertime (January - February, 2012) and summertime (July - August, 2012) as part of the Clean air for London (ClearfLo) project in London. RO2 was detected using a newly developed flow-reactor laser-induced fluorescence technique which is able to discriminate between HO2 and organic peroxy radicals [1]. Low concentrations of radicals were observed during the wintertime, midday [OH], [HO2] and [RO2] were ~ 0.04, 0.8 and 1.5 pptv respectively, comparable to observations of radicals at other urban locations in winter [2,3,4], and which displayed a negative correlation with NO concentrations. OH reactivity was high and largely tracked the diurnal profiles of NOx and CO, with the highest reactivity ~100 s-1 observed during the morning rush hour. Analysis of factors controlling OH concentrations during the wintertime suggests that the formation of OH from the photolysis of O3 and subsequent reaction of O(1D) with H2O is a minor contribution both under high and low NOx conditions owing

  17. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA`s Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  18. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA's Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  19. Self-scrubbing coal{sup TM}: An integrated approach to clean air. A proposed Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared by the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE), with compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, Council on Environmental Quality (CE) regulations for implementating NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508) and DOE regulations for compliance with NEPA (10 CFR 1021), to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with a proposed demonstration project to be cost-shared by DOE and Custom Coals International (CCI) under the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program of DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy. CCI is a Pennsylvania general partnership located in Pittsburgh, PA engaged in the commercialization of advanced coal cleaning technologies. The proposed federal action is for DOE to provide, through a cooperative agreement with CCI, cost-shared funding support for the land acquisition, design, construction and demonstration of an advanced coal cleaning technology project, {open_quotes}Self-Scrubbing Coal: An Integrated Approach to Clean Air.{close_quotes} The proposed demonstration project would take place on the site of the presently inactive Laurel Coal Preparation Plant in Shade Township, Somerset County, PA. A newly constructed, advanced design, coal preparation plant would replace the existing facility. The cleaned coal produced from this new facility would be fired in full-scale test burns at coal-fired electric utilities in Indiana, Ohio and PA as part of this project.

  20. Improving the Balance between Jobs and Clean Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasinowski, Jerry J.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of the efforts to improve America's air quality can be measured from two perspectives. One considers changes in air quality; the other, the impact of this undertaking on economic growth, jobs, and productivity. (RM)

  1. Self-Scrubbing Coal -- an integrated approach to clean air

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, K.E.

    1997-12-31

    Carefree Coal is coal cleaned in a proprietary dense-media cyclone circuit, using ultrafine magnetite slurries, to remove noncombustible material, including up to 90% of the pyritic sulfur. Deep cleaning alone, however, cannot produce a compliance fuel from coals with high organic sulfur contents. In these cases, Self-Scrubbing Coal will be produced. Self-Scrubbing Coal is produced in the same manner as Carefree Coal except that the finest fraction of product from the cleaning circuit is mixed with limestone-based additives and briquetted. The reduced ash content of the deeply-cleaned coal will permit the addition of relatively large amounts of sorbent without exceeding boiler ash specifications or overloading electrostatic precipitators. This additive reacts with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) during combustion of the coal to remove most of the remaining sulfur. Overall, sulfur reductions in the range of 80--90% are achieved. After nearly 5 years of research and development of a proprietary coal cleaning technology coupled with pilot-scale validation studies of this technology and pilot-scale combustion testing of Self-Scrubbing Coal, Custom Coals Corporation organized a team of experts to prepare a proposal in response to DOE`s Round IV Program Opportunity Notice for its Clean Coal Technology Program under Public Law 101-121 and Public Law 101-512. The main objective of the demonstration project is the production of a coal fuel that will result in up to 90% reduction in sulfur emissions from coal-fired boilers at a cost competitive advantage over other technologies designed to accomplish the same sulfur emissions and over naturally occurring low sulfur coals.

  2. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section 60... Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

  3. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section 60... Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

  4. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2971 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a)...

  5. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section 60... Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

  6. 77 FR 59186 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ..., 2011, and submitted by the Environmental Integrity Project and the Southern Alliance for Clean Energy... AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...: Pursuant to Clean Air Act (CAA) Section 505(b)(2), the EPA Administrator signed an Order, dated August...

  7. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2971 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a)...

  8. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section 60... Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

  9. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section 60... Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

  10. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2971 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a)...

  11. No Need to Wait for the Clean Air Dividend

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, Drew

    2012-01-01

    upfront costs of some measures can be prohibitive even when they eventually pay for themselves. But this can be overcome by mechanisms such as international financing of capital costs. For other measures, the costs are typically borne by a few while the benefits accrue to everybody. In such cases civil society and governments must get involved. Governments are starting to act. In February, the US, Canada, Sweden, Bangladesh, Ghana and Mexico launched the Climate and Clean Air Coalition to support implementation of measures like these. This coalition will hopefully expand and achieve rapid, widespread adoption of measures to cut black carbon and ozone. While the climate benefits will be substantial, it is important to note that these measures cannot substitute for cuts in carbon dioxide. Black carbon, ozone, carbon monoxide and methane stay in the atmosphere for a fairly short time - a few days for black carbon and about a decade for methane. They thus respond quickly to emissions changes and give us substantial leverage over near-term climate change. In contrast, carbon dioxide is very long-lived and so responds slowly to emissions changes. This means that cuts have little immediate impact, but it also means they must be made now to avoid disastrous changes later on. Controlling short-lived climate pollutants is thus an issue of fairness. Much as failure to reduce carbon dioxide emissions soon would condemn future generations to disastrous change, failure to reduce near-term climate change condemns those alive today to suffer worsening effects of the sort already seen. Some wonder if we really can do both. We can, and we must.

  12. 76 FR 21345 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of Two Public Teleconferences of the Clean Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Air Monitoring and Methods Subcommittee AGENCY: Environmental... ] Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces two public teleconference calls of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Air Monitoring and Methods Subcommittee (AMMS) to provide advice on EPA's...

  13. 75 FR 54146 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Ambient Air Monitoring & Methods Subcommittee (AAMMS) to provide advice... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC), Ambient Air Methods and Monitoring Subcommittee (AAMMS) AGENCY:...

  14. Smogbusters: Grassroots Action for Clean Air and Sustainable Transport in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manners, Eric; Wake, David; Carlisle, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Smogbusters was a national, community-based, government-funded community education program promoting clean air and sustainable transport in Australia from 1994 to 2002. Smogbusters aimed to improve air quality primarily by raising awareness about motor vehicle transport and its negative impacts on health, the environment and communities, and by…

  15. 76 FR 76762 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... Clean Air Act (``CAA''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(b) and 7477. Defendant produces nitric acid, which is used in the production of ammonium nitrate and other fertilizers and explosives. The nitric acid process results in the emissions of regulated air pollutants, including nitrogen oxides (``NO X ''). The...

  16. Impact of Clean Air Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in Neuse River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated impacts of Clean Air Act (CAA) nitrogen emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) models were used. Two scenar...

  17. 75 FR 54871 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... Quality Standards for NO X and SO X : First External Review Draft (March 2010) (75 FR 10479- 10481). CASAC... Office announces a public meeting of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee NO X and SO X Secondary... Assessment for the Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for NO X and SO X :...

  18. 75 FR 51483 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ...' violations of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7411 et seq., and the New Jersey Air Pollution Control Act, N.J.S... to the Consent Decree. Comments should be addressed to the Assistant Attorney General, Environment... at the stated address. Maureen Katz, Assistant Chief, Environmental Enforcement Section,...

  19. A Conductivity Device for Measuring Sulfur Dioxide in the Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, James C.

    1972-01-01

    Described is a general electroconductivity device enabling students to determine sulfur dioxide concentration in a particular location, hopefully leading to a deeper understanding of the problem of air pollution. (DF)

  20. Your Right to Clean Air, A Manual for Citizen Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1970

    This manual provides the citizen with basic information for taking action against air pollution. A summary of the effects of various concentrations of sulfur oxides, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, photochemical smog, and hydrocarbons is presented. Suggestions are made for obtaining information about community air pollution problems, and how…

  1. The effectiveness of the air-powder abrasive device on the tooth and periodontium: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kozlovsky, A; Soldinger, M; Sperling, I

    1989-01-01

    The characteristics of the air-powder abrasive device (APAD) was reviewed from the current dental literature and found to be an excellent alternative to traditional methods for stain and plaque removal. Access to crowded teeth, grooves and involved furcation areas are easily obtainable with less operator fatigue. The APAD slurry produces different root surface abrasiveness, depending on the method of use. Extended maintenance periods of exposed root surface using the APAD can result in an enormous loss of root structure. To avoid permanent damage of the root, the device should be used with overlapping strokes and root exposure to the APAD slurry should be minimized. The device can be used for total cementum removal with less operator fatigue and more reproducibility than with hand instruments, leaving smooth and clean surfaces. In addition, the device may be a valuable tool in the detoxification of root surfaces during periodontal surgery.

  2. 49 CFR 179.220-17 - Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air inlet devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., venting and air inlet devices. 179.220-17 Section 179.220-17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-17 Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and...

  3. 49 CFR 179.200-16 - Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air inlet devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., venting and air inlet devices. 179.200-16 Section 179.200-16 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.200-16 Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and...

  4. 75 FR 63471 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... in 75 FR 54146-54147, the Ambient Air Methods and Monitoring Subcommittee (AAMMS) of the Clean Air... Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) to conduct a quality review and approve...

  5. 76 FR 21346 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office, Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office, Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air... the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Lead Review Panel to provide consultative advice on EPA's draft Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead...

  6. 76 FR 53452 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Response to Petition To Reopen the 2001 Title V Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Response to Petition To Reopen the 2001 Title V Permit for.... ] SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Clean Air Act (CAA), the Director of the EPA Region III Air Protection Division... Reliant Energy Mid-Atlantic Power Holdings, LLC, for its Portland Generating Station in Northampton...

  7. The regulation of hazardous air pollutants under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Effects on the Portland cement industry

    SciTech Connect

    Mikols, E.H.; Dougherty, A.

    1996-07-01

    Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) addresses the control of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from major sources of air pollution in the US. In the CAAA, Congress defined 189 compounds as hazardous air pollutants in need of additional control by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Congress directed EPA to identify the major source categories which emit HAPs and to prepare regulations that would reduce and control future HAP emissions. This paper outlines the activities undertaken by EPA to regulate HAP emissions from Portland cement plants and the program developed by the Portland cement manufacturing industry to cope with Title III.

  8. Wet-air oxidation cleans up black wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Sterling Organics produces the analgesic paracetamol (acetaminophen) at its Dudley, England, plant. The wastewater from the batch process contains intermediates such as para-aminophenol (PAP) and byproducts such as thiosulfates, sulfites and sulfides. To stay ahead of increasingly strict environmental legislation, Sterling Organics installed a wet-air oxidation system at the Dudley facility in August 1992. The system is made by Zimpro Environmental Inc. (Rothschild, Wis.). Zimpro's wet-air oxidation system finds a way around the limitations of purely chemical or physical processes. In the process, compressed air at elevated temperature and pressure oxidizes the process intermediates and byproducts and removes the color from the wastewater.

  9. Breathless in Los Angeles: The Exhausting Search for Clean Air

    PubMed Central

    Künzli, Nino; McConnell, Rob; Bates, David; Bastain, Tracy; Hricko, Andrea; Lurmann, Fred; Avol, Ed; Gilliland, Frank; Peters, John

    2003-01-01

    Population growth and the proliferation of roadways in Southern California have facilitated a glut of mobile air pollution sources (cars and trucks), resulting in substantial atmospheric pollution. Despite successful efforts over the past 40 years to reduce pollution, an alarming set of health effects attributable to air pollution have been described in Southern California. The Children’s Health Study indicates that reduced lung function growth, increased school absences, asthma exacerbation, and new-onset asthma are occurring at current levels of air pollution, with sizable economic consequences. We describe these findings and urge a more aggressive effort to reduce air pollution exposures to protect our children’s health. Lessons from this “case study” have national implications. PMID:12948969

  10. Eastern States Harness Clean Energy to Promote Air Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-10-01

    States on the East Coast are including renewable energy and energy efficiency projects into their air quality plans that they submit to the EPA to address nonattainment for nitrogen oxides and other pollutants.

  11. The Clean Air and Clean Water Acts: The "Fifth" and "Eighth" Most Significant Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Laurel A.

    1991-01-01

    The history and impact of this federal legislation are discussed. An assessment of the progress of federal legislation in these areas is presented. Key issues for federal legislation regarding water and air quality are identified. (CW)

  12. Cleaning efficacy of high-efficiency particulate air-filtered vacuuming and "dry steam" cleaning on carpet.

    PubMed

    Yiin, Lih-Ming; Yu, Chang Ho; Ashley, Peter; Rhoads, George

    2008-02-01

    Previous studies for lead exposure reduction have indicated the difficulty in reducing surface contamination of carpets with the use of regular vacuum cleaners. To find a solution, a household vacuum cleaner equipped with a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter and a dust finder indicator, and a "dry steam" cleaner previously reported effective in reducing dust mite allergens in carpets and mattresses were tested for effectiveness in reducing lead dust in carpets. Fifty homes of lead-exposed children were tested in New Jersey. A selected carpet in the living area of each home was tested with two interventions: half was cleaned by HEPA vacuuming twice (VAC-VAC) and the other half by dry steaming between the two HEPA vacuumings (VAC-DSC-VAC). Wipe and vacuum samples, representing surface dust and total dust collections, respectively, were taken before and after cleaning. The wipe and vacuum sample data indicated that both cleaning methods substantially reduced dust lead levels (p < 0.001). The mean percent reductions in lead loading were approximately 29% and 40% for the VAC-VAC and VAC-DSC-VAC interventions, respectively. The difference between the two postcleaning levels was statistically significant by wipe sampling (p = 0.038) but was marginally insignificant by vacuum sampling (p = 0.072). A subset of sample data collected before repeat vacuuming (VAC-DSC) suggested that repeat vacuuming after dry steam cleaning is unnecessary. In summary, slow and steady HEPA vacuuming with the help of a dust finder indicator reduces surface and overall lead dust in carpets, and dry steam cleaning further reduces surface lead contamination as compared with HEPA vacuuming alone.

  13. Cleaning efficacy of high-efficiency particulate air-filtered vacuuming and "dry steam" cleaning on carpet.

    PubMed

    Yiin, Lih-Ming; Yu, Chang Ho; Ashley, Peter; Rhoads, George

    2008-02-01

    Previous studies for lead exposure reduction have indicated the difficulty in reducing surface contamination of carpets with the use of regular vacuum cleaners. To find a solution, a household vacuum cleaner equipped with a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter and a dust finder indicator, and a "dry steam" cleaner previously reported effective in reducing dust mite allergens in carpets and mattresses were tested for effectiveness in reducing lead dust in carpets. Fifty homes of lead-exposed children were tested in New Jersey. A selected carpet in the living area of each home was tested with two interventions: half was cleaned by HEPA vacuuming twice (VAC-VAC) and the other half by dry steaming between the two HEPA vacuumings (VAC-DSC-VAC). Wipe and vacuum samples, representing surface dust and total dust collections, respectively, were taken before and after cleaning. The wipe and vacuum sample data indicated that both cleaning methods substantially reduced dust lead levels (p < 0.001). The mean percent reductions in lead loading were approximately 29% and 40% for the VAC-VAC and VAC-DSC-VAC interventions, respectively. The difference between the two postcleaning levels was statistically significant by wipe sampling (p = 0.038) but was marginally insignificant by vacuum sampling (p = 0.072). A subset of sample data collected before repeat vacuuming (VAC-DSC) suggested that repeat vacuuming after dry steam cleaning is unnecessary. In summary, slow and steady HEPA vacuuming with the help of a dust finder indicator reduces surface and overall lead dust in carpets, and dry steam cleaning further reduces surface lead contamination as compared with HEPA vacuuming alone. PMID:18075882

  14. Application of semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as passive air samplers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petty, Jimmie D.; Huckins, James N.; Zajicek, James L.

    1993-01-01

    The semipermeable membrane device (SPMD), consisting of a neutral lipid (triolein) enclosed in polyethylene layflat tubing, is demonstrated to be a highly efficient passive air sampler. These devices readily sequester lipophilic organic contaminants from the vapor phase. Specifically, the SPMDs are shown to concentrate polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residues from a laboratory atmosphere in a linear manner through 28 days. Under the conditions of this study, a three device composite (1.4 g triolein) extracted PCB residues from ≈ 7 m3 of air per day.

  15. A new device for evacuating air from the cardiac chambers.

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, B T

    1993-01-01

    A new device has been developed to provide complete de-airing of the heart after cardiopulmonary bypass. The apparatus consists of a special aspiration needle threaded to the bottom of a transparent bulb. A 1-way flutter valve is mounted at the top of the bulb, which creates a vacuum when the bulb is squeezed. This device has been used in 4 adults and 2 children, for both congenital and acquired heart disease. Preliminary results have shown that this device's active suctioning of air results in effective removal of air from the cardiac chambers; the transparent bulb enables the surgeon to visually determine that the de-airing procedure is complete. PMID:8219828

  16. 76 FR 30545 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ...Pursuant to section 112(l) of the Clean Air Act (``CAA'') and Federal regulations promulgated thereunder, the Maine Department of Environmental Protection (``ME DEP'') submitted a request for approval to implement and enforce the amended ``Chapter 125: Perchloroethylene Dry Cleaner Regulation'' (Maine Dry Cleaner Rule) as a partial substitution for the amended National Emissions Standards for......

  17. Stability of air toxic gases listed in Title III Clean Air Act Amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Jayanty, R.K.M.; Jaffe, L.B.; Albritton, J.R.; Jackson, M.D.; Midgett, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    A repository of 59 organic compounds has been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use as gas standards in performance audits during field validation of emission concentrations from stationary sources. These compounds are listed in Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment. The compounds are prepared in compressed gas cylinders and recyclable aluminum containers. Three concentration ranges were selected: low (20 to 200 ppb), mid-level (0.5 to 5 ppm), and high (5 to 50 ppm). The recyclable aluminum containers were only prepared in the low range, and pressures were generally below 400 psig. The compressed gas cylinders contained pressures up to 2000 psig. In this program to ensure that the concentration of each gas standard had not changed, each standard was analyzed periodically for stability. The gas mixtures were analyzed by the manufacturer before shipment. They were then analyzed upon receipt, and reanalyzed periodically to determine any change in concentration. The stability data obtained to date indicates that many compounds are stable in the compressed gas cylinders; however, some of the compounds in the recyclable containers are not stable.

  18. Fuel-air munition and device

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Gary A.

    1976-01-01

    An aerially delivered fuel-air munition consisting of an impermeable tank filled with a pressurized liquid fuel and joined at its two opposite ends with a nose section and a tail assembly respectively to complete an aerodynamic shape. On impact the tank is explosively ruptured to permit dispersal of the fuel in the form of a fuel-air cloud which is detonated after a preselected time delay by means of high explosive initiators ejected from the tail assembly. The primary component in the fuel is methylacetylene, propadiene, or mixtures thereof to which is added a small mole fraction of a relatively high vapor pressure liquid diluent or a dissolved gas diluent having a low solubility in the primary component.

  19. Twenty-third DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning and Treatment Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, R.R.; Hayes, J.J.; First, M.W.

    1995-03-24

    This paper presents the details of the Nuclear Air Cleaning and Treatment Conference held in Buffalo, New York during July 1994. Topics discussed include: nuclear air cleaning codes and standards; waste disposal; particulate filter developments; sampling and monitoring of process and effluent streams; off-gasses from fuel reprocessing; adsorbents and adsorption; accident control and analysis; revised source terms for power plant accidents; and the highlight of the conference concerned operations at the West Valley DOE facility where construction is underway to solidify radioactive wastes.

  20. The effect of the clean air act of Erie County, New York on restaurant employment.

    PubMed

    Hyland, A; Vena, C; Cummings, K M; Lubin, A

    2000-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the economic impact of the Erie County, New York, Clean Air Act on the restaurant industry by examining restaurant employment and payroll statistics. Monthly county-specific data were compared between 1996 (before the law), 1997 (after phase 1, which required 80% of indoor restaurant seating to be smoke-free), and 1998 (after phase 2 which prohibited smoking in 100% of indoor restaurant seating). Erie County's Clean Air Act had no adverse economic impact on its restaurant industry. PMID:18019963

  1. 40 CFR 61.152 - Air-cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... filtering air from asbestos ore dryers; and (ii) Ensuring that felted fabric weighs at least 475 grams per... with a unit contacting energy of at least 9.95 kilopascals (40 inches water gage pressure). (2) Use a... Administrator may authorize the use of filtering equipment other than described in paragraphs (a)(1) and...

  2. 40 CFR 61.152 - Air-cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... filtering air from asbestos ore dryers; and (ii) Ensuring that felted fabric weighs at least 475 grams per... with a unit contacting energy of at least 9.95 kilopascals (40 inches water gage pressure). (2) Use a... Administrator may authorize the use of filtering equipment other than described in paragraphs (a)(1) and...

  3. 40 CFR 61.152 - Air-cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... filtering air from asbestos ore dryers; and (ii) Ensuring that felted fabric weighs at least 475 grams per... with a unit contacting energy of at least 9.95 kilopascals (40 inches water gage pressure). (2) Use a... Administrator may authorize the use of filtering equipment other than described in paragraphs (a)(1) and...

  4. 40 CFR 61.152 - Air-cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... filtering air from asbestos ore dryers; and (ii) Ensuring that felted fabric weighs at least 475 grams per... with a unit contacting energy of at least 9.95 kilopascals (40 inches water gage pressure). (2) Use a... Administrator may authorize the use of filtering equipment other than described in paragraphs (a)(1) and...

  5. CAN SORBENT-BASED GAS PHASE AIR CLEANING FOR VOCS SUBSTITUTE FOR VENTILATION IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS?

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William; Fisk, William J.

    2007-08-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge about the suitability of sorbent-based air cleaning for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the air in commercial buildings, as needed to enable reductions in ventilation rates and associated energy savings. The principles of sorbent air cleaning are introduced, criteria are suggested for sorbent systems that can counteract indoor VOC concentration increases from reduced ventilation, major findings from research on sorbent performance for this application are summarized, and related priority research needs are identified. Major conclusions include: sorbent systems can remove a broad range of VOCs with moderate to high efficiency, sorbent technologies perform effectively when challenged with VOCs at the low concentrations present indoors, and there is a large uncertainty about the lifetime and associated costs of sorbent air cleaning systems when used in commercial buildings for indoor VOC control. Suggested priority research includes: experiments to determine sorbent system VOC removal efficiencies and lifetimes considering the broad range and low concentration of VOCs indoors; evaluations of in-situ regeneration of sorbents; and an updated analysis of the cost of sorbent air cleaning relative to the cost of ventilation.

  6. Sorbent-Based Gas Phase Air Cleaning for VOCs in CommercialBuildings

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.

    2006-05-01

    This paper provides a review of current knowledge about the suitability of sorbent-based air cleaning for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the air in commercial buildings as needed to enable reductions in ventilation rates and associated energy savings. The fundamental principles of sorbent air cleaning are introduced, criteria are suggested for sorbent systems that can counteract indoor VOC concentration increases from reduced ventilation, major findings from research on sorbent performance for this application are summarized, novel sorbent technologies are described, and related priority research needs are identified. Major conclusions include: sorbent systems can remove a broad range of VOCs with moderate to high efficiency, sorbent technologies perform effectively when challenged with VOCs at the low concentrations present indoors, and there is a large uncertainty about the lifetime and associated costs of sorbent air cleaning systems when used in commercial buildings for indoor VOC control. Suggested priority research includes: experiments to determine sorbent system VOC removal efficiencies and lifetimes considering the broad range and low concentration of VOCs indoors; evaluations of in-situ regeneration of sorbents; and an updated analysis of the cost of sorbent air cleaning relative to the cost of ventilation.

  7. 40 CFR 49.5 - Tribal requests for additional Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tribal requests for additional Clean... TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY Tribal Authority § 49.5 Tribal requests for additional Clean Air Act... request that the Administrator specify additional provisions of the Clean Air Act for which it would...

  8. 78 FR 1251 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act and the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1301 et seq.; and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 42 U.S.C. 6901 et seq... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act On December 31, 2012, the Department of Justice lodged a proposed Consent...

  9. Window-mounted unit cleans air at hazardous waste site

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglia, J.M. ); Sawyer, P.

    1994-07-01

    Uncontrolled hazardous waste sites present the potential for exposure to numerous airborne chemicals--both identified and unidentified. This was the case at an Elizabeth, N.J., remediation project managed by a major environmental contractor. The four-acre site housed three active manufacturing facilities and was bordered by an operation commuter railroad line. About 6,300 drums of assorted organic chemicals, mostly acid chlorides and bromides, awaited sampling and removal. In addition, 120 tanks and vessels required sampling, characterization and removal. Due to site restrictions, support trailers were located relatively close to active work areas. Damaged drums littering the site contained water-reactive, organic acid chlorides and bromides, and released slight emissions during humid or rainy conditions. Shifting winds could (and did) carry trace releases or trace contaminants toward the trailers, potentially exposing unprotected workers. Efforts were begun to alleviate even trace contaminant at levels in the remediation site's temporary office trailers. One potential solution to managing trace contaminants at the site was to use a window-mounted, air conditioner-type unit that would replenish each trailer with filtered air three times an hour, and provide positive pressure in the trailer to compensate for repeated openings and closings of doors. The design uses common, off-the-shelf components to temper the approximately 10 percent makeup air, which provides positive pressure.

  10. Forced-air warming and ultra-clean ventilation do not mix: an investigation of theatre ventilation, patient warming and joint replacement infection in orthopaedics.

    PubMed

    McGovern, P D; Albrecht, M; Belani, K G; Nachtsheim, C; Partington, P F; Carluke, I; Reed, M R

    2011-11-01

    We investigated the capacity of patient warming devices to disrupt the ultra-clean airflow system. We compared the effects of two patient warming technologies, forced-air and conductive fabric, on operating theatre ventilation during simulated hip replacement and lumbar spinal procedures using a mannequin as a patient. Infection data were reviewed to determine whether joint infection rates were associated with the type of patient warming device that was used. Neutral-buoyancy detergent bubbles were released adjacent to the mannequin's head and at floor level to assess the movement of non-sterile air into the clean airflow over the surgical site. During simulated hip replacement, bubble counts over the surgical site were greater for forced-air than for conductive fabric warming when the anaesthesia/surgery drape was laid down (p = 0.010) and at half-height (p < 0.001). For lumbar surgery, forced-air warming generated convection currents that mobilised floor air into the surgical site area. Conductive fabric warming had no such effect. A significant increase in deep joint infection, as demonstrated by an elevated infection odds ratio (3.8, p = 0.024), was identified during a period when forced-air warming was used compared to a period when conductive fabric warming was used. Air-free warming is, therefore, recommended over forced-air warming for orthopaedic procedures.

  11. Flourescence-assay on traces of protein on re-usable medical devices: cleaning efficiency.

    PubMed

    Verjat, D; Prognon, P; Darbord, J C

    1999-03-15

    The cleaning of re-usable medical devices before disinfection or sterilization is recognized as being an essential phase. Detection of residual proteins can be used to validate the process, provided a sufficiently sensitive method is employed. A fluorescent method is presented, using orthophtalaldehyde (OPA) bound to N,N dimethyl-2-mercaptoethylammonium, to demonstrate the presence of amino acids on a medical device following cleaning. The sensitivity of this method (10-5 g/l) was assessed and the applicability of this detection technique is verified, using three types of carriers (steel blades, glass tubes or ceramic penicylinders), three types of contaminants (yeast extract, bovine albumin with native sheep's blood and formaldehyde fixed fibrin). In this context, studies involving formaldehyde-fixed fibrin are more sensitive and are to be recommended. PMID:10053219

  12. Cleaning contaminated soil using electrical heating and air stripping

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, H.M.; Daily, W.D.

    1995-08-01

    In the summer of 1992, a proof-of-concept demonstration of direct electrical heating and air stripping was conducted for enhancing the removal of a volatile organic contaminant, trichloroethylene (TCSE), from soil. Six electrodes were buried in shallow boreholes so that a target region 6.1 m in diameter and 3.05 m in height was heated by ohmic dissipation of power-line-frequency electrical currents supplied by a diesel generator. Air stripping of TCE contamination from the same region was accomplished from a single well at the center of the heated volume. The electrical energy used during the demonstration was 3.46 {times} 10{sup 10} J (9,600 kW {center_dot} h), and the temperature of the extracted air rose from 16 C to 38 C. An energy balance shows that input energy is consistent with the temperature rise in the target volume and the amount of water vaporized at the electrodes. Prior to heating, the TCE concentration in the vapor decreased from about 80 parts per million by volume (ppm{sub v}) to around 60 ppm{sub v}. As soon as electrical heating started, TCE concentrations began to increase. Some concentration data were lost shortly after electrical heating began. After the system was repaired, the TCE concentration fell rapidly from about 140 ppm{sub v} to 5 ppm{sub v} over a period of about 25 days. A simple two-dimensional model for calculation of heating rates is also presented and verified experimentally. Finally some of the operation and safety issues associated with electrical heating are discussed.

  13. 77 FR 15125 - Notice of Lodging of Second Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... of Lodging of Second Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on March 6, 2012, a proposed Second Consent Decree in United States and the State of Kansas v. Coffeyville... matter at its oil refinery located in Coffeyville, Kansas. Under the proposed Second Consent Decree...

  14. 77 FR 61641 - Notice Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... Rico in the lawsuit entitled United States v. Suiza Dairy Corporation, Civil Action No. 3:12-cv-01810... Dairy Corporation, to resolve alleged violations of Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act at dairies in... the two dairies; (2) perform supplemental environmental projects (``SEPs'') that will...

  15. 76 FR 52692 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... on August 17, 2011, a Consent Decree in United States of America v. Erie Coke Corporation, Civil... Pennsylvania. In this action, the United States sought injunctive relief and penalties against Erie Coke Corporation (``Erie Coke'') pursuant to Section 113(b) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7413(b), for...

  16. 76 FR 64010 - Special Rules Governing Certain Information Obtained Under the Clean Air Act: Technical Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... to Special Rules Governing Certain Information Obtained Under the Clean Air Act (76 FR 30782). In... section 307(d). (See 76 FR 30782: ``The Administrator determined that this action is subject to the... for the data. (See 76 FR 30782, 30784, 30815 (May 26, 2011); see also 75 FR 39094, 39098,...

  17. Assessing the Link between Environmental Concerns and Consumers' Decisions to Use Clean-Air Vehicles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plax, Timothy G.; Kearney, Patricia; Ross, Ted J.; Jolly, J. Christopher

    2008-01-01

    A consulting contract with the California Air Resources Board led to a project examining how California drivers' and fleet managers' perceptions, attitudes, and consumer behavior regarding Clean Vehicle Technologies influenced their own energy choices when it came to purchasing vehicles. The consultants examined archival research, conducted focus…

  18. 78 FR 27234 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... solicited nominations for the CASAC NO X Primary NAAQS Review Panel on October 17, 2012 (77 FR 63827-63828...); Oxides of Nitrogen Primary NAAQS Review Panel AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Oxides of Nitrogen (NO X ) Primary...

  19. 75 FR 27580 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... proposed Consent Decree (``Decree'') in United States v. The Pep Boys--Manny, Moe & Jack, and Baja, Inc.... EPA''), sought penalties and injunctive relief under the Clean Air Act (``CAA'') against The Pep Boys... of Justice, Washington, DC 20044-7611, and should refer to United States v. The Pep Boys--Manny,...

  20. 76 FR 45618 - Notice of Lodging of Joint Stipulation Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... of Lodging of Joint Stipulation Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on July 25, 2011, a proposed Joint Stipulation to Modify the Sixth Amendment to the Consent Decree entered in United States v. BP Exploration and Oil Co., et al., (Civil No. 2:96 CV 095 RL) (``Joint Stipulation''),...

  1. Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in Neuse River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated impacts of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) NOx emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina, USA from 1990 to 2020. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-...

  2. 77 FR 66462 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee; Notice of Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee; Notice of Charter Renewal AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of charter renewal. The charter for the U.S. Environmental Protection...

  3. 75 FR 22548 - Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... March 30, 2010, when EPA published a proposed rule (75 FR 15655) amending the Section 112(j) rule (40... as provided in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of the March 30, 2010 (75 FR 15655) Federal... in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) AGENCY:...

  4. 76 FR 61738 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ..., 2011, a proposed Consent Decree in United States and Allegheny County Health Department v. Eastman... County Health Department for violations of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq., alleged in a Complaint filed on September 28, 2011. In the Complaint, the United States and the Allegheny County...

  5. 77 FR 28897 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ..., 2012, a proposed Consent Decree in United States of America v. American Sugar Refining, Inc., Civil... Consent Decree in this Clean Air Act enforcement action against American Sugar Refining, Inc. (``ASR... environmental violations at ASR's sugar refinery in Baltimore, Maryland. In addition to the payment of a...

  6. 75 FR 62421 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... that on September 30, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree in United States of America v. Dakota Ethanol... Dakota Ethanol, LLC pursuant to Sections 111 and 502(a) of the Clean Air Act (the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C... violations of the Act. Dakota Ethanol, LLC owns and operates an ethanol production facility in Lake...

  7. 40 CFR 2.301 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Confidentiality of Business Information § 2.301 Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act. (a) Definitions. For the purpose of this... proposed standard or limitation: (A) Information concerning research, or the results of research, on...

  8. 75 FR 74048 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is..., 42 U.S.C. 7410(k)(2), to take action on certain State Implementation Plan (``SIP'') submittals by...

  9. 78 FR 1883 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... alleges that Wisconsin Public Service Corporation (``WPS'') failed to comply with certain requirements of... regulations. The complaint alleges that WPS failed to obtain appropriate permits and failed to install and... resolve past Clean Air Act violations and would require WPS to reduce harmful emissions of sulfur...

  10. HAVE U.S. SURFACE WATERS RESPONDED TO THE 1990 CLEAN AIR ACT AMENDMENTS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) set target reductions for sulfur and nitrogen emissions from industrial sources as a means of reducing the acidity in deposition. One of the intended effects of the reductions was to decrease the acidity of low alkalinity wate...

  11. 76 FR 22918 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ..., 2011, a proposed Consent Decree in United States et al. v. Terra Industries Inc. et al., Civ. A. No. 5... and injunctive relief for violations of the Clean Air Act (``CAA'') by Terra Industries Inc. (``Terra Industries''), Terra International (Oklahoma) Inc. (``Terra Oklahoma''), Terra Nitrogen, Limited...

  12. 75 FR 32210 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... proposed Consent Decree (``Decree'') in United States v. The Scrap Yard, LLC, d/b/a/ Cleveland Scrap, Civil.... EPA''), sought penalties and injunctive relief under the Clean Air Act (``CAA'') against The Scrap Yard, LLC, d/b/a/Cleveland Scrap (``Defendant'') relating to Defendant's Cleveland, Ohio...

  13. 75 FR 8994 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... that on February 16, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree in United States v. Belson Steel Center Scrap, Inc... penalty against Belson Steel Center Scrap, Inc. (``Belson''), pursuant to section 113(b) of the Clean Air... (``CFC'') removal equipment, (2) have properly trained operators evacuate CFCs from scrap...

  14. 77 FR 53235 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ..., a proposed consent decree in United States of America and Mecklenburg County v. Emerald Carolina... penalties and injunctive relief for alleged violations of Clean Air Act regulations at Emerald Carolina... applicable to certain equipment at the plant. The proposed consent decree requires Emerald Carolina...

  15. 76 FR 28026 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ...: Open meeting notice; Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. App. 2 Section 10(a)(2), notice is hereby given that the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee will hold their next open ] meeting on Wednesday June 8, 2011 from 8 a... available on a first come, first served basis. The Economic Incentives and Regulatory...

  16. 75 FR 25855 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... Addresses: Open meeting notice; Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. App. 2 Section 10(a)(2), notice is hereby given that the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee will hold its next open meeting on May 27, 2010 from 8 a.m. to 4... available on a first come, first served basis. The Economic Incentives and ] Regulatory...

  17. 75 FR 56530 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ...: Open meeting notice; Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. App. 2 Section 10(a)(2), notice is hereby given that the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee will hold their next open meeting on Wednesday, October 6, 2010 from 8... and Regulatory Innovations subcommittee will meet on Tuesday, October 5, 2010 from 8:30 a.m. to 12...

  18. Heat transfer in an air thermosyphon permafrost protection device

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.L.; Reid, R.L.

    1982-09-01

    Velocity and temperature profiles were measured in a prototype air thermosyphon permafrost protection device. This device, known as the air convection pile, consists of an 18-in. (0.46-m) outer tube containing a shorter concentric 10-in. (0.25-m) tube extending from 10 to 60 ft (3 to 18 m) into the permafrost. Measurements showed a low frequency oscillating flow in both the annulus and inner tube. Heat removal rates compared favorable with an analytical model and previous experimental results, but the annulus velocity profiles were significantly different, possibly due to the oscillation in the flow.

  19. Citizen suit Clean Air Act enforcement: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, W.G. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    Almost every federal environmental statute has a provision that allows citizens to sue violators in lieu of governmental enforcement authorities under certain circumstances. Generally, if the relevant governmental enforcement authority was not deemed to be diligently prosecuting enforcement action against an alleged violator and certain procedural requirements were met a citizens suit could be filed in federal court. If a violation was proved penalties could be assessed against the violator and the plaintiff citizen could receive reimbursement of both his or her attorney's fees and other expenses. Historically, however, the only federal statute that has been the subject of significant citizens suit activity has been the federal Clean Water Act (CWA). This paper will explore a variety of events that are expected to significantly increase the number of citizen suits CAA permitted facilities will face over the next ten years. The paper will briefly address the role the Title V operating permit will play. It will also include a discussion of how this permit will now encompass specific emission limitations along with a mandate to report exceedances. Further, and equally important, will be the role of the 1997 federal Environmental Protection Agency any credible evidence rule which potentially broadens the type, amount, and accessibility available to a CAA citizen suit plaintiff. This rule along with the additional monitoring data that will be generated by the Title V periodic and compliance assurance monitoring requirements will be an issue. Two important CAA citizen suits will be discussed which illustrate the potential role of credible evidence. Also, recent citizen suit decisions involving other federal environmental statutes with implications for the CAA will be examined. Further, the paper will provide some thoughts on how facilities can protect themselves to the extent possible against citizen suits.

  20. 76 FR 55799 - Approval of Clean Air Act Prevention of Significant Deterioration Permit Issued to Avenal Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval of Clean Air Act Prevention of Significant Deterioration Permit Issued to Avenal Power Center, LLC To Construct the Avenal Energy Project AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... decision granting the Clean Air Act Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permit...

  1. 75 FR 68093 - Partial Grant and Partial Denial of Clean Air Act Waiver Application Submitted by Growth Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... Protection Agency Partial Grant and Partial Denial of Clean Air Act Waiver Application Submitted by Growth Energy To Increase the Allowable Ethanol Content of Gasoline to 15 Percent; Decision of the Administrator...; ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Partial Grant and Partial Denial of Clean Air Act Waiver Application...

  2. 75 FR 55791 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for Alliant Energy--WPL Edgewater Generating Station AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of final order on petition to object to Clean Air Act operating permit. SUMMARY: This...

  3. 77 FR 5009 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for Duke...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... object to a Clean Air Act (Act) Title V operating permit for Duke Energy Indiana--Edwardsport Generating... AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for Duke Energy Indiana--Edwardsport Generating Station AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)....

  4. 76 FR 43684 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Energy (Xcel)--Pawnee Power Station. Pursuant to section 505(b)(2) of the Clean Air Act (Act or CAA... AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for Public Service Company of Colorado dba Xcel Energy--Pawnee Power Station AGENCY: Environmental...

  5. ESTIMATES OF THE ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION OF SULFUR AND NITROGEN SPECIES: CLEAN AIR STATUS AND TRENDS NETWORK. 1990 THROUGH 2000

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) was established by EPA in response to the requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. To satisfy these requirements CASTNet was designed to assess and report on geographic patterns and long-term, temporal trends in ambient ...

  6. 76 FR 23809 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific... announces a public meeting on May 19 and 20, 2011, of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC... Standards: Scope and Methods Plan for Health Risk and Exposure Assessment (April 2011 Draft), and...

  7. 76 FR 12730 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Objection to State Operating Permit for U.S. Steel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Objection to State Operating Permit for U.S. Steel-Granite.... Steel--Granite City Works (USS). Sections 307(b) and 505(b)(2) of the Clean Air Act (Act) provide that...

  8. 75 FR 19968 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for... April 1, 2009 title V permit issued to Public Service Company of Colorado dba Xcel Energy (Xcel)--Hayden Power Station. Pursuant to section 505(b)(2) of the Clean Air Act (Act), Petitioners may seek...

  9. Thermoelectric Air/Soil Energy-Harvesting Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Jeffrey; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Lawrence, Eric

    2005-01-01

    A proposed thermoelectric device would exploit natural temperature differences between air and soil to harvest small amounts of electric energy. Because the air/soil temperature difference fluctuates between nighttime and daytime, it is almost never zero, and so there is almost always some energy available for harvesting. Unlike photovoltaic cells, the proposed device could operate in the absence of sunlight. Unlike a Stirling engine, which could be designed to extract energy from the air/soil temperature difference, the proposed device would contain no moving parts. The main attractive feature of the proposed device would be high reliability. In a typical application, this device would be used for low-power charging of a battery that would, in turn, supply high power at brief, infrequent intervals for operating an instrumentation package containing sensors and communication circuits. The device (see figure) would include a heat exchanger buried in soil and connected to a heat pipe extending up to a short distance above the ground surface. A thermoelectric microgenerator (TEMG) would be mounted on top of the heat pipe. The TEMG could be of an advanced type, now under development, that could maintain high (relative to prior thermoelectric generators) power densities at small temperature differentials. A heat exchanger exposed to the air would be mounted on top of the TEMG. It would not matter whether the air was warmer than the soil or the soil warmer than the air: as long as there was a nonzero temperature difference, heat would flow through the device and electricity would be generated. A study of factors that could affect the design and operation of the device has been performed. These factors include the thermal conductances of the soil, the components of the device, the contacts between the components of the device, and the interfaces between the heat exchangers and their environments. The study included experiments that were performed on a model of the device

  10. PremAir{trademark} catalyst systems: A new approach to clean air

    SciTech Connect

    Poles, T.; Anderson, D.R.; Durilla, M.; Heck, R.; Hoke, J.; Ober, R.; Rudy, W.

    1996-12-01

    PremAir{trademark} catalyst systems represents a new approach to air pollution control--one that focuses on destroying pollutants already in the air. PremAir is the trademark for a family of developmental catalysts capable of reducing ozone, carbon monoxide and potentially other pollutants in ambient air that comes into contact with catalyst-coated surfaces. The more air that comes into contact with the surface the more pollutants that can be destroyed. For this reason, Engelhard has focused its attention on heat-exchange equipment such as automotive radiators and air-conditioner condensers. It is because of advances in catalysis achieved at Engelhard that PremAir catalysts are active at the low temperatures found in these environments. In Los Angeles, which has the country`s worst smog problem, approximately one trillion cubic feet per day of air pass through car radiators and five trillion cubic feet per day pass through air conditioners. Most of the research, development and testing work performed to date has been on ozone catalysts and their application to car radiators. This paper discusses that work and the potential benefits associated with the PremAir technology. In addition, preliminary work on stationary applications of this new technology is discussed.

  11. Superbugs on Duodenoscopes: the Challenge of Cleaning and Disinfection of Reusable Devices.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Romney M; McDonnell, Gerald

    2015-10-01

    Inadequate flexible endoscope reprocessing has been associated with infection outbreaks, most recently caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Lapses in essential device reprocessing steps such as cleaning, disinfection/sterilization, and storage have been reported, but some outbreaks have occurred despite claimed adherence to established guidelines. Recommended changes in these guidelines include the use of sterilization instead of high-level disinfection or the use of routine microbial culturing to monitor efficacy of reprocessing. This review describes the current standards for endoscope reprocessing, associated outbreaks, and the complexities associated with both microbiological culture and sterilization approaches to mitigating the risk of infection associated with endoscopy.

  12. Superbugs on Duodenoscopes: the Challenge of Cleaning and Disinfection of Reusable Devices

    PubMed Central

    McDonnell, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate flexible endoscope reprocessing has been associated with infection outbreaks, most recently caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Lapses in essential device reprocessing steps such as cleaning, disinfection/sterilization, and storage have been reported, but some outbreaks have occurred despite claimed adherence to established guidelines. Recommended changes in these guidelines include the use of sterilization instead of high-level disinfection or the use of routine microbial culturing to monitor efficacy of reprocessing. This review describes the current standards for endoscope reprocessing, associated outbreaks, and the complexities associated with both microbiological culture and sterilization approaches to mitigating the risk of infection associated with endoscopy. PMID:26202125

  13. 75 FR 34647 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    .... See 64 FR 67793. Continuous web cleaning machines are solvent cleaning machines in which parts such as... FR 49839. Accordingly, RI DEM has satisfied the up-front approval criteria of 40 CFR 63.91(d...'s proposed Subpart E amendments on January 12, 1999. See 64 FR 1908. IV. EPA Determination of...

  14. A Multilevel Test of Constrained Choices Theory: The Case of Tobacco Clean Air Restrictions.

    PubMed

    Vuolo, Mike; Kadowaki, Joy; Kelly, Brian C

    2016-09-01

    According to Bird and Rieker's sociology of constrained choices, decisions and priorities concerning health are shaped by the contexts-including policy, community, and work/family-in which they are formulated. While each level received attention in the original and subsequent research, we contend their constrained choices theory provides a powerful multilevel framework for modeling health outcomes. We apply this framework to tobacco clean air restrictions, combining a comprehensive database of tobacco policies with the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 from ages 19 to 31. Using multilevel panel models, we find that clean air policies lower the odds of past 30 day smoking and dependence while controlling for other policy-, city-, and individual-level constraints. We also find unique between- and within-person effects, as well as gender effects, for the constraint levied by smoking bans. We argue for the theory's broad applicability beyond commonly cited findings regarding gender and biological influences. PMID:27601410

  15. A Multilevel Test of Constrained Choices Theory: The Case of Tobacco Clean Air Restrictions.

    PubMed

    Vuolo, Mike; Kadowaki, Joy; Kelly, Brian C

    2016-09-01

    According to Bird and Rieker's sociology of constrained choices, decisions and priorities concerning health are shaped by the contexts-including policy, community, and work/family-in which they are formulated. While each level received attention in the original and subsequent research, we contend their constrained choices theory provides a powerful multilevel framework for modeling health outcomes. We apply this framework to tobacco clean air restrictions, combining a comprehensive database of tobacco policies with the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 from ages 19 to 31. Using multilevel panel models, we find that clean air policies lower the odds of past 30 day smoking and dependence while controlling for other policy-, city-, and individual-level constraints. We also find unique between- and within-person effects, as well as gender effects, for the constraint levied by smoking bans. We argue for the theory's broad applicability beyond commonly cited findings regarding gender and biological influences.

  16. Analysis of S.1844, the Clear Skies Act of 2003; S. 843, the Clean Air Planning Act of 2003; and S. 366, the Clean Power Act of 2003

    EIA Publications

    2004-01-01

    Senator James M. Inhofe requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) undertake analysis of S.843, the Clean Air Planning Act of 2003, introduced by Senator Thomas Carper; S.366, the Clean Power Act of 2003, introduced by Senator James Jeffords; and S.1844, the Clear Skies Act of 2003, introduced by Senator James M. Inhofe. The EIA received this request on March 19, 2004. This Service Report responds to his request.

  17. 40 CFR 49.4 - Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Clean Air Act provisions for which it... PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.4 Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to... following provisions of the Clean Air Act and any implementing regulations thereunder: (a) Specific...

  18. 40 CFR 49.4 - Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clean Air Act provisions for which it... PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.4 Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to... following provisions of the Clean Air Act and any implementing regulations thereunder: (a) Specific...

  19. 40 CFR 49.4 - Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Clean Air Act provisions for which it... PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.4 Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to... following provisions of the Clean Air Act and any implementing regulations thereunder: (a) Specific...

  20. 40 CFR 49.4 - Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clean Air Act provisions for which it... PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.4 Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to... following provisions of the Clean Air Act and any implementing regulations thereunder: (a) Specific...

  1. 40 CFR 62.14480 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations? 62.14480 Section... the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations? This subpart requires you to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations (“title V permit”) unless you...

  2. 40 CFR 62.14480 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations? 62.14480 Section... the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations? This subpart requires you to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations (“title V permit”) unless you...

  3. 40 CFR 49.4 - Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clean Air Act provisions for which it... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY Tribal Authority § 49.4 Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in...

  4. Conceptual design of a centrifugal CO{sub 2} cleaning device. Final report/project accomplishments summary

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, J.N.

    1997-12-01

    The L.A.W. Group, Inc., Cryokinetics Division designs and manufactures cryogenic cleaning devices in their Wichita, Kansas, facility. The L.A.W. Group, Inc., Cryokinetics Division identified a market need for a new cryogenic cleaning device that would generate a high level of kinetic energy at a lower operating pressure and noise level. This market need is being generated because the existing products when operated at high kinetic energy levels create an excessive amount of noise and consume a very high level of compressed gases. The intention of this CRADA effort was to join AlliedSignal`s expertise in knowledge of manufacturing processes, design, and capabilities in performing solid modeling together with The L.A.W. Group, Inc., Cryokinetics Division`s knowledge of cryogenic cleaning design and manufacturing into a design team to create a prototype of a high-energy centrifugal cryogenic cleaning device.

  5. 76 FR 54465 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ...In accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), notice is hereby given of a proposed settlement agreement to address a lawsuit filed by Sierra Club and WildEarth Guardians in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California: Sierra Club et al. v. Jackson, No. 3:10-cv-04060-CRB (N.D. Cal.). On August 10, 2011, Plaintiffs filed......

  6. 40 CFR 2.301 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sections 114(c) and 307(d) of the Clean Air Act that information submitted under 40 CFR part 98 is entitled... submitted under 40 CFR part 98. (1) Sections 2.201 through 2.215 do not apply to data submitted under 40 CFR... (d)(4) of this section, §§ 2.201 through 2.215 do not apply to data submitted under 40 CFR part...

  7. 40 CFR 2.301 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sections 114(c) and 307(d) of the Clean Air Act that information submitted under 40 CFR part 98 is entitled... submitted under 40 CFR part 98. (1) Sections 2.201 through 2.215 do not apply to data submitted under 40 CFR... (d)(4) of this section, §§ 2.201 through 2.215 do not apply to data submitted under 40 CFR part...

  8. 40 CFR 2.301 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sections 114(c) and 307(d) of the Clean Air Act that information submitted under 40 CFR part 98 is entitled... submitted under 40 CFR part 98. (1) Sections 2.201 through 2.215 do not apply to data submitted under 40 CFR... (d)(4) of this section, §§ 2.201 through 2.215 do not apply to data submitted under 40 CFR part...

  9. Proactive industrial strategies for the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.

    PubMed

    Ruch, R B; Howell, J S

    1991-07-01

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 was signed into law by President Bush on November 15, 1990. These amendments potentially will have a major impact on virtually every industrial and many commercial facilities throughout the country. The regulations developed to implement this legislation will encompass new approaches to nonattainment, air toxics, accidental releases, acid rain, permits and enforcement. Because of the impact of this legislation the regulations will be implemented over a ten-year period. This paper is an overview of the amendments and recommended proactive strategies for industry.

  10. Clean air and energy: from conflict to reconciliation. [Cost benefit analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kolstad, C.D.; Schulze, W.D.; Williams, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    Unconstrained energy resource development in the Rocky Mountain west is likely to threaten the environment and the health and well-being of the people. Impacts may be associated with visibility degradation, toxic concentrations of gases, and deposition of acidic or toxic substances. Because the possible benefits of energy development in the region are very large, there is great concern that constraints imposed by air quality regulation may preclude the use of important resources or make unduly expensive energy produced from the region. The conflict between energy and clean air in the region is exacerbated by non-energy sources, such as copper smelters and urban areas, that already pose significant environmental threats. The hard policy question is not how to preserve clean air resources or how to develop energy but how to achieve and balance both goals. The effects and regulatory costs and benefits of air pollution control are discussed, and policy directions to protect air quality while pursuing energy development are presented.

  11. Achieving clean epitaxial graphene surfaces suitable for device applications by improved lithographic process

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, A. Rao, M. V.; Koehler, A. D.; Jernigan, G. G.; Wheeler, V. D.; Hite, J. K.; Hernández, S. C.; Robinson, Z. R.; Myers-Ward, R. L.; Eddy, C. R.; Gaskill, D. K.; Garces, N. Y.

    2014-06-02

    It is well-known that the performance of graphene electronic devices is often limited by extrinsic scattering related to resist residue from transfer, lithography, and other processes. Here, we report a polymer-assisted fabrication procedure that produces a clean graphene surface following device fabrication by a standard lithography process. The effectiveness of this improved lithography process is demonstrated by examining the temperature dependence of epitaxial graphene-metal contact resistance using the transfer length method for Ti/Au (10 nm/50 nm) metallization. The Landauer-Buttiker model was used to explain carrier transport at the graphene-metal interface as a function of temperature. At room temperature, a contact resistance of 140 Ω-μm was obtained after a thermal anneal at 523 K for 2 hr under vacuum, which is comparable to state-of-the-art values.

  12. 75 FR 65480 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of Two Public Teleconferences of the Clean Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... teleconferences of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee NO X and SO x Secondary National Ambient Air... is hereby given that the CASAC NO X & SO X Secondary NAAQS Review Panel will hold a teleconference on... Assessment supporting development of secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for NO X and...

  13. Indoor secondary pollutants from cleaning product and air freshener use in the presence of ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Brett C.; Coleman, Beverly K.; Destaillats, Hugo; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W.

    This study investigated the formation of secondary pollutants resulting from household product use in the presence of ozone. Experiments were conducted in a 50-m 3 chamber simulating a residential room. The chamber was operated at conditions relevant to US residences in polluted areas during warm-weather seasons: an air exchange rate of 1.0 h -1 and an inlet ozone concentration of approximately 120 ppb, when included. Three products were used in separate experiments. An orange oil-based degreaser and a pine oil-based general-purpose cleaner were used for surface cleaning applications. A plug-in scented-oil air freshener (AFR) was operated for several days. Cleaning products were applied realistically with quantities scaled to simulate residential use rates. Concentrations of organic gases and secondary organic aerosol from the terpene-containing consumer products were measured with and without ozone introduction. In the absence of reactive chemicals, the chamber ozone level was approximately 60 ppb. Ozone was substantially consumed following cleaning product use, mainly by homogeneous reaction. For the AFR, ozone consumption was weaker and heterogeneous reaction with sorbed AFR-constituent VOCs was of similar magnitude to homogeneous reaction with continuously emitted constituents. Formaldehyde generation resulted from product use with ozone present, increasing indoor levels by the order of 10 ppb. Cleaning product use in the presence of ozone generated substantial fine particle concentrations (more than 100 μg m -3) in some experiments. Ozone consumption and elevated hydroxyl radical concentrations persisted for 10-12 h following brief cleaning events, indicating that secondary pollutant production can persist for extended periods.

  14. Transmission of sound from air terminal devices through ceiling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Warnock, A.C.C.

    1998-10-01

    Sound from HVAC ducts or devices in ceiling plenums passes through the ceiling system to the room below and can cause annoyance to the occupants of the rooms. ARI Standard 885 provides a method to calculate the level of the sound in the room using the sound power of the device and some attenuation factors for the ceiling. The goal of ASHRAE research project RP-755 was to evaluate and extend the information given in ARI 885. This paper describes the attenuation factors found for six types of ceiling tiles and four air-terminal units. Attenuations at low frequencies were found to correlate with the area of the lower face of the device emitting sound. Sound fields in the room below were essentially uniform; no significant attenuation with distance was found.

  15. Cleaning Products and Air Fresheners: Emissions and ResultingConcentrations of Glycol Ethers and Terpenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Brett C.; Destaillat, Hugo; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nazaroff,William W.

    2005-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to quantify emissions and concentrations of glycol ethers and terpenoids from cleaning product and air freshener use in a 50-m{sup 3} room ventilated at {approx}0.5 h{sup -1}. Five cleaning products were applied full-strength (FS); three were additionally used in dilute solution. FS application of pine-oil cleaner (POC) yielded 1-h concentrations of 10-1300 {micro}g m{sup -3} for individual terpenoids, including {alpha}-terpinene (90-120), d-limonene (1000-1100), terpinolene (900-1300), and {alpha}-terpineol (260-700). One-hour concentrations of 2-butoxyethanol and/or dlimonene were 300-6000 {micro}g m{sup -3} after FS use of other products. During FS application including rinsing with sponge and wiping with towels, fractional emissions (mass volatilized/dispensed) of 2-butoxyethanol and d-limonene were 50-100% with towels retained, {approx}25-50% when towels were removed after cleaning. Lower fractions (2-11%) resulted from dilute use. Fractional emissions of terpenes from FS use of POC were {approx}35-70% with towels retained, 20-50% with towels removed. During floor cleaning with dilute solution of POC, 7-12% of dispensed terpenes were emitted. Terpene alcohols were emitted at lower fractions: 7-30% (FS, towels retained), 2-9% (FS, towels removed), and 2-5% (dilute). During air-freshener use, d-limonene, dihydromyrcenol, linalool, linalyl acetate, and {beta}-citronellol were emitted at 35-180 mg d{sup -1} over three days while air concentrations averaged 30-160 {micro}g m{sup -3}.

  16. Clean graphene electrodes on organic thin-film devices via orthogonal fluorinated chemistry.

    PubMed

    Beck, Jonathan H; Barton, Robert A; Cox, Marshall P; Alexandrou, Konstantinos; Petrone, Nicholas; Olivieri, Giorgia; Yang, Shyuan; Hone, James; Kymissis, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    Graphene is a promising flexible, highly transparent, and elementally abundant electrode for organic electronics. Typical methods utilized to transfer large-area films of graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition on metal catalysts are not compatible with organic thin-films, limiting the integration of graphene into organic optoelectronic devices. This article describes a graphene transfer process onto chemically sensitive organic semiconductor thin-films. The process incorporates an elastomeric stamp with a fluorinated polymer release layer that can be removed, post-transfer, via a fluorinated solvent; neither fluorinated material adversely affects the organic semiconductor materials. We used Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy to show that chemical vapor deposition graphene can be successfully transferred without inducing defects in the graphene film. To demonstrate our transfer method's compatibility with organic semiconductors, we fabricate three classes of organic thin-film devices: graphene field effect transistors without additional cleaning processes, transparent organic light-emitting diodes, and transparent small-molecule organic photovoltaic devices. These experiments demonstrate the potential of hybrid graphene/organic devices in which graphene is deposited directly onto underlying organic thin-film structures.

  17. Clean graphene electrodes on organic thin-film devices via orthogonal fluorinated chemistry.

    PubMed

    Beck, Jonathan H; Barton, Robert A; Cox, Marshall P; Alexandrou, Konstantinos; Petrone, Nicholas; Olivieri, Giorgia; Yang, Shyuan; Hone, James; Kymissis, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    Graphene is a promising flexible, highly transparent, and elementally abundant electrode for organic electronics. Typical methods utilized to transfer large-area films of graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition on metal catalysts are not compatible with organic thin-films, limiting the integration of graphene into organic optoelectronic devices. This article describes a graphene transfer process onto chemically sensitive organic semiconductor thin-films. The process incorporates an elastomeric stamp with a fluorinated polymer release layer that can be removed, post-transfer, via a fluorinated solvent; neither fluorinated material adversely affects the organic semiconductor materials. We used Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy to show that chemical vapor deposition graphene can be successfully transferred without inducing defects in the graphene film. To demonstrate our transfer method's compatibility with organic semiconductors, we fabricate three classes of organic thin-film devices: graphene field effect transistors without additional cleaning processes, transparent organic light-emitting diodes, and transparent small-molecule organic photovoltaic devices. These experiments demonstrate the potential of hybrid graphene/organic devices in which graphene is deposited directly onto underlying organic thin-film structures. PMID:25774924

  18. 76 FR 14427 - Revision to Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Clean Air Act, Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    .../Notices/page 13208). Maureen Katz, Assistant Section Chief, Environmental Enforcement Section, Environment... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Revision to Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Clean Air Act, Comprehensive...

  19. 77 FR 58988 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... (Petition), submitted under title V of the Clean Air Act (Act) by WildEarth Guardians (Petitioner), to.... EPA received a petition from WildEarth Petitioner dated August 4, 2011, requesting that EPA object...

  20. How Clean is your Local Air? Here's an app for that

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskey, M.; Yang, E.; Christopher, S. A.; Keiser, K.; Nair, U. S.; Graves, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    Air quality is a vital element of our environment. Accurate and localized air quality information is critical for characterizing environmental impacts at the local and regional levels. Advances in location-aware handheld devices and air quality modeling have enabled a group of UAHuntsville scientists to develop a mobile app, LocalAQI, that informs users of current conditions and forecasts of up to twenty-four hours, of air quality indices. The air quality index is based on Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ). UAHuntsville scientists have used satellite remote sensing products as inputs to CMAQ, resulting in forecast guidance for particulate matter air quality. The CMAQ output is processed to compute a standardized air quality index. Currently, the air quality index is available for the eastern half of the United States. LocalAQI consists of two main views: air quality index view and map view. The air quality index view displays current air quality for the zip code of a location of interest. Air quality index value is translated into a color-coded advisory system. In addition, users are able to cycle through available hourly forecasts for a location. This location-aware app defaults to the current air quality of user's location. The map view displays color-coded air quality information for the eastern US with an ability to animate through the available forecasts. The app is developed using a cross-platform native application development tool, appcelerator; hence LocalAQI is available for iOS and Android-based phones and pads.

  1. The enforcement provisions of the Clean Air Act - not the same old Section 113

    SciTech Connect

    Benthul, H.R.

    1996-08-01

    The Clean Air Act ({open_quotes}CAA{close_quotes}) of 1990 was in many respects a major overhaul of the previous versions of the Clean Air Act although it retained most of the preexisting major programs such as the basic National Ambient Air Quality Standards ({open_quotes}NAAQS{close_quotes}) scheme, PSD, new source performance standards, regulation of toxic air pollutants, and the like. The 1990 Act strengthened the enforcement provisions of the Act by enhancing the enforcement powers of the Environmental Protection Agency ({open_quotes}EPA{close_quotes}) of {section}113. For example, the criminal enforcement provisions of {section}113 are expanded both in the range of punishment and in the kinds of activities which are subject to criminal enforcement. Moreover, the Act now contains a number of additional enforcement provisions in addition to those found in {section}113. The purpose of this paper is to discuss both the {section}113 provision and as well, identify those enforcement provisions found outside {section}113. The latter provisions will be taken up first and addressed by Titles of the Act. The discussion of specific sections and subsections of the CAA are necessarily brief and in the nature of highlighting of particular features; like the rest of the CAA, careful reading and analysis is a requirement for full understanding.

  2. A public health context for residual risk assessment and risk management under the clean air act.

    PubMed

    Charnley, G; Goldstein, B D

    1998-09-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act required the EPA to institute new pollution control technology requirements for industrial sources of air pollution. In part because agreement could not be reached on the best way for the EPA to determine whether any significant risks to human health will remain after the technology controls are in place, the amendments also created a Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management and gave the commission a broad mandate to review and make recommendations concerning risk assessment and risk management in federal regulatory programs. In its March 1997 final report to Congress and the administration, the commission recommended a tiered approach to assessing such residual risks. That approach included the idea that when decisions about managing residual risks are made, emissions should be evaluated in the context of other sources of air pollution. Evaluating risks in their larger contexts is consistent with what the commission called a public health approach to environmental risk management. This paper describes the public health approach and how it applies to evaluating residual risks under the Clean Air Act. PMID:9721251

  3. Proceedings of the 21st DOE/NRC nuclear air cleaning conference; Volume 2, Sessions 9--16

    SciTech Connect

    First, M.W.

    1991-02-01

    The 21st meeting of the Department of Energy/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (DOE/NRC) Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference was held in San Diego, CA on August 13--16, 1990. The proceedings have been published as a two volume set. Volume 2 contains sessions covering adsorbents, nuclear codes and standards, modelling, filters, safety, containment venting and a review of nuclear air cleaning programs around the world. Also included is the list of attendees and an index of authors and speakers. (MHB)

  4. 76 FR 54462 - Notification of a Public Teleconference; Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee; Air Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... network in support of a newly revised National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for 1-hour NO 2 (75 FR... or topography, meteorology, population exposure and other factors in determining where a...

  5. Evaluation of control parameters for Spray-In-Air (SIA) aqueous cleaning for shuttle RSRM hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, S. J.; Deweese, C. D.

    1995-01-01

    HD-2 grease is deliberately applied to Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) D6AC steel hardware parts as a temporary protective coating for storage and shipping. This HD-2 grease is the most common form of surface contamination on RSRM hardware and must be removed prior to subsequent surface treatment. Failure to achieve an acceptable level of cleanliness (HD-2 calcium grease removal) is a common cause of defect incidence. Common failures from ineffective cleaning include poor adhesion of surface coatings, reduced bond performance of structural adhesives, and failure to pass cleanliness inspection standards. The RSRM hardware is currently cleaned and refurbished using methyl chloroform (1,1,1-trichloroethane). This chlorinated solvent is mandated for elimination due to its ozone depleting characteristics. This report describes an experimental study of an aqueous cleaning system (which uses Brulin 815 GD) as a replacement for methyl chloroform. Evaluation of process control parameters for this cleaner are discussed as well as cleaning mechanisms for a spray-in-air process.

  6. Methods for measuring performance of vehicle cab air cleaning systems against aerosols and vapours.

    PubMed

    Bémer, D; Subra, I; Régnier, R

    2009-06-01

    Vehicle cabs equipped with an effective air cleaning and pressurization system, fitted to agricultural and off-road machineries, isolate drivers from the polluted environment, in which they are likely to work. These cabs provide protection against particulate and gaseous pollutants generated by these types of work activities. Two laboratory methods have been applied to determining the performance characteristics of two cabs of different design, namely, optical counting-based measurement of a potassium chloride (KCl) aerosol and fluorescein aerosol-based tracing. Results of cab confinement efficiency measurements agreed closely for these two methods implemented in the study. Measurements showed that high confinement efficiencies can be achieved with cabs, which are properly designed in ventilation/cleaning/airtightness terms. We also noted the importance of filter mounting airtightness, in which the smallest defect is reflected by significant degradation in cab performance. Determination of clean airflow rate by monitoring the decrease in test aerosol concentration in the test chamber gave excellent results. This method could represent an attractive alternative to methods involving gas tracing or air velocity measurement at blowing inlets.

  7. Methods for measuring performance of vehicle cab air cleaning systems against aerosols and vapours.

    PubMed

    Bémer, D; Subra, I; Régnier, R

    2009-06-01

    Vehicle cabs equipped with an effective air cleaning and pressurization system, fitted to agricultural and off-road machineries, isolate drivers from the polluted environment, in which they are likely to work. These cabs provide protection against particulate and gaseous pollutants generated by these types of work activities. Two laboratory methods have been applied to determining the performance characteristics of two cabs of different design, namely, optical counting-based measurement of a potassium chloride (KCl) aerosol and fluorescein aerosol-based tracing. Results of cab confinement efficiency measurements agreed closely for these two methods implemented in the study. Measurements showed that high confinement efficiencies can be achieved with cabs, which are properly designed in ventilation/cleaning/airtightness terms. We also noted the importance of filter mounting airtightness, in which the smallest defect is reflected by significant degradation in cab performance. Determination of clean airflow rate by monitoring the decrease in test aerosol concentration in the test chamber gave excellent results. This method could represent an attractive alternative to methods involving gas tracing or air velocity measurement at blowing inlets. PMID:19406910

  8. The politics of markets: The acid rain control policy in the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Kete, N.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis is a review and critique of the development of the acid rain control policy codified as Title IV of the Clean Air Act. The amendments include provisions to address acid rain-air pollution that has been transformed and transported over long distances. Title IV also embodies the first large scale adoption of market principles and economic incentives in the cause of environmental protection. The acid rain control amendments are being hailed as a break with past environmental protection practice and are being offered as a model for further regulatory reform. The thesis looks at the roots of the acid rain policy and considers the set of legal, social, and economic relations embedded in the policy which define the nature of its legal controls over pollution and its inverse, environmental quality. It explores whether the creation of the emissions allowance trading system changes the social relationships that prevailed under the pre-amended Clean Air Act. It responds to and rebuts the concerns of some critics that the policy represents an alienation of the public's right to clean air. A review of the acid rain policymaking process provides a recent and concrete example of the two central concerns inherent in public policy: the making of decisions that establish institutional arrangements, or structures, that both constrain and liberate individual action at the operational level; and the search for the boundary between autonomous behavior and collective decision making. The policy responds to regulatory reform recommendations concerned with improving the effectiveness, accountability, and cost-effectiveness of environmental protection. As a model for future policymaking, the policy goes beyond and encompasses more than the welfare economics ideal of static economic efficiency and the [open quotes]free market environmentalism[close quotes] emphasis on private property and common law.

  9. Interaction between Titles 2 and 3 of the Clean Air Act as amended, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1996-02-01

    This report examines Some issues that would I affect the refining industry if the requirements for hazardous air pollutants set out in Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments were to impede the market entrance of oxygenated fuels, as me; required by Title II. It describes the mandate for reformulated gasoline; considers gasoline characteristics in light of component shifts in refining; examines the supply of, demand for, and cost of various feedstocks and blendstocks; and identifies the emissions and atmospheric impacts that might result from the production and use of reformulated gasoline. Attention is focused on methanol and MTBE, two potential blendstocks that are also hazardous air pollutants, and on maximum achievable control technology standards, which might be applied to the stationary sources that produce them.

  10. New clean air efforts face tough challenges, say senators and former EPA administrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-02-01

    With the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) coming under repeated attack from some members of Congress and others for perceived heavy-handed regulatory actions, two moderate U.S. senators and two former EPA administrators recently noted the need for continued measures to improve air quality. However, they also acknowledged the difficulty in moving forward with new legislative efforts to revise the federal Clean Air Act to further reduce air pollution in the current polarized political climate. "Nobody who wants to see constructive changes [to the act] would dare touch it or propose it in the current climate," said former EPA administrator William Reilly at a 23 January forum sponsored by the World Resources Institute. Reilly, who served as EPA administrator from 1989 to 1992, noted that bipartisan congressional support had been key to addressing many environmental problems up until the mid-1990s.

  11. An introduction to the design, commissioning and operation of nuclear air cleaning systems for Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Xinliang Chen; Jiangang Qu; Minqi Shi

    1995-02-01

    This paper introduces the design evolution, system schemes and design and construction of main nuclear air cleaning components such as HEPA filter, charcoal adsorber and concrete housing etc. for Qinshan 300MW PWR Nuclear Power Plant (QNPP), the first indigenously designed and constructed nuclear power plant in China. The field test results and in-service test results, since the air cleaning systems were put into operation 18 months ago, are presented and evaluated. These results demonstrate that the design and construction of the air cleaning systems and equipment manufacturing for QNPP are successful and the American codes and standards invoked in design, construction and testing of nuclear air cleaning systems for QNPP are applicable in China. The paper explains that the leakage rate of concrete air cleaning housings can also be assured if sealing measures are taken properly and embedded parts are designed carefully in the penetration areas of the housing and that the uniformity of the airflow distribution upstream the HEPA filters can be achieved generally no matter how inlet and outlet ducts of air cleaning unit are arranged.

  12. Surface cleaning of metals in air with a one atmosphere uniform glow discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, J.R.; Ku, Y.

    1995-12-31

    The authors report the use of active species generated in a one atmosphere uniform glow discharge plasma reactor with a parallel-plate configuration to clean the surface of as-received metal samples from the machine shop floor. The experimental arrangement used to expose the 7 by 10 cm metal samples is shown. The lower parallel-plate electrode is a flat copper plate 22 by 22 cm, covered by a 5mm thick pyrex sheet. The upper electrode is formed by the bare metal sample plate, with the side to be cleaned facing the plasma. To assure plasma uniformity between the electrodes, it was helpful to direct a flow of air on the edges of the plasma volume. The cleanliness of the metal samples was determined with the standard sessile water drop test.

  13. Clearing the Air: The Impact of the Clean Air Act on Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, John C., Ed.; And Others

    This compendium has been prepared to summarize the notable aspects of the U. S. Clear Air Amendments of 1970 for members of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and others. The work is not a complete explanation of the law and all of its ramifications; it is, rather, an expedient means to gain rapid insight into the more…

  14. A PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS OF THE CLEAN AIR STATUS AND TRENDS NETWORK (CASTNET) AIR CONCENTRATION DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spatial and temporal variability of ambient air concentrations of SO2, SO42-, NO3, HNO3, and NH4+ obtained from EPA's CASTNet was examined using an objective, statistically based technique...

  15. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it? 60.3064... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and...

  16. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it? 60.3064... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and...

  17. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it? 60.3064... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and...

  18. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it? 60.3064... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and...

  19. 40 CFR 49.5 - Tribal requests for additional Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tribal requests for additional Clean... additional Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as States. Any tribe may request that the Administrator specify additional provisions of the Clean Air...

  20. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it? 60.3064... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and...

  1. Investigation of the Shockley surface state on clean and air-exposed Au (1 1 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalczyk, P. J.; Puchalski, M.; Kozłowski, W.; Dąbrowski, P.; Klusek, Z.; Olejniczak, W.

    2008-05-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) carried out in vacuum and air were used to study the electronic structure of the Au (1 1 1) surface in the range of 0.0-0.7 eV below the Fermi level. The STS experiment carried out in UHV showed the existence of the Shockley surface state (SS) located 0.48 eV below the Fermi level. STS carried out in air showed strong local maximum located 0.35 eV below the Fermi level. This maximum was ascribed to the SS shifted toward lower energy due to carbon and oxygen overlayer. To confirm that the SS could exist on the sample exposed to air we did ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) experiment on air-treated and clean Au (1 1 1). Our results suggest that the SS position initially measured at 0.38 eV below the Fermi level was shifted to 0.27 eV after air treatment. Additionally, the level of contamination was measured using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  2. 76 FR 16768 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) to conduct a quality review and approve... (NO X -SO X Panel) and the CASAC Air Monitoring and Methods Subcommittee (AMMS). DATES: The...

  3. The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources: clean land, water, and air for healthy people and communities.

    PubMed

    Riegel, Lisa Diaz; Wakild, Charles; Boothe, Laura; Hildebrandt, Heather J; Nicholson, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources works with communities and other agencies to sustain clean air, water, and land. Sustainability efforts include protecting air quality through community design, community enhancement through brownfields revitalization, community development strategies to protect water resources, and the integration of natural resource conservation.

  4. 77 FR 27054 - Notice of Approval of Clean Air Act Outer Continental Shelf Permits Issued to Shell Offshore, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... AGENCY Notice of Approval of Clean Air Act Outer Continental Shelf Permits Issued to Shell Offshore, Inc. for the Kulluk Conical Drilling Unit AGENCY: United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Title V air quality operating permit to Shell Offshore, Inc. (``Shell'') for operation of the...

  5. Evaluating the Impact of Air Pollution on Human Health in China: the Price of Clean Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Hu, Y.; Russell, A. G.; Woo, J.; Streets, D. G.

    2003-12-01

    Population growth, rapid urbanization and economic development are contributing to increased energy consumption in China. One of the unintended consequences is poor air quality due to a lack of environmental controls. The coal dependent energy structure in China only worsens the situation. Quantification of the environmental costs resulting from air pollution is needed in order to provide a mechanism for making strategic energy policy that accounts for the life-cycle cost of energy use. However, few such studies have been conducted for China that examine the entire energy system. Here we examine the extent to which public health has been compromised due to elevated air pollution and how China could incorporate environmental costs into future energy and environmental policies. Taking the Shandong region in eastern China as a case study, we develop a high-resolution regional inventory for anthropogenic emissions of NOx, CO, PM2.5, PM10, VOCs, NH3 and SO2. SMOKE (Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions Modeling System) is used to process spatial and temporal distributions and chemical speciation of the regional emissions, MM5 (the Fifth-Generation NCAR/Penn State Meso-scale Model, Version 3) is used to generate meteorology and Models3/CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality Modeling System) is used to simulate ambient concentrations of particulates and other gaseous species in this region. We then estimate the mortality and morbidity in this region resulting from exposure to these air pollutants. We also estimate the monetary values associated with the resulting mortality and morbidity and quantify the contributions from various economic sectors (i.e. power generation, transportation, industry, residential and others). Finally, we examine the potential health benefits that adoption of best available or advanced energy (coal-based, in particular) and environmental technologies in different sectors could bring about. The results of these analyses are intended to provide

  6. Cleaning air from multicomponent impurities of volatile organic compounds by pulsed corona discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatov, I. E.; Uvarin, V. V.; Kuznetsov, D. L.

    2016-09-01

    The relative efficiency of the removal of impurities from airflow under the action of pulsed corona discharge has been studied by processing model mixtures of air with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A method is proposed that allows the influence of the VOC structure on its reactivity to be directly determined. For this purpose, it is suggested to calculate a relative energy parameter characterizing the reactivity of a given impurity component in the framework of the method employed. This approach significantly intensifies the process of determination of the energy parameters of impurity removal and can be used as a criterion for comparative estimation of the efficiency of various methods employing nonequilibrium plasma for cleaning air from VOCs.

  7. The Clean Air Act strictly regulates electric utility emissions and utilities are reducing their emissions significantly

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsman, J.D.

    1998-12-31

    Electric utility SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions have been reduced tremendously, beginning before the first deadlines (1995 for SO{sub 2} and 1996 for NO{sub x}) of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. For the Acid Rain Program, EPA reports that: (1) all 445 affected facilities demonstrated 100 percent compliance for both pollutants and even exceeded the compliance targets; (2) the Acid Rain Program has been very successful; and (3) due to these and other controls, air quality has improved in the United States. Furthermore, the new 8-hour ozone standard, the new PM2.5 standards, the EPA`s 22-state regional NO{sub x} program, the Northeast state petitions for upwind NO{sub x} reductions and EPA`s regional haze proposal will likely lead to substantially greater reductions of utility SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}.

  8. Characterization of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in cleaning reagents and air fresheners in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yu; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Ho, Kin Fai; Lee, Shun Cheng; Gao, Yuan; Cheng, Yan; Chan, C. S.

    2011-11-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from cleaning products and air fresheners indoors are prone to oxidation resulting in the formation of secondary pollutants that can pose health risks on residents. In this study, a solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) method was applied for the determination of BVOCs compositions in three categories of cleaning products including floor cleaners (FC), kitchen cleaners (KC) and dishwashing detergents (DD), and also air fresheners (AF). The analysis results demonstrated that chemical composition and concentration of individual BVOC varied broadly with household products in the view of their different functions and scents as indicated on the labels. The concentration of total BVOCs for sample FC1 was the highest up to 4146.0 μg g -1, followed by FC2 of 264.6 μg g -1, FC4 of 249.3 μg g -1 and FC3 of 139.2 μg g -1. D-limonene was the most abundant detected BVOCs in KC samples with the chemical composition varying from 19.6 ± 1.0 to 1513.0 ± 37.1 μg g -1. For dishwashing detergents, only D-limonene was detected and quantified. The BVOCs compositions of air freshener samples are much more complicated. It was estimated that the consumption of floor cleaners contributed 51% of the total BVOCs amount indoors in Hong Kong, followed by air fresheners 42%, kitchen cleaners 5% and dishwashing detergents 2%.

  9. Revision of testing criteria for air cleaning unit of renovated APR-1000 and APR-1400 NPPS.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seung-Young

    2011-07-01

    Designing Air Cleaning Units (ACU) of an Engineered Safety Feature and normal atmosphere clean-up system at the renovated APR-1000 and APR-1400 NPP, and fuel cycle facilities in Korea, is required to meet the standards of ASME AG-1 (1997), ASME N509/N510 (1989) and KEPIC-MH (2001) to enhance the removal efficiency of aerosols and particulates from the effluents. The revised ACU testing criteria are allowed to use alternative challenge agents of the dioctyl phthalate and Refrigerant-11 for in situ testing of high efficiency particulate air filters and adsorption banks. The operability testing time of engineered safety feature (ESF) trains was changed from 10 h to 15 min. The activated carbon in adsorption banks should undergo laboratory tests at a temperature of 30 °C and relative humidity 95 %. The removal criteria of methyl iodide should be over 99.5 % for ESF and 99 % for normal systems. This paper provides the background of the changed criteria for designing and testing of the ACU system in nuclear facilities.

  10. Methods for nuclear air-cleaning-system accident-consequence assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Andrae, R.W.; Bolstad, J.W.; Gregory, W.S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a multilaboratory research program that is directed toward addressing many questions that analysts face when performing air cleaning accident consequence assessments. The program involves developing analytical tools and supportive experimental data that will be useful in making more realistic assessments of accident source terms within and up to the atmospheric boundaries of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The types of accidents considered in this study includes fires, explosions, spills, tornadoes, criticalities, and equipment failures. The main focus of the program is developing an accident analysis handbook (AAH). We will describe the contents of the AAH, which include descriptions of selected nuclear fuel cycle facilities, process unit operations, source-term development, and accident consequence analyses. Three computer codes designed to predict gas and material propagation through facility air cleaning systems are described. These computer codes address accidents involving fires (FIRAC), explosions (EXPAC), and tornadoes (TORAC). The handbook relies on many illustrative examples to show the analyst how to approach accident consequence assessments. We will use the FIRAC code and a hypothetical fire scenario to illustrate the accident analysis capability.

  11. Association between Clean Indoor Air Laws and Voluntary Smokefree Rules in Homes and Cars

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Kai-Wen; Okechukwu, Cassandra A.; McMillen, Robert; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study examines the influence that smokefree workplaces, restaurants, and bars on the adoption of smokefree rules in homes and cars and whether the adoptions of home and car smokefree rule are associated. Methods Bivariate probit models were used to jointly estimate the likelihood of living in a smokefree home and having a smokefree car as a function of law coverage and other variables. Household data are from the nationally representative Social Climate Survey of Tobacco Control 2001, 2002, and 2004–2009; clean indoor air law data comes from the American Nonsmokers’ Rights Foundation Tobacco Control Laws Database. Results Both “full coverage” and “partial coverage” smokefree legislations are associated with an increased likelihood of having voluntary home and car smokefree rules compared with “no coverage”. The association between “full coverage” and smokefree rule in homes and cars is 5% and 4%, respectively, and the association between “partial coverage” and smokefree rule in homes and cars is 3% and 4%, respectively. There is a positive association between the adoption of home and car smokefree rules. Conclusions Clean indoor air laws provide the additional benefit of encouraging voluntary adoption of smokefree rules in homes and cars. PMID:24114562

  12. Precision cleaning verification of fluid components by air/water impingement and total carbon analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barile, Ronald G.; Fogarty, Chris; Cantrell, Chris; Melton, Gregory S.

    1994-01-01

    NASA personnel at Kennedy Space Center's Material Science Laboratory have developed new environmentally sound precision cleaning and verification techniques for systems and components found at the center. This technology is required to replace existing methods traditionally employing CFC-113. The new patent-pending technique of precision cleaning verification is for large components of cryogenic fluid systems. These are stainless steel, sand cast valve bodies with internal surface areas ranging from 0.2 to 0.9 sq m. Extrapolation of this technique to components of even larger sizes (by orders of magnitude) is planned. Currently, the verification process is completely manual. In the new technique, a high velocity, low volume water stream impacts the part to be verified. This process is referred to as Breathing Air/Water Impingement and forms the basis for the Impingement Verification System (IVS). The system is unique in that a gas stream is used to accelerate the water droplets to high speeds. Water is injected into the gas stream in a small, continuous amount. The air/water mixture is then passed through a converging/diverging nozzle where the gas is accelerated to supersonic velocities. These droplets impart sufficient energy to the precision cleaned surface to place non-volatile residue (NVR) contaminants into suspension in the water. The sample water is collected and its NVR level is determined by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis at 880 C. The TOC, in ppm carbon, is used to establish the NVR level. A correlation between the present gravimetric CFC113 NVR and the IVS NVR is found from experimental sensitivity factors measured for various contaminants. The sensitivity has the units of ppm of carbon per mg/sq ft of contaminant. In this paper, the equipment is described and data are presented showing the development of the sensitivity factors from a test set including four NVRs impinged from witness plates of 0.05 to 0.75 sq m.

  13. Precision Cleaning Verification of Fluid Components by Air/Water Impingement and Total Carbon Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barile, Ronald G.; Fogarty, Chris; Cantrell, Chris; Melton, Gregory S.

    1995-01-01

    NASA personnel at Kennedy Space Center's Material Science Laboratory have developed new environmentally sound precision cleaning and verification techniques for systems and components found at the center. This technology is required to replace existing methods traditionally employing CFC-113. The new patent-pending technique of precision cleaning verification is for large components of cryogenic fluid systems. These are stainless steel, sand cast valve bodies with internal surface areas ranging from 0.2 to 0.9 m(exp 2). Extrapolation of this technique to components of even larger sizes (by orders of magnitude) is planned. Currently, the verification process is completely manual. In the new technique, a high velocity, low volume water stream impacts the part to be verified. This process is referred to as Breathing Air/Water Impingement and forms the basis for the Impingement Verification System (IVS). The system is unique in that a gas stream is used to accelerate the water droplets to high speeds. Water is injected into the gas stream in a small, continuous amount. The air/water mixture is then passed through a converging-diverging nozzle where the gas is accelerated to supersonic velocities. These droplets impart sufficient energy to the precision cleaned surface to place non-volatile residue (NVR) contaminants into suspension in the water. The sample water is collected and its NVR level is determined by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis at 880 C. The TOC, in ppm carbon, is used to establish the NVR level. A correlation between the present gravimetric CFC-113 NVR and the IVS NVR is found from experimental sensitivity factors measured for various contaminants. The sensitivity has the units of ppm of carbon per mg-ft(exp 2) of contaminant. In this paper, the equipment is described and data are presented showing the development of the sensitivity factors from a test set including four NVR's impinged from witness plates of 0.05 to 0.75 m(exp 2).

  14. Development of an air cleaning system for dissolving high explosives from nuclear warheads

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Staggs, K.; Wapman, D.

    1997-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has a major effort underway in dismantling nuclear weapons. In support of this effort we have been developing a workstation for removing the high explosive (HE) from nuclear warheads using hot sprays of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent to dissolve the HE. An important component of the workstation is the air cleaning system that is used to contain DMSO aerosols and vapor and radioactive aerosols. The air cleaning system consists of a condenser to liquefy the hot DMSO vapor, a demister pad to remove most of the DMSO aerosols, a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter to remove the remaining aerosols, an activated carbon filter to remove the DMSO vapor, and a final HEPA filter to meet the redundancy requirement for HEPA filters in radioactive applications. The demister pad is a 4{double_prime} thick mat of glass and steel fibers and was selected after conducting screening tests on promising candidates. We also conducted screening tests on various activated carbons and found that all had a similar performance. The carbon breakthrough curves were fitted to a modified Wheeler`s equation and gave excellent predictions for the effect of different flow rates. After all of the components were assembled, we ran a series of performance tests on the components and system to determine the particle capture efficiency as a function of size for dioctyl sebacate (DOS) and DMSO aerosols using laser particle counters and filter samples. The pad had an efficiency greater than 990% for 0.1 {mu}m DMSO particles. Test results on the prototype carbon filter showed only 70% efficiency, instead of the 99.9% in small scale laboratory tests. Thus further work will be required to develop the prototype carbon filter. 7 refs., 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Trials and tribulations implementing the Clean Air Act Title V in fourteen air districts

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, C.

    1998-12-31

    Santa Fe pacific Pipeline Partners, L.P. (SFPP) is a refined petroleum pipeline operating in six states in the western United States. Sixteen terminals are subject to the Title V permit to operate requirements. There are many obstacles to overcome, not only when preparing applications for Title V operating permits, but in the implementation phase of the project as well. Each Air District has its own set of rules and regulations that must be adhered to in preparing the application. For example, some districts required the insignificant sources to be documented and included in compliance plans and some do not. The format required for the application varies from stringent forms that must be completed to no forms at all. In preparing the Title V application for SFPP, the author quickly realized if this confusion was transferred to the implementation phase, compliance would be a failure. Therefore, early on the environmental manager instituted a training program. Beginning with a pilot program in one district the author began training managers and supervisors. This program quickly was expanded to include senior vice presidents and technicians. This training session was a one hour of general overview to visually describe how the Title V process would affect the facilities. As a result of this training, virtually every employee became familiar with how the Title V program was affecting the facilities. Engineering and Customer Service is instructed to notify the manager of any and every new project so it could undergo a review to determine if it affected a Title V facility. The field acts as a check of the system. Any change or modification at any facility is immediately under scrutiny for Title V implications. Another obstacle to overcome is to help the facility deal with something that is new and basically a different way of operating.

  16. Development of a Clean Air Act Title V permit application for Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, G.L.

    1994-06-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 instituted major changes in the way that air emission sources are regulated and permitted. Along with being a major research and development laboratory owned by the US Department of Energy, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is also classified as a major source of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) in the Chicago metropolitan area which has been designated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as severe (17) for ozone. As a major source ANL is therefore required under Title V of CAAA to apply for a federally enforceable permit for all sources of air emissions at the facility. While the ANL Boiler House represents the most significant emission source at the Laboratory, there are, nevertheless, a large number of other emission sources, some of which are currently permitted by the State of Illinois and others of which are exempt from state permitting requirements. A large number of R & D related sources are of relatively small magnitude. The ability to identify, inventory, characterize and classify all sources under the various titles of CAAA constitutes a major challenge for R & D laboratories of this size.

  17. Airborne lidar mapping of vertical ozone distributions in support of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uthe, Edward E.; Nielsen, Norman B.; Livingston, John M.

    1992-01-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments mandated attainment of the ozone standard established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Improved photochemical models validated by experimental data are needed to develop strategies for reducing near surface ozone concentrations downwind of urban and industrial centers. For more than 10 years, lidar has been used on large aircraft to provide unique information on ozone distributions in the atmosphere. However, compact airborne lidar systems are needed for operation on small aircraft of the type typically used on regional air quality investigations to collect data with which to develop and validate air quality models. Data presented in this paper will consist of a comparison between airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and airborne in-situ ozone measurements. Also discussed are future plans to improve the airborne ultraviolet-DIAL for ozone and other gas observations and addition of a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) emission spectrometer to investigate the effects of other gas species on vertical ozone distribution.

  18. 40 CFR 60.2141 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2141 Section 60.2141 Protection of Environment... initial air pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection... startup. (b) Within 10 operating days following an air pollution control device inspection, all...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2141 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2141 Section 60.2141 Protection of Environment... initial air pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection... startup. (b) Within 10 operating days following an air pollution control device inspection, all...

  20. Healy Clean Coal Project, Healy FCM testing at Niro Air Pollution Control Pilot Facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    In September, 1991, pilot testing was performed at the Niro Air Pollution Control Pilot Plant in Copenhagen, Denmark in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP), which is part of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Ill Program. The HCCP is a proposed new coal fired power plant, located in Healy, Alaska. It consists of a TRW entrained combustion system, coupled with a limestone calciner, which operates in synergism with a Joy/Niro Spray Dryer Absorber (SDA) system equipped with a lime activation system that is designed to increase the utilization of the calcined product for sulfur capture in the SDA. The pilot tests, which were funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), were conducted to investigate the characteristics of the TRW combustor/limestone calciner product, referred to as Flash Calcined Material (FCM) with respect to its ability to remove S0{sub 2 } in the Joy/Niro Activated Recycle SDA system. This report describes the pilot facility, the test objectives and methods, and the results of the tests.

  1. Healy Clean Coal Project, Healy FCM testing at Niro Air Pollution Control Pilot Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    In September, 1991, pilot testing was performed at the Niro Air Pollution Control Pilot Plant in Copenhagen, Denmark in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP), which is part of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Ill Program. The HCCP is a proposed new coal fired power plant, located in Healy, Alaska. It consists of a TRW entrained combustion system, coupled with a limestone calciner, which operates in synergism with a Joy/Niro Spray Dryer Absorber (SDA) system equipped with a lime activation system that is designed to increase the utilization of the calcined product for sulfur capture in the SDA. The pilot tests, which were funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), were conducted to investigate the characteristics of the TRW combustor/limestone calciner product, referred to as Flash Calcined Material (FCM) with respect to its ability to remove S0[sub 2 ] in the Joy/Niro Activated Recycle SDA system. This report describes the pilot facility, the test objectives and methods, and the results of the tests.

  2. Parametric Evaluation of an Innovative Ultra-Violet PhotocatalyticOxidation (UVPCO) Air Cleaning Technology for Indoor Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2005-10-31

    An innovative Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaning technology employing a semitransparent catalyst coated on a semitransparent polymer substrate was evaluated to determine its effectiveness for treating mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) representative of indoor environments at low, indoor-relevant concentration levels. The experimental UVPCO contained four 30 by 30-cm honeycomb monoliths irradiated with nine UVA lamps arranged in three banks. A parametric evaluation of the effects of monolith thickness, air flow rate through the device, UV power, and reactant concentrations in inlet air was conducted for the purpose of suggesting design improvements. The UVPCO was challenged with three mixtures of VOCs. A synthetic office mixture contained 27 VOCs commonly measured in office buildings. A building product mixture was created by combining sources including painted wallboard, composite wood products, carpet systems, and vinyl flooring. The third mixture contained formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Steady state concentrations were produced in a classroom laboratory or a 20-m{sup 3} chamber. Air was drawn through the UVPCO, and single-pass conversion efficiencies were measured from replicate samples collected upstream and downstream of the reactor. Thirteen experiments were conducted in total. In this UVPCO employing a semitransparent monolith design, an increase in monolith thickness is expected to result in general increases in both reaction efficiencies and absolute reaction rates for VOCs oxidized by photocatalysis. The thickness of individual monolith panels was varied between 1.2 and 5 cm (5 to 20 cm total thickness) in experiments with the office mixture. VOC reaction efficiencies and rates increased with monolith thickness. However, the analysis of the relationship was confounded by high reaction efficiencies in all configurations for a number of compounds. These reaction efficiencies approached or exceeded 90% for alcohols, glycol

  3. Competing Initiatives: A New Tobacco Industry Strategy to Oppose Statewide Clean Indoor Air Ballot Measures

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Gregory J.; Hendlin, Yogi H.

    2009-01-01

    To describe how the tobacco and gaming industries opposed clean indoor air voter initiatives in 2006, we analyzed media records and government and other publicly available documents and conducted interviews with knowledgeable individuals. In an attempt to avoid strict “smoke free” regulations pursued by health groups via voter initiatives in Arizona, Ohio, and Nevada, in 2006, the tobacco and gaming industries sponsored competing voter initiatives for alternative laws. Health groups succeeded in defeating the pro-tobacco competing initiatives because they were able to dispel confusion and create a head-to-head competition by associating each campaign with its respective backer and instructing voters to vote “no” on the pro-tobacco initiative in addition to voting “yes” on the health group initiative. PMID:19150904

  4. Implications of the Clean Air Act acid rain title on industrial boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Maibodi, M. )

    1991-11-01

    This paper discusses the impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments related to acid rain controls, as they apply to industrial boilers. Emphasis is placed on explaining the Title IV provisions of the Amendments that permit nonutility sources to participate in the SO{sub 2} allowance system. The allowance system, as it pertains to industrial boiler operators, is described, and the opportunities for operators to trade and/or sell SO{sub 2} emission credits is discussed. The paper also reviews flue gas desulfurization system technologies available for industrial boiler operators who may choose to participate in the system. Furnace sorbent injection, advanced silicate process, lime spray drying, dry sorbent injection, and limestone scrubbing are described, including statements of their SO{sub 2} removing capability, commercial status, and costs. Capital costs, levelized costs and cost-effectiveness are presented for these technologies.

  5. Clean Air Act Title IV: Lessons learned from Phase I; getting ready for Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments have required significant reductions in SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions from fossil fuel-fired power plants in the US. This paper examines some of the key technical lessons learned in Phase I following retrofit of low NO{sub x} systems, FGD systems, and continuous emissions monitors. Some of the key problems encountered have been waterwall wastage as a result of low NO{sub x} burner retrofits; high LOI (carbon) ash as a result of low NO{sub x} operation; high O&M costs associated with CEMs; and the heat rate discrepancy which has arisen between CEMs and conventional heat rate calculations. As Phase II approaches, EPRI and the electric utility industry are investigating improvements in FGD systems (e.g., clear liquor scrubbing), advances in NO{sub x} control technologies, more robust CEM systems, and tools to help in the technology decision-making process.

  6. Escaping the regulatory dust bowl: fugitive dust and the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Probst, G.L.; Becker, R.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) regulatory program, as it relates to particulates, is overly complicated. In attempting to accommodate statutory language insensitive to particulate differences, after becoming aware of the varying effects of different-sized particles, EPA has developed an unworkable program. Although agricultural, recreational, transportation, and industrial activities contribute to the airborne dust (or, in the Clean Air Act vernacular, fugitive dust), this article focuses on mining activities. Surface mining inevitably stirs up considerable fugitive dust, and a description of mining activities in arid conditions, and how they fit in with a developing regulatory program, reveals a story of a national program that fails to provide for rational policy and regional flexibility. The article also recommends some regulatory and statutory solutions that could relatively easily correct EPA's fugitive dust program.

  7. Development of an emergency air-cleaning system for liquid-metal reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, R.K.

    1980-11-01

    A novel air cleaning concept has been developed for potential use in venting future commercial liquid metal fast breeder reactor containment buildings in the unlikely event of postulated core disruptive accidents. The passive concept consists of a submerged gravel bed to collect the bulk of particulate contaminates carried by the vented gas. A fibrous scrubber could be combined with the submerged gravel scrubber to enhance collection efficiencies for the smaller sized particles. The submerged gravel scrubber is unique in that water flow through the packed bed is induced by the gas flow, eliminating the need for an active liquid pump. In addition, design gas velocities through the packed bed are 10 to 20 times higher than for a conventional sand bed filter.

  8. 40 CFR 60.3067 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3067 Section 60.3067... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3067 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Use Method 9...

  9. 40 CFR 60.3067 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3067 Section 60.3067... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3067 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Use Method 9...

  10. 40 CFR 62.14820 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A to... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14820 Section... Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber...

  11. 40 CFR 60.3063 - When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3063 Section 60.3063 Protection of... Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3063 When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Table 1 of this subpart specifies the...

  12. 40 CFR 60.3063 - When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3063 Section 60.3063 Protection of... Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3063 When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Table 1 of this subpart specifies the...

  13. 40 CFR 60.3067 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3067 Section 60.3067... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3067 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Use Method 9...

  14. 40 CFR 60.2972 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2972 Section 60.2972... Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2972 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of appendix A of...

  15. 40 CFR 62.14820 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A to... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14820 Section... Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber...

  16. 40 CFR 62.14820 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A to... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14820 Section... Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber...

  17. 40 CFR 60.3063 - When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3063 Section 60.3063 Protection of... Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3063 When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Table 1 of this subpart specifies the...

  18. 40 CFR 60.3063 - When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3063 Section 60.3063 Protection of... Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3063 When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Table 1 of this subpart specifies the...

  19. 40 CFR 62.14820 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of 40 CFR part 60, Appendix A to... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14820 Section... Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber...

  20. 40 CFR 60.3067 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3067 Section 60.3067... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3067 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Use Method 9...

  1. 40 CFR 60.2972 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2972 Section 60.2972... Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2972 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of appendix A of...

  2. 40 CFR 60.3063 - When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3063 Section 60.3063 Protection of... Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3063 When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Table 1 of this subpart specifies the...

  3. 40 CFR 62.14820 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of 40 CFR part 60, Appendix A to... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14820 Section... Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber...

  4. 40 CFR 60.3067 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3067 Section 60.3067... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3067 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Use Method 9...

  5. S. 782: A bill to amend the Clean Air Act. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, April 13, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    A bill was introduced in the Senate to amend the Clean Air Act by providing the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency with the authority to regulate air pollution on and over the Outer Continental Shelf.

  6. Accountability analysis of title IV phase 2 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Richard D; Harrington, Winston; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Bell, Michelle L

    2012-11-01

    In this study, we sought to assess what portion, if any, of the reductions in ambient concentrations of particulate matter (PM*) < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) that occurred in the United States between the years 1999 and 2006 can be attributed to reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) resulting from implementation of Phase 2 of Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. To this end, a detailed statistical model linking sources and monitors over time and space was used to estimate associations between the observed emissions reductions and improvements in air quality. Overall, it turned out to be quite feasible to use relatively transparent statistical methods to assess these outcomes of the Phase 2 program, which was designed to reduce long-range transport of emissions. Associations between changes in emissions from individual power plants and monitor-specific estimates of changes in concentrations of PM2.5, our indicator pollutant, were highly significant and were mostly of the expected relative magnitudes with respect to distances and directions from sources. Originally estimated on monthly data for a set of 193 monitors between 1999 and 2005, our preferred model performed equally well using data for the same 193 monitors for 2006 as well as for an additional 217 monitors not in the original set in 2006. Although substantial model uncertainty was observed, we were able to estimate that the Title IV Phase 2 emissions reduction program implemented between 1999 and 2005 reduced PM2.5 concentrations in the eastern United States by an average of 1.07 microg/m3 (standard deviation [SD] = 0.11 microg/m3) compared with a counterfactual case defined as there having been no change in emission rates per unit of energy input (1 million British thermal units [BTUs]). On a population-weighted basis, the comparable reduction in PM2.5 was 0.89 microg/m3. Compared with the air quality fate and transport models used by the

  7. In pursuit of clean air: a data book of problems and strategies at the state level. Supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, D.B.; Moser, S.B.; Streets, D.G.

    1980-08-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 and EPA regulations set stringent requirements for the control of emissions in areas where the National Ambient Air Quality Standards were being exceeded. This supplement updates a previous five-volume summary of nonattainment area designations and attainment strategies of the states as of July 1, 1980. It also contains maps of PSD Class I areas and additional information on coal production, coal reserves, and coal quality.

  8. High Mercury Wet Deposition at a "Clean Air" Site in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Shanley, James B; Engle, Mark A; Scholl, Martha; Krabbenhoft, David P; Brunette, Robert; Olson, Mark L; Conroy, Mary E

    2015-10-20

    Atmospheric mercury deposition measurements are rare in tropical latitudes. Here we report on seven years (April 2005 to April 2012, with gaps) of wet Hg deposition measurements at a tropical wet forest in the Luquillo Mountains, northeastern Puerto Rico, U.S. Despite receiving unpolluted air off the Atlantic Ocean from northeasterly trade winds, during two complete years the site averaged 27.9 μg m(-2) yr(-1) wet Hg deposition, or about 30% more than Florida and the Gulf Coast, the highest deposition areas within the U.S. These high Hg deposition rates are driven in part by high rainfall, which averaged 2855 mm yr(-1). The volume-weighted mean Hg concentration was 9.8 ng L(-1), and was highest during summer and lowest during the winter dry season. Rainout of Hg (decreasing concentration with increasing rainfall depth) was minimal. The high Hg deposition was not supported by gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) at ground level, which remained near global background concentrations (<10 pg m(-3)). Rather, a strong positive correlation between Hg concentrations and the maximum height of rain detected within clouds (echo tops) suggests that droplets in high convective cloud tops scavenge GOM from above the mixing layer. The high wet Hg deposition at this "clean air" site suggests that other tropical areas may be hotspots for Hg deposition as well.

  9. Effects of the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments on distributions of visual impairment

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, J.D.; Camp, J.; Trexler, E.C. Jr.

    1996-02-01

    The Acid Rain Provisions (Title IV) of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (1990 CAAA) focus on emission policies designed to reduce the amount of deposition of acidifying pollutants, particularly in the Northeast. The primary strategy is a significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions, with lesser reductions scheduled for NO{sub {times}} emissions. However, lessening of acid deposition is not the only important benefit of the emission control strategy. Decreasing SO{sup {minus}} and NO {sup {minus}} emissions will decrease atmospheric concentrations of sulfate and nitrate particles, which account for much of the visibility reduction associated with regional haze. Although one can get a qualitative sense of how visibility might improve by examining historical large-scale trends in regional emission totals and regional visibility, quantification of the expected improvement requires model simulations. One must model the spatial and temporal patterns of emissions reductions; the relevant pollutant transport, transformation, and removal processes in the atmosphere; and the changes in particulate loading. For this initial examination of the visibility improvement at Shenandoah National Park associated the the Phase I and Phase II SO{sub 2} emission reductions, we have linked emission trend projections taken from ongoing analysis of the 1990 CAAA at Argonne National Laboratory, regional transport modeling with the Advanced Statistical Trajectory Regional Air Pollution (ASTRAP) model and visual impairment modeling with the Visibility Assessment Scoping Model (VASM).

  10. Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in the Neuse River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, M. C.; Knightes, C. D.; Dennis, R. L.; Cooter, E. J.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated impacts of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) NOx emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina, USA from 1990 to 2020. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system were used. CMAQ simulated atmospheric chemical transport and nitrogen deposition. This data was entered into SWAT which simulated watershed hydrology and water quality. Two cases were investigated: one that incorporates CAAA regulatory emissions controls in CMAQ simulation (with) and a second case that does not (without). SWAT model results forecasted a 70% decrease in inorganic nitrogen discharge from the Little River watershed and a 50% decrease for the Nahunta watershed by 2020 under the emission control (with) scenario. Denitrification and plant nitrogen uptake played important roles in nitrogen discharge from each watershed. The nitrogen discharge response time following a change in atmospheric nitrogen deposition was 4 years for the Nahunta watershed and 2 years for the Little River watershed. The longer response time for Nahunta is primarily due to a higher percentage of soybean land cover (22.5% [Nahunta]; 1.6% [Little River]). Agricultural land covers had varied nitrogen response times to changes in atmospheric deposition, particularly for soybean, hay and corn. The studied watersheds retained >80% of all nitrogen delivered by agriculture fertilization, biological fixation and atmospheric deposition.

  11. Exemptions for hookah bars in clean indoor air legislation: a public health concern.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Devon

    2010-01-01

    Popularity of waterpipe smoking or hookah smoking in the United States has been growing for some time now among youth and young adults. Currently, many cities and states have exemptions that allow hookah bars to remain in operation despite the passage of clean indoor air legislation. From a public health perspective this is concerning for many reasons. One public health concern with the increase in popularity of this type of tobacco use is the associated health effects. Another concern is that hookah smoke produces a sweet smelling aroma making it less obvious that patrons and employees of hookah bars are inhaling noxious fumes from mainstream smoke, as well as the toxins from the charcoal that is used to heat the tobacco. The purpose of this paper is to discuss smoke-free air legislation in relation to hookah use, the public health implications of exempting hookah bars from current smoke-free legislation, and implications for the public health nurse in protecting the public from the dangers of second-hand smoke, and limiting this new form of tobacco use.

  12. Assessing the potential visibility benefits of Clean Air Act Title IV emission reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Trexler, E.C. Jr.; Shannon, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    Assessments are made of the benefits of the 1990 Clean Air Act Title IV (COVE), Phase 2, SO2 and NOX reduction provisions, to the visibility in typical eastern and western Class 1 areas. Probable bands of visibility impairment distribution curves are developed for Shenandoah National Park, Smoky Mountain National Park and the Grand Canyon National Park, based on the existing emissions, ``Base Case``, and for the COVE emission reductions, ``CAAA Case``. Emission projections for 2010 are developed with improved versions of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program emission projection models. Source-receptor transfer matrices created with the Advanced Statistical Trajectory Regional Air Pollution (ASTRAP) model are used with existing emission inventories and with the emission projections to calculate atmospheric concentrations of sulfate and nitrate at the receptors of interest for existing and projected emission scenarios. The Visibility Assessment Scoping Model (VASM) is then used to develop distributions of visibility impairment. VASM combines statistics of observed concentrations of particulate species and relative humidity with ASTRAP calculations of the relative changes in atmospheric sulfate and nitrate particulate concentrations in a Monte Carlo approach to produce expected distributions of hourly particulate concentrations and RH. Light extinction relationships developed in theoretical and field studies are then used to calculate the resulting distribution of visibility impairment. Successive Monte Carlo studies are carried out to develop sets of visibility impairment distributions with and without the COVE emission reductions to gain insight into the detectability of expected visibility improvements.

  13. The acid precipitation provisions of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and minorities' energy consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.

    1991-01-01

    In November 1990 Congress passed a comprehensive set of amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1977 with potentially very high compliance costs. The provisions pertaining to control of acid precipitation have been specified with sufficient detail to examine their cost impacts. These provisions will require investment in emissions control technology, mainly by electric utilities. Production costs will increase due to the required investment, resulting in higher electricity prices. This paper examines the possible magnitude of these effects and whether there might be differential impacts on racial/ethnic minority groups. Differential impacts were considered a possibility because of the differences in the percentage of total income spent on energy by various population subgroups. In 1989, the Majority group (defined as non-Black, non-Hispanic) spent about three percent of household income on energy, while Blacks spent double that, six percent, and Hispanics spent about four percent. (The differences in income underlying these figures are greater, however, than the differences in energy expenditures). To address these issues, we compare projected electricity consumption and expenditures and total energy expenditures for Black, Hispanic, and Majority households. The distribution of benefits from reducing acid precipitation is not addressed since the possible effects on ambient air quality in specific geographical areas that are directly attributable to reducing utilities' sulfur dioxide emissions are highly uncertain.

  14. The acid precipitation provisions of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and minorities` energy consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.

    1991-12-31

    In November 1990 Congress passed a comprehensive set of amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1977 with potentially very high compliance costs. The provisions pertaining to control of acid precipitation have been specified with sufficient detail to examine their cost impacts. These provisions will require investment in emissions control technology, mainly by electric utilities. Production costs will increase due to the required investment, resulting in higher electricity prices. This paper examines the possible magnitude of these effects and whether there might be differential impacts on racial/ethnic minority groups. Differential impacts were considered a possibility because of the differences in the percentage of total income spent on energy by various population subgroups. In 1989, the Majority group (defined as non-Black, non-Hispanic) spent about three percent of household income on energy, while Blacks spent double that, six percent, and Hispanics spent about four percent. (The differences in income underlying these figures are greater, however, than the differences in energy expenditures). To address these issues, we compare projected electricity consumption and expenditures and total energy expenditures for Black, Hispanic, and Majority households. The distribution of benefits from reducing acid precipitation is not addressed since the possible effects on ambient air quality in specific geographical areas that are directly attributable to reducing utilities` sulfur dioxide emissions are highly uncertain.

  15. 76 FR 76725 - Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC); Ozone...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... AGENCY Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC); Ozone... Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a public meeting of the CASAC Ozone Review Panel to conduct a peer review of EPA's Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants...

  16. 77 FR 6796 - Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC); Ozone...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    .... The CASAC Ozone Review Panel held a face-to- face meeting on January 9-10, 2012 (as noticed in 76 FR... AGENCY Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC); Ozone... Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a public teleconference of the CASAC Ozone Review Panel...

  17. 76 FR 66285 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for Public Service Company of Colorado dba Xcel Energy--Valmont Power Station AGENCY: Environmental..., 2010, title V permit issued to Public Service Company of Colorado dba Xcel Energy (Xcel)--Valmont...

  18. 76 FR 66286 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for Public Service Company of Colorado dba Xcel Energy--Cherokee Power Station AGENCY: Environmental... 1, 2010, title V permit issued to Public Service Company of Colorado dba Xcel Energy...

  19. 75 FR 7627 - Notice of Lodging of Material Modification to Consent Decree under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... of Lodging of Material Modification to Consent Decree under the Clean Air Act Pursuant to Department of Justice policy, notice is hereby given that, on February 4, 2010, a proposed First Material... equipment to capture and recycle the vast majority of the hot water that is condensed from its use of...

  20. 75 FR 32763 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... level of detail. As announced February 23, 2010 in 75 FR 8062-8063, the CASAC Particulate Matter Review... Advisory Committee (CASAC) Particulate Matter Review Panel AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Office announces a public meeting on July 26-27, 2010 of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory...

  1. 77 FR 7148 - Notice of Approval of Clean Air Act Outer Continental Shelf Permits Issued to Shell Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... AGENCY Notice of Approval of Clean Air Act Outer Continental Shelf Permits Issued to Shell Gulf of Mexico, Inc., and Shell Offshore, Inc. for the Discoverer Drillship AGENCY: United States Environmental...) permit applications, one from Shell Gulf of Mexico, Inc., for operation of the Discoverer drillship...

  2. 78 FR 15739 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Third Modification to Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Third Modification to Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act On February 22... Unit 4); (5) to the installation of 200 MW of renewable energy; (6) to provide the State...

  3. 75 FR 75463 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition To Object to Title V Permit for Luke Paper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition To Object to Title V Permit for Luke Paper... permit issued by the Maryland Department of the Environment (MDE) on January 22, 2009 to Luke Paper... to the issuance of the proposed title V permit for Luke Paper Company because of, (1)...

  4. Effects of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 on Electric Utilities: An Update, The

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Describes the strategies used to comply with the Acid Rain Program in 1995, the effect of compliance on SO2 emissions levels, the cost of compliance, and the effects of the program on coal supply and demand. It updates and expands the EIA report, Electric Utility Phase I Acid Rain Compliance Strategies for the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.

  5. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 15) implementing requirements with respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act...

  6. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 15) implementing requirements with respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act...

  7. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 15) implementing requirements with respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act...

  8. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 15) implementing requirements with respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act...

  9. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Pollution Control Act. Pursuant to regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 15) implementing requirements with respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act...

  10. 75 FR 36069 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to a Federal Operating Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to a Federal Operating Permit for Waste Management of Louisiana L.L.C., Woodside Landfill and Recycling Center (WLRC), Walker,...

  11. 75 FR 42084 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for JP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... petition to object to Clean Air Act (Act) operating permit. SUMMARY: This document announces that the EPA Administrator has granted a petition from the Sierra Club asking EPA to object to a Title V operating permit for...: The Act affords EPA a 45-day period to review, and object, as appropriate, to Title V...

  12. 78 FR 938 - Notification of a Public Meeting and a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... Committee Lead Review Panel AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA... Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Lead Review Panel to conduct a peer review of EPA's Integrated Science Assessment for Lead (Third External Review Draft--November 2012) and EPA's...

  13. 40 CFR 60.2972 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2972 Section 60.2972... Commenced on or After June 16, 2006 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2972 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood...

  14. 40 CFR 60.2972 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2972 Section 60.2972... Commenced on or After June 16, 2006 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2972 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood...

  15. 40 CFR 62.15395 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? 62.15395 Section 62.15395 Protection of... require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? Yes. If you are subject...

  16. 40 CFR 62.15395 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? 62.15395 Section 62.15395 Protection of... require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? Yes. If you are subject...

  17. 40 CFR 62.15395 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? 62.15395 Section 62.15395 Protection of... require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? Yes. If you are subject...

  18. 40 CFR 62.15395 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? 62.15395 Section 62.15395 Protection of... require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? Yes. If you are subject...

  19. 40 CFR 62.15395 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? 62.15395 Section 62.15395 Protection of... require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? Yes. If you are subject...

  20. Plants + microbes: Innovative food crop systems that also clean air and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Wolverton, B. C.

    The limitations that will govern bioregenerative life support applications in space, especially volume and weight, make multi-purpose systems advantageous. This paper outlines two systems which utilize plants and associated microbial communities of root or growth medium to both produce food crops and clean air and water. Underlying these approaches are the large numbers and metabolic diversity of microbes associated with roots and found in either soil or other suitable growth media. It is known that most biogeochemical cycles have a microbial link, and the ability of microbes to metabolize virtually all trace gases, whether of technogenic or biogenic origin, have long been established. Wetland plants and soil/media also been extensively researched for their ability to purify wastewaters of all kinds of potential water pollutants, from nutrients like N and P, to heavy metals and a range of complex industrial pollutants. There is a growing body of research on the ability of higher plants to purify air and water. Associated benefits of these approaches is that by utilizing natural ecological processes, the cleansing of air and water can be done with little or no energy inputs. Soil and root microorganisms respond to changing pollutant types by an increase of the types of organisms with the capacity to use these compounds. Thus living systems have an extraordinary adaptive capacity as long as the starting populations are sufficiently diverse. It is known that tightly sealed environments, from office buildings to spacecraft, can have hundreds or even thousands of potential air pollutants, depending on the materials and machines enclosed. Human waste products carry a plethora of microbes can are readily used in the process of converting its organic load to forms that can be utilized by green plants. Having endogenous means of responding to changing air and water quality conditions represents safety factors which operate without the need for human direction. We will

  1. Plants + soil/wetland microbes: Food crop systems that also clean air and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Wolverton, B. C.

    2011-02-01

    The limitations that will govern bioregenerative life support applications in space, especially volume and weight, make multi-purpose systems advantageous. This paper outlines two systems which utilize plants and associated microbial communities of root or growth medium to both produce food crops and clean air and water. Underlying these approaches are the large numbers and metabolic diversity of microbes associated with roots and found in either soil or other suitable growth media. Biogeochemical cycles have microbial links and the ability of microbes to metabolize virtually all trace gases, whether of technogenic or biogenic origin, has long been established. Wetland plants and the rootzone microbes of wetland soils/media also been extensively researched for their ability to purify wastewaters of a great number of potential water pollutants, from nutrients like N and P, to heavy metals and a range of complex industrial pollutants. There is a growing body of research on the ability of higher plants to purify air and water. Associated benefits of these approaches is that by utilizing natural ecological processes, the cleansing of air and water can be done with little or no energy inputs. Soil and rootzone microorganisms respond to changing pollutant types by an increase of the types of organisms with the capacity to use these compounds. Thus living systems have an adaptive capacity as long as the starting populations are sufficiently diverse. Tightly sealed environments, from office buildings to spacecraft, can have hundreds or even thousands of potential air pollutants, depending on the materials and equipment enclosed. Human waste products carry a plethora of microbes which are readily used in the process of converting its organic load to forms that can be utilized by green plants. Having endogenous means of responding to changing air and water quality conditions represents safety factors as these systems operate without the need for human intervention. We review

  2. State reactions to Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.A.

    1995-12-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 represents a bold step in application of environmental regulation. By setting up a national free market in sulfur dioxide emission allowances, Congress has adopted the position that environmental protection and good economics are not necessarily in opposition. In fact, by carefully crafting legislation these two goals may work in aide of each other. Title IV is intended to achieve a significant reduction in the incidence of acid rain at minimal cost for the nation as a whole. On the other hand, states have traditionally had the greater responsibility for direct regulation of electric utility operations. A national free market in pollution is not welcomed by many state regulatory agencies. Some states are concerned about losing in-state markets for coal; others are unwilling to {open_quotes}import{close_quotes} pollution through the purchase of allowances. A number of states have reacted by passing regulations which limit utilities` choices in developing compliance plans. The Illinois Coal Act, for example, specifically requires two of the largest Illinois coal-fired power plants to install scrubbers and prohibits any plant from reducing its use of Illinois-mined coal by more than 10 percent per year. In December of 1993 the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Illinois ruled, in the case of Alliance for Clean Coal v. Craig, that the Illinois Coal Act violates the Commerce Clause of the U.S. Constitution and permanently enjoined the Illinois Commerce Commission from enforcing it. The state appealed that decision but in January of 1995 the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit upheld the District Court`s opinion. This paper will show that the argument that should be of particular interest from an economics perspective. Finally, the paper will attempt to draw conclusions regarding how state regulators may legitimately integrate the trading of emission allowances into their current regulatory schemes.

  3. 30 CFR 75.320 - Air quality detectors and measurement devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quality detectors and measurement devices... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.320 Air quality detectors and measurement devices. (a) Tests for methane shall be made by a qualified person...

  4. Air Bag Interaction with and Injury Potential from Common Steering Control Devices

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Greg; Dalrymple, Gayle; Ragland, Carl

    1998-01-01

    This study explored the injury potential associated with the use of steering control devices in frontal impacts. Steering control devices, an example of which is the spinner knob, are used by people who have difficulty gripping a steering wheel. These devices typically are clamped to the lower quadrant of the wheel rim and have projections that may extend out toward the occupant up to 14 cm and inward towards the air bag module up to 9 cm. A series of investigations were conducted to determine if the devices would: (1) be propelled off the rim by air bag deployment; (2) compromise air bag performance; and/or (3) cause injury to the driver. The investigations included frontal 48 km/h sled tests, quasi-static load tests, static air bag deployments, out-of-position static air bag deployments, and pendulum tests. Test subjects included the Hybrid III 50th percentile male and Hybrid III 5th percentile female anthropomorphic dummies and a male cadaver. The results indicated that there is little chance of the devices being thrown off the rim by air bag deployment and that the presence of the device had little effect on deployment or air bag performance. In addition, the presence of an air bag reduced the frequency and severity of impacts with the devices. The test results provided ample evidence of the potential of one of the devices, the “tri-pin”, to cause severe injury to the chest upon impact.

  5. Mechanical Agitation For Aqueous Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Hosking, Timothy J.

    1995-01-01

    Cleaning basket placed in aqueous cleaning solution mechanically agitated by air spring. Compressed air at oscillating pressure supplied to air spring to produce repeated vertical motion of cleaning basket.

  6. 40 CFR 60.2151 - By what date must I conduct the annual air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2151 Section 60.2151 Protection of Environment... annual air pollution control device inspection? On an annual basis (no more than 12 months following the previous annual air pollution control device inspection), you must complete the air pollution...

  7. 40 CFR 60.2151 - By what date must I conduct the annual air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2151 Section 60.2151 Protection of Environment... annual air pollution control device inspection? On an annual basis (no more than 12 months following the previous annual air pollution control device inspection), you must complete the air pollution...

  8. EVALUATION OF PERSONAL COOLING DEVICES FOR A DIOXIN CLEAN-UP OPERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study investigated the use of personal coolers to increase worker productivity and safety while working at elevated, ambient temperatures cleaning up dioxin contaminated soil.^The study included laboratory tests to measure the thermal characteristics of the chemical protectiv...

  9. The air elimination capabilities of pressure infusion devices and fluid-warmers.

    PubMed

    Schnoor, J; Macko, S; Weber, I; Rossaint, R

    2004-08-01

    Pressurised infusion devices may have only limited capability to detect and remove air during pressurised infusions. In order to assess pressure infusion systems with regard to their actual air elimination capabilities four disposable pressure infusion systems and fluid warmers were investigated: The Level 1 (L-1), Ranger (RA), Gymar (GY), and the Warmflo (WF). Different volumes of air were injected proximal to the heat exchanger and the remaining amount of air that was delivered at the end of the tubing was measured during pressurised infusions. Elimination of the injected air (100-200 ml) was superior by the RA system when compared to L-1 (p < 0.01). The GY and WF systems failed to eliminate the injected air. In conclusion, air elimination was best performed by the RA system. In terms of the risk of air embolism during pressurised infusions, improvements in air elimination of the investigated devices are still necessary. PMID:15270975

  10. Evaluation of six aerator modules built on venturi air injectors using clean water test.

    PubMed

    Dong, C; Zhu, J; Miller, C F

    2009-01-01

    Six aerator modules constructed using venturi air injectors connected in either series or parallel were evaluated and compared for their oxygen transfer coefficients (OTC), standard oxygen transfer rate (SOTR), and standard oxygenation efficiency (SOE) determined by clean water tests. Modules in series (module a, b, c) included one, two, and three venturi injectors, respectively. The aerator module with two (module d) and three (module e, f) venturi injectors in parallel were used, while module f had less friction and more even flow rate in each line compared with module e. The results showed that the OTC, SOTR, and SOE for the six different module configurations (module a, b, c, d, e, f) were 4.54, 3.79, 3.58, 8.37, 5.93 and 11.87 h(-1); 0.10, 0.09, 0.09, 0.18, 0.15, and 0.31 kgO(2)/h; and 0.07, 0.06, 0.06, 0.12, 0.10, and 0.21 kgO(2)/kWh, respectively. The observations indicate that a 3-fold increase in SOTR and 3.5-fold increase in SOE can be obtained by simply changing the way that venturi air injectors are connected, which suggests that it is possible to improve the aeration efficiency of a venturi type aeration system by innovative aerator module designs. In view of the situation that the venturi aeration systems currently used for swine manure lagoons need significant improvement in their performance in order to match the cost-effective requirement, more research in aerator module development is needed so that effective control of odor from liquid swine manure lagoons can be achieved at an affordable cost. The technology such developed can also be applied to other livestock species. PMID:19717924

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVICES/CLEAN DIESEL TECHNOLOGIES FUEL BORNE CATALYST WITH CLEANAIR SYSTEM'S DIESEL OXIDATION CATALYST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Fuel-Borne Catalyst with CleanAir System's Diesel Oxidation Catalyst manufactured by Clean Diesel Technologies, Inc. The technology is a fuel-borne catalyst used in ultra low sulfur d...

  12. Evidence of recovery of Juniperus virginiana trees from sulfur pollution after the Clean Air Act.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Richard B; Spal, Scott E; Smith, Kenneth R; Nippert, Jesse B

    2013-09-17

    Using dendroisotopic techniques, we show the recovery of Juniperus virginiana L. (eastern red cedar) trees in the Central Appalachian Mountains from decades of acidic pollution. Acid deposition over much of the 20th century reduced stomatal conductance of leaves, thereby increasing intrinsic water-use efficiency of the Juniperus trees. These data indicate that the stomata of Juniperus may be more sensitive to acid deposition than to increasing atmospheric CO2. A breakpoint in the 100-y δ(13)C tree ring chronology occurred around 1980, as the legacy of sulfur dioxide emissions declined following the enactment of the Clean Air Act in 1970, indicating a gradual increase in stomatal conductance (despite rising levels of atmospheric CO2) and a concurrent increase in photosynthesis related to decreasing acid deposition and increasing atmospheric CO2. Tree ring δ(34)S shows a synchronous change in the sources of sulfur used at the whole-tree level that indicates a reduced anthropogenic influence. The increase in growth and the δ(13)C and δ(34)S trends in the tree ring chronology of these Juniperus trees provide evidence for a distinct physiological response to changes in atmospheric SO2 emissions since ∼1980 and signify the positive impacts of landmark environmental legislation to facilitate recovery of forest ecosystems from acid deposition.

  13. Effects of venue-specific state clean indoor air laws on smoking-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bitler, Marianne P; Carpenter, Christopher S; Zavodny, Madeline

    2010-12-01

    A large literature has documented relationships between state clean indoor air laws (SCIALs) and smoking-related outcomes in the United States. These laws vary within states over time and across venues such as schools, government buildings, and bars. Few studies, however, have evaluated whether the effects of SCIALs are plausibly concentrated among workers who should have been directly affected because they worked at locations covered by the venue-specific restrictions. We fill this gap in the literature using data on private sector workers, government employees, school workers, eating and drinking place workers, and bartenders from the 1992-2007 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey. Our quasi-experimental models indicate robust effects of SCIALs restricting smoking in bars: these laws significantly increased the presence of workplace smoking restrictions as reported by bartenders and reduced the fraction of bartenders who smoke. We do not, however, find that SCIALs in private workplaces, government workplaces, schools, or restaurants increased the presence of workplace smoking restrictions among groups of workers working in venues covered by these laws. This suggests that the smoking reductions associated with SCIALs in previous research are unlikely to have been directly caused by effects of workplace smoking restrictions on workers.

  14. The 1990 Clean Air Act and the implicit price of sulfur in coal - article no. 41

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, I.; Bellas, A.S.

    2007-07-01

    Prior to implementation of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), many estimates of the marginal cost of SO{sub 2} abatement were provided to guide policy makers. Numerous studies estimated the marginal cost of abatement to be between $250 and $760 per ton, though permits initially traded well below $200 and remained below $220 until 2004. We use a fixed effects estimator and a hedonic price model of coal purchases in order to determine the implicit price of sulfur. Data on contract coal purchases are divided into regulatory regimes based on when the contract was signed or re-negotiated. We find that purchases by Phase I plants made under contracts signed or re-negotiated after the passage of the 1990 CAAA show an implicit price of SO{sub 2} of approximately $50 per ton, an amount much closer to the eventual permit price. The implicit market price of sulfur seems to have revealed better information than did the calculations of industry experts.

  15. Evidence of recovery of Juniperus virginiana trees from sulfur pollution after the Clean Air Act.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Richard B; Spal, Scott E; Smith, Kenneth R; Nippert, Jesse B

    2013-09-17

    Using dendroisotopic techniques, we show the recovery of Juniperus virginiana L. (eastern red cedar) trees in the Central Appalachian Mountains from decades of acidic pollution. Acid deposition over much of the 20th century reduced stomatal conductance of leaves, thereby increasing intrinsic water-use efficiency of the Juniperus trees. These data indicate that the stomata of Juniperus may be more sensitive to acid deposition than to increasing atmospheric CO2. A breakpoint in the 100-y δ(13)C tree ring chronology occurred around 1980, as the legacy of sulfur dioxide emissions declined following the enactment of the Clean Air Act in 1970, indicating a gradual increase in stomatal conductance (despite rising levels of atmospheric CO2) and a concurrent increase in photosynthesis related to decreasing acid deposition and increasing atmospheric CO2. Tree ring δ(34)S shows a synchronous change in the sources of sulfur used at the whole-tree level that indicates a reduced anthropogenic influence. The increase in growth and the δ(13)C and δ(34)S trends in the tree ring chronology of these Juniperus trees provide evidence for a distinct physiological response to changes in atmospheric SO2 emissions since ∼1980 and signify the positive impacts of landmark environmental legislation to facilitate recovery of forest ecosystems from acid deposition. PMID:24003125

  16. Clean air, clear market. Making emissions trading work: The role of a computer-assisted auction

    SciTech Connect

    Bartels, C.W.; Marron, D.B.; Lipsky, M.I.

    1993-06-15

    Creating a new commodity presents the chance to develop new markets in which to trade it. In many cases, existing markets can be adapted easily; in other cases it proves worthwhile to develop new forms that reflect special characteristics of the commodity and those who trade it. In the case of the sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) emission allowances created by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, a number of standard market forms already have been adopted. While these will prove useful for handling some transactions, a new Market Clearing Auction (MCA) offers buyers and sellers a centralized marketplace for trading SO[sub 2] emission allowances. The MCA, which was developed by the brokerage firm Cantor Fitzgerald, is a computer-assisted [open quotes]smart[close quotes] auction designed to replicate the outcome of an efficient market in emission allowances, and accepts bids and offers for any possible combination of allowances. Orders can be submitted for streams of allowances. Orders can be submitted for streams of allowances covering more than one year. The auction then determines the combination of bids and offers that maximizes the gains from trades in the market, and establishes uniform market clearing prices for each allowance issue (1995, 1996, and so on). Once executed, trades are settled on a cash-forward basis; that is, allowances are delivered and payments are made at future dates.

  17. Effects of venue-specific state clean indoor air laws on smoking-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bitler, Marianne P; Carpenter, Christopher S; Zavodny, Madeline

    2010-12-01

    A large literature has documented relationships between state clean indoor air laws (SCIALs) and smoking-related outcomes in the United States. These laws vary within states over time and across venues such as schools, government buildings, and bars. Few studies, however, have evaluated whether the effects of SCIALs are plausibly concentrated among workers who should have been directly affected because they worked at locations covered by the venue-specific restrictions. We fill this gap in the literature using data on private sector workers, government employees, school workers, eating and drinking place workers, and bartenders from the 1992-2007 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey. Our quasi-experimental models indicate robust effects of SCIALs restricting smoking in bars: these laws significantly increased the presence of workplace smoking restrictions as reported by bartenders and reduced the fraction of bartenders who smoke. We do not, however, find that SCIALs in private workplaces, government workplaces, schools, or restaurants increased the presence of workplace smoking restrictions among groups of workers working in venues covered by these laws. This suggests that the smoking reductions associated with SCIALs in previous research are unlikely to have been directly caused by effects of workplace smoking restrictions on workers. PMID:19998352

  18. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and the Great Lakes economy: Challenges and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.; Molburg, J.; Pandola, G.; Taxon, T.; Lurie, G.; Fisher, R.; Boyd, G. ); Fox, J. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with the market for SO{sub 2} emission allowances over time and electric utility compliance choices. For currently high emitting plants ( > 2.5 lb SO{sub 2}/MMBtu), the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) provide for about twice as many SO{sub 2} allowances to be issued per year in Phase 1 (1995--1999) than in Phase 2. Also, considering the scrubber incentives in Phase 1, there is likely to be substantial emission banking for use in Phase 2. Allowance prices are expected to increase over time at a rate less than the return on alternative investments, so utilities which are risk neutral or other potential speculators in the allowance market are not expected to bank allowances. The allowances will be banked by risk averse utilities or the utilities may buy forward contracts for SO{sub 2} allowances. However, speculators may play an important role by selling forward contracts for SO{sub 2} allowances to the risk averse utilities. The Argonne Utility Simulation Model (ARGUS) is being revised to incorporate the provisions of the CAAA acid rain title and to simulate SO{sub 2} allowance prices, compliance choices, capacity expansion, system dispatch, fuel use, and emissions. The revised model (ARGUS2) incorporates unit-level performance data and can incorporate unit-specific compliance decisions when these are known. The model has been designed for convenience in analyzing alternatives scenarios (demand growth rates, technology mix, economic parameters, etc). 1 ref., 5 figs.

  19. Public Utility Commission implementation of the Clean Air Act's allowance trading program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), Acid Deposition Control,' will reduce by the year 2000 annual sulfur dioxide emissions by 10 million tons below the 1980 level, and nitrogen oxide emissions by 2 million tons. Emissions of sulfur dioxide will then be limited to 8.95 million tons per year after 2000. To control sulfur dioxide emissions, Title IV created a new regulatory instrument -- an emission allowance or credit -- that electric power producers (utilities and others) will be required to possess and expend to emit sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere. Electric utilities and others will be allowed to buy and sell the emission allowances in an allowance trading system. Cost estimates of implementing Title IV provisions put the cost 50 to 75 percent higher than with the allowance trading system. Estimates of this potential savings vary from 1 to 3 billion dollars annually. This report discusses the administrative roles of various agencies in implementing Title IV and allocating the emission allowance. The cost of compliance and the effect of compliance on the utilities industry is discussed.

  20. Rapid on-site air sampling with a needle extraction device for evaluating the indoor air environment in school facilities.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Mitsuru; Mizuguchi, Ayako; Ueta, Ikuo; Takahashi, Kazuya; Saito, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    A rapid on-site air sampling technique was developed with a miniaturized needle-type sample preparation device for a systematic evaluation of the indoor air environments in school facilities. With the in-needle extraction device packed with a polymer particle of divinylbenzene and activated carbon particles, various types of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were successfully extracted. For evaluating the indoor air qualities in school facilities, air samples in renovated rooms using organic solvent as a thinner of the paint were analyzed along with measurements of several VOCs in indoor air samples taken in newly built primary schools mainly using low-VOCs materials. After periodical renovation/maintenance, the time-variation profile of typical VOCs found in the school facilities has also been monitored. From the results, it could be observed that the VOCs in most of the rooms in these primary schools were at a quite low level; however, a relatively higher concentration of VOCs was found in some specially designed rooms, such as music rooms. In addition, some non-regulated compounds, including benzyl alcohol and branched alkanes, were detected in these primary schools. The results showed a good applicability of the needle device to indoor air analysis in schools, suggesting a wide range of future employment of the needle device, especially for indoor air analysis in other types of facilities and rooms including hospitals and hotels. PMID:23665624

  1. Surface cleaning effects on reliability for devices with ultrathin oxides or oxynitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Kafai; Hao, Ming-Yin; Chen, Wei-Ming; Lee, Jack C.

    1994-09-01

    A new wafer cleaning procedure has been developed for ultra-thin thermal oxidation process (clean and a two-step dip, first in diluted HF and then in a methanol/HF solution, with no final DI water rinse. Ultrathin thermal oxides (48 angstrom) and oxynitrides grown in N2O (42 angstrom) were prepared using this new cleaning and other commonly used cleaning methods to investigate the effects of surface preparation on dielectric integrity. It has been found that this two-dip method produces dielectrics with reduced leakage current and stress-induced leakage current, which are believed to be the critical parameters for ultrathin oxides. Furthermore, this new cleaning procedure improves both intrinsic and defect-related breakdown as well as the uniformity of the current- voltage characteristics across a 4-inch wafer. The methanol/HF dip time has also been optimized. The improvement is believed to be due to enhanced silicon surface passivation by hydrogen, the reduced surface micro-roughness and the absence of native oxide.

  2. Ultrasonic extraction followed by a novel filtration and clean-up device for screening of some polyphenols in tobaccos.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xungang; Cai, Jibao; Yang, Jun; Su, Qingde

    2005-02-01

    A simple and efficient HPLC method using a diode array detector (DAD) was developed for simultaneous determination of six polyphenols in tobaccos. Ultrasonic extraction was employed at 25 degrees C to extract the polyphenols present in tobaccos into anhydrous methanol. A novel filtration device linked to a clean-up cartridge was designed for simultaneous extract filtration and clean-up. Optimized HPLC-DAD analysis, with multi-wavelength detection, was used for determination of the polyphenols. Because the content of some of the polyphenols is too low to be quantified directly, a concentration step was necessary. Anhydrous methanol was employed for extraction of the polyphenols because of its high extraction efficiency and its low boiling point in the concentration step. Using the proposed method, six polyphenols were quantified in tobaccos (Nicotina tobaccum L.).

  3. Analysis of S. 485, the Clear Skies Act of 2003, and S. 843, the Clean Air Planning Act of 2003

    EIA Publications

    2003-01-01

    On July 30, 2003, Senator James M. Inhofe requested the Energy Information Administration to undertake analyses of S.843, The Clean Air Planning Act of 2003, introduced by Senator Thomas Carper, and S.485, Clear Skies Act of 2003. Senator Inhofe also asked the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to analyze S. 485 without the mercury provisions and S. 843 without the mercury and carbon dioxide provisions. This service report responds to both requests.

  4. Use of a portable fluorescence imaging device to facilitate cleaning of deli slicers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cross-contamination is a recognized food safety concern for deli departments, and deli slicers remain a particular concern. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that deli commodity residues can be detected using fluorescence imaging, and that the efficacy of cleaning and sanitation in produce proc...

  5. Interactions between energy efficiency and emission trading under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Hillsman, E.L.; Alvic, D.R.

    1994-08-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments affect electric utilities in numerous ways. The feature that probably has received the greatest attention is the provision to let utilities trade emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), while at the same time requiring them to reduce S0{sub 2} emissions in 2000 by an aggregate 43%. The emission trading system was welcomed by many as a way of reducing the cost of reducing emissions, by providing greater flexibility than past approaches. This report examines some of the potential interactions between trading emissions and increasing end-use energy efficiency. The analysis focuses on emission trading in the second phase of the trading program, which begins in 2000. The aggregate effects, calculated by an emission compliance and trading model, turn out to be rather small. Aggressive improvement of end-use efficiency by all utilities might reduce allowance prices by $22/ton (1990 dollars), which is small compared to the reduction that has occurred in the estimates of future allowance prices and when compared to the roughly $400/ton price we estimate as a base case. However, the changes in the allowance market that result are large enough to affect some compliance decisions. If utilities in only a few states improve end-use efficiency aggressively, their actions may not have a large effect on the price of an allowance, but they could alter the demand for allowances and thereby the compliance decisions of utilities in other states. The analysis shows how improving electricity end-use efficiency in some states can cause smaller emission reductions in other states, relative to what would have happened without the improvements. Such a result, while not surprising given the theory behind the emission trading system, is upsetting to people who view emissions, environmental protection, and energy efficiency in moral rather than strictly economic terms.

  6. Allowance trading under the Clean Air Act: Who should regulate, and when?

    SciTech Connect

    Lock, R.

    1993-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore how compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), especially Title IV and emission trading under it, will affect the current relationship between state and federal regulation. It is difficult, with the limited experience we have had under Title IV, to be definitive about or to be a very strong advocate of too many policy positions. What may be most helpful at this point is to identify where the difficult issues in state/federal relations might arise; and then to explore ways in which tensions might be either avoided or resolved. One anticipated conclusion is that a traditional regulatory mindset could be very destructive if applied to this new area of oversight without due sensitivity to what Congress is trying to achieve in Title IV. That concern pervaded the early legislative debates; and it persists today. Title IV presents some unique challenges to state regulators and will require some creative solutions and fresh thinking if the goals of Congress are to be realized and the full benefits that allowance trading can offer are to be reaped by electricity consumers. In the ultimate analysis, Title IV amounts to a massive internalization of the external costs imposed on society by acid rain deposition. (This places in serious question the notion of additional externality {open_quotes}adders{close_quotes} for sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) at the state level for utility supply planning purposes.) The whole point of Title IV is to give those directly charged with compliance, namely power producers, the maximum flexibility to pursue least-cost compliance solutions. Perhaps the biggest single factor in how well they do this will be how state regulators respond to their compliance and allowance trading initiatives.

  7. Regulatory policy issues and the Clean Air Act: Issues and papers from the state implementation workshops

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K.; Burns, R.E.

    1993-07-01

    The National Regulatory Research Institute (NRRI), with funding from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), conducted four regional workshops` on state public utility commission implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). The workshops had four objectives: (1) to discuss key issues and concerns on CAAA implementation, (2) to encourage a discussion among states on issues of common interests, (3) to attempt to reach consensus, where possible, on key issues, and (4) to provide the workshop participants with information and materials to assist in developing state rules, orders, and procedures. From the federal perspective, a primary goal was to ensure that workshop participants return to their states with a comprehensive background and understanding of how state commission actions may affect implementation of the CAAA and to be able to provide guidance to their jurisdictional utilities. It was hoped that this would reduce some of the uncertainty utilities face and assist in the development of an efficient allowance market. This report is divided into two main sections. In Section II, eleven principal issues are identified and discussed. These issues were chosen because they were either the most frequently discussed or they were related to the questions asked in response to the speakers` presentations. This section does not cover all the issues relevant to state implementation nor all the issues discussed at the workshops; rather, Section II is intended to provide an overview of the,planning, ratemaking, and multistate issues. Part III is a series of workshop papers presented by some of the speakers. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  8. Effects of welding fumes on nuclear air cleaning system carbon adsorber banks

    SciTech Connect

    Roberson, P.W.

    1997-08-01

    Standard Technical Specifications for nuclear air cleaning systems include requirements for surveillance tests following fire, painting, or chemical release in areas communicating with the affected system. To conservatively implement this requirement, many plants categorize welding as a chemical release process, and institute controls to ensure that welding fumes do not interact with carbon adsorbers in a filter system. After reviewing research data that indicated welding had a minimal impact on adsorber iodine removal efficiency, further testing was performed with the goal of establishing a welding threshold. It was anticipated that some quantity of weld electrodes could be determined that had a corresponding detrimental impact on iodine removal efficiency for the exposed adsorber. This value could be used to determine a conservative sampling schedule that would allow the station to perform laboratory testing to ensure system degradation did not occur without a full battery of surveillance tests. A series of tests was designed to demonstrate carbon efficiency versus cumulative welding fume exposure. Three series of tests were performed, one for each of three different types of commonly used weld electrodes. Carbon sampling was performed at baseline conditions, and every five pounds of electrode thereafter. Two different laboratory tests were performed for each sample; one in accordance with ASTM 3803/1989 at 95% relative humidity and 30 degrees C, and another using the less rigorous conditions of 70% relative humidity and 80 degrees C. Review of the test data for all three types of electrodes failed to show a significant correlation between carbon efficiency degradation and welding fume exposure. Accordingly, welding is no longer categorized as a `chemical release process` at McGuire Nuclear Station, and limits on welding fume interaction with ventilation systems have been eliminated. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Regulatory policy issues and the Clean Air Act: An interim report on the state implementation workshops

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K.; Burns, R.E.

    1992-08-01

    The National Regulatory Research Institute (NRRI), with funding from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), conducted two workshops on state public utility commission implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). The first workshop was held in Charlotte, North Carolina for southern and eastern states in April 1992 and the second was held in St. Louis, Missouri for Midwestern states in May. The workshops had four objectives: (1) discuss key issues and concerns on CAAA implementation, (2) encourage a discussion among states on issues of common interest, (3) attempt to reach consensus, where possible, on some key issues, and (4) provide the workshop participants with information and materials to assist in developing rules, orders, and procedures in their state. Of primary interest from the federal perspective was for workshop participants to return to their states with additional background and understanding of how state commission actions may affect implementation of the CAAA and enable them to provide guidance to their jurisdictional utilities. It was hoped this would reduce some of the uncertainty utilities face and assist in the development of an efficient allowance market. The basic format of the workshops was that invited speakers made presentations on specific issues. {open_quotes}Primary participants{close_quotes} from each state and other workshop attendees then discussed the issues raised by the speakers and other related concerns. The primary participants were state commissioners, commission staff, representatives from state consumer advocate organizations, EPA, DOE, and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). Other attendees were utility representatives, consultants, and other interested parties. All participants were given a workbook with excerpts from an NRRI report on CAAA implementation and papers or outlines from speakers.

  10. An analysis of SO sub 2 emission compliance under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.A.; Cilek, C.M.; Pandola, G.; Taxon, T.

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of SO{sub 2} emission allowance trading under Title 4 of the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA) is of great interest due to the innovative nature of this market incentive approach. However, it may be a mistake to frame the compliance problem for a utility as a decision to trade or not. Trading of allowances should be the consequence, not the decision. The two meaningful decision variables for a utility are the control approaches chosen for its units and the amount of allowances to hold in its portfolio of assets for the future. The number allowances to be bought or sold (i.e. traded) is determined by the emission reduction and banking decisions. Our preferred approach is to think of the problem in terms of ABC's of the 1990 CAA Amendments: abatement strategy, banking, and cost competitiveness. The implications of the general principles presented in this paper on least cost emission reductions and emissions banking to hedge against risk are being simulated with version 2 of the ARGUS model representing the electric utility sector and regional coal supplies and transportation rates. A rational expectations forecast for allowances prices is being computed. The computed allowance price path has the property that demand for allowances by electric utilities for current use or for banking must equal the supply of allowances issued by the federal government or provided as forward market contracts in private market transactions involving non-utility speculators. From this rational expectations equilibrium forecast, uncertainties are being explored using sensitivity tests. Some of the key issues are the amount of scrubbing and when it is economical to install it, the amount of coal switching and how much low sulfur coal premiums will be bid up; and the amount of emission trading within utilities and among different utilities.

  11. An analysis of SO{sub 2} emission compliance under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.A.; Cilek, C.M.; Pandola, G.; Taxon, T.

    1992-07-01

    The effectiveness of SO{sub 2} emission allowance trading under Title 4 of the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA) is of great interest due to the innovative nature of this market incentive approach. However, it may be a mistake to frame the compliance problem for a utility as a decision to trade or not. Trading of allowances should be the consequence, not the decision. The two meaningful decision variables for a utility are the control approaches chosen for its units and the amount of allowances to hold in its portfolio of assets for the future. The number allowances to be bought or sold (i.e. traded) is determined by the emission reduction and banking decisions. Our preferred approach is to think of the problem in terms of ABC`s of the 1990 CAA Amendments: abatement strategy, banking, and cost competitiveness. The implications of the general principles presented in this paper on least cost emission reductions and emissions banking to hedge against risk are being simulated with version 2 of the ARGUS model representing the electric utility sector and regional coal supplies and transportation rates. A rational expectations forecast for allowances prices is being computed. The computed allowance price path has the property that demand for allowances by electric utilities for current use or for banking must equal the supply of allowances issued by the federal government or provided as forward market contracts in private market transactions involving non-utility speculators. From this rational expectations equilibrium forecast, uncertainties are being explored using sensitivity tests. Some of the key issues are the amount of scrubbing and when it is economical to install it, the amount of coal switching and how much low sulfur coal premiums will be bid up; and the amount of emission trading within utilities and among different utilities.

  12. We Care for Clean Air! The Contribution of ACCENT to Education and Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuepbach, Eva; Brimblecombe, Peter; Gross, Krisjanis; Jacobs, Mark J.; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Annette; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Slini, Theodora; Übelis, Arnolds; Uherek, Elmar

    2010-05-01

    A new booklet on: "We Care for Clean Air! Motivating the Next Generation of Atmospheric Scientists" (ISBN 978-88-95665-01-6) as recently published by the education community in ACCENT (www.accent-network.org/portal/education) is presented. Promoting creative and innovative researchers and teachers and encouraging the next generation to move into the field were among the key issues in ACCENT "Training and Education" (T&E). During the 5-year programme, a wealth of educational events (e.g., workshops) and programmes (e.g., "ACCENT FAR EAST") were organized and tools developed for teachers and learners at Universities and Schools around the globe. Activities such as National ACCENT Days or Cafés Scientifiques also targeted stakeholders, policy makers and the general public to increase the expertise in atmospheric composition change to a common level across Europe. The volume introduces the integrated learning environment, high-quality tools and methods for air quality and climate change science education created by ACCENT T&E, and provides an overview on the unbiased scientific information that has been didactically translated based on knowledge available from ongoing research projects.The core messages are that (i) the translation of complex issues in atmospheric composition and climate change science to non-scientists should be scientifically acceptable and that (ii) scientists should stay in control of the translation process. After the publication of the 4th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) in 2007, ACCENT intensified its efforts to reach greater visibility and distribute the body of know-how, skills and competencies within the networked community of atmospheric scientists in the World Wide Web. For example, a Special Issue of the "Global Change Magazine for Schools" on IPCC 2007 contains a compact introduction to the basics of global warming for direct application in the classroom, also focusing on uncertainties and

  13. 40 CFR 60.2706 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2706 Section 60.2706 Protection of Environment... Requirements § 60.2706 By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection must be conducted within 60 days after installation of...

  14. 40 CFR 60.2141 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2141 Section 60.2141 Protection of Environment... Compliance Requirements § 60.2141 By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection must be conducted within 60 days...

  15. 40 CFR 62.14441 - When must I inspect my HMIWI equipment and air pollution control devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and air pollution control devices? 62.14441 Section 62.14441 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... my HMIWI equipment and air pollution control devices? (a) You must inspect your large, medium, small... inspect the air pollution control devices on your large, medium, small or small rural HMIWI by May...

  16. 40 CFR 60.2706 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2706 Section 60.2706 Protection of Environment... pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection must be... meeting the amended emission limitations. (b) Within 10 operating days following an air pollution...

  17. 40 CFR 60.2706 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2706 Section 60.2706 Protection of Environment... pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection must be... meeting the amended emission limitations. (b) Within 10 operating days following an air pollution...

  18. 40 CFR 60.2706 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2706 Section 60.2706 Protection of Environment... pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection must be... meeting the amended emission limitations. (b) Within 10 operating days following an air pollution...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2141 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2141 Section 60.2141 Protection of Environment... Compliance Requirements § 60.2141 By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection must be conducted within 60 days...

  20. 40 CFR 62.14441 - When must I inspect my HMIWI equipment and air pollution control devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and air pollution control devices? 62.14441 Section 62.14441 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... my HMIWI equipment and air pollution control devices? (a) You must inspect your large, medium, small... inspect the air pollution control devices on your large, medium, small or small rural HMIWI by May...