Science.gov

Sample records for air cleaning technology

  1. Air Cleaning Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  2. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Hazardous Air Pollutant Requirements and the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; DePhillips, M.; Fthenakis, V.M. ); Hemenway, A. )

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the US Department of Energy -- Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) is to provide the US energy marketplace with advanced, efficient, and environmentally sound coal-based technologies. The design, construction, and operation of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Projects (CCTDP) will generate data needed to make informed, confident decisions on the commercial readiness of these technologies. These data also will provide information needed to ensure a proactive response by DOE and its industrial partners to the establishment of new regulations or a reactive response to existing regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The objectives of this paper are to: (1) Present a preliminary examination of the potential implications of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) -- Title 3 Hazardous Air Pollutant requirements to the commercialization of CCTDP; and (2) help define options available to DOE and its industrial partners to respond to this newly enacted Legislation.

  3. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Hazardous Air Pollutant Requirements and the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; DePhillips, M.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Hemenway, A.

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of the US Department of Energy -- Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) is to provide the US energy marketplace with advanced, efficient, and environmentally sound coal-based technologies. The design, construction, and operation of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Projects (CCTDP) will generate data needed to make informed, confident decisions on the commercial readiness of these technologies. These data also will provide information needed to ensure a proactive response by DOE and its industrial partners to the establishment of new regulations or a reactive response to existing regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The objectives of this paper are to: (1) Present a preliminary examination of the potential implications of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) -- Title 3 Hazardous Air Pollutant requirements to the commercialization of CCTDP; and (2) help define options available to DOE and its industrial partners to respond to this newly enacted Legislation.

  4. RESEARCH AREA -- FLUE GAS CLEANING (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Technology Branch's (APPCD, NRMRL)flue gas cleaning program supports New Source Performance Standards regulations development and has fostered the development of technologies that today are considered industry standards. These include both dry and wet flue gas d...

  5. 77 FR 41930 - Bleed Air Cleaning and Monitoring Equipment and Technology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... Privacy Act Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478... industry developers, manufacturers, and the public related to effective air cleaning technology and...

  6. Air Pollution Studies in Metromanila and Catalysis Technology Towards Clean Air Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, S. M.

    - Considerable air quality and emission data gathered in Metropolitan Manila (MM) led to the development of automobile exhaust treatment catalysts as well as their continued improvement. Findings of a 5-year (1993-1998) collaborative work on the development of base metal oxide catalysts for automobile exhaust are summarized here. One study in 1991 reveals an average 16% increase in the number of motor vehicles in MM where 16% are new and the rest are old ones. Another study in 1992 shows the CO and hydrocarbon emission levels from different types of motor vehicles in MM as a function of the age of the vehicle, type of fuel, and the operating condition. Reports of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) and other related studies also provided data showing the quality of air in MM. Currently, there are several requirements to further improve the catalyst performance towards the reduction of NOX and to develop catalyst-sorbent for simultaneous NOX-SOX removal. This is so because of the present condition of rain acidification that is found in certain places in MM. These air quality and emission data are needed not only to establish practical emission standards for motor vehicles and the stationary industries and power plants but also in the development of technologies for air pollution control and other clean technologies for cleaner air in the country.

  7. Self-scrubbing coal{sup TM}: An integrated approach to clean air. A proposed Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared by the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE), with compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, Council on Environmental Quality (CE) regulations for implementating NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508) and DOE regulations for compliance with NEPA (10 CFR 1021), to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with a proposed demonstration project to be cost-shared by DOE and Custom Coals International (CCI) under the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program of DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy. CCI is a Pennsylvania general partnership located in Pittsburgh, PA engaged in the commercialization of advanced coal cleaning technologies. The proposed federal action is for DOE to provide, through a cooperative agreement with CCI, cost-shared funding support for the land acquisition, design, construction and demonstration of an advanced coal cleaning technology project, {open_quotes}Self-Scrubbing Coal: An Integrated Approach to Clean Air.{close_quotes} The proposed demonstration project would take place on the site of the presently inactive Laurel Coal Preparation Plant in Shade Township, Somerset County, PA. A newly constructed, advanced design, coal preparation plant would replace the existing facility. The cleaned coal produced from this new facility would be fired in full-scale test burns at coal-fired electric utilities in Indiana, Ohio and PA as part of this project.

  8. Can commonly-used fan-driven air cleaning technologies improve indoor air quality? A literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinping; Mo, Jinhan; Li, Yuguo; Sundell, Jan; Wargocki, Pawel; Zhang, Jensen; Little, John C.; Corsi, Richard; Deng, Qihong; Leung, Michael H. K.; Fang, Lei; Chen, Wenhao; Li, Jinguang; Sun, Yuexia

    2011-08-01

    Air cleaning techniques have been applied worldwide with the goal of improving indoor air quality. The effectiveness of applying these techniques varies widely, and pollutant removal efficiency is usually determined in controlled laboratory environments which may not be realized in practice. Some air cleaners are largely ineffective, and some produce harmful by-products. To summarize what is known regarding the effectiveness of fan-driven air cleaning technologies, a state-of-the-art review of the scientific literature was undertaken by a multidisciplinary panel of experts from Europe, North America, and Asia with expertise in air cleaning, aerosol science, medicine, chemistry and ventilation. The effects on health were not examined. Over 26,000 articles were identified in major literature databases; 400 were selected as being relevant based on their titles and abstracts by the first two authors, who further reduced the number of articles to 160 based on the full texts. These articles were reviewed by the panel using predefined inclusion criteria during their first meeting. Additions were also made by the panel. Of these, 133 articles were finally selected for detailed review. Each article was assessed independently by two members of the panel and then judged by the entire panel during a consensus meeting. During this process 59 articles were deemed conclusive and their results were used for final reporting at their second meeting. The conclusions are that: (1) None of the reviewed technologies was able to effectively remove all indoor pollutants and many were found to generate undesirable by-products during operation. (2) Particle filtration and sorption of gaseous pollutants were among the most effective air cleaning technologies, but there is insufficient information regarding long-term performance and proper maintenance. (3) The existing data make it difficult to extract information such as Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR), which represents a common benchmark for

  9. Nuclear air cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1994-12-31

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters.

  10. The Clean Air Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalone-King, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Clean Air game which teaches about air quality and its vital importance for life. Introduces students to air pollutants, health of people and environment, and possible actions individuals can take to prevent air pollution. Includes directions for the game. (YDS)

  11. Saving energy and improving IAQ through application of advanced air cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J; Destaillats, H.; Sidheswaran, M.A.

    2011-03-01

    In the future, we may be able use air cleaning systems and reduce rates of ventilation (i.e., reduce rates of outdoor air supply) to save energy, with indoor air quality (IAQ) remaining constant or even improved. The opportunity is greatest for commercial buildings because they usually have a narrower range of indoor pollutant sources than homes. This article describes the types of air cleaning systems that will be needed in commercial buildings.

  12. 75 FR 22548 - Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... in Accordance With Clean Air Act Sections, Sections 112(g) and 112(j) AGENCY: Environmental... Center, Environmental Protection Agency, Mailcode: 6102T, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington,...

  13. Clearing the Air: The Impact of the Clean Air Act on Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, John C., Ed.; And Others

    This compendium has been prepared to summarize the notable aspects of the U. S. Clear Air Amendments of 1970 for members of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and others. The work is not a complete explanation of the law and all of its ramifications; it is, rather, an expedient means to gain rapid insight into the more…

  14. Senate passes clean air bill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In an 89 to 11 vote the Senate passed a clean air bill aimed at reducing pollution by the turn of the century by imposing tougher controls on American industry. The bill is the first revision of the Clean Air Act of 1970 in 13 years and calls for new limits on auto pollution to clean up smog in most U.S. cities, decreasing by half emissions by power plants that cause acid rain to protect the ecology, and increasing technological controls on factories to protect against cancer-causing and toxic substances. The bill will add about $20 billion per year to the estimated $33 billion cost of complying with current pollution laws.

  15. Air cleaning system

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, J.H.

    1987-06-16

    This patent describes an air cleaning system comprising: a motor housing; a motor mounted within the housing; a fan attached to and rotatably driven by the motor; a fan chamber surrounding the fan and having an air inlet and outlet; a separator housing means mounted adjacent to and in spaced relation with the motor housing, the separator housing means having an inlet disposed in communication with a chamber within separator housing means; an outlet disposed in communication with the fan chamber; an air driven separator means mounted in chamber of the separator housing means to receive airflow from inlet for rotation of the separator means and removal of foreign matter from airflow by centrifugal force responsive to rotation of the separator means; the airflow is further directed through the outlet of separator housing means to the fan chamber to be ejected by the fan.

  16. AIR CLEANING FOR ACCEPTABLE INDOOR AIR QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses air cleaning for acceptable indoor air quality. ir cleaning has performed an important role in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems for many years. raditionally, general ventilation air-filtration equipment has been used to protect cooling coils ...

  17. Markets for Clean Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellerman, A. Denny; Joskow, Paul L.; Schmalensee, Richard; Montero, Juan-Pablo; Bailey, Elizabeth M.

    2000-06-01

    Markets for Clean Air provides a comprehensive, in-depth description and evaluation of the first three years' experience with the U.S. Acid Rain Program. This environmental control program is the world's first large-scale use of a tradable emission permit system for achieving environmental goals. The book analyzes the behavior and performance of the market for emissions permits, called allowances in the Acid Rain Program, and quantifies emission reductions, compliance costs, and cost savings associated with the trading program. The book also includes chapters on the historical context in which this pioneering program developed and the political economy of allowance allocations.

  18. The Clean Air Mercury Rule

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Rossler

    2005-07-01

    Coming into force on July 15, 2005, the US Clean Air Mercury Rule will use a market-based cap-and-trade approach under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act to reduce mercury emissions from the electric power sector. This article provides a comprehensive summary of the new rule. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Needed: Clean Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Provides information on air pollution for young readers. Discusses damage to substances and sickness from air pollution, air quality, and what to do in a pollution alert. Includes questions with answers, illustrations, and activities for the learner. (MA)

  20. Stakeholder perspectives on the Clean Air Interstate and the Clean Air Mercury Rules

    SciTech Connect

    C.V. Mathai; Jeffrey Holmstead; Michael Shore; Skiles Boyd; Vicky Sullivan; Dan Weiss; John Kinsman; Steve Lomax; Michael Rossler; David Steele; Greg Schaefer; Felice Stadler; David Foerter; William Becker

    2005-08-01

    In a follow-up to last month's detailed overviews of the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR), this month EM presents perspectives on the two rules from representatives of a range of stakeholders, including EPA, the states, the regulated community, and the environmental community. Titles of the perspectives are: A Multipollutant Approach to Emissions Reductions; Clean Air Lessons from the Myth of Sisyphus; Reactions to EPA's Clean Air Interstate and Clean Air Mercury Rules; The Case for Coal Rank Subcategorization to Regulate Mercury Emissions; EPA's Mercury Rule: The Latest Delay Tactic; EPA's Mercury Rule: With Technology Today, We Can Do Better; STAPPA/ALAPCO's Perspectives on CAMR and CAIR. 16 refs.

  1. Clean Air by Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Gary N.

    1995-01-01

    Planning new construction is an opportunity to recognize indoor environmental quality (IEQ) issues. Provides an overview of some common IEQ issues associated with construction projects. A building's heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system is by far the single most common cause of IEQ problems and complaints. (MLF)

  2. PERFORMANCE TESTING OF AIR CLEANING PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discuses the application of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program for products that clean ventilation air to the problem of protecting buildings from chemical and biological attack. This program is funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency und...

  3. Cleaning verification by air/water impingement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Lisa L.; Littlefield, Maria D.; Melton, Gregory S.; Caimi, Raoul E. B.; Thaxton, Eric A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper will discuss how the Kennedy Space Center intends to perform precision cleaning verification by Air/Water Impingement in lieu of chlorofluorocarbon-113 gravimetric nonvolatile residue analysis (NVR). Test results will be given that demonstrate the effectiveness of the Air/Water system. A brief discussion of the Total Carbon method via the use of a high temperature combustion analyzer will also be given. The necessary equipment for impingement will be shown along with other possible applications of this technology.

  4. The new Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Padmanabha, A.P. ); Olem, H. )

    1991-05-01

    This article is a title by title review of the new Clean Air Act and how it affects water quality and wastewater treatment. The bill provides for restoring and protecting lakes and rivers by reducing acid-rain-causing emissions and toxics from nonpoint-source runoff. Topics covered include urban smog, mobile sources, air toxics, acid rain, permits, ozone-depleting chemicals, enforcement, and the law's socio-economic impacts.

  5. The Clean Air Interstate Rule

    SciTech Connect

    Debra Jezouit; Frank Rambo

    2005-07-01

    On May 12, 2005, EPA promulgated the Clean Air Interstate Rule, which overhauls and expands the scope of air emissions trading programs in the eastern United States. The rule imposes statewide caps on emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide to be introduced in two phases, beginning in 2009. This article briefly explains the background leading up to the rule and summarizes its key findings and requirements. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Green cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Knipe, R.

    1997-08-01

    Selecting environmentally safe metal cleaning alternatives requires a personal, careful, and comprehensive study. Before the days of depleting-the-ozone studies and volatile organic compound (VOC) regulations, the selection of a cleaning method for a particular metal process was simply tied to cost and result. Little, if any, consideration was given to the personal health of the operator or potential environmental impact. Nothing will ever be as simple as using methyl chloroform or other chlorinated solvents in a vapor degreaser. However, similar results can be achieved with greener technologies, provided that suitable procedures are followed. This article lists the questions to ask to properly evaluate current practices, explains the benefits and limitations of spray and immersion systems, describes environmentally benign aqueous and non-chlorinated solvent applications, and shows how to dispose of wastewater.

  7. NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGY REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE UNITED STATES 1990 CLEAN AIR ACT AMENDMENTS COMPARED TO THOSE IN SELECTED PACIFIC RIM COUNTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper compares nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology requirements under the U.S. 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAS) with those in selected Pacific Rim countries. he CAAAs require reduction of NOx emissions under Titles I (requiring control of NOx from all source types fo...

  8. 75 FR 15655 - Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... that polymerize vinyl chloride monomer Production. to produce polyvinyl chloride and/or copolymer... air pollutants (NESHAP) for the Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production (``PVC''), Brick and... listed'' in 1992 (57 FR 31576, 15991; July 16, 1992) for which all applicable MACT standards have...

  9. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  10. Clean Air Act. Revision 5

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Air Act, as amended, and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. This Reference Book has been completely revised and is current through February 15, 1994.

  11. Parametric Evaluation of an Innovative Ultra-Violet PhotocatalyticOxidation (UVPCO) Air Cleaning Technology for Indoor Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2005-10-31

    An innovative Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaning technology employing a semitransparent catalyst coated on a semitransparent polymer substrate was evaluated to determine its effectiveness for treating mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) representative of indoor environments at low, indoor-relevant concentration levels. The experimental UVPCO contained four 30 by 30-cm honeycomb monoliths irradiated with nine UVA lamps arranged in three banks. A parametric evaluation of the effects of monolith thickness, air flow rate through the device, UV power, and reactant concentrations in inlet air was conducted for the purpose of suggesting design improvements. The UVPCO was challenged with three mixtures of VOCs. A synthetic office mixture contained 27 VOCs commonly measured in office buildings. A building product mixture was created by combining sources including painted wallboard, composite wood products, carpet systems, and vinyl flooring. The third mixture contained formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Steady state concentrations were produced in a classroom laboratory or a 20-m{sup 3} chamber. Air was drawn through the UVPCO, and single-pass conversion efficiencies were measured from replicate samples collected upstream and downstream of the reactor. Thirteen experiments were conducted in total. In this UVPCO employing a semitransparent monolith design, an increase in monolith thickness is expected to result in general increases in both reaction efficiencies and absolute reaction rates for VOCs oxidized by photocatalysis. The thickness of individual monolith panels was varied between 1.2 and 5 cm (5 to 20 cm total thickness) in experiments with the office mixture. VOC reaction efficiencies and rates increased with monolith thickness. However, the analysis of the relationship was confounded by high reaction efficiencies in all configurations for a number of compounds. These reaction efficiencies approached or exceeded 90% for alcohols, glycol

  12. The Challenge of Clean Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, John M.

    1974-01-01

    The country's first two-year education program in Air Pollution Technology trains students to work for industry or government. Although two to three jobs are available for each graduate, attracting interested students remains a challenge. (AJ)

  13. Clean coal technologies market potential

    SciTech Connect

    Drazga, B.

    2007-01-30

    Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

  14. Chemistry in Clean Marine Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundja, J. O.; Tshiala, M.

    2009-05-01

    Model-measurement comparisons of HOx in extremely clean air ([NO]<3 ppt) are reported. Measurements were made during the second Southern Ocean Photochemistry Experiment (SOAPEX-2), The free-radical chemistry was studied using a zero-dimensional box-model based upon the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). Two versions of the model were used, with different levels of chemical complexity, to explore the role of hydrocarbons upon free-radical budgets under very clean conditions. The "detailed" model was constrained to measurements of CO, CH4 and 17 NMHCs, while the "simple" model contained only the CO and CH4 oxidation mechanisms, together with inorganic chemistry. The OH and HO2 (HOx) concentrations predicted by the two models agreed to within 5-10%. The model results were compared with the HOx concentrations measured by the FAGE (Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion) technique during four days of clean Southern Ocean marine boundary layer (MBL) air. The models overestimated OH concentrations by about 10% on two days and about 20% on the other two days. HO2 concentrations were measured during two of these days and the models overestimated the measured concentrations by about 40%. Better agreement with measured HO2 was observed by using data from several MBL aerosol measurements to estimate the aerosol surface area and by increasing the HO2 uptake coefficient to unity. This reduced the modelled HO2 overestimate by ~40%, with little effect on OH, because of the poor HO2 to OH conversion at the low ambient NOx concentrations. Local sensitivity analysis and Morris One-At-A-Time analysis were performed on the "simple" model, and showed the importance of reliable measurements of j(O1D) and [HCHO] and of the kinetic parameters that determine the efficiency of O(1D) to OH and HCHO to HO2 conversion. A 2σ standard deviation of 30-40% for OH and 25-30% for HO2 was estimated for the model calculations using a Monte Carlo technique coupled with Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS).

  15. The Value of Clean Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindell, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    How can society place a value on clean air? I present a multi-impact economic valuation framework called the Social Cost of Atmospheric Release (SCAR) that extends the Social Cost of Carbon (SCC) used previously for carbon dioxide (CO2) to a broader range of pollutants and impacts. Values consistently incorporate health impacts of air quality along with climate damages. The latter include damages associated with aerosol-induced hydrologic cycle changes that lead to net climate benefits when reducing cooling aerosols. Evaluating a 1% reduction in current global emissions, benefits with a high discount rate are greatest for reductions of co-emitted products of incomplete combustion (PIC), followed by sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and then CO2, ammonia and methane. With a low discount rate, benefits are greatest for CO2 reductions, though the sum of SO2, PIC and methane is substantially larger. These results suggest that efforts to mitigate atmosphere-related environmental damages should target a broad set of emissions including CO2, methane and aerosol/ozone precursors. Illustrative calculations indicate environmental damages are 410-1100 billion yr-1 for current US electricity generation ( 19-46¢ per kWh for coal, 4-24¢ for gas) and 3.80 (-1.80/+2.10) per gallon of gasoline ($4.80 (-3.10/+3.50) per gallon for diesel). These results suggest that total atmosphere-related environmental damages plus generation costs are much greater for coal-fired power than other types of electricity generation, and that damages associated with gasoline vehicles substantially exceed those for electric vehicles.

  16. A Citizen's Guide to Clean Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed as a manual to help citizens participate in air quality control processes. The Clean Air Amendments of 1970 are explained, the first steps in determining a community's air pollution problems are outlined, the basic components of an implementation plan are specified, national and state standards of performance and…

  17. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2010-10-27

    Approximately ten percent of the energy consumed in U.S. commercial buildings is used by HVAC systems to condition outdoor ventilation air. Reducing ventilation rates would be a simple and broadly-applicable energy retrofit option, if practical counter measures were available that maintained acceptable concentrations of indoor-generated air pollutants. The two general categories of countermeasures are: 1) indoor pollutant source control, and 2) air cleaning. Although pollutant source control should be used to the degree possible, source control is complicated by the large number and changing nature of indoor pollutant sources. Particle air cleaning is already routinely applied in commercial buildings. Previous calculations indicate that particle filtration consumes only 10percent to 25percent of the energy that would otherwise be required to achieve an equivalent amount of particle removal with ventilation. If cost-effective air cleaning technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also available, outdoor air ventilation rates could be reduced substantially and broadly in the commercial building stock to save energy. The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel VOC air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. The minimum required VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50percent reduction in ventilation rate for air cleaning systems installed in the HVAC supply airstream is modest (generally 20percent or less).

  18. INNOVATIVE CLEAN TECHNOLOGIES CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Innovative Clean Technologies case studies contained herein are the products of the "Pollution Prevention by and for Small Business" Program (P2SB). he P2SB was an outreach program directed to small businesses that had developed innovative concepts for pollution prevention in...

  19. Clean coal technology: Export finance programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-30

    Participation by US firms in the development of Clean Coal. Technology (CCT) projects in foreign countries will help the United States achieve multiple national objectives simultaneously--addressing critical goals related to energy, environmental technology, industrial competitiveness and international trade. US participation in these projects will result in an improved global environment, an improvement in the balance of payments and an increase in US jobs. Meanwhile, host countries will benefit from the development of economically- and environmentally-sound power facilities. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Public Law 101-549, Section 409) as supplemented by a requirement in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-486, Section 1331(f)) requires that the Secretary of Energy, acting through the Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee Subgroup on Clean Coal Technologies, submit a report to Congress with information on the status of recommendations made in the US Department of Energy, Clean Coal Technology Export Programs, Report to the United States Congress, February 1992. Specific emphasis is placed on the adequacy of financial assistance for export of CCTS. This report fulfills the requirements of the Act. In addition, although this report focuses on CCT power projects, the issues it raises about the financing of these projects are also relevant to other CCT projects such as industrial applications or coal preparation, as well as to a much broader range of energy and environmental technology projects worldwide.

  20. Demonstration of Air-Power-Assist Engine Technology for Clean Combustion and Direct Energy Recovery in Heavy Duty Application

    SciTech Connect

    Hyungsuk Kang; Chun Tai

    2010-05-01

    The first phase of the project consists of four months of applied research, starting from September 1, 2005 and was completed by December 31, 2005. During this time, the project team heavily relied on highly detailed numerical modeling techniques to evaluate the feasibility of the APA technology. Specifically, (i) A GT-Power{sup TM}engine simulation model was constructed to predict engine efficiency at various operating conditions. Efficiency was defined based on the second-law thermodynamic availability. (ii) The engine efficiency map generated by the engine simulation was then fed into a simplified vehicle model, which was constructed in the Matlab/Simulink environment, to predict fuel consumption of a refuse truck on a simple collection cycle. (iii) Design and analysis work supporting the concept of retrofitting an existing Sturman Industries Hydraulic Valve Actuation (HVA) system with the modifications that are required to run the HVA system with Air Power Assist functionality. A Matlab/Simulink model was used to calculate the dynamic response of the HVA system. Computer aided design (CAD) was done in Solidworks for mechanical design and hydraulic layout. At the end of Phase I, 11% fuel economy improvement was predicted. During Phase II, the engine simulation group completed the engine mapping work. The air handling group made substantial progress in identifying suppliers and conducting 3D modelling design. Sturman Industries completed design modification of the HVA system, which was reviewed and accepted by Volvo Powertrain. In Phase II, the possibility of 15% fuel economy improvement was shown with new EGR cooler design by reducing EGR cooler outlet temperature with APA engine technology from Air Handling Group. In addition, Vehicle Simulation with APA technology estimated 4 -21% fuel economy improvement over a wide range of driving cycles. During Phase III, the engine experimental setup was initiated at VPTNA, Hagerstown, MD. Air Handling system and HVA

  1. Odor and the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, H.N.

    1993-01-01

    The case described in this paper involves the interpretation of language contained in the Texas Clean Air Act Texas Health and Safety Code Ann. Sections 382.001-382.141. The State of Texas, on behalf of the Texas Air Control Board, brought suit in the District Court of Erath County, Texas against the F/R Cattle Company, Inc., alleging that, because of odors emanating from the company's cattle feeding facility, the company was violating the Clean Air Act. The Board is granted the power and duty to administer the Clean Air Act and is directed to accomplish the purposes of the Act through the control of air contaminants by all practical and economically feasible methods. Described here is the evidence presented at and proceedings of the trial.

  2. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    Layering in the Earth's atmosphere is most commonly seen where parts of the atmosphere resist the incursion of air parcels from above and below - for example, when there is an increase in temperature with height over a particular altitude range. Pollutants tend to accumulate underneath the resulting stable layers. which is why visibility often increases markedly above certain altitudes. Here we describe the occurrence of an opposite effect, in which stable layers generate a layer of remarkably clean air (we refer to these layers as clean-air 'slots') sandwiched between layers of polluted air. We have observed clean-air slots in various locations around the world, but they are particularly well defined and prevalent in southern Africa during the dry season August-September). This is because at this time in this region, stable layers are common and pollution from biomass burning is widespread.

  3. 75 FR 35025 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC); Request for Nominations for 2010 Clean Air Excellence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC); Request for Nominations for 2010 Clean Air Excellence... Air Excellence Awards. SUMMARY: EPA established the Clean Air Excellence Awards Program in February... progress in achieving clean air. This notice announces the competition for the Year 2010 program....

  4. 76 FR 40728 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC); Request for Nominations for 2011 Clean Air Excellence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC); Request for Nominations for 2011 Clean Air Excellence... Air Excellence Awards. ] SUMMARY: EPA established the Clean Air Excellence Awards Program in February... progress in achieving clean air. This notice announces the competition for the Year 2011 program....

  5. Clean Air. It's Up to You, Too.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Opportunities for citizen participation in federal environmental decisions relative to air pollution and its control are assessed in this booklet. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as the federal agency charged with enforcement of the Clean Air Act, offers guidelines for responsible citizen action. Designed for groups already organized…

  6. Air cleaning and radon decay product mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Hopke, P.K. ); Li, C.S. . John B. Pierce Foundation Lab.); Ramamurthi, M. )

    1990-01-01

    We evaluated air cleaning as a means to mitigate risks arising from exposure to indoor radon progeny in several single-family houses in the northeastern United States, using a new, automated, semi-continuous activity-weighted size distribution measurement system. Measurements included radon concentration, condensation nuclei count, and activity-weighted size distribution of radon decay products. Measurements were made with and without the air cleaning system operating. The influence of particles generated by various sources common to normal indoor activities on radon progeny behavior was evaluated. Aerosols were generated by running water in a shower, burning candles, smoking cigarettes, vacuuming, opening doors, and cooking. Both a filtration unit and an electrostatic precipitator were evaluated. Using a room model, the changes in attachment rates, average attachment diameters, and deposition rates of the unattached'' fraction with and without the air cleaning systems were calculated. The air cleaner typically reduced the radon progeny concentrations by 50 to 60%.

  7. Air cleaning and radon decay product mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Hopke, P.K.; Li, C.S.; Ramamurthi, M.

    1990-12-31

    We evaluated air cleaning as a means to mitigate risks arising from exposure to indoor radon progeny in several single-family houses in the northeastern United States, using a new, automated, semi-continuous activity-weighted size distribution measurement system. Measurements included radon concentration, condensation nuclei count, and activity-weighted size distribution of radon decay products. Measurements were made with and without the air cleaning system operating. The influence of particles generated by various sources common to normal indoor activities on radon progeny behavior was evaluated. Aerosols were generated by running water in a shower, burning candles, smoking cigarettes, vacuuming, opening doors, and cooking. Both a filtration unit and an electrostatic precipitator were evaluated. Using a room model, the changes in attachment rates, average attachment diameters, and deposition rates of the ``unattached`` fraction with and without the air cleaning systems were calculated. The air cleaner typically reduced the radon progeny concentrations by 50 to 60%.

  8. Proceedings of the 21st DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference; Sessions 1--8

    SciTech Connect

    First, M.W.

    1991-02-01

    Separate abstracts have been prepared for the papers presented at the meeting on nuclear facility air cleaning technology in the following specific areas of interest: air cleaning technologies for the management and disposal of radioactive wastes; Canadian waste management program; radiological health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis; filter testing; US standard codes on nuclear air and gas treatment; European community nuclear codes and standards; chemical processing off-gas cleaning; incineration and vitrification; adsorbents; nuclear codes and standards; mathematical modeling techniques; filter technology; safety; containment system venting; and nuclear air cleaning programs around the world. (MB)

  9. Clean fuels prices dependent on regional air quality standards

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, R.G.; Singleton, F.D.

    1983-12-01

    With continuing high real oil prices, society's demands for regional air quality in terms of sulfur oxide emissions will be the primary determinant of the marginal values of clean fuels and the marginal costs of electricity. Increases in electricity costs may be dampened significantly by using economic instruments, rather than uniform technology controls, to work toward a clean environment and a transition in boiler fuels. However, the level of this dampening effect will be significantly affected by whether or not licenses continue to be granted for new nuclear power plants. Legislated environmental policies to prevent significant deterioration of regional air quality (PSD Standards) will significantly increase the economic incentives (shadow prices) for investments in new clean fuels technologies. With the increasing shadow prices resulting from stringent PSD standards, only modest tax breaks will be necessary at oil prices of $30 per barrel (in 1982 dollars) to stimulate the economic development of the synthetic fossil fuels industry in the United States.

  10. Clean coal technology and emissions trading: Is there a future for high-sulfur coal under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W. ); McDermott, K.A. Illinois State Univ., Normal, IL )

    1991-01-01

    The near-term and long-term fate of high-sulfur coal is linked to utility compliance plans, the evolution of emission allowance trading, state and federal regulation, and technological innovation. All of these factors will play an implicit role in the demand for high-sulfur coal. This paper will explore the potential impact that emissions trading will have on high-sulfur coal utilization by electric utilities. 28 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Clean coal technology and emissions trading: Is there a future for high-sulfur coal under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990?

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A. |

    1991-12-31

    The near-term and long-term fate of high-sulfur coal is linked to utility compliance plans, the evolution of emission allowance trading, state and federal regulation, and technological innovation. All of these factors will play an implicit role in the demand for high-sulfur coal. This paper will explore the potential impact that emissions trading will have on high-sulfur coal utilization by electric utilities. 28 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. CARBON ADSORPTION FOR INDOOR AIR CLEANING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the use of carbon adsorption for indoor air cleaning, focusing on the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using granular activated carbon (GAC). It addresses GAC performance in two directions. Initially, it presents performance measurements for GAC at...

  13. EPA`s clean air power initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Critchfield, L.R.

    1997-12-31

    The Clean Air Power Initiative (CAPI) is a multi-stakeholder project intended to improve air pollution control efforts involving the power generating industry. This paper documents the progress made in the first year of the initiative, which included a number of meetings with interested stakeholders and development and analysis of alternative approaches for more efficient and effective pollution control. The project`s goal is to develop an integrated regulatory strategy or three major pollutants emitted from electric power generators; namely, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and, potentially, mercury. Major reductions in these pollutants are expected to be needed to reduce the detrimental health effects of ground-level ozone, fine particles, and hazardous air pollutants and reduce the environmental effects of acidification, eutrophication, ecosystem, crop, and materials damage, and regional haze. The Clean Air Power Initiative has considered, where feasible, new approaches to pollution control that recognize the long-range transport of many air pollutants and the economic benefits of emissions trading. The project was initiated by EPA`s Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation in 1995. As individual companies develop and implement strategies to participate in more competitive power markets, they could benefit from greater certainty in being able to plan for and reduce costs of future environmental regulations. The EPA is interested in reinventing its regulatory approach to reduce the number, administrative complexity, and cost of its requirements while improving the likelihood of achieving environmental results.

  14. 14 CFR 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean air and water. 1260.34 Section 1260... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C....

  15. 14 CFR 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean air and water. 1260.34 Section 1260... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C....

  16. 14 CFR 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean air and water. 1260.34 Section 1260... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C....

  17. 14 CFR § 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean air and water. § 1260.34 Section Â... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C....

  18. Clean Technology Evaluation & Workforce Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Patricia Glaza

    2012-12-01

    The overall objective of the Clean Technology Evaluation portion of the award was to design a process to speed up the identification of new clean energy technologies and match organizations to testing and early adoption partners. The project was successful in identifying new technologies targeted to utilities and utility technology integrators, in developing a process to review and rank the new technologies, and in facilitating new partnerships for technology testing and adoption. The purpose of the Workforce Development portion of the award was to create an education outreach program for middle & high-school students focused on clean technology science and engineering. While originally targeting San Diego, California and Cambridge, Massachusetts, the scope of the program was expanded to include a major clean technology speaking series and expo as part of the USA Science & Engineering Festival on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.

  19. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009 is to provide an updated status of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCT). These demonstrations have been performed under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Program Update 2009 provides: (1) a discussion of the role of clean coal technology demonstrations in improving the nation’s energy security and reliability, while protecting the environment using the nation’s most abundant energy resource—coal; (2) a summary of the funding and costs of the demonstrations; and (3) an overview of the technologies being demonstrated, along with fact sheets for projects that are active, recently completed, or recently discontinued.

  20. State perspectives on clean coal technology deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Moreland, T.

    1997-12-31

    State governments have been funding partners in the Clean Coal Technology program since its beginnings. Today, regulatory and market uncertainties and tight budgets have reduced state investment in energy R and D, but states have developed program initiatives in support of deployment. State officials think that the federal government must continue to support these technologies in the deployment phase. Discussions of national energy policy must include attention to the Clean Coal Technology program and its accomplishments.

  1. Ceramic membrane defouling (cleaning) by air Nano Bubbles.

    PubMed

    Ghadimkhani, Aliasghar; Zhang, Wen; Marhaba, Taha

    2016-03-01

    Ceramic membranes are among the most promising technologies for membrane applications, owing to their excellent resistance to mechanical, chemical, and thermal stresses. However, membrane fouling is still an issue that hampers the applications at large scales. Air Nano Bubbles (NBs), due to high mass transfer efficiency, could potentially prevent fouling of ceramic membrane filtration processes. In this study, bench and pilot scale ceramic membrane filtration was performed with air NBs to resist fouling. To simulate fouling, humic acid, as an organic foulant, was applied to the membrane flat sheet surface. Complete membrane clogging was achieved in less than 6 h. Membrane defouling (cleaning) was performed by directly feeding of air NBs to the membrane cells. The surface of the ceramic membrane was superbly cleaned by air NBs, as revealed by atomic force microscope (AFM) images before and after the treatment. The permeate flux recovered to its initial level (e.g., 26.7 × 10(-9) m(3)/m(2)/s at applied pressure of 275.8 kPa), which indicated that NBs successfully unclogged the pores of the membrane. The integrated ceramic membrane and air NBs system holds potential as an innovative sustainable technology. PMID:26741542

  2. A review of potential alternatives for air cleaning at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1990-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted this review in support of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) being designed by Fluor Daniel Inc. for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The literature on air cleaning systems is reviewed to identify potential air cleaning alternatives that might be included in the design of HWVP. An overview of advantages/disadvantages of the various air cleaning technologies follows. Information and references are presented for the following potential air cleaning alternatives: deep-bed glass-fiber filters (DBGF), high-efficiency particulate air filters (HEPA), remote modular filter systems, high-efficiency mist eliminators (HEME), electrostatic precipitators, and the sand filter. Selected information is summarized for systems in the United States, Belgium, Japan, and West Germany. This review addresses high-capacity air cleaning systems currently used in the nuclear industry and emphasizes recent developments. 10 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. 75 FR 73026 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Clean Air Interstate Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Clean Air... June 29, 2009, to revise the Indiana State Implementation Plan (SIP) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). The... Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR), for which EPA granted limited approval as an abbreviated SIP...

  4. Blue skies, green politics: The Clean Air Act of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Bryner, G.C.

    1995-10-01

    This book presents a discussion framework for the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The author focuses on both an analysis of the problem of air pollution and an examination of the politics that went in to crafting the Clean Air Act Amendments. The book is intended for those not familiar with the problem.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: MOBILE SOURCE RETROFIT AIR POLLUTION CONTROL DEVICES: CLEAN CLEAR FUEL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.’S, UNIVERSAL FUEL CELL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development operates the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program to facilitate the deployment of innovative technologies through performance verification and information dissemination. Congress funds ETV in response to the belief ...

  6. 14 CFR 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Clean air and water. 1260.34 Section 1260.34... Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable only if the award... (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1319(c)), and is...

  7. Milliken Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project. Project performance summary, Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-11-30

    The New York State Electric & Gas Corporation (NYSEG) demonstrated a combination of technologies at its Milliken Station in Lansing, New York, designed to: (1) achieve high sulfur dioxide (SO2) capture efficiency, (2) bring nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions into compliance with Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), (3) maintain high station efficiency, and (4) eliminate waste water discharge. This project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) established to address energy and environmental concerns related to coal use. DOE sought cost-shared partnerships with industry through five nationally competed solicitations to accelerate commercialization of the most promising advance coal-based power generation and pollution control technologies. The CCTDP, valued at over five billion dollars, has significantly leveraged federal funding by forging effective partnerships founded on sound principles. For every federal dollar invested, CCTDP participants have invested two dollars. These participants include utilities, technology developers, state governments, and research organizations. The project presented here was one of nine selected in January 1991 from 33 proposals submitted in response to the program’s fourth solicitation.

  8. Clean Air Act: Senate mulls revision bill

    SciTech Connect

    Fairley, P.

    1995-12-13

    Senator Lauch Faircloth (R., NC) has circulated a draft summary of possible revisions of the Clean Air Act (CAA). Chemical industry sources say the proposal would provide some regulatory relief but fear that supporting Faircloth could jeopardize their relationship with EPA. Faircloth`s proposal addresses various controversial aspect of CAA`s Title V permit program including the monitoring and permit modification provisions. The proposal would also define a facility`s {open_quotes}potential to emit,{close_quotes} upon which Title V permits are based. In the past year EPA has substantially revised its Title V program to address complaints from industry, the states, and Congress that the monitoring and modification provisions were too burdensome.

  9. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  10. 76 FR 54462 - Notification of a Public Teleconference; Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee; Air Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... network in support of a newly revised National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for 1-hour NO 2 (75 FR... AGENCY Notification of a Public Teleconference; Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee; Air Monitoring... teleconference of the Air Monitoring and Methods Subcommittee (AMMS) of the Clean Air Scientific...

  11. 17th DOE nuclear air cleaning conference: proceedings. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    First, M.W.

    1983-02-01

    Volume 2 contains papers presented at the following sessions: adsorption; noble gas treatment; personnel education and training; filtration and filter testing; measurement and instrumentation; air cleaning equipment response to accident related stress; containment venting air cleaning; and an open end session. Twenty-eight papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. Ten papers had been entered earlier.

  12. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a chapter for John Wiley & Son's Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, and covers issues involving air pollution control. Various technologies for controlling sulfur oxides is considered including fuel desulfurization. It also considers control of nitrogen oxides including post...

  13. The Clean Coal Technology Program: Lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is a unique partnership between the federal government and industry that has as its primary goal the successful introduction of new clean coal utilization technologies into the energy marketplace. Clean coal technologies being demonstrated under the CCT Program are establishing a technology base that will enable the nation to meet more stringent energy and environmental goals. Most of the, demonstrations are being conducted at commercial scale, in actual user environments, and under circumstances typical of commercial operations. These features allow the potential of the technologies to be evaluated in their intended commercial applications. Each application addresses one of the following four market sectors: advanced electric power generation; environmental control devices; coal processing for clean fuels; and industrial applications. The purpose of this report is fourfold: Explain the CCT program as a model for successful joint government industry partnership for selecting and demonstrating technologies that have promise for adaptation to the energy marketplace; set forth the process by which the process has been implemented and the changes that have been made to improve that process; outline efforts employed to inform potential users and other interested parties about the technologies being developed; and examine some of the questions which must be considered in determining if the CCT Program model can be applied to other programs.

  14. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy ? FY11 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Cohn, Sebastian; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2011-10-31

    The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel volatile organic compounds (VOCs) air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. we targeted a VOC air cleaning system that could enable a 50% reduction in ventilation rates. In a typical commercial HVAC system that provides a mixture of recirculated and outdoor air, a VOC air cleaner in the supply airstream must have a 15% to 20% VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50% reduction in outdoor air supply.

  15. 78 FR 17229 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Amendment Under the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Amendment Under the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water Act; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; the Missouri Air Conservation Law; the Missouri Clean Water Law and..., the Clean Water Act, the Missouri Clean Water Law, the Resource Conservation and Recovery......

  16. Implementation of the Southern Company clean air compliance strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, K.; Herrin, W.D.

    1995-12-31

    The Clean Air Act with the 1990 Amendments is one of the most complex environmental laws to be enacted by Congress. It mandates a vast array of changes that have significantly increased the magnitude and complexity of clean air compliance for sources of air emissions, including coal-fired electric utilities across the US. The Southern Company was involved in the development of the amendments and recognized the necessity, even prior to the November 15, 1990, enactment, for an integrated clean air compliance strategy in order to be able to successfully implement the strategy within a relatively tight compliance timetable. The principle requirements of the amendments that currently affect coal-fired generating plants, and the primary focus of the strategy development and implementation process for The Southern Company, are found in Title IV--Acid Deposition Control. While Title IV contains elements of the traditional command and control approach to regulating nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions and emissions monitoring, this title introduces an innovative market-based allowance system approach to regulating sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions. The development of the strategy and its implementation considered other final requirements of the 1990 Amendments, to the extent possible, as well as potential future environmental requirements. The weighing of the various compliance alternatives to develop a cost-effective strategy became and continues to be a major challenge for The Southern Company and other electric utilities. Within The Southern Company, a multidisciplined project team and numerous task forces have continued to review the strategy and its implementation against changes in a number of key drivers including fuel prices, technology costs, expected allowance values, and regulatory developments. This approach provides the flexibility to match a dynamic environment with the appropriate compliance alternatives.

  17. Air cleaning issues with contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1997-08-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has developed a list of contaminated sites that warrant special USNRC attention because they pose unique or complex decommissioning issues. This list of radiologically contaminated sites is termed the Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP), and was first issued in 1990. A site is placed on the SDMP list if it has; (1) Problems with the viability of the responsible organization (e.g., the licensee for the site is unable or unwilling to pay for the decommissioning); (2) Large amounts of soil contamination or unused settling ponds or burial grounds that may make the waste difficult to dispose of; (3) The long-term presence of contaminated, unused buildings; (4) A previously terminated license; or (5) Contaminated or potential contamination of the ground water from on-site wastes. In deciding whether to add a site to the SDMP list, the NRC also considers the projected length of time for decommissioning and the willingness of the responsible organization to complete the decommissioning in a timely manner. Since the list was established, 9 sites have been removed from the list, and the current SDMP list contains 47 sites in 11 states. The USNRC annually publishes NUREG-1444, {open_quotes}Site Decommissioning Management Plan{close_quotes}, which updates the status of each site. This paper will discuss the philosophical goals of the SDMP, then will concentrate on the regulatory requirements associated with air cleaning issues at the SDMP sites during characterization and remediation. Both effluent and worker protection issues will be discussed. For effluents, the source terms at sites will be characterized, and measurement techniques will be presented. Off-site dose impacts will be included. For worker protection issues, air sampling analyses will be presented in order to show how the workers are adequately protected and their doses measured to satisfy regulatory criteria during decontamination operations. 1 tab.

  18. 75 FR 11560 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that... violations of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq., and the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq. at... of water effluent controls, the rerouting of air emissions through control devices, and...

  19. Clean air land mine: Continuous monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.P. ); Mitnick, S.A. )

    1992-12-01

    When the Clean Air Act Amendments were enacted, many observers expected the new law to usher in a futuristic system of environmental control cum economic incentives. This has yet to materialize. However, the legislation has brought in an entirely different new environmental order-rigid emissions accounting, down to each operating hour. In many respects, EPA regulation of fossil plant operations is coming more to resemble the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulatory model for nuclear plant operations, where regulation of process and procedure is at least as important as substance. The final continuous emission monitoring (CEM) rules, which were enacted as part of the Acid Rain Program, are perhaps the best evidence of this evolution. There can be no denying that the CEM rules are a prosecutor's dream. Not only must the industry comply with the law, but it must go to heroic efforts to make affirmative proof of compliance. The final CEM rules are a serious matter requiring the immediate attention of the electric utility industry.

  20. Advanced clean coal utilization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Moritomi, Hiroshi

    1993-12-31

    The most important greenhouse gas is CO{sub 2} from coal utilization. Ways of mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions include the use of alternative fuels, using renewable resources and increasing the efficiency of power generation and end use. Adding to such greenhouse gas mitigation technologies, post combustion control by removing CO{sub 2} from power station flue gases and then storing or disposing it will be available. Although the post combustion control have to be evaluated in a systematic manner relating them to whether they are presently available technology, to be available in the near future or long term prospects requiring considerable development, it is considered to be a less promising option owing to the high cost and energy penalty. By contrast, abatement technologies aimed at improving conversion efficiency or reducing energy consumption will reduce emissions while having their own commercial justification.

  1. What is an effective portable air cleaning device? A review.

    PubMed

    Shaughnessy, R J; Sextro, R G

    2006-04-01

    The use of portable air cleaning devices in residential settings has been steadily growing over the last 10 years. Three out of every 10 households now contain a portable air cleaning device. This increased use of air cleaners is accompanied by, if not influenced by, a fundamental belief by consumers that the air cleaners are providing an improved indoor air environment. However, there is a wide variation in the performance of air cleaners that is dependent on the specific air cleaner design and various indoor factors. The most widely used method in the United States to assess the performance of new air cleaners is the procedure described in the American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) AC-1-2002. This method describes both the test conditions and the testing protocol. The protocol yields a performance metric that is based on the measured decay rate of contaminant concentrations with the air cleaner operating compared with the measured decay rate with the air cleaner turned off. The resulting metric, the clean air delivery rate (CADR), permits both an intercomparison of performance among various air cleaners and a comparison of air cleaner operation to other contaminant removal processes. In this article, we comment on the testing process, discuss its applicability to various contaminants, and evaluate the resulting performance metrics for effective air cleaning. PMID:16531290

  2. Environmental issues affecting clean coal technology deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    The author outlines what he considers to be the key environmental issues affecting Clean Coal Technology (CCT) deployment both in the US and internationally. Since the international issues are difficult to characterize given different environmental drivers in various countries and regions, the primary focus of his remarks is on US deployment. However, he makes some general remarks, particularly regarding the environmental issues in developing vs. developed countries and how these issues may affect CCT deployment. Further, how environment affects deployment depends on which particular type of clean coal technology one is addressing. It is not the author`s intention to mention many specific technologies other than to use them for the purposes of example. He generally categorizes CCTs into four groups since environment is likely to affect deployment for each category somewhat differently. These four categories are: Precombustion technologies such as coal cleaning; Combustion technologies such as low NOx burners; Postcombustion technologies such as FGD systems and postcombustion NOx control; and New generation technologies such as gasification and fluidized bed combustion.

  3. Steam vacuum cleaning. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective remediation technologies for use in the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. The baseline technology currently used for washing debris is a high-pressure water cleaning (HPWC) system. The system used at the FEMP is the Hotsy{reg_sign} Model 550B HPWC. Although the HPWC technology has functioned satisfactorily, improvements are being sought in areas related to reduced liquid waste volume, increased productivity, increased washing effectiveness, and decreased airborne contamination. An innovative technology that offers potential improvements in these areas is a steam vacuum cleaning (SVC) system that integrates high-pressure steam cleaning with a vacuum recovery sub-system that simultaneously collects dislodged contaminants thereby reducing airborne contamination. The SVC system selected for demonstration at the FEMP was the Kelly{trademark} Decontamination System shown. This report provides comparative performance and cost analyses between the Hotsy HPWC system and the Kelly Decontamination System. Both technologies were demonstrated at the FEMP site located at Fernald, Ohio from July 29, 1996 through August 15, 1996. The demonstrations were conducted at the FEMP Plant 1 as part of the LSTD project sponsored by the Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the US DOE`s Office of Science and Technology.

  4. 40 CFR 61.152 - Air-cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air-cleaning. 61.152 Section 61.152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.152...

  5. 40 CFR 61.152 - Air-cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air-cleaning. 61.152 Section 61.152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.152...

  6. 40 CFR 61.152 - Air-cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air-cleaning. 61.152 Section 61.152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.152...

  7. 40 CFR 61.152 - Air-cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air-cleaning. 61.152 Section 61.152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.152...

  8. 40 CFR 61.152 - Air-cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air-cleaning. 61.152 Section 61.152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.152...

  9. Some impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act and state clean-air regulations on the fertilizer industry

    SciTech Connect

    Breed, C.E.; Kerns, O.S.

    1992-12-01

    The Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 will intensify national efforts to reduce air pollution. They will have major impacts an governmental agencies and on industrial and commercial facilities throughout the country. As with other industries, it is essential for fertilizer dealers and producers to understand how these changes to the Clean Air Act can significantly change the way they do business. This paper is proffered as an overview of ways in which the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act may impact the fertilizer industry. The nonattainment, toxics, and permit provisions of the amended act will be three areas of particular concern to the fertilizer industry. Implementation of the new regulatory requirements of this legislation promises to be a long and onerous process for all concerned. However, it appears that state and local regulations may have a much more profound impact on the fertilizer industry than the new Clean Air Act.

  10. Some impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act and state clean-air regulations on the fertilizer industry

    SciTech Connect

    Breed, C.E.; Kerns, O.S.

    1992-12-31

    The Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 will intensify national efforts to reduce air pollution. They will have major impacts on governmental agencies and on industrial and commercial facilities throughout the country. As with other industries, it is essential for fertilizer dealers and producers to understand how these changes to the Clean Air Act can significantly change the way they do business. This paper is proffered as an overview of ways in which the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act may impact the fertilizer industry. The nonattainment, toxics, and permit provisions of the amended act will be three areas of particular concern to the fertilizer industry. Implementation of the new regulatory requirements of this legislation promises to be a long and onerous process for all concerned. However, it appears that state and local regulations may have a much more profound impact on the fertilizer industry than the new Clean Air Act.

  11. PHASE I PILOT AIR CONVEYANCE SYSTEM DESIGN, CLEANING, AND CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a project to develop and refine surface and airborne contamination
    measurement techniques that can be used to evaluate air conveyance system (ACS) cleaning.
    (NOTE: ACS cleaning is advertized to homeowners as a service having a number of benefits...

  12. 53. VIEW OF ROCK FOUNDATIONS AIR CLEANED FOR MONOLITHS 1722, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. VIEW OF ROCK FOUNDATIONS AIR CLEANED FOR MONOLITHS 17-22, INTERMEDIATE WALL, LOOKING NORTH Photograph No. 12840. September 10, 1948 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 27, Granite City, Madison County, IL

  13. 78 FR 70960 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, and the Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act On November 20, 2013, the Department of Justice lodged a proposed consent decree with... the United States and the State of Illinois under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the...

  14. NASA Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Act Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) regulations have greatly impacted materials and processes utilized in the manufacture of aerospace hardware. Code JE/ NASA's Environmental Management Division at NASA Headquarters recognized the need for a formal, Agency-wide review process of CAA regulations. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was selected as the 'Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Act Regulations'. This presentation describes the centralized support provided by MSFC for the management and leadership of NASA's CAA regulation review process.

  15. Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald Hill; Kenneth Nemeth; Gary Garrett; Kimberly Sams

    2009-01-31

    The Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB) 'Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies' program began on June 1, 2003, and was completed on January 31, 2009. The project proved beneficial in providing state decision-makers with information that assisted them in removing barriers or implementing incentives to deploy clean coal technologies. This was accomplished through two specific tasks: (1) domestic energy security and diversity; and (2) the energy-water interface. Milestones accomplished during the project period are: (1) Presentations to Annual Meetings of SSEB Members, Associate Member Meetings, and the Gasification Technologies Council. (2) Energy: Water reports - (A) Regional Efforts to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies: Impacts and Implications for Water Supply and Quality. June 2004. (B) Energy-Water Interface Challenges: Coal Bed Methane and Mine Pool Water Characterization in the Southern States Region. 2004. (C) Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S. June 2008. (3) Blackwater Interactive Tabletop Exercise - Decatur, Georgia April 2007. (4) Blackwater Report: Blackwater: Energy and Water Interdependency Issues: Best Practices and Lessons Learned. August 2007. (5) Blackwater Report: BLACKWATER: Energy Water Interdependency Issues REPORT SUMMARY. April 2008.

  16. Ozone nonattainment under the Clean Air Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Technology, Environment and Aviation of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session, July 8, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The hearing addresses ozone nonattainment under the Clean Air Act. Southeastern Wisconsin is a designated ozone non-attainment area under amendments to the Act of 1990. Preliminary results of a Lake Michigan Ozone study seem to indicate that much of the pollution causing high levels of ozone come from several hundred miles away. The witnesses examine plans to cope with this situation. Statements of government and industry officials are included along with documents submitted for the record.

  17. Clean Air Act requirements for trace-metals information

    SciTech Connect

    Pahl, D.; Hunt, W.; Evans, G.

    1992-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 have expanded the requirements for trace metal and air toxics information in urban areas and added new requirements for this information in rural areas and ecosystems. Specific provisions germane to trace metals and other air toxics compounds are found in Title III, Section 112 and in Title IX, Section 901. In response to these provisions, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) plans to conduct research in atmospheric monitoring networks in urban areas, in the Great Lakes watershed, and in regional components of a national Clean Air Act status and trends network.

  18. Food-Growing, Air- And Water-Cleaning Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, R. L.; Scheld, H. W.; Mafnuson, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    Apparatus produces fresh vegetables and removes pollutants from air. Hydroponic apparatus performs dual function of growing fresh vegetables and purifying air and water. Leafy vegetables rooted in granular growth medium grow in light of fluorescent lamps. Air flowing over leaves supplies carbon dioxide and receives fresh oxygen from them. Adaptable to production of food and cleaning of air and water in closed environments as in underwater research stations and submarines.

  19. 75 FR 34673 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... Pollutants: Air Emission Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning Machines: State of Rhode Island... applies to organic solvent cleaning machines in Rhode Island, except for continuous web cleaning machines... General Definitions Rule in place of the Halogenated Solvent NESHAP for organic solvent cleaning...

  20. Clean Cast Steel Technology - Machinability and Technology Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    C. E. Bates; J. A. Griffin

    2000-05-01

    There were two main tasks in the Clean Cast Steel Technology - Machinability and Technology Transfer Project. These were (1) determine the processing facts that control the machinability of cast steel and (2) determine the ability of ladle stirring to homogenize ladle temperature, reduce the tap and pouring temperatures, and reduce casting scrap.

  1. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    This article investigates the mechanism for those layers in the atmosphere that are free of air borne pollution even though the air above and below them carry pollutants. Atmospheric subsidence is posed as a mechanism for this phenomenon.

  2. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program update 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (also referred to as the CCT Program) is a $6.9 billion cost-shared industry/government technology development effort. The program is to demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies, with the most promising technologies being moved into the domestic and international marketplace. Technology has a vital role in ensuring that coal can continue to serve U.S. energy interests and enhance opportunities for economic growth and employment while meeting the national committment to a clean and healthy global environment. These technologies are being advanced through the CCT Program. The CCT Program supports three substantive national objectives: ensuring a sustainable environment through technology; enhancing energy efficiency and reliability; providing opportunities for economic growth and employment. The technologies being demonstrated under the CCT Program reduce the emissions of sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, greenhouse gases, hazardous air pollutants, solid and liquid wastes, and other emissions resulting from coal use or conversion to other fuel forms. These emissions reductions are achieved with efficiencies greater than or equal to currently available technologies.

  3. Alternative Solvents and Technologies for Precision Cleaning of Aerospace Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grandelli, Heather; Maloney, Phillip; DeVor, Robert; Hintze, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Precision cleaning solvents for aerospace components and oxygen fuel systems, including currently used Vertrel-MCA, have a negative environmental legacy, high global warming potential, and have polluted cleaning sites. Thus, alternative solvents and technologies are being investigated with the aim of achieving precision contamination levels of less than 1 mg/sq ft. The technologies being evaluated are ultrasonic bath cleaning, plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide cleaning.

  4. 76 FR 34041 - Clean Technologies Mission to India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... International Trade Administration Clean Technologies Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade... organizing a Clean Technologies Trade Mission to India on November 7- 11, 2011 to be led by Under Secretary... clean energy and environmental technologies. The trade mission will target a broad range of...

  5. Prototype air cleaning system for a firing range

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Mishima, J.; Bamberger, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    This report recommends air cleaning system components for the US Army Ballistics Research Laboratory's new large-caliber firing range, which is used for testing depleted uranium (DU) penetrators. The new air cleaning system has lower operating costs during the life of the system compared to that anticipated for the existing air cleaning system. The existing system consists of three banks of filters in series; the first two banks are prefilters and the last are high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The principal disadvantage of the existing filters is that they are not cleanable and reusable. Pacific Northwest Laboratory focused the search for alternate air cleaning equipment on devices that do not employ liquids as part of the particle collection mechanism. Collected dry particles were assumed preferable to a liquid waste stream. The dry particle collection devices identified included electrostatic precipitators; inertial separators using turning vanes or cyclones; and several devices employing a filter medium such as baghouses, cartridge houses, cleanable filters, and noncleanable filters similar to those in the existing system. The economics of practical air cleaning systems employing the dry particle collection devices were evaluated in 294 different combinations. 7 references, 21 figures, 78 tables.

  6. 77 FR 16548 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... diversity of perspectives on the committee (e.g., geographic, economic, social, cultural, educational, and... on policy and technical issues associated with implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.... --Experience working with air quality policy issues. --Executive management level experience with membership...

  7. Clean Air Slots Amid Dense Atmospheric Pollution in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2003-01-01

    During the flights of the University of Washington's Convair-580 in the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) in southern Africa, a phenomenon was observed that has not been reported previously. This was the occurrence of thin layers of remarkably clean air, sandwiched between heavily polluted air, which persisted for many hours during the day. Photographs are shown of these clean air slots (CAS), and particle concentrations and light scattering coefficients in and around such slot are presented. An explanation is proposed for the propensity of CAS to form in southern Africa during the dry season.

  8. Clean coal technology: The new coal era

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Program is a government and industry cofunded effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal processes in a series of full-scale showcase`` facilities built across the country. Begun in 1986 and expanded in 1987, the program is expected to finance more than $6.8 billion of projects. Nearly two-thirds of the funding will come from the private sector, well above the 50 percent industry co-funding expected when the program began. The original recommendation for a multi-billion dollar clean coal demonstration program came from the US and Canadian Special Envoys on Acid Rain. In January 1986, Special Envoys Lewis and Davis presented their recommendations. Included was the call for a 5-year, $5-billion program in the US to demonstrate, at commercial scale, innovative clean coal technologies that were beginning to emerge from research programs both in the US and elsewhere in the world. As the Envoys said: if the menu of control options was expanded, and if the new options were significantly cheaper, yet highly efficient, it would be easier to formulate an acid rain control plan that would have broader public appeal.

  9. 40 CFR 49.10 - EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA review of State Clean Air Act... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY Tribal Authority § 49.10 EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs. A State Clean Air Act program submittal shall not be disapproved because of failure...

  10. 40 CFR 49.3 - General Tribal Clean Air Act authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General Tribal Clean Air Act authority... ASSISTANCE TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY Tribal Authority § 49.3 General Tribal Clean Air Act authority... respect to all provisions of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations, except for those......

  11. 40 CFR 49.9 - EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY Tribal Authority § 49.9 EPA review of tribal Clean Air... the requirements of § 49.6 for purposes of a Clean Air Act provision, the Indian tribe is eligible...

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVICES/CLEAN DIESEL TECHNOLOGIES FUEL BORNE CATALYST WITH CLEANAIR SYSTEM'S DIESEL OXIDATION CATALYST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Fuel-Borne Catalyst with CleanAir System's Diesel Oxidation Catalyst manufactured by Clean Diesel Technologies, Inc. The technology is a fuel-borne catalyst used in ultra low sulfur d...

  13. Research of laser cleaning technology for steam generator tubing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Suixa; Luo, Jijun; Xu, Jun; Yuan, Bo

    2010-10-01

    Surface cleaning based on the laser-induced breakdown of gas and subsequent shock wave generation can remove small particles from solid surfaces. Accordingly, several studies in steam generator tubes of nuclear power plants were performed to expand the cleaning capability of the process. In this work, experimental apparatus of laser cleaning was designed in order to clean heat tubes in steam generator. The laser cleaning process is monitored by analyzing acoustic emission signal experimentally. Experiments demonstrate that laser cleaning can remove smaller particles from the surface of steam generator tubes better than other cleaning process. It has advantages in saving on much manpower and material resource, and it is a good cleaning method for heat tubes, which can be real-time monitoring in laser cleaning process of heat tubes by AE signal. As a green cleaning process, laser cleaning technology in equipment maintenance will be a good prospect.

  14. 75 FR 63506 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water Act; the Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Missouri Hazardous Waste Management Law, Sec. Sec. 260.350-260.434, RSMo; the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251- 1387; the Missouri Clean Water Law, Chapter 644, RSMo; the Emergency Planning and Community Right... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water Act; the Resource...

  15. Measurement of formaldehyde in clean air

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzert, V.; Seiler, W.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the measurement of small amounts of formaldehyde in air has been developed. The method is based on the derivatization of HCHO with 2.4-Denetrophenylhydragine, forming 2.4-Dentrophylhydragine, measured with GC-ECD-technique. HCHO is preconcentrated using a cryogenic sampling technique. The detection limit is 0.05 ppbv for a sampling volume of 200 liter. The method has been applied for measurements in continental and marine air masses showing HCHO mixing ratios of 0.4--5.0 ppbv and 0.2--1.0 ppbv, respectively. HCHO mixing ratios show diurnal variations with maximum values during the early afternoon and minimum values during the early morning. In continental air, HCHO mixing ratios are positively correlated with CO and SO/sub 2/, indicating anthropogenic HCHO sources which are estimated to be 6--11 x 10/sup 12/g/year/sup -1/ on a global scale.

  16. New challenges to air/gas cleaning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kovach, J.L.

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the need for changes in the design and manufacturing of air and gas cleaning systems to meet waste management and site remediation requirements. Current design and manufacturing practices are primarily directed toward evaluating operational problems with existing systems in nuclear reactor facilities. However, nuclear waste management needs have developed which are much broader in scope and have different processing conditions. Numerous examples of air cleaning needs for waste management activities are provided; the major differences from operating facility needs are the requirement for continuous effluent treatment under widely different processing conditions. Related regulatory issues are also discussed briefly. 1 ref.

  17. ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION MONITORING -- CLEAN AIR STATUS AND TRENDS NETWORK (CASTNET) OPERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    CAMD operates a national monitoring network mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) to determine the effectiveness of promulgated emission reductions. The Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET) provides data for determining relationships between emissions, air...

  18. Separations Technology for Clean Water and Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvinen, Gordon D

    2012-06-22

    Providing clean water and energy for about nine billion people on the earth by midcentury is a daunting challenge. Major investments in efficiency of energy and water use and deployment of all economical energy sources will be needed. Separations technology has an important role to play in producing both clean energy and water. Some examples are carbon dioxide capture and sequestration from fossil energy power plants and advanced nuclear fuel cycle scemes. Membrane separations systems are under development to improve the economics of carbon capture that would be required at a huge scale. For nuclear fuel cycles, only the PUREX liquid-liquid extraction process has been deployed on a large scale to recover uranium and plutonium from used fuel. Most current R and D on separations technology for used nuclear fuel focuses on ehhancements to a PUREX-type plant to recover the minor actinides (neptunium, americiu, and curium) and more efficiently disposition the fission products. Are there more efficient routes to recycle the actinides on the horizon? Some new approaches and barriers to development will be briefly reviewed.

  19. Clean the Air and Breathe Easier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guevin, John

    1997-01-01

    Failure to prevent indoor air quality problems or act promptly can result in increased chances for long- or short-term health problems for staff and students, reduced productivity, faster plant deterioration, and strained school-community relations. Basic pollution control measures include source management, local exhausts, ventilation, exposure…

  20. Assessing the Link between Environmental Concerns and Consumers' Decisions to Use Clean-Air Vehicles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plax, Timothy G.; Kearney, Patricia; Ross, Ted J.; Jolly, J. Christopher

    2008-01-01

    A consulting contract with the California Air Resources Board led to a project examining how California drivers' and fleet managers' perceptions, attitudes, and consumer behavior regarding Clean Vehicle Technologies influenced their own energy choices when it came to purchasing vehicles. The consultants examined archival research, conducted focus…

  1. Indoor Air Quality in Schools: Clean Air Is Good Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarneiri, Michele A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the effect of poor indoor air quality (IAQ) on student health, the cost of safeguarding good IAQ, the cause of poor IAQ in schools, how to tell whether a school has an IAQ problem, and how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency can help schools improve indoor air quality though the use of their free "Indoor Air Quality Tools for…

  2. Introduction of clean coal technology in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Takashi Kiga

    2008-01-15

    Coal is an abundant resource, found throughout the world, and inexpensive and constant in price. For this reason, coal is expected to play a role as one of the energy supply sources in the world. The most critical issues to promote utilization of coal are to decrease the environmental load. In this report, the history, outline and recent developments of the clean coal technology in Japan, mainly the thermal power generation technology are discussed. As recent topics, here outlined first is the technology against global warming such as the improvement of steam condition for steam turbines, improvement of power generation efficiency by introducing combined generation, carbon neutral combined combustion of biomass, and carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology. Also introduced are outlines of Japanese superiority in application technology against NOx and SO{sub 2} which create acid rain, development status of the technical improvement in the handling method for coal which is a rather difficult solid-state resource, and utilization of coal ash.

  3. Fuel switching for Clean Air Act compliance-boiler considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Warchol, J.J.; Kitto, B. Jr.; Kulig, J.S.

    1995-03-01

    Boiler considerations in fuel switching for Clean Air Act Compliance are outlined. The following topics are discussed: fuel switching options, major fuel characteristics, coal receiving and handling, dust control, grindability vs coal rank, pulverizers and burners, burning profiles, deposition zones in a coal-fired boiler, sootblower location, flues, ducts, and fans, air heaters, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), fly ash resistivity, potential ESP upgrades, ash handling system, auxiliary power system, economic factors, site considerations, and political issues. A summary and conclusion is presented.

  4. BACT analysis under the Clean Air Act's PCD program

    SciTech Connect

    Simms, P.; Walke, J.

    2006-11-15

    Before a company may build a new major industrial source of air pollution, or make modifications to an existing major source in the USA it must apply for and receive a Clean Air Act (CAA) Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permit. State environmental agencies typically issue such permits, either under state law or by exercising delegated authority to implement the federal PSD program. To fully comply with the CAA, the emissions limits identified as BACT must incorporate consideration of more than just add-on emissions control technology, they must also reflect appropriate considerations of fuel quality (e.g. low-sulfur coal) and process changes (e.g. advanced combustion techniques) as a means of controlling emissions, and must consider the other environmental and public welfare benefits of the identified emissions control options. Several states including New Mexico and Illinois have already determined that innovated technologies, such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), must be considered in connection with the BACT analysis for new coal-fired power plants. Even the notion that BACT is categorically limited in scope to the general type of facility proposed is contrary to EPA precedent. For example, the Environmental Appeals Board (EAB) has explained that permitting authorities retain the discretion under the definition of BACT to require dramatically different facility designs (e.g. a natural gas plant instead of a coal-fired power plant). The best advice for any permit applicant is to include in the BACT analysis a careful and honest examination of better performing alternative processes and/or innovative combustion techniques and to aggressively pursue such options wherever feasible. 17 refs.

  5. Clean cast steel technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, C.E.; Griffin, J.A.

    1998-06-01

    This report documents the results obtained from the Clean Cast Steel Technology Program financially supported by the DOE Metal Casting Competitiveness Research Program and industry. The primary objective of this program is to develop technology for delivering steel free of oxide macroinclusions to mold cavities. The overall objective is to improve the quality of cast steel by developing and demonstrating the technology for substantially reducing surface and sub-surface oxide inclusions. Two approaches are discussed here. A total of 23 castings were produced by submerge pouring along with sixty conventionally poured castings. The submerged poured castings contained, on average, 96% fewer observable surface inclusions (11.9 vs 0.4) compared to the conventionally poured cast parts. The variation in the population of surface inclusions also decreased by 88% from 5.5 to 0.7. The machinability of the casting was also improved by submerged pouring. The submerge poured castings required fewer cutting tool changes and less operator intervention during machining. Subsequent to these trials, the foundry has decided to purchase more shrouds for continued experimentation on other problem castings where submerge pouring is possible. An examination of melting and pouring practices in four foundries has been carried out. Three of the four foundries showed significant improvement in casting quality by manipulating the melting practice. These melting practice variables can be grouped into two separate categories. The first category is the pouring and filling practice. The second category concerns the concentration of oxidizable elements contained in the steel. Silicon, manganese, and aluminum concentrations were important factors in all four foundries. Clean heats can consistently be produced through improved melting practice and reducing exposure of the steel to atmospheric oxygen during pouring and filling.

  6. Plants Clean Air and Water for Indoor Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Wolverton Environmental Services Inc., founded by longtime government environmental scientist B.C. "Bill" Wolverton, is an environmental consulting firm that gives customers access to the results of his decades of cutting-edge bioremediation research. Findings about how to use plants to improve indoor air quality have been published in dozens of NASA technical papers and in the book, "How to Grow Fresh Air: 50 Houseplants That Purify Your Home or Office." The book has now been translated into 12 languages and has been on the shelves of bookstores for nearly 10 years. A companion book, "Growing Clean Water: Nature's Solution to Water Pollution," explains how plants can clean waste water. Other discoveries include that the more air that is allowed to circulate through the roots of the plants, the more effective they are at cleaning polluted air; and that plants play a psychological role in welfare in that people recover from illness faster in the presence of plants. Wolverton Environmental is also working in partnership with Syracuse University, to engineer systems consisting of modular wicking filters tied into duct work and water supplies, essentially tying plant-based filters into heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Also, the company has recently begun to assess the ability of the EcoPlanter to remove formaldehyde from interior environments. Wolverton Environmental is also in talks with designers of the new Stennis Visitor's Center, who are interested in using its designs for indoor air-quality filters

  7. METC Clean Coal Technology status -- 1995 update

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, L.K.

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is assisting the private sector by funding demonstration programs to validate that CCT technologies are a low-risk, environmentally attractive, cost-competitive option for utility and industrial users. Since 1987, DOE has awarded 45 CCT projects worth a total value of $7 billion (including more than $2.3 billion of DOE funding). Within the CCT Program, the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is responsible for 17 advanced power generation systems and major industrial applications. METC is an active partner in advancement of these technologies via direct CCT funding and via close cooperation and coordination of internal and external research and development activities. By their nature, METC projects are typically 6-10 years in duration and, in some cases, very complex in nature. However, as a result of strong commercial partnerships, progress in the development and commercialization of major utility and industrial projects has, and will continue to occur. It is believed that advanced power generation systems and industrial applications are on the brink of commercial deployment. A status of METC CCT activities will be presented. Two projects have completed their operational phase, operations are underway at one project (two others are in the latter stages of construction/shakedown), four projects are in construction, six restructured. Also, present a snapshot of development activities that are an integral part of the advancement of these CCT initiatives will be presented.

  8. Mesoporous materials for clean energy technologies.

    PubMed

    Linares, Noemi; Silvestre-Albero, Ana M; Serrano, Elena; Silvestre-Albero, Joaquín; García-Martínez, Javier

    2014-11-21

    Alternative energy technologies are greatly hindered by significant limitations in materials science. From low activity to poor stability, and from mineral scarcity to high cost, the current materials are not able to cope with the significant challenges of clean energy technologies. However, recent advances in the preparation of nanomaterials, porous solids, and nanostructured solids are providing hope in the race for a better, cleaner energy production. The present contribution critically reviews the development and role of mesoporosity in a wide range of technologies, as this provides for critical improvements in accessibility, the dispersion of the active phase and a higher surface area. Relevant examples of the development of mesoporosity by a wide range of techniques are provided, including the preparation of hierarchical structures with pore systems in different scale ranges. Mesoporosity plays a significant role in catalysis, especially in the most challenging processes where bulky molecules, like those obtained from biomass or highly unreactive species, such as CO2 should be transformed into most valuable products. Furthermore, mesoporous materials also play a significant role as electrodes in fuel and solar cells and in thermoelectric devices, technologies which are benefiting from improved accessibility and a better dispersion of materials with controlled porosity. PMID:24699503

  9. 36. FIFTH FLOOR BLDG. 27, "CLEAN ROOM" AIR FILTERS LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. FIFTH FLOOR BLDG. 27, "CLEAN ROOM" AIR FILTERS LOOKING SOUTH. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  10. 18 CFR 1316.5 - Clean Air and Water Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Conditions and Certifications § 1316.5 Clean Air and Water Acts. When so indicated in TVA contract documents... Acts. 1316.5 Section 1316.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... Water Acts (a) If performance of this contract would involve the use of facilities which have given...

  11. 18 CFR 1316.5 - Clean Air and Water Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Conditions and Certifications § 1316.5 Clean Air and Water Acts. When so indicated in TVA contract documents... Acts. 1316.5 Section 1316.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... Water Acts (a) If performance of this contract would involve the use of facilities which have given...

  12. Enforcement provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, E.A.; Davis, H.P.

    1994-12-31

    In discussing the provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990, the authors focus on the following: EPA enforcement, including criminal and administrative civil penalties; NJDEPE enforcement authority, including criminal and administrative civil penalties, as well as economic benefit and judicial enforcement; citizens enforcement; and evidence of non compliance.

  13. Impact of Florida's Clean Indoor Air Act on Student Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Steven B.; Daly, Janice; Lee, Dae Taek

    1997-01-01

    Surveys college students to determine the impact of the Florida Clean Indoor Air Act on student life. Results show that smoking regulations were well supported by the majority of students, represented an inconvenience to smokers rather than a deterrent to smoking and that such restrictions are unlikely to lead to conflict among students. (MKA)

  14. Index to the AEC/ERDA/DOE Air Cleaning Conferences

    SciTech Connect

    Burchsted, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive index to the papers in the second through sixteenth AEC/ERDA/DOE Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference is discussed. The index will be published in early 1981 and will be designated as Volume 3 of the proceeding of the sixteenth conference. The index has three parts, a straight numeric tabulation, an author index, and a key word in context (KWIC) index. (JGB)

  15. Sorbent-Based Gas Phase Air Cleaning for VOCs in CommercialBuildings

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.

    2006-05-01

    This paper provides a review of current knowledge about the suitability of sorbent-based air cleaning for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the air in commercial buildings as needed to enable reductions in ventilation rates and associated energy savings. The fundamental principles of sorbent air cleaning are introduced, criteria are suggested for sorbent systems that can counteract indoor VOC concentration increases from reduced ventilation, major findings from research on sorbent performance for this application are summarized, novel sorbent technologies are described, and related priority research needs are identified. Major conclusions include: sorbent systems can remove a broad range of VOCs with moderate to high efficiency, sorbent technologies perform effectively when challenged with VOCs at the low concentrations present indoors, and there is a large uncertainty about the lifetime and associated costs of sorbent air cleaning systems when used in commercial buildings for indoor VOC control. Suggested priority research includes: experiments to determine sorbent system VOC removal efficiencies and lifetimes considering the broad range and low concentration of VOCs indoors; evaluations of in-situ regeneration of sorbents; and an updated analysis of the cost of sorbent air cleaning relative to the cost of ventilation.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL CLEANING PROCESSES: TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives a background against which requirements for further developments of coal cleaning technology and control techniques for the associated pollutants can be established, as part of a review of U.S. coal cleaning process technologies and related technologies for envir...

  17. Clean Cast Steel Technology, Phase IV

    SciTech Connect

    Charles E. Bates

    2003-02-24

    The objective of the Clean Cast Steel Technology Program was to improve casting product quality by removing or minimizing oxide defects and to allow the production of higher integrity castings for high speed machining lines. Previous research has concentrated on macro-inclusions that break, chip, or crack machine tool cutters and drills and cause immediate shutdown of the machining lines. The overall goal of the project is to reduce the amount of surface macro-inclusions and improve the machinability of steel castings. Macro-inclusions and improve the machinability of steel castings. Macro-inclusions have been identified by industrial sponsors as a major barrier to improving the quality and marketability of steel castings.

  18. 40 CFR 49.10 - EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false EPA review of State Clean Air Act... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.10 EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs. A State Clean Air Act program submittal shall not be...

  19. 40 CFR 49.10 - EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false EPA review of State Clean Air Act... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.10 EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs. A State Clean Air Act program submittal shall not be...

  20. 40 CFR 49.10 - EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA review of State Clean Air Act... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.10 EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs. A State Clean Air Act program submittal shall not be...

  1. 78 FR 44947 - Request for Nominations for 2014 Clean Air Excellence Awards Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ...: Additional information on this awards program, including the entry form, can be found on EPA's Clean Air Act...) and (2) of the Clean Air Act (CAA), notice is hereby given that the EPA's Office of Air and Radiation... Package. Dated July 18, 2013. Jeneva Craig, Designated Federal Officer, Clean Air Act Advisory...

  2. 40 CFR 49.10 - EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false EPA review of State Clean Air Act... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.10 EPA review of State Clean Air Act programs. A State Clean Air Act program submittal shall not be...

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION--GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL FOR BIOLOGICAL AND AEROSOL TESTING OF GENERAL VENTILATION AIR CLEANERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program, Research Triangle Institute (RTI) will operate the Air Pollution Control Technology Center to verify the filtration efficiency and bioaerosol inactivation efficiency of heating, ventilation and air conditioning air cleane...

  4. Unequal State Air Pollution: Adopting and Adapting to State Clean Air Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasgow, Derek John

    This dissertation looks at the relationship between American subnational governments and clean air policy in three different cases. I investigate the impact of state reduction policies on the emission of Greenhouse emissions, the subnational adoption of Greenhouse Gas tracking and reduction policies, and the impact of Clean Air Act standards on the siting of coal-fired power plants. The major finding is that in both the adoption and business response to these policies, a state's political context can limit its ability to regulate air pollution. These factors contribute to the unequal protection of air quality across the United States.

  5. 75 FR 42130 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act; Clean Water Act; Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act; Clean Water Act; Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; Safe Drinking Water Act; Toxic Substances Control Act; and the Reporting Requirements of the...''); Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1311 to 1387 (``CWA''); Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (``RCRA''),...

  6. CAN SORBENT-BASED GAS PHASE AIR CLEANING FOR VOCS SUBSTITUTE FOR VENTILATION IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS?

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William; Fisk, William J.

    2007-08-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge about the suitability of sorbent-based air cleaning for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the air in commercial buildings, as needed to enable reductions in ventilation rates and associated energy savings. The principles of sorbent air cleaning are introduced, criteria are suggested for sorbent systems that can counteract indoor VOC concentration increases from reduced ventilation, major findings from research on sorbent performance for this application are summarized, and related priority research needs are identified. Major conclusions include: sorbent systems can remove a broad range of VOCs with moderate to high efficiency, sorbent technologies perform effectively when challenged with VOCs at the low concentrations present indoors, and there is a large uncertainty about the lifetime and associated costs of sorbent air cleaning systems when used in commercial buildings for indoor VOC control. Suggested priority research includes: experiments to determine sorbent system VOC removal efficiencies and lifetimes considering the broad range and low concentration of VOCs indoors; evaluations of in-situ regeneration of sorbents; and an updated analysis of the cost of sorbent air cleaning relative to the cost of ventilation.

  7. Self-Scrubbing Coal -- an integrated approach to clean air

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, K.E.

    1997-12-31

    Carefree Coal is coal cleaned in a proprietary dense-media cyclone circuit, using ultrafine magnetite slurries, to remove noncombustible material, including up to 90% of the pyritic sulfur. Deep cleaning alone, however, cannot produce a compliance fuel from coals with high organic sulfur contents. In these cases, Self-Scrubbing Coal will be produced. Self-Scrubbing Coal is produced in the same manner as Carefree Coal except that the finest fraction of product from the cleaning circuit is mixed with limestone-based additives and briquetted. The reduced ash content of the deeply-cleaned coal will permit the addition of relatively large amounts of sorbent without exceeding boiler ash specifications or overloading electrostatic precipitators. This additive reacts with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) during combustion of the coal to remove most of the remaining sulfur. Overall, sulfur reductions in the range of 80--90% are achieved. After nearly 5 years of research and development of a proprietary coal cleaning technology coupled with pilot-scale validation studies of this technology and pilot-scale combustion testing of Self-Scrubbing Coal, Custom Coals Corporation organized a team of experts to prepare a proposal in response to DOE`s Round IV Program Opportunity Notice for its Clean Coal Technology Program under Public Law 101-121 and Public Law 101-512. The main objective of the demonstration project is the production of a coal fuel that will result in up to 90% reduction in sulfur emissions from coal-fired boilers at a cost competitive advantage over other technologies designed to accomplish the same sulfur emissions and over naturally occurring low sulfur coals.

  8. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2003 (Volume 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    2003-12-01

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). The report addresses the roles of the programs, implementation, funding and costs, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results.

  9. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Completed Projects (Volume 2)

    SciTech Connect

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    2003-12-01

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). The report addresses the roles of the programs, implementation, funding and costs, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results.

  10. Clean-air legislation will buoy U. S. gas processing

    SciTech Connect

    Haun, R.R.; Ellington, E.E.; Otto, K.W. )

    1991-07-22

    This paper reports on the effects of recent U.S. clean-air legislation on NGL demand and pricing. Demand for all NGL products will be firm throughout the 1990s. Increased requirements for butane as methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) feedstock will strengthen butane prices. Higher base-load requirements for propane in new NGL-based olefin plants will also have a positive impact on propane prices.

  11. 40 CFR 2.301 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 114(c) of the Clean Air Act and 5 U.S.C. 553(c) that information submitted under 40 CFR part 98 is... information obtained under the Clean Air Act. 2.301 Section 2.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act. (a) Definitions. For the purpose of...

  12. 78 FR 49511 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection... public meeting of the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC). The EPA established the CAAAC on November... implementation of the Clean Air Act of 1990. The Committee advises on economic, environmental,...

  13. 40 CFR 2.301 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sections 114(c) and 307(d) of the Clean Air Act that information submitted under 40 CFR part 98 is entitled... information obtained under the Clean Air Act. 2.301 Section 2.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act. (a) Definitions. For the purpose of......

  14. 40 CFR 2.301 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sections 114(c) and 307(d) of the Clean Air Act that information submitted under 40 CFR part 98 is entitled... information obtained under the Clean Air Act. 2.301 Section 2.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act. (a) Definitions. For the purpose of......

  15. 40 CFR 49.9 - EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act... of tribal Clean Air Act applications. (a) The EPA Regional Administrator shall process a request of... apply to all future Clean Air Act applications from that tribe or tribal consortium and no...

  16. 75 FR 66089 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee; Notice of Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee; Notice of Charter Renewal AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC) will be renewed for an additional two-year period, as a... implementation of the Clean Air Act. It is determined that CAAAC is in the public interest in connection with...

  17. 77 FR 67814 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... AGENCY Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), notice is hereby...'' provisions of the Clean Air Act (``CAA''). The Final Rule included a federal implementation plan...

  18. 40 CFR 2.301 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sections 114(c) and 307(d) of the Clean Air Act that information submitted under 40 CFR part 98 is entitled... information obtained under the Clean Air Act. 2.301 Section 2.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act. (a) Definitions. For the purpose of......

  19. 40 CFR 2.301 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... information obtained under the Clean Air Act. 2.301 Section 2.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act. (a) Definitions. For the purpose of this section: (1) Act means the Clean Air Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq. (2)(i) Emission data...

  20. 40 CFR 49.9 - EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act... of tribal Clean Air Act applications. (a) The EPA Regional Administrator shall process a request of... apply to all future Clean Air Act applications from that tribe or tribal consortium and no...

  1. 75 FR 61774 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on September 28, 2010... Consent Decree in this Clean Air Act enforcement actions against Murphy Oil USA, Inc. (``Murphy... reached as part of the EPA's Clean Air Act Petroleum Refinery Initiative. Consistent with the...

  2. 40 CFR 49.9 - EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act... of tribal Clean Air Act applications. (a) The EPA Regional Administrator shall process a request of... apply to all future Clean Air Act applications from that tribe or tribal consortium and no...

  3. 76 FR 9609 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on February 14, 2011... Consent Decree in this Clean Air Act enforcement action resolves allegations by the Environmental... in a complaint filed together with the Consent Decree, under Section 113(b) of the Clean Air Act,...

  4. 77 FR 66462 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee; Notice of Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee; Notice of Charter Renewal AGENCY: Environmental Protection...'s Clean Air Act Advisory committee (CAAAC) will be renewed for an additional two-year period, as a... recommendations to the EPA Administrator on policy issues associated with implementation of the Clean Air Act....

  5. 78 FR 77448 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection... public meetings of the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC). The EPA established the CAAAC on... implementation of the Clean Air Act of 1990. The Committee advises on economic, environmental,...

  6. 40 CFR 49.9 - EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA review of tribal Clean Air Act... of tribal Clean Air Act applications. (a) The EPA Regional Administrator shall process a request of... apply to all future Clean Air Act applications from that tribe or tribal consortium and no...

  7. 76 FR 9610 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on February 14, 2011... California. The Consent Decree in this Clean Air Act enforcement action resolves allegations by the...''), asserted in a complaint filed together with the Consent Decree, under Section 113(b) of the Clean Air...

  8. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274... AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative agreement or...

  9. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA`s Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  10. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA's Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  11. Air Cleaning Devices for HVAC Supply Systems in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    Guidelines for maintaining indoor air quality in schools with HVAC air cleaning systems are provided in this document. Information is offered on the importance of air cleaning, sources of air contaminants and indoor pollutants, types of air cleaners and particulate filters used in central HVAC systems, vapor and gas removal, and performance…

  12. Research on ultrasonic cleaning technology of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Lingyan; Tong, Yi; Cui, Ying; Chen, Jianhua; Bai, Qingguang

    2014-08-01

    Along with the higher demand of super smooth optical surface, the cleaning technique that is the critical process to obtain super smooth surface has to meet even higher standards. In virtue of higher efficiency and better effect, the ultrasonic cleaning technology has been widely used in cleaning high-end optical lenses. This paper introduced the process, principle and method of the ultrasonic cleaning technology for a super smooth surface. The basis of determining the main technical parameters, such as the power and frequency of ultrasonic wave, the ultrasonic time, the components of cleaning agent and its operating temperature, were also discussed. In addition, the progress situations of ultrasonic cleaning technologies including the characteristics of complex frequency ultrasonic and megasonics cleaning technology and the removal mechanism of different granularity of dirt were analyzed. The mechanism of complex frequency ultrasound produces chemical process and the relationship between megasonics boundary layer and the particles removing were studied. Results showed that the chemical functions of complex frequency ultrasound and megasonics were better than that of single frequency ultrasound for the particles removal effect. Therefore, the new complex frequency ultrasonic and megasonic cleaning technologies are very necessary for cleaning optical components.

  13. Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium. Quarterly technical progress report, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.-H.; Phillips, D.I.; Luttrell, G.H.; Basim, B.; Sohn, S.; Jiang, X.; Tao, D.; Parekh, B.K.; Meloy, T.

    1996-10-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. Coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The consortium has three charter members, including Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, West Virginia University, and the University of Kentucky. The Consortium also includes industry affiliate members that form an Advisory Committee. In keeping with the recommendations of the Advisory Committee, first-year R&D activities were focused on two areas of research: fine coal dewatering and modeling of spirals. The industry representatives to the Consortium identified fine coal dewatering as the most needed area of technology development. Dewatering studies were conducted by Virginia Tech`s Center for Coal and Minerals Processing and a spiral model was developed by West Virginia University. For the University of Kentucky the advisory board approved a project entitled: ``A Study of Novel Approaches for Destabilization of Flotation Froth``. Project management and administration will be provided by Virginia Tech., for the first year. Progress reports for coal dewatering and destabilization of flotation froth studies are presented in this report.

  14. 76 FR 66717 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a public teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Air Monitoring and Methods Subcommittee (AMMS) to discuss its draft report on EPA's draft Near-Road NO2 Monitoring Technical Assistance...

  15. 75 FR 32857 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revision to Clean Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revision to Clean Air Interstate Rule Sulfur Dioxide Trading Program Correction In final rule document...

  16. AMBIENT MEASUREMENT METHODS AND PROPERTIES OF THE 189 CLEAN AIR ACT HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurement methods for the 189 Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPS) designated in Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments are either identified or suggested for all but 10 of the compounds. n extensive list of chemical and physical properties are developed for all compounds. u...

  17. Air transportation noise technology overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maggin, B.; Chestnutt, D.

    1973-01-01

    The NASA and DOT technology program planning for quieter air transportation systems is reviewed. To put this planning in context, the nature of the noise problem and the projected nature of the air transportation fleet are identified. The technology program planning reviewed here is discussed in relation to the following areas of activity: systems analysis, community acceptance, basic research and technology, and the various classes of civil aircraft, i.e. existing and advanced transports, powered-lift transports, and general aviation.

  18. Advanced Air Bag Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phen, R. L.; Dowdy, M. W.; Ebbeler, D. H.; Kim. E.-H.; Moore, N. R.; VanZandt, T. R.

    1998-01-01

    As a result of the concern for the growing number of air-bag-induced injuries and fatalities, the administrators of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) agreed to a cooperative effort that "leverages NHTSA's expertise in motor vehicle safety restraint systems and biomechanics with NASAs position as one of the leaders in advanced technology development... to enable the state of air bag safety technology to advance at a faster pace..." They signed a NASA/NHTSA memorandum of understanding for NASA to "evaluate air bag to assess advanced air bag performance, establish the technological potential for improved technology (smart) air bag systems, and identify key expertise and technology within the agency (i.e., NASA) that can potentially contribute significantly to the improved effectiveness of air bags." NASA is committed to contributing to NHTSAs effort to: (1) understand and define critical parameters affecting air bag performance; (2) systematically assess air bag technology state of the art and its future potential; and (3) identify new concepts for air bag systems. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) was selected by NASA to respond to the memorandum of understanding by conducting an advanced air bag technology assessment. JPL analyzed the nature of the need for occupant restraint, how air bags operate alone and with safety belts to provide restraint, and the potential hazards introduced by the technology. This analysis yielded a set of critical parameters for restraint systems. The researchers examined data on the performance of current air bag technology, and searched for and assessed how new technologies could reduce the hazards introduced by air bags while providing the restraint protection that is their primary purpose. The critical parameters which were derived are: (1) the crash severity; (2) the use of seat belts; (3) the physical characteristics of the occupants; (4) the

  19. Asthma, sulfur dioxide, and the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Boushey, H.

    1982-02-01

    Laboratory findings on the effects of sulfur dioxide in patients with asthma are related to theories about the mechanisms of bronchial hyperreactivity, an abnormality that may be fundamental to the pathogenesis of asthma and then to questions of national policy on air quality. Work has shown that people with asthma are abnormally sensitive to inhalation of sulfur dioxide and that bronchospasm may develop if they pursue activities that require light exercise while breathing air containing a level of sulfur dioxide permitted by current ambient air-quality standards. The provisions of the Clean Air Act of 1970 require that sensitive groups in the population be protected against adverse health effects, and our data therefore indicate the need for a short-term standard for sulfur dioxide.

  20. A pilot study of energy efficient air cleaning for ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Gundel, Lara A.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Katsapov, Gregory Y.; Fisk, William J.

    2002-11-01

    A laboratory pilot study has been undertaken with the material that showed the most promise (high capacity and low pressure drop) based on the literature review and associated calculations. The best-performing air cleaner was a commercially available pleated filter that contained a thin layer of small activated carbon particles between two sheets of non-woven fibrous webbing. We will refer to this unit as the ''ozone filter'' although it is marketed for removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from automobile passenger compartments. This pilot study strongly suggests that ozone air cleaning can be practical in commercial air handling systems; however, further tests are needed to assess air cleaner performance under a wider range of conditions.

  1. 76 FR 30604 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Perchloroethylene Air Emission Standards for Dry Cleaning Facilities: State of Maine Department... substitution for the amended National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for...

  2. 75 FR 80833 - Shipboard Air Emission Reduction Technology Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Background and Purpose The U.S. implemented the Clean... SECURITY Coast Guard Shipboard Air Emission Reduction Technology Report AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION..., in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency, on Ship Emission Reduction Technology...

  3. ENVITEC shows off air technologies

    SciTech Connect

    McIlvaine, R.W.

    1995-08-01

    The ENVITEC International Trade Fair for Environmental Protection and Waste Management Technologies, held in June in Duesseldorf, Germany, is the largest air pollution exhibition in the world and may be the largest environmental technology show overall. Visitors saw thousands of environmental solutions from 1,318 companies representing 29 countries and occupying roughly 43,000 square meters of exhibit space. Many innovations were displayed under the category, ``thermal treatment of air pollutants.`` New technologies include the following: regenerative thermal oxidizers; wet systems for removing pollutants; biological scrubbers;electrostatic precipitators; selective adsorption systems; activated-coke adsorbers; optimization of scrubber systems; and air pollution monitors.

  4. Assessing the environmental impact of energy generating clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie, A.C.D.; McMillen, M.; Pell, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is a partnership between government and industry designed for cleaner and more efficient use of coal, both for electric power generation and industrial applications. Approximately seven billion dollars have been committed to the CCT program (two and half-billion dollars from DOE and the rest by industry). The potential environmental effects of CCT projects are subject to review because a proposal by DOE to cost-share a CCT project constitutes a {open_quotes}major federal action{close_quotes} under section 102(2)(c) of NEPA. Consequently, by virtue of numerous NEPA impact evaluations of CCT projects, a great deal has been learned about environmental impact analyses for coal combustion sources. In the course of NEPA review of CCT projects, air quality is often a significant environmental issue. This paper focuses on CCT air quality issues from a NEPA perspective, including Prevention of Significant Deterioration, New Source Review, atmospheric visibility, global climate change, and acidic deposition. The analyses of the impacts of the proposed action, alternative actions, and cumulative effects will be examined. (It is a {open_quotes}given{close_quotes} that any action must comply with Federal and State requirements and the provision of the Clean Air Act and other regulatory statues.) NEPA is not a permitting process, but rather it is a process to provide decision makers with the information they require make an informed decision about the potential environmental consequences of undertaking an action. The NEPA review of environmental effects has been instrumental in effectuating beneficial changes in some past CCT projects-changes that have mitigated potentially adverse environmental impacts. Accordingly, NEPA has served as a constructive analytical tool, with similar implications for other actions related to the electric power generation industry that are subject to environmental review.

  5. Keeping the Air Clean and Safe: An Anthrax Smoke Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Scientists at work in the Planetary Protection division at NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) sterilize everything before blasting it to the Red Planet. They take great pains to ensure that all spacecraft are void of bacterial life, especially the microscopic bacteria that can live hundreds of years in their spore states. No one is quite sure what Earthly germs would do on Mars, but scientists agree that it is safest to keep the Martian terrain as undisturbed as possible. Errant Earth germs would also render useless the instruments placed on exploration rovers to look for signs of life, as the life that they registered would be life that came with them from Earth. A team at JPL, headed by Dr. Adrian Ponce, developed a bacterial spore-detection system that uses a simple and robust chemical reaction that visually alerts Planetary Protection crews. It is a simple air filter that traps micron-sized bacterial spores and then submits them to the chemical reaction. When the solution is then viewed under an ultraviolet light, the mixture will glow green if it is contaminated by bacteria. Scientists can then return to the scrubbing and cleaning stages of the sterilization process to remove these harmful bacteria. The detection system is the space-bound equivalent of having your hands checked for cleanliness before being allowed to the table; and although intended to keep terrestrial germs from space, this technology has awesome applications here on Mother Earth. The bacterial spore-detection unit can recognize anthrax and other harmful, spore-forming bacteria and alert people of the impending danger. As evidenced in the anthrax mailings of fall 2001 in the United States, the first sign of anthrax exposure was when people experienced flu-like symptoms, which unfortunately, can take as much as a week to develop after contamination. Anthrax cost 5 people their lives and infected 19 others; and the threat of bioterrorism became a routine concern, with new threats popping up

  6. Clean coal technology demonstration program: Program update 1996-97

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (known as the CCT Program) reached a significant milestone in 1996 with the completion of 20 of the 39 active projects. The CCT Program is responding to a need to demonstrate and deploy a portfolio of technologies that will assure the U.S. recoverable coal reserves of 297 billion tons could continue to supply the nation`s energy needs economically and in a manner that meets the nation`s environmental objectives. This portfolio of technologies includes environmental control devices that contributed to meeting the accords on transboundary air pollution recommended by the Special Envoys on Acid Rain in 1986. Operational, technical, environmental, and economic performance information and data are now flowing from highly efficient, low-emission, advanced power generation technologies that will enable coal to retain its prominent role into the next millennium. Further, advanced technologies are emerging that will enhance the competitive use of coal in the industrial sector, such as in steelmaking. Coal processing technologies will enable the entire coal resource base to be used while complying with environmental requirements. These technologies are producing products used by utilities and industrial processes. The capability to coproduce products, such as liquid and solid fuels, electricity, and chemicals, is being demonstrated at a commercial scale by projects in the CCT Program. In summary, this portfolio of technologies is satisfying the national need to maintain a multifuel energy mix in which coal is a key component because of its low-cost, availability, and abundant supply within the nation`s borders.

  7. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274.926 Section 1274.926 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean...

  8. NASA's Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Act Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia

    2003-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was selected as the Principal Center for review of Clean Air Act (CAA) regulations. The CAA Principal Center is tasked to: 1) Provide centralized support to NASA/HDQ Code JE for the management and leadership of NASA's CAA regulation review process; 2) Identify potential impact from proposed CAA regulations to NASA program hardware and supporting facilities. The Shuttle Environmental Assurance Initiative, one of the responsibilities of the NASA CAA Working Group (WG), is described in part of this viewgraph presentation.

  9. PROJECT LISTING - CLEAN PROCESSES BRANCH (SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This list of projects for the Clean Processes Branch (CPB)of NRMRL's Sustainable Technology Division covers CPB projects in the areas of metal finishing and electronics pollution prevention; green engineering for chemical synthesis; solvent and coatings alternatives; separations ...

  10. PROTECTING ECOLOGICAL RESOURCES WITH THE CLEAN AIR ACT: THE ROLE OF SCIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act provides for establishing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect public welfare (including crops, forests, ecosystems, and soils) from adverse effects of air pollutants, including tropospheric ozone. The formulation of policies is science-base...

  11. Technology: New Ways for Clean Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Amanda S.

    2012-01-01

    Water purification promotes healthy living. While the developing world is working to provide its citizens with future access to clean water sources, the demand for that water is a pressing need today. It should be understood that drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene are interwoven and are all necessary for the overall improved standard of…

  12. The high efficiency steel filters for nuclear air cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.; Williams, K.; Violet, C.

    1990-08-01

    We have, in cooperation with industry, developed high-efficiency filters made from sintered stainless-steel fibers for use in several air-cleaning applications in the nuclear industry. These filters were developed to overcome the failure modes in present high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. HEPA filters are made from glass paper and glue, and they may fail when they get hot or wet and when they are overpressured. In developing our steel filters, we first evaluated the commercially available stainless-steel filter media made from sintered powder and sintered fiber. The sintered-fiber media performed much better than sintered-powder media, and the best media had the smallest fiber diameter. Using the best media, we then built prototype filters for venting compressed gases and evaluated them in our automated filter tester. 12 refs., 20 figs.

  13. Designing Catalysts for Clean Technology, Green Chemistry, and Sustainable Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurig Thomas, John; Raja, Robert

    2005-08-01

    There is a pressing need for cleaner fuels (free or aromatics and of minimal sulfur content) or ones that convert chemical energy directly to electricity, silently and without production of noxious oxides and particulates; chemical, petrochemical and pharmaceutical processes that may be conducted in a one-step, solvent-free manner and that use air as the preferred oxidant; and industrial processes that minimize consumption of energy, production of waste, or the use of corrosive, explosive, volatile, and nonbiodegradable materials. All these needs and other desiderata, such as the in situ production and containment of aggressive and hazardous reagents, and the avoidance of use of ecologically harmful elements, may be achieved by designing the appropriate heterogeneous inorganic catalyst, which ideally should be cheap, readily preparable and fully characterizable, preferably under in situ reaction conditions. A range of nanoporous and nanoparticle catalysts that meet most of the stringent demands of sustainable development and responsible (clean) technology is described. Specific examples that are highlighted include the production of adipic acid (precursor of polyamides and urethanes) without the use of concentrated nitric acid nor the production of greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide; the production of caprolactam (precursor of nylon) without the use of oleum and hydroxylamine sulfate; and the terminal oxyfunctionalization of linear alkanes in air. The topic of biocatalysis and sustainable development is also briefly discussed for the epoxidation of terpenes and fatty acid methyl esters; for the generation of polymers, polylactides, and polyesters; and for the production of 1,3-propanediol from corn.

  14. A breath of fresh air: EPA`s more flexible approach to the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Curreri, J.A.

    1996-05-01

    This article highlights the changes in the Clean Air Act rules as defined by the USEPA. The major changes discussed include the following: definition of a `major source`; streamlined Title V Permits; less detailed descriptions; permit revisions may be reduced; periodic and enhanced monitoring; more practical requirements; case-by-case MACT standards.

  15. Two-fluid cleaning technology for advanced photomask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Nobuo; Kurokawa, Yoshiaki; Hirose, Harumichi; Nonaka, Mikio

    2009-04-01

    Along with the increased miniaturization of electronic devices, two-fluid cleaning technology is garnering the spotlight as a solution for the manufacturing process of Photomask. This is because it is now known that implementing energy control of the particles that are sprayed on the substrate allows cleaning of miniature patterns. However, it is not yet clear just how miniature of a pattern is cleanable with two-fluid cleaning technology. This study discusses mechanisms to miniaturize the droplets created by a two-fluid nozzle. In addition, this study also considers the impact of droplet size on pattern damage to the Photomask and speaks on the potential for applying two-fluid cleaning technology in the future.

  16. Clean coal technology and acid rain compliance: An examination of alternative incentive proposals

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, K.A.; South, D.W.

    1991-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 rely primarily on the use of market incentives to stimulate least-cost compliance choices by electric utilities. Because of the potential risks associated with selecting Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) and the public-good nature of technology commercialization, electric utilities may be reluctant to adopt CCTs as part of their compliance strategies. This paper examines the nature of the risks and perceived impediments to adopting CCTs as a compliance option. It also discusses the incentives that regulatory policy makers could adopt to mitigate these barriers to CCT adoption. (VC)

  17. Clean coal technology and acid rain compliance: An examination of alternative incentive proposals

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, K.A. ); South, D.W. )

    1991-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 rely primarily on the use of market incentives to stimulate least-cost compliance choices by electric utilities. Because of the potential risks associated with selecting Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) and the public-good nature of technology commercialization, electric utilities may be reluctant to adopt CCTs as part of their compliance strategies. This paper examines the nature of the risks and perceived impediments to adopting CCTs as a compliance option. It also discusses the incentives that regulatory policy makers could adopt to mitigate these barriers to CCT adoption. (VC)

  18. Revolution Now: The Future Arrives for Four Clean Energy Technologies

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Tillemann, Levi; Beck, Fredric; Brodrick, James; Brown, Austin; Feldman, David; Nguyen, Tien; Ward, Jacob

    2013-09-17

    For decades, America has anticipated the transformational impact of clean energy technologies. But even as costs fell and technology matured, a clean energy revolution always seemed just out of reach. Critics often said a clean energy future would "always be five years away." This report focuses on four technology revolutions that are here today. In the last five years they have achieved dramatic reductions in cost and this has been accompanied by a surge in consumer, industrial and commercial deployment. Although these four technologies still represent a small percentage of their total market, they are growing rapidly. The four key technologies this report focuses on are: onshore wind power, polysilicon photovoltaic modules, LED lighting, and electric vehicles.

  19. 75 FR 4069 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... issued the final rule to revise both the primary and secondary NAAQS for PM (71 FR 61144) and retain PM... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee... Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Ambient Air Monitoring & Methods Subcommittee (AAMMS...

  20. 76 FR 65722 - Notification of Two Public Teleconferences; Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... AGENCY Notification of Two Public Teleconferences; Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee AGENCY... Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) to discuss its draft review of EPA's Integrated Science... scientific and technical aspects of issues related to the criteria for air quality standards,...

  1. Clean-air video will interest MDs who treat patients with allergies, respiratory problems.

    PubMed

    Rafuse, J

    1996-03-15

    Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation wants physicians to help raise public awareness abut the importance of indoor air quality to health. Physicians across Canada are being sent a colourful poster that calls attention to indoor air pollution and ways to make a home healthier, included are order forms for the Clean Air Guide and a companion video, This Clean House. PMID:8634972

  2. 40 CFR 49.3 - General Tribal Clean Air Act authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General Tribal Clean Air Act authority... Air Act authority. Tribes meeting the eligibility criteria of § 49.6 shall be treated in the same manner as States with respect to all provisions of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations,...

  3. 77 FR 46757 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA''), notice is hereby given of a proposed consent... INFORMATION CONTACT: David Orlin, Air and Radiation Law Office (2344A), Office of General Counsel,...

  4. 76 FR 58507 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... AGENCY Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), notice is hereby... air quality standard (``1-Hour ozone standard'') by the applicable attainment date. The...

  5. 76 FR 5609 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on January 26, 2011, a... numerous national settlements reached as part of the EPA's Clean Air Act Petroleum Refinery Initiative... Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7413(b), for alleged environmental violations at HOVENSA L.L.C.'s...

  6. 40 CFR 49.3 - General Tribal Clean Air Act authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General Tribal Clean Air Act authority... Air Act authority. Tribes meeting the eligibility criteria of § 49.6 shall be treated in the same manner as States with respect to all provisions of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations,...

  7. 40 CFR 49.3 - General Tribal Clean Air Act authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General Tribal Clean Air Act authority... Air Act authority. Tribes meeting the eligibility criteria of § 49.6 shall be treated in the same manner as States with respect to all provisions of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations,...

  8. 40 CFR 49.3 - General Tribal Clean Air Act authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General Tribal Clean Air Act authority... Air Act authority. Tribes meeting the eligibility criteria of § 49.6 shall be treated in the same manner as States with respect to all provisions of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations,...

  9. Indoor air cleaning using a pulsed discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, Akira; Kisanuki, Yoshiyuki; Noguchi, Masanobu; Katsura, Shinji; Lee, S.H.; Hong, Y.K.; Shin, S.Y.; Kang, J.H.

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a high-efficiency air-cleaning system for air pollutants such as tobacco smoke found in indoor environments. The authors investigated the basic characteristics of treating particulate matter and acetaldehyde (CH{sub 3}CHO) in a one-pass test using a pulse generator and a plasma-driven catalyst reactor, both of which are attachable to an air conditioner. Using a circulation test, the decrease in acetaldehyde concentration was measured in a closed vessel where the reactor had been placed. The removal efficiencies of particulate matter and acetaldehyde in the one-pass test (residence time of 10 ms) were 70% and 27%, respectively. In the circulation test, 98% of the suspended particles were collected after 2 min of operation and the acetaldehyde concentration decreased by 70% after 50 mins. It is believed that the TiO{sub 2} catalyst is excited by plasma-induced high-energy particles (electrons, photons, and metastable molecules), resulting in an enhanced pollutant removal. These test results indicate that the combination of plasma with TiO{sub 2} is a potential alternative in treating the pollutants in environmental tobacco smoke.

  10. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program Update 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    2001-04-01

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program). The report address the role of the CCT Program, implementation, funding and costs, accomplishments, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results.

  11. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program Update 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    2002-07-30

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program). The report address the role of the CCT Program, implementation, funding and costs, accomplishments, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results. Also includes Power Plant Improvement Initiative Projects.

  12. Clean coal technologies in electric power generation: a brief overview

    SciTech Connect

    Janos Beer; Karen Obenshain

    2006-07-15

    The paper talks about the future clean coal technologies in electric power generation, including pulverized coal (e.g., advanced supercritical and ultra-supercritical cycles and fluidized-bed combustion), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), and CO{sub 2} capture technologies. 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program Update 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    1999-03-01

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program). The report address the role of the CCT Program, implementation, funding and costs, accomplishments, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results.

  14. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program Update 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    2000-04-01

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program). The report address the role of the CCT Program, implementation, funding and costs, accomplishments, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results.

  15. Cleaning practices and cleaning products in nurseries and schools: to what extent can they impact indoor air quality?

    PubMed

    Wei, W; Boumier, J; Wyart, G; Ramalho, O; Mandin, C

    2016-08-01

    In the framework of a nationwide survey on indoor air quality conducted from September 2009 to June 2011 in 310 nurseries, kindergartens, and elementary schools in all regions of France, cleaning practices and products were described through an extensive questionnaire completed on-site by expert building inspectors. The questionnaire included the cleaning frequencies and periods, cleaning techniques, whether windows were open during cleaning, and the commercial names of the products used. Analysis of the questionnaire responses showed that cleaning was generally performed daily for furniture and floors. It was performed mostly in the evening with wet mopping and with one or more windows open. Five hundred eighty-four different cleaning products were listed, among which 218 safety data sheets (SDSs) were available and analyzed. One hundred fifty-two chemical substances were identified in the SDSs. The typical substances in cleaning products included alcohols, chlorides, terpenes, aldehydes, and ethers; more than half of them are irritants. Two endocrine disruptors, 2-phenylphenol and Galaxolide, were identified in two cleaning products used every day to clean the floors, in seven kindergartens and in a nursery respectively. Eleven reactive substances containing C=C double bonds, mostly terpenes, were identified in a wide variety of cleaning products. PMID:26184913

  16. Collection and analysis of NASA clean room air samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, L. S.; Keever, J.

    1985-01-01

    The environment of the HALOE assembly clean room at NASA Langley Research Center is analyzed to determine the background levels of airborne organic compounds. Sampling is accomplished by pumping the clean room air through absorbing cartridges. For volatile organics, cartridges are thermally desorbed and then analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, compounds are identified by searching the EPA/NIH data base using an interactive operator INCOS computer search algorithm. For semivolatile organics, cartridges are solvent entracted and concentrated extracts are analyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection, compound identification is made by matching gas chromatogram retention times with known standards. The detection limits for the semivolatile organics are; 0.89 ng cu m for dioctylphlhalate (DOP) and 1.6 ng cu m for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The detection limit for volatile organics ranges from 1 to 50 parts per trillion. Only trace quantities of organics are detected, the DOP levels do not exceed 2.5 ng cu m and the PCB levels do not exceed 454 ng cu m.

  17. Chicago Clean Air, Clean Water Project: Environmental Monitoring for a Healthy, Sustainable Urban Future

    SciTech Connect

    none, none; Tuchman, Nancy

    2015-11-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy awarded Loyola University Chicago and the Institute of Environmental Sustainability (IES) $486,000.00 for the proposal entitled “Chicago clean air, clean water project: Environmental monitoring for a healthy, sustainable urban future.” The project supported the purchase of analytical instruments for the development of an environmental analytical laboratory. The analytical laboratory is designed to support the testing of field water and soil samples for nutrients, industrial pollutants, heavy metals, and agricultural toxins, with special emphasis on testing Chicago regional soils and water affected by coal-based industry. Since the award was made in 2010, the IES has been launched (fall 2013), and the IES acquired a new state-of-the-art research and education facility on Loyola University Chicago’s Lakeshore campus. Two labs were included in the research and education facility. The second floor lab is the Ecology Laboratory where lab experiments and analyses are conducted on soil, plant, and water samples. The third floor lab is the Environmental Toxicology Lab where lab experiments on environmental toxins are conducted, as well as analytical tests conducted on water, soil, and plants. On the south end of the Environmental Toxicology Lab is the analytical instrumentation collection purchased from the present DOE grant, which is overseen by a full time Analytical Chemist (hired January 2016), who maintains the instruments, conducts analyses on samples, and helps to train faculty and undergraduate and graduate student researchers.

  18. CLEAN HYDROGEN TECHNOLOGY FOR 3-WHEEL TRANSPORTATION IN INDIA

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna Sapru

    2005-11-15

    Hydrogen is a clean burning, non-polluting transportation fuel. It is also a renewable energy carrier that can be produced from non-fossil fuel resources such as solar, wind and biomass. Utilizing hydrogen as an alternative fuel for vehicles will diversify the resources of energy, and reduce dependence on oil in the transportation sector. Additionally, clean burning hydrogen fuel will also alleviate air pollution that is a very severe problem in many parts of world, especially major metropolitan areas in developing countries, such as India and China. In our efforts to foster international collaborations in the research, development, and demonstration of hydrogen technologies, through a USAID/DOE cost-shared project, Energy Conversion Devices, Inc.,(www.ovonic.com) a leading materials and alternative energy company, in collaboration with Bajaj Auto Limited, India's largest three-wheeler taxi manufacturer, has successfully developed and demonstrated prototype hydrogen ICE three-wheelers in the United States and India. ECD's proprietary Ovonic solid-state hydrogen storage technology is utilized on-board to provide a means of compact, low pressure, and safe hydrogen fuel. These prototype hydrogen three-wheelers have demonstrated comparable performance to the original CNG version of the vehicle, achieving a driving range of 130 km. The hydrogen storage system capable of storing 1 kg hydrogen can be refilled to 80% of its capacity in about 15 minutes at a pressure of 300 psi. The prototype vehicles developed under this project have been showcased and made available for test rides to the public at exhibits such as the 16th NHA annual meeting in April 2005, Washington, DC, and the SIAM (Society of Indian Automotive Manufacturers) annual conference in August 2005, New Delhi, India. Passengers have included members of the automotive industry, founders of both ECD and Bajaj, members of the World Bank, the Indian Union Minister for Finance, the President of the Asia

  19. Second annual clean coal technology conference: Proceedings. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-09

    The Second Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference was held at Atlanta, Georgia, September 7--9, 1993. The Conference, cosponsored by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB), seeks to examine the status and role of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) and its projects. The Program is reviewed within the larger context of environmental needs, sustained economic growth, world markets, user performance requirements and supplier commercialization activities. This will be accomplished through in-depth review and discussion of factors affecting domestic and international markets for clean coal technology, the environmental considerations in commercial deployment, the current status of projects, and the timing and effectiveness of transfer of data from these projects to potential users, suppliers, financing entities, regulators, the interested environmental community and the public. Individual papers have been entered separately.

  20. Interaction between Titles 2 and 3 of the Clean Air Act as amended, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1996-02-01

    This report examines Some issues that would I affect the refining industry if the requirements for hazardous air pollutants set out in Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments were to impede the market entrance of oxygenated fuels, as me; required by Title II. It describes the mandate for reformulated gasoline; considers gasoline characteristics in light of component shifts in refining; examines the supply of, demand for, and cost of various feedstocks and blendstocks; and identifies the emissions and atmospheric impacts that might result from the production and use of reformulated gasoline. Attention is focused on methanol and MTBE, two potential blendstocks that are also hazardous air pollutants, and on maximum achievable control technology standards, which might be applied to the stationary sources that produce them.

  1. Energy modelling: Clean grids with current technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Mark Z.

    2016-05-01

    The need for new energy storage is often seen as an obstacle to integrating renewable electricity into national power systems. Modelling shows that existing technologies could provide significant emissions reductions in the US without the need for storage, however.

  2. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Program update 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program) is a $7.14 billion cost-shared industry/government technology development effort. The program is to demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies, with the most promising technologies being moved into the domestic and international marketplace. Clean coal technologies being demonstrated under the CCT program are creating the technology base that allows the nation to meet its energy and environmental goals efficiently and reliably. The fact that most of the demonstrations are being conducted at commercial scale, in actual user environments, and under conditions typical of commercial operations allows the potential of the technologies to be evaluated in their intended commercial applications. The technologies are categorized into four market sectors: advanced electric power generation systems; environmental control devices; coal processing equipment for clean fuels; and industrial technologies. Sections of this report describe the following: Role of the Program; Program implementation; Funding and costs; The road to commercial realization; Results from completed projects; Results and accomplishments from ongoing projects; and Project fact sheets. Projects include fluidized-bed combustion, integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants, advanced combustion and heat engines, nitrogen oxide control technologies, sulfur dioxide control technologies, combined SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} technologies, coal preparation techniques, mild gasification, and indirect liquefaction. Industrial applications include injection systems for blast furnaces, coke oven gas cleaning systems, power generation from coal/ore reduction, a cyclone combustor with S, N, and ash control, cement kiln flue gas scrubber, and pulse combustion for steam coal gasification.

  3. Comprehensive Report to Congress Clean Coal Technology Program: Clean power from integrated coal/ore reduction

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This report describes a clean coal program in which an iron making technology is paired with combined cycle power generation to produce 3300 tons per day of hot metal and 195 MWe of electricity. The COREX technology consists of a metal-pyrolyzer connected to a reduction shaft, in which the reducing gas comes directly from coal pyrolysis. The offgas is utilized to fuel a combined cycle power plant.

  4. No Need to Wait for the Clean Air Dividend

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, Drew

    2012-01-01

    Controlling smog and soot is the classic win-win situation, so it's great that the world is finally waking up to the idea. WHAT if there was a way to simultaneously slow down climate change, save millions of lives, improve crop yields and contribute to sustainable development and energy security? It sounds too good to be true, but it is possible. It won't be free or easy, but with some effort and moderate investment, it can be done. The way to do it is to reduce emissions leading to two types of pollution: black carbon and ozone. These are the only pollutants that we know contribute to both global warming and poor air quality. Black carbon is essentially soot, emitted from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass. It warms the climate in two ways: by absorbing heat in the atmosphere - similar to the greenhouse effect - and by reducing Earth's albedo, or ability to reflect sunlight. Inhaled into the lungs, it leads to cancer and cardiovascular disease. Ozone in the atmosphere also acts as a greenhouse gas, while ground-level ozone is toxic to humans and plants, so leads to both premature death and reduced crop yields. Ozone is not emitted directly but is produced by the action of sunlight on other pollutants, which are known as ozone precursors. Since black carbon and ozone are important components of soot and smog, a great deal of effort has already been put into developing methods to reduce emissions. So effective technology is available, but needs wider implementation. The recommended control measures for black carbon include widespread and tight emission standards on diesel cars and trucks; improved solid fuel cooking stoves, brick kilns and coke ovens in the developing world; and a ban on the open burning of agricultural waste. Implementation of these measures would have a rapid impact on the climate and human health, and also have the added benefit of greatly reducing emissions of carbon monoxide, an important ozone precursor. A second key ozone

  5. Optimizing electric utility air toxics compliance with other titles of the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Loeb, A.P.; South, D.W.

    1993-12-31

    This paper provides an overview of regulatory issues under Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments that could affect electric utilities. Title III contains provisions relating to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and provides special treatment for electric utilities. Generally, this discussion documents that if utility toxic emissions are regulated, one of the chief difficulties confronting utilities will be the lack of coordination between Title III and other titles of the Act. The paper concludes that if the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) determines that regulation of utility HAPs is warranted under Title III, savings can be realized from flexible compliance treatment.

  6. The California fuel cell partnership: an avenue to clean air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Alan C.

    The California Fuel Cell Partnership presently consists of eight private companies, two state agencies and a federal government representative that will attempt to demonstrate the feasibility of fuel cell cars and buses. California has attempted to advance the commercialization of zero-emission vehicles for much of the past decade to help the state reduce its high levels of air pollution. A special advisory panel convened by the California Air Resources Board concluded last year that fuel cell technology could meet the key requirements for automobiles. The successful commercialization of fuel cell vehicles would help to reduce the levels of ozone, fine particles and toxic air contaminants that pose health risks to California's population. This technology can also help to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. California regulations now encourage the development of zero and near-zero emission vehicle technologies, including fuel cells. The Fuel Cell Partnership will operate approximately 50 fuel cell cars and buses until the year 2003 in order to produce important information on the vehicles and fueling infrastructure needed to support them.

  7. 75 FR 42132 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Pursuant to 28 CFR 50.7, notice is hereby given... injunctive relief under Section 113(b) of the Clean Air Act (the Act), 42 U.S.C. 7413(b), for failure to... earthmoving, failure to operate a water application system while conducting earthmoving, and failure...

  8. 77 FR 34066 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on May 31, 2012, a.... Vernon (``Defendants'') for violations of Section 112 of the Clean Air Act (``CAA''), 42 U.S.C. 7412, and... CAA violations; implement controls on an API oil/water separator as additional injunctive...

  9. 77 FR 76302 - Notice Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-27

    ... Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act On December 20, 2012, the Department of Justice...-00076-CFVT. The United States filed this lawsuit under the Clean Air Act. The United States' complaint... replacement of one or more coal-fired boilers used by public schools in Kentucky through...

  10. 78 FR 24777 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act On April 22, 2013, the Department of... under the federal Clean Air Act (``Act''), the United States alleges that Wisconsin Power and Light,...

  11. 78 FR 14358 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Geneva Energy and NAES violated provisions of the Clean Air Act, including: (1) The New Source... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act On February 25, 2013, the Department of Justice... of Illinois, Eastern Division, in the lawsuit entitled United States v. Geneva Energy, LLC,...

  12. 75 FR 42132 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on July 14... United States sought penalties pursuant to Section 608(c) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7671g, against... hydraulic launch assist refuse collection vehicle is designed to be more efficient by using energy...

  13. 76 FR 2922 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on December 30, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree in United States v. Gasco Energy Inc., et al., Civil Action No. 2:10-CV... United States seeks civil penalties and injunctive relief for alleged violations of the Clean Air...

  14. 75 FR 16461 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... AGENCY Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g... title V of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 7661 et seq., to RRI Energy Mid-Atlantic's Portland Generating Station...

  15. 40 CFR 23.3 - Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act. 23.3 Section 23.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.3 Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air...

  16. 40 CFR 23.3 - Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act. 23.3 Section 23.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.3 Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air...

  17. 77 FR 281 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... 2, 2011, EPA provided notice in accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), of a proposed consent decree to address a lawsuit filed...

  18. 40 CFR 23.3 - Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act. 23.3 Section 23.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.3 Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air...

  19. 40 CFR 23.3 - Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act. 23.3 Section 23.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.3 Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air...

  20. 40 CFR 23.3 - Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act. 23.3 Section 23.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.3 Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air...

  1. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  2. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  3. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... Violating Facilities” published pursuant to 40 CFR 15.20. By acceptance of a cooperative agreement in...

  4. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  5. 14 CFR § 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Â...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... Violating Facilities” published pursuant to 40 CFR 15.20. By acceptance of a cooperative agreement in...

  6. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... Violating Facilities” published pursuant to 40 CFR 15.20. By acceptance of a cooperative agreement in...

  7. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  8. Air-cleaning systems for sodium-fire-aerosol control. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Hilliard, R.K.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1982-05-01

    A development program has been carried out at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) with the purpose of developing and proof testing air cleaning components and systems for use under severe sodium fire conditions, including those involving high levels of radioactivity. The air cleaning components tested can be classified as either dry filters or aqueous scrubbers. Test results are presented.

  9. 75 FR 18239 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on March 31, 2010, two proposed Consent Decrees were lodged. United States et al. v. Shell Chemical LP, Civil Action No. 4:10-cv... District Court for the District of Puerto Rico. The Consent Decrees in these Clean Air Act...

  10. 76 FR 46842 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... alleged violations of Section 112 of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7412, Section 301(a) of the Clean Water Act, 42 U.S.C. 1311(a), and Section 3005(a) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 42 U.S.C... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on July 29, 2011,...

  11. Hybrid Cleaning Technology for Enhanced Post-Cu/Low-Dielectric Constant Chemical Mechanical Planarization Cleaning Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Manivannan; Cho, Byoung-Jun; Kwon, Tae-Young; Park, Jin-Goo

    2013-05-01

    During chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), a copper/low-k surface is often contaminated by abrasive particles, organic materials and other additives. These contaminants need to be removed in the subsequent cleaning process with minimum material loss. In this study, a dilute amine-based alkaline cleaning solution is used along with physical force in the form of megasonic energy to remove particles and organic contaminants. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and monoethanolamine (MEA) are used as an organic base and complexing agent, respectively, in the proposed solution. Ethanolamine acts as a corrosion inhibitor in the solution. Organic residue removal was confirmed through contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Electrochemical studies showed that the proposed solution increases protection against corrosion, and that the hybrid cleaning technology resulted in higher particle removal efficiency from both the copper and low-k surfaces.

  12. Agenda and briefing book: Clean Coal Technology Coordinating Committee, September 16, 1991, Louisville, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-16

    A considerable amount of time was spent discussing the Clean Air Act Amendments pending before Congress. Several members pointed out provisions of the legislation that would have serious impacts on the coal industry and the electric utility industry. The need for increased electricity in Florida raised the question about coal fired Power Plants. It is generally believed that most people in Florida do not know that over 55 percent of the electricity now comes from coal-fired generators. However, publicly, people will say they do not want coal-fired facilities built in Florida. People in Florida are concerned with the EMF Issue just as much as the source of power. It was stated that the coal industry has a very poor image and DOE should assume responsibility for improving the image of coal. it was agreed that it would take a considerable financial commitment to do this and that in addition to government the industry would have to be willing to contribute financially. The Partial results of a survey to utilities concerning the future use of clean coal technologies was reported. Utilities are not ignoring coal technologies but acknowledged that the amendments to the Clean Air Act would be the driving force in future decisions. It was learned through the survey that the DOE negotiation process in the Clean Coal Technology Program was in need of improvement. DOE had recently changed the procedure internally and it was anticipated that the procedure would be smoother in the future.

  13. PremAir{trademark} catalyst systems: A new approach to clean air

    SciTech Connect

    Poles, T.; Anderson, D.R.; Durilla, M.; Heck, R.; Hoke, J.; Ober, R.; Rudy, W.

    1996-12-01

    PremAir{trademark} catalyst systems represents a new approach to air pollution control--one that focuses on destroying pollutants already in the air. PremAir is the trademark for a family of developmental catalysts capable of reducing ozone, carbon monoxide and potentially other pollutants in ambient air that comes into contact with catalyst-coated surfaces. The more air that comes into contact with the surface the more pollutants that can be destroyed. For this reason, Engelhard has focused its attention on heat-exchange equipment such as automotive radiators and air-conditioner condensers. It is because of advances in catalysis achieved at Engelhard that PremAir catalysts are active at the low temperatures found in these environments. In Los Angeles, which has the country`s worst smog problem, approximately one trillion cubic feet per day of air pass through car radiators and five trillion cubic feet per day pass through air conditioners. Most of the research, development and testing work performed to date has been on ozone catalysts and their application to car radiators. This paper discusses that work and the potential benefits associated with the PremAir technology. In addition, preliminary work on stationary applications of this new technology is discussed.

  14. Site technology capsule: Clean Berkshires, Inc. thermal desorption system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The thermal desorption process devised by Clean Berkshires Inc. (CBI) uses standard rotary kiln technology to remove organic contaminants from excavated solid wastes. The process works by vaporizing and isolating the constituents in a gas stream and then destroying them in a high-efficiency afterburner. The processed solids are either reused or disposed of as nonhazardous, depending on applicable regulations.

  15. INNOVATIVE CLEAN TECHNOLOGIES CASE STUDIES - SECOND YEAR PROJECT REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Innovative Clean Technologies Case Studies contained herein are the products of the "Pollution Prevention by and far Small Business" Program (P2SB). he P2SB was an outreach program directed to small businesses that had developed innovative concepts for pollution prevention in...

  16. The Clean Air Act impacts on rail coal

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, R.G. )

    1991-03-01

    These factors are examined in this article. In November 1990, President Bush signed the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 into law. Title IV, concerning acid rain control, calls for a two-phase reduction in power plant sulfur-dioxide emissions, culminating in a nationwide cap after the year 2000. A large part of this reduction will be obtained through substituting low-sulfur coals for the higher-sulfur fuels now used. Most commentators have characterized this legislation as a boon for low-sulfur coal producers and the railroads serving them. If, as projected, up to one-eighth of existing coal-burning plants shift to more distant suppliers, a surge in rail traffic would ensue. Whether this traffic originates at eastern or western mines, rail carriers would obtain longer hauls and greater coal volumes. We have examined the rail transport implications of the amendments and found that the potential rail benefits may be exaggerated. Although traffic volume will grow, margins on some new traffic are likely to be eroded by continued rate competition and reduced productivity. To satisfy coal transport needs in the 1990s, factors that challenge rail productivity must be recognized and resolved.

  17. Highlights of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.

    1991-01-01

    The amendments to the Clean Air Act provide for operating permits for stationary sources of pollution, marking a change that is comparable to federal water pollution regulations. The bill addresses acid rain emissions and will phase out production of chemicals contributing to depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer. A major new concept incorporated into the emission limits established by law is a system of tradeable emissions credits. If a facility reduces emissions below the standard or ahead of the timetable set by law, emissions credits are earned that can be applied to future emissions or sold to another facility. The bill also provides strict deadlines for the EPA to meet in promulgating the regulations. These deadlines will seriously strain the personnel and financial resources of the agency. Perhaps the most significant of the miscellaneous items in the law is a provision for extended unemployment benefits under the Job Training Partnership Act for workers who lose their jobs because of the law's provisions. However, this is contingent on the displaced workers' seeking job retraining.

  18. Engineering analysis of biomass gasifier product gas cleaning technology

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Moore, R.H.; Mudge, L.K.; Elliott, D.C.

    1986-08-01

    For biomass gasification to make a significant contribution to the energy picture in the next decade, emphasis must be placed on the generation of clean, pollutant-free gas products. This reports attempts to quantify levels of particulated, tars, oils, and various other pollutants generated by biomass gasifiers of all types. End uses for biomass gases and appropriate gas cleaning technologies are examined. Complete systems analysis is used to predit the performance of various gasifier/gas cleanup/end use combinations. Further research needs are identified. 128 refs., 20 figs., 19 tabs.

  19. 78 FR 51184 - Air Pollution Control: Proposed Actions on Clean Air Act Section 105 Grant to the Lane Regional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... AGENCY Air Pollution Control: Proposed Actions on Clean Air Act Section 105 Grant to the Lane Regional... air pollution control programs will be less than its expenditures were for such programs during the... programs were cut by 31% each while land quality program funds were cut by 44%. ODEQ then reduced...

  20. OVERVIEW OF EMERGING CLEAN DIESEL ENGINE TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbanks, John

    2001-08-05

    Diesel engines are the most realistic technology to achieve a major improvement in fuel economy in the next decade. In the US light truck market, i.e. Sport Utility Vehicles , pick-up trucks and mini-vans, diesel engines can more than double the fuel economy of similarly rated spark ignition (SI) gasoline engines currently in these vehicles. These new diesel engines are comparable to the SI engines in noise levels and 0 to 60 mph acceleration. They no longer have the traditional ''diesel smell.'' And the new diesel engines will provide roughly twice the service life. This is very significant for resale value which could more than offset the initial premium cost of the diesel engine over that of the SI gasoline engine. So why are we not seeing more diesel engine powered personal vehicles in the U.S.? The European auto fleet is comprised of a little over 30 percent diesel engine powered vehicles while current sales are about 50 percent diesel. In France, over 70 percent of the luxury class cars i.e. Mercedes ''S'' Class, BMW 700 series etc., are sold with the diesel engine option selected. Diesel powered BMW's are winning auto races in Germany. These are a typical of the general North American perspective of diesel powered autos. The big challenge to commercial introduction of diesel engine powered light trucks and autos is compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 2, 2007 emissions standards. Specifically, 0.07gm/mile Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) and 0.01 gm/mile particulates (PM). Although the EPA has set a series of bins of increasing stringency until the 2007 levels are met, vehicle manufacturers appear to want some assurance that Tier 2, 2007 can be met before they commit an engine to a vehicle.

  1. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Tsang

    2003-03-14

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), a company of Global Energy Inc., and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution over several years, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana.

  2. 40 CFR 49.7 - Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval. 49.7 Section 49.7 Protection of Environment... MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.7 Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act... it meets the eligibility requirements of § 49.6 for Clean Air Act program approval. The...

  3. 40 CFR 52.36 - What are the requirements of the Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) for the Clean Air Interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) to satisfy the requirements of section 110(a)(2)(D)(i)(I) of the Clean Air Act for the PM2.5 NAAQS... Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) for the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) relating to emissions of... What are the requirements of the Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) for the Clean Air Interstate...

  4. 40 CFR 49.7 - Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval. 49.7 Section 49.7 Protection of Environment... MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.7 Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act... it meets the eligibility requirements of § 49.6 for Clean Air Act program approval. The...

  5. 40 CFR 52.36 - What are the requirements of the Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) for the Clean Air Interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) to satisfy the requirements of section 110(a)(2)(D)(i)(I) of the Clean Air Act for the PM2.5 NAAQS... Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) for the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) relating to emissions of... What are the requirements of the Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) for the Clean Air Interstate...

  6. 40 CFR 22.34 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air Act. 22.34 Section 22.34 Protection of... Clean Air Act. (a) Scope. This section shall apply, in conjunction with §§ 22.1 through 22.32, in...) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7413(d), 7524(c), 7545(d), and 7547(d))....

  7. 40 CFR 22.34 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air Act. 22.34 Section 22.34 Protection of... Clean Air Act. (a) Scope. This section shall apply, in conjunction with §§ 22.1 through 22.32, in...) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7413(d), 7524(c), 7545(d), and 7547(d))....

  8. 3 CFR - State of California Request for Waiver Under 42 U.S.C. 7543(b), the Clean Air Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....C. 7543(b), the Clean Air Act Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of January 26, 2009 State of California Request for Waiver Under 42 U.S.C. 7543(b), the Clean Air Act Memorandum for the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency Under the Clean Air Act (42...

  9. 40 CFR 22.34 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air Act. 22.34 Section 22.34 Protection of... Clean Air Act. (a) Scope. This section shall apply, in conjunction with §§ 22.1 through 22.32, in...) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7413(d), 7524(c), 7545(d), and 7547(d))....

  10. 40 CFR 49.7 - Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval. 49.7 Section 49.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY Tribal Authority § 49.7 Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program...

  11. 40 CFR 22.34 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air Act. 22.34 Section 22.34 Protection of... Clean Air Act. (a) Scope. This section shall apply, in conjunction with §§ 22.1 through 22.32, in...) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7413(d), 7524(c), 7545(d), and 7547(d))....

  12. 40 CFR 22.34 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air Act. 22.34 Section 22.34 Protection of... Clean Air Act. (a) Scope. This section shall apply, in conjunction with §§ 22.1 through 22.32, in...) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7413(d), 7524(c), 7545(d), and 7547(d))....

  13. 40 CFR 49.7 - Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval. 49.7 Section 49.7 Protection of Environment... MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.7 Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act... it meets the eligibility requirements of § 49.6 for Clean Air Act program approval. The...

  14. Clean Air Act Title IV: Lessons learned from Phase I; getting ready for Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments have required significant reductions in SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions from fossil fuel-fired power plants in the US. This paper examines some of the key technical lessons learned in Phase I following retrofit of low NO{sub x} systems, FGD systems, and continuous emissions monitors. Some of the key problems encountered have been waterwall wastage as a result of low NO{sub x} burner retrofits; high LOI (carbon) ash as a result of low NO{sub x} operation; high O&M costs associated with CEMs; and the heat rate discrepancy which has arisen between CEMs and conventional heat rate calculations. As Phase II approaches, EPRI and the electric utility industry are investigating improvements in FGD systems (e.g., clear liquor scrubbing), advances in NO{sub x} control technologies, more robust CEM systems, and tools to help in the technology decision-making process.

  15. Implications of the Clean Air Act acid rain title on industrial boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Maibodi, M. )

    1991-11-01

    This paper discusses the impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments related to acid rain controls, as they apply to industrial boilers. Emphasis is placed on explaining the Title IV provisions of the Amendments that permit nonutility sources to participate in the SO{sub 2} allowance system. The allowance system, as it pertains to industrial boiler operators, is described, and the opportunities for operators to trade and/or sell SO{sub 2} emission credits is discussed. The paper also reviews flue gas desulfurization system technologies available for industrial boiler operators who may choose to participate in the system. Furnace sorbent injection, advanced silicate process, lime spray drying, dry sorbent injection, and limestone scrubbing are described, including statements of their SO{sub 2} removing capability, commercial status, and costs. Capital costs, levelized costs and cost-effectiveness are presented for these technologies.

  16. Ambient measurement methods and properties of the 189 Clean Air Act hazardous air pollutants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, T.J.; Mukund, R.; Gordon, S.M.; Hays, M.J.

    1994-03-01

    Measurement methods for the 189 Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) designated in Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments are either identified or suggested for all but 10 of the compounds. An extensive list of chemical and physical properties are provided for all compounds. Suggestions for methods development of compounds with no written references are based on the similarity of these chemical and physical properties to other of the HAPs. For 126 of the HAPs, established and documented methods were found; for 53 other HAPs, methods were identified having need for further development; and for 10 HAPs, either no methods or methods requiring extensive development were found. The primary recommendation of the study is that method development be focussed on the 53 HAPs for which additional development is expected to result in reliable methods.

  17. Self-Cleaning Technology in Fabric: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohani Saad, Siti; Mahmed, Norsuria; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Sandu, Andrei Victor

    2016-06-01

    This article gives an overview on photocatalytic self-cleaning technology on fabric resulting from titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) as photocatalyst which decompose the organic stain into water and carbon dioxide (CO2) in presence of UV light source. The self-cleaning concept is useful in various application including the textiles materials which are normally used in daily life. This technology also can be developed in other application for instance medical textiles, athletic wear, and military uniform and also outdoor fabrics. Additionally, it is beneficial as it effectively conserves water and improves the appearance of the environment and in long term it will reduce energy, laundry cost and time as well.

  18. Clean coal technologies: Research, development, and demonstration program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, has structured an integrated program for research, development, and demonstration of clean coal technologies that will enable the nation to use its plentiful domestic coal resources while meeting environmental quality requirements. The program provides the basis for making coal a low-cost, environmentally sound energy choice for electric power generation and fuels production. These programs are briefly described.

  19. Qualification of BitClean technology in photomask production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Tod; White, Roy; Bozak, Ron; Archuletta, Mike; Brinkley, David; Yi, Daniel

    2010-09-01

    Makers and users of advanced technology photomasks have seen increased difficulties with the removal of persistent, or stubborn, nano-particle contamination. Shrinking pattern geometries, and new mask clean technologies to minimize haze, have both increased the number of problems and loss of mask yield due to these non-removable nano-particles. A novel technique (BitCleanTM) has been developed using the MerlinTM platform, a scanning probe microscope system originally designed for nanomachining photomask defect repair. Progress in the technical development of this approach into a manufacture-able solution is reviewed and its effectiveness is shown in selectively removing adherent particles without touching surrounding sensitive structures. Results will also be reviewed that were generated in the qualification and acceptance of this new technology in a photomask production environment. These results will be discussed in their relation to the minimum particle size allowed on a given design, particle removal efficiency per pass of the NanoBitTM (PREPP), and the resultant average removal throughput of particles unaffected by any other available mask clean process.

  20. 77 FR 14785 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ...In accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is hereby given of a proposed consent decree to resolve a lawsuit filed by Midwest Environmental Defense Center, Inc., and Clean Water Action Council of Northeast Wisconsin (``Plaintiffs''), in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia: Midwest Environmental Defense......

  1. Evaluation of technology modifications required to apply clean coal technologies in Russian utilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The report describes the following: overview of the Russian power industry; electric power equipment of Russia; power industry development forecast for Russia; clean coal technology demonstration program of the US Department of Energy; reduction of coal TPS (thermal power station) environmental impacts in Russia; and base options of advanced coal thermal power plants. Terms of the application of clean coal technology at Russian TPS are discussed in the Conclusions.

  2. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES (CHAPTER 65)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter discusses the use of technologies for reducing air pollution emissions from stationary sources, with emphasis on the control of combustion gen-erated air pollution. Major stationary sources include utility power boilers, industrial boilers and heaters, metal smelting ...

  3. Precision cleaning verification of fluid components by air/water impingement and total carbon analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barile, Ronald G.; Fogarty, Chris; Cantrell, Chris; Melton, Gregory S.

    1994-01-01

    NASA personnel at Kennedy Space Center's Material Science Laboratory have developed new environmentally sound precision cleaning and verification techniques for systems and components found at the center. This technology is required to replace existing methods traditionally employing CFC-113. The new patent-pending technique of precision cleaning verification is for large components of cryogenic fluid systems. These are stainless steel, sand cast valve bodies with internal surface areas ranging from 0.2 to 0.9 sq m. Extrapolation of this technique to components of even larger sizes (by orders of magnitude) is planned. Currently, the verification process is completely manual. In the new technique, a high velocity, low volume water stream impacts the part to be verified. This process is referred to as Breathing Air/Water Impingement and forms the basis for the Impingement Verification System (IVS). The system is unique in that a gas stream is used to accelerate the water droplets to high speeds. Water is injected into the gas stream in a small, continuous amount. The air/water mixture is then passed through a converging/diverging nozzle where the gas is accelerated to supersonic velocities. These droplets impart sufficient energy to the precision cleaned surface to place non-volatile residue (NVR) contaminants into suspension in the water. The sample water is collected and its NVR level is determined by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis at 880 C. The TOC, in ppm carbon, is used to establish the NVR level. A correlation between the present gravimetric CFC113 NVR and the IVS NVR is found from experimental sensitivity factors measured for various contaminants. The sensitivity has the units of ppm of carbon per mg/sq ft of contaminant. In this paper, the equipment is described and data are presented showing the development of the sensitivity factors from a test set including four NVRs impinged from witness plates of 0.05 to 0.75 sq m.

  4. Precision Cleaning Verification of Fluid Components by Air/Water Impingement and Total Carbon Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barile, Ronald G.; Fogarty, Chris; Cantrell, Chris; Melton, Gregory S.

    1995-01-01

    NASA personnel at Kennedy Space Center's Material Science Laboratory have developed new environmentally sound precision cleaning and verification techniques for systems and components found at the center. This technology is required to replace existing methods traditionally employing CFC-113. The new patent-pending technique of precision cleaning verification is for large components of cryogenic fluid systems. These are stainless steel, sand cast valve bodies with internal surface areas ranging from 0.2 to 0.9 m(exp 2). Extrapolation of this technique to components of even larger sizes (by orders of magnitude) is planned. Currently, the verification process is completely manual. In the new technique, a high velocity, low volume water stream impacts the part to be verified. This process is referred to as Breathing Air/Water Impingement and forms the basis for the Impingement Verification System (IVS). The system is unique in that a gas stream is used to accelerate the water droplets to high speeds. Water is injected into the gas stream in a small, continuous amount. The air/water mixture is then passed through a converging-diverging nozzle where the gas is accelerated to supersonic velocities. These droplets impart sufficient energy to the precision cleaned surface to place non-volatile residue (NVR) contaminants into suspension in the water. The sample water is collected and its NVR level is determined by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis at 880 C. The TOC, in ppm carbon, is used to establish the NVR level. A correlation between the present gravimetric CFC-113 NVR and the IVS NVR is found from experimental sensitivity factors measured for various contaminants. The sensitivity has the units of ppm of carbon per mg-ft(exp 2) of contaminant. In this paper, the equipment is described and data are presented showing the development of the sensitivity factors from a test set including four NVR's impinged from witness plates of 0.05 to 0.75 m(exp 2).

  5. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE). Double-annular clean combustor technology development report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahr, D. W.; Burrus, D. L.; Sabla, P. E.

    1979-01-01

    A sector combustor technology development program was conducted to define an advanced double annular dome combustor sized for use in the quiet clean short haul experimental engine (QCSEE). A design which meets the emission goals, and combustor performance goals of the QCSEE engine program was developed. Key design features were identified which resulted in substantial reduction in carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emission levels at ground idle operating conditions, in addition to very low nitric oxide emission levels at high power operating conditions. Their significant results are reported.

  6. Political Factors Affecting the Enactment of State-Level Clean Indoor Air Laws

    PubMed Central

    Vernick, Jon S.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Webster, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effects of key political institutional factors on the advancement of state-level clean indoor air laws. Methods. We performed an observational study of state-level clean indoor air law enactment among all 50 US states from 1993 to 2010 by using extended Cox hazard models to assess risk of enacting a relevant law. Results. During the 18-year period from 1993 to 2010, 28 states passed a law covering workplaces, 33 states passed a law covering restaurants, 29 states passed a law covering bars, and 16 states passed a law covering gaming facilities. States with term limits had a 2.15 times greater hazard (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.27, 3.65; P = .005) of enacting clean indoor air laws. The presence of state-level preemption of local clean indoor air laws was associated with a 3.26 times greater hazard (95% CI = 1.11, 9.53; P = .031) of state-level policy enactment. In the presence of preemption, increased legislative professionalism was strongly associated (hazard ratio = 3.28; 95% CI = 1.10, 9.75; P = .033) with clean indoor air law enactment. Conclusions. Political institutional factors do influence state-level clean indoor air law enactment and may be relevant to other public health policy areas. PMID:24825239

  7. Radical observations during the Clean air for London project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalley, L. K.; Stone, D.; Clancy, N.; Lee, J. D.; Laufs, S.; Kleffmann, J.; Heard, D. E.

    2012-12-01

    With greater than 50 % of the global population residing in urban conurbations, poor urban air quality has a demonstrable effect on human health. OH and HO2 radicals, (collectively termed HOx) together with RO2 radicals, mediate virtually all of the oxidative chemistry in the atmosphere, being responsible for the transformation of primary emissions into secondary pollutants such as NO2, O3 and particulates. Understanding the chemistry of free-radicals in the atmosphere is essential in improving predictions of the lifetimes of pollutants and spatial scales of their transport within urban areas. Results from earlier field campaigns in urban and polluted regions have demonstrated the significance of HONO photolysis and alkene ozonolysis in the production of HOx radicals. In many cases, however, measurements of HONO have not been made, reducing the ability to evaluate model successes for OH in these environments. Here we present measurements of OH, HO2, RO2 and OH reactivity taken during the wintertime (January - February, 2012) and summertime (July - August, 2012) as part of the Clean air for London (ClearfLo) project in London. RO2 was detected using a newly developed flow-reactor laser-induced fluorescence technique which is able to discriminate between HO2 and organic peroxy radicals [1]. Low concentrations of radicals were observed during the wintertime, midday [OH], [HO2] and [RO2] were ~ 0.04, 0.8 and 1.5 pptv respectively, comparable to observations of radicals at other urban locations in winter [2,3,4], and which displayed a negative correlation with NO concentrations. OH reactivity was high and largely tracked the diurnal profiles of NOx and CO, with the highest reactivity ~100 s-1 observed during the morning rush hour. Analysis of factors controlling OH concentrations during the wintertime suggests that the formation of OH from the photolysis of O3 and subsequent reaction of O(1D) with H2O is a minor contribution both under high and low NOx conditions owing

  8. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section 60... Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

  9. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section 60... Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

  10. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section 60... Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

  11. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2971 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a)...

  12. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2971 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a)...

  13. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section 60... Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

  14. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section 60... Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

  15. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2971 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a)...

  16. 77 FR 59186 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ..., 2011, and submitted by the Environmental Integrity Project and the Southern Alliance for Clean Energy... AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...: Pursuant to Clean Air Act (CAA) Section 505(b)(2), the EPA Administrator signed an Order, dated August...

  17. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  18. Critical point drying and cleaning for MEMS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafri, Ijaz H.; Busta, Heinz; Walsh, Steven T.

    1999-08-01

    A critical step in surface micromachining of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is the process that releases, cleans, and dries the flexible structures that are crucial to MEMS functionality. Standard release methods employed today can leave residue particles and can cause sticking because of surface tension. Aggressive design requirements, liquid processing, packaging, handling, transportation, and device operation etc., can contribute to device failure due to stiction. The use of supercritical carbon dioxide has been proven in various industries to achieve ultra-clean surfaces. Recent critical research studies by academia, research laboratories and industry have shown that supercritical carbon dioxide can be successfully used to alleviate the stiction problem and provide a clean and dry surface. The absence of surface tension in the supercritical phase of a fluid provides an excellent means to overcome stiction. The advantages of supercritical carbon dioxide include its relatively low critical temperature and pressure, its high diffusivity, low surface tension, and environmentally friendly (non-ozone depleting, non- hazardous). This paper reviews the stiction problem for MEMS, and the application of critical point drying for MEMS technology.

  19. An improved approach to the construction of air cleaning arrangements for carbon anode plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kuz`min, G.N.; Basov, L.L.; Egorov, S.F.; Post, H.; Sverdlin, V.A.

    1996-10-01

    Carbon anodes for aluminum production are fabricated with coaltar pitch. When pitch is heated up to 200 C volatiles composed of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are emitted. Central ventilation with a scrubber at the exit is the usual way of cleaning the air of the working environment.The existing air-cleaning systems are massive, technically complicated, metal consuming and their efficiency is poor. The duct arrangement from the working area to the scrubber cannot guarantee the required reduction of PAH concentration in the working areas and any failure of the system necessitates interruption of the anode production. An improved concept of air cleaning system which includes the same local equipment based on a plasma chemical method is proposed. Experience has shown that air-cleaning efficiency is improved and energy consumption is reduced. This new concept has the following advantages: simplicity, small size and weight and high reliability. Modules can be installed at the source of gas emission with individual air intake system. Due to the high cleaning efficiency of the system, air can be recirculated in working areas or emitted directly to the atmosphere.

  20. 75 FR 54871 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... Quality Standards for NO X and SO X : First External Review Draft (March 2010) (75 FR 10479- 10481). CASAC... Office announces a public meeting of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee NO X and SO X Secondary... Assessment for the Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for NO X and SO X :...

  1. Impact of Clean Air Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in Neuse River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated impacts of Clean Air Act (CAA) nitrogen emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) models were used. Two scenar...

  2. Smogbusters: Grassroots Action for Clean Air and Sustainable Transport in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manners, Eric; Wake, David; Carlisle, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Smogbusters was a national, community-based, government-funded community education program promoting clean air and sustainable transport in Australia from 1994 to 2002. Smogbusters aimed to improve air quality primarily by raising awareness about motor vehicle transport and its negative impacts on health, the environment and communities, and by…

  3. 78 FR 57656 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act On September 13, 2013, the Department of Justice lodged a proposed Consent Decree in United States and San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District v. Post Holdings, Inc....

  4. MEASUREMENT AND THE LAW: MONITORING FOR COMPLIANCE WITH THE CLEAN AIR AMENDMENTS OF 1970

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Amendments of 1970 (P.L. 91-604) contains a large number of regulatory approaches designed to operate separately and in combination to improve air quality, thereby protecting the Nation's public health and welfare. These approaches include attainment of National Amb...

  5. Air Conditioning and Heating Technology--II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gattone, Felix

    Twenty-eight chapters and numerous drawings provide information for instructors and students of air conditioning and heating technology. Chapter 1 lists the occupational opportunities in the field. Chapter 2 covers the background or development of the industry of air conditioning and heating technology. Chapter 3 includes some of the principle…

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION AND INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses environmental technology verification and indoor air. RTI has responsibility for a pilot program for indoor air products as part of the U.S. EPA's Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program. The program objective is to further the development of sel...

  7. Clean Coal Technology Program: Completing the mission. Comprehensive report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    With its roots in the acid rain debate of the 1980`s, the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program initially emphasized acid rain abatement technologies in its early phases. With the subsequent passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments and growing concern with global climate change, the emphasis of the Program shifted in the later rounds to highly efficient technologies. This report is divided into six chapters. Chapter 1 introduces the report. Chapter 2 provides a background of the CCT Program including the legislative history, the projects currently in the program, and the lessons that have been learned from the five rounds to date. Chapter 3 discusses the commercial potential of the technologies represented in the program and is based on a continuing series of interviews that have been conducted by the Department of Energy to solicit the views of senior management in those companies and organizations that will be making or affecting commercial decisions on the use of these technologies. Chapter 4 provides an accounting of the funds that have been appropriated for the CCT Program. Chapter 5 presents the options available for the Government to further assist in the commercial implementation of these technologies. Chapter 6 presents a discussion of these options with recommendations.

  8. Integrated Technology Air Cleaners (ITAC): Design and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Cohn, Sebastian; Destaillats, Hugo; Henzel, Victor; Sidheswaran, Meera; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2013-09-13

    The primary objective of this project was to design, build, and test an air cleaner for residential use with the potential to substantially improve indoor air quality, or maintain indoor air quality unchanged, when outdoor air ventilation rates are reduced to save energy. Two air cleaners were designed and fabricated. The design targets for airflow rate, fan power, and projected cost were met. In short term laboratory studies, both units performed as expected; however, during field studies in homes, the formaldehyde removal performance of the air cleaners was much lower than expected. In subsequent laboratory studies, incomplete decomposition of some indoor air volatile organic compounds, with formaldehyde as a product of partial decomposition of volatile organic compounds, was confirmed as the explanation for the poor formaldehyde removal performance in the field studies. The amount of formaldehyde produced per unit of decomposition of other volatile organic compounds was substantially diminished by increasing the amount of catalyst on the filter and also by decreasing the air velocity. Together, these two measures reduced formaldehyde production, per unit destruction of other volatile organic compounds, by a factor of four, while increasing the removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds by a factor of 1.4. A company with a southern California office is conducting studies in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with the goal of incorporating the ITAC catalytic air cleaning technology in their future commercial products.

  9. Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium. Technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Feeley, T.J. III

    1995-06-26

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. Coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The consortium has three charter members, including Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, West Virginia University, and the University of Kentucky. The Consortium also includes industry affiliate members that form an Advisory Committee. Affiliate members currently include AMVEST Minerals; Arch Minerals Corp.; A.T. Massey Coal Co.; Carpco, Inc.; CONSOL Inc.; Cyprus Amax Coal Co.; Pittston Coal Management Co.; and Roberts & Schaefer Company. First year research has focused on fine coal dewatering and modeling.

  10. Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium. Technical progress report, October 10, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Feeley, T.J. III

    1995-06-26

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. Coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The consortium has three charter members, including Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, West Virginia University, and the University of Kentucky. The Consortium also includes industry affiliate members that form an Advisory Committee. Affiliate members currently include AMVEST Minerals; Arch Minerals Corp.; A.T. Massey Coal Co.; Carpco, Inc.; CONSOL Inc.; Cyprus Amax Coal Co.; Pittston Coal Management Co.; and Roberts & Schaefer Company. First year activites are focused on dewatering and modeling of spirals.

  11. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Szymocha, K.; Marr, J.

    1990-04-01

    The specific objectives of the bituminous coal program were to explore and evaluate the application of advanced agglomeration technology for: (1)desulphurization of bituminous coals to sulphur content acceptable within the current EPA SO{sub 2} emission guidelines; (2) deashing of bituminous coals to ash content of less than 10 percent; and (3)increasing the calorific value of bituminous coals to above 13,000 Btu/lb. (VC)

  12. Overview of the effect of Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on the natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Child, C.J.

    1995-12-31

    The regulation of hazardous air pollutants by Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 has a potential wide-ranging impact for the natural gas industry. Title III includes a list of 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) which are targeted for reduction. Under Title III, HAP emissions from major sources will be reduced by the implementation of maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standards. If the source is defined as a major source, it must also comply with Title V (operating permit) and Title VII (enhanced monitoring) requirements. This presentation will review Title III`s effect on the natural gas industry by discussing the regulatory requirements and schedules associated with MACT as well as the control technology options available for affected sources.

  13. Your Right to Clean Air, A Manual for Citizen Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1970

    This manual provides the citizen with basic information for taking action against air pollution. A summary of the effects of various concentrations of sulfur oxides, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, photochemical smog, and hydrocarbons is presented. Suggestions are made for obtaining information about community air pollution problems, and how…

  14. Clean coal technology deployment: From today into the next millennium

    SciTech Connect

    Papay, L.T.; Trocki, L.K.; McKinsey, R.R.

    1997-12-31

    The Department of Energy`s clean coal technology (CCT) program succeeded in developing more efficient, cleaner, coal-fired electricity options. The Department and its private partners succeeded in the demonstration of CCT -- a major feat that required more than a decade of commitment between them. As with many large-scale capital developments and changes, the market can shift dramatically over the course of the development process. The CCT program was undertaken in an era of unstable oil and gas prices, concern over acid rain, and guaranteed markets for power suppliers. Regulations, fuel prices, emergency of competing technologies, and institutional factors are all affecting the outlook for CCT deployment. The authors identify the major barriers to CCT deployment and then introduce some possible means to surmount the barriers.

  15. Evaluation of various activated carbons for air cleaning - Towards design of immune and sustainable buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghighat, Fariborz; Lee, Chang-Seo; Pant, Bhuvan; Bolourani, Golnoush; Lakdawala, Ness; Bastani, Arash

    There are increased demands for security, sustainability and indoor air quality in today's building design, construction, operation and maintenance. Installation of air cleaning systems can improve the indoor air quality by reducing the air pollution levels, and enhance the building security against sudden release of chemical and/or biological agents. At the same time, air cleaning techniques may reduce the building energy consumption by reducing the outdoor air supply rate, hence lowering the needs for conditioning of outdoor air. While the air filtration of particulate matter is well standardized, the standards against which the performance of air cleaning for gaseous contaminants is measured or classified are still under development. This study examined the performance of various granular activated carbons (GACs) for the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from mechanically ventilated buildings. Eight different GACs (three virgin and five impregnated) were tested against toluene using a dynamic test system. The virgin GACs showed better performance than impregnated ones, the percentage and the type of impregnation affected the removal efficiencies. Tests were also conducted with selected GACs against toluene, cyclohexane and ethyl acetate at relative humidity (RH) values of 30%, 50% and 70%. The effect of humidity was dependant on the VOC used. Both for toluene and cyclohexane, the removal efficiency decreased as RH increased. However, higher humidity showed a positive impact on the removal of ethyl acetate.

  16. Wet-air oxidation cleans up black wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Sterling Organics produces the analgesic paracetamol (acetaminophen) at its Dudley, England, plant. The wastewater from the batch process contains intermediates such as para-aminophenol (PAP) and byproducts such as thiosulfates, sulfites and sulfides. To stay ahead of increasingly strict environmental legislation, Sterling Organics installed a wet-air oxidation system at the Dudley facility in August 1992. The system is made by Zimpro Environmental Inc. (Rothschild, Wis.). Zimpro's wet-air oxidation system finds a way around the limitations of purely chemical or physical processes. In the process, compressed air at elevated temperature and pressure oxidizes the process intermediates and byproducts and removes the color from the wastewater.

  17. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2971 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Within 60 days after your air curtain...

  18. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2971 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Within 60 days after your air curtain...

  19. Eastern States Harness Clean Energy to Promote Air Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-10-01

    States on the East Coast are including renewable energy and energy efficiency projects into their air quality plans that they submit to the EPA to address nonattainment for nitrogen oxides and other pollutants.

  20. Breathless in Los Angeles: The Exhausting Search for Clean Air

    PubMed Central

    Künzli, Nino; McConnell, Rob; Bates, David; Bastain, Tracy; Hricko, Andrea; Lurmann, Fred; Avol, Ed; Gilliland, Frank; Peters, John

    2003-01-01

    Population growth and the proliferation of roadways in Southern California have facilitated a glut of mobile air pollution sources (cars and trucks), resulting in substantial atmospheric pollution. Despite successful efforts over the past 40 years to reduce pollution, an alarming set of health effects attributable to air pollution have been described in Southern California. The Children’s Health Study indicates that reduced lung function growth, increased school absences, asthma exacerbation, and new-onset asthma are occurring at current levels of air pollution, with sizable economic consequences. We describe these findings and urge a more aggressive effort to reduce air pollution exposures to protect our children’s health. Lessons from this “case study” have national implications. PMID:12948969

  1. The Clean Air and Clean Water Acts: The "Fifth" and "Eighth" Most Significant Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Laurel A.

    1991-01-01

    The history and impact of this federal legislation are discussed. An assessment of the progress of federal legislation in these areas is presented. Key issues for federal legislation regarding water and air quality are identified. (CW)

  2. Twenty-first DOE/NRC nuclear air-cleaning conference

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, R.R.; Moeller, D.W.; First, M.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Twenty-First Department of Energy/Nuclear Regulatory Commission Nuclear Air-Cleaning Conference was held August 12-16, 1990, in San Diego, California. A total of 232 air-cleaning specialists attended the conference. The United States and 14 foreign countries were represented, and the specialists were affiliated with government agencies, educational institutions, and the nuclear industry. Several major topics were discussed during the conference, including development and use of industry codes and standards; chemical processing off-gas cleaning; particulate filter developments, including filter testing and filter response to physical stress; development of adsorbents, including laboratory testing and in-place testing; incineration and vitrification; containment venting; reactor operations, including design and modeling; and measurement systems capable of verifying safe operation. The conference continued to provide a forum for direct and efficient interchange of technical and philosophical information among the participants. The high level of foreign participation and interest continues, as evidenced by over one half of the papers being sponsored by foreign interests, and one quarter of the attendees being from outside the United States. Further evidence of international interest was seen in a plenary session devoted to nuclear air-cleaning programs in nine different countries. A common concern throughout many of the sessions was the development of meaningful standards, their implementation for existing air-cleaning system, and the use of these standards by regulatory agencies. 13 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Stability of air toxic gases listed in Title III Clean Air Act Amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Jayanty, R.K.M.; Jaffe, L.B.; Albritton, J.R.; Jackson, M.D.; Midgett, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    A repository of 59 organic compounds has been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use as gas standards in performance audits during field validation of emission concentrations from stationary sources. These compounds are listed in Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment. The compounds are prepared in compressed gas cylinders and recyclable aluminum containers. Three concentration ranges were selected: low (20 to 200 ppb), mid-level (0.5 to 5 ppm), and high (5 to 50 ppm). The recyclable aluminum containers were only prepared in the low range, and pressures were generally below 400 psig. The compressed gas cylinders contained pressures up to 2000 psig. In this program to ensure that the concentration of each gas standard had not changed, each standard was analyzed periodically for stability. The gas mixtures were analyzed by the manufacturer before shipment. They were then analyzed upon receipt, and reanalyzed periodically to determine any change in concentration. The stability data obtained to date indicates that many compounds are stable in the compressed gas cylinders; however, some of the compounds in the recyclable containers are not stable.

  4. 76 FR 30545 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ...Pursuant to section 112(l) of the Clean Air Act (``CAA'') and Federal regulations promulgated thereunder, the Maine Department of Environmental Protection (``ME DEP'') submitted a request for approval to implement and enforce the amended ``Chapter 125: Perchloroethylene Dry Cleaner Regulation'' (Maine Dry Cleaner Rule) as a partial substitution for the amended National Emissions Standards for......

  5. Evaluating the Impact of Air Pollution on Human Health in China: the Price of Clean Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Hu, Y.; Russell, A. G.; Woo, J.; Streets, D. G.

    2003-12-01

    Population growth, rapid urbanization and economic development are contributing to increased energy consumption in China. One of the unintended consequences is poor air quality due to a lack of environmental controls. The coal dependent energy structure in China only worsens the situation. Quantification of the environmental costs resulting from air pollution is needed in order to provide a mechanism for making strategic energy policy that accounts for the life-cycle cost of energy use. However, few such studies have been conducted for China that examine the entire energy system. Here we examine the extent to which public health has been compromised due to elevated air pollution and how China could incorporate environmental costs into future energy and environmental policies. Taking the Shandong region in eastern China as a case study, we develop a high-resolution regional inventory for anthropogenic emissions of NOx, CO, PM2.5, PM10, VOCs, NH3 and SO2. SMOKE (Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions Modeling System) is used to process spatial and temporal distributions and chemical speciation of the regional emissions, MM5 (the Fifth-Generation NCAR/Penn State Meso-scale Model, Version 3) is used to generate meteorology and Models3/CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality Modeling System) is used to simulate ambient concentrations of particulates and other gaseous species in this region. We then estimate the mortality and morbidity in this region resulting from exposure to these air pollutants. We also estimate the monetary values associated with the resulting mortality and morbidity and quantify the contributions from various economic sectors (i.e. power generation, transportation, industry, residential and others). Finally, we examine the potential health benefits that adoption of best available or advanced energy (coal-based, in particular) and environmental technologies in different sectors could bring about. The results of these analyses are intended to provide

  6. Twenty-third DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning and Treatment Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, R.R.; Hayes, J.J.; First, M.W.

    1995-03-24

    This paper presents the details of the Nuclear Air Cleaning and Treatment Conference held in Buffalo, New York during July 1994. Topics discussed include: nuclear air cleaning codes and standards; waste disposal; particulate filter developments; sampling and monitoring of process and effluent streams; off-gasses from fuel reprocessing; adsorbents and adsorption; accident control and analysis; revised source terms for power plant accidents; and the highlight of the conference concerned operations at the West Valley DOE facility where construction is underway to solidify radioactive wastes.

  7. The effect of the clean air act of Erie County, New York on restaurant employment.

    PubMed

    Hyland, A; Vena, C; Cummings, K M; Lubin, A

    2000-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the economic impact of the Erie County, New York, Clean Air Act on the restaurant industry by examining restaurant employment and payroll statistics. Monthly county-specific data were compared between 1996 (before the law), 1997 (after phase 1, which required 80% of indoor restaurant seating to be smoke-free), and 1998 (after phase 2 which prohibited smoking in 100% of indoor restaurant seating). Erie County's Clean Air Act had no adverse economic impact on its restaurant industry. PMID:18019963

  8. How can environmental regulations promote clean coal technology adoption in APEC developing economies?

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The study examines both existing and emerging regulatory frameworks in order to determine which type of regulations that would be most effective at promoting clean coal technology adoption in development Asia Pacific Economic Co-operation (APEC) economies and would be practical to implement. regulations targeting air emissions; regulations targeting water use; and regulations concerning coal combustion by-products. When considering the potential effect of existing and new environmental regulations on the adoption of clean coal the analysis of technologies was organised into three categories: environmental control technologies; high efficiency coal combustion technologies; and carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS). To target the recommendations towards APEC economies that would benefit the most from this analysis, the study focused on developing and transition APEC economies that are expected to rely on coal for a large part of their future generating capacity. These economies include China, Indonesia, the Philippines, the Russian Federation, Thailand, and Vietnam. ACARP provided funding to this study, under Project C15078. 10 figs., 14 tabs., 10 apps.

  9. RAPID MAPPING FOR CLEAN AIR IN COMMERCE CITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate innovative methods for providing timely reporting of the spatial and temporal distribution of air pollutants in a heavily industrialized urban community. This methodology will utilize data from real-time measurements of meteorological...

  10. The Clean Coal Technology Program 100 MWe demonstration of gas suspension absorption for flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, F.E.; Hedenhag, J.G.; Marchant, S.K.; Pukanic, G.W.; Norwood, V.M.; Burnett, T.A.

    1997-12-31

    AirPol Inc., with the cooperation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) under a Cooperative Agreement with the United States Department of Energy, installed and tested a 10 MWe Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Demonstration system at TVA`s Shawnee Fossil Plant near Paducah, Kentucky. This low-cost retrofit project demonstrated that the GSA system can remove more than 90% of the sulfur dioxide from high-sulfur coal-fired flue gas, while achieving a relatively high utilization of reagent lime. This paper presents a detailed technical description of the Clean Coal Technology demonstration project. Test results and data analysis from the preliminary testing, factorial tests, air toxics texts, 28-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and 14-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/pulse jet baghouse (PJBH) are also discussed within this paper.

  11. Investigation of air transportation technology at MIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    A summary of the research done by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is addressed including Loran-C for guidance in flying approaches, an air traffic control simulator for the Manned Vehicle Simulation Research Facility, and an air traffic collision model theory.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION FOR INDOOR AIR PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses environmental technology verification (ETV) for indoor air products. RTI is developing the framework for a verification testing program for indoor air products, as part of EPA's ETV program. RTI is establishing test protocols for products that fit into three...

  13. 78 FR 1251 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act and the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act On December 31, 2012, the Department of Justice lodged a proposed Consent Decree with the United States District...

  14. Development and applications of clean coal fluidized bed technology

    SciTech Connect

    Eskin, N.; Hepbasli, A.

    2006-09-15

    Power generation in Europe and elsewhere relies heavily on coal and coal-based fuels as the source of energy. The reliance will increase in the future due to the decreasing stability of price and security of oil supply. In other words, the studies on fluidized bed combustion systems, which is one of the clean coal technologies, will maintain its importance. The main objective of the present study is to introduce the development and the applications of the fluidized bed technology (FBT) and to review the fluidized bed combustion studies conducted in Turkey. The industrial applications of the fluidized bed technology in the country date back to the 1980s. Since then, the number of the fluidized bed boilers has increased. The majority of the installations are in the textile sector. In Turkey, there is also a circulating fluidized bed thermal power plant with a capacity of 2 x 160 MW under construction at Can in Canakkale. It is expected that the FBT has had, or will have, a significant and increasing role in dictating the energy strategies for Turkey.

  15. Probe technologies for clean sampling and measurement of subglacial lakes.

    PubMed

    Mowlem, Matt; Saw, Kevin; Brown, Robin; Waugh, Edward; Cardwell, Christopher L; Wyatt, James; Magiopoulos, Iordanis; Keen, Peter; Campbell, Jon; Rundle, Nicholas; Gkritzalis-Papadopoulos, Athanasios

    2016-01-28

    It is 4 years since the subglacial lake community published its plans for accessing, sampling, measuring and studying the pristine, and hitherto enigmatic and very different, Antarctic subglacial lakes, Vostok, Whillans and Ellsworth. This paper summarizes the contrasting probe technologies designed for each of these subglacial environments and briefly updates how these designs changed or were used differently when compared to previously published plans. A detailed update on the final engineering design and technical aspects of the probe for Subglacial Lake Ellsworth is presented. This probe is designed for clean access, is negatively buoyant (350 kg), 5.2 m long, 200 mm in diameter, approximately cylindrical and consists of five major units: (i) an upper power and communications unit attached to an optical and electrical conducting tether, (ii)-(iv) three water and particle samplers, and (v) a sensors, imaging and instrumentation pack tipped with a miniature sediment corer. To date, only in Subglacial Lake Whillans have instruments been successfully deployed. Probe technologies for Subglacial Lake Vostok (2014/15) and Lake Ellsworth (2012/13) were not deployed for technical reasons, in the case of Lake Ellsworth because hot-water drilling was unable to access the lake during the field season window. Lessons learned and opportunities for probe technologies in future subglacial access missions are discussed. PMID:26667920

  16. A Tire Air Maintenance Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Improperly inflated car tires can reduce gas mileage and car performance, speed up tire wear, and even cause a tire to blow out. The AAA auto club recommends that someone check the air pressure of one's car's tires at least once a month. Wouldn't it be nice, though, if someone came up with a tire pressure-monitoring system that automatically kept…

  17. Window-mounted unit cleans air at hazardous waste site

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglia, J.M. ); Sawyer, P.

    1994-07-01

    Uncontrolled hazardous waste sites present the potential for exposure to numerous airborne chemicals--both identified and unidentified. This was the case at an Elizabeth, N.J., remediation project managed by a major environmental contractor. The four-acre site housed three active manufacturing facilities and was bordered by an operation commuter railroad line. About 6,300 drums of assorted organic chemicals, mostly acid chlorides and bromides, awaited sampling and removal. In addition, 120 tanks and vessels required sampling, characterization and removal. Due to site restrictions, support trailers were located relatively close to active work areas. Damaged drums littering the site contained water-reactive, organic acid chlorides and bromides, and released slight emissions during humid or rainy conditions. Shifting winds could (and did) carry trace releases or trace contaminants toward the trailers, potentially exposing unprotected workers. Efforts were begun to alleviate even trace contaminant at levels in the remediation site's temporary office trailers. One potential solution to managing trace contaminants at the site was to use a window-mounted, air conditioner-type unit that would replenish each trailer with filtered air three times an hour, and provide positive pressure in the trailer to compensate for repeated openings and closings of doors. The design uses common, off-the-shelf components to temper the approximately 10 percent makeup air, which provides positive pressure.

  18. 75 FR 64726 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Request for Nominations of Experts To Serve on the Clean Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ...The EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office is requesting public nominations of experts to serve on the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Air Monitoring and Methods Subcommittee...

  19. 76 FR 21345 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of Two Public Teleconferences of the Clean Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Air Monitoring and Methods Subcommittee AGENCY: Environmental... ] Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces two public teleconference calls of the Clean Air Scientific... provide advice, information, and recommendations to the Administrator on the scientific and...

  20. 75 FR 71126 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ...In accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is hereby given of a proposed consent decree to address a lawsuit filed by Sierra Club and Medical Advocates for Healthy Air (collectively ``Plaintiffs'') in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California: Sierra Club, et al. v. Jackson, No.......

  1. 77 FR 4320 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ...In accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is hereby given of a proposed consent decree to address a lawsuit filed by Sierra Club and Medical Advocates for Healthy Air (collectively ``Plaintiffs'') in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California: Sierra Club, et al. v. Jackson, No. C11-cv-......

  2. 77 FR 61641 - Notice Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... Rico in the lawsuit entitled United States v. Suiza Dairy Corporation, Civil Action No. 3:12-cv-01810... Dairy Corporation, to resolve alleged violations of Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act at dairies in... the two dairies; (2) perform supplemental environmental projects (``SEPs'') that will...

  3. 75 FR 17003 - Reconsideration of Interpretation of Regulations That Determine Pollutants Covered by Clean Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ...EPA has made a final decision to continue applying the Agency's existing interpretation of a regulation that determines the scope of pollutants subject to the Federal Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) program under the Clean Air Act (CAA or Act). In a December 18, 2008 memorandum, EPA established an interpretation clarifying the scope of the phrase ``subject to regulation'' found......

  4. 76 FR 22095 - Clean Air Act: Opportunity To Comment, Activities Required by Federal Facilities Compliance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has entered into a federal facilities compliance agreement with the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), Docket No. CAA-04-2010-1760 (Compliance Agreement) to resolve alleged violations of the Clean Air Act and its implementing regulations at the eleven facilities that TVA owns and operates in Alabama, Kentucky, and Tennessee. EPA is hereby providing......

  5. 77 FR 14830 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on March 6, 2012, a proposed Consent Decree in United States v. Spectro Alloys Corporation, Civil Action No. 0:12-CV-00594, was lodged with the United States...

  6. 76 FR 52692 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... on August 17, 2011, a Consent Decree in United States of America v. Erie Coke Corporation, Civil... Pennsylvania. In this action, the United States sought injunctive relief and penalties against Erie Coke Corporation (``Erie Coke'') pursuant to Section 113(b) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7413(b), for...

  7. 75 FR 69125 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under The Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... Pennsylvania State Implementation Plan, by causing excess particulate emissions from boilers on the university campus. Pursuant to the Decree, Slippery Rock University and the Commonwealth will install pollution... the Slippery Rock University and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania violated the Clean Air Act, 42...

  8. 75 FR 78267 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on December 8, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree in United States of America and the Commonwealth of Kentucky v. Logan Aluminum, Inc., Case No. 1:10-cv-00177-TBR...

  9. 75 FR 45667 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Judgment Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Judgment Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on July 28, 2010, a proposed Consent Judgment in United States v. Nassau Chromium Plating Co., Inc., No. CV- 09-2706, was lodged with the United States District...

  10. 77 FR 53235 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ..., a proposed consent decree in United States of America and Mecklenburg County v. Emerald Carolina... penalties and injunctive relief for alleged violations of Clean Air Act regulations at Emerald Carolina... applicable to certain equipment at the plant. The proposed consent decree requires Emerald Carolina...

  11. 75 FR 62421 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... that on September 30, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree in United States of America v. Dakota Ethanol... Dakota Ethanol, LLC pursuant to Sections 111 and 502(a) of the Clean Air Act (the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C... violations of the Act. Dakota Ethanol, LLC owns and operates an ethanol production facility in Lake...

  12. EVALUATION OF SUBMISSIONS UNDER CLEAN AIR ACT, TITLE VI SECTION 612

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under Section 612 of the Clean Air Act, the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) program is authorized to evaluate alternatives to ozone-depleting substances based on the risk posed to human health and the environment. Based on the scientific evaluation of toxicity, flama...

  13. 78 FR 44598 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... Consent Decree for a period of thirty (30) days from the date of that publication. 78 FR 39770 (July 2... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act On June 26, 2013, the Department of... of Illinois in the lawsuit entitled United States, et al. v. Gateway Energy & Coke Company, et...

  14. 78 FR 53784 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act On June 26, 2013, the Department of Justice lodged a proposed Consent Decree with the United States District Court for the Southern District of Illinois in the lawsuit entitled...

  15. 78 FR 39770 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act On June 26, 2013, the Department of Justice lodged a proposed Consent Decree with the United States District Court for the Southern District of Illinois in the lawsuit entitled...

  16. 76 FR 9052 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... Construction Materials Atlantic, LLC, Civil Action No. 3:11-cv-00037, was lodged with the United States... violations of the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (``PSD'') provisions of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C... Atlantic, LLC (``Defendants'') by requiring Defendants to install and operate appropriate emission...

  17. 76 FR 64010 - Special Rules Governing Certain Information Obtained Under the Clean Air Act: Technical Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... to Special Rules Governing Certain Information Obtained Under the Clean Air Act (76 FR 30782). In... section 307(d). (See 76 FR 30782: ``The Administrator determined that this action is subject to the... for the data. (See 76 FR 30782, 30784, 30815 (May 26, 2011); see also 75 FR 39094, 39098,...

  18. 78 FR 2260 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... litigation in question. 77 FR 73029. This notice extends the public comment period on the proposed consent decree until January 14, 2013. Please see the notice published at 77 FR 73029 (Dec. 7, 2012) for... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  19. 77 FR 69894 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act On November 13, 2012, the Department of Justice lodged a proposed consent decree with the United States District Court for the District of Columbia in the lawsuit entitled United States...

  20. Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in Neuse River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated impacts of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) NOx emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina, USA from 1990 to 2020. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-...

  1. HAVE U.S. SURFACE WATERS RESPONDED TO THE 1990 CLEAN AIR ACT AMENDMENTS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) set target reductions for sulfur and nitrogen emissions from industrial sources as a means of reducing the acidity in deposition. One of the intended effects of the reductions was to decrease the acidity of low alkalinity wate...

  2. 78 FR 1250 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (``Massachusetts DEP'') on June 20, 1989 which contains... June 26, 2005 by the Massachusetts DEP pursuant to Title V of the Clean Air Act and 310 C.M.R. 7.00... at this Justice Department Web site: http://www.usdoj.gov/enrd/Consent_Decrees.html . We will...

  3. 78 FR 27258 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act On April 23, 2013, the Department of Justice lodged a proposed Consent Decree with the United States District Court for the Northern District of Iowa in the lawsuit entitled United...

  4. 78 FR 27234 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... solicited nominations for the CASAC NO X Primary NAAQS Review Panel on October 17, 2012 (77 FR 63827-63828...); Oxides of Nitrogen Primary NAAQS Review Panel AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Oxides of Nitrogen (NO X ) Primary...

  5. 77 FR 28897 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ..., 2012, a proposed Consent Decree in United States of America v. American Sugar Refining, Inc., Civil... Consent Decree in this Clean Air Act enforcement action against American Sugar Refining, Inc. (``ASR... environmental violations at ASR's sugar refinery in Baltimore, Maryland. In addition to the payment of a...

  6. 75 FR 42131 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on July 14, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree in United States v. City of Tacoma, Civ. A. No. 3:10-cv-05497, was lodged with the United States Court for the...

  7. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 2543.86 Section 2543.86 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER...

  8. 75 FR 74046 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Colorado doing business as Xcel Energy to operate the Pawnee coal-fired power plant in Morgan County, Colorado (the ``Pawnee Petition'') within the 60 days specified in section 505(b)(2) of the Clean Air Act... decree, EPA agrees to: (i) Sign a response to the Pawnee Petition no later than June 30, 2011; (ii)...

  9. 78 FR 21419 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act On April 4, 2013, the Department of Justice lodged a proposed Consent Decree with the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri...'') requirements of Section 112(r)(7) of the Act. The proposed Consent Decree, which resolves all of these...

  10. 77 FR 43859 - Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... of Lodging of a Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on July 2, 2012, a proposed Consent Decree in the case of United States v. Hercules Incorporated, No. 3:12CV483, was lodged... proposed Consent Decree requires the Defendant to pay a civil penalty of $175,000, and to implement...

  11. 75 FR 49947 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on August 6, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree in United States v. Premix, Inc., Civil Action No. 1:10-cv- 01732-DAP... Section 114 of the CAA, 33 U.S.C. 7414. Under the proposed Consent Decree, Premix is required to...

  12. Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium. Quarterly technical progress report, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.-H.; Phillips, D.I.; Luttrell, G.H.; Basim, B.; Sohn, S.

    1996-07-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. Coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The consortium has three charter members, including Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, West Virginia University, and the University of Kentucky. The Consortium also includes industry affiliate members that form an Advisory Committee. In keeping with the recommendations of the Advisory Committee, first-year R&D activities are focused on two areas of research: fine coal dewatering and modeling of spirals. The industry representatives to the Consortium identified fine coal dewatering as the most needed area of technology development. Dewatering studies will be conducted by Virginia Tech`s Center for Coal and Minerals Processing. A spiral model is developed by West Virginia University. The research to be performed by the University of Kentucky has recently been determined to be: ``A Study of Novel Approaches for Destabilization of Flotation Froth``. Acoomplishments to date are reported.

  13. Positive Displacement Compressor Technology for Air Congitioners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, Shigemi

    Trends of compressor technologies for air conditioners are presented in this paper. HFC refrigerants such is R410A and R407C are promising candidates as an alternative for R22. Performance of rotary and scroll compressors in the operation with R410A and R407C are described. In addition, compressor technologies such as efficiency improvement, reliability and simulation methods are described in both cases of rotary and scroll compressors. Advanced compressor technologies developed for air conditioners are desired in the field of the global environment protection and the energy saving.

  14. 76 FR 55799 - Approval of Clean Air Act Prevention of Significant Deterioration Permit Issued to Avenal Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval of Clean Air Act Prevention of Significant Deterioration Permit Issued to Avenal Power Center, LLC To Construct the Avenal Energy Project AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... decision granting the Clean Air Act Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permit...

  15. 75 FR 55791 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for Alliant Energy--WPL Edgewater Generating Station AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of final order on petition to object to Clean Air Act operating permit. SUMMARY: This...

  16. ESTIMATES OF THE ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION OF SULFUR AND NITROGEN SPECIES: CLEAN AIR STATUS AND TRENDS NETWORK. 1990 THROUGH 2000

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) was established by EPA in response to the requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. To satisfy these requirements CASTNet was designed to assess and report on geographic patterns and long-term, temporal trends in ambient ...

  17. 76 FR 12730 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Objection to State Operating Permit for U.S. Steel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Objection to State Operating Permit for U.S. Steel-Granite.... Steel--Granite City Works (USS). Sections 307(b) and 505(b)(2) of the Clean Air Act (Act) provide that...

  18. 76 FR 31362 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Amendment to Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... Section 113(b) of the Clean Air Act (``CAA''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(b), at a power plant owned and operated by... State Implementation Plan that was prepared and adopted pursuant to CAA Section 110, 42 U.S.C. 7411. The... of Lodging of Proposed Amendment to Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby...

  19. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Lynch

    2004-01-07

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead previously by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC). The project is now under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP) after it acquired GEC and the E-Gas{trademark} gasification technology from Global Energy in July 2003. The Phase I of this project was supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while the Phase II is supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research, Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The two project phases planned for execution include: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at Global Energy's existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. The WREL facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now acquired and

  20. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air liquefaction technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Extensively utilizing a special advanced airbreathing propulsion archives database, as well as direct contacts with individuals who were active in the field in previous years, a technical assessment of cryogenic hydrogen-induced air liquefaction, as a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process, was performed and documented. The resulting assessment report is summarized. Technical findings are presented relating the status of air liquefaction technology, both as a singular technical area, and also that of a cluster of collateral technical areas including: compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers; heat exchanger atmospheric constituents fouling alleviation; para/ortho hydrogen shift conversion catalysts; hydrogen turbine expanders, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps; hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as heat sink; liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket-type combustion devices; air collection and enrichment systems (ACES); and technically related engine concepts.

  1. The road to Clean Cities: Promoting energy security and cleaner air through alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, C.A.

    1997-12-31

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Cities Program is a locally-based government/industry partnership program coordinated by DOE to expand the use of alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuel. By combining local decision-making with the voluntary action of partners, the Clean Cities grass roots approach departs from traditional government programs. It creates an effective plan, carried out at the local level, to establish a sustainable alternative fuels market. The broad goals of the Clean Cities Program are to: reduce dependence on foreign oil, improve the environment, and increase economic growth and competitiveness. The key element of success for this program is partnerships -- public/private partnerships that engage the necessary market forces to accomplish the infusion of new alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) technologies. DOE does not provide direct funding for acquisition of AFVs and products, but rather, provides market development assistance. DOE technical and management resources are targeted at building local coalitions, coordinating technology product suppliers, and improving market and customer information. Clean Cities works directly with local governments and local businesses and shares innovations along the network of Clean Cities coalitions. Since 1993, Clean Cities has made great strides in diversifying transportation fuel consumption. Voluntary Clean Cities partnerships around the United States have heightened public awareness of alternative fuel usage, increased the number of AFVs on the road, and developed alternative fuels infrastructure throughout North America. The Clean Cities Program encourages sustainable development by reducing a community`s dependence on nonrenewable fossil fuels (both domestic and imported), cleaning up the local and global environment, and boosting local economies through the development of alternative fuels industries.

  2. 40 CFR 49.5 - Tribal requests for additional Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY Tribal Authority § 49.5 Tribal requests for additional Clean Air Act... request that the Administrator specify additional provisions of the Clean Air Act for which it would be... Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as States....

  3. Financing Projects That Use Clean-Energy Technologies. An Overview of Barriers and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, D. P.; McKenna, J. J.; Murphy, L. M.

    2005-10-01

    This technical paper describes the importance of project financing for clean-energy technology deployment. It describes the key challenges in financing clean-energy technology projects, including technical risks, credit worthiness risk, revenue security risk, market competition, scale and related cost, as well as first-steps to overcome those barriers.

  4. Tetrachloroethene air pollution originating from coin-operated dry cleaning establishments.

    PubMed

    Gulyas, H; Hemmerling, L

    1990-10-01

    In 15 coin-operated dry cleaning establishments (CODC), in one building where a CODC had been run and in a private car transporting a dry-cleaned down jacket tetrachloroethene (TCE) indoor concentrations were investigated by air sampling with activated carbon tubes, elution of the carbon with toluene, and subsequent gas chromatographic analysis of the eluate. TCE concentrations in the car transporting the garment were up to 24.8 mg/m3. Within CODC air concentrations between 3.1 and 331 mg/m3 were measured. In the building where a CODC had once been run the TCE concentrations were slowly decreasing after removal of dry cleaning machines. In the basement below the CODC the TCE air concentration was 155 mg/m3 immediately after removal of the machines and 4.5 mg/m3 7.5 months later. TCE migrated from the basement via the staircase to the flats of the second floor where TCE air concentrations were about 1% of the concentrations in the basement. TCE-contaminated building material is shown to be a reservoir causing increased TCE air concentrations for a long time, which is serious considering the carcinogenic and reproductive risks from TCE exposure. PMID:2226380

  5. Tetrachloroethene air pollution originating from coin-operated dry cleaning establishments

    SciTech Connect

    Gulyas, H.; Hemmerling, L. )

    1990-10-01

    In 15 coin-operated dry cleaning establishments (CODC), in one building where a CODC had been run and in a private car transporting a dry-cleaned down jacket tetrachloroethene (TCE) indoor concentrations were investigated by air sampling with activated carbon tubes, elution of the carbon with toluene, and subsequent gas chromatographic analysis of the eluate. TCE concentrations in the car transporting the garment were up to 24.8 mg/m3. Within CODC air concentrations between 3.1 and 331 mg/m3 were measured. In the building where a CODC had once been run the TCE concentrations were slowly decreasing after removal of dry cleaning machines. In the basement below the CODC the TCE air concentration was 155 mg/m3 immediately after removal of the machines and 4.5 mg/m3 7.5 months later. TCE migrated from the basement via the staircase to the flats of the second floor where TCE air concentrations were about 1% of the concentrations in the basement. TCE-contaminated building material is shown to be a reservoir causing increased TCE air concentrations for a long time, which is serious considering the carcinogenic and reproductive risks from TCE exposure.

  6. Technology for future air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    The requirements and opportunities for technological development in transport aircraft of the next generation are reviewed, focusing primarily on conventional, subsonic aircraft. Advances in computational aerodynamics and computer-aided design and manufacturing (in numerically controlled processes) are noted as well as improved wind tunnel testing and drag reduction techniques. Advances in aeroelasticity prediction have made it possible to use flexible, high-aspect-ratio wings without large weight penalties. Weight reduction may be achieved by the use of composite aircraft structures and superplastic forming combined with diffusion bonding, however composites require improvement in manufacturing techniques and mechanical properties in order to gain general acceptance. Propulsion systems can be improved in engine fuel efficiency, control, durability, environmental compatibility (exhaust and noise emissions), and fuel specifications. In avionics, due to the growth of low-cost, miniaturized packages, opportunities exist in the fields of digital controls, navigation, guidance and communication. Applications of new technologies to various aspects of flight safety are also outlined.

  7. Environmentally sound thermal energy extraction from coal and wastes using high temperature air combustion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Kunio

    1999-07-01

    High temperature air combustion is one of promising ways of burning relatively low BTU gas obtained from gasification of low grade coal or wastes. In this report, the author proposes a new power generation system coupled with high temperature air gasification of coal/wastes and high temperature air combustion of the syngas from coal/wastes. This system is realized by employing Multi-staged Enthalpy Extraction Technology (MEET). The basic idea of the MEET system is that coal or wastes are gasified with high temperature air of about 1,000 C, then the generated syngas is cooled in a heat recovery boiler to be cleaned-up in a gas cleanup system (desulfurization, desalinization and dust removal). Part of thermal energy contained in this cleaned-up syngas is used for high temperature air preheating, and the complete combustion of the fuel gas is done using also high temperature air for driving gas turbines or steam generation in a boiler.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the activities and progress of the pilot Air Pollution Control Technologies (APCT) portion of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program during the period from 09/15/97 to 09/15/02. The objective of the ETV Program is to verify the performance of...

  9. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium. Quarterly report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-20

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. Coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. In keeping with the recommendations of the Advisory Committee, first-year R&D activities are focused on two areas of research: fine coal dewatering and modeling of spirals. The industry representatives to the Consortium identified fine coal dewatering as the most needed area of technology development. Dewatering studies are being conducted by Virginia Tech`s Center for Coal and Minerals Processing. A spiral model will be developed by West Virginia University. The most promising approach to improving spiral separation efficiency is through extensive computer modeling of fluid and solids flow in the various operating regions of the spiral. Accomplishments for these two tasks are described.

  10. Passamaquoddy Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program: Public design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Passamaquoddy Technology Recovery Scrubber{trademark} was conceived and developed specifically to address two problems experienced by the Dragon cement plant; meeting increasingly stringent gas emission limits for sulfur dioxide, and disposing of kiln dust, containing alkali oxides, which had to be wasted in order to avoid kiln operating and product quality problems. The idea involved making the kiln dust into a slurry in order to leach out the species (primarily potassium and sulfur) which rendered it unacceptable for return to kiln feed. This slurry, the liquid part of which is an alkaline solution, acts as a scrubbing reagent for SO{sub 2} in the flue gas while CO{sub 2} in the gas serves to precipitate soluble calcium and release sulfate for combination with the potassium. The effect of the process is to scrub SO{sub 2} from kiln flue gas, extract the volatile species from the dust allowing it to be returned to the kiln, and yield a leachate comprising potassium sulfate which can be crystallized (using heat recovered from the flue gas) and sold as fertilizer. Apart from widespread application in the cement industry, it was evident that, if the process could be demonstrated, its potential would extend to any plant burning fossil fuel where an alkaline waste either occurs intrinsically or can be juxtaposed. Obvious candidates appeared to include the pulp and paper industry and waste incineration. The chemistry was proved in a 1/100th scale pilot plant using actual kiln dust and a slip stream of kiln gas. A full scale demonstration installation was commissioned in 1989 by CDN (USA), the owners of the Dragon plant with the financial support of the US Department of Energy under its innovative Clean Coal Technology Program.

  11. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Harmond; Albert Tsang

    2003-03-14

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), a company of Global Energy Inc., and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution over a three year period, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial Consortium are

  12. Reference guide to odor thresholds for hazardous air pollutants listed in the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, W.S.; Shoaf, C.R.; Velasquez, S.F.; Selevan, S.; Victery, W.

    1992-03-01

    In response to numerous requests for information related to odor thresholds, this document was prepared by the Air Risk Information Support Center in its role in providing technical assistance to State and Local government agencies on risk assessment of air pollutants. A discussion of basic concepts related to olfactory function and the measurement of odor thresholds is presented. A detailed discussion of criteria which are used to evaluate the quality of published odor threshold values is provided. The use of odor threshold information in risk assessment is discussed. The results of a literature search and review of odor threshold information for the chemicals listed as hazardous air pollutants in the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 is presented. The published odor threshold values are critically evaluated based on the criteria discussed and the values of acceptable quality are used to determine a geometric mean or best estimate.

  13. Clean Energy Technologies: A Preliminary Inventory of the Potential for Electricity Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Owen; Worrell, Ernst

    2005-08-03

    useful thermal energy. Recycled energy produces no or little increase in fossil fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. Examples of energy recycling methods include industrial gasification technologies to increase energy recovery, as well as less traditional CHP technologies, and the use of energy that is typically discarded from pressure release vents or from the burning and flaring of waste streams. These energy recovery technologies have the ability to reduce costs for power generation. This report is a preliminary study of the potential contribution of this ''new'' generation of clean recycled energy supply technologies to the power supply of the United States. For each of the technologies this report provides a short technical description, as well as an estimate of the potential for application in the U.S., estimated investment and operation costs, as well as impact on air pollutant emission reductions. The report summarizes the potential magnitude of the benefits of these new technologies. The report does not yet provide a robust cost-benefit analysis. It is stressed that the report provides a preliminary assessment to help focus future efforts by the federal government to further investigate the opportunities offered by new clean power generation technologies, as well as initiate policies to support further development and uptake of clean power generation technologies.

  14. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-20

    This project is sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the Engineering Design and Analysis of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies. The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies-heavy-liquid cylconing, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of-concept (POC) level.

  15. Rationing health protection: a proposal to exempt nuisance dust from US Clean Air Act regulations.

    PubMed

    Centner, Terence J; Colson, Gregory

    2013-03-15

    The US House of Representative has passed a bill called the "Farm Dust Regulation Prevention Act" (Dust Act) that would exempt most types of particulate matter (PM) in rural areas from the air quality controls of the US Clean Air Act. The Dust Act would markedly change the country's air quality standards. An examination of the proposed provisions shows that they would exempt non-combustion PM pollutants from mining, smelting, petroleum production, and power generation from existing air quality standards. Persons downwind from pollutants generated in rural areas could be exposed to concentrations of carcinogenic heavy metals, asbestos, and benzene known to adversely affect their health and ecological resources. Existing federal air quality standards based on science would be replaced by a flexible standard that rations health protection. PMID:23376304

  16. The potential of passive-remote Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to detect organic emissions under the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.C.; Hammer, C.L.; Kroutil, R.T.

    1992-07-01

    The Clean Air Act of 1990 regulates the emission of 198 air toxics. Currently, there is no existing technology by which a regulatory agency can independently determine if a facility is in compliance. We have successfully tested the ability of passive-remote Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to detect chemical plumes released in the field. Additional laboratory releases demonstrated that FTIR spectroscopy can detect target analytes in mixtures containing components which have overlapping absorbances. The FTIR spectrometer was able to identify and quantify each component released with an average quantitative error of less than 20% using partial least squares (PLS) analysis and 40% using classical least squares analysis (CLS) when calibration files containing pure components and mixtures were used. Calibration files containing only pure analytes resulted in CLS outperforming PLS analyses.

  17. The potential of passive-remote Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to detect organic emissions under the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.C.; Hammer, C.L. ); Kroutil, R.T. )

    1992-01-01

    The Clean Air Act of 1990 regulates the emission of 198 air toxics. Currently, there is no existing technology by which a regulatory agency can independently determine if a facility is in compliance. We have successfully tested the ability of passive-remote Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to detect chemical plumes released in the field. Additional laboratory releases demonstrated that FTIR spectroscopy can detect target analytes in mixtures containing components which have overlapping absorbances. The FTIR spectrometer was able to identify and quantify each component released with an average quantitative error of less than 20% using partial least squares (PLS) analysis and 40% using classical least squares analysis (CLS) when calibration files containing pure components and mixtures were used. Calibration files containing only pure analytes resulted in CLS outperforming PLS analyses.

  18. 75 FR 34647 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... FR 49839. Accordingly, RI DEM has satisfied the up-front approval criteria of 40 CFR 63.91(d...'s proposed Subpart E amendments on January 12, 1999. See 64 FR 1908. IV. EPA Determination of Rule.... See 64 FR 67793. Continuous web cleaning machines are solvent cleaning machines in which parts such...

  19. A Multilevel Test of Constrained Choices Theory: The Case of Tobacco Clean Air Restrictions.

    PubMed

    Vuolo, Mike; Kadowaki, Joy; Kelly, Brian C

    2016-09-01

    According to Bird and Rieker's sociology of constrained choices, decisions and priorities concerning health are shaped by the contexts-including policy, community, and work/family-in which they are formulated. While each level received attention in the original and subsequent research, we contend their constrained choices theory provides a powerful multilevel framework for modeling health outcomes. We apply this framework to tobacco clean air restrictions, combining a comprehensive database of tobacco policies with the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 from ages 19 to 31. Using multilevel panel models, we find that clean air policies lower the odds of past 30 day smoking and dependence while controlling for other policy-, city-, and individual-level constraints. We also find unique between- and within-person effects, as well as gender effects, for the constraint levied by smoking bans. We argue for the theory's broad applicability beyond commonly cited findings regarding gender and biological influences. PMID:27601410

  20. Analysis of S.1844, the Clear Skies Act of 2003; S. 843, the Clean Air Planning Act of 2003; and S. 366, the Clean Power Act of 2003

    EIA Publications

    2004-01-01

    Senator James M. Inhofe requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) undertake analysis of S.843, the Clean Air Planning Act of 2003, introduced by Senator Thomas Carper; S.366, the Clean Power Act of 2003, introduced by Senator James Jeffords; and S.1844, the Clear Skies Act of 2003, introduced by Senator James M. Inhofe. The EIA received this request on March 19, 2004. This Service Report responds to his request.

  1. PROMOTING AIR QUALITY THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the promotion of improved air quality through environmental technology verifications (ETVs). In 1995, the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development began the ETV Program in response to President Clinton's "Bridge to a Sustainable Future" and Vice Presiden...

  2. Air Force Research Laboratory Cryocooler Technology Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Thomas M.; Smith, D. Adam; Easton, Ryan M.

    2004-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of the cryogenic refrigerator and cryogenic integration programs in development and characterization under the Cryogenic Cooling Technology Group, Space Vehicles Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The vision statement for the group is to support the space community as the center of excellence for developing and transitioning space cryogenic thermal management technologies. This paper will describe the range of Stirling, pulse tube; reverse Brayton, and Joule-Thomson cycle cryocoolers currently under development to meet current and future Air Force and Department of Defense requirements. Cooling requirements at 10K, 35K, 60K, 95K, and multistage cooling requirements at 35/85K are addressed. In order to meet these various requirements, the Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate is pursuing various strategic cryocooler and cryogenic integration options. The Air Force Research Laboratory, working with industry partners, is also developing several advanced cryogenic integration technologies that will result in the reduction in current cryogenic system integration penalties and design time. These technologies include the continued development of gimbaled transport systems, 35K and 10K thermal storage units, heat pipes, cryogenic straps, and thermal switches.

  3. Next-generation air measurement technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a presentation at a workshop in Chicago on emerging air monitoring technologies, hosted by a local nonprofit. The audience is composed of a mixture of technical backgrounds. This presentation will be part of an opening panel and the goal is to give an overview of the st...

  4. Clean Energy: No Longer a Luxury! Resources in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This learning activity provides an overview of the problem of clean energy sources and examination of alternatives. Student activity, quiz with answers, related activities, and nine references are provided. (SK)

  5. NOX CONTROL BY COMBUSTION MODIFICATION (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Air Pollution Technology Branch has performed research and developed technologies for NOx reduction via combustion modification. Techniques such as low-excess air firing, staged combustion, flue gas recirculation, low NOx bu...

  6. 76 FR 54465 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ...In accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), notice is hereby given of a proposed settlement agreement to address a lawsuit filed by Sierra Club and WildEarth Guardians in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California: Sierra Club et al. v. Jackson, No. 3:10-cv-04060-CRB (N.D. Cal.). On August 10, 2011, Plaintiffs filed......

  7. 76 FR 79172 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ...In accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is hereby given of a proposed consent decree to address a lawsuit filed by WildEarth Guardians in the United States District Court for the District of Arizona: WildEarth Guardians v. Jackson, No. 2:11-cv-01661- ROS (D. Ariz.). On August 24, 2011, Plaintiff filed a complaint......

  8. 75 FR 71125 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ...In accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is hereby given of a proposed consent decree to address a lawsuit filed by Association of Irritated Residents in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California: Association of Irritated Residents v. Jackson, No. 3:10-CV-03051-WHA (N.D. CA.). On July......

  9. 75 FR 39014 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ...In accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is hereby given of a proposed consent decree, to address a lawsuit filed by Sierra Club in the United States District Court for the Western District of Wisconsin: Sierra Club v. Jackson, No. 10-cv-0127 (W.D. Wis.). Plaintiff filed a deadline suit to compel the Administrator to respond to an......

  10. 77 FR 19013 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ...In accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is hereby given of a proposed settlement agreement to address a lawsuit filed by Sierra Club in the United States District Court for the Western District of Wisconsin: Sierra Club v. Jackson, No. 3:11-cv-0315 (W.D. WI). Plaintiff filed a complaint alleging that EPA has failed......

  11. 75 FR 67967 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ...In accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is hereby given of a proposed consent decree to address a lawsuit filed by WildEarth Guardians in the United States District Court for the District of Colorado: WildEarth Guardians v. Jackson, No. 10-cv-01218- REB-BNB (D. CO.). On May 26, 2010, Plaintiff filed a complaint......

  12. 78 FR 30919 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ...In accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), notice is hereby given of a proposed consent decree to address a lawsuit filed by Sierra Club in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California: Sierra Club v. Perciasepe, No. 3:12-cv-4078-JST (N.D. CA). On August 2, 2012, Plaintiff filed a complaint alleging that EPA failed......

  13. 40 CFR 62.14480 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations? 62.14480 Section... the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations? This subpart requires you to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations (“title V permit”) unless you...

  14. 40 CFR 62.14480 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations? 62.14480 Section... the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations? This subpart requires you to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations (“title V permit”) unless you...

  15. 40 CFR 62.14480 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations? 62.14480 Section... the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations? This subpart requires you to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations (“title V permit”) unless you...

  16. 40 CFR 52.30 - Criteria for limiting application of sanctions under section 110(m) of the Clean Air Act on a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sanctions under section 110(m) of the Clean Air Act on a statewide basis. 52.30 Section 52.30 Protection of...(m) of the Clean Air Act on a statewide basis. (a) Definitions. For the purpose of this section: (1... 179(a) of the Clean Air Act is made, EPA will not impose sanctions under section 110(m) of the Act...

  17. 40 CFR 62.14480 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations? 62.14480 Section... the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations? This subpart requires you to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act and implementing regulations (“title V permit”) unless you...

  18. 40 CFR 49.4 - Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clean Air Act provisions for which it... PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.4 Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to... following provisions of the Clean Air Act and any implementing regulations thereunder: (a) Specific...

  19. 40 CFR 52.30 - Criteria for limiting application of sanctions under section 110(m) of the Clean Air Act on a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sanctions under section 110(m) of the Clean Air Act on a statewide basis. 52.30 Section 52.30 Protection of...(m) of the Clean Air Act on a statewide basis. (a) Definitions. For the purpose of this section: (1... 179(a) of the Clean Air Act is made, EPA will not impose sanctions under section 110(m) of the Act...

  20. 40 CFR 49.4 - Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Clean Air Act provisions for which it... PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.4 Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to... following provisions of the Clean Air Act and any implementing regulations thereunder: (a) Specific...

  1. 40 CFR 52.30 - Criteria for limiting application of sanctions under section 110(m) of the Clean Air Act on a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sanctions under section 110(m) of the Clean Air Act on a statewide basis. 52.30 Section 52.30 Protection of...(m) of the Clean Air Act on a statewide basis. (a) Definitions. For the purpose of this section: (1... 179(a) of the Clean Air Act is made, EPA will not impose sanctions under section 110(m) of the Act...

  2. 40 CFR 49.4 - Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clean Air Act provisions for which it... PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.4 Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to... following provisions of the Clean Air Act and any implementing regulations thereunder: (a) Specific...

  3. 40 CFR 49.4 - Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Clean Air Act provisions for which it... PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.4 Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to... following provisions of the Clean Air Act and any implementing regulations thereunder: (a) Specific...

  4. 40 CFR 52.30 - Criteria for limiting application of sanctions under section 110(m) of the Clean Air Act on a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sanctions under section 110(m) of the Clean Air Act on a statewide basis. 52.30 Section 52.30 Protection of...(m) of the Clean Air Act on a statewide basis. (a) Definitions. For the purpose of this section: (1... 179(a) of the Clean Air Act is made, EPA will not impose sanctions under section 110(m) of the Act...

  5. Air abrasion: an old technology reborn.

    PubMed

    Berry, E A; Eakle, W S; Summitt, J B

    1999-08-01

    Recently, air abrasion has experienced a rebirth in restorative dentistry. Originally developed in the late 1940s, the principle of air abrasion is the imparting of kinetic energy to tiny aluminum oxide particles that are projected by a stream of compressed air or gas and expelled from a small nozzle. The force generated by the relatively hard particles striking a relatively hard surface is sufficient to cut into that surface. In the last decade, more than a dozen models of air abrasion units have been introduced into the marketplace and more are on the way. Manufacturers have developed air abrasion instruments that offer a broad range of features, from small table-top units to self-contained systems with compressors, vacuums, and curing lights. The costs range dramatically--from $1,000 to $20,000 or more--depending on the complexity of the features and attachments. Manufacturers make a variety of claims to support the value of this technology to the practicing dentist. A term often used to describe one of the benefits of air abrasion is microdentistry. The claim is that smaller, less invasive tooth preparations may be accomplished using air abrasion than with a traditional bur and air turbine. This may be true in some instances, but it would certainly depend on the operator's experience and ability to visually discern fine detail. Other claims about air abrasion are that it can be used to cut into tooth structure without local anesthesia and that it should be used on all stained grooves or fissures to determine if incipient carious lesions are present. Despite the limited number of clinical studies, the popularity of air abrasion continues to grow. To gain additional insight about these claims and to see what might be on the horizon for this technology, I spoke with three highly respected educators who are recognized for their expertise in air abrasion. What they said should give the reader a better understanding of how air abrasion might augment restorative

  6. Clean air and energy: from conflict to reconciliation. [Cost benefit analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kolstad, C.D.; Schulze, W.D.; Williams, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    Unconstrained energy resource development in the Rocky Mountain west is likely to threaten the environment and the health and well-being of the people. Impacts may be associated with visibility degradation, toxic concentrations of gases, and deposition of acidic or toxic substances. Because the possible benefits of energy development in the region are very large, there is great concern that constraints imposed by air quality regulation may preclude the use of important resources or make unduly expensive energy produced from the region. The conflict between energy and clean air in the region is exacerbated by non-energy sources, such as copper smelters and urban areas, that already pose significant environmental threats. The hard policy question is not how to preserve clean air resources or how to develop energy but how to achieve and balance both goals. The effects and regulatory costs and benefits of air pollution control are discussed, and policy directions to protect air quality while pursuing energy development are presented.

  7. Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program: Coke oven gas cleaning demonstration project, Bethlehem Steel Corporation Sparrows Point Plant, Baltimore County, Maryland: Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This Assessment has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate environmental issues associated with a project that will be cost-shared by DOE and private industry under the Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program. The proposed action is a coke oven gas cleaning technology demonstration project proposed to be installed and operated at the Bethlehem Steel Corporation, Sparrows Point Plant, in Baltimore County, Maryland. Alternatives to the proposed action, which include no action, delayed action, and the use of alternate sites or technologies, are discussed. Three basic steel manufacturing operations are carried out at the Sparrows Point Plant: (1) pyrolytic conversion of coal to coke (carbon) in coke ovens; (2) combination of coke, iron ore, and limestone in a blast furnace to produce iron; and (3) refinement of iron to steel in oxygen or open-hearth furnaces. The Coke Works at the plant consists of three operational coke batteries and two Coal Chemicals plants. Bituminous coal is heated in a coke oven in the absence of air to remove its volatile components. About 70% of the coal feed is converted to coke; the remaining 30% consists of by-product gases and vapors. These by-product gases are treated in the Coal Chemicals plants to recover usable and marketable products, including coke oven gas, which is used to fuel the ovens and furnaces within the plant. The analysis concluded that no significant, environmental impacts would result from the proposed project. 12 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. Clean Coal Technology: Region 3 Market Description, Mid-Atlantic. Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Region 3 Market Description summary provides information that can be used in developing an understanding of the potential markets for clean coal technologies (CCTs) in the Mid-Atlantic Region. This region (which geographically is Federal Region 3) consists of the District of Columbia and the following five states: Delaware, Virginia, Maryland, West Virginia, Pennsylvania. In order to understand the potential market, a description is provided of the region`s energy use, power generation capacity, and potential growth. Highlights of state government activities that could have a bearing on commercial deployment of CCTs are also presented. The potential markets characterized in this summary center on electric power generation by investor-owned, cooperative, and municipal electric utilities and involve planned new capacity additions and actions taken by utilities to comply with Phases I and II of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. Regulations, policies, utility business strategies, and organizational changes that could impact the role of CCTs as a utility option are identified and discussed. The information used to develop the Region 3 Market Description is based mainly on an extensive review of plans and annual reports of 17 investor-owned, cooperative, and municipal electric utilities and public information on strategies and actions for complying with the CAAA of 1990.

  9. 75 FR 63471 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Standards (NAAQS) for the six ``criteria'' air pollutants. As noted in 75 FR 51807-51808, the CASAC Ambient... in 75 FR 54146-54147, the Ambient Air Methods and Monitoring Subcommittee (AAMMS) of the Clean Air.../sab/sabproduct.nsf/0/9E0F3E9D727323C18525778900596432?OpenDocument . As noted in 75 FR...

  10. 75 FR 54146 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a public meeting on September 29-30, 2010, of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Ambient Air Monitoring & Methods Subcommittee (AAMMS) to provide advice concerning the development of a guidance document on network design for near-road ambient air monitoring and the......

  11. Indoor secondary pollutants from cleaning product and air freshener use in the presence of ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Brett C.; Coleman, Beverly K.; Destaillats, Hugo; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W.

    This study investigated the formation of secondary pollutants resulting from household product use in the presence of ozone. Experiments were conducted in a 50-m 3 chamber simulating a residential room. The chamber was operated at conditions relevant to US residences in polluted areas during warm-weather seasons: an air exchange rate of 1.0 h -1 and an inlet ozone concentration of approximately 120 ppb, when included. Three products were used in separate experiments. An orange oil-based degreaser and a pine oil-based general-purpose cleaner were used for surface cleaning applications. A plug-in scented-oil air freshener (AFR) was operated for several days. Cleaning products were applied realistically with quantities scaled to simulate residential use rates. Concentrations of organic gases and secondary organic aerosol from the terpene-containing consumer products were measured with and without ozone introduction. In the absence of reactive chemicals, the chamber ozone level was approximately 60 ppb. Ozone was substantially consumed following cleaning product use, mainly by homogeneous reaction. For the AFR, ozone consumption was weaker and heterogeneous reaction with sorbed AFR-constituent VOCs was of similar magnitude to homogeneous reaction with continuously emitted constituents. Formaldehyde generation resulted from product use with ozone present, increasing indoor levels by the order of 10 ppb. Cleaning product use in the presence of ozone generated substantial fine particle concentrations (more than 100 μg m -3) in some experiments. Ozone consumption and elevated hydroxyl radical concentrations persisted for 10-12 h following brief cleaning events, indicating that secondary pollutant production can persist for extended periods.

  12. Using microfiber and steam technology to improve cleaning outcomes in an intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Elizabeth; Williams, Natalie; Sloane, Tracy; Wright, Louise; Kotsanas, Despina; Stuart, Rhonda L

    2015-02-01

    The use of microfiber and steam technology may be seen as a novel cleaning method that can improve the outcome of cleaning. We describe its use in an intensive care setting, its impact on vancomycin-resistant enterococci acquisition, and the importance of ensuring adequate education of cleaning staff. Such new methods can have a significant impact on the transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms, provided systems are in place to ensure that the methodology is adhered to and that cleaning hours are adequate. PMID:25637118

  13. Innovative technologies on fuel assemblies cleaning for sodium fast reactors: First considerations on cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, N.; Lorcet, H.; Beauchamp, F.; Guigues, E.; Lovera, P.; Fleche, J. L.; Lacroix, M.; Carra, O.; Prele, G.

    2012-07-01

    Within the framework of Sodium Fast Reactor development, innovative fuel assembly cleaning operations are investigated to meet the GEN IV goals of safety and of process development. One of the challenges is to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction currently used in these processes. The potential applications of aqueous solutions of mineral salts (including the possibility of using redox chemical reactions) to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction are considered in a first part and a new experimental bench, dedicated to this study, is described. Anhydrous alternative options based on Na/CO{sub 2} interaction are also presented. Then, in a second part, a functional study conducted on the cleaning pit is proposed. Based on experimental feedback, some calculations are carried out to estimate the sodium inventory on the fuel elements, and physical methods like hot inert gas sweeping to reduce this inventory are also presented. Finally, the implementation of these innovative solutions in cleaning pits is studied in regard to the expected performances. (authors)

  14. Green Propulsion Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Rosario, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Air transportation is critical to U.S. and Global economic vitality. However, energy and climate issues challenge aviation's ability to be sustainable in the long term. Aviation must dramatically reduce fuel use and related emissions. Energy costs to U.S. airlines nearly tripled between 1995 and 2011, and continue to be the highest percentage of operating costs. The NASA Advanced Air Transports Technology Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. The presentation will highlight the NASA vision of revolutionary systems and propulsion technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe.

  15. Green Propulsion Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Rosario, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Air transportation is critical to U.S. and Global economic vitality. However, energy and climate issues challenge aviations ability to be sustainable in the long term. Aviation must dramatically reduce fuel use and related emissions. Energy costs to U.S. airlines nearly tripled between 1995 and 2011, and continue to be the highest percentage of operating costs. The NASA Advanced Air Transports Technology Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. The presentation will highlight the NASA vision of revolutionary systems and propulsion technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe, which are envisioned as being powered by Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems.

  16. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gallier, P.W.

    1993-01-20

    This project is sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the Engineering Design and Analysis of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies: The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies-heavy-liquid cycloning, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of-concept (POC) level. The commercially available ASPEN PLUS process simulation package will be extended to handle coal cleaning applications. Algorithms for predicting the process performance, equipment size, and flowsheet economics of commercial coal cleaning devices and related ancillary equipment will be incorporated into the coal cleaning simulator. This report is submitted to document the progress of Aspen Technology, Inc. (AspenTech), its contractor, ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc.,(ICF KE) and CQ Inc., a subcontractor to ICF KE, for the period of October through December 1992. ICF KE is providing coal preparation consulting and processing engineering services in this work and they are responsible for recommending the design of models to represent conventional coal cleaning equipment and costing of these models. CQ Inc. is a subcontractor to ICF KE on Tasks 1-5.

  17. Cleaning Products and Air Fresheners: Emissions and ResultingConcentrations of Glycol Ethers and Terpenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Brett C.; Destaillat, Hugo; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nazaroff,William W.

    2005-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to quantify emissions and concentrations of glycol ethers and terpenoids from cleaning product and air freshener use in a 50-m{sup 3} room ventilated at {approx}0.5 h{sup -1}. Five cleaning products were applied full-strength (FS); three were additionally used in dilute solution. FS application of pine-oil cleaner (POC) yielded 1-h concentrations of 10-1300 {micro}g m{sup -3} for individual terpenoids, including {alpha}-terpinene (90-120), d-limonene (1000-1100), terpinolene (900-1300), and {alpha}-terpineol (260-700). One-hour concentrations of 2-butoxyethanol and/or dlimonene were 300-6000 {micro}g m{sup -3} after FS use of other products. During FS application including rinsing with sponge and wiping with towels, fractional emissions (mass volatilized/dispensed) of 2-butoxyethanol and d-limonene were 50-100% with towels retained, {approx}25-50% when towels were removed after cleaning. Lower fractions (2-11%) resulted from dilute use. Fractional emissions of terpenes from FS use of POC were {approx}35-70% with towels retained, 20-50% with towels removed. During floor cleaning with dilute solution of POC, 7-12% of dispensed terpenes were emitted. Terpene alcohols were emitted at lower fractions: 7-30% (FS, towels retained), 2-9% (FS, towels removed), and 2-5% (dilute). During air-freshener use, d-limonene, dihydromyrcenol, linalool, linalyl acetate, and {beta}-citronellol were emitted at 35-180 mg d{sup -1} over three days while air concentrations averaged 30-160 {micro}g m{sup -3}.

  18. Tundish Technology for Casting Clean Steel: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, Yogeshwar

    2016-03-01

    With increasing demand of high-quality clean steel, cleanliness is of paramount importance in steel production and casting. Tundish plays an important role in controlling the continuously cast steel quality as it links a batch vessel, ladle, to a continuous casting mold. Tundish is also the last vessel in which metal flows before solidifying in mold. For controlling the quality of steel, flow and temperature control of the melt are critical, and these are presented in this paper. Use of proper flux, design of flow control devices, and gas injection in tundish become important factors in casting clean steel. Recycling of hot tundish, centrifugal flow tundish, H-shaped tundish, etc. are some of the developments which were implemented to cast clean steel and these are discussed.

  19. Tundish Technology for Casting Clean Steel: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, Yogeshwar

    2016-08-01

    With increasing demand of high-quality clean steel, cleanliness is of paramount importance in steel production and casting. Tundish plays an important role in controlling the continuously cast steel quality as it links a batch vessel, ladle, to a continuous casting mold. Tundish is also the last vessel in which metal flows before solidifying in mold. For controlling the quality of steel, flow and temperature control of the melt are critical, and these are presented in this paper. Use of proper flux, design of flow control devices, and gas injection in tundish become important factors in casting clean steel. Recycling of hot tundish, centrifugal flow tundish, H-shaped tundish, etc. are some of the developments which were implemented to cast clean steel and these are discussed.

  20. CO2 laser cleaning of black deposits formed during the excimer laser etching of polyimide in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koren, G.; Donelon, J. J.

    1988-01-01

    Pulsed CO2 laser cleaning of black debris formed during the excimer laser ablation of polyimide in air is demonstrated. The 10.6 μm CO2 laser radiation is strongly absorbed in the debris but only weakly absorbed in polyimide thus enabling the clean removal of the debris without damaging the polyimide.

  1. Interfacial Layer Control by Dry Cleaning Technology for Polycrystalline and Single Crystalline Silicon Growth.

    PubMed

    Im, Dong-Hyun; Kong-Soo Lee; Kang, Yoongoo; Jeong, Myoungho; Park, Kwang Wuk; Lee, Soon-Gun; Ma, Jin-Won; Kim, Youngseok; Kim, Bonghyun; Im, Ki-Vin; Lim, Hanjin; Lee, Jeong Yong

    2016-05-01

    Native oxide removal prior to poly-Si contact and epitaxial growth of Si is the most critical technology to ensure process and device performances of poly-Si plugs and selective epitaxial growth (SEG) layers for DRAM, flash memory, and logic device. Recently, dry cleaning process for interfacial oxide removal has attracted a world-wide attention due to its superior passivation properties to conventional wet cleaning processes. In this study, we investigated the surface states of Si substrate during and after dry cleaning process, and the role of atomic elements including fluorine and hydrogen on the properties of subsequent deposited silicon layer using SIMS, XPS, and TEM analysis. The controlling of residual fluorine on the Si surface after dry cleaning is a key factor for clean interface. The mechanism of native oxide re-growth caused by residual fluorine after dry cleaning is proposed based on analytical results. PMID:27483844

  2. Gel-plug technology used to clean FLAGS gas line

    SciTech Connect

    Broussard, D.E.

    1982-07-01

    After testing and evaluating several methods, Shell chose a gelled-water and scraper (pig) system to remove about 350 tons of mill scale and other debris from the 36-in.-diam, 280 mile FLAGS gas line in the North Sea. The cleaning operation proved safe, environmentally acceptable, and inexpensive. Inhibited fresh water injected into the line at 70 bbl/min drove the 22,000-ft gel cleaning train through the line in 17 days at about 1 ft/s. The total project cost was only about one-half that of a high-velocity flush.

  3. 77 FR 74520 - Encore Clean Energy, Inc., Energy & Engine Technology Corp., Equity Media Holdings Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Encore Clean Energy, Inc., Energy & Engine Technology Corp., Equity Media Holdings Corporation, eTotalSource, Inc., Extensions, Inc., Firepond, Inc., and GNC Energy Corporation; Order...

  4. Strengthening Clean Energy Technology Cooperation under the UNFCCC: Steps toward Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, R.; de Coninck, H.; Dhar, S.; Hansen, U.; McLaren, J.; Painuly, J.

    2010-08-01

    Development of a comprehensive and effective global clean technology cooperation framework will require years of experimenting and evaluation with new instruments and institutional arrangements before it is clear what works on which scale and in which region or country. In presenting concrete examples, this paper aims to set the first step in that process by highlighting successful models and innovative approaches that can inform efforts to ramp up clean energy technology cooperation. This paper reviews current mechanisms and international frameworks for global cooperation on clean energy technologies, both within and outside of the UNFCCC, and provides selected concrete options for scaling up global cooperation on clean energy technology RD&D, enabling environment, and financing.

  5. Insights and Opportunities: Technologies, Policies, and Markets for Clean Energy Solutions (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, D.

    2009-11-01

    A presentation highlighting how strategic energy analysis can affect technologies, policies, and markets for clean energy solutions. This includes an overview of some of NREL's models and tools as well as results from laboratory analysis.

  6. ENCOURAGING CLEAN TECHNOLOGIES: THE UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 1988, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), has supported a research program to encourage the development, demonstration, and evaluation of production techniques and processes that lead to reduced waste generation. his clean technologies research progra...

  7. Comprehensive report to Congress Clean Coal Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    This project will demonstrate Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology in a commercial application by the repowering of an existing City Water, Light and Power (CWL P) Plant in Springfield, Illinois. The project duration will be 126 months, including a 63-month demonstration period. The estimated cost of the project is $270,700,000 of which $129,357,204 will be funded by DOE. The IGCC system will consist of CE's air-blown, entrained-flow, two-stage, pressurized coal gasifier; an advanced hot gas cleanup process; a combustion turbine modified to use low Btu coal gas; and all necessary coal handling equipment. An existing 25-MWe steam turbine and associated equipment will also be part of the IGCC system. The result of repowering will be an IGCC power plant with low environmental emissions and high net plant efficiency. The repowering will increase plant output by 40 MWe through addition of the combustion turbine, thus providing a total IGCC capacity of a nominal 65 MWe. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. 75 FR 21349 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act and the Emergency Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... Right-To-Know Act Notice is hereby given that on April 19, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree (Decree) in... violations of the Clean Air Act and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act. The...

  9. 77 FR 58988 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... (Petition), submitted under title V of the Clean Air Act (Act) by WildEarth Guardians (Petitioner), to.... EPA received a petition from WildEarth Petitioner dated August 4, 2011, requesting that EPA object...

  10. Milliken Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project. Environmental monitoring report, July--September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    New York State Electric and Gas Corporation (NYSEG) has installed and is presently operating a high-efficiency flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system to demonstrate innovative emissions control technology and comply with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The host facility for this demonstration project is NYSEG`s Milliken Station, in the Town of Lansing, New York. The primary objective of this project is to demonstrate a retrofit of energy-efficient SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control systems with minimal impact on overall plant efficiency. The demonstration project has added a forced oxidation, formic acid-enhanced wet limestone FGD system, which is expected to reduce SO{sub 2} emissions by at least 90 percent. NYSEG also made combustion modifications to each boiler and plans to demonstrate selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology on unit 1, which will reduce NO{sub x} emissions. Goals of the proposed demonstration include up to 98 percent SO{sub 2} removal efficiency while burning high-sulfur coal, 30 percent NO{sub x} reductions through combustion modifications, additional NO{sub x} reductions using SNCR technology, production of marketable commercial-grade gypsum and calcium chloride by-products to minimize solid waste disposal, and zero wastewater discharge.

  11. Regional trends in the take-up of clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wootten, J.M.

    1997-12-31

    Using surveys of the electricity industry taken in major OECD coal producing/coal consuming regions of North America, Europe, Southern Africa, and Asia/Pacific, this paper reports on the attitudes of power plant operators and developers toward clean coal technologies, the barriers to their use and the policies and measures that might be implemented, if a country or region desired to encourage greater use of clean coal technologies.

  12. Microbiological aspects of clean room technology as applied to surgery, with special reference to unidirectional airflow systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wardle, M. D.

    1974-01-01

    The microbiological aspects of clean room technology as applied to surgery were reviewed. The following pertinent subject areas were examined: (1) clean room technology per se and its utilization for surgery, (2) microbiological monitoring of the clean room surgical environment, (3) clean rooms and their impact on operating room environmental microbiology, and (4) the effect of the technology on surgical wound infection rates. Conclusions were drawn for each topic investigated.

  13. Evaluation of control parameters for Spray-In-Air (SIA) aqueous cleaning for shuttle RSRM hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, S. J.; Deweese, C. D.

    1995-01-01

    HD-2 grease is deliberately applied to Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) D6AC steel hardware parts as a temporary protective coating for storage and shipping. This HD-2 grease is the most common form of surface contamination on RSRM hardware and must be removed prior to subsequent surface treatment. Failure to achieve an acceptable level of cleanliness (HD-2 calcium grease removal) is a common cause of defect incidence. Common failures from ineffective cleaning include poor adhesion of surface coatings, reduced bond performance of structural adhesives, and failure to pass cleanliness inspection standards. The RSRM hardware is currently cleaned and refurbished using methyl chloroform (1,1,1-trichloroethane). This chlorinated solvent is mandated for elimination due to its ozone depleting characteristics. This report describes an experimental study of an aqueous cleaning system (which uses Brulin 815 GD) as a replacement for methyl chloroform. Evaluation of process control parameters for this cleaner are discussed as well as cleaning mechanisms for a spray-in-air process.

  14. Accuracy of Linear Depolarisation Ratios in Clean Air Ranges Measured with POLIS-6 at 355 and 532 NM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freudenthaler, Volker; Seefeldner, Meinhard; Groß, Silke; Wandinger, Ulla

    2016-06-01

    Linear depolarization ratios in clean air ranges were measured with POLIS-6 at 355 and 532 nm. The mean deviation from the theoretical values, including the rotational Raman lines within the filter bandwidths, amounts to 0.0005 at 355 nm and to 0.0012 at 532 nm. The mean uncertainty of the measured linear depolarization ratio of clean air is about 0.0005 at 355 nm and about 0.0006 at 532 nm.

  15. Proceedings of the 21st DOE/NRC nuclear air cleaning conference; Volume 2, Sessions 9--16

    SciTech Connect

    First, M.W.

    1991-02-01

    The 21st meeting of the Department of Energy/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (DOE/NRC) Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference was held in San Diego, CA on August 13--16, 1990. The proceedings have been published as a two volume set. Volume 2 contains sessions covering adsorbents, nuclear codes and standards, modelling, filters, safety, containment venting and a review of nuclear air cleaning programs around the world. Also included is the list of attendees and an index of authors and speakers. (MHB)

  16. 5. annual clean coal technology conference: powering the next millennium. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Fifth Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference focuses on presenting strategies and approaches that will enable clean coal technologies to resolve the competing, interrelated demands for power, economic viability, and environmental constraints associated with the use of coal in the post-2000 era. The program addresses the dynamic changes that will result from utility competition and industry restructuring, and to the evolution of markets abroad. Current projections for electricity highlight the preferential role that electric power will have in accomplishing the long-range goals of most nations. Increase demands can be met by utilizing coal in technologies that achieve environmental goals while keeping the cost- per-unit of energy competitive. Results from projects in the DOE Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program confirm that technology is the pathway to achieving these goals. The industry/government partnership, cemented over the past 10 years, is focused on moving the clean coal technologies into the domestic and international marketplaces. The Fifth Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference provides a forum to discuss these benchmark issues and the essential role and need for these technologies in the post-2000 era. This volume contains technical papers on: advanced coal process systems; advanced industrial systems; advanced cleanup systems; and advanced power generation systems. In addition, there are poster session abstracts. Selected papers from this proceedings have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  17. Methods for measuring performance of vehicle cab air cleaning systems against aerosols and vapours.

    PubMed

    Bémer, D; Subra, I; Régnier, R

    2009-06-01

    Vehicle cabs equipped with an effective air cleaning and pressurization system, fitted to agricultural and off-road machineries, isolate drivers from the polluted environment, in which they are likely to work. These cabs provide protection against particulate and gaseous pollutants generated by these types of work activities. Two laboratory methods have been applied to determining the performance characteristics of two cabs of different design, namely, optical counting-based measurement of a potassium chloride (KCl) aerosol and fluorescein aerosol-based tracing. Results of cab confinement efficiency measurements agreed closely for these two methods implemented in the study. Measurements showed that high confinement efficiencies can be achieved with cabs, which are properly designed in ventilation/cleaning/airtightness terms. We also noted the importance of filter mounting airtightness, in which the smallest defect is reflected by significant degradation in cab performance. Determination of clean airflow rate by monitoring the decrease in test aerosol concentration in the test chamber gave excellent results. This method could represent an attractive alternative to methods involving gas tracing or air velocity measurement at blowing inlets. PMID:19406910

  18. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: CLEAN BERKSHIRES, INC. THERMAL DESORPTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The thermal desorption process devised by Clean Berkshires, Inc., works by vaporizing the organic contaminants from the soil with heat, isolating the contaminant! in a gas stream, and then destroying them in a high efficiency afterburner. The processed solids are either replaced ...

  19. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: CLEAN BERKSHIRES, INC. - THERMAL DESORPTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The thermal desorption process devised by Clean Berkshires, Inc., works by vaporizing the organic contaminants from the soil with heat, isolating the contaminant! in a gas stream, and then destroying them in a high efficiency afterburner. he processed solids are either replaced f...

  20. ASSESSMENT OF COAL CLEANING TECHNOLOGY: ANNUAL REPORT (1ST)

    EPA Science Inventory

    With a large projected increase in U.S. use of coal under the National Energy Plan, improved sulfur dioxide controls are quickly needed. Physical coal cleaning may prove to be the most cost-effective method for reducing sulfur dioxide emissions from small boilers, since many smal...

  1. The politics of markets: The acid rain control policy in the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Kete, N.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis is a review and critique of the development of the acid rain control policy codified as Title IV of the Clean Air Act. The amendments include provisions to address acid rain-air pollution that has been transformed and transported over long distances. Title IV also embodies the first large scale adoption of market principles and economic incentives in the cause of environmental protection. The acid rain control amendments are being hailed as a break with past environmental protection practice and are being offered as a model for further regulatory reform. The thesis looks at the roots of the acid rain policy and considers the set of legal, social, and economic relations embedded in the policy which define the nature of its legal controls over pollution and its inverse, environmental quality. It explores whether the creation of the emissions allowance trading system changes the social relationships that prevailed under the pre-amended Clean Air Act. It responds to and rebuts the concerns of some critics that the policy represents an alienation of the public's right to clean air. A review of the acid rain policymaking process provides a recent and concrete example of the two central concerns inherent in public policy: the making of decisions that establish institutional arrangements, or structures, that both constrain and liberate individual action at the operational level; and the search for the boundary between autonomous behavior and collective decision making. The policy responds to regulatory reform recommendations concerned with improving the effectiveness, accountability, and cost-effectiveness of environmental protection. As a model for future policymaking, the policy goes beyond and encompasses more than the welfare economics ideal of static economic efficiency and the [open quotes]free market environmentalism[close quotes] emphasis on private property and common law.

  2. New clean air efforts face tough challenges, say senators and former EPA administrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-02-01

    With the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) coming under repeated attack from some members of Congress and others for perceived heavy-handed regulatory actions, two moderate U.S. senators and two former EPA administrators recently noted the need for continued measures to improve air quality. However, they also acknowledged the difficulty in moving forward with new legislative efforts to revise the federal Clean Air Act to further reduce air pollution in the current polarized political climate. "Nobody who wants to see constructive changes [to the act] would dare touch it or propose it in the current climate," said former EPA administrator William Reilly at a 23 January forum sponsored by the World Resources Institute. Reilly, who served as EPA administrator from 1989 to 1992, noted that bipartisan congressional support had been key to addressing many environmental problems up until the mid-1990s.

  3. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  4. An introduction to the design, commissioning and operation of nuclear air cleaning systems for Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Xinliang Chen; Jiangang Qu; Minqi Shi

    1995-02-01

    This paper introduces the design evolution, system schemes and design and construction of main nuclear air cleaning components such as HEPA filter, charcoal adsorber and concrete housing etc. for Qinshan 300MW PWR Nuclear Power Plant (QNPP), the first indigenously designed and constructed nuclear power plant in China. The field test results and in-service test results, since the air cleaning systems were put into operation 18 months ago, are presented and evaluated. These results demonstrate that the design and construction of the air cleaning systems and equipment manufacturing for QNPP are successful and the American codes and standards invoked in design, construction and testing of nuclear air cleaning systems for QNPP are applicable in China. The paper explains that the leakage rate of concrete air cleaning housings can also be assured if sealing measures are taken properly and embedded parts are designed carefully in the penetration areas of the housing and that the uniformity of the airflow distribution upstream the HEPA filters can be achieved generally no matter how inlet and outlet ducts of air cleaning unit are arranged.

  5. Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Conocophillips

    2007-09-30

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project was established to evaluate integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project was under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP), after it acquired Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC) and the E-Gas gasification technology from Global Energy Inc. in July 2003. The project has completed both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of development. The two project phases include the following: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at SG Solutions LLC (SGS), previously the Wabash River Energy Limited, Gasification Facility located in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plant (CEP) operated at the Dow Chemical Company or Dow Corning Corporation chemical plant locations. (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. Phase 1 of this project was supported by a multi-industry team consisting of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., The Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while Phase 2 was supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The SGS integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other carbonaceous fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas (syngas) is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator

  6. ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an assessment of refrigeration technologies that are alternatives to vapor compression refrigeration for use in five application categories: domestic air conditioning, commercial air conditioning, mobile air conditioning, domestic refrigeration, and co...

  7. 40 CFR 49.4 - Clean Air Act provisions for which it is not appropriate to treat tribes in the same manner as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... control of air pollution or implementation of national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards. ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clean Air Act provisions for which it... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT...

  8. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Tsang

    2003-03-14

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., parent company of GEC and WREL, as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial Consortium are

  9. Quiet Clean General Aviation Turbofan (QCGAT) technology study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The preliminary design of an engine which satisfies the requirements of a quiet, clean, general aviation turbofan (QCGAT) engine is described. Also an experimental program to demonstrate performance is suggested. The T700 QCGAT engine preliminary design indicates that it will radiate noise at the same level as an aircraft without engine noise, have exhaust emissions within the EPA 1981 Standards, have lower fuel consumption than is available in comparable size engines, and have sufficient life for five years between overhauls.

  10. Respiratory effects of secondhand smoke exposure among young adults residing in a "clean" indoor air state.

    PubMed

    Lee, David J; Dietz, Noella A; Arheart, Kristopher L; Wilkinson, James D; Clark, John D; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS) exposures and its association with respiratory symptoms in a sample of young adults residing in a state with a partial clean indoor air law. A cross-sectional telephone survey of Florida households and a single state University was conducted in 2005. Enrolled participants between 18 and 24 years of age completed a 15-20 min interview assessing past and current SHS exposure and current respiratory symptoms (n = 1858). Approximately 60% of the sample were female; nearly 70% were non-Hispanic white, 10% were non-Hispanic Black, and 11% were Hispanic. Over two-thirds reported completing at least some college; 23% reported smoking in the past month. Nearly two-thirds (64%) reported visiting a bar or nightclub which exposed them to SHS in the previous month; nearly half (46%) reported SHS exposure while riding in automobiles; 15% reported occupational SHS exposure; and nearly 9% reported living with at least one smoker. In multivariable models, personal smoking behavior, parental smoking history, and exposure to SHS in automobiles and in bars or nightclubs were significantly associated with increased reports of respiratory symptoms. Despite residing in a "clean" indoor air state, the majority of surveyed young adults continue to report exposure to SHS, especially in automobiles and in bars, and these exposures adversely impact respiratory health. All municipalities should pursue clean indoor air legislation which does not exempt bars and restaurants. Educational campaigns directed at reducing SHS exposure in motor vehicles also are needed. PMID:18246415

  11. A PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS OF THE CLEAN AIR STATUS AND TRENDS NETWORK (CASTNET) AIR CONCENTRATION DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spatial and temporal variability of ambient air concentrations of SO2, SO42-, NO3, HNO3, and NH4+ obtained from EPA's CASTNet was examined using an objective, statistically based technique...

  12. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it? 60.3064... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and...

  13. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it? 60.3064... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and...

  14. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it? 60.3064... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and...

  15. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it? 60.3064... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and...

  16. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it? 60.3064... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and...

  17. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Tsang

    2003-10-14

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Two project phases are planned for execution, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., parent company of GEC and WREL, as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial Consortium are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-GAS{trademark} technology in a coproduction environment

  18. ECONOMICS AND PERFORMANCE MODELING (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) is active in the development, refinement, and maintenance of economic and performance evaluation models that provide agency-wide support for estimating costs for air pollution preventio...

  19. JV Task 75 - Lignite Fuel Enhancement via Air-Jigging Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Jason Lamb; Steven Benson; Joshua Stanislowski

    2007-03-01

    Several North Dakota lignite coals from the Falkirk Mine were processed in a 5-ton-per-hour dry coal-cleaning plant. The plant uses air-jigging technology to separate undesirable ash constituents as well as sulfur and mercury. The results of this study indicate average ash, sulfur, and mercury reductions on a weight basis of 15%, 22%, and 28%, respectively. The average heating value was increased by 2% on a Btu/lb basis. Two computer models were used to understand the impact of a cleaned fuel on boiler performance: PCQUEST{reg_sign} and Vista. The PCQUEST model indicated improvements in slagging and fouling potential when cleaned coals are used over feed coals. The Vista model was set up to simulate coal performance and economics at Great River Energy's Coal Creek Station. In all cases, the cleaned fuel performed better than the original feed coal, with economic benefits being realized for all fuels tested. The model also indicated that one fuel considered to be unusable before cleaning was transformed into a potentially salable product. While these data indicate full-scale implementation of air-jigging technology may be beneficial to the mine and the plant, complete economic analysis, including payback period, is needed to make the final decision to implement.

  20. Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Technology Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, P. J.; Counce, D. M.

    1993-12-01

    The Alternative Fluorocarbon Environmental Acceptability Study (AFEAS), a consortium of fluorocarbon manufacturers, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are collaborating on a project to evaluate the energy use and global warming impacts of CFC alternatives. The goal of this project is to identify technologies that could replace the use of CFC's in refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning equipment; to evaluate the direct impacts of chemical emissions on global warming; and to compile accurate estimates of energy use and indirect CO2 emissions of substitute technologies. The first phase of this work focused on alternatives that could be commercialized before the year 2000. The second phase of the project is examining not-in-kind and next-generation technologies that could be developed to replace CFC's, HCFC's, and HFC's over a longer period. As part of this effort, Oak Ridge National Laboratory held a workshop on June 23-25, 1993. The preliminary agenda covered a broad range of alternative technologies and at least one speaker was invited to make a brief presentation at the workshop on each technology. Some of the invited speakers were unable to participate, and in a few cases other experts could not be identified. As a result, those technologies were not represented at the workshop. Each speaker was asked to prepare a five to seven page paper addressing six key issues concerning the technology he/she is developing. These points are listed in the sidebar. Each expert also spoke for 20 to 25 minutes at the workshop and answered questions from the other participants concerning the presentation and area of expertise. The primary goal of the presentations and discussions was to identify the developmental state of the technology and to obtain comparable data on system efficiencies.

  1. UTILIZING INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CLEAN-UP, SAVAHHAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Bergren, C

    2009-01-07

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 310-square-mile United States Department of Energy nuclear facility located along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina. During operations, which started in 1951, hazardous substances (chemicals and radionuclides) were released to the environment. The releases occurred as a result of inadvertent spills and waste disposal in unlined pits and basins which was common practice before environmental regulations existed. The hazardous substances have migrated to the vadose zone and groundwater in many areas of the SRS, resulting in 515 waste units and facilities that are required by environmental regulations, to undergo characterization and, if needed, remediation. In the initial years of the SRS environmental cleanup program (early 1990s), the focus was to use common technologies (such as pump and treat, air stripping, excavation and removal) that actively and tangibly removed contamination. Exclusive use of these technologies required continued and significant funding while often failing to meet acceptable clean-up goals and objectives. Recognizing that a more cost-effective approach was needed, SRS implemented new and complementary remediation methods focused on active and passive technologies targeted to solve specific remediation problems. Today, SRS uses technologies such as chemical/pH-adjusting injection, phytoremediation, underground cutoff walls, dynamic underground stripping, soil fracturing, microbial degradation, baroballs, electrical resistance heating, soil vapor extraction, and microblowers to more effectively treat contamination at lower costs. Additionally, SRS's remediation approach cost effectively maximizes cleanup as SRS works proactively with multiple regulatory agencies. Using GIS, video, animation, and graphics, SRS is able to provide an accurate depiction of the evolution of SRS groundwater and vadose zone cleanup activities to convince stakeholders and regulators of the effectiveness of various cleanup

  2. 76 FR 4109 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for NOX and SOX: First External Review Draft (March 2010) (75 FR 10479... in 75 FR 54871-54872, on October 6-7, 2010, the CASAC Panel met to review EPA's Policy Assessment for..., of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Oxides of Nitrogen (NO X ) and Sulfur...

  3. 40 CFR 49.7 - Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Request by an Indian tribe for eligibility determination and Clean Air Act program approval. 49.7 Section 49.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Tribal Authority § 49.7...

  4. 75 FR 47595 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a public teleconference on August 25, 2010 of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee Particulate Matter Review Panel (Panel) to discuss its draft letter on the Policy Assessment for the Review of Particulate Matter National Ambient Air Quality Standards--Second External Review Draft (June...

  5. 75 FR 51807 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office is announcing a public teleconference on September 15, 2010, of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Ambient Air Monitoring & Methods Subcommittee (AAMMS or Subcommittee) to provide advice on EPA's white paper, Approach for the Development of a New Federal Reference Method for Lead (Pb)......

  6. 78 FR 1759 - Notice of Approval of Clean Air Act Outer Continental Shelf Minor Source/Title V Minor Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ...This notice announces that EPA Region 10 has issued a final decision granting Shell Offshore Inc.'s (``Shell'') request for minor modifications of Clean Air Act Outer Continental Shelf (``OCS'') Minor Source/Title V Permit No. R10OCS03000 (``permits''). The permits authorize air emissions associated with Shell's operation of the Kulluk Conical Drilling Unit (``Kulluk'') in the Beaufort Sea to......

  7. 77 FR 27054 - Notice of Approval of Clean Air Act Outer Continental Shelf Permits Issued to Shell Offshore, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ...This notice announces that EPA Region 10 has issued a final permit decision granting a Clean Air Act Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) permit to construct and Title V air quality operating permit to Shell Offshore, Inc. (``Shell'') for operation of the Kulluk conical drilling unit in the Beaufort Sea off the north coast of...

  8. Advances in post AFM repair cleaning of photomask with CO2 cryogenic aerosol technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, Charles; Varghese, Ivin; Balooch, Mehdi; Brandt, Werner

    2009-04-01

    As the mask technology matures, critical printing features and sub-resolution assist features (SRAF) shrink below 100 nm, forcing critical cleaning processes to face significant challenges. These challenges include use of new materials, oxidation, chemical contamination sensitivity, proportionally decreasing printable defect size, and a requirement for a damage-free clean. CO2 cryogenic aerosol cleaning has the potential to offer a wide process window for meeting these new challenges, if residue adder issues and damage can be eliminated. Some key differentiations of CO2 cryogenic aerosol cleaning are the non-oxidizing and non-etching properties compared to conventional chemical wet clean processes with or without megasonics. In prior work, the feasibility of CO2 cryogenic aerosol in post AFM repair photomask cleaning was demonstrated. In this paper, recent advancements of CO2 cryogenic aerosol cleaning technology are presented, focusing on the traditional problem areas of particle adders, electrostatic discharge (ESD), and mask damage mitigation. Key aspects of successful CO2 cryogenic aerosol cleaning include the spray nozzle design, CO2 liquid purity, and system design. The design of the nozzle directly controls the size, density, and velocity of the CO2 snow particles. Methodology and measurements of the solid CO2 particle size and velocity distributions will be presented, and their responses to various control parameters will be discussed. Adder control can be achieved only through use of highly purified CO2 and careful materials selection. Recent advances in CO2 purity will be discussed and data shown. The mask cleaning efficiency by CO2 cryogenic aerosol and damage control is essentially an optimization of the momentum of the solid CO2 particles and elimination of adders. The previous damage threshold of 150 nm SRAF structures has been reduced to 70nm and data will be shown indicating 60 nm is possible in the near future. Data on CO2 tribocharge mitigation

  9. International prospects for clean coal technologies (Focus on Asia)

    SciTech Connect

    Gallaspy, D.T.

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to propose Asia as a focus market for commercialization of CCT`s; describe the principles for successful penetration of CCT`s in the international market; and summarize prospects for CCT`s in Asia and other international markets. The paper outlines the following: Southern Company`s clean coal commitment; acquisition of Consolidated Electric Power Asia (CEPA); the prospects for CCT`s internationally; requirements for CCT`s widespread commercialization; CEPA`s application of CCT`s; and gas turbine power plants as a perfect example of a commercialization driver.

  10. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Doug Strickland; Albert Tsang

    2002-10-14

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution over a three year period, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial plants operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations; (2) Research, development, and testing to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues; and (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. This report describes management planning, work breakdown structure development, and feasibility study activities by the IMPPCCT consortium in support of the first project phase. Project planning activities have been completed, and a project timeline and task list has been generated. Requirements for an economic model to evaluate the West Terre Haute implementation and for other commercial implementations are being defined. Specifications for methanol product and availability of local feedstocks for potential commercial embodiment plant sites have been defined. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the fifth phase solicitation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas

  11. Adopting Clean Fuels and Technologies on School Buses. Pollution and Health Impacts in Children

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Jennifer; Sheppard, Lianne; Kaufman, Joel D.; Hallstrand, Teal S.; Davey, Mark E.; Sullivan, James R.; Jahnke, Jordan; Koenig, Jane; Larson, Timothy V.; Liu, L. J. Sally

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: More than 25 million American children breathe polluted air on diesel school buses. Emission reduction policies exist, but the health impacts to individual children have not been evaluated. Methods: Using a natural experiment, we characterized the exposures and health of 275 school bus riders before, during, and after the adoption of clean technologies and fuels between 2005 and 2009. Air pollution was measured during 597 trips on 188 school buses. Repeated measures of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), lung function (FEV1, FVC), and absenteeism were also collected monthly (1,768 visits). Mixed-effects models longitudinally related the adoption of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs), closed crankcase ventilation systems (CCVs), ultralow-sulfur diesel (ULSD), or biodiesel with exposures and health. Measurements and Main Results: Fine and ultrafine particle concentrations were 10–50% lower on buses using ULSD, DOCs, and/or CCVs. ULSD adoption was also associated with reduced FeNO (−16% [95% confidence interval (CI), −21 to −10%]), greater changes in FVC and FEV1 (0.02 [95% CI, 0.003 to 0.05] and 0.01 [95% CI, −0.006 to 0.03] L/yr, respectively), and lower absenteeism (−8% [95% CI, −16.0 to −0.7%]), with stronger associations among patients with asthma. DOCs, and to a lesser extent CCVs, also were associated with improved FeNO, FVC growth, and absenteeism, but these findings were primarily restricted to patients with persistent asthma and were often sensitive to control for ULSD. No health benefits were noted for biodiesel. Extrapolating to the U.S. population, changed fuel/technologies likely reduced absenteeism by more than 14 million/yr. Conclusions: National and local diesel policies appear to have reduced children’s exposures and improved health. PMID:25867003

  12. Characterization of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in cleaning reagents and air fresheners in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yu; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Ho, Kin Fai; Lee, Shun Cheng; Gao, Yuan; Cheng, Yan; Chan, C. S.

    2011-11-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from cleaning products and air fresheners indoors are prone to oxidation resulting in the formation of secondary pollutants that can pose health risks on residents. In this study, a solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) method was applied for the determination of BVOCs compositions in three categories of cleaning products including floor cleaners (FC), kitchen cleaners (KC) and dishwashing detergents (DD), and also air fresheners (AF). The analysis results demonstrated that chemical composition and concentration of individual BVOC varied broadly with household products in the view of their different functions and scents as indicated on the labels. The concentration of total BVOCs for sample FC1 was the highest up to 4146.0 μg g -1, followed by FC2 of 264.6 μg g -1, FC4 of 249.3 μg g -1 and FC3 of 139.2 μg g -1. D-limonene was the most abundant detected BVOCs in KC samples with the chemical composition varying from 19.6 ± 1.0 to 1513.0 ± 37.1 μg g -1. For dishwashing detergents, only D-limonene was detected and quantified. The BVOCs compositions of air freshener samples are much more complicated. It was estimated that the consumption of floor cleaners contributed 51% of the total BVOCs amount indoors in Hong Kong, followed by air fresheners 42%, kitchen cleaners 5% and dishwashing detergents 2%.

  13. [Technologies and control of cleanness of the rooms in the blood center].

    PubMed

    Zhiburt, E B; Reĭzman, P V; Cherkasov, E G; Tazaev, V N; Kuz'min, N S

    2006-01-01

    To prevent bacterial contamination of blood transfusion media, the following three types of rooms in blood service institutions should meet especially high requirements for cleanness: 1. Box and its foreroom (or room equipped with laminar cabinet) for open-air preparation of washed red blood cells or other blood components. 2. Box (laminar cabinet) in bacteriological laboratory. 3. Two areas of gene diagnosis laboratory: a) for RNA detection (HIV and HCV diagnosis) to prevent sample contamination with extraneous RNAases; b) for preparation of in-house test kits. Required cleanness of rooms in blood service institutions can be attained using the following equipment available from Laminarnye Sistemy, Ltd. (Miass, Chelyabinsk Region, Russia): clean chamber equipment; abacterial air environment box for working with agents and microorganisms; box for working with DNA samples. PMID:16875142

  14. HUMID AIR TURBINE CYCLE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Tuthill

    2002-07-18

    The Humid Air Turbine (HAT) Cycle Technology Development Program focused on obtaining HAT cycle combustor technology that will be the foundation of future products. The work carried out under the auspices of the HAT Program built on the extensive low emissions stationary gas turbine work performed in the past by Pratt & Whitney (P&W). This Program is an integral part of technology base development within the Advanced Turbine Systems Program at the Department of Energy (DOE) and its experiments stretched over 5 years. The goal of the project was to fill in technological data gaps in the development of the HAT cycle and identify a combustor configuration that would efficiently burn high moisture, high-pressure gaseous fuels with low emissions. The major emphasis will be on the development of kinetic data, computer modeling, and evaluations of combustor configurations. The Program commenced during the 4th Quarter of 1996 and closed in the 4th Quarter of 2001. It teamed the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) with P&W, the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), and a subcontractor on-site at UTRC, kraftWork Systems Inc. The execution of the program started with bench-top experiments that were conducted at UTRC for extending kinetic mechanisms to HAT cycle temperature, pressure, and moisture conditions. The fundamental data generated in the bench-top experiments was incorporated into the analytical tools available at P&W to design the fuel injectors and combustors. The NETL then used the hardware to conduct combustion rig experiments to evaluate the performance of the combustion systems at elevated pressure and temperature conditions representative of the HAT cycle. The results were integrated into systems analysis done by kraftWork to verify that sufficient understanding of the technology had been achieved and that large-scale technological application and demonstration could be undertaken as follow-on activity. An optional program extended the

  15. Revision of testing criteria for air cleaning unit of renovated APR-1000 and APR-1400 NPPS.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seung-Young

    2011-07-01

    Designing Air Cleaning Units (ACU) of an Engineered Safety Feature and normal atmosphere clean-up system at the renovated APR-1000 and APR-1400 NPP, and fuel cycle facilities in Korea, is required to meet the standards of ASME AG-1 (1997), ASME N509/N510 (1989) and KEPIC-MH (2001) to enhance the removal efficiency of aerosols and particulates from the effluents. The revised ACU testing criteria are allowed to use alternative challenge agents of the dioctyl phthalate and Refrigerant-11 for in situ testing of high efficiency particulate air filters and adsorption banks. The operability testing time of engineered safety feature (ESF) trains was changed from 10 h to 15 min. The activated carbon in adsorption banks should undergo laboratory tests at a temperature of 30 °C and relative humidity 95 %. The removal criteria of methyl iodide should be over 99.5 % for ESF and 99 % for normal systems. This paper provides the background of the changed criteria for designing and testing of the ACU system in nuclear facilities. PMID:21502294

  16. Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET) deposition, summary report (1987--1995). Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgardner, R.

    1998-07-01

    The National Dry Deposition Network (NDDN) was established in 1986 to provide long term estimates of dry deposition across the continental United States. In 1990, NDDN was incorporated into the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET) which was created to address the requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). Approximately 50 sites were operational from 1989 through 1995 with the majority of the sites located in rural eastern United States. Each site is equipped with sensors for continuous measurements of ozone and meteorological variables required for the estimation of dry deposition rates. Weekly average concentrations of particulate sulfate (SO{sub 4}), particulate nitrate (NO{sub 3{minus}}), particulate ammonium (NH{sub 4+}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) were measured at all sites. Precipitation samples were collected at selected sites and analyzed for acidity and related species in order to estimate wet deposition. Under the CASTNET program, a visibility monitoring network and a Mountain Acid Deposition Program (MADPro) were established. This report summaries the analysis and interpretation of NDDN and CASTNET measurements taken from 1987 through 1995. The extensive database of concentrations and calculated dry, wet, and total depositions have been analyzed.

  17. Methods for nuclear air-cleaning-system accident-consequence assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Andrae, R.W.; Bolstad, J.W.; Gregory, W.S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a multilaboratory research program that is directed toward addressing many questions that analysts face when performing air cleaning accident consequence assessments. The program involves developing analytical tools and supportive experimental data that will be useful in making more realistic assessments of accident source terms within and up to the atmospheric boundaries of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The types of accidents considered in this study includes fires, explosions, spills, tornadoes, criticalities, and equipment failures. The main focus of the program is developing an accident analysis handbook (AAH). We will describe the contents of the AAH, which include descriptions of selected nuclear fuel cycle facilities, process unit operations, source-term development, and accident consequence analyses. Three computer codes designed to predict gas and material propagation through facility air cleaning systems are described. These computer codes address accidents involving fires (FIRAC), explosions (EXPAC), and tornadoes (TORAC). The handbook relies on many illustrative examples to show the analyst how to approach accident consequence assessments. We will use the FIRAC code and a hypothetical fire scenario to illustrate the accident analysis capability.

  18. Studying the effectiveness of using pneumoimpulsive technology for cleaning the platen surfaces of the PK-38 boiler at the Nazarovo district power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agliulin, S. G.; Nikolaev, S. F.; Zvegintsev, V. I.; Yurkin, I. A.; Shabanov, I. I.; Palkin, V. F.; Sergienko, S. P.; Vlasov, S. M.

    2014-09-01

    A new pneumoimpulsive technology, central to which is an impact effect of air jet on ash deposits, was proposed for carrying out continuous preventive cleaning of the platens installed in the steam superheater primary and secondary paths of the PK-38 boiler at the Nazarovo district power station. The pneumoimpulsive cleaning system was mounted in the PK-38 boiler unit no. 6A, and the cleaning system tests were carried out during field operation of the boiler. Owing to the use of the proposed cleaning system, long-term (for no less than 3 months of observations) slag-free operation of the platen surfaces was achieved in the range of steam loads from 215 to 235 t/h with the average load equal to 225 t/h at furnace gas temperatures upstream of the platens equal to 1220-1250°C.

  19. Clean coal technology. Coal utilisation by-products

    SciTech Connect

    2006-08-15

    The need to remove the bulk of ash contained in flue gas from coal-fired power plants coupled with increasingly strict environmental regulations in the USA result in increased generation of solid materials referred to as coal utilisation by-products, or CUBs. More than 40% of CUBs were sold or reused in the USA in 2004 compared to less than 25% in 1996. A goal of 50% utilization has been established for 2010. The American Coal Ash Association (ACCA) together with the US Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPPI) and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) sponsor a number of projects that promote CUB utilization. Several are mentioned in this report. Report sections are: Executive summary; Introduction; Where do CUBs come from?; Market analysis; DOE-sponsored CUB demonstrations; Examples of best-practice utilization of CUB materials; Factors limiting the use of CUBs; and Conclusions. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs., 14 photos.

  20. 40 CFR Appendix H to Subpart A of... - Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990... 82—Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION...