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Sample records for air combat engagements

  1. TAC BRAWLER - An application of engagement simulation modeling to simulator visual system display requirements for air combat maneuvering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerchner, R. M.; Hughes, R. G.; Lee, A.

    1984-01-01

    The TAC BRAWLER air combat simulation models both the acquisition and use of visual information by the pilot. It was used to provide the designers of manned simulators for air-to-air combat with information regarding the training implications of display system resolution, inherent target contrast, field of view, and transport delay. Various display designs were simulated, and the resulting quantitative and qualitative differences in engagements were considered indicators of possible mistraining. Display resolution was found to alter combats primarily through its effect on detection ranges; the 'pixel averaging' contrast management technique was shown to largely compensate for this problem. Transport delay significantly degrades pilot tracking ability, but the training impact of the effect is unclear.

  2. Air Combat Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    By adapting COSMIC's One-on-One Adaptive Maneuvering Logic (AML) for two versus one simulation, Link Division was able to reduce software and other design/development costs. Enhancements to the AML program developed by Link for simulation of two-versus one combat, two trainees can simultaneously engage a computer driven target, thereby doubling the training utility of the simulator.

  3. Interactive computerized air combat opponent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, W. W., III

    1976-01-01

    A computer program developed to fly interactive one-on-one simulated air combat maneuvers against human pilots is described. The program which is called Adaptive Maneuvering Logic (AML), is being used in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center's Differential Maneuvering Simulator. The basic control logic evaluates the relative states of the two aircraft and reacts by choosing the best of several elemental maneuvers. Pilot comments and results obtained when the computer was flown against combat-qualified fighter pilots indicate that the program performs realistic maneuvers and offers a very competitive standard pilot.

  4. Combat Air Identification Fusion Algorithm (CAIFA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, C. A.; Baker, Joni E.; Crowe, John A.; Kierstead, David P.; Mauro, Carl A.

    2003-04-01

    The Combat Air Identification Fusion Algorithm (CAIFA), developed by Daniel H. Wagner, Associates, is a prototype, inferential reasoning algorithm for air combat identification. Bayesian reasoning and updating techniques are used in CAIFA to fuse multi-source identification evidence to provide identity estimates-allegiance, nationality, platform type, and intent-of detected airborne objects in the air battle space, enabling positive and rapid Combat Identification (CID) decisions. CAIFA was developed for the Composite Combat Identification (CCID) project under the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Missile Defense (MD) Future Naval Capability (FNC) program. CAIFA processes identification (ID) attribute evidence generated by surveillance sensors and other information sources over time by updating the identity estimate for each target using Bayesian inference. CAIFA exploits the conditional interdependencies of attribute variables by constructing a context-dependent Bayesian Network (BN). This formulation offers a well-established, consistent approach for evidential reasoning, renders manageable the potentially large CID state space, and provides a flexible and extensible representation to accommodate requirements for model reconfiguration/restructuring. CAIFA enables reasoning across and at different levels of the Air Space Taxonomy.

  5. A qualitative analysis of future air combat with 'fire and forget' missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinar, J.; Davidovitz, A.

    1987-01-01

    A set of previous examples have demonstrated that the two-target game formulation is adequate for modeling air-to-air combat between two aggressively motivated fighter aircraft. The present paper describes such an engagement between two aircraft of different speed but equipped with the same 'fire and forget' type guided missiles. The results of the analysis suggest a new concept of air combat tactics for future scenarios.

  6. Air Combat Training: Good Stick Index Validation. Final Report for Period 3 April 1978-1 April 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Samuel B.; And Others

    A study was conducted to investigate and statistically validate a performance measuring system (the Good Stick Index) in the Tactical Air Command Combat Engagement Simulator I (TAC ACES I) Air Combat Maneuvering (ACM) training program. The study utilized a twelve-week sample of eighty-nine student pilots to statistically validate the Good Stick…

  7. An adaptive maneuvering logic computer program for the simulation of one-on-one air-to-air combat. Volume 1: General description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgin, G. H.; Fogel, L. J.; Phelps, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    A technique for computer simulation of air combat is described. Volume 1 decribes the computer program and its development in general terms. Two versions of the program exist. Both incorporate a logic for selecting and executing air combat maneuvers with performance models of specific fighter aircraft. In the batch processing version the flight paths of two aircraft engaged in interactive aerial combat and controlled by the same logic are computed. The realtime version permits human pilots to fly air-to-air combat against the adaptive maneuvering logic (AML) in Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS). Volume 2 consists of a detailed description of the computer programs.

  8. A two-dimensional air-to-air combat game - Toward an air-combat advisory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuman, Frank

    1987-01-01

    Air-to-air combat is modeled as a discrete differential game, and by constraining the game to searching for the best guidance laws from the sets of those considered for each opponent, feedback and outcome charts are obtained which can be used to turn one of the automatic opponents into an intelligent opponent against a human pilot. A one-on-one two-dimensional fully automatic, or manned versus automatic, air-to-air combat game has been designed which includes both attack and evasion alternatives for both aircraft. Guidance law selection occurs by flooding the initial-condition space with four simulated fights for each initial condition, depicting the various attack/evasion strategies for the two opponents, and recording the outcomes. For each initial condition, the minimax method from differential games is employed to determine the best choice from the available strategies.

  9. Artificial immune system approach for air combat maneuvering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneshige, John; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2007-04-01

    Since future air combat missions will involve both manned and unmanned aircraft, the primary motivation for this research is to enable unmanned aircraft with intelligent maneuvering capabilities. During air combat maneuvering, pilots use their knowledge and experience of maneuvering strategies and tactics to determine the best course of action. As a result, we try to capture these aspects using an artificial immune system approach. The biological immune system protects the body against intruders by recognizing and destroying harmful cells or molecules. It can be thought of as a robust adaptive system that is capable of dealing with an enormous variety of disturbances and uncertainties. However, another critical aspect of the immune system is that it can remember how previous encounters were successfully defeated. As a result, it can respond faster to similar encounters in the future. This paper describes how an artificial immune system is used to select and construct air combat maneuvers. These maneuvers are composed of autopilot mode and target commands, which represent the low-level building blocks of the parameterized system. The resulting command sequences are sent to a tactical autopilot system, which has been enhanced with additional modes and an aggressiveness factor for enabling high performance maneuvers. Just as vaccinations train the biological immune system how to combat intruders, training sets are used to teach the maneuvering system how to respond to different enemy aircraft situations. Simulation results are presented, which demonstrate the potential of using immunized maneuver selection for the purposes of air combat maneuvering.

  10. Sections. March Air Force Base, Riverside, California, Combat Operations Center, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sections. March Air Force Base, Riverside, California, Combat Operations Center, Combat Operations Building. By Moffatt and Nichol, Engineers, 122 West Fifth Street, Long Beach, California; for the Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, Office of the District Engineer, Los Angeles, California. Drawing no. AW-60-02-03, sheet no. 14, approved March, 1962; specifications no. ENG-04-353-62-66; D.O. series AW 1596/15, Rev. "A"; file drawer 1290. Last revised 3 October 1966. Scale one-eighth inch to one foot. 30x36 inches. pencil on paper - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  11. Elevations. March Air Force Base, Riverside, California, Combat Operations Center, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevations. March Air Force Base, Riverside, California, Combat Operations Center, Combat Operations Building. By Moffatt and Nichol, Engineers, 122 West Fifth Street, Long Beach, California; for the Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, Office of the District Engineer, Los Angeles, California. Drawing no. AW-60-02-03, sheet no. 14, approved March, 1962; specifications no. ENG-04-353-62-66; D.O. series AW 1596/14, Rev. "B"; file drawer 77-1/102. Last revised 3 October 1966. Scale one-eighth inch to one foot. 30x36 inches. photocopy on paper - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  12. Predictive nosepointing and flightpath displays for air-to-air combat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viken, Sally A.; Burley, James R., II

    1992-10-01

    As part of the High-Angle-of-Attack Technology Program (HATP), two integrated pictorial displays have been developed for piloted simulation evaluations and, ultimately, for flight testing on board the F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The first concept is a nosepointing display which illustrates the range of control the pilot has over the aircraft nose. The second concept is a predictive flightpath display that allows the pilot to see how his current control inputs will affect his aircraft's future position and orientation. The development of both display concepts will be discussed, as well as the results from a piloted simulation experiment in which pilots viewed the flightpath display in a wide-field-of-view Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD) while engaged in an air-combat situation.

  13. A high-fidelity batch simulation environment for integrated batch and piloted air combat simulation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Mcmanus, John W.; Chappell, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    A batch air combat simulation environment known as the Tactical Maneuvering Simulator (TMS) is presented. The TMS serves as a tool for developing and evaluating tactical maneuvering logics and to evaluate the tactical implications of perturbations to aircraft performance or supporting systems. The TMS is capable of simulating air combat between any number of engagement participants, with practical limits imposed by computer memory and processing power. Aircraft are modeled using equations of motion, control laws, aerodynamics and propulsive characteristics, and databases representative of a modern high-performance aircraft with and without thrust-vectoring capability are included. A Tactical Autopilot is implemented in the aircraft simulation model to convert guidance commands issued by computerized maneuvering logics in the form of desired angle-of-attack and wind axis-bank angle into inputs to the inner-loop control augmentation system of the aircraft.

  14. A piloted simulation investigation of yaw dynamics requirements for turreted gun use in low-level helicopter air combat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, William A.; Morris, Patrick M.; Williams, Jeffrey N.

    1988-01-01

    A piloted, fixed-base simulation study was conducted to investigate the handling qualities requirements for helicopter air-to-air combat using turreted guns in the near-terrain environment. The study used a version of the helicopter air combat system developed at NASA Ames Research Center for one-on-one air combat. The study focused on the potential trade-off between gun angular movement capability and required yaw axis response. Experimental variables included yaw axis response frequency and damping and the size of the gun-movement envelope. A helmet position and sighting system was used for pilot control of gun aim. Approximately 340 simulated air combat engagements were evaluated by pilots from the Army and industry. Results from the experiment indicate that a highly-damped, high frequency yaw response was desired for Level I handling qualities. Pilot preference for those characteristics became more pronounced as gun turret movement was restricted; however, a stable, slow-reacting platform could be used with a large turret envelope. Most pilots preferred to engage with the opponent near the own-ship centerline. Turret elevation restriction affected the engagement more than azimuth restrictions.

  15. Air-to-air combat analysis - Review of differential-gaming approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of evaluating the combat performance of fighter/attack aircraft is discussed, and the mathematical nature of the problem is examined. The following approaches to air combat analysis are reviewed: (1) differential-turning differential game and (2) coplanar differential game. Selected numerical examples of these approaches are presented. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each are analyzed, and it is concluded that air combat analysis is an extremely difficult mathematical problem and that no one method of approach is best for all purposes. The paper concludes with a discussion of how the two approaches might be used in a complementary manner.

  16. Study of a very low cost air combat maneuvering trainer aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, G. C.; Bowles, J. V.

    1976-01-01

    A very low cost aircraft for performing Air Combat Maneuvering (ACM) training was studied using the BD-5J sport plane as a point of departure. The installation of a larger engine and increased fuel capacity were required to meet the performance and mission objectives. Reduced wing area increased the simulation of the ACM engagement, and a comparison with current tactical aircraft is presented. Other factors affecting the training transfer are considered analytically, but a flight evaluation is recommended to determine the concept utility.

  17. Research of autonomous landing control of unmanned combat air vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shaoyan; Chen, Zongji

    2003-09-01

    This paper is to present a robust controller design method for developing autonomous landing systems of Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV). We first analyze the characteristic of autonomous landing of UCAV, and put forward its landing performance specifications. Structure singular value μ| synthesis is used to develop autonomous landing systems to accurately follow the pre-designed ideal landing track or online generated optimal landing track. The robust performance of system is analyzed. The simulation results demonstrate that the designed autonomous landing system satisfies the performance requirements of autonomous landing of UCAV when there are uncertainties of UCAV aircraft model, measurement noises and exogenous disturbances.

  18. Real-time simulation of helicopter air-to-air combat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, Fred; George, Dino; Bivens, Court

    1991-01-01

    The AUTOMAN computer program develops automated maneuvering decisions for helicopters during air-to-air combat over hilly terrain. Recently, the capabilities of this program have been extended and enhanced significantly. The revised program was installed at the NASA Ames manned flight-simulation facility to drive a computer-generated image of an enemy helicopter, thereby providing an adversary for the human pilot. Maneuvers are selected by employing game theory. Enhancements include a guidance law for target acquisition when a firing opportunity arises; fire-control sequence logic; improved low-flying capabilities; line-of-sight computations for the cockpit field-of-view, terrain obstructions, and visual range limits; use of terrain for masking; air-to-air collision-avoidance maneuvers; decision on dispensing flares and chaff; and adjustable levels of pilot experience. The program was found to be extremely useful for both rotorcraft handling-quality evaluations and air-to-air combat training.

  19. A High-Fidelity Batch Simulation Environment for Integrated Batch and Piloted Air Combat Simulation Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; McManus, John W.; Chappell, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    A batch air combat simulation environment known as the Tactical Maneuvering Simulator (TMS) is presented. The TMS serves as a tool for developing and evaluating tactical maneuvering logics. The environment can also be used to evaluate the tactical implications of perturbations to aircraft performance or supporting systems. The TMS is capable of simulating air combat between any number of engagement participants, with practical limits imposed by computer memory and processing power. Aircraft are modeled using equations of motion, control laws, aerodynamics and propulsive characteristics equivalent to those used in high-fidelity piloted simulation. Databases representative of a modern high-performance aircraft with and without thrust-vectoring capability are included. To simplify the task of developing and implementing maneuvering logics in the TMS, an outer-loop control system known as the Tactical Autopilot (TA) is implemented in the aircraft simulation model. The TA converts guidance commands issued by computerized maneuvering logics in the form of desired angle-of-attack and wind axis-bank angle into inputs to the inner-loop control augmentation system of the aircraft. This report describes the capabilities and operation of the TMS.

  20. A simulator investigation of air-to-air combat maneuvering for tilt-rotor aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, William A.; Isleib, Douglas; Johns, John

    1989-01-01

    As part of the Marine Corps's development of employment methods and maneuver techniques for the V-22 Osprey tilt-rotor aircraft, a piloted simulation study of one-on-one air-combat maneuvering (ACM) was conducted at NASA Ames. In addition to V-22 ACM, the simulation provided an opportunity for a preliminary investigation of maneuver requirements for a possible armed-escort tilt-rotor aircraft. Results from the study indicate that the tilt-rotor's low-speed masking and high-speed dash capabilities significantly enhance its survivability against both fixed-wing and helicopter aggressors. Furthermore, the tilt-rotor's conversion capability and, in turn, the variety and extent of its maneuvering characteristics make it an effective air-combat aircraft.

  1. A piloted simulation of helicopter air combat to investigate effects of variations in selected performance and control response characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Michael S.; Mansur, M. Hossein; Chen, Robert T. N.

    1987-01-01

    A piloted simulation study investigating handling qualities and flight characteristics required for helicopter air to air combat is presented. The Helicopter Air Combat system was used to investigate this role for Army rotorcraft. Experimental variables were the maneuver envelope size (load factor and sideslip), directional axis handling qualities, and pitch and roll control-response type. Over 450 simulated, low altitude, one-on-one engagements were conducted. Results from the experiment indicate that a well damped directional response, low sideforce caused by sideslip, and some effective dihedral are all desirable for weapon system performance, good handling qualities, and low pilot workload. An angular rate command system was favored over the attitude type pitch and roll response for most applications, and an enhanced maneuver envelope size over that of current generation aircraft was found to be advantageous. Pilot technique, background, and experience are additional factors which had a significant effect on performance in the air combat tasks investigated. The implication of these results on design requirements for future helicopters is presented.

  2. Computer-automated opponent for manned air-to-air combat simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, W. W., III

    1979-01-01

    Two versions of a real-time digital-computer program that operates a fighter airplane interactively against a human pilot in simulated air combat were evaluated. They function by replacing one of two pilots in the Langley differential maneuvering simulator. Both versions make maneuvering decisions from identical information and logic; they differ essentially in the aerodynamic models that they control. One is very complete, but the other is much simpler, primarily characterizing the airplane's performance (lift, drag, and thrust). Both models competed extremely well against highly trained U.S. fighter pilots.

  3. Piloted simulation of one-on-one helicopter air combat at NOE flight levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. S.; Aiken, E. W.

    1985-01-01

    A piloted simulation designed to examine the effects of terrain proximity and control system design on helicopter performance during one-on-one air combat maneuvering (ACM) is discussed. The NASA Ames vertical motion simulator (VMS) and the computer generated imagery (CGI) systems were modified to allow two aircraft to be independently piloted on a single CGI data base. Engagements were begun with the blue aircraft already in a tail-chase position behind the red, and also with the two aircraft originating from positions unknown to each other. Maneuvering was very aggressive and safety requirements for minimum altitude, separation, and maximum bank angles typical of flight test were not used. Results indicate that the presence of terrain features adds an order of complexiaty to the task performed over clear air ACM and that mix of attitude and rate command-type stability and control augmentation system (SCAS) design may be desirable. The simulation system design, the flight paths flown, and the tactics used were compared favorably by the evaluation pilots to actual flight test experiments.

  4. A simulator investigation of parameters affecting helicopter handling qualities in air combat (HAC II)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Michael S.; Mansur, M. Hossein; Chen, Robert T. N.

    1987-01-01

    The Helicopter Air Combat system was used to conduct a pilot simulation study investigating the handling qualities and flight characteristics required for helicopter air-to-air combat. Results indicate that a well-damped directional response, low sideforce caused by sideslip, and some effective dihedral are all desirable for weapon system performance, good handling qualities, and low pilot workload. An angular rate command system was favored over the attitude-type pitch and roll response for most applications, and an enhanced maneuver envelope size over that of current generation aircraft was found to be of advantage.

  5. Moral engagement, combat trauma, and the lure of psychiatric dualism: why psychiatry is more than a technical discipline.

    PubMed

    Kinghorn, Warren

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatry is not only a technical discipline concerned with matching appropriate means to pre-specified ends; it is also a discipline of moral engagement and discernment in which clinicians and patients explore the ends that patients will pursue. Moral engagement is intrinsic to psychiatric practice, particularly when psychiatrists engage issues such as combat trauma in which patients' moral self-evaluations are relevant to the perpetuation of psychological distress. Relative to technical models of practice, however, the space of moral engagement and discernment conveys risk for psychiatrists as it is less "scientific," more prone to exploitation and abuse, and the occasion for social-political critiques of psychiatry. Three prevalent forms of psychiatric dualism, each manifest in the care of combat veterans, seem to allow psychiatrists to avoid this contested moral space: dualism of the self and the self's body, dualism of the self and the self's quantifiable experience and behavior, and dualism of the self and the self's "values." Each of these dualisms is alluring but ultimately unable to protect psychiatrists from the space of moral engagement. Psychiatrists must rather cultivate practices for inhabiting that space in a morally transparent, self-questioning, and responsible way. PMID:25563567

  6. The minimization of pylon-mounted store effects on air combat capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    Some effects of pylon-mounted missiles on aft-tail delta wing supersonic fighter concepts have been investigated. Whereas minimum drag penalties do occur with the addition of missiles, the effects at higher lifts, corresponding to maneuvering flight, are less severe and often favorable. Lower speeds and altitudes enhance the maneuvering capability and one-on-one air combat would probably tend to degenerate to subsonic speeds even though the combatants may be flying supersonic fighters. Higher speed (supersonic) flight might best be reserved for interceptors with long-range missiles where the weapon carriage effects at low angles of attack are of prime importance.

  7. An extended two-target differential game model for medium-range air combat game analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinar, J.

    1985-01-01

    The first phase of an investigation of a two-target game, representing an air combat with boresight limited all-aspect guided missiles is summarized. The results, obtained by using a line of sight coordinate system, are compared to a similar recently published work. The comparison indicates that improved insight, gained by using line of sight coordinates, allows to discover important new features of the game solution.

  8. Preliminary performance estimates of an oblique, all-wing, remotely piloted vehicle for air-to-air combat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, W. P., Jr.; Bailey, R. O.

    1974-01-01

    A computerized aircraft synthesis program has been used to assess the effects of various vehicle and mission parameters on the performance of an oblique, all-wing, remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) for the highly maneuverable, air-to-air combat role. The study mission consists of an outbound cruise, an acceleration phase, a series of subsonic and supersonic turns, and a return cruise. The results are presented in terms of both the required vehicle weight to accomplish this mission and the combat effectiveness as measured by turning and acceleration capability. This report describes the synthesis program, the mission, the vehicle, and results from sensitivity studies. An optimization process has been used to establish the nominal RPV configuration of the oblique, all-wing concept for the specified mission. In comparison to a previously studied conventional wing-body canard design for the same mission, this oblique, all-wing nominal vehicle is lighter in weight and has higher performance.

  9. A Monte Carlo simulation of air ambulance requirements during major combat operations.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Larry; McMurry, Pat; Kerr, Bernie

    2009-06-01

    In this study, we evaluate rules of allocation and planning factors that have an effect on requirements for Army air ambulance companies. The Army uses rules of allocation in scenarios drawn from strategic planning documents to determine how many units of each type are required. Army planners use these rules for determining the number of units required to support specific operational and tactical scenarios. Unrealistic rules result in unrealistic unit requirements. We evaluate quantitatively (via Monte Carlo simulation) planning considerations for air ambulance units during major combat operations (MCO) and estimate that 0.4 airframes per admission would be a reasonable planning factor. PMID:19585774

  10. Thermal Gradient Behavior of TBCs Subjected to a Laser Gradient Test Rig: Simulating an Air-to-Air Combat Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Rogerio S.; Marple, Basil R.; Marcoux, P.

    2016-01-01

    A computer-controlled laser test rig (using a CO2 laser) offers an interesting alternative to traditional flame-based thermal gradient rigs in evaluating thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). The temperature gradient between the top and back surfaces of a TBC system can be controlled based on the laser power and a forced air back-face cooling system, enabling the temperature history of complete aircraft missions to be simulated. An air plasma spray-deposited TBC was tested and, based on experimental data available in the literature, the temperature gradients across the TBC system (ZrO2-Y2O3 YSZ top coat/CoNiCrAlY bond coat/Inconel 625 substrate) and their respective frequencies during air-to-air combat missions of fighter jets were replicated. The missions included (i) idle/taxi on the runway, (ii) take-off and climbing, (iii) cruise trajectory to rendezvous zone, (iv) air-to-air combat maneuvering, (v) cruise trajectory back to runway, and (vi) idle/taxi after landing. The results show that the TBC thermal gradient experimental data in turbine engines can be replicated in the laser gradient rig, leading to an important tool to better engineer TBCs.

  11. Combat casualty care in an air force theater hospital: perspectives of recently deployed cardiothoracic surgeons.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Jeffrey D; Pratt, Jerry W

    2008-01-01

    Current military operations have generated a large number of casualties and have led to the establishment of the first Air Force Theater Hospital since Vietnam. Located at Balad Airbase, Iraq, this hospital is a busy trauma center. Thoracic injuries are relatively infrequent but highly lethal. The cardiothoracic surgeon is uniquely trained to provide sophisticated surgical management to some of the most severely injured patients. The operative experiences of four recently deployed cardiothoracic surgeons are described. Mortality from combat injury in this conflict is lower than in prior wars. Body armor may prevent some fatal injuries. Several features of military medical care process are helping to improve our outcomes-specifically, the development of a trauma care system modeled on successful civilian centers, the expanded use of damage control concepts, and utilization of early transportation out of the theater of operations using Critical Care Air Transport Teams (CCATT). PMID:18420132

  12. Air Combat Command deicing/anti-icing operation: Compliance evaluation and requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Fronapfel, P.J.

    1997-12-31

    This paper will present information on Air Combat Command`s (ACC) efforts in evaluating its deicing and anti-icing activities at all applicable ACC bases. This effort, led by Ecology and Environment (E and E), of Lancaster NY, will evaluate the operations, infrastructure, and management of deicing and anti-icing programs at ACC bases and will provide recommendations to each base for maintaining compliance with applicable regulations and minimizing the environmental impact of these operations. In addition to evaluating such operations at ACC bases, E and E, along with subcontractor Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., will research activities around the nation and the world to assist in developing the best recommendations for each ACC base. Armstrong Laboratory`s Water Quality Branch of the Bioenvironmental Engineering Division (AL/OEBW) is responsible for technical and contractual oversight of this effort. A summary of information gathered to date will be presented in this paper. Although the disposal of deicing fluids has led a somewhat charmed life until recently, these activities are likely to receive increased regulatory scrutiny in the years to come. Air Combat Command has had more than one instance where NOVs or potential NOVs have arisen due to fish kills associated with deicing/anti-icing chemical laden runoff. In an effort to prevent future compliance problems and to foster proper stewardship of the environment, ACC has taken these proactive measures at its bases. ACC`s efforts will also be used at the Air Staff level to assist in making Air Force wide pollution prevention and best management practice (P2/BMP) recommendations.

  13. A preference-ordered discrete-gaming approach to air-combat analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, H. J.; Lefton, L.

    1978-01-01

    An approach to one-on-one air-combat analysis is described which employs discrete gaming of a parameterized model featuring choice between several closed-loop control policies. A preference-ordering formulation due to Falco is applied to rational choice between outcomes: win, loss, mutual capture, purposeful disengagement, draw. Approximate optimization is provided by an active-cell scheme similar to Falco's obtained by a 'backing up' process similar to that of Kopp. The approach is designed primarily for short-duration duels between craft with large-envelope weaponry. Some illustrative computations are presented for an example modeled using constant-speed vehicles and very rough estimation of energy shifts.

  14. Two-target game model of an air combat with fire-and-forget all-aspect missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidovitz, A.; Shinar, J.

    1989-01-01

    An air combat duel between similar aggressive fighter aircraft, both equipped with the same type of guided missiles, is formulated as a two-target differential game using the dynamic model of the game of two identical cars. Each of the identical target sets represents the effective firing envelope of an all-aspect fire-and-forget air-to-air missile. The firing range limits depend on the target aspect angle and are approximated by analytical functions. The maximum range, computed by taking into account the optimal missile avoidance maneuver of the target, determines the no-escape firing envelope. The solution consists of the decomposition of the game space into four regions: the respective winning zones of the two opponents, the draw zone, and the region where the game terminates by a mutual kill. The solution provides a new insight for future air combat analysis.

  15. Simulation of the effects of different pilot helmets on neck loading during air combat.

    PubMed

    Mathys, R; Ferguson, S J

    2012-09-21

    New generation pilot helmets with mounted devices enhance the capabilities of pilots substantially. However, the additional equipment increases the helmet weight and shifts its center of mass forward. Two helmets with different mass properties were modeled to simulate their effects on the pilot's neck. A musculoskeletal computer model was used, with the methods of inverse dynamics and static optimization, to compute the muscle activations and joint reaction forces for a given range of quasi-static postures at various accelerations experienced during air combat. Head postures which induce much higher loads on the cervical spine than encountered in a neutral position could be identified. The increased weight and the forward shift of the center of mass of a new generation helmet lead to higher muscle activations and higher joint reaction loads over a wide range of head and neck movements. The muscle activations required to balance the head and neck in extreme postures increased the compressive force at the T1-C7 level substantially, while in a neutral posture the muscle activations remained low. The lateral neck muscles can reach activations of 100% and cause compressive joint forces up to 1100N during extensive rotations and extensions at high 'vertical' accelerations (Gz). The calculated values have to be interpreted with care as the model has not been validated. Nevertheless, this systematic analysis could separate the effects of head posture, acceleration and helmet mass on neck loading. More reliable data about mass properties and muscle morphometry with a more detailed motion analysis would help to refine the existing model. PMID:22840756

  16. Performance and human factors results from thrust vectoring investigations in simulated air combat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pennington, J. E.; Meintel, A. J., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    In support of research related to advanced fighter technology, the Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS) has been used to investigate the effects of advanced aerodynamic concepts, parametric changes in performance parameters, and advanced flight control systems on the combat capability of fighter airplanes. At least five studies were related to thrust vectoring and/or inflight thrust reversing. The aircraft simulated ranged from F-4 class to F-15 class, and included the AV-8 Harrier. This paper presents an overview of these studies including the assumptions involved, trends of results, and human factors considerations that were found.

  17. Combination Of Thermography And Pressure Tests To Combat Air Leakage Problems In Building Enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruin, W. G.

    1987-05-01

    Uncontrolled air leakage in a building enclosure is the main component of space heating and cooling costs. In Atlantic Canada, Public Works Canada has combined thermography and pressure testing to identify design and construction problems in new construction and to identify specific areas of air leakage in existing housing stock. A study case shows how thermography and pressure testing has been utilized to locate and compare specific areas of air leakage in a residence before and after air sealing. The study provides both quantitative and qualitative evidence of how air sealing increases the air tightness in building enclosures.

  18. Combat Sports Bloggers, Mad Scientist Poets, and Comic Scriptwriters: Engaging Boys in Writing on Their Own Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeper, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    As the program director of a community writing center that serves children and youth ages 5-18, Rachel Loeper sees it all, from 15-year-old spoken word poets to six-year-olds whose first "books" are strung together with yarn. In all of her roles--administrator, teacher, volunteer trainer--she values engaging the most reluctant of young…

  19. Combatting urban air pollution through Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) analysis, testing, and demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    Deteriorating urban air quality ranks as a top concern worldwide, since air pollution adversely affects both public health and the environment. The outlook for improving air quality in the world`s megacities need not be bleak, however, The use of natural gas as a transportation fuel can measurably reduce urban pollution levels, mitigating chronic threats to health and the environment. Besides being clean burning, natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are economical to operate and maintain. The current cost of natural gas is lower than that of gasoline. Natural gas also reduces the vehicle`s engine wear and noise level, extends engine life, and decreases engine maintenance. Today, about 700,000 NGVs operate worldwide, the majority of them converted from gasoline or diesel fuel. This article discusses the economic, regulatory and technological issues of concern to the NGV industry.

  20. Impact of flying qualities on mission effectiveness for helicopter air combat, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, T. M.; Beerman, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    A computer simulation to investigate the impact of flying qualities on mission effectiveness is described. The objective of the study was to relate the effects of flying qualities, such as precision of flight path control and pilot workload, to the ability of a single Scout helicopter, or helicopter team, to accomplish a specified anti-armor mission successfully. The model of the actual engagement is a Monte Carlo simulation that has the capability to assess the effects of helicopter characteristics, numbers, tactics and weaponization on the force's ability to accomplish a specific mission against a specified threat as a function of realistic tactical factors. A key feature of this program is a simulation of micro-terrain features and their effects on detection, exposure, and masking for nap-of-the-earth (NOE) flight.

  1. Combat games

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.; Heymann, M.; Rajan, N.

    1985-01-01

    A mathematical formulation is proposed of a combat game between two opponents with offensive capabilities and offensive objective is proposed. Resolution of the combat involves solving two differential games with state constraints. Depending on the game dynamics and parameters, the combat can terminate in one of four ways: the first player wins; the second player wins; a draw (neither wins); or joint capture. In the first two cases, the optimal strategies of the two players are determined from suitable zero-sum games, whereas in the latter two the relevant games are nonzero-sum. Further, to avoid certain technical difficulties, the concept of a delta-combat game is introduced.

  2. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities Rule: Operational and economic impacts at U.S. Air Force Air Combat Command (ACC) installations

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.C.; Durand, G.P.; Senn, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    The recently promulgated Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), found in 40 CFR 63 Subpart GG, is expected to significantly impact operations at US Air Force (USAF) bases. At the request of the USAF`s Air Combat Command (ACC), Armstrong Laboratory`s Air Quality Branch performed a compliance assessment for all ACC bases in the summer of 1996 to determine more clearly the rule`s impact on operations at these bases. This assessment included first determining the base`s current major source standing for hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), as defined by Title III of the Clean Air Act. In addition, this assessment ascertained the volatile organic compound (VOC) and HAP content levels for both the primers and topcoats currently being used in base aircraft maintenance operations. Finally, the survey determined the type of solvents used in cleaning aerospace parts, as well as the types of control equipment currently in place at each base. The results of the compliance assessment suggest a prohibitive impact on operations at ACC bases, including total potential direct monetary costs of up to $25M. Additional personnel requirements will be incurred as a result of increased monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting. Substitution of low VOC/HAP primers and topcoats and/or redefining maintenance operations to meet touch-up and repair definitions are discussed as possible alternatives, but the results indicate the best solution is to reassess each ACC base`s status as a major source for HAPs, with the intent of having each base defined as a minor source for HAPs. In this manner, the ACC bases can avoid the Aerospace NESHAP compliance requirements altogether, at substantial savings to the US Air Force.

  3. Analysis of a combat problem - The turret game

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M.; Heymann, M.; Rajan, N.

    1987-01-01

    The turret game is defined and solved to illustrate the nature of games of combat. This game represents a highly simplified version of air combat, yet it is sufficiently complex so as to exhibit a rich variety of combat phenomena. A review of the formulation of delta-combat games is included.

  4. Augmented Reality for Close Quarters Combat

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-06-23

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a state-of-the-art augmented reality training system for close-quarters combat (CQB). This system uses a wearable augmented reality system to place the user in a real environment while engaging enemy combatants in virtual space (Boston Dynamics DI-Guy). Umbra modeling and simulation environment is used to integrate and control the AR system.

  5. Augmented Reality for Close Quarters Combat

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-20

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a state-of-the-art augmented reality training system for close-quarters combat (CQB). This system uses a wearable augmented reality system to place the user in a real environment while engaging enemy combatants in virtual space (Boston Dynamics DI-Guy). Umbra modeling and simulation environment is used to integrate and control the AR system.

  6. Abductive networks applied to electronic combat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Gerard J.; Hess, Paul; Hwang, Jong S.

    1990-08-01

    A practical approach to dealing with combinatorial decision problems and uncertainties associated with electronic combat through the use of networks of high-level functional elements called abductive networks is presented. It describes the application of the Abductory Induction Mechanism (AIMTM) a supervised inductive learning tool for synthesizing polynomial abductive networks to the electronic combat problem domain. From databases of historical expert-generated or simulated combat engagements AIM can often induce compact and robust network models for making effective real-time electronic combat decisions despite significant uncertainties or a combinatorial explosion of possible situations. The feasibility of applying abductive networks to realize advanced combat decision aiding capabilities was demonstrated by applying AIM to a set of electronic combat simulations. The networks synthesized by AIM generated accurate assessments of the intent lethality and overall risk associated with a variety of simulated threats and produced reasonable estimates of the expected effectiveness of a group of electronic countermeasures for a large number of simulated combat scenarios. This paper presents the application of abductive networks to electronic combat summarizes the results of experiments performed using AIM discusses the benefits and limitations of applying abductive networks to electronic combat and indicates why abductive networks can often result in capabilities not attainable using alternative approaches. 1. ELECTRONIC COMBAT. UNCERTAINTY. AND MACHINE LEARNING Electronic combat has become an essential part of the ability to make war and has become increasingly complex since

  7. DETAIL OF DOORWAY INTO COMBAT INTELLIGENCE ROOM. view TO WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF DOORWAY INTO COMBAT INTELLIGENCE ROOM. view TO WEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  8. Combating illiteracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A science course for nonscientists at Columbia University's Columbia College that was created in 1981 as an experiment to combat “the national crisis of scientific illiteracy” has received major new foundation support and has achieved a permanent place in the college's curriculum.The course, The Theory and Practice of Science, has received a $240,000 grant from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, according to Robert E. Pollack, college dean, professor of biological sciences, and originator of the course. The grant will be used for the preparation and publication in 1985 of a textbook, titled The Scientific Experience, which will permit the course to be taught at other schools around the country.

  9. 32 CFR 813.4 - Combat camera operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Combat camera operations. 813.4 Section 813.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.4 Combat camera operations. (a) Air Force COMCAM forces document Air Force and air component activities....

  10. 32 CFR 813.4 - Combat camera operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Combat camera operations. 813.4 Section 813.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.4 Combat camera operations. (a) Air Force COMCAM forces document Air Force and air component activities....

  11. Collaborative engagement experiment (CEE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Robert L.; Reames, Joseph M.

    2005-05-01

    Unmanned ground and air systems operating in collaboration have the potential to provide future Joint Forces a significant capability for operations in complex terrain. Ground and air collaborative engagements potentially offer force conservation, perform timely acquisition and dissemination of essential combat information, and can eliminate high value and time critical targets. These engagements can also add considerably to force survivability by reducing soldier and equipment exposure during critical operations. The Office of the Secretary of Defense, Joint Robotics Program (JRP) sponsored Collaborative Engagement Experiment (CEE) is a consolidation of separate Air Force, Army and Navy collaborative efforts to provide a Joint capability. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Material and Manufacturing Directorate, Aerospace Expeditionary Force Division, Force Protection Branch (AFRLMLQF), The Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) Joint Technology Center (JTC)/Systems Integration Laboratory (SIL), and the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center-San Diego (SSC San Diego) are conducting technical research and proof of principle for an envisioned operational concept for extended range, three dimensional, collaborative operations between unmanned systems, with enhanced situational awareness for lethal operations in complex terrain. This program will assess information requirements and conduct experiments to identify and resolve technical risks for collaborative engagements using Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). It will research, develop and physically integrate multiple unmanned systems and conduct live collaborative experiments. Modeling and Simulation systems will be upgraded to reflect engineering fidelity levels to greater understand technical challenges to operate as a team. This paper will provide an update of a multi-year program and will concentrate primarily on the JTC

  12. Drilling and thermal gradient measurements at US Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms, California. Final report, October 1, 1983-March 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Trexler, D.T.; Flynn, T.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Seven temperature gradient holes were drilled at the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms, California, as part of a cooperative research and development program, jointly funded by the Navy and Department of Energy. The purpose of this program was to assess geothermal resources at selected Department of Defense installations. Drill site selection was based on geophysical anomalies delineated by combined gravity, ground magnetic and aeromagnetic surveys. Temperature gradients ranged from 1.3/sup 0/C/100 m (1/sup 0/F/100 ft.) in hole No. 1 to 15.3/sup 0/C/100 m (8.3/sup 0/F/100 ft.) in temperature gradient hole No. 6. Large, positive geothermal gradients in temperature gradient holes 5 and 6, combined with respective bottom hole temperatures of 51.6/sup 0/C (125/sup 0/F) and 67/sup 0/C (153/sup 0/F), indicate that an extensive, moderate-temperature geothermal resource is located on the MCAGCC. The geothermal reservoir appears to be situated in old, unconsolidated alluvial material and is structurally bounded on the east by the Mesquite Lake fault and on the west by the Surprise Spring fault. If measured temperature gradients continue to increase at the observed rate, temperatures in excess of 80/sup 0/C (178/sup 0/F) can be expected at a depth of 2000 feet.

  13. 32 CFR 813.6 - Planning and requesting combat documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Planning and requesting combat documentation... SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.6 Planning and requesting combat documentation. (a) Planned combat documentation. Air components identify documentation needs as early...

  14. 32 CFR 813.6 - Planning and requesting combat documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Planning and requesting combat documentation... SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.6 Planning and requesting combat documentation. (a) Planned combat documentation. Air components identify documentation needs as early...

  15. A formulation and analysis of combat games

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, M.; Ardema, M. D.; Rajan, N.

    1985-01-01

    Combat is formulated as a dynamical encounter between two opponents, each of whom has offensive capabilities and objectives. With each opponent is associated a target in the event space in which he endeavors to terminate the combat, thereby winning. If the combat terminates in both target sets simultaneously or in neither, a joint capture or a draw, respectively, is said to occur. Resolution of the encounter is formulated as a combat game; namely, as a pair of competing event-constrained differential games. If exactly one of the players can win, the optimal strategies are determined from a resulting constrained zero-sum differential game. Otherwise the optimal strategies are computed from a resulting non-zero-sum game. Since optimal combat strategies frequencies may not exist, approximate of delta-combat games are also formulated leading to approximate or delta-optimal strategies. To illustrate combat games, an example, called the turret game, is considered. This game may be thought of as a highly simplified model of air combat, yet it is sufficiently complex to exhibit a rich variety of combat behavior, much of which is not found in pursuit-evasion games.

  16. Civic Learning and Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, Martha; Schneider, Carol Geary

    2013-01-01

    For decades, the US education system has failed to adequately combat a decline of civic engagement and awareness, resulting in what many are now calling a "civics recession." The good news is that there is growing awareness, at all levels, that we need new and concerted efforts to make civic learning and engagement a core component of every…

  17. A-2000: Close air support aircraft design team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrannanto, Paul; Lim, Don; Lucas, Evangeline; Risse, Alan; Weaver, Dave; Wikse, Steve

    1991-01-01

    The US Air Force is currently faced with the problem of providing adequate close air support for ground forces. Air response to troops engaged in combat must be rapid and devastating due to the highly fluid battle lines of the future. The A-2000 is the result of a study to design an aircraft to deliver massive fire power accurately. The low cost A-2000 incorporates: large weapons payload; excellent maneuverability; all weather and terrain following capacity; redundant systems; and high survivability.

  18. Collaborative engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Robert L.; Reames, Joseph M.

    2004-09-01

    A need exists for United States military forces to perform collaborative engagement operations between unmanned systems. This capability has the potential to contribute significant tactical synergy to the Joint Force operating in the battlespace of the future. Collaborative engagements potentially offer force conservation, perform timely acquisition and dissemination of essential combat information, and can eliminate high value and time critical targets. Collaborative engagements can also add considerably to force survivability by reducing soldier and equipment exposure during critical operations. This paper will address a multiphase U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) Joint Technology Center (JTC) Systems Integration Laboratory (SIL) program to assess information requirements, Joint Architecure for Unmanned Systems (JAUS), on-going Science and Technology initiatives, and conduct simulation based experiments to identify and resolve technical risks required to conduct collaborative engagements using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and unmanned ground vehicles (UGV). The schedule outlines an initial effort to expand, update and exercise JAUS, provide early feedback to support user development of Concept of Operations (CONOPs) and Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TTPs), and develop a Multiple Unified Simulation Environment (MUSE) system with JAUS interfaces necessary to support an unmanned system of systems collaboartive engagement.

  19. Infrared and visible combat identification marking materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keefe, Eoin; Shohet, Adam; Swan, Martin

    2007-04-01

    Historically, it is believed that fratricide accounts for up to 15% of friendly casualties during operations and a UK MoD report identifies that almost half of all such casualties occur in situations involving ground units only. Such risks can be mitigated, to an extent, via operational awareness and effective communications. However, recent conflicts have involved a much more dynamic, complex and technically sophisticated battlefield than previously experienced. For example, Operation Telic (Desert Storm) involved almost one million combatants and ten thousand armoured vehicles in the coalition force, advancing across an extensive battlefront at high speed during daylight and at night, making effective use of a range of electro-optic sensors. The accelerated tempo of battle means that front lines can undergo rapid, punctuated advances that can leave individual combat units with a much degraded situational awareness, particularly of where they are in relation to other 'friendly' combatants. Consequently, there is a need for a robust, low cost, low weight, compact, unpowered, interoperable, Combat Identification technique for use with popular electro-optic sensors which can be deployed, and is effective, at the individual combat unit level. In this paper we discuss ground-to-ground combat identification materials that meet these requirements, all of which are based on the air-to-ground Mirage TM vehicle marking material. We show some preliminary ground-to-ground data collected from the new variant Mirage TM material in recent experimental trials conducted during the day, evening and at night.

  20. 32 CFR 813.4 - Combat camera operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.4 Combat camera operations. (a) Air Force COMCAM forces document Air Force and air component activities. (b) The supported unified command or joint task force...

  1. 32 CFR 813.4 - Combat camera operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.4 Combat camera operations. (a) Air Force COMCAM forces document Air Force and air component activities. (b) The supported unified command or joint task force...

  2. 32 CFR 813.4 - Combat camera operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.4 Combat camera operations. (a) Air Force COMCAM forces document Air Force and air component activities. (b) The supported unified command or joint task force...

  3. Engaged Learning and Youth Interest in STEM Careers: A Science Museum Exhibit on Air Pollution and Urban Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    Enrollments in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) curricula currently lag workforce needs. Participation of women and minorities in STEM careers also remains low despite efforts to improve their representation in these fields. We discuss the development and evaluation of a science museum exhibit aimed at stimulating interest of middle school children (particularly girls) in STEM careers. The exhibit was designed to teach science, while addressing two factors identified as limiting the interest of girls in STEM fields — perceived lack of social relevance and lack of female role models. Further, it was designed to apply best practices in science education, including inquiry-based learning and interdisciplinary content. The exhibit was developed through collaboration between students and faculty researchers at the University of South Florida and science education and evaluation specialists at the Museum of Science and Industry of Tampa. A few stages of formative and summative assessment, including focus group discussions, visitor observation, and surveys were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the exhibit to educational project goals. The installed exhibit is focused on teaching content related to interactions between air pollution, urban design, and human health. The approximately 25 square foot exhibit space involves four different types of components. A three-dimensional model of a city, with underlying dynamic computer simulations, allows visitors to interactively explore relationships between city design, air pollution and exposures. A computer game, with quiz questions requiring user decisions on personal to community behavior, provides visual feedback regarding impacts on air pollution. Traditional panels with graphics and text, including results of current research, display integrative scientific content with open-ended questions to stimulate discussion. Finally, personal profiles highlight the diverse family, work, and social lives

  4. Roof plan, Combat Operations Center, Building No. 2605. (Also includes ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Roof plan, Combat Operations Center, Building No. 2605. (Also includes a typical roof section, with new fiberglass and urethane insulation layers.) By Federal Builders, 575 Carreon Drive, Colton, California. Sheet 1 of 1, dated 18 May 1992. Scale one-eighth inch to one foot. 24x36 inches. ink on paper - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  5. From Fysics to Phorestry: How do I engage diverse audiences in land-air interaction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C. K.

    2011-12-01

    The educational component of the CAREER award "A New Direction into Near-Surface Transport for Weak-Wind Conditions in Plant Canopies" (AGS #0955444) calls for an integration of in-classroom teaching and a new field class to provide students from across the disciplines with an opportunity to explore and learn mechanisms of land-air interactions. The charge is clear, but how do I best do this? This contribution presents a concept of how to address the diverse interests and needs with backgrounds ranging from atmospheric science & engineering to botany & forestry by emphasizing the underlying physical principles of light, heat, and water exchange that are of common interest to many scientific disciplines. The idea behind the teaching technique is to let the students escape from their rather passive role in the classroom by providing opportunities for active participation and discovery through a) developing an online syllabus created by the students for the students, b) offering field excursions to expose students to the research activities funded through this award, c) helping small student teams formulate their own research questions, develop their own experimental design, and collect and evaluate measurements in the field class. In addition to discussing the concept and giving some concrete topical examples, a summary of the student feedback received to date will also be included. However, since the award is just about to enter its second year at the time of writing, a major part of this concept still awaits implementation. Seeking input from other awardees and experienced teachers and educators is therefore intended. A secondary objective of this contribution is to describe the many positive impacts on my career that are evident even after the first year by exposing my research and teaching activities to a much broader audience including the Long-Term Ecological Research community at the HJ Andrews experimental forest in Oregon.

  6. Combat Agility Management System (CAMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skow, Andrew; Porada, William

    1994-01-01

    The proper management of energy becomes a complex task in fighter aircraft which have high angle of attack (AOA) capability. Maneuvers at high AOA are accompanied by high bleed rates (velocity decrease), a characteristic that is usually undesirable in a typical combat arena. Eidetics has developed under NASA SBIR Phase 1 and NAVAIR SBIR Phase 2 contracts a system which allows a pilot to more easily and effectively manage the trade-off of energy (airspeed or altitude) for turn rate while not imposing hard limits on the high AOA nose pointing capability that can be so important in certain air combat maneuver situations. This has been accomplished by incorporating a two-stage angle of attack limiter into the flight control laws. The first stage sets a limit on AOA to achieve a limit on the maximum bleed rate (selectable) by limiting AOA to values which are dependent on the aircraft attitude and dynamic pressure (or flight path, velocity, and altitude). The second stage sets an AOA limit near the AOA for C(sub l max). One of the principal benefits of such a system is that it enables a low-experience pilot to become much more proficient at managing his energy. The Phase 2 simulation work is complete, and an exploratory flight test on the F-18 HARV is planned for the Fall of 1994 to demonstrate/validate the concept.

  7. Models for computing combat risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelinek, Jan

    2002-07-01

    Combat always involves uncertainty and uncertainty entails risk. To ensure that a combat task is prosecuted with the desired probability of success, the task commander has to devise an appropriate task force and then adjust it continuously in the course of battle. In order to do so, he has to evaluate how the probability of task success is related to the structure, capabilities and numerical strengths of combatants. For this purpose, predictive models of combat dynamics for combats in which the combatants fire asynchronously at random instants are developed from the first principles. Combats involving forces with both unlimited and limited ammunition supply are studied and modeled by stochastic Markov processes. In addition to the Markov models, another class of models first proposed by Brown was explored. The models compute directly the probability of win, in which we are primarily interested, without integrating the state probability equations. Experiments confirm that they produce exactly the same results at much lower computational cost.

  8. Natural Medicine: Wilderness Experience Outcomes for Combat Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Zachary Clayborne; Joye, Shauna Wilson; Garcia, Joseph Amos

    2015-01-01

    Wilderness Experience Programs (WEPs) have been shown to enhance psychological well-being for numerous populations. However, among veteran populations, these studies have historically evaluated programs that are short-term experiences, usually less than 1 week. The current research sought to evaluate a WEP for post-9/11 combat veterans engaging in…

  9. Multi-Injury Casualty Stream Simulation in a Shipboard Combat Environment.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Edwin; Wing, Vern; Zouris, James; Vickers, Ross; Lawnick, Mary; Galarneau, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Accurate forecasts of casualty streams are essential for estimating personnel and materiel requirements for future naval combat engagements. The scarcity of recent naval combat data makes accurate forecasting difficult. Furthermore, current forecasts are based on single injuries only, even though empirical evidence indicates most battle casualties suffer multiple injuries. These anticipated single-injury casualty streams underestimate the needed medical resources. This article describes a method of simulating realistic multi-injury casualty streams in a maritime environment by combining available shipboard data with ground combat blast data. The simulations, based on the Military Combat Injury Scale, are expected to provide a better tool for medical logistics planning. PMID:26741479

  10. Combat aircraft noise: The operator's perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogg, R.

    1992-04-01

    Combat aircraft are not subject to the same noise reduction regulations as civil aircraft. Additionally, combat aircraft are operated closer to their performance limits and at high power settings for extended periods. There is general pressure to reduce noise of all kinds, but particularly noise from low flying aircraft. Although there is little that can be done to quiet in-service engines, operational palliatives, such as noise abatement procedures and restrictions on low flying, have been introduced. Moreover, there has been a concerted education and public relations campaign, and numerous airspace management changes have been introduced to reduce the impact of low flying on the population. These subjects were considered during a Pilot Study into aircraft noise under the auspices of the NATO Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society; the findings of the Study are discussed, giving both the international viewpoint and the UK perspective in particular. Some options for the reduction of low flying are also considered, but so long as military aircraft need to fly low to evade enemy air defences, low flying will remain a principal tactic of NATO air forces, and peacetime training will remain an essential military requirement. Thus, noise from low flying combat aircraft will remain a sensitive issue, and ways of reducing it will continue to be of importance for many years to come.

  11. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  12. The Civic Engagement Cluster: The Design and Creation of an Interorganizational Collaboration. AIR 2001 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Marvin W.; Anderson, Aaron D.

    Today, under an array of market pressures and increased competition, institutional researchers, administrators, and faculty are being called on to work in more collaborative cross-institutional arrangements. This paper uses a case study method to describe the process of forming a Civic Engagement Cluster, a collaborative of 10 different…

  13. Encouraging obese students with intellectual disabilities to engage in pedaling an exercise bike by using an air mouse combined with preferred environmental stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Man-Ling; Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Lin, Yen-Chung

    2014-12-01

    This study extended research into the application of high-tech products in the field of special education, using a standard air mouse with a newly developed pedal detection program (PDP) software. PDP is a new software program used to turn a standard air mouse into a pedal detector in order to evaluate whether two obese students with intellectual disabilities (ID) would be able to actively perform the activity of pedaling an exercise bike in order to control their preferred environmental stimulation. This study was performed according to an ABAB design. The data showed that both participants had more willingness to engage in the pedaling activity to activate the environmental stimulation in the intervention phases than in the baseline phase. The practical and developmental implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25181361

  14. Lessons from a 5 yr citizen-science monitoring program, Mountain Watch, to engage hikers in air quality/visibility and plant phenology monitoring in the mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, G.; Weihrauch, D.; Kimball, K.; McDonough, C.

    2010-12-01

    The AMC’s citizen scientist monitoring program, Mountain Watch, engages hikers in observational monitoring while recreating in the northern Appalachian Mountains. The program uses two monitoring activities:1) tracking the phenology of 11 mountain flowers species, and 2) the visitors real world perception of on-mountain visibility and its ‘quality’ with proximate monitored air quality parameters. The Mountain Watch program objectives are a) to engage and educate the public through hands-on monitoring, b) to motivate the participant to take further action towards environmental stewardship, and c) to provide supplemental data to AMC’s ongoing science-based research to further our understanding of the impact of human activity on mountain ecosystems. The Mountain Watch plant monitoring includes recording the time and location of alpine and forest plants flowering and other phenological phases using AMC field guides and datasheets. In the White Mountains of New Hampshire concurrent meteorological data, including soil temperature, is paired with the phenology observations as part of AMC’s research to develop spatial and temporal phenology models with air and soil temperature for northeastern mountains. Mountain Watch’s visibility monitoring program has hikers record visual range and rate the view at select vistas in comparison to a clear day view photo guide when visiting AMC’s backcountry huts. The results are compared to proximate air quality measurements, which assists in determining how White Mountain National Forest air quality related values and natural resources management objectives are being met. Since 2006 the Mountain Watch program has received over 3,500 citizen datasheets for plant reproductive phenology and visibility monitoring. We estimate that we have reached more than 15,000 hikers through our facility based education programming focused on air quality and phenology and field monitoring hikes. While we consider this good success in engaging

  15. The Engaged University: International Perspectives on Civic Engagement. International Studies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, David; Hollister, Robert; Stroud, Susan E.; Babcock, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    "The Engaged University" is a comprehensive empirical account of the global civic engagement movement in higher education. In universities around the world, something extraordinary is underway. Mobilizing their human and intellectual resources, institutions of higher education are directly tackling community problems--combating poverty, improving…

  16. Support of marines and sailors returning from combat: a comparison of two different mental health models.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Scott L; Dipp, Randolf D

    2009-05-01

    As Navy medicine continues to support the Global War on Terrorism, various approaches are used to attenuate combat stress casualties. This article examines two different mental health models, one employed at sea and one in the combat zone, used for active duty forces immediately after cessation of combat operations. Both models focus on screening, early prevention, and treatment implemented during the transition from the combat theater to garrison. Returning by sea provided the opportunity for greater education and decompression of combat stress as the service members transitioned back to garrison when compared to those who returned by air. It was also found that the Post Deployment Health Assessment (PDHA) did not capture as many individuals with mental health issues leaving combat theater, which identified 6% on both missions, compared to the capture rate with the Post Deployment Psychological Screener (PDPS), which identified 16-20%. Limitations, opportunities, and recommendations for future interventions are discussed. PMID:20731274

  17. Installation restoration program: UST removal report. 117th Refueling Wing, Alabama Air National Guard, Birmingham Airport, Birmingham, Alabama and 226th Combat Information Systems Group, Martin Air National Guard Station, Gadsden Airport, Gadsden, Alabama. Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The Installation Restoration Program was initiated by the Air National Guard (ANG) to evaluate potential contamination to the environment caused by past practices at its installations. During the 1987 Preliminary Assessment (PA), ten abandoned underground storage tanks (USTs) were identified at nine sites. During the 1991 Site Investigation, surveys found four USTs at four sites and none at the other sites. The UST at Gadsden was removed in November 1989. Three USTs were removed at Birmingham in January 1991. Remaining soil was below Alabama Department of Environmental Management`s (ADEM) corrective action limit of 100 ppm total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) for the Gadsden UST and UST 380 at Birmingham. For USTs 120 and 130 at Birmingham, remaining soil was above ADEM`s corrective action limit, but believed to be limited to soils immediately adjacent to the tank pits. The report recommends no further action be taken at any of the UST sites.

  18. Installation restoration program: UST removal report. 117th Refueling Wing, Alabama Air National Guard, Birmingham Airport, Birmingham, Alabama and 226th Combat Information Systems Group, Martin Air National Guard Station, Gadsden Airport, Gadsden, Alabama. Volume II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The Installation Restoration Program was initiated by the Air National Guard (ANG) to evaluate potential contamination to the environment caused by past practices at its installations. During the 1987 Preliminary Assessment (PA), ten abandoned underground storage tanks (USTs) were identified at nine sites. During the 1991 Site Investigation, surveys found four USTs at four sites and none at the other sites. The UST at Gadsden was removed in November 1989. Three USTs were removed at Birmingham in January 1991. Remaining soil was below Alabama Department of Environmental Management`s (ADEM) corrective action limit of 100 ppm total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) for the Gadsden UST and UST 380 at Birmingham. For USTs 120 and 130 at Birmingham, remaining soil was above ADEM`s corrective action limit, but believed to be limited to soils immediately adjacent to the tank pits. The report recommends no further action be taken at any of the UST sites.

  19. Air Toxics under the Big Sky: A Real-World Investigation to Engage High School Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Earle; Smith, Garon; Ward, Tony J.; Vanek, Diana; Marra, Nancy; Jones, David; Henthorn, Melissa; Striebel, Jim

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a problem-based chemistry education model in which students perform scientific research on a local environmentally relevant problem. The project is a collaboration among The University of Montana and local high schools centered around Missoula, Montana. "Air Toxics under the Big Sky" involves high school students in collecting…

  20. Combat aircraft noise reduction by technical measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, M.; Kennepohl, F.; Heinig, K.

    1992-04-01

    The noise of combat aircraft during low level flight is dominated by the jet. Technical noise reduction measures must therefore reduce the specific thrust of the engine. This can be achieved by altering the engine cycle or by using secondary air to increase the mass flow though the nozzle. In the first part the influence of nozzle area, bypass ratio and variable cycle features on the specific thrust of modern fighter engines is shown. The effects on noise, thrust and fuel consumption are discussed. In the second part ejector-mixer nozzles and the aft-fan are considered. Both reduce the jet velocity by entraining air through secondary inlets and expelling it together with the engine's exhaust flow through a common nozzle.

  1. Public Outreach From the Physics Department at the Air Force Academy: Engaging the Faculty as Scientists and Partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knipp, D. J.; Kutche, C.

    2001-05-01

    The Air Force Academy serves a specialized function as a developer of military officers preparing to lead the nation's air and space forces. Within the Academy, the Physics department focuses on providing a breadth of integrated knowledge in physics and meteorology. To that end technical competency and scientific literacy of both incoming and outgoing students is a significant issue. Despite limited outreach resources, the Physics faculty and staff are very active in K-12 science education and in enhancing general science literacy via public outreach to the community. The department supports more than 1500 public outreach contacts per year. Teachers at all levels are involved in a variety of interactions: one-on-one mentoring, class-to-class pairings of elementary and college physics students, motivational "Physics is Phun" school visits, and numerous activities on the Academy grounds. In this presentation we will discuss the breadth of outreach activities and how they relate the research emphasis areas of the Academy's Physics Department.

  2. The effects of wearing protective chemical warfare combat clothing on human performance.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H L; Orlansky, J

    1993-03-01

    U.S. Department of Defense studies to measure performance decrements associated with wearing chemical warfare (CW) protective combat clothing indicate that heat stress seriously degrades human performance. Even when heat stress is not a significant factor, performance of many combat, combat support, and combat service support tasks is degraded. In most field studies, many crews of combat units became operationally ineffective due to voluntary withdrawal of individual crewmembers. Many combined arms, field studies, and laboratory studies indicate that when CW-protective combat clothing is worn performance is seriously degraded for the detection of targets, engagement time, accuracy of fire, and manual dexterity tasks; and that a variety of psychological effects are created. Further, the degree of performance degradation varied with the tasks performed. Training in CW-protective combat clothing permits learning to modify procedures and consequently reduce negative effects, provided heat stress is not a significant factor. A growing body of evidence indicates there is inadequate training in the use of CW-protective combat clothing. A critical need exists for more and better training of skills needed under CW-conditions. PMID:8447813

  3. Anger in the combat zone.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Valvincent A; Hicklin, Thomas A

    2005-06-01

    A U.S. Army Reserve Combat Stress Control prevention team was dispatched to Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom to provide preventative mental health care to a U.S. Army airborne division and Special Operations forces. The team's mission was to ensure mental health readiness of units in the area of operations. In Bagram, Afghanistan, the Combat Stress Control team identified anger as a very prevalent emotion in the combat zone. Anger management interventions with individual and group counseling were implemented to help soldiers cope with anger. Of 7,000 military personnel stationed there during the team's rotation, there was not one completed suicide or homicide. This article describes how the 113th Medical Company identified, treated, and controlled anger at Bagram Airbase, Afghanistan, between June 20, 2002, and December 20, 2002, with anger management interventions. This article does not address the psychophysiological features of anger. PMID:16001596

  4. F-16 pilot experience with combat ejections during the Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Williams, C S

    1993-09-01

    Most experience with ejections from modern fighter aircraft has occurred outside of true combat operations. During Operation Desert Storm, the 401st Fighter Wing, Torrejon Air Base, Spain, lost four F-16C aircraft while on combat missions, with all four pilots ejecting safely. Since the circumstances of a combat vs. peacetime ejection are likely different and many combat mishaps and ejections cannot be extensively investigated (three out of these four), a questionnaire was developed to recall and review pilot ejection experiences. Questions ranged from recalling the parameters of egress to conscious recollections of the event and assessment of how well the system worked. Each of the four ejections occurred under different parameters, and no one suffered significant injury. Two of the ejections occurred at high altitude, previously rare in the F-16. This was one of the first times that experience was obtained with the F-16's ACES-II egress system under combat operations and, in the experience of these four pilots, the system was life-saving in combat. Finally, the overall ejection survival rate for U.S. Air Force fighter/attack combat ejections during Operation Desert Storm was similar to the peacetime rate. It is the author's hypothesis that the reason for this may correlate with a quicker, more predetermined decision to eject from an aircraft disabled by combat fire. PMID:8216147

  5. Evidence of Combat in Triceratops

    PubMed Central

    Farke, Andrew A.; Wolff, Ewan D. S.; Tanke, Darren H.

    2009-01-01

    Background The horns and frill of Triceratops and other ceratopsids (horned dinosaurs) are interpreted variously as display structures or as weapons against conspecifics and predators. Lesions (in the form of periosteal reactive bone, healing fractures, and alleged punctures) on Triceratops skulls have been used as anecdotal support of intraspecific combat similar to that in modern horned and antlered animals. If ceratopsids with different cranial morphologies used their horns in such combat, this should be reflected in the rates of lesion occurrence across the skull. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a G-test of independence to compare incidence rates of lesions in Triceratops (which possesses two large brow horns and a smaller nasal horn) and the related ceratopsid Centrosaurus (with a large nasal horn and small brow horns), for the nasal, jugal, squamosal, and parietal bones of the skull. The two taxa differ significantly in the occurrence of lesions on the squamosal bone of the frill (P = 0.002), but not in other cranial bones (P>0.20). Conclusions/Significance This pattern is consistent with Triceratops using its horns in combat and the frill being adapted as a protective structure for this taxon. Lower pathology rates in Centrosaurus may indicate visual rather than physical use of cranial ornamentation in this genus, or a form of combat focused on the body rather than the head. PMID:19172995

  6. Teaching Combative Sports through Tactics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozub, Francis M.; Kozub, Mary L.

    2004-01-01

    Martial arts have become popular in the United States and have transitioned from being spectator sports to avenues for active participation by people of all ages. The purpose of this article is to highlight tactical similarities in selected combative sport activities and to provide martial arts and wrestling instructors with an alternative…

  7. Combating Stagefright: Selected Vocal Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Gerald Lee

    Noting that stagefright has been the subject of intensive analysis and subjected to almost every conceivable test or measurement without revealing either its "cause" or its "cure," this paper presents vocal exercises to help combat the performance malady. After listing four principles concerning the nature of stagefright (it is not a pathological…

  8. Combating Training-Stress Syndromes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voight, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the nature and ramifications of various training stress syndromes (overtraining, under-recovery, distress, staleness, and burnout) that can accompany inappropriate training practices, examining the interventions that players and coaches can use to combat these syndromes (including physical, psychological, and performance interventions),…

  9. Noise: combating a ubiquitous and hazardous pollutant.

    PubMed

    Bronzaft, Arline L.

    2000-01-01

    With a growing body of data suggesting a link between noise and adverse mental and physical health and with noise pollution becoming even more pervasive, especially from the rapid increase in air travel and highway traffic, individuals worldwide are forging alliances to combat this hazardous pollutant. Especially active are the anti-aircraft noise groups. In the United States, the federal government has limited its responsibilities with respect to noise control after an initial interest in the 1970s when legislation was passed promising to protect the American people against the harmful effects of noise. These past years anti-noise activists in the United States have been working arduously to urge the federal government to once again take an active role in abating and controlling noise. They have also been enlisting more citizens to their cause as they educate them to the hazards of noise. PMID:12689475

  10. Engine selection for transport and combat aircraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, J. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the procedures used to select engines for transport and combat aircraft by illustrating the procedures for a long haul CTOL transport, a short haul VTOL transport, a long range SST, and a fighter aircraft. For the CTOL transport, it is shown that advances in noise technology and advanced turbine cooling technology will greatly reduce the airplane performance penalties associated with achieving low noise goals. A remote lift fan powered by a turbofan air generator is considered for the VTOL aircraft. In this case, the lift fan pressure ratio which maximizes payload also comes closest to meeting the noise goal. High turbine temperature in three different engines is considered for the SST. Without noise constraints it leads to an appreciable drop in DOC, but with noise constraints the reduction in DOC is very modest. For the fighter aircraft it is shown how specific excess power requirements play the same role in engine selection as noise constraints for commercial airplanes.

  11. The food and weight combat. A problematic fight for the elite combat sports athlete.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Stefan; Pipping Ekström, Marianne; Berg, Christina M

    2012-10-01

    Weight reduction in athletes is motivated by optimisation of performance, aesthetic reasons or to achieve a pre-designated weight. Previous research has shown that dietary restraint and short term weight regulation frequently takes place among combat sports athletes such as wrestlers and judokas. The aim of this study was to explore negative experiences related to dietary strategies and weight-making practises used by elite combat sports athletes. Using semi-structured interviews, 14 Swedish national team athletes in wrestling, judo and taekwondo were asked about their dietary intake and their engagement in both long- and short-term weight regulation practises. Content analysis of the transcribed interviews, display a constant struggle regarding nutritional standpoints. Sport demands such as achieving an optimal weight and nutritional intake were considered as central in order for excellent performance. Adhering to these demands was found to be problematic however, primarily because of; (1) negative physiological responses and (2) opposing ideals of a non-sport related nature, such as the importance of the athletes to be healthy and social in their everyday lives. PMID:22609334

  12. Critical Hip-Hop Language Pedagogies: Combat, Consciousness, and the Cultural Politics of Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alim, H. Samy

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses two long-standing tensions in the education of linguistically marginalized youth: (a) the cultural tension, or cultural combat, that such students engage in as they form their linguistic identities, and (b) the tensions between the development of critical language pedagogies and the lack of their broader implementation due…

  13. Emergent interfacility evacuation of critical care patients in combat.

    PubMed

    Franco, Yvonne E; De Lorenzo, Robert A; Salyer, Steven W

    2012-01-01

    During the Second Iraq War (Operation Iraqi Freedom), high-intensity, low-utilization medical and surgical services, such as neurosurgical care, were consolidated into a centralized location within the combat zone. This arrangement necessitated intra-theater air medical evacuation of critically ill or injured patients from outlying combat support hospitals (CSH) to another combat zone facility having the needed services. A case series is presented of intratheater transfer of neurosurgical patients in Iraq during 2005-06. Ninety-eight patients are included in the series, with typical transfer distances of 40 miles (approximately 20-25 minutes of flight time). All patients were transported with a CSH nurse in addition to the standard Army EMT-B flight medic. Seventy-six percent of cases were battle injury, 17% were non-battle injuries, and the balance were classified as non-injury mechanisms. Seventy-six percent of cases were head injuries, with the balance involving burns, stroke, and other injuries. At 30 days, 12% of the patients had died, and 9% remained hospitalized in a critical care setting. None of the patients died during evacuation. Intratheater and interfacility transfer of critical care patients in the combat theater often involves severely head-injured and other neurosurgical cases. Current Army staffing for helicopter transport in these case requires a nurse or other advanced personnel to supplement the standard EMT-B flight medic. PMID:22748416

  14. Outdoor Play: Combating Sedentary Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thigpen, Betsy

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly sedentary lifestyles are contributing to overweight and other health concerns as children spend less and less time outside engaged in active play. Outdoor play provides important opportunities to explore the natural world, interact with peers, engage in vigorous physical activity, and learn about our environment. However, outdoor…

  15. Nanomaterials to Combat NO(x) Pollution.

    PubMed

    Balbuena, J; Cruz-Yusta, M; Sánchez, L

    2015-09-01

    The presence of NO9x) gases (NO+NO2) in the atmosphere is a major concern of society because of their associated adverse and harmful effects. In order to remove the NO(x) gases from the air, photocatalysis arises as an innovative and promising technique. Through the use of photochemical oxidation processes the NO and NO2 gases are oxidised to NO3- form and thus removed from the air. In recent years new nanomaterials are being developed by researchers with the aim to enhance their photocatalytic activity to combat the NO(x) pollution. The main focus is devoted to preparing new TiO2 based compounds with the highest specific surface area (SSA), different morphology and chemical modifications. In order to increase the SSA, different substrates were used to disperse the TiO2 nanoparticles: organic and carbon fibres, mesoporous materials, clays composites and nanoporous microparticles. In the other hand, high photocatalytic performances were obtained with nanotubes, self-orderer nano-tubular films and nanoparticles with the lowest size. Conversely, when TiO2 is doped with ions the oxide exhibited a better photocatalytic performance under visible light, which is related to the creation of intermediate energy states between the conduction band and the valence band. Alternatively, visible light photocatalysts different from titanium oxide have been studied, which exhibit a good De-NO(x) efficiency working under λ > 400 nm visible light irradiation. PMID:26716191

  16. Combating adolescent obesity: an integrated physiological and psychological perspective

    PubMed Central

    ten Hoor, Gill A.; Plasqui, Guy; Schols, Annemie M.W.J.; Kok, Gerjo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Optimizing the approach to combat childhood obesity, we emphasize the importance of combining both biological and psychological knowledge. In such an approach, strength exercises might be an important aspect in the treatment and prevention of childhood obesity. Recent findings Recent evidence indicates plausible effects of the role of resistance exercise in combating the negative health effects of childhood obesity. When looking at body composition, overweight youngsters do not only have a higher fat mass, but also a higher muscle mass compared with their normal-weight counterparts. With that, they are also stronger and better in exercises wherein the focus is on absolute strength, making them – under the right circumstances – more motivated to engage in resistance exercise and ultimately maintain a physically active lifestyle. Summary More and more children are obese, and obese children become obese adults. One reason that overweight youngsters are not physically active is that they are outperformed by normal-weight youngsters, and one reason they are overweight is because they are not physically active. To combat childhood obesity, strength exercise might be a solution to break the vicious cycle. PMID:25084398

  17. Basement utility room (room 24; air handling room), near the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Basement utility room (room 24; air handling room), near the west end of the combat operations center, looking southwest towards fan system one, air ducts, and walk-in filter rooms. The exterior equipment well is visible at the left - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  18. Prevalence and patterns of combat sport related maxillofacial injuries

    PubMed Central

    Shirani, Gholamreza; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Ashuri, Alireza; Eshkevari, Pooyan Sadr

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referred to us by the physician team. The type of injury (facial laceration, facial fractures, jaw dislocation, etc.), site of facial injury (jaw, nose, malar bone, teeth, etc.), dental injuries (tooth fracture, displacement, luxation, and avulsion), causative sport (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) as well as demographic data were recorded. Injuries were examined clinically and radiographically, and treated accordingly by a specialist. Treatment data and demographics were recorded for each subject. Recorded data were assessed, and χ2, ANOVA, and Kruskal–Wallis tests were used to statistically analyze and compare the data. Results: Of 120 subjects, 95 male subjects (79.2%), aged 18–25 years (avg. 20 years), had at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring medical treatment. These injuries included facial laceration, bone fractures (nose, mandible, and zygoma), dental injuries (displacement, luxation, fracture, and avulsion), and mandibular dislocation which were recorded in 83 (69.2%), 55 (45.1%), 53 (44.2%), and 8 (6.7%) cases respectively. Statistically significant differences were encountered among various injuries and the sports; kickboxing caused the most maxillofacial injuries and was identified as more injurious. Tooth fractures (59.7%) were the most common dental injuries, and the nose (84.7%) was the most frequently fractured facial bone. Lacerations were more common in Thai-boxers (93.3%). Injuries were significantly greater in professional rather

  19. Effects of wearing protective chemical warfare-combat clothing on human performance. Final report, Sep 89-Aug 91

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, H.L.; Orlansky, J.

    1991-08-01

    U.S. Department of Defense studies to measure performance decrements associated with wearing chemical warfare (CW) protective combat clothing indicate that heat stress produced seriously degraded human performance. Even when heat stress is not a significant factor, performance of many combat, combat support, and combat service support tasks is degraded. In most field studies, many crews of combat units became operationally ineffective due to voluntary withdrawal of individual crew members. Many combined arms, field studies, and laboratory studies indicate that when CW-protective combat clothing is worn performance is seriously degraded for (1) the detection of targets, engagement time, accuracy of fire, and (2) manual dexterity tasks; and that (3) a variety of psychological effects are created. Further, the degree of performance degradation varied with the tasks performed. Training in CW-protective combat clothing permits learning to modify procedures and consequently reduce negative effects, provided heat stress is not a significant factor. A growing body of evidence indicates there is inadequate training in the use of CW-protective combat clothing. A critical need exists for more and better training of skills needed under CW conditions.

  20. Worldwide actions to combat abuse.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports several developments on the global efforts to combat abuse and violence against women and children. It is noted that in South Africa, Belem, Brazil, and Lesotho, protest actions were conducted against women and child abuse. Although the protests were made separately, the protests generally called for implementation of initiatives from the government to address the issue of child and women abuse. In the context of preventing abusive behaviors, a study by the University of Cape Town in South Africa on the appropriateness and feasibility of short-term community-based group therapy concluded that such an approach might be effective in treating delinquent behavior. In Indonesia, the Rifka Annisa Women's Crisis Centre is working to combat violence against women by providing services to victims; while in Israel, a media campaign is aiming to increase awareness and support for women's help centers. In addition, the government of Bangladesh has established a Cell Against Violence Against Women that provides legal counseling and assistance for civil and criminal cases related to violence against women. Furthermore, the WHO and the International Federation of Obstetricians and Gynecologists have collaborated to conduct a joint workshop to explore how violence against women can be eliminated. PMID:12348694

  1. Hearing Protection Evaluation for the Combat Arms Earplug at Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    James Lovejoy

    2007-03-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is managed by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) for the Department of Energy. The INL Protective Security Forces (Pro Force) are involved in training exercises that generate impulse noise by small arms fire. Force-on-force (FOF) training exercises that simulate real world scenarios require the Pro Force to engage the opposition force (OPFOR) while maintaining situational awareness through verbal communications. The Combat Arms earplug was studied to determine if it provides adequate hearing protection in accordance with the requirements of MIL-STD-1474C/D. The Combat Arms earplug uses a design that allows continuous noise through a critical orifice while effectively attenuating high-energy impulse noise. The earplug attenuates noise on a non linear scale, as the sound increases the attenuation increases. The INL studied the effectiveness of the Combat Arms earplug with a Bruel & Kjaer (B&K) head and torso simulator used with a selection of small arms to create impulse sound pressures. The Combat Arms earplugs were inserted into the B&K head and torso ears, and small arms were then discharged to generate the impulse noise. The INL analysis of the data indicates that the Combat Arms earplug does provide adequate protection, in accordance with MIL-STD-1474C/D, when used to protect against impulse noise generated by small arms fire using blank ammunition. Impulse noise generated by small arms fire ranged from 135–160 dB range unfiltered un-weighted. The Combat Arms earplug attenuated the sound pressure 10–25 dB depending on the impulse noise pressure. This assessment is consistent with the results of previously published studies on the Combat Arms earplug (see Section 5, “References”). Based upon these result, the INL intends to use the Combat Arms earplug for FOF training exercises.

  2. A formulation and analysis of combat games

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, M.; Ardema, M. D.; Rajan, N.

    1984-01-01

    Combat which is formulated as a dynamical encounter between two opponents, each of whom has offensive capabilities and objectives is outlined. A target set is associated with each opponent in the event space in which he endeavors to terminate the combat, thereby winning. If the combat terminates in both target sets simultaneously, or in neither, a joint capture or a draw, respectively, occurs. Resolution of the encounter is formulated as a combat game; as a pair of competing event constrained differential games. If exactly one of the players can win, the optimal strategies are determined from a resulting constrained zero sum differential game. Otherwise the optimal strategies are computed from a resulting nonzero sum game. Since optimal combat strategies may frequently not exist, approximate or delta combat games are also formulated leading to approximate or delta optimal strategies. The turret game is used to illustrate combat games. This game is sufficiently complex to exhibit a rich variety of combat behavior, much of which is not found in pursuit evasion games.

  3. Traumatic andropause after combat injury.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gareth Huw; Kirkman-Brown, Jackson; Sharma, Davendra Murray; Bowley, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    In association with lower extremity amputation, complex genitourinary injuries have emerged as a specific challenge in modern military trauma surgery. Testicular injury or loss has profound implications for the recovering serviceman, in terms of hormone production and future fertility. The initial focus of treatment for patients with traumatic testicular loss is haemostasis, resuscitation and management of concurrent life-threatening injuries. Multiple reoperations are commonly required to control infection in combat wounds; in a review of 300 major lower extremity amputations, 53% of limbs required revisional surgery, with infection the commonest indication. Atypical infections, such as invasive fungal organisms, can also complicate military wounding. We report the case of a severely wounded serviceman with complete traumatic andropause, whose symptomatic temperature swings were initially mistaken for signs of occult sepsis. PMID:26318170

  4. Blended Training for Combat Medics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowlkes, Jennifer; Dickinson, Sandra; Lazarus, Todd

    2010-01-01

    Bleeding from extremity wounds is the number one cause of preventable death on the battlefield and current research stresses the importance of training in preparing every Soldier to use tourniquets. HapMed is designed to provide tourniquet application training to combat medics and Soldiers using a blended training solution encompassing information, demonstration, practice, and feedback. The system combines an instrumented manikin arm, PDA, and computer. The manikin arm provides several training options including stand-alone, hands-on skills training in which soldiers can experience the actual torque required to staunch bleeding from an extremity wound and be timed on tourniquet application. This is more realistic than using a block of wood to act as a limb, which is often how training is conducted today. Combining the manikin arm with the PDA allows instructors to provide scenario based training. In a classroom or field setting, an instructor can specify wound variables such as location, casualty size, and whether the wound is a tough bleed. The PDA also allows more detailed feedback to be provided. Finally, combining the manikin arm with game-based technologies, the third component, provides opportunities to build knowledge and to practice battlefield decision making. Not only do soldiers learn how to apply a tourniquet, but when to apply a tourniquet in combat. The purpose of the paper is to describe the learning science underlying the design of HapMed, illustrate the training system and ways it is being expanded to encompass other critical life-saving tasks, and report on feedback received from instructors and trainees at military training and simulation centers.

  5. Impact of emerging technologies on future combat aircraft agility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Luat T.; Gilert, William P.

    1990-01-01

    The foreseeable character of future within-visual-range air combat entails a degree of agility which calls for the integration of high-alpha aerodynamics, thrust vectoring, intimate pilot/vehicle interfaces, and advanced weapons/avionics suites, in prospective configurations. The primary technology-development programs currently contributing to these goals are presently discussed; they encompass the F-15 Short Takeoff and Landing/Maneuver Technology Demonstrator Program, the Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Program, the High Angle-of-Attack Technology Program, and the X-29 Technology Demonstrator Program.

  6. Treating traumatic bleeding in a combat setting.

    PubMed

    Clifford, C Cloonan

    2004-12-01

    Bleeding is clearly a major cause of morbidity and death after trauma. When bleeding is attributable to transection of major vessels, surgical repair is appropriate. Posttraumatic microvascular bleeding attributable to coagulopathy secondary to metabolic derangements, hypothermia, and depletion or dysfunction of cellular and protein components requires a different approach. Although transfusion of blood products may be necessary to replace the blood loss, it does not always correct the problem of microvascular bleeding. The type of injury, mode of care, and treatment objectives differ significantly for combat-wounded soldiers versus civilian trauma patients. Although hemorrhage is responsible for 50% of combat deaths, published information about coagulation monitoring among combat patients is very limited. These articles summarize the appropriate monitoring of hemostasis among combat trauma patients, review the unique nature of combat casualties and the medical system used to treat them, and discuss information available from civilian studies. Because the development of coagulopathy is relatively infrequent in the young, otherwise healthy, military population, the routine screening measures currently used are adequate to guide initial blood product administration. However, as new intravenous hemostatic agents are used for these patients, better laboratory measures will be required. Although hemorrhage is the leading cause of death for combat casualties, catastrophic hemorrhage is rarely a prehospital combat medical management problem because, when it occurs, it tends to cause death before medical care can be provided. In civilian environments, most seriously injured victims can be reached and transported by emergency medical services personnel within minutes; in combat, it often takes hours simply to transport casualties off the battlefield. In combat situations, even if the transport distances are small, the hazardous nature of the forward combat areas frequently

  7. Monitoring of hemostasis in combat trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Carr, Marcus E

    2004-12-01

    Bleeding is clearly a major cause of morbidity and death after trauma. When bleeding is attributable to transection of major vessels, surgical repair is appropriate. Posttraumatic microvascular bleeding attributable to coagulopathy secondary to metabolic derangements, hypothermia, and depletion or dysfunction of cellular and protein components requires a different approach. Although transfusion of blood products may be necessary to replace the blood loss, it does not always correct the problem of microvascular bleeding. The type of injury, mode of care, and treatment objectives differ significantly for combat-wounded soldiers versus civilian trauma patients. Although hemorrhage is responsible for 50% of combat deaths, published information about coagulation monitoring among combat patients is very limited. These articles summarize the appropriate monitoring of hemostasis among combat trauma patients, review the unique nature of combat casualties and the medical system used to treat them, and discuss information available from civilian studies. Because the development of coagulopathy is relatively infrequent in the young, otherwise healthy, military population, the routine screening measures currently used are adequate to guide initial blood product administration. However, as new intravenous hemostatic agents are used for these patients, better laboratory measures will be required. Although hemorrhage is the leading cause of death for combat casualties, catastrophic hemorrhage is rarely a prehospital combat medical management problem because, when it occurs, it tends to cause death before medical care can be provided. In civilian environments, most seriously injured victims can be reached and transported by emergency medical services personnel within minutes; in combat, it often takes hours simply to transport casualties off the battlefield. In combat situations, even if the transport distances are small, the hazardous nature of the forward combat areas frequently

  8. Simulation Of Combat With An Expert System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provenzano, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed expert system predicts outcomes of combat situations. Called "COBRA", combat outcome based on rules for attrition, system selects rules for mathematical modeling of losses and discrete events in combat according to previous experiences. Used with another software module known as the "Game". Game/COBRA software system, consisting of Game and COBRA modules, provides for both quantitative aspects and qualitative aspects in simulations of battles. COBRA intended for simulation of large-scale military exercises, concepts embodied in it have much broader applicability. In industrial research, knowledge-based system enables qualitative as well as quantitative simulations.

  9. Understanding combat casualty care statistics.

    PubMed

    Holcomb, John B; Stansbury, Lynn G; Champion, Howard R; Wade, Charles; Bellamy, Ronald F

    2006-02-01

    Maintaining good hospital records during military conflicts can provide medical personnel and researchers with feedback to rapidly adjust treatment strategies and improve outcomes. But to convert the resulting raw data into meaningful conclusions requires clear terminology and well thought out equations, utilizing consistent numerators and denominators. Our objective was to arrive at terminology and equations that would produce the best insight into the effectiveness of care at different stages of treatment, either pre or post medical treatment facility care. We first clarified three essential terms: 1) the case fatality rate (CFR) as percentage of fatalities among all wounded; 2) killed in action (KIA) as percentage of immediate deaths among all seriously injured (not returning to duty); and 3) died of wounds (DOW) as percentage of deaths following admission to a medical treatment facility among all seriously injured (not returning to duty). These equations were then applied consistently across data from the WWII, Vietnam and the current Global War on Terrorism. Using this clear set of definitions we used the equations to ask two basic questions: What is the overall lethality of the battlefield? How effective is combat casualty care? To answer these questions with current data, the three services have collaboratively created a joint theater trauma registry (JTTR), cataloging all the serious injuries, procedures, and outcomes for the current war. These definitions and equations, consistently applied to the JTTR, will allow meaningful comparisons and help direct future research and appropriate application of personnel. PMID:16508502

  10. Exposure to recurrent combat stress: combat stress reactions among Israeli soldiers in the Lebanon War.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Z; Mikulincer, M; Jakob, B R

    1987-05-01

    This study examined the impact of repeated exposure to combat on combat stress reaction (CSR). Soldiers diagnosed with CSR during the Lebanon War (N = 382) were compared with a matched control group of soldiers who fought in the same units but did not manifest symptoms of CSR (N = 334). CSR in the Lebanon War was found to be related to the psychological outcome the soldier experienced in previous wars. The CSR rate in the Lebanon War was higher in soldiers who had experienced an episode of CSR in a previous war than in soldiers with no past combat experience. However, CSR rates were lower among soldiers who had not had an episode of CSR in a previous war than among soldiers with no prior combat experience. High intensity of combat in Lebanon was found to increase both the detrimental and favourable effects of prior combat experience. PMID:3602235

  11. Development of exposure to combat severity scale of the combat experiences questionnaire (CEQ).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Teresa; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Cunha, Marina; da Motta, Carolina

    2014-12-01

    Combat exposure is detrimental to physical and mental health, and is an important risk factor for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The current study aimed to develop the first section of a self-report measure (Combat Experiences Questionnaire - CEQ), and to explore its psychometric properties on Portuguese Overseas War Veterans. The Exposure to Combat Severity Scale (CEQ A), assesses the exposure severity to objective scenarios related to military combat, common to contemporary and older theaters of operations. Studies included structural analysis through Rash Model, internal consistency, convergent validity (n=708), temporal reliability (n=112) and sensibility to differentiate war Veterans with and without war-related PTSD (N=40 and N=47, respectively). The scale's structure presented adequate fit to the data, adequate psychometric properties, and discriminant validity. Thus, the CEQ A is a valid and reliable tool presenting diverse combat scenarios to assess severity of combat exposure in war Veterans. PMID:25445084

  12. Engaging Employers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    A key factor in the successful development of workplace learning is employer engagement (Leitch, 2006; DfES, 2007). However, despite numerous approaches by government in the United Kingdom to bring together employers, providers and learners so that economic success is generated by a skilled and flexible workforce, there continue to be challenges…

  13. Academic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The academy is defined by a fundamentally uncertain pursuit of certainty. The question of whether academic work is a sufficient form of engagement on its own is inseparable from the contradiction inherent to this pursuit. Like any properly academic question, it lends itself to a forum: a response is nearly obligatory for any professor in the…

  14. Traumatic stress: a personal view from combat.

    PubMed

    Jaehne, R L

    2001-01-01

    What follows is my personal account of the effects of traumatic stress disorder as it is caused by the effects of combat. I tell it in the first person because it is the most effective way to emphasize the highly personal, traumatic nature of combat stress and because it is my own story. I have endeavored to explain how combat stress occurs, what happens to the individual as a result and how a person can recover from its effects. I offer my story because I think that there are thousands of men who have been in offensive combat, who may have lived my life, but who have not had the opportunity to tell their story about why they hurt. PMID:11642197

  15. Doctors Issue Call to Combat Climate Change

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158362.html Doctors Issue Call to Combat Climate Change They say respiratory illnesses, heat stroke and infectious ... 18, 2016 MONDAY, April 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Climate change is already harming people's health by promoting illnesses ...

  16. Doctors Issue Call to Combat Climate Change

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158362.html Doctors Issue Call to Combat Climate Change They say respiratory illnesses, heat stroke and ... 18, 2016 MONDAY, April 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Climate change is already harming people's health by promoting ...

  17. The use of multiple intraosseous catheters in combat casualty resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Debjeet; Philbeck, Thomas

    2009-02-01

    During the current military engagements in Iraq and Afghanistan, establishing intravenous (IV) access for resuscitation of critically injured casualties remains a persistent challenge. Intraosseous (IO) access has emerged as a viable alternative in resuscitation. In this case report, a 19 year-old male soldier was severely wounded by a roadside bomb in Iraq. Given the heavy initial blood loss, anatomic location of the injuries and gross wound contamination, peripheral IV access could not be established. Instead, multiple IO catheters were used to initiate fluid resuscitation prior to transfer to a combat support hospital. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such extensive usage of IO catheters. Multiple IO catheters can be placed rapidly and safely and may help solve the challenge of establishing vascular access for resuscitation of critically injured casualties. PMID:19317188

  18. Collaborative engagement experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullens, Katherine; Troyer, Bradley; Wade, Robert; Skibba, Brian; Dunn, Michael

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned ground and air systems operating in collaboration have the potential to provide future Joint Forces a significant capability for operations in complex terrain. Collaborative Engagement Experiment (CEE) is a consolidation of separate Air Force, Army and Navy collaborative efforts within the Joint Robotics Program (JRP) to provide a picture of the future of unmanned warfare. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Material and Manufacturing Directorate, Aerospace Expeditionary Force Division, Force Protection Branch (AFRL/MLQF), The Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) Joint Technology Center (JTC)/Systems Integration Laboratory (SIL), and the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center - San Diego (SSC San Diego) are conducting technical research and proof of principle experiments for an envisioned operational concept for extended range, three dimensional, collaborative operations between unmanned systems, with enhanced situational awareness for lethal operations in complex terrain. This paper describes the work by these organizations to date and outlines some of the plans for future work.

  19. Genetic Fuzzy Trees for Intelligent Control of Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernest, Nicholas D.

    Fuzzy Logic Control is a powerful tool that has found great success in a variety of applications. This technique relies less on complex mathematics and more "expert knowledge" of a system to bring about high-performance, resilient, and efficient control through linguistic classification of inputs and outputs and if-then rules. Genetic Fuzzy Systems (GFSs) remove the need of this expert knowledge and instead rely on a Genetic Algorithm (GA) and have similarly found great success. However, the combination of these methods suffer severely from scalability; the number of rules required to control the system increases exponentially with the number of states the inputs and outputs can take. Therefor GFSs have thus far not been applicable to complex, artificial intelligence type problems. The novel Genetic Fuzzy Tree (GFT) method breaks down complex problems hierarchically, makes sub-decisions when possible, and thus greatly reduces the burden on the GA. This development significantly changes the field of possible applications for GFSs. Within this study, this is demonstrated through applying this technique to a difficult air combat problem. Looking forward to an autonomous Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle (UCAV) in the 2030 time-frame, it becomes apparent that the mission, flight, and ground controls will utilize the emerging paradigm of Intelligent Systems (IS); namely, the ability to learn, adapt, exhibit robustness in uncertain situations, make sense of the data collected in real-time and extrapolate when faced with scenarios significantly different from those used in training. LETHA (Learning Enhanced Tactical Handling Algorithm) was created to develop intelligent controllers for these advanced unmanned craft as the first GFT. A simulation space referred to as HADES (Hoplological Autonomous Defend and Engage Simulation) was created in which LETHA can train the UCAVs. Equipped with advanced sensors, a limited supply of Self-Defense Missiles (SDMs), and a recharging

  20. Combat sports practice favors bone mineral density among adolescent male athletes.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Raouf; Hassen Zrour, Saoussen; Rebai, Haithem; Neffeti, Fadoua; Najjar, Mohamed Fadhel; Bergaoui, Naceur; Mejdoub, Hafedh; Tabka, Zouhair

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of combat sports practice on bone mineral density (BMD) and to analyze the relationship between bone parameters and anthropometric measurements, bone markers, and activity index (AI). In other words, to detect the most important determinant of BMD in the adolescent period among combat sports athletes. Fifty athletes engaged in combat sports, mean age 17.1±0.2 yr, were compared with 30 sedentary subjects who were matched for age, height, and pubertal stage. For all subjects, the whole-body BMD, lumbar spine BMD (L2-L4), and BMD in the pelvis, arms, and legs was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and anthropometric measurements were evaluated. Daily calcium intake, bone resorption, and formation markers were measured. BMD measurements were greater in the combat sports athletes than in the sedentary group (p<0.01). Weight, body mass index, and lean body mass were significantly correlated with BMD in different sites. Daily calcium consumption lower than daily calcium intake recommended in both athletes and sedentary group. AI was strongly correlated with all BMD measurements particularly with the whole body, legs, and arms. Negative correlations were observed between bone markers and BMD in different sites. The common major predictor of BMD measurements was AI (p<0.0001). AI associated to lean body mass determined whole-body BMD until 74%. AI explained both BMD in arms and L2-L4 at 25%. AI associated to height can account for 63% of the variance in BMD legs. These observations suggested that the best model predicting BMD in different sites among adolescent combat sports athletes was the AI. Children and adolescents should be encouraged to participate in combat sports to maximize their bone accrual. PMID:24176431

  1. Historical approaches to post-combat disorders.

    PubMed

    Jones, Edgar

    2006-04-29

    Almost every major war in the last century involving western nations has seen combatants diagnosed with a form of post-combat disorder. Some took a psychological form (exhaustion, combat fatigue, combat stress reaction and post-traumatic stress disorder), while others were characterized by medically unexplained symptoms (soldier's heart, effort syndrome, shell shock, non-ulcer dyspepsia, effects of Agent Orange and Gulf War Syndrome). Although many of these disorders have common symptoms, the explanations attached to them showed considerable diversity often reflected in the labels themselves. These causal hypotheses ranged from the effects of climate, compressive forces released by shell explosions, side effects of vaccinations, changes in diet, toxic effects of organophosphates, oil-well fires or depleted-uranium munitions. Military history suggests that these disorders, which coexisted in the civilian population, reflected popular health fears and emerged in the gaps left by the advance of medical science. While the current Iraq conflict has yet to produce a syndrome typified by medically unexplained symptoms, it is unlikely that we have seen the last of post-combat disorders as past experience suggests that they have the capacity to catch both military planners and doctors by surprise. PMID:16687259

  2. Display integration for ground combat vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busse, David J.

    1998-09-01

    The United States Army's requirement to employ high resolution target acquisition sensors and information warfare to increase its dominance over enemy forces has led to the need to integrate advanced display devices into ground combat vehicle crew stations. The Army's force structure require the integration of advanced displays on both existing and emerging ground combat vehicle systems. The fielding of second generation target acquisition sensors, color digital terrain maps and high volume digital command and control information networks on these platforms define display performance requirements. The greatest challenge facing the system integrator is the development and integration of advanced displays that meet operational, vehicle and human computer interface performance requirements for the ground combat vehicle fleet. The subject of this paper is to address those challenges: operational and vehicle performance, non-soldier centric crew station configurations, display performance limitations related to human computer interfaces and vehicle physical environments, display technology limitations and the Department of Defense (DOD) acquisition reform initiatives. How the ground combat vehicle Program Manager and system integrator are addressing these challenges are discussed through the integration of displays on fielded, current and future close combat vehicle applications.

  3. Historical approaches to post-combat disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Edgar

    2006-01-01

    Almost every major war in the last century involving western nations has seen combatants diagnosed with a form of post-combat disorder. Some took a psychological form (exhaustion, combat fatigue, combat stress reaction and post-traumatic stress disorder), while others were characterized by medically unexplained symptoms (soldier's heart, effort syndrome, shell shock, non-ulcer dyspepsia, effects of Agent Orange and Gulf War Syndrome). Although many of these disorders have common symptoms, the explanations attached to them showed considerable diversity often reflected in the labels themselves. These causal hypotheses ranged from the effects of climate, compressive forces released by shell explosions, side effects of vaccinations, changes in diet, toxic effects of organophosphates, oil-well fires or depleted-uranium munitions. Military history suggests that these disorders, which coexisted in the civilian population, reflected popular health fears and emerged in the gaps left by the advance of medical science. While the current Iraq conflict has yet to produce a syndrome typified by medically unexplained symptoms, it is unlikely that we have seen the last of post-combat disorders as past experience suggests that they have the capacity to catch both military planners and doctors by surprise. PMID:16687259

  4. Advancing critical care: joint combat casualty research team and joint theater trauma system.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Elizabeth; Biever, Kimberlie

    2010-01-01

    Despite the severity and complexity of injuries, survival rates among combat casualties are equal to or better than those from civilian trauma. This article summarizes the evidence regarding innovations from the battlefield that contribute to these extraordinary survival rates, including preventing hemorrhage with the use of tourniquets and hemostatic dressings, damage control resuscitation, and the rapid evacuation of casualties via MEDEVAC and the US Air Force Critical Care Air Transport Teams. Care in the air for critically injured casualties with pulmonary injuries and traumatic brain injury is discussed to demonstrate the unique considerations required to ensure safe en route care. Innovations being studied to decrease sequelae associated with complex orthopedic and extremity trauma are also presented. The role and contributions of the Joint Combat Casualty Research Team and the Joint Theater Trauma System are also discussed. PMID:20683227

  5. How does Listeria monocytogenes combat acid conditions?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes, a major foodborne pathogen, possesses a number of mechanisms which enable it to combat the challenges posed by acidic environments such as acidic foods and the acidity in the gastrointestinal tract. These mechanisms include the acid tolerance response, a two-component regula...

  6. When war follows combat veterans home.

    PubMed

    Kane, Shawn F; Saperstein, Adam K; Bunt, Christopher W; Stephens, Mark B

    2013-08-01

    While combat survivability is at an all-time high, vets return home to private struggles with depression, PTSD, traumatic brain injury, and substance abuse. Here's how to spot these patients in civilian medical practices and the steps you can take to help them. PMID:24143332

  7. A Review of Combat Support Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague, Ernest K.; Showel, Morris

    This report presents a review of current training practices and problems as they relate to the broad spread of individual ability among soldiers, and to the increasing need for functionalization of training. Combat support training was observed at four army training centers, with particular reference to training objectives, methods, and student…

  8. An Educational Program to Combat Venereal Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotterweich, Andrew H., Jr.

    The purpose of this practicum was to develop, implement, and evaluate an educational program to combat venereal disease. The objectives of the program were: (1) to increase public awareness of the problem of venereal disease, (2) to alert parents and students to the dangers of venereal disease, (3) to enable students to make rational judgments…

  9. Pythium aphanidermatum Infection following Combat Trauma▿

    PubMed Central

    Calvano, Tatjana P.; Blatz, Peter J.; Vento, Todd J.; Wickes, Brian L.; Sutton, Deanna A.; Thompson, Elizabeth H.; White, Christopher E.; Renz, Evan M.; Hospenthal, Duane R.

    2011-01-01

    Pythium aphanidermatum is a fungus-like plant pathogen which has never been reported as a cause of human infection. We report a case of P. aphanidermatum invasive wound infection in a 21-year-old male injured during combat operations in Afghanistan. PMID:21813724

  10. Pythium aphanidermatum infection following combat trauma.

    PubMed

    Calvano, Tatjana P; Blatz, Peter J; Vento, Todd J; Wickes, Brian L; Sutton, Deanna A; Thompson, Elizabeth H; White, Christopher E; Renz, Evan M; Hospenthal, Duane R

    2011-10-01

    Pythium aphanidermatum is a fungus-like plant pathogen which has never been reported as a cause of human infection. We report a case of P. aphanidermatum invasive wound infection in a 21-year-old male injured during combat operations in Afghanistan. PMID:21813724

  11. Combating Labour Market Exclusion: Does Training Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Descy, Pascaline; Tessaring, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews active labour-market policies (ALMP), of which training is prominent. For about 20 years now, they have been one of the most important measures to combat unemployment and exclusion from the labour market. But is training a successful and efficient policy to reduce unemployment, compared to other types of ALMP? We draw some…

  12. Program to Combat Stereotyping in Career Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Laurie R.

    Divided into three sections which deal with sex, race, and handicap stereotyping in career choice, the twenty-eight programs described here attempt to combat stereotypes among students and/or staff (K-12). Most descriptions list the goals of the program, target population, staffing and management, facilities and activities, program effectiveness…

  13. Combatives for Alienated Youth: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellison, Don

    Combative activities (boxing, wrestling, kung fu, etc.) are seen as having a positive influence on alienated inner city youth. Potential contributions of such activities in a school curriculum or recreation program include involvement, security, self-concept, and self-realization. Participants may be able to free themselves from such stereotype…

  14. [The treatment of combat casualties today].

    PubMed

    Maurice, Guillaume de Saint

    2012-12-01

    Most soldiers are wounded by an explosion and haemorrhaging is the main cause of death. From the first aid provided on the field of combat to repatriation to France, every stage in the treatment of injured soldiers is meticulously organised in order to save as many lives as possible. PMID:23316578

  15. Integrated helmet mounted display concepts for air combat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Joseph W.

    1995-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was conducted in a dome simulator to evaluate several Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) formats developed as part of the NASA High Alpha Technology Program (HATP). The display formats conveyed energy management, spatial orientation, and weapons management information. The HMD format was compared to a generic Heads Up Display (HUD) typical of current operational fighter aircraft. Pilots were tasked to spend as much time in a weapon solution as possible, to have the correct weapon selected for the envelope they were in, and to avoid the adversary's weapon envelope as much as possible. Several different displays were tested individually and simultaneously to see how separate display concepts coexisted. Objective results showed that the ability for the pilot to select the correct weapon for the envelope he was in increased by 50% in a moderate workload condition and 90% in a high workload condition with the HMD format. In the post-test comments pilots generally favored the helmet display formats over the HUD formats with a few instances where pilots preferred a simple numeric readout of the parameter. Short term exposure effects of the HMD on visual acuity were also measured and showed no advers results.

  16. Is there central fatigue during simulated air combat maneuvering?

    PubMed

    Bain, B; Jacobs, I; Buick, F

    1995-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that repeated exposure to high levels of +Gz acceleration, in conjunction with repeated execution of an Anti-G Straining Maneuver (AGSM), causes central fatigue, presumably by impairing central nervous system (CNS) function. We speculated that central fatigue would impair the ability to recruit sufficient musculature at the intensity required to perform an adequate anti-G straining maneuver. Central fatigue was evaluated by measuring maximal force generation and surface electromyographic activity of leg extensor muscles before, during, and immediately upon termination of an SACM, and comparing these values to those obtained when the muscles were electrically stimulated during maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs). We assumed that any observed increase in force generation during the MVCs, caused by the stimulation, would indicate central fatigue. G-tolerance time was 230 +/- 172 s. Hypoxia was induced by the SACM as the arterial oxygen saturation decreased significantly from 97% to 90%. In spite of this hypoxia, there was no significant change in MVC force when the pre- and post-SACM values were compared. Electrical stimulation during the MVC's did not cause an increase in force generation. The average forces generated during the +7 Gz phase of the SACM were only about 35% of MVC force. This force value did not change significantly during the SACM. The results indicate that the inability to continue to perform the AGSM during an SACM is not likely due to central fatigue or to fatigue of the large skeletal muscle groups we have examined.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7695543

  17. Dietary intake at competition in elite Olympic combat sports.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Stefan; Berg, Christina M

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate elite female (n = 21) and male (n = 47) combat sports athletes' (n = 68; mean age (± SD) 21.3 ± 3.8 years; mean height 177 ± 10.2 cm) dietary intake between weigh-in and the first bout in Olympic combat sports. The data were collected at 6 separate tournaments and measurements included estimated food records, time for recovery, and body weight (BW) at weigh-in and first match. In total, 33 athletes participated in wrestling and taekwondo, sports with extended recovery times, and 35 athletes in judo and boxing, sports with limited recovery time. The results displayed that despite a mean consumption of food and drinks corresponding to 4.2 kg, the athletes only regained an average of 1.9 kg BW during recovery. Water accounted for 86% of the total intake. For each liter of water consumed, athletes gained 0.57 kg BW, when excluding heavy weight athletes (n = 5). Carbohydrate consumption was 5.5 g/kg BW, compared with the recommended 8-10 g/kg BW. In total, one-quarter of the consumed water originated from carbohydrate-rich drinks. Given the average recovery time of 18 (wrestling, taekwondo) versus 8 hr (judo, boxing), the former group consumed twice the amount of water, carbohydrates, protein, and fat as the latter group. In conclusion, a large proportion of the participants did not meet the recovery nutrition guidelines for carbohydrates. In addition, the discrepancy between nutrient intake and weight gain points to the physiological barriers to retaining fluids during a limited recovery time after engaging in weight making practices. PMID:23980253

  18. Combat internist: the internal medicine experience in a combat hospital in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rachel U; Parrish, Scott C; Saeed, Omar; Fiedler, Joyce P

    2015-01-01

    Military internists and internal medicine subspecialists are physicians who generally work in traditional internal medicine settings. However, when deployed to combat settings, they must prepare and adapt their skills for a wide spectrum of complex, polytrauma, and multinational patients. There are limitations in personnel, equipment, and technical resources that make the circumstances complex and demanding. This article highlights some of the unique roles, challenges, and experiences of four military internists at the NATO Role 3, a deployed combat hospital in Afghanistan. PMID:25562851

  19. The Combat-Exclusion Policy for Military Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Dorothy; Schneider, Carl J.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the history and meaning of the combat exclusion policy for United States servicewomen. Noting that combat duty is often essential to career advancement in the military, this article describes several cases of discrimination resulting from the effects of the combat exclusion. (JDH)

  20. Application of genetic algorithms to autopiloting in aerial combat simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dai Hyun; Erwin, Daniel A.; Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Kim, Jeongdal; Savant, Gajendra D.

    1998-10-01

    An autopilot algorithm that controls a fighter aircraft in simulated aerial combat is presented. A fitness function, whose arguments are the control settings of the simulated fighter, is continuously maximized by a fuzzied genetic algorithm. Results are presented for one-to-one combat simulated on a personal computer. Generalization to many-to-many combat is discussed.

  1. Retention of Military Skills Acquired in Basic Combat Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Robert D.

    Performance data were collected in the three general basic combat training (BCT) proficiency areas (rifle marksmanship, physical combat fitness, end of cycle tests) from independent groups of soldiers (60 per group) during BCT, during Advanced Individual Training (AIT), and combat support training (CST), and for permanent party personnel in the…

  2. Early adversity and combat exposure interact to influence anterior cingulate cortex volume in combat veterans☆

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Steven H.; Kuo, Janice R.; Schaer, Marie; Kaloupek, Danny G.; Eliez, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Objective Childhood and combat trauma have been observed to interact to influence amygdala volume in a sample of U.S. military veterans with and without PTSD. This interaction was assessed in a second, functionally-related fear system component, the pregenual and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, using the same sample and modeling approach. Method Anterior cingulate cortical tissues (gray + white matter) were manually-delineated in 1.5 T MR images in 87 U.S. military veterans of the Vietnam and Persian Gulf wars. Hierarchical multiple regression modeling was used to assess associations between anterior cingulate volume and the following predictors, trauma prior to age 13, combat exposure, the interaction of early trauma and combat exposure, and PTSD diagnosis. Results As previously observed in the amygdala, unique variance in anterior cingulate cortical volume was associated with both the diagnosis of PTSD and with the interaction of childhood and combat trauma. The pattern of the latter interaction indicated that veterans with childhood trauma exhibited a significant inverse linear relationship between combat trauma and anterior cingulate volume while those without childhood trauma did not. Such associations were not observed in hippocampal or total cerebral tissue volumes. Conclusions In the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, as in the amygdala, early trauma may confer excess sensitivity to later combat trauma. PMID:24179818

  3. Language Teacher Research Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide a critical analysis of language teacher research engagement. The term "research engagement" here covers both engagement IN teacher research (i.e. by doing it) as well as engagement "with" research (i.e. by reading and using it). Research engagement is commonly recommended to language teachers as a potentially…

  4. [Combatting fever, phlegm and cough].

    PubMed

    Solar Silva, M A

    1991-03-01

    Respiratory viruses and their complications are the most common diseases after dental caries, and the most important single cause of medical consultations. They are the 2nd leading cause of hospitalization and mortality in infants. The challenge in respiratory infections is to prevent complications. Since most respiratory infections are treated in the home, preventive interventions should begin there. Respiratory infections do not depend greatly on environmental conditions, they are not preventable by vaccination, and their course in the great majority of cases is self-limiting and benign. Respiratory viruses are characterized by a symptom complex which represents the reaction of the organism to the viral infection. Although the symptoms may be annoying, they play an important role in preventing bacterial complications. Nasal secretions contain substances that limit the virus and impede secondary bacterial infection. Nasal congestion should be treated only by aiding the evacuation of secretions. Nasal obstruction and resulting respiration through the mouth allow unfiltered air to reach the bronchial passages, causing irritation or contamination. Use of local or systemic decongestants or antihistamines may contribute to complications by decreasing defenses. Treatment of inflamed pharynx or tonsils with antiinflammatories is counterproductive because it too interferes with the body's defenses against viral invasion. Viral laryngitis should be treated only with steam vapor and never with steroids, which diminish the body's antiviral defenses and can produce serious side effects. Coughs are the body's means of evacuating viral secretions and should be aided only by ensuring adequate hydration to maintain the fluidity of the secretions. Expectorants should be used only in cases of chronic bronchitis. Coughs resulting from bronchial obstruction, cases in which bronchial dynamics are hyperactive, and dry and unproductive coughs resulting from pharyngeal irritation are the

  5. Development of data analysis tool for combat system integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seung-Chun; Shin, Jong-Gye; Oh, Dae-Kyun

    2013-03-01

    System integration is an important element for the construction of naval combat ships. In particular, because impeccable combat system integration together with the sensors and weapons can ensure the combat capability and survivability of the ship, the integrated performance of the combat system should be verified and validated whether or not it fulfills the requirements of the end user. In order to conduct systematic verification and validation, a data analysis tool is requisite. This paper suggests the Data Extraction, Recording and Analysis Tool (DERAT) for the data analysis of the integrated performance of the combat system, including the functional definition, architecture and effectiveness of the DERAT by presenting the test results.

  6. Relations among appetitive aggression, post-traumatic stress and motives for demobilization: a study in former Colombian combatants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Former combatants have frequently reported that aggressive behaviour can be appetitive and appealing. This appetitive aggression (AA) may be adaptive for survival in a violent environment, as it is associated with a reduced risk of combat-related psychological traumatization. At the same time, AA might impair motivation for re-integration to civil life after ending active duty. Whereas in Colombia those combatants who volunteered for demobilization were mostly tired of fighting, those who demobilized collectively did so mainly by force of the government. We predicted those who were demobilized collectively would still be attracted to violence, and benefit from the resilience against trauma-related mental suffering, moderated by appetitive aggression, as they would have continued fighting had they not been forced to stop. Method A sample of 252 former Colombian former combatants from paramilitary and guerrilla forces was investigated. Appetitive aggression was assessed using the Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms with the PTSD Symptom Scale-Interview (PSS-I). We distinguished between individual and group demobilization and assessed reasons for disarmament. Results Most of the guerrilla troops who demobilized individually and were tired of fighting reported both an attraction to violence as well as increased trauma symptoms, owing to their former engagement in violent behaviour. In contrast, among those who were demobilized collectively, appetitive aggression was associated with a reduced risk of PTSD. However, this effect was not present in those combatants in the upper quartile of PTSD symptom severity. Conclusion The influence of combat experience on traumatization, as well as the motivation for demobilization, differs remarkably between those combatants who demobilized individually and those who were members of a group that was forced to demobilize. This has important implications for the implementation

  7. Advanced protection technology for ground combat vehicles.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Timothy G

    2012-01-01

    Just as highway drivers use radar detectors to attempt to stay ahead of police armed with the latest radar technology, the Armed Forces are locked in a spiral to protect combat vehicles and their crews against the latest threats in both the contemporary operating environment and the anticipated operating environment (ie, beyond 2020). In response to bigger, heavier, or better-protected vehicles, adversaries build and deploy larger explosive devices or bombs. However, making improvements to combat vehicles is much more expensive than deploying larger explosives. In addition, demand is increasing for lighter-weight vehicles capable of rapid deployment. Together, these two facts give the threat a clear advantage in the future. To protect vehicles and crews, technologies focusing on detection and hit avoidance, denial of penetration, and crew survivability must be combined synergistically to provide the best chance of survival on the modern battlefield. PMID:22865132

  8. Regenerative medicine applications in combat casualty care.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Mark E; Bharmal, Husain; Valerio, Ian

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe regenerative medicine applications in the management of complex injuries sustained by service members injured in support of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Improvements in body armor, resuscitative techniques and faster transport have translated into increased patient survivability and more complex wounds. Combat-related blast injuries have resulted in multiple extremity injuries, significant tissue loss and amputations. Due to the limited availability and morbidity associated with autologous tissue donor sites, the introduction of regenerative medicine has been critical in managing war extremity injuries with composite massive tissue loss. Through case reports and clinical images, this report reviews the application of regenerative medicine modalities employed to manage combat-related injuries. It illustrates that the novel use of hybrid reconstructions combining traditional and regenerative medicine approaches are an effective tool in managing wounds. Lessons learned can be adapted to civilian care. PMID:24750059

  9. Electronic solutions for combating counterfeit drugs

    PubMed Central

    Hemalatha, R.; Rao, A. Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The problem of counterfeiting of drugs is assuming alarming proportions and is getting difficult to combat due to its trans-national character. It is undermining the faith of people on health care system. Therefore, there is a need to adopt zero tolerance approach to combat the problem. The Way Forward: There are many solutions available which are being adopted in piece meal manner by individual manufacturers. However, for wholesalers and resellers it is getting difficult to maintain multiple solutions. Therefore, there is a need to adopt a unified solution preferably with the help of the government. Conclusions: This paper discusses the available solutions, their shortcomings and proposes a comprehensive solution where at each level in the supply chain the authenticity is verified preferable linking it with Unique identification. PMID:26229359

  10. Combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in older men.

    PubMed

    Spiro, A; Schnurr, P P; Aldwin, C M

    1994-03-01

    Nearly 25% of U.S. men aged 55 or older served in combat, yet its impact on aging is unknown. The relationship of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms to combat exposure was examined in 1,210 veterans of World War II (WWII) and the Korean War, who were participants in the Normative Aging Study. Over 54% of WWII and 19% of Korean veterans reported combat experience. The relationship between combat exposure and PTSD symptoms was stronger in the WWII cohort. The sample prevalence of PTSD by combat exposure ranged from 0% to 12.4%, differing by the PTSD measure. WWII veterans exposed to moderate or heavy combat had 13.3 times greater risk of PTSD symptoms measured 45 years later, compared with noncombat veterans. It is suggested that military service in general, and combat exposure in particular, is a "hidden variable" in the study of aging men. PMID:8185864

  11. Crew station for ground combat vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariani, Daniele

    1996-06-01

    Force XXI is the vision to synthesize the technology, doctrine, and organization of the U.S. Army so that it can fight and win the wars of the 21st Century. Digitization--taking advantage of the microprocessor revolution--is a key enabler of the Force XXI plan. In the Crewman's Associate Advanced Technology Demonstration, crew stations for ground combat vehicles are being developed that allow the soldier to use digitization to maximum weapon system performance.

  12. Combating an Epidemic of Prescription Opioid Abuse.

    PubMed

    Pon, Doreen; Awuah, Kwaku; Curi, Danielle; Okyere, Ernest; Stern, Craig S

    2015-11-01

    The past decade has witnessed an alarming increase in the number of deaths due to prescription opioids that has paralleled the rise in the number of opioid prescriptions dispensed. Prescription drug monitoring programs, abuse-deterrent formulations and proper disposal of opioids have been promoted to help combat the opioid epidemic. We discuss changes that dentists, the third most frequent prescribers of opioids, can implement to help reduce the risk of prescription opioid abuse in their communities. PMID:26798885

  13. Combating isolation: Building mutual mentoring networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Anne J.

    2015-12-01

    Women physicists can often feel isolated at work. Support from a grant through the ADVANCE program of the National Science Foundation (U.S. government funding) created mutual mentoring networks aimed at combating isolation specifically for women faculty at undergraduate-only institutions. This paper will discuss the organization of one such network, what contributed to its success, some of the outcomes, and how it might be implemented in other contexts.

  14. Measuring Indoor Air Quality and Engaging California Indian Stakeholders at the Win-River Resort and Casino: Collaborative Smoke-Free Policy Development

    PubMed Central

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Dhaliwal, Narinder; Hayward, Gary; Acevedo-Bolton, Viviana; Ott, Wayne R.; Read, Nathan; Layton, Steve; Jiang, Ruoting; Cheng, Kai-Chung; Hildemann, Lynn M.; Repace, James L.; Taylor, Stephanie; Ong, Seow-Ling; Buchting, Francisco O.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2016-01-01

    Most casinos owned by sovereign American Indian nations allow smoking, even in U.S. states such as California where state laws restrict workplace smoking. Collaborations between casinos and public health workers are needed to promote smoke-free policies that protect workers and patrons from secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure and risks. Over seven years, a coalition of public health professionals provided technical assistance to the Redding Rancheria tribe in Redding, California in establishing a smoke-free policy at the Win-River Resort and Casino. The coalition provided information to the casino general manager that included site-specific measurement of employee and visitor PM2.5 personal exposure, area concentrations of airborne nicotine and PM2.5, visitor urinary cotinine, and patron and staff opinions (surveys, focus groups, and a Town Hall meeting). The manager communicated results to tribal membership, including evidence of high SHS exposures and support for a smoke-free policy. Subsequently, in concert with hotel expansion, the Redding Rancheria Tribal Council voted to accept a 100% restriction of smoking inside the casino, whereupon PM2.5 exposure in main smoking areas dropped by 98%. A 70% partial-smoke-free policy was instituted ~1 year later in the face of revenue loss. The success of the collaboration in promoting a smoke-free policy, and the key element of air quality feedback, which appeared to be a central driver, may provide a model for similar efforts. PMID:26805860

  15. Measuring Indoor Air Quality and Engaging California Indian Stakeholders at the Win-River Resort and Casino: Collaborative Smoke-Free Policy Development.

    PubMed

    Klepeis, Neil E; Dhaliwal, Narinder; Hayward, Gary; Acevedo-Bolton, Viviana; Ott, Wayne R; Read, Nathan; Layton, Steve; Jiang, Ruoting; Cheng, Kai-Chung; Hildemann, Lynn M; Repace, James L; Taylor, Stephanie; Ong, Seow-Ling; Buchting, Francisco O; Lee, Juliet P; Moore, Roland S

    2016-01-01

    Most casinos owned by sovereign American Indian nations allow smoking, even in U.S. states such as California where state laws restrict workplace smoking. Collaborations between casinos and public health workers are needed to promote smoke-free policies that protect workers and patrons from secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure and risks. Over seven years, a coalition of public health professionals provided technical assistance to the Redding Rancheria tribe in Redding, California in establishing a smoke-free policy at the Win-River Resort and Casino. The coalition provided information to the casino general manager that included site-specific measurement of employee and visitor PM2.5 personal exposure, area concentrations of airborne nicotine and PM2.5, visitor urinary cotinine, and patron and staff opinions (surveys, focus groups, and a Town Hall meeting). The manager communicated results to tribal membership, including evidence of high SHS exposures and support for a smoke-free policy. Subsequently, in concert with hotel expansion, the Redding Rancheria Tribal Council voted to accept a 100% restriction of smoking inside the casino, whereupon PM2.5 exposure in main smoking areas dropped by 98%. A 70% partial-smoke-free policy was instituted ~1 year later in the face of revenue loss. The success of the collaboration in promoting a smoke-free policy, and the key element of air quality feedback, which appeared to be a central driver, may provide a model for similar efforts. PMID:26805860

  16. Air-Powered Projectile Launcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, T.; Bjorklund, R. A.; Elliott, D. G.; Jones, L. K.

    1987-01-01

    Air-powered launcher fires plastic projectiles without using explosive propellants. Does not generate high temperatures. Launcher developed for combat training for U.S. Army. With reservoir pressurized, air launcher ready to fire. When pilot valve opened, sleeve (main valve) moves to rear. Projectile rapidly propelled through barrel, pushed by air from reservoir. Potential applications in seismic measurements, avalanche control, and testing impact resistance of windshields on vehicles.

  17. Increasing combat realism: the effectiveness of stun belt use on soldiers for the enhancement of live training and testing exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schricker, Bradley C.; Antalek, Christopher

    2006-05-01

    The ability to make correct decisions while operating in a combat zone enables American and Coalition warfighters to better respond to any threats they may encounter due to the minimization of negative training the warfighter encountered during their live, virtual, and constructive (LVC) training exercises. By increasing the physical effects encountered by one's senses during combat scenarios, combat realism is able to be increased, which is a key component in the reduction in negative training. The use of LVC simulations for training and testing augmentation purposes depends on a number of factors, not the least of which is the accurate representation of the training environment. This is particularly true in the realm of tactical engagement training through the use of Tactical Engagement Simulation Systems (TESS). The training environment is perceived through human senses, most notably sight and hearing. As with other haptic devices, the sense of touch is gaining traction as a viable medium through which to express the effects of combat battle damage from the synthetic training environment to participants within a simulated training exercise. New developments in this field are promoting the safe use of an electronic stun device to indicate to a trainee that they have been hit by a projectile, from either direct or indirect fire, through the course of simulated combat. A growing number of examples suggest that this added output medium can greatly enhance the realism of a training exercise and, thus, improve the training value. This paper serves as a literature survey of this concept, beginning with an explanation of TESS. It will then focus on how the electronic stun effect may be employed within a TESS and then detail some of the noted pros and cons of such an approach. The paper will conclude with a description of potential directions and work.

  18. Networked sensors for the combat forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klager, Gene

    2004-11-01

    Real-time and detailed information is critical to the success of ground combat forces. Current manned reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition (RSTA) capabilities are not sufficient to cover battlefield intelligence gaps, provide Beyond-Line-of-Sight (BLOS) targeting, and the ambush avoidance information necessary for combat forces operating in hostile situations, complex terrain, and conducting military operations in urban terrain. This paper describes a current US Army program developing advanced networked unmanned/unattended sensor systems to survey these gaps and provide the Commander with real-time, pertinent information. Networked Sensors for the Combat Forces plans to develop and demonstrate a new generation of low cost distributed unmanned sensor systems organic to the RSTA Element. Networked unmanned sensors will provide remote monitoring of gaps, will increase a unit"s area of coverage, and will provide the commander organic assets to complete his Battlefield Situational Awareness (BSA) picture for direct and indirect fire weapons, early warning, and threat avoidance. Current efforts include developing sensor packages for unmanned ground vehicles, small unmanned aerial vehicles, and unattended ground sensors using advanced sensor technologies. These sensors will be integrated with robust networked communications and Battle Command tools for mission planning, intelligence "reachback", and sensor data management. The network architecture design is based on a model that identifies a three-part modular design: 1) standardized sensor message protocols, 2) Sensor Data Management, and 3) Service Oriented Architecture. This simple model provides maximum flexibility for data exchange, information management and distribution. Products include: Sensor suites optimized for unmanned platforms, stationary and mobile versions of the Sensor Data Management Center, Battle Command planning tools, networked communications, and sensor management software. Details

  19. Influence of maneuverability on helicopter combat effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falco, M.; Smith, R.

    1982-01-01

    A computational procedure employing a stochastic learning method in conjunction with dynamic simulation of helicopter flight and weapon system operation was used to derive helicopter maneuvering strategies. The derived strategies maximize either survival or kill probability and are in the form of a feedback control based upon threat visual or warning system cues. Maneuverability parameters implicit in the strategy development include maximum longitudinal acceleration and deceleration, maximum sustained and transient load factor turn rate at forward speed, and maximum pedal turn rate and lateral acceleration at hover. Results are presented in terms of probability of skill for all combat initial conditions for two threat categories.

  20. [Prospective methods of combat burn injury treatment].

    PubMed

    Ivchenko, E V; Golota, A S; Krassiĭ, A B; Sechin, A A

    2014-11-01

    The current article briefly reviews the projects of development of combat burn injury treatment as they have been presented in the US Armed Forces Institute of Regenerative Medicine 2013 annual report. Eleven projects have been reviewed, in particular: P12 polypeptide for limiting burn injury progression, gamma keratose gelfor enhancement skin cell survival, starch-polyurethane iodophor dressing effective against the most common burn infection, microorganisms, autologous stem and progenitor cells for single cell cytotransplantation by "skin gun" spray device or 3D skin bioprinting, a bioreactor for skin autotransplant expansion. PMID:25816683

  1. Casualties of War: Combat Trauma and the Return of the Combat Veteran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiely, Denis O.; Swift, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The experience of the combat soldier and the road back to civilian life are recurrent themes in American literature and cinema. Whether the treatment is tragic (Stephen Crane's "Red Badge of Courage", Tim O'Brien's "The Things They Carried", or Tony Scott's "Blackhawk Down"), satirical (Joseph Heller's "Catch Twenty-Two" and Robert Altman's…

  2. Contemporary group treatment of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Kingsley, George

    2007-01-01

    The contemporary group treatment of veterans from the Vietnam War to the present who suffer from combat-related PTSD is reviewed in light of the dynamic understanding of combat trauma developed during and since World War II. Both dynamic and cognitive behavioral group therapies are explored. The common features of all group treatments of combat PTSD involve the development of trust and the communalization of trauma within a cohesive group. Further research is needed to increase our understanding of effectiveness, mediating factors, and relationships between childhood experience and combat trauma. PMID:17480188

  3. Medical rescue of naval combat: challenges and future.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hai; Hou, Li-Jun; Fu, Xiao-Bing

    2015-01-01

    There has been no large-scale naval combat in the last 30 years. With the rapid development of battleships, weapons manufacturing and electronic technology, naval combat will present some new characteristics. Additionally, naval combat is facing unprecedented challenges. In this paper, we discuss the topic of medical rescue at sea: what challenges we face and what we could do. The contents discussed in this paper contain battlefield self-aid buddy care, clinical skills, organized health services, medical training and future medical research programs. We also discuss the characteristics of modern naval combat, medical rescue challenges, medical treatment highlights and future developments of medical rescue at sea. PMID:26309738

  4. War leaves an enduring legacy in combatants' lives.

    PubMed

    Smith, Barbara; Parsons, Matthew; Hand, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The memory of combat experience endures in World War II veterans. As veterans age, traumatic memory that previously may have been suppressed in the busyness of family and everyday life can re-emerge. Combat stress may affect not only the veterans, but also those people closely associated with them. Interviews were conducted with World War II veteran aircrew, wives, children, grandchildren, siblings, and friends to examine the impact of combat experience on the veterans and the family across the life course from the perspectives of the various participants. The combat experience significantly affected the life course of most. PMID:24873865

  5. Combat-Related Invasive Fungal Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Carlos J.

    2014-01-01

    Combat-related invasive fungal (mold) wound infections (IFIs) have emerged as an important and morbid complication following explosive blast injuries among military personnel. Similar to trauma-associated IFI cases among civilian populations, as in agricultural accidents and natural disasters, these infections occur in the setting of penetrating wounds contaminated by environmental debris. Specific risk factors for combat-related IFI include dismounted (patrolling on foot) blast injuries occurring mostly in southern Afghanistan, resulting in above knee amputations requiring resuscitation with large-volume blood transfusions. Diagnosis of IFI is based upon early identification of a recurrently necrotic wound following serial debridement and tissue-based histopathology examination with special stains to detect invasive disease. Fungal culture of affected tissue also provides supportive information. Aggressive surgical debridement of affected tissue is the primary therapy. Empiric antifungal therapy should be considered when there is a strong suspicion for IFI. Both liposomal amphotericin B and voriconazole should be considered initially for treatment since many of the cases involve not only Mucorales species but also Aspergillus or Fusarium spp., with narrowing of regimen based upon clinical mycology findings. PMID:25530825

  6. Digital control of highly augmented combat rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Mark B.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed concepts for the next generation of combat helicopters are to be embodied in a complex, highly maneuverable, multiroled vehicle with avionics systems. Single pilot and nap-of-the-Earth operations require handling qualities which minimize the involvement of the pilot in basic stabilization tasks. To meet these requirements will demand a full authority, high-gain, multimode, multiply-redundant, digital flight-control system. The gap between these requirements and current low-authority, low-bandwidth operational rotorcraft flight-control technology is considerable. This research aims at smoothing the transition between current technology and advanced concept requirements. The state of the art of high-bandwidth digital flight-control systems are reviewed; areas of specific concern for flight-control systems of modern combat are exposed; and the important concepts are illustrated in design and analysis of high-gain, digital systems with a detailed case study involving a current rotorcraft system. Approximate and exact methods are explained and illustrated for treating the important concerns which are unique to digital systems.

  7. Cell Therapy Strategies to Combat Immunosenescence

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Elizabeth C; Brown, Bryan N

    2015-01-01

    abstract Declining function of the immune system, termed “immunosenescence,” leads to a higher incidence of infection, cancer, and autoimmune disease related mortalities in the elderly population.1 Increasing interest in the field of immunosenescence is well-timed, as 20% of the United States population is expected to surpass the age of 65 by the year 2030.2 Our current understanding of immunosenescence involves a shift in function of both adaptive and innate immune cells, leading to a reduced capacity to recognize new antigens and widespread chronic inflammation. The present review focuses on changes that occur in haematopoietic stem cells, macrophages, and T-cells using knowledge gained from both rodent and human studies. The review will discuss emerging strategies to combat immunosenescence, focusing on cellular and genetic therapies, including bone marrow transplantation and genetic reprogramming. A better understanding of the mechanisms and implications of immunosenescence will be necessary to combat age-related mortalities in the future. PMID:26588595

  8. Flat panels in future ground combat vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurd, Eric D.; Forest, Coryne A.

    1996-05-01

    The efforts of the design team for the Crewman's Associate Advanced Technology Demonstration (CA ATD) and its use of advanced display concepts is discussed. This team has the responsibility of identifying future technologies with the potential for maximizing human- machine interaction for incorporation into future crew station designs for ground combat vehicles. The design process utilizes extensive user involvement in all stages. This is critical to developing systems that have complex functions, yet are simple to maintain and operate. Described are the needs which have driven the U.S. Army towards the use of flat panels. Ultimately, the army is looking at smaller, lighter, more deployable ground combat vehicles. This goal is driving individual components to have characteristics such as low weight, low power usage, and reduced volume while maintaining ruggedness and functionality. The potential applications for flat panels in ground vehicles is also discussed. The army is looking at applications for out-the-window views (virtual periscopes), multi-functional displays, and head mounted displays to accomplish its goals of designing better crew interfaces. The army's requirements in regards to the technologies that must be developed and supported by flat panel displays are also discussed in this section. In conclusion, future projections of the use of flat panels for the Crewman's Associate ATD will be outlined. Projections will be made in terms of physical numbers and promising technologies that fulfill the goals of the CAATD and achieve the approval of the user community.

  9. Composite structural armor for combat vehicle applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskell, William E., III; Alesi, A. L.; Parsons, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Several projects that have demonstrated the advantages of using thick composite armor technology for structural applications in armored combat vehicles are discussed. The first involved composite cargo doors for the Marine Corps LVTP-7 amphibious landing vehicle. Another was a demonstration composite turret that offered a weight reduction of 15.5 percent. The advantages of this composite armor compared to metallic armors used for combat vehicle hull and turret applications are reduced weight at equal ballistic protection; reduced back armor spall; excellent corrosion resistance; reduced production costs by parts consolidation; and inherent thermal and acoustic insulative properties. Based on the encouraging results of these past programs, the Demonstration Composite Hull Program was started in September 1986. To demonstrate this composite armor technology, the Army's newest infantry fighting vehicle, the Bradley Fighting Vehicle (BFV), was selected as a model. A composite infantry fighting vehicle, designated the CIFV for this program, has been designed and fabricated and is currently undergoing a 6000 mile field endurance test. The CIFV demonstration vehicle uses the BFV engine, transmission, suspension, track and other equipment.

  10. 42 CFR 495.368 - Combating fraud and abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Combating fraud and abuse. 495.368 Section 495.368... PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.368 Combating fraud and abuse. (a) General... accordance with § 455.15 and § 455.21 of this chapter, refer suspected cases of fraud and abuse to...

  11. 42 CFR 495.368 - Combating fraud and abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Combating fraud and abuse. 495.368 Section 495.368... PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.368 Combating fraud and abuse. (a) General... accordance with § 455.15 and § 455.21 of this chapter, refer suspected cases of fraud and abuse to...

  12. Close the Book on Hate: 101 Ways To Combat Prejudice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes & Noble, Inc., New York, NY.

    This pamphlet, which is part of the Close the Book on Hate Campaign, provides definitions, resources, and suggested readings on combating prejudice. The premise of the campaign is the belief that through reading and discussion, children will be better able to counter prejudice and hate. The pamphlet begins with suggestions for combatting prejudice…

  13. 3 CFR - Combating Noncompliance With Recovery Act Reporting Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Combating Noncompliance With Recovery Act Reporting Requirements Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of April 6, 2010 Combating Noncompliance With Recovery Act Reporting Requirements Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies My Administration...

  14. 42 CFR 495.368 - Combating fraud and abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Combating fraud and abuse. 495.368 Section 495.368... PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.368 Combating fraud and abuse. (a) General... accordance with § 455.15 and § 455.21 of this chapter, refer suspected cases of fraud and abuse to...

  15. Can We Facilitate Posttraumatic Growth in Combat Veterans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedeschi, Richard G.; McNally, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    The Comprehensive Soldier Fitness program, currently under development for the U.S. Army, will include a component designed to increase the possibilities for posttraumatic growth in the aftermath of combat. In this article, we briefly review studies that provide evidence for this phenomenon in combat veterans, and we suggest elements that such a…

  16. A Dialogue for Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Malcolm

    2010-01-01

    Student engagement is perhaps the key element for almost any learning context. When engaged, learners are enthusiastic and excited about the subject. Their work is informed by the enjoyment of discovery. Engaged learners work willingly, instead of by coercion, and approach their assignments as something that matters to them personally. The spirit…

  17. Engaging Your Beginners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Teachers love to see the spark of engagement when students eagerly engage in learning. But when teachers work with English language learners in the earliest stages of language acquisition, they're often unsure how to foster challenge and engagement with students who know such sparse English. Hill shares six key do's and don'ts for classroom…

  18. Improving Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jim; Taylor, Leah

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews research literature in the area of student engagement to discover curricular and pedagogical ideas educators might successfully use to better engage student learning. Student engagement has historically focused upon increasing achievement, positive behaviors, and a sense of belonging to help students remain in school. The…

  19. Measuring Pupil Engagement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Kenneth G.; Capie, William

    This paper advocates categorization of engagement on the basis of a logical relationship with the outcomes of a study and the use of student attributes that are logically related to engagement and/or achievement as covariables. Results from a study involving nine engagement categories, measures of formal reasoning ability, locus of control and…

  20. Engagement and Institutional Advancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weerts, David; Hudson, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that institutional commitment to community engagement can be understood by examining levels of student, faculty, and community involvement in engagement; organizational structure, rewards, and campus publications supporting engagement; and compatibility of an institution's mission with this work (Holland, 1997). Underlying all of…

  1. Engaging Scholarship with Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Núñez, Guillermina Gina

    2014-01-01

    A pedagogy of engagement links faculty and students to the needs of local communities while promoting academic success through higher retention and graduation rates in higher education. This work describes engaged scholarship and shares guidelines for documenting student engagement and critical reflection across the higher education curriculum.…

  2. Appetitive Aggression in Women: Comparing Male and Female War Combatants

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Parlapanis, Danie; Weierstall, Roland; Nandi, Corina; Bambonyé, Manassé; Elbert, Thomas; Crombach, Anselm

    2016-01-01

    Appetitive aggression refers to positive feelings being associated with the perpetration of violent behavior and has been shown to provide resilience against the development of PTSD in combatants returning from the battlefield. Until this point, appetitive aggression has been primarily researched in males. This study investigates appetitive aggression in females. Female and male combatants and civilians from Burundi were assessed for levels of appetitive aggression. In contrast to non-combatants, no sex difference in appetitive aggression could be detected for combatants. Furthermore, each of the female and male combatant groups displayed substantially higher levels of appetitive aggression than each of the male and female civilian control groups. This study demonstrates that in violent contexts, such as armed conflict, in which individuals perpetrate numerous aggressive acts against others, the likelihood for an experience of appetitive aggression increases- regardless of whether the individuals are male or female. PMID:26779084

  3. Challenges and considerations for managing suicide risk in combat zones.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Craig J; Kanzler, Kathryn E; Durham, Tracy L; West, Christopher L; Greene, Elizabeth

    2010-10-01

    As suicide rates in the military rise, increased attention has been placed on the effective management of high-risk service members. Military mental health professionals deployed to combat zones face a number of challenges and barriers for effective risk management that are unique to the deployed setting. To date, there exists no body of literature identifying areas in which suicide risk management differs between garrison and combat settings to guide mental health professionals in improving clinical decision making with respect to managing suicidal service members in combat zones. On the basis of experience gained during deployments to combat zones, the authors outline several key features of the deployed context that can impact suicide risk and its effective management in combat zones and integrate empirical findings relevant to each issue. Considerations for clinical care and risk management are discussed. PMID:20968259

  4. A naturalistic decision making model for simulated human combatants

    SciTech Connect

    HUNTER,KEITH O.; HART,WILLIAM E.; FORSYTHE,JAMES C.

    2000-05-01

    The authors describe a naturalistic behavioral model for the simulation of small unit combat. This model, Klein's recognition-primed decision making (RPD) model, is driven by situational awareness rather than a rational process of selecting from a set of action options. They argue that simulated combatants modeled with RPD will have more flexible and realistic responses to a broad range of small-scale combat scenarios. Furthermore, they note that the predictability of a simulation using an RPD framework can be easily controlled to provide multiple evaluations of a given combat scenario. Finally, they discuss computational issues for building an RPD-based behavior engine for fully automated combatants in small conflict scenarios, which are being investigated within Sandia's Next Generation Site Security project.

  5. Appetitive Aggression in Women: Comparing Male and Female War Combatants.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Parlapanis, Danie; Weierstall, Roland; Nandi, Corina; Bambonyé, Manassé; Elbert, Thomas; Crombach, Anselm

    2015-01-01

    Appetitive aggression refers to positive feelings being associated with the perpetration of violent behavior and has been shown to provide resilience against the development of PTSD in combatants returning from the battlefield. Until this point, appetitive aggression has been primarily researched in males. This study investigates appetitive aggression in females. Female and male combatants and civilians from Burundi were assessed for levels of appetitive aggression. In contrast to non-combatants, no sex difference in appetitive aggression could be detected for combatants. Furthermore, each of the female and male combatant groups displayed substantially higher levels of appetitive aggression than each of the male and female civilian control groups. This study demonstrates that in violent contexts, such as armed conflict, in which individuals perpetrate numerous aggressive acts against others, the likelihood for an experience of appetitive aggression increases- regardless of whether the individuals are male or female. PMID:26779084

  6. Are there atheists in foxholes? Combat intensity and religious behavior.

    PubMed

    Wansink, Brian; Wansink, Craig S

    2013-09-01

    After battle, the moral and mortality stresses influence different soldiers in different ways. Using two large-scale surveys of World War II veterans, this research investigates the impact of combat on religiosity. Study 1 shows that as combat became more frightening, the percentage of soldiers who reported praying rose from 42 to 72%. Study 2 shows that 50 years later, many soldiers still exhibited religious behavior, but it varied by their war experience. Soldiers who faced heavy combat (vs. no combat) attended church 21% more often if they claimed their war experience was negative, but those who claimed their experience was positive attended 26% less often. The more a combat veteran disliked the war, the more religious they were 50 years later. While implications for counselors, clergy, support groups, and health practitioners are outlined, saying there are no atheists in foxholes may be less of an argument against atheism than it is against foxholes. PMID:23760855

  7. Upper extremity arterial combat injury management.

    PubMed

    Weber, Michael A; Fox, Charles J; Adams, Eric; Rice, Rob D; Quan, Reagan; Cox, Mitchell W; Gillespie, David L

    2006-06-01

    Traumatic hemorrhage and vascular injury management have been concerns for both civilian and military physicians. During the 20th century, advances in technique allowed surgeons to focus on vascular repair, restoration of perfusion, limb salvage, and life preservation. Military surgeons such as Makins, DeBakey, Hughes, Rich, and others made significant contributions to the field of surgery in general and vascular surgery in particular. Casualties from combat in Afghanistan and Iraq confront physicians and surgeons with devastating injuries. The current generation of providers is challenged with applying contemporary care while expanding upon the lessons taught by our predecessors. The objective of this report is to review the historical experience with managing military upper extremity arterial injuries and compare that experience with current management. PMID:17060232

  8. Combating Memory Corruption Attacks On Scada Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellettini, Carlo; Rrushi, Julian

    Memory corruption attacks on SCADA devices can cause significant disruptions to control systems and the industrial processes they operate. However, despite the presence of numerous memory corruption vulnerabilities, few, if any, techniques have been proposed for addressing the vulnerabilities or for combating memory corruption attacks. This paper describes a technique for defending against memory corruption attacks by enforcing logical boundaries between potentially hostile data and safe data in protected processes. The technique encrypts all input data using random keys; the encrypted data is stored in main memory and is decrypted according to the principle of least privilege just before it is processed by the CPU. The defensive technique affects the precision with which attackers can corrupt control data and pure data, protecting against code injection and arc injection attacks, and alleviating problems posed by the incomparability of mitigation techniques. An experimental evaluation involving the popular Modbus protocol demonstrates the feasibility and efficiency of the defensive technique.

  9. Satellite Data Used to Combat Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This visible light/infrared composite image over Montana and Idaho was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Aug. 23, 2000. The image shows the locations of actively burning wildfires (red pixels) and the thick shroud of smoke they produced (grey-blue pixels). There were 57 wildfires burning across both states. A single MODIS image can be up to 2,330 kilometers wide, allowing fire scientists to monitor a much larger area than can be covered on the ground or by aircraft. Also, because MODIS has detectors that are sensitive to thermal infrared wavelengths of 3.70 and 3.90 micrometers, it can detect fires on the surface even through heavy smoke. For more information, see: NASA Satellite Data Used Operationally to Help Combat Fires in the West Image courtesy MODIS Science Team, Reto Stockli, and Robert Simmon.

  10. Targeting Nrf2 Signaling to Combat Chemoresistance

    PubMed Central

    No, Jae Hong; Kim, Yong-Beom; Song, Yong Sang

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that upregulates expression of a battery of genes to combat oxidative and electrophilic stress. Modification of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) by reactive oxygen species stabilizes Nrf2 by escaping from degradation. Nrf2 then binds to antioxidant response elements (AREs) on the promoter region of various genes. Activation of the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE pathway plays critical roles in the chemopreventive effect of various phytochemicals. However, Nrf2 can protect cancer cells from oxidative stress and promote cell proliferation. Moreover, recent studies reveal that activation of the Nrf2 pathway is critical for resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. The aim of this review is to provide a molecular basis for the use of Nrf2 inhibitors in overcoming chemoresistance. PMID:25337579

  11. [Physiological aspects of women in combat].

    PubMed

    Libster, D; Heled, Y; Shapiro, Y; Epstein, Y

    1999-12-01

    Since military service is physically demanding, soldiers must maintain high levels of physical fitness for optimal performance of their duties. Women are at a physiological disadvantage when competing against men: they have a smaller muscle mass, more body fat, lower red blood cell counts, lower hemoglobin levels and smaller cardiac outputs. Women are slower and weaker than men and more prone to exercise-induced skeletal injuries. Fewer women than men meet the standards of physically demanding jobs. Therefore integrating women into physically demanding military-oriented jobs requires redesigning or modifying the tasks (different pace, mechanical aids, teamwork). While physical training can increase the physical capacity of women, training cannot completely eliminate gender differences. Thus the data presented do not imply that women cannot be integrated into combat units, but highlight gender-related differences which might have an effect on the ability of women to compete equally with men at the same task. PMID:10959362

  12. Optimal Repellent Usage to Combat Dengue Fever.

    PubMed

    Dorsett, Chasity; Oh, Hyunju; Paulemond, Marie Laura; Rychtář, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Dengue fever is one of the most important vector-borne diseases. It is transmitted by Aedes Stegomyia aegypti, and one of the most effective strategies to combat the disease is the reduction of exposure to bites of these mosquitoes. In this paper, we present a game-theoretical model in which individuals choose their own level of protection against mosquito bites in order to maximize their own benefits, effectively balancing the cost of protection and the risk of contracting the dengue fever. We find that even when the usage of protection is strictly voluntary, as soon as the cost of protection is about 10,000 times less than the cost of contracting dengue fever, the optimal level of protection will be within 5 % of the level needed for herd immunity. PMID:27142427

  13. Physical security equipment for combating terrorism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toscano, Michael

    2002-08-01

    The objective of the Department of Defense Physical Security Equipment (DoD PSE) RDT&E program is to provide end users within the four Services with the most efficient and productive physical security (PS) at the most reasonable cost to ensure the effective protection of DoD resources. These resources include personnel, nuclear weapons, classified information, materiel, and readiness assets. As a result of the1996 Khobar Towers terrorist bombing incident, the DoD PSE program began to receive additional funding in 1997 for Force Protection Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (FP COTS) equipment evaluation and testing. The FP COTS testing applies to all available technologies, which are considered effective for DoD use. Successive terrorist incidents occurring since Khobar Towers have resulted in increasing focus on the demonstration and validation of equipment necessary to combat the ubiquitously asymmetric terrorist threat.

  14. Engine selection for transport and combat aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, J. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The procedures that are used to select engines for transport and combat aircraft are discussed. In general, the problem is to select the engine parameters including engine size in such a way that all constraints are satisfied and airplane performance is maximized. This is done for four different classes of aircraft: (1) a long haul conventional takeoff and landing (CTOL) transport, (2) a short haul vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) transport, (3) a long range supersonic transport (SST), and (4) a fighter aircraft. For the commercial airplanes the critical constraints have to do with noise while for the fighter, maneuverability requirements define the engine. Generally, the resultant airplane performance (range or payload) is far less than that achievable without these constraints and would suffer more if nonoptimum engines were selected.

  15. Combating hidden hunger: the role of international agencies.

    PubMed

    Dalmiya, Nita; Schultink, Werner

    2003-12-01

    The importance of micronutrient deficiencies or "hidden hunger" was clearly emphasized by the inclusion of specific goals on iron, vitamin A, and iodine deficiency at the 1990 World Summit for Children and other major international nutrition conferences. Significant progress has since been made toward eliminating vitamin A and iodine deficiencies, with less progress made toward reducing the burden of iron-deficiency anemia. The role of international agencies, such as the World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund, Food and Agricultural Organization, and World Bank in assisting countries to make progress toward the World Summit for Children goals has been very important. International agencies have played a critical role in advocating for and raising awareness of these issues at the international, regional, and national levels among policymakers and the general population. Using a rights-based approach, UNICEF and other agencies have been instrumental in elevating to the highest political level the discussion of every child's right to adequate nutrition. International agencies have also been very supportive at the national level in providing technical guidance for programs, including monitoring and evaluation. These agencies have played a critical role in engaging the cooperation of other partners, including bilateral donors, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector for micronutrient programs. Furthermore, international agencies provide financial and material support for micronutrient programs. In the future, such agencies must continue to be heavily involved in programs to achieve the newly confirmed goals for 2010. The present paper focuses on the role of international agencies in combating micronutrient deficiencies, drawing on the lessons learned over the last decade. The first section of the paper summarizes the progress achieved since 1990, and the second section describes the specific role of international agencies in contributing

  16. High resolution combat simulations to support training for close combat light applications

    SciTech Connect

    Toms, R.M.; Dobbs, L.A.; Pimper, J.E.

    1990-06-14

    Superior tactical planning and maneuver synchronization are essential to fight and win on the CCL battlefield. This superiority can be achieved by the use of a combination of field exercises and high-resolution, computerized, combat simulation systems designed to support training. Computerized simulation systems provide a cost effective capability to promote learning through repetition and permit the exploration of scenarios that are impractical or dangerous to apply to live exercises. Man-in-the-loop, real-time, and force-on-force simulation systems with interactive color graphics interfaces are now available to support CCL training. Combat simulations have been developed specifically for this environment within the Conflict Simulation Laboratory (CSL) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Research and development efforts are underway that will greatly improve these capabilities. Applications are envisioned in training support, mission planning, analysis of new tactics and weapons, real-time display, and real-time operational support. 32 refs.

  17. Mitigation Approaches to Combat the Flu Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Raman; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Madaan, Deepali; Dubey, Neha; Arora, Rajesh; Goel, Rajeev; Singh, Shefali; Kaushik, Vinod; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Chabbra, Vivek; Bhardwaj, Janak Raj

    2009-01-01

    Management of flu pandemic is a perpetual challenge for the medical fraternity since time immemorial. Animal to human transmission has been observed thrice in the last century within an average range of 11-39 years of antigenic recycling. The recent outbreak of influenza A (H1N1, also termed as swine flu), first reported in Mexico on April 26, 2009, occurred in the forty first year since last reported flu pandemic (July 1968). Within less than 50 days, it has assumed pandemic proportions (phase VI) affecting over 76 countries with 163 deaths/35,928 cases (as on 15th June 2009). It indicated the re-emergence of genetically reassorted virus having strains endemic to humans, swine and avian (H5N1). The World Health Organisation (WHO) member states have already pulled up their socks and geared up to combat such criticalities. Earlier outbreaks of avian flu (H5N1) in different countries led WHO to develop pandemic preparedness strategies with national/regional plans on pandemic preparedness. Numerous factors related to climatic conditions, socio-economic strata, governance and sharing of information/logistics at all levels have been considered critical indicators in monitoring the dynamics of escalation towards a pandemic situation. The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), Government of India, with the active cooperation of UN agencies and other stakeholders/experts has formulated a concept paper on role of nonhealth service providers during pandemics in April 2008 and released national guidelines - management of biological disasters in July 2008. These guidelines enumerate that the success of medical management endeavors like pharmaceutical (anti-viral Oseltamivir and Zanamivir therapies), nonpharmaceutical interventions and vaccination development etc., largely depends on level of resistance offered by mutagenic viral strain and rationale use of pharmaco therapeutic interventions. This article describes the mitigation approach to combat flu pandemic with its

  18. Combat and herbicide exposures in Vietnam among a sample of American Legionnaires

    SciTech Connect

    Stellman, S.D. ); Stellman, J.M. ); Sommer, J.F. Jr. )

    1988-12-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 6,810 randomly selected members of The American Legion in six states who served in the US Armed Forces during the Vietnam Era was conducted by a mailed questionnaire. Combat stress was evaluated by a previously validated eight-item scale. Exposure to Agent Orange and other herbicides was estimated via exposure probability index previously developed by the authors which uses an algorithm based on the combined Air Force and Joint Services HERBS files of spray data. Two-fifths of the men had served in Southeast Asia, generally at the same time during which the major proportion of herbicides were used; the remaining subjects served elsewhere. Both combat and Agent Orange exposure exhibited distinct, meaningful distributions among Vietnam veterans with service in Southeast Asia and were also correlated with each other. Our analysis demonstrates conclusively that mere presence in Vietnam cannot be used as a proxy for exposure to Agent Orange. Categorization of Vietnam veterans according to herbicide exposure can be successfully accomplished, based on an existing detailed herbicide application data base. This analysis, together with the consistent dose-related results obtained in this series of papers on health and behavioral effects, demonstrates the utility of questionnaire-derived herbicide and combat exposure measures for epidemiologic study of Vietnam veterans.

  19. A survey on the measure of combat readiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Kwong Fook; Nor, Norazman Mohamad; Soon, Lee Lai

    2014-09-01

    Measuring the combat readiness in military forces involves the measures of tangible and intangible elements of combat power. Though these measures are applicable, the mathematical models and formulae used focus mainly on either the tangible or the intangible elements. In this paper, a review is done to highlight the research gap in the formulation of a mathematical model that incorporates tangible elements with intangible elements to measure the combat readiness of a military force. It highlights the missing link between the tangible and intangible elements of combat power. To bridge the gap and missing link, a mathematical model could be formulated that measures both the tangible and intangible aspects of combat readiness by establishing the relationship between the causal (tangible and intangible) elements and its effects on the measure of combat readiness. The model uses multiple regression analysis as well as mathematical modeling and simulation which digest the capability component reflecting its assets and resources, the morale component reflecting human needs, and the quality of life component reflecting soldiers' state of satisfaction in life. The results of the review provide a mean to bridge the research gap through the formulation of a mathematical model that shows the total measure of a military force's combat readiness. The results also significantly identify parameters for each of the variables and factors in the model.

  20. Dust Plume Modeling at Fort Bliss: Move-Out Operations, Combat Training and Wind Erosion

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Elaine G.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Rutz, Frederick C.; Seiple, Timothy E.; Newsom, Rob K.; Allwine, K Jerry

    2006-09-29

    The potential for air-quality impacts from heavy mechanized vehicles operating in the training ranges and on the unpaved main supply routes at Fort Bliss was investigated. This report details efforts by the staff of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Fort Bliss Directorate of Environment in this investigation. Dust emission and dispersion from typical activities, including move outs and combat training, occurring on the installation were simulated using the atmospheric modeling system DUSTRAN. Major assumptions associated with designing specific modeling scenarios are summarized, and results from the simulations are presented.

  1. [A comparison of self assessment of dental status regarding dental anxiety among combat and non-combat soldiers].

    PubMed

    Levin, A; Zini, A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the difference in the level of self dental assessment between different groups of soldiers: 115 combats and 115 non-combats. All the solders in this study where male, Jewish, with a service record of 12-48 months, ages 18-22 and born in Israel. The data was summarized, evaluated and tested by x2 - chi square and logistic regressions analysis. In the following parameters no significant differences were found regarding time past from last visit to the dentist, self assessment of dental condition, self assessment of need of dental treatment and the frequency of tooth brushing and sugar consumption. Significant differences were found in the percentage of smokers (59.1% among non-combat vs. 31.9% among combat), and in the dental anxiety level (55.3% among non-combat vs. 38% among combat). The main difference between these two groups is the nature of the social support and society surrounding them, a society that strengthens them and gives the feeling they can deal with fears and difficulties. An additional study should be done in which the soldiers self assessment should be compared to clinical examination. The importance of this study is that the non-combat group should be defined as a high risk population regarding dental anxiety. PMID:24654500

  2. Combating Tuberculosis Infection: A Forbidding Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Rawal, Tejal; Butani, Shital

    2016-01-01

    After 50 years drought, several drugs are looming from the pipeline to combat tuberculosis. They will serve as a boon to the field that has been burdened with primitive, inadequate treatments and drug-resistant bacterial strains. From the decades, due to lack of interest and resources, the field has suffered a lot. Learning from the flaws, scientists have renovated their approaches to the finding of new antitubercular drugs. The first line drugs take about six months or more for the entire treatment. The second line remedy for resistant-tuberculosis requires daily injections which carry severe side effects. Drug resistance remains a constant menace because patients stop the medication once they start feeling better. So new drugs are required to be explored which are effective against tuberculosis especially drug resistant tuberculosis. These drugs need to work well with other drugs as well as with antivirals used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus. It is also very important to be considered that the treatments need to be cheap, as tuberculosis primarily affects people more in the developing countries. Further, new drugs must cure the disease in short span of time than the current six to nine month regimen. Recently a few new and potent drugs such as bedaquiline, delamanid, teixobactin have been evolved which may serve as a nice step forward, with a better outcome. Teixobactin, a new antibiotic has been found to have promising action against resistant strains, is also under consideration. PMID:27168676

  3. Evolution of Military Combat Eye Protection.

    PubMed

    Auvil, James R

    2016-01-01

    Appreciation for combat eye protection steadily increased following World War II. Products derived from experiences in World War I, World War II, Korea, Vietnam, and the Iran/Iraq war drove technical improvements throughout the 1980s and 1990s. Dismal wear compliance prior to 2004 indicates Soldiers and their leaders did not appreciate these improvements and found little value in the bulky, ugly, and uncomfortable products. In 2003, the 10th Mountain Division requested enhanced eye protection. Program Executive Office Soldier, the optometry consultant to the Army Surgeon General, members of the Tri-Service Vision Conservation and Readiness Program, and other subject matter experts selected and tested commercial off-the-shelf eye protection against military ballistic impact standards. Optical devices that met ballistic standards formed the first Authorized Protective Eyewear List and were fielded beginning in 2004. Wear compliance rose dramatically for the stylish protective eyewear, reaching 85% to 95% and eye injuries decreased across the Department of Defense even as the incidence of attacks in Iraq increased. Researchers continue to evaluate new materials and designs to increase the capabilities, features and level of protection of future ballistic eyewear. PMID:27215881

  4. Combating Tuberculosis Infection: A Forbidding Challenge.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Tejal; Butani, Shital

    2016-01-01

    After 50 years drought, several drugs are looming from the pipeline to combat tuberculosis. They will serve as a boon to the field that has been burdened with primitive, inadequate treatments and drug-resistant bacterial strains. From the decades, due to lack of interest and resources, the field has suffered a lot. Learning from the flaws, scientists have renovated their approaches to the finding of new antitubercular drugs. The first line drugs take about six months or more for the entire treatment. The second line remedy for resistant-tuberculosis requires daily injections which carry severe side effects. Drug resistance remains a constant menace because patients stop the medication once they start feeling better. So new drugs are required to be explored which are effective against tuberculosis especially drug resistant tuberculosis. These drugs need to work well with other drugs as well as with antivirals used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus. It is also very important to be considered that the treatments need to be cheap, as tuberculosis primarily affects people more in the developing countries. Further, new drugs must cure the disease in short span of time than the current six to nine month regimen. Recently a few new and potent drugs such as bedaquiline, delamanid, teixobactin have been evolved which may serve as a nice step forward, with a better outcome. Teixobactin, a new antibiotic has been found to have promising action against resistant strains, is also under consideration. PMID:27168676

  5. Novel Strategies to Combat Bacterial Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, S.V.; Wiener-Kronish, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Incidences of antimicrobial resistant infections have increased dramatically over the past several decades and are associated with adverse patient outcomes. Alternative approaches to combat infection are critical, and have led to the development of more specific drugs targeted at particular bacterial virulence systems or essential regulatory pathways. The purpose of this review is to highlight the recent developments in anti-bacterial therapy and the novel approaches toward increasing our therapeutic armory against bacterial infection. Recent findings Although classic antibiotic development is not occurring rapidly, alternative therapeutics that target specific bacterial virulence systems are progressing from the discovery stage through the FDA approval process. Here we review novel antibodies that target specific virulence systems as well as a variety of newly discovered small molecules that block bacterial attachment, communication systems (quorum sensing) or important regulatory processes associated with virulence gene expression. Summary The success of novel therapeutics could significantly change clinical practice. Furthermore, the complications of collateral damage due to antibiotic administration e.g. suprainfections or decreased host immunity due to loss of synergistic bacterial communities, may be minimized using therapeutics that specifically target pathogenic behavior. PMID:18787455

  6. Combating the counterfeits with web portal technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, S. L.; Ip, W. H.

    2015-10-01

    Due to the globalisation of counterfeiting activities, the penetration of fake products in open market is growing. So far, the technologies to combat counterfeiting are mostly applied to high-value products (e.g. premium wine and branded handbags); however, in the medium- and low-value products' perspective, there is no secure way for consumers to identify whether the purchased items are genuine or not. To address the counterfeiting problems effectively, a platform for identifying authenticated products and promoting anti-counterfeit activities is very important. The aim of this paper is to design and develop an anti-counterfeit platform which includes two functions: providing customers a secure network to ascertain the genuineness of their purchased product and increasing public awareness of the current counterfeit problems and updated anti-counterfeit solutions. By combining these two functions, it enables public to fight against fake and beware of counterfeit. Results of adopting portal technology in anti-counterfeiting show high accuracy in product checking and improved creditability. This reveals that the applicability and advantage of the proposed methodology are satisfactory.

  7. Predictors of Neurocognitive Syndromes in Combat Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Michael J; Gill, Jessica; Leaman, Suzanne; Law, Wendy; Ndiongue, Rochelle; Taylor, Patricia; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Bieler, Gayle S; Garge, Nikhil; Rapp, Paul E; Keyser, David; Nathan, Dominic; Xydakis, Michael; Pham, Dzung; Wassermann, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are neurocognitive syndromes often associated with impairment of physical and mental health, as well as functional status. These syndromes are also frequent in military service members (SMs) after combat, although their presentation is often delayed until months after their return. The objective of this prospective cohort study was the identification of independent predictors of neurocognitive syndromes upon return from deployment could facilitate early intervention to prevent disability. We completed a comprehensive baseline assessment, followed by serial evaluations at three, six, and 12 months, to assess for new-onset PTSD, depression, or postconcussive syndrome (PCS) in order to identify baseline factors most strongly associated with subsequent neurocognitive syndromes. On serial follow-up, seven participants developed at least one neurocognitive syndrome: five with PTSD, one with depression and PTSD, and one with PCS. On univariate analysis, 60 items were associated with syndrome development at p < 0.15. Decision trees and ensemble tree multivariate models yielded four common independent predictors of PTSD: right superior longitudinal fasciculus tract volume on MRI; resting state connectivity between the right amygdala and left superior temporal gyrus (BA41/42) on functional MRI; and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes coding for myelin basic protein as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Our findings require follow-up studies with greater sample size and suggest that neuroimaging and molecular biomarkers may help distinguish those at high risk for post-deployment neurocognitive syndromes. PMID:26251769

  8. Combating computer crimes: A long term strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Kizza, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    Computer crimes are a new kind of crime less than twenty years old, but in these twenty years or so the computer crime rate has risen alarmingly, costing society billions of dollars annually. In software alone this figure is in billions; software piracy in USA resulted in a loss of 2.9 billion dollars in 1989 and 2.4 billion dollars in 1990. The problem is growing rapidly with a steadily increasing use of computers by the public. The number of people using computers in the USA in the last 10 years either at work or at home has jumped from almost zero to about 40 per cent of the population. In the next decade this number may approach 80 percent. With such widespread use of computers at work and home together with the ever increasing number of local, national, and international networks, computer crimes are expected to sky rocket, and if no adequate means are devised to combat these crimes now, the future promises to be no less frightening than the present.

  9. Predictors of Neurocognitive Syndromes in Combat Veterans.

    PubMed

    Roy, Michael J; Costanzo, Michelle; Gill, Jessica; Leaman, Suzanne; Law, Wendy; Ndiongue, Rochelle; Taylor, Patricia; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Bieler, Gayle S; Garge, Nikhil; Rapp, Paul E; Keyser, David; Nathan, Dominic; Xydakis, Michael; Pham, Dzung; Wassermann, Eric

    2015-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are neurocognitive syndromes often associated with impairment of physical and mental health, as well as functional status. These syndromes are also frequent in military service members (SMs) after combat, although their presentation is often delayed until months after their return. The objective of this prospective cohort study was the identification of independent predictors of neurocognitive syndromes upon return from deployment could facilitate early intervention to prevent disability. We completed a comprehensive baseline assessment, followed by serial evaluations at three, six, and 12 months, to assess for new-onset PTSD, depression, or postconcussive syndrome (PCS) in order to identify baseline factors most strongly associated with subsequent neurocognitive syndromes. On serial follow-up, seven participants developed at least one neurocognitive syndrome: five with PTSD, one with depression and PTSD, and one with PCS. On univariate analysis, 60 items were associated with syndrome development at p < 0.15. Decision trees and ensemble tree multivariate models yielded four common independent predictors of PTSD: right superior longitudinal fasciculus tract volume on MRI; resting state connectivity between the right amygdala and left superior temporal gyrus (BA41/42) on functional MRI; and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes coding for myelin basic protein as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Our findings require follow-up studies with greater sample size and suggest that neuroimaging and molecular biomarkers may help distinguish those at high risk for post-deployment neurocognitive syndromes. PMID:26251769

  10. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Saleem, Junaid; Ning, Chao; Barford, John; McKay, Gordon

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Up-cycling one type of pollution i.e. plastic waste and successfully using it to combat the other type of pollution i.e. oil spill. • Synthesized oil sorbent that has extremely high oil uptake of 90 g/g after prolonged dripping of 1 h. • Synthesized porous oil sorbent film which not only facilitates in oil sorption but also increases the affinity between sorbent and oil by means of adhesion. - Abstract: Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5–15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy.

  11. Thought suppression failures in combat PTSD: a cognitive load hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Aikins, Deane E; Johnson, Douglas C; Borelli, Jessica L; Klemanski, David H; Morrissey, Paul M; Benham, Todd L; Southwick, Steven M; Tolin, David F

    2009-09-01

    The present study investigated the relation between thought suppression of emotionally neutral content [i.e., Wegner's (1994) "white bear"], incidental traumatic thought intrusion, and skin conductance responses in combat-related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Participants included service members who either: a) had PTSD following an Operation Iraqi Freedom deployment; b) were free of psychiatric diagnosis following deployment (Combat Equivalent), or c) were pre-deployed and without psychiatric diagnosis (Pre-Deployed). PTSD Service Members reported the greatest intrusion of combat thoughts during the suppression task and demonstrated a post-suppression rebound effect with a neutral thought. Non-specific skin conductance responses indicated that the suppression task was related to similar levels of increased sympathetic activity for both the PTSD and Pre-Deployed groups, whereas the Combat Equivalent group showed no increased activation during thought suppression. Intrusive traumatic thoughts combined with failures in neutral thought suppression may be a consequence of increased cognitive load in PTSD. PMID:19586619

  12. 3 Treatments Seem to Help Combat Binge-Eating Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159650.html 3 Treatments Seem to Help Combat Binge-Eating Disorder ... least-known eating disorder -- may have at least three treatment options to help them curtail their eating. ...

  13. New Tests May Help Combat Melanoma, Expert Says

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_157614.html New Tests May Help Combat Melanoma, Expert Says Doctors now have genetic and molecular ... valuable in helping to diagnose and treat deadly melanoma skin cancer, a dermatologist says. The tests are ...

  14. National Center for Combating Terrorism Strategic Plan, September 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2003-09-01

    National Center for Combating Terrorism Strategic Plan is to document the mission, vision, and goals for success; define the build plan; and describe initiatives that support the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Department of Defense, U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Department of Justice, intelligence community, National Governors Association, and other organizations or departments with combating terrorism training, testing, and technology responsibilities.

  15. Applications of Capstone depleted uranium aerosol risk data to military combat risk management.

    PubMed

    Daxon, Eric G; Parkhurst, Mary Ann; Melanson, Mark A; Roszell, Laurie E

    2009-03-01

    Risks to personnel engaged in military operations include not only the threat of enemy firepower but also risks from exposure to other hazards such as radiation. Combatant commanders of the U.S. Army carefully weigh risks of casualties before implementing battlefield actions using an established paradigm that takes these risks into consideration. As a result of the inclusion of depleted uranium (DU) anti-armor ammunition in the conventional (non-nuclear) weapons arsenal, the potential for exposure to DU aerosols and its associated chemical and radiological effects becomes an element of the commanders' risk assessment. The Capstone DU Aerosol Study measured the range of likely DU oxide aerosol concentrations created inside a combat vehicle perforated with a DU munition, and the Capstone Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) estimated the associated doses and calculated risks. This paper focuses on the development of a scientific approach to adapt the risks from DU's non-uniform dose distribution within the body using the current U.S. Department of Defense radiation risk management approach. The approach developed equates the Radiation Exposure Status categories to the estimated radiological risks of DU and makes use of the Capstone-developed Renal Effects Group as a measure of chemical risk from DU intake. Recommendations are provided for modifying Army guidance and policy in order to better encompass the potential risks from DU aerosol inhalation during military operations. PMID:19204493

  16. Impact of Cumulative Combat Stress on Learning in an Academic Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Kevin Peter; Fishback, Sarah Jane

    2012-01-01

    The stress of multiple combat tours has created a combat-tested but combat-weary Army. While most soldiers have coped successfully with combat stress, many return home with problems that include posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, aggressive behavior, insomnia, and reduced memory and concentration skills. Education is…

  17. From Engaging Liaison Librarians to Engaging Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Anne R.

    2015-01-01

    Kara J. Malenfant wrote in her 2010 article "Leading Change in the System of Scholarly Communication: A Case Study of Engaging Liaison Librarians for Outreach to Faculty" that it would be interesting to revisit the University of Minnesota (UMN) Libraries in three years and see how they are doing. Malenfant had documented a culture shift…

  18. Estimation of weapon-radius versus maneuverability trade-off for air-to-air combat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, H. J.; Lefton, L.

    1977-01-01

    A chase in a horizontal plane between a pursuer with a large capture radius and a more maneuverable evading vehicle is examined with constant-speed vehicle models. An approximation to the 'sidestepping' maneuver of the Homicidal Chauffeur Game is modified to account for the effect of evader turning rate, and an estimate of capture radius required is so obtained which agrees remarkably well with Cockayne's point-capture result. The maneuver assumes central importance for barrier surfaces appearing in the Game of Two Cars. Results are given for required weapon capture-radius in terms of the maneuverability of the two vehicles. Some calculations of capture radius are presented.

  19. Challenges and Needs Faced by Female Combat Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Krajewski-Jaime, Elvia R.; Whitehead, Markus; Kellman-Fritz, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings of a study conducted to identify stressors that may contribute to mental health issues of military female veterans. Female members in the U.S. Armed Forces currently occupy more non-traditional roles; therefore deployment to combat zones, commonly reserved for males, is being taken on by females. While at the present time females serving in the military are not allowed to serve in combat occupations, the reality is that many are being placed in combat roles or environments. Consequently, many are now confronted with stressors related to combat and multiple deployments. This study was based on a descriptive, non-probability, snowball design. In cases where participants displayed a reluctance to share some information in front of counterparts who may have been at a higher or lower rank level; subsequent semi-structured, one-to-one interviews were conducted. The latter approach proved more effective in gathering important information, such as issues of military sexual trauma (MST) and issues of intimacy upon re-entering the home environment. This study was conducted before January 2013, when Defense Secretary Leon Panetta announced the lift of the ban on women serving in combat. Therefore, future studies will need to be conducted to discern how these stressors will affect them in their new role as active combatants. PMID:26618055

  20. Hypnotic analgesia for combat-related spinal cord injury pain: a case study.

    PubMed

    Stoelb, Brenda L; Jensen, Mark P; Tackett, M Jan

    2009-01-01

    A U.S. Army soldier stationed in Iraq developed myriad pain problems after sustaining a high-level spinal cord injury (SCI) from a gunshot wound. These problems were negatively impacting his ability to participate fully in his physical rehabilitation and care. Ten sessions of self-hypnosis training were administered to the patient over a 5-week period to help him address these problems. Both the patient and his occupational therapist reported a substantial reduction in pain over the course of treatment, which allowed the patient to actively engage in his therapies. Six months post treatment, the patient reported continued use of the hypnosis strategies taught, which effectively reduced his experience of pain. This case study demonstrates the efficacy of hypnotic analgesia treatment for U.S. military veterans who are experiencing pain problems due to traumatic or combat-related SCIs. PMID:19216212

  1. Civic Engagement Comes Alive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruempel, Beverly J.; Gentzler, Yvonne S.; Hausafus, Cheryl O.; Keino, Leah C.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses how civic engagement came alive in a Family and Consumer Social Issues class. College students are at a critical age to develop a lifelong interest in civic engagement. Students in a Family and Consumer Social Issues class were required to attend two meetings of a public board or agency of their choice. Their assignment was…

  2. Engaging with Drama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a multi-site global, ethnographic, and mixed methods study on student engagement. Our research has closely examined how engagement and disengagement operate subtly, simultaneously and relationally in the places and spaces where drama is made. Through years of qualitative time in high school classrooms and two different…

  3. Student Engagement. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Teachers, more than any other person in the school, have the greatest potential to get students engaged in school and in learning. Creating student-directed learning experiences that challenge, stimulate, and engage kids not only raises test scores, it also fosters life-long learners prepared for success in today's globally connected world. This…

  4. Engagement Means Everyone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Employee engagement is not just HR's responsibility. While HR is responsible for the process of measuring and driving engagement, improving it is actually everyone's responsibility. And that means reducing the barriers to productivity to drive business performance. Training departments can play a pivotal role. Their job is to enhance curriculum or…

  5. Assured communications and combat resiliency: the relationship between effective national communications and combat efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allgood, Glenn O.; Kuruganti, Phani Teja; Nutaro, James; Saffold, Jay

    2009-05-01

    Combat resiliency is the ability of a commander to prosecute, control, and consolidate his/her's sphere of influence in adverse and changing conditions. To support this, an infrastructure must exist that allows the commander to view the world in varying degrees of granularity with sufficient levels of detail to permit confidence estimates to be levied against decisions and course of actions. An infrastructure such as this will include the ability to effectively communicate context and relevance within and across the battle space. To achieve this will require careful thought, planning, and understanding of a network and its capacity limitations in post-event command and control. Relevance and impact on any existing infrastructure must be fully understood prior to deployment to exploit the system's full capacity and capabilities. In this view, the combat communication network is considered an integral part of or National communication network and infrastructure. This paper will describe an analytical tool set developed at ORNL and RNI incorporating complexity theory, advanced communications modeling, simulation, and visualization technologies that could be used as a pre-planning tool or post event reasoning application to support response and containment.

  6. Defending legitimate epidemiologic research: combating Lysenko pseudoscience.

    PubMed

    Enstrom, James E

    2007-01-01

    This analysis presents a detailed defense of my epidemiologic research in the May 17, 2003 British Medical Journal that found no significant relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and tobacco-related mortality. In order to defend the honesty and scientific integrity of my research, I have identified and addressed in a detailed manner several unethical and erroneous attacks on this research. Specifically, I have demonstrated that this research is not "fatally flawed," that I have not made "inappropriate use" of the underlying database, and that my findings agree with other United States results on this relationship. My research suggests, contrary to popular claims, that there is not a causal relationship between ETS and mortality in the U.S. responsible for 50,000 excess annual deaths, but rather there is a weak and inconsistent relationship. The popular claims tend to damage the credibility of epidemiology. In addition, I address the omission of my research from the 2006 Surgeon General's Report on Involuntary Smoking and the inclusion of it in a massive U.S. Department of Justice racketeering lawsuit. I refute erroneous statements made by powerful U.S. epidemiologists and activists about me and my research and I defend the funding used to conduct this research. Finally, I compare many aspect of ETS epidemiology in the U.S. with pseudoscience in the Soviet Union during the period of Trofim Denisovich Lysenko. Overall, this paper is intended to defend legitimate research against illegitimate criticism by those who have attempted to suppress and discredit it because it does not support their ideological and political agendas. Hopefully, this defense will help other scientists defend their legitimate research and combat "Lysenko pseudoscience." PMID:17927827

  7. Defending legitimate epidemiologic research: combating Lysenko pseudoscience

    PubMed Central

    Enstrom, James E

    2007-01-01

    This analysis presents a detailed defense of my epidemiologic research in the May 17, 2003 British Medical Journal that found no significant relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and tobacco-related mortality. In order to defend the honesty and scientific integrity of my research, I have identified and addressed in a detailed manner several unethical and erroneous attacks on this research. Specifically, I have demonstrated that this research is not "fatally flawed," that I have not made "inappropriate use" of the underlying database, and that my findings agree with other United States results on this relationship. My research suggests, contrary to popular claims, that there is not a causal relationship between ETS and mortality in the U.S. responsible for 50,000 excess annual deaths, but rather there is a weak and inconsistent relationship. The popular claims tend to damage the credibility of epidemiology. In addition, I address the omission of my research from the 2006 Surgeon General's Report on Involuntary Smoking and the inclusion of it in a massive U.S. Department of Justice racketeering lawsuit. I refute erroneous statements made by powerful U.S. epidemiologists and activists about me and my research and I defend the funding used to conduct this research. Finally, I compare many aspect of ETS epidemiology in the U.S. with pseudoscience in the Soviet Union during the period of Trofim Denisovich Lysenko. Overall, this paper is intended to defend legitimate research against illegitimate criticism by those who have attempted to suppress and discredit it because it does not support their ideological and political agendas. Hopefully, this defense will help other scientists defend their legitimate research and combat "Lysenko pseudoscience." PMID:17927827

  8. The strategic plan for combating antimicrobial resistance in Gulf Cooperation Council States.

    PubMed

    Balkhy, Hanan H; Assiri, Abdullah M; Mousa, Haifa Al; Al-Abri, Seif S; Al-Katheeri, Huda; Alansari, Huda; Abdulrazzaq, Najiba M; Aidara-Kane, Awa; Pittet, Didier

    2016-01-01

    The Gulf Cooperation Council Center for Infection Control (GCC-IC) has placed the emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) on the top of its agenda for the past four years. The board members have developed the initial draft for the GCC strategic plan for combating AMR in 2014. The strategic plan stems from the WHO mandate to combat AMR at all levels. The need for engaging a large number of stakeholders has prompted the GCC-IC to engage a wider core of professionals in finalizing the plan. A multi-disciplinary group of more than 40 experts were then identified. And a workshop was conducted in Riyadh January 2015 and included, for the first time, representation of relevant ministries and agencies as well as international experts in the field. Participants worked over a period of two and a half days in different groups. International experts shared the global experiences and challenges in addressing human, food, animal, and environmental aspects of controlling AMR. Participants were then divided into 4 groups each to address the human, animal, microbiological and diagnostic, or the environmental aspect of AMR. At the end of the workshop, the strategic plan was revised and endorsed by all participants. The GCC-IC board members then approved it as the strategic plan for AMR. The document produced here is the first GCC strategic plan addressing AMR, which shall be adopted by GCC countries to develop country-based plans and related key performance indicators (KPIs). It is now the role of each country to identify the body that will be accountable for implementing the plan at the country level. PMID:27106389

  9. The ABCs of Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Seth A.; Nuland, Leila Richey; Parsons, Allison Ward

    2014-01-01

    Student engagement is an important consideration for teachers and administrators because it is explicitly associated with achievement. What the authors call the ABC's of engagement they outline as: Affective engagement, Behavioral engagement, and Cognitive engagement. They also present "Three Things Every Teacher Needs to Know about…

  10. Combining Sustainable Land Management Technologies to Combat Land Degradation and Improve Rural Livelihoods in Semi-arid Lands in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mganga, K. Z.; Musimba, N. K. R.; Nyariki, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Drylands occupy more than 80 % of Kenya's total land mass and contribute immensely to the national economy and society through agriculture, livestock production, tourism, and wild product harvesting. Dryland ecosystems are areas of high climate variability making them vulnerable to the threats of land degradation. Consequently, agropastoralists inhabiting these ecosystems develop mechanisms and technologies to cope with the impacts of climate variability. This study is aimed to; (1) determine what agropastoralists inhabiting a semi-arid ecosystem in Kenya attribute to be the causes and indicators of land degradation, (2) document sustainable land management (SLM) technologies being undertaken to combat land degradation, and (3) identify the factors that influence the choice of these SLM technologies. Vegetation change from preferred indigenous forage grass species to woody vegetation was cited as the main indicator of land degradation. Land degradation was attributed to recurrent droughts and low amounts of rainfall, overgrazing, and unsustainable harvesting of trees for fuelwood production. However, despite the challenges posed by climate variability and recurrent droughts, the local community is engaging in simple SLM technologies including grass reseeding, rainwater harvesting and soil conservation, and dryland agroforestry as a holistic approach combating land degradation and improving their rural livelihoods. The choice of these SLM technologies was mainly driven by their additional benefits to combating land degradation. In conclusion, promoting such simple SLM technologies can help reverse the land degradation trend, improve agricultural production, food security including access to food, and subsequently improve livelihoods of communities inhabiting dryland ecosystems.

  11. Combining Sustainable Land Management Technologies to Combat Land Degradation and Improve Rural Livelihoods in Semi-arid Lands in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mganga, K Z; Musimba, N K R; Nyariki, D M

    2015-12-01

    Drylands occupy more than 80% of Kenya's total land mass and contribute immensely to the national economy and society through agriculture, livestock production, tourism, and wild product harvesting. Dryland ecosystems are areas of high climate variability making them vulnerable to the threats of land degradation. Consequently, agropastoralists inhabiting these ecosystems develop mechanisms and technologies to cope with the impacts of climate variability. This study is aimed to; (1) determine what agropastoralists inhabiting a semi-arid ecosystem in Kenya attribute to be the causes and indicators of land degradation, (2) document sustainable land management (SLM) technologies being undertaken to combat land degradation, and (3) identify the factors that influence the choice of these SLM technologies. Vegetation change from preferred indigenous forage grass species to woody vegetation was cited as the main indicator of land degradation. Land degradation was attributed to recurrent droughts and low amounts of rainfall, overgrazing, and unsustainable harvesting of trees for fuelwood production. However, despite the challenges posed by climate variability and recurrent droughts, the local community is engaging in simple SLM technologies including grass reseeding, rainwater harvesting and soil conservation, and dryland agroforestry as a holistic approach combating land degradation and improving their rural livelihoods. The choice of these SLM technologies was mainly driven by their additional benefits to combating land degradation. In conclusion, promoting such simple SLM technologies can help reverse the land degradation trend, improve agricultural production, food security including access to food, and subsequently improve livelihoods of communities inhabiting dryland ecosystems. PMID:26178534

  12. Attachment to community and civic and political engagement: a case study of students.

    PubMed

    Boulianne, Shelley; Brailey, Michelle

    2014-11-01

    Youth's low level of civic and political engagement may detrimentally affect the health of communities and the democratic system. This paper examines the role of community attachment in explaining youth's levels of civic and engagement. This examination requires an evaluation of existing measures of community attachment and their relevance for understanding youth's experiences. The paper uses a student sample, highlighting a group of youth who have a degree of variation in their experiences of community attachment. We find that subjective measures of community attachment are related to volunteering and voting, but the objective measure of community attachment, that is, years of residence, affects voting and not volunteering. Different mechanisms explain civic engagement versus political engagement. As such, different strategies are required to combat low levels of civic versus political engagement. PMID:25612388

  13. Prevalence Estimates of Combat-Related PTSD: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Lisa K.; Frueh, B. Christopher; Acierno, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Objective To provide a critical review of prevalence estimates of combat-related PTSD among military personnel and veterans, and of the relevant factors that may account for the variability of estimates within and across cohorts, including methodological and conceptual factors accounting for differences in prevalence rates across nations, conflicts/wars, and studies. Method We examined MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases for literature on combat-related PTSD. The following terms were used independently and in combinations in this search: PTSD, combat, veterans, military, epidemiology, prevalence. Results The point prevalence of combat-related PTSD in US military veterans since the Vietnam War ranges from about 2 – 17%. Studies of recent conflicts suggest that combat-related PTSD afflicts between 4 – 17% of US Iraq War veterans, but only 3 – 6% of returning UK Iraq War veterans. Thus, the prevalence range is narrower and tends to have a lower ceiling among combat veterans of non-US Western nations. Variability in prevalence is likely due to differences in sampling strategies; measurement strategies; inclusion and measurement of the DSM-IV clinically significant impairment criterion; timing and latency of assessment and potential for recall bias; and combat experiences. Prevalence rates are also likely affected by issues related to PTSD course, chronicity, and comorbidity; symptom overlap with other psychiatric disorders; and sociopolitical and cultural factors that may vary over time and by nation. Conclusions The disorder represents a significant and costly illness to veterans, their families, and society as a whole. However, further carefully conceptualized research is needed to advance our understanding of disorder prevalence, as well as associated information on course, phenomenology, protective factors, treatment, and economic costs. PMID:20073563

  14. β-alanine supplementation improves tactical performance but not cognitive function in combat soldiers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are no known studies that have examined β-alanine supplementation in military personnel. Considering the physiological and potential neurological effects that have been reported during sustained military operations, it appears that β-alanine supplementation may have a potential benefit in maintaining physical and cognitive performance during high-intensity military activity under stressful conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 28 days of β-alanine ingestion in military personnel while fatigued on physical and cognitive performance. Methods Twenty soldiers (20.1 ± 0.9 years) from an elite combat unit were randomly assigned to either a β-alanine (BA) or placebo (PL) group. Soldiers were involved in advanced military training, including combat skill development, navigational training, self-defense/hand-to-hand combat and conditioning. All participants performed a 4-km run, 5-countermovement jumps using a linear position transducer, 120-m sprint, a 10-shot shooting protocol with assault rifle, including overcoming a misfire, and a 2-min serial subtraction test to assess cognitive function before (Pre) and after (Post) 28 days of supplementation. Results The training routine resulted in significant increases in 4-km run time for both groups, but no between group differences were seen (p = 0.597). Peak jump power at Post was greater for BA than PL (p = 0.034), while mean jump power for BA at Post was 10.2% greater (p = 0.139) than PL. BA had a significantly greater (p = 0.012) number of shots on target at Post (8.2 ± 1.0) than PL (6.5 ± 2.1), and their target engagement speed at Post was also significantly faster (p = 0.039). No difference in serial subtraction performance was seen between the groups (p = 0.844). Conclusion Results of this study indicate that 4-weeks of β-alanine ingestion in young, healthy soldiers did not impact cognitive performance, but did enhance power

  15. The Effect of Stand-biased Desks on Academic Engagement: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Dornhecker, Marianela; Blake, Jamilia; Benden, Mark; Zhao, Hongwei; Wendel, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Background Schools have been suggested as a viable avenue to combat childhood obesity. School administrators are sometimes faced with the conflicting demands of improving the health of their students and maintaining academic performance. Dynamic furniture such as stand-biased desks may be one way to address both academic and health demands placed on schools to prevent childhood obesity. Method Classrooms with stand-biased desks were compared to classrooms using traditional seated desks in 2nd,3rd, and 4th grades. The academic engagement of 282 participants was observed in the fall and spring during one academic year. The engagement of the treatment classrooms was compared to the engagement of the control classrooms. Results Both groups showed general increases in their academic engagement over time. Stand-biased desks do not seem to result in adverse effects on academic engagement when used in elementary classrooms. Conclusion The data suggests promising results for the use of stand-biased desks in elementary school classrooms. The results suggest that stand-biased desks can be introduced in the classroom to combat childhood obesity through increasing energy expenditure without affecting academic engagement. PMID:26997917

  16. Achieving Provider Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Geva; Pappas, Yannis; Car, Josip; Majeed, Azeem; Harris, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The literature on integrated care is limited with respect to practical learning and experience. Although some attention has been paid to organizational processes and structures, not enough is paid to people, relationships, and the importance of these in bringing about integration. Little is known, for example, about provider engagement in the organizational change process, how to obtain and maintain it, and how it is demonstrated in the delivery of integrated care. Based on qualitative data from the evaluation of a large-scale integrated care initiative in London, United Kingdom, we explored the role of provider engagement in effective integration of services. Using thematic analysis, we identified an evolving engagement narrative with three distinct phases: enthusiasm, antipathy, and ambivalence, and argue that health care managers need to be aware of the impact of professional engagement to succeed in advancing the integrated care agenda. PMID:25212855

  17. Eagle II: A prototype for multi-resolution combat modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, D.R.; Hutchinson, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Eagle 11 is a prototype analytic model derived from the integration of the low resolution Eagle model with the high resolution SIMNET model. This integration promises a new capability to allow for a more effective examination of proposed or existing combat systems that could not be easily evaluated using either Eagle or SIMNET alone. In essence, Eagle II becomes a multi-resolution combat model in which simulated combat units can exhibit both high and low fidelity behavior at different times during model execution. This capability allows a unit to behave in a highly manner only when required, thereby reducing the overall computational and manpower requirements for a given study. In this framework, the SIMNET portion enables a highly credible assessment of the performance of individual combat systems under consideration, encompassing both engineering performance and crew capabilities. However, when the assessment being conducted goes beyond system performance and extends to questions of force structure balance and sustainment, then SISMNET results can be used to calibrate'' the Eagle attrition process appropriate to the study at hand. Advancing technologies, changes in the world-wide threat, requirements for flexible response, declining defense budgets, and down-sizing of military forces motivate the development of manpower-efficient, low-cost, responsive tools for combat development studies. Eagle and SIMNET both serve as credible and useful tools. The integration of these two models promises enhanced capabilities to examine the broader, deeper, more complex battlefield of the future with higher fidelity, greater responsiveness and low overall cost.

  18. Eagle II: A prototype for multi-resolution combat modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, D.R.; Hutchinson, J.L.

    1993-02-01

    Eagle 11 is a prototype analytic model derived from the integration of the low resolution Eagle model with the high resolution SIMNET model. This integration promises a new capability to allow for a more effective examination of proposed or existing combat systems that could not be easily evaluated using either Eagle or SIMNET alone. In essence, Eagle II becomes a multi-resolution combat model in which simulated combat units can exhibit both high and low fidelity behavior at different times during model execution. This capability allows a unit to behave in a highly manner only when required, thereby reducing the overall computational and manpower requirements for a given study. In this framework, the SIMNET portion enables a highly credible assessment of the performance of individual combat systems under consideration, encompassing both engineering performance and crew capabilities. However, when the assessment being conducted goes beyond system performance and extends to questions of force structure balance and sustainment, then SISMNET results can be used to ``calibrate`` the Eagle attrition process appropriate to the study at hand. Advancing technologies, changes in the world-wide threat, requirements for flexible response, declining defense budgets, and down-sizing of military forces motivate the development of manpower-efficient, low-cost, responsive tools for combat development studies. Eagle and SIMNET both serve as credible and useful tools. The integration of these two models promises enhanced capabilities to examine the broader, deeper, more complex battlefield of the future with higher fidelity, greater responsiveness and low overall cost.

  19. Operative treatment of new onset radiculopathy secondary to combat injury.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Scott C; Van Blarcum, Gregory S; Kang, Daniel G; Lehman, Ronald A

    2015-02-01

    We set out to describe combat-related spine trauma over a 10-year period, and thereby determine the frequency of new onset radiculopathy secondary to injuries sustained in support of combat operations. We performed a retrospective analysis of a surgical database at three military institutions. Patients undergoing spine surgery following a combat-related injury in Afghanistan or Iraq between July 2003 and July 2013 were evaluated. We identified 105 patients with combat-related (Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom) spine trauma requiring operative intervention. Of these, 15 (14.3%) patients had radiculopathy as their primary complaint after injury. All patients were diagnosed with herniated nucleus pulposus. The average age was 39 years, with 80% injured in Iraq and 20% in Afghanistan. The most common mechanism of injury was mounted improvised explosive device (33%). The cervical spine was most commonly involved (53%), followed by lumbar spine (40%). Average time from injury to surgery was 23.4 months; 53% of patients had continued symptoms following surgery, and two patients had at least one revision surgery. Two patients were medically retired because of their symptoms. This study is the only of its kind evaluating the operative treatment of traumatic radiculopathy following combat-related trauma. We identified a relatively high rate of radiculopathy in these patients. PMID:25643379

  20. Trauma Informed Guilt Reduction Therapy With Combat Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Sonya B.; Wilkins, Kendall C.; Myers, Ursula S.; Allard, Carolyn B.

    2014-01-01

    Guilt related to combat trauma is highly prevalent among veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. Trauma-related guilt has been associated with increased risk for posttraumatic psychopathology and poorer response to treatment. Trauma Informed Guilt Reduction (TrIGR) therapy is a 4-module cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy designed to reduce guilt related to combat trauma. The goals of this study were to describe the key elements of TrIGR and report results of a pilot study with 10 recently deployed combat veterans. Ten combat veterans referred from a VA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) or mental health clinic completed TrIGR over 4 to 7 sessions. Nine veterans completed the posttreatment assessment. This initial pilot suggests that TrIGR may help to reduce trauma-related guilt severity and associated distress. Changes in trauma-related guilt were highly correlated with reductions in PTSD and depression symptoms over the course of treatment, suggesting a possible mechanistic link with severity of posttraumatic psychopathology. TrIGR warrants further evaluation as an intervention for reducing guilt related to traumatic experiences in combat. PMID:25404850

  1. Improving global health governance to combat counterfeit medicines: a proposal for a UNODC-WHO-Interpol trilateral mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Perhaps no greater challenge exists for public health, patient safety, and shared global health security, than fake/falsified/fraudulent, poor quality unregulated drugs, also commonly known as “counterfeit medicines”, now endemic in the global drug supply chain. Counterfeit medicines are prevalent everywhere, from traditional healthcare settings to unregulated sectors, including the Internet. These dangerous medicines are expanding in both therapeutic and geographic scope, threatening patient lives, leading to antimicrobial resistance, and profiting criminal actors. Discussion Despite clear global public health threats, surveillance for counterfeit medicines remains extremely limited, with available data pointing to an increasing global criminal trade that has yet to be addressed appropriately. Efforts by a variety of public and private sector entities, national governments, and international organizations have made inroads in combating this illicit trade, but are stymied by ineffectual governance and divergent interests. Specifically, recent efforts by the World Health Organization, the primary international public health agency, have failed to adequately incorporate the broad array of stakeholders necessary to combat the problem. This has left the task of combating counterfeit medicines to other organizations such as UN Office of Drugs and Crime and Interpol in order to fill this policy gap. Summary To address the current failure of the international community to mobilize against the worldwide counterfeit medicines threat, we recommend the establishment of an enhanced global health governance trilateral mechanism between WHO, UNODC, and Interpol to leverage the respective strengths and resources of these organizations. This would allow these critical organizations, already engaged in the fight against counterfeit medicines, to focus on and coordinate their respective domains of transnational crime prevention, public health, and law enforcement

  2. An Investigation of the Impact of Aerodynamic Model Fidelity on Close-In Combat Effectiveness Prediction in Piloted Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Persing, T. Ray; Bellish, Christine A.; Brandon, Jay; Kenney, P. Sean; Carzoo, Susan; Buttrill, Catherine; Guenther, Arlene

    2005-01-01

    Several aircraft airframe modeling approaches are currently being used in the DoD community for acquisition, threat evaluation, training, and other purposes. To date there has been no clear empirical study of the impact of airframe simulation fidelity on piloted real-time aircraft simulation study results, or when use of a particular level of fidelity is indicated. This paper documents a series of piloted simulation studies using three different levels of airframe model fidelity. This study was conducted using the NASA Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator. Evaluations were conducted with three pilots for scenarios requiring extensive maneuvering of the airplanes during air combat. In many cases, a low-fidelity modified point-mass model may be sufficient to evaluate the combat effectiveness of the aircraft. However, in cases where high angle-of-attack flying qualities and aerodynamic performance are a factor or when precision tracking ability of the aircraft must be represented, use of high-fidelity models is indicated.

  3. Weight loss in combat sports: physiological, psychological and performance effects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The present article briefly reviews the weight loss processes in combat sports. We aimed to discuss the most relevant aspects of rapid weight loss (RWL) in combat sports. Methods This review was performed in the databases MedLine, Lilacs, PubMed and SciELO, and organized into sub-topics: (1) prevalence, magnitude and procedures, (2) psychological, physiological and performance effects, (3) possible strategies to avoid decreased performance (4) organizational strategies to avoid such practices. Results There was a high prevalence (50%) of RWL, regardless the specific combat discipline. Methods used are harmful to performance and health, such as laxatives, diuretics, use of plastic or rubber suits, and sauna. RWL affects physical and cognitive capacities, and may increase the risk of death. Conclusion Recommendations during different training phases, educational and organizational approaches are presented to deal with or to avoid RWL. PMID:23237303

  4. [Neurophysiologic mechanisms of combat post-extreme state of health].

    PubMed

    Tsygan, V N

    2014-10-01

    The effects of ecological and occupational stress (EOS) on brain neurodynamics of Soviet and Afghanistan servicemen have been studied. The investigations have been made in Afghanistan. Neurophysiological characteristics of traumatic stress and consequences of combat trauma were studied in patients wounded in Afghanistan, in the acute phase as well as since 0.5-3 years after leaving the battlefield. The combined effect of combat situation, hot climate, highlands and desert forms EOS. It does not cause an adaptation process in servicemen. EOS is characterized by changes in bioelectrical indices of brain in interhemispheric relations both as a whole and in isolated rhythm components of EEG, by activating the stress limiting system. It exhibits pathopsychological and autonomic components which remain significant during 3 years after leaving the combat conditions. The formation of a general adaptation syndrome is prevented in explosion trauma under the influence of EOS. PMID:25697028

  5. Combating terrorism - a response in kind. Student essay

    SciTech Connect

    Lum, T.

    1987-05-13

    Outside of armed conflicts representing nations with forces in uniforms, another kind of war has emerged waged by terrorists. For the past twenty years terrorists have waged war against nations for a variety of reasons. No rules of war govern their conduct nor do they observe any. Methods of combatting terrorism vary from nation to nation. Few nations agree totally on how to combat this form of lawlessness. This essay examines one approach and suggests another. President Reagan's ultimate decision to bomb Libya is examined through a discussion of the events, repercussions of these events, and world opinion of these events that preceded his decision. A harsher, more-controlled and personal approach to combatting terrorism is suggested and discussed.

  6. Design of a fifth generation air superiority fighter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atique, Md. Saifuddin Ahmed; Barman, Shuvrodeb; Nafi, Asif Shahriar; Bellah, Masum; Salam, Md. Abdus

    2016-07-01

    Air Superiority Fighter is considered to be an effective dogfighter which is stealthy & highly maneuverable to surprise enemy along with improve survivability against the missile fire. This new generation fighter aircraft requires fantastic aerodynamics design, low wing loading (W/S), high thrust to weight ratio (T/W) with super cruise ability. Conceptual design is the first step to design an aircraft. In this paper conceptual design of an Air Superiority Fighter Aircraft is proposed to carry 1 crew member (pilot) that can fly at maximum Mach No of 2.3 covering a range of 1500 km with maximum ceiling of 61,000 ft. Payload capacity of this proposed aircraft is 6000 lb that covers two advanced missiles & one advanced gun. The Air Superiority Fighter Aircraft was designed to undertake all the following missions like: combat air petrol, air to air combat, maritime attack, close air support, suppression, destruction of enemy air defense and reconnaissance.

  7. [Combat burn injury. The Afghanistan and Iraq military campaign experience].

    PubMed

    Ivchenko, E V; Golota, A S; Kondratenko, D G; Krassiĭ, A B

    2014-08-01

    The current article briefly reviews the experience of combat burns care obtained in the course of 2001-2013 military campaign in Afghanistan and Iraq as it has been covered in the foreign scientific medical publications. The following topics are covered: statistics, the prehospital medical care, aeromedical evacuation, the Burn Center of the US Army Institute of Surgical Research. The new method.of the .initial intravenous infusion rate estimation, so called the "Rule of 10 formula, is marked: At the end, the list of freely available publications summarized the modern combat burns care experience is presented. PMID:25546957

  8. Repair Air Conditioning, COC Bldg 2605, Basement Plan. By Strategic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Repair Air Conditioning, COC Bldg 2605, Basement Plan. By Strategic Air Command, Civil Engineering. Drawing no. R-156, sheet no. 1 of 4, 15 August 1968; project no. MAR-125-8;CE-572; file drawer 2605-5. Last revised 31 August 1968?. Scale one-eighth inch and one-quarter inch to one foot. 29x41 inches. pencil on paper - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  9. Repair Air Conditioning, COC Bldg 2605, First Floor Plan. By ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Repair Air Conditioning, COC Bldg 2605, First Floor Plan. By Strategic Air Command, Civil Engineering. Drawing no. R-156, sheet no. 2 of 4, 15 August 1968; project no. MAR-125-8;CE-572; file drawer 2605-6. Scale one-eighth inch to one foot. 29x41 inches. pencil on paper 405 - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  10. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air carriers. 1202.13 Section 1202.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.13 Air carriers. By the... carrier by air engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and every carrier by air transporting mail...

  11. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air carriers. 1202.13 Section 1202.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.13 Air carriers. By the... carrier by air engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and every carrier by air transporting mail...

  12. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air carriers. 1202.13 Section 1202.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.13 Air carriers. By the... carrier by air engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and every carrier by air transporting mail...

  13. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air carriers. 1202.13 Section 1202.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.13 Air carriers. By the... carrier by air engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and every carrier by air transporting mail...

  14. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air carriers. 1202.13 Section 1202.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.13 Air carriers. By the... carrier by air engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and every carrier by air transporting mail...

  15. Engagement, Exploration, Empowerment.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, Virginia Ginny

    2015-01-01

    Engagement, exploration, and empowerment are significant practice strategies used by occupational therapy practitioners as a means of getting to know what matters to clients and how to facilitate their participation in everyday life. Applied to the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) as an organization, professional engagement, exploration of new service contexts, and empowerment of members to take an active role in shaping the profession's future are examined. This address, given at the 2015 AOTA Annual Convention & Expo, looks to the future in terms of engaging greater numbers of members; participating in Vision 2025, a strategic planning initiative that will be unveiled at the 2016 AOTA Annual Conference & Expo; and empowering members to achieve excellence in occupational therapy. PMID:26565090

  16. Engagement and Education

    PubMed Central

    Tosh, Pritish K.; Hick, John L.; Hanfling, Dan; Geiling, James; Reed, Mary Jane; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Shah, Umair A.; Fagbuyi, Daniel B.; Skippen, Peter; Dichter, Jeffrey R.; Kissoon, Niranjan; Christian, Michael D.; Upperman, Jeffrey S.; Christian, Michael D.; Devereaux, Asha V.; Dichter, Jeffrey R.; Kissoon, Niranjan; Rubinson, Lewis; Amundson, Dennis; Anderson, Michael R.; Balk, Robert; Barfield, Wanda D.; Bartz, Martha; Benditt, Josh; Beninati, William; Berkowitz, Kenneth A.; Daugherty Biddison, Lee; Braner, Dana; Branson, Richard D; Burkle, Frederick M.; Cairns, Bruce A.; Carr, Brendan G.; Courtney, Brooke; DeDecker, Lisa D.; De Jong, Marla J.; Dominguez-Cherit, Guillermo; Dries, David; Einav, Sharon; Erstad, Brian L.; Etienne, Mill; Fagbuyi, Daniel B.; Fang, Ray; Feldman, Henry; Garzon, Hernando; Geiling, James; Gomersall, Charles D.; Grissom, Colin K.; Hanfling, Dan; Hick, John L.; Hodge, James G.; Hupert, Nathaniel; Ingbar, David; Kanter, Robert K.; King, Mary A.; Kuhnley, Robert N.; Lawler, James; Leung, Sharon; Levy, Deborah A.; Lim, Matthew L.; Livinski, Alicia; Luyckx, Valerie; Marcozzi, David; Medina, Justine; Miramontes, David A.; Mutter, Ryan; Niven, Alexander S.; Penn, Matthew S.; Pepe, Paul E.; Powell, Tia; Prezant, David; Reed, Mary Jane; Rich, Preston; Rodriquez, Dario; Roxland, Beth E.; Sarani, Babak; Shah, Umair A.; Skippen, Peter; Sprung, Charles L.; Subbarao, Italo; Talmor, Daniel; Toner, Eric S.; Tosh, Pritish K.; Upperman, Jeffrey S.; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Weireter, Leonard J.; West, T. Eoin; Wilgis, John; Ornelas, Joe; McBride, Deborah; Reid, David; Baez, Amado; Baldisseri, Marie; Blumenstock, James S.; Cooper, Art; Ellender, Tim; Helminiak, Clare; Jimenez, Edgar; Krug, Steve; Lamana, Joe; Masur, Henry; Mathivha, L. Rudo; Osterholm, Michael T.; Reynolds, H. Neal; Sandrock, Christian; Sprecher, Armand; Tillyard, Andrew; White, Douglas; Wise, Robert; Yeskey, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Engagement and education of ICU clinicians in disaster preparedness is fragmented by time constraints and institutional barriers and frequently occurs during a disaster. We reviewed the existing literature from 2007 to April 2013 and expert opinions about clinician engagement and education for critical care during a pandemic or disaster and offer suggestions for integrating ICU clinicians into planning and response. The suggestions in this article are important for all of those involved in a pandemic or large-scale disaster with multiple critically ill or injured patients, including front-line clinicians, hospital administrators, and public health or government officials. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed and suggestions formulated according to the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) Consensus Statement development methodology. We assessed articles, documents, reports, and gray literature reported since 2007. Following expert-informed sorting and review of the literature, key priority areas and questions were developed. No studies of sufficient quality were identified upon which to make evidence-based recommendations. Therefore, the panel developed expert opinion-based suggestions using a modified Delphi process. RESULTS: Twenty-three suggestions were formulated based on literature-informed consensus opinion. These suggestions are grouped according to the following thematic elements: (1) situational awareness, (2) clinician roles and responsibilities, (3) education, and (4) community engagement. Together, these four elements are considered to form the basis for effective ICU clinician engagement for mass critical care. CONCLUSIONS: The optimal engagement of the ICU clinical team in caring for large numbers of critically ill patients due to a pandemic or disaster will require a departure from the routine independent systems operating in hospitals. An effective response will require robust information systems; coordination

  17. Second Generation Effect of Vietnam: Adolescent Children of Combat Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dansby, Virginia Smejkal

    Although extensive research has focused upon the adjustment problems of the veterans of the Vietnam conflict, little data is available concerning their children. The purpose of this study was to provide a description of the adolescent children who have lived with Vietnam combat veteran fathers, comparing them (on the basis of social and personal…

  18. E-Cheating: Combating a 21st Century Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurtry, Kim

    2001-01-01

    Discusses electronic cheating in higher education made possible by new technologies. Highlights include statistics on plagiarism; using Web search engines and paper mills; and ways to combat cheating, including academic honesty policies, designing writing assignments with specific goals and instructions, being aware of what is available on the…

  19. Combating plagiarism: the role of the health librarian.

    PubMed

    Spring, Hannah; Adams, Rachel

    2013-12-01

    This feature looks at the issue of plagiarism in health care students and the role of the health librarian in combating the problem. In particular, consideration is given to how plagiarism can occur and provides some examples from two UK universities of approaches health librarians can take in supporting students to avoid these common pitfalls. PMID:24251896

  20. Combating the Religious Right in San Diego County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasman, Dan

    1993-01-01

    In 1990, a new ultraconservative religious group in San Diego County began an all-out war on public education. This article describes mainstream efforts to combat curriculum challenges and "stealth" board election tactics devised by Citizens for Excellence in Education and other fundamentalist factions. Meanwhile, the new CEE-majority Vista school…

  1. Perceived threat predicts the neural sequelae of combat stress

    PubMed Central

    van Wingen, G A; Geuze, E; Vermetten, E; Fernández, G

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to severe stressors increases the risk for psychiatric disorders in vulnerable individuals, but can lead to positive outcomes for others. However, it remains unknown how severe stress affects neural functioning in humans and what factors mediate individual differences in the neural sequelae of stress. The amygdala is a key brain region involved in threat detection and fear regulation, and previous animal studies have suggested that stress sensitizes amygdala responsivity and reduces its regulation by the prefrontal cortex. In this study, we used a prospective design to investigate the consequences of severe stress in soldiers before and after deployment to a combat zone. We found that combat stress increased amygdala and insula reactivity to biologically salient stimuli across the group of combat-exposed individuals. In contrast, its influence on amygdala coupling with the insula and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex was dependent on perceived threat, rather than actual exposure, suggesting that threat appraisal affects interoceptive awareness and amygdala regulation. Our results demonstrate that combat stress has sustained consequences on neural responsivity, and suggest a key role for the appraisal of threat on an amygdala-centered neural network in the aftermath of severe stress. PMID:21242990

  2. Varieties of combat stress reaction. An immunological metaphor.

    PubMed

    Garb, R; Kutz, I; Bleich, A; Solomon, Z

    1987-08-01

    The use of an immunological metaphor allows the incorporation of established theoretical ideas about trauma and stress in an integrative way which enables delineation and illustration of several varieties of combat stress reaction, including subtle forms of that condition which do not often appear in post-traumatic stress disorder literature. PMID:3690116

  3. Return to combat duty after concussive blast injury.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Carrie H; Porter Evans, J; Chee, Shawnna; Moore, Jeffrey L; Barth, Jeffrey T; Stuessi, Keith A

    2012-12-01

    Little data exist regarding the acute assessment of blast concussion and the course of recovery in the combat zone, as most research has examined service members long after they have returned home. This manuscript examined a case series of 377 service members seen for acute concussion evaluation following medical evacuation from the battlefield in Helmand Province, Afghanistan. Of these, 111 were assessed for concussion prior to their return to the continental USA for other severe physical injuries. Of the remainder, and when comparing those who returned to duty (RTD)/recovered from concussion in the combat zone and those who did not, data indicate that those who did not RTD were older and were more likely to endorse symptoms of combat stress. Quicker recovery times were associated with less severe headaches and fewer acute symptoms at the time of injury as well as the absence of combat stress reaction. Variables that were not associated with RTD and/or recovery were Military Acute Concussion Evaluation (MACE) cognitive scores and whether or not individuals suffered loss of consciousness. While MACE scores were not associated with recovery, they were deemed clinically useful as a part of a serial concussion evaluation if the initial MACE was given within 6 h of the blast. Implications for battlefield concussion assessment and management as well as future research directions are discussed. PMID:23059351

  4. 28. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW MEMBERS (FRONT TO BACK) LIEUTENANT KEVIN R. MCCLUNEY AND CAPTAIN JAMES L. KING, JR. SHOCK ISOLATOR AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT RACK AT FAR LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  5. 26. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW MEMBER LIEUTENANT KEVIN R. MCCLUNEY AT COMMUNICATIONS CONSOLE. LAUNCH CONTROL CONSOLE IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTH. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  6. Combating the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Bonnie

    1997-01-01

    Reveals the growing threat posed to all countries by the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Discusses the international effort combating this proliferation including the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties, Biological Weapons Convention, and Chemical Weapons Convention. Also considers regional arms…

  7. 42 CFR 495.368 - Combating fraud and abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Combating fraud and abuse. 495.368 Section 495.368 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the...

  8. Reduced default mode network connectivity following combat trauma.

    PubMed

    DiGangi, Julia A; Tadayyon, Armin; Fitzgerald, Daniel A; Rabinak, Christine A; Kennedy, Amy; Klumpp, Heide; Rauch, Sheila A M; Phan, K Luan

    2016-02-26

    Recent studies show decreased functional connectivity in the default mode network (DMN) in PTSD; however, few have directly examined combat trauma specifically. There is limited understanding of how combat itself may affect the DMN. Some literature suggests that trauma exposure, rather than PTSD, can disrupt the DMN. To further elucidate the effect of trauma and PTSD on the DMN, we investigated DMN functional connectivity during the resting-state in veterans with PTSD, combat-exposed controls, and never-traumatized healthy controls. Results revealed that DMN connectivity was reduced in veterans exposed to combat trauma with and without PTSD compared to healthy civilian controls. Specifically, both groups of veterans demonstrated weaker connectivity within a network involving the precuneus, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and right superior parietal lobule regardless of whether the mPFC or precuneus was chosen as a seed region. Findings suggest that the experience of trauma, rather than the pathology of PTSD, may be related to DMN changes. PMID:26797653

  9. School Administrators Strategies for Combating Corruption in Universities in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiyai, Romina Ifeoma

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine corruption in universities with the aim of finding out the types/forms, causes, effects and measures for combating the menace. Four research questions guided the investigation. The study is a survey research, ex-post facto in nature. A sample of 780 comprising of students, academic staff and administrative…

  10. Is effective mass in combat sports punching above its weight?

    PubMed

    Lenetsky, Seth; Nates, Roy J; Brughelli, Matt; Harris, Nigel K

    2015-04-01

    The segmental and muscular complexity of the human body can result in challenges when examining the kinetics of impacts. To better understand this complexity, combat sports literature has selected effective mass as a measure of an athlete's inertial contribution to the momentum transfer during the impact of strikes. This measure helps to clarify the analysis of striking kinetics in combat sports. This paper will review: (1) effective mass as a concept and its usage as a measure of impact intensity in combat sports, (2) the neuromuscular pattern known as "double peak muscle activation" which has been theorized to help enhance initial hand velocity upon impact and joint stiffening during impact, (3) the methods and equations used to calculate effective mass, and (4) practitioner recommendations based on the literature. We will argue in this manuscript that the act of punching presents unique challenges to the current understanding of effective mass due to additional force application during impact. This review will improve the understanding of effective mass and its roles in effective striking serving to underpin future research into performance enhancement in striking based combat sports. PMID:25544341

  11. On Modeling of Ejection Process in a Training Combat Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Głowiński, Sebastian; Krzyżyński, Tomasz

    2011-09-01

    The paper deals with modeling and simulation of motion trajectory of an ejection seat in the training-combat aircraft TS-11 "Iskra". The ejection seat and its operation are characterized. Mathematical and computer models are elaborated with the help of MATLAB-Simulink applications. Additionally, simulations are conducted for various velocities of the aircraft.

  12. Millennial Combat Veterans: How Identity Shapes Experience in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Shane Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to build upon the growing foundational base of knowledge on the academic and social transitions of student combat veterans and contribute to a greater theoretical understanding of this population and how their perception of identity may influence their experience as college students. The researcher conducted a…

  13. Computed tomography of craniofacial trauma at a combat support hospital in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Statler, John D; Tempel, Carl G; Harcke, H Theodore

    2005-03-01

    Complex craniofacial injuries are encountered among both soldiers and civilians in combat zones. Computed tomography is a necessary and effective tool for the evaluation and treatment of these injuries in the forward-deployed combat support hospital. PMID:15828695

  14. The association between combat exposure and negative behavioral and psychiatric conditions.

    PubMed

    Gallaway, Michael Shayne; Fink, David S; Millikan, Amy M; Mitchell, Mary M; Bell, Michael R

    2013-07-01

    This study evaluated the association between cumulative combat exposures and negative behavioral and psychiatric conditions. A total of 6128 active-duty soldiers completed a survey approximately 6 months after their unit's most recent combat deployment. The soldiers self-reported combat exposures and behavioral and psychiatric conditions. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between cumulative combat exposures and behavioral and psychiatric outcomes. In comparison with the referent group of soldiers not previously deployed, the soldiers categorized as having the highest cumulative combat exposures were significantly associated with self-reporting a history of behavioral and psychiatric diagnoses, problematic alcohol misuse, aggression, criminal behavior, and physical altercations with a significant other. The magnitude and the consistency of the association among the soldiers with the highest number of combat exposures suggest that the number of cumulative combat deployment exposures is an important consideration for identifying and treating high-risk soldiers and units returning from combat. PMID:23817154

  15. Child maltreatment among U.S. Air Force parents deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Rabenhorst, Mandy M; McCarthy, Randy J; Thomsen, Cynthia J; Milner, Joel S; Travis, Wendy J; Colasanti, Marie P

    2015-02-01

    This study examined child maltreatment perpetration among 99,697 active-duty U.S. Air Force parents who completed a combat deployment. Using the deploying parent as the unit of analysis, we analyzed whether child maltreatment rates increased postdeployement relative to predeployment. These analyses extend previous research that used aggregate data and extend our previous work that used data from the same period but used the victim as the unit of analysis and included only deploying parents who engaged in child maltreatment. In this study, 2% (n = 1,746) of deploying parents perpetrated child maltreatment during the study period. Although no overall differences were found in child maltreatment rates postdeployment compared to predeployment, several maltreatment-related characteristics qualified this finding. Rates for emotional abuse and mild maltreatment were lower following deployment, whereas child maltreatment rates for severe maltreatment were higher following deployment. The finding that rates of severe child maltreatment, including incidents involving alcohol use, were higher postdeployment suggests a need for additional support services for parents following their return from combat deployment, with a focus on returning parents who have an alcohol use problem. PMID:25424846

  16. Engaging with Islamic Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugarman, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Islamic patterns were a regular feature in mathematics classrooms, and probably still feature in many wall displays. However, as part of the learning process, these ancient designs appear to have lost any significant contemporary appeal. Here, the power of software is engaged to bring the construction of Islamic type patterns up to date. Forget…

  17. Involvement or Engagement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferlazzo, Larry

    2011-01-01

    To create the kinds of school-family partnerships that raise student achievement, improve local communities, and increase public support, schools need to understand the difference between family involvement and family engagement. Schools that emphasize the latter tend toward doing with families, rather than doing to families. These schools do more…

  18. The Scholarship of Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Ernest L.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, author Ernest Boyer comes to the conclusion that scholarship of engagement has meaning at two levels: (1) connecting the university's rich resources to the most pressing social, civic, and ethical problems, making it the staging ground for action; and (2) creating a climate in which academic and civic cultures communicate more…

  19. Parental Engagement with Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Joanna; Harbinson, Terence

    2010-01-01

    A programme of parental engagement with school science is described, in which parents and their children take part in scientific debate and practical science lessons. Three sessions, in biology, chemistry and physics, of this ongoing programme are described, through which parents have been able to support their children by learning science with…

  20. Employer Engagement in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Anthony; Dawkins, James

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this paper is employer engagement in education as it supports the learning and progression of young people through activities including work experience, job shadowing, workplace visits, career talks, mock interviews, CV workshops, business mentoring, enterprise competitions and the provision of learning resources. Interest has grown…

  1. Engagement in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suttle, Catherine M.

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and World Wide Web are transforming delivery of education and making it possible for more individuals than ever to have access to knowledge any time and place across the globe. The extent of learner engagement is key to online learning environments. Constructivist learning theory, an emerging theory of connectivity, and Merrill's…

  2. Tools of Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Alumni relations professionals need a method of measuring alumni engagement, including giving, that goes beyond counting event attendees and the number of Twitter followers. Social media are changing the way things have been done within the alumni relations profession, but that does not mean that people throw out everything they have done in the…

  3. Turning on Engaged Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Martinez, Irella

    2011-01-01

    The issue of how to increase the engagement level of English language learners is daunting, but viable solutions can be achieved if a discussion is started. In schools across California, and all of America, school stakeholders are struggling to articulate ways to ensure that all of the ELLs in their schools are successful. In this article, the…

  4. Music Researchers' Musical Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollner, Clemens; Ginsborg, Jane; Williamon, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness of the importance of reflexivity across various disciplines, which encourages researchers to scrutinize their research perspectives. In order to contextualize and reflect upon research in music, this study explores the musical background, current level of musical engagement and the listening habits of music…

  5. Mars Public Engagement Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Mars public engagement goal to understand and protect our home planet, explore the Universe and search for life, and to inspire the next generation of explorers. Teacher workshops, robotics education, Mars student imaging and analysis programs, MARS Student Imaging Project (MSIP), Russian student participation, MARS museum visualization alliance, and commercialization concepts are all addressed in this project.

  6. Engaging in Retrospective Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevig, Laurey

    2006-01-01

    Reflection is a powerful means to involve readers actively in gaining new insights about texts and themselves as readers. This article relates the story of three fifth-grade girls engaged in metacognitive inquiry within a classroom book club group. The use of exploratory talk and reflection illustrate how the girls constructed meaning and deepened…

  7. Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) training in the 1550th combat crew training wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiedler, Michael T.

    1987-01-01

    The training program the 1550th Combat Crew Training Wing at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico, implemented in September 1985 is discussed. The program is called Aircrew Coordination Training (ACT), and it is designed specifically to help aircrew members work more effectively as a team in their respective aircraft and hopefully to reduce human factors-related accidents. The scope of the 1550th CCTW's training responsibilities is described, the structure of the program, along with a brief look at the content of the academic part of the course. Then the Mission-Oriented Simulator Training (MOST) program is discussed; a program similar to the Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) programs. Finally, the future plans for the Aircrew Coordination Training Program at the 1550th is discussed.

  8. Transitioning from Combat to College: The Impact of Risk and Resilience Factors on Student Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Sharon L.

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of combat veterans have transitioned to college since the passing of the Post-9/11 GI Bill in 2008. The transition from combat to college is a challenge for veterans, as the demands and structure of college differ so greatly from military life. Additionally, exposure to combat often has long lasting psychological repercussions on…

  9. Posttraumatic Stress in U.S. Marines: The Role of Unit Cohesion and Combat Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armistead-Jehle, Patrick; Johnston, Scott L.; Wade, Nathaniel G.; Ecklund, Christofer J.

    2011-01-01

    Combat exposure is a consistent predictor of posttraumatic stress (PTS). Understanding factors that might buffer the effects of combat exposure is crucial for helping service members weather the stress of war. In a study of U.S. Marines returning from Iraq, hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that unit cohesion and combat exposure…

  10. Understanding Our Environment: Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSpezio, Michael

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit uses the contemporary dilemma of acid rain as a vehicle for teaching weather and the characteristics of air and atmosphere. The project involves a…

  11. The Air up There

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    To engage students in a real-world issue (Bransford, Brown, and Cocking 2000) that affects their communities, the author designed an entire unit to investigate air pollution in their home state, Connecticut. The unit's goal is to understand how the use of resources, such as fossil fuels, might affect their quality of life. Through this unit,…

  12. Integrated Assessment of Prevention and Restoration Actions to Combat Desertification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautista, S.; Orr, B. J.; Vallejo, R.

    2009-12-01

    Recent advances in desertification and land degradation research have provided valuable conceptual and analytical frameworks, degradation indicators, assessment tools and surveillance systems with respect to desertification drivers, processes, and impacts. These findings, together with stakeholders’ perceptions and local/regional knowledge, have helped to define and propose measures and strategies to combat land degradation. However, integrated and comprehensive assessment and evaluation of prevention and restoration strategies and techniques to combat desertification is still lacking, and knowledge on the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the proposed strategies over a wide range of environmental and socio-economic conditions is very scarce. To address this challenge, we have launched a multinational project (PRACTICE - Prevention and Restoration Actions to Combat Desertification. An Integrated Assessment), funded by the European Commission, in order to link S & T advances and traditional knowledge on prevention and restoration practices to combat desertification with sound implementation, learning and adaptive management, knowledge sharing, and dissemination of best practices. The key activities for pursuing this goal are (1) to establish a platform and information system of long-term monitoring sites for assessing sustainable management and actions to combat desertification, (2) to define an integrated protocol for the assessment of these actions, and (3) to link project assessment and evaluation with training and education, adaptive management, and knowledge sharing and dissemination through a participatory approach involving scientists, managers, technicians, financial officers, and members of the public who are/were impacted by the desertification control projects. Monitoring sites are distributed in the Mediterranean Europe (Greece, Italy, Spain, and Portugal), Africa (Morocco, Namibia, South Africa), Middle East (Israel), China, and South and North

  13. The Engaged Campus: Toward a Comprehensive Approach to Public Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furco, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Although civic purposes are implicit in the mission statements of higher education institutions, American colleges and universities have not always embraced public engagement initiatives. This paper explores how the recent emergence of the engaged campus movement has helped move public engagement initiatives from the margins to the mainstream by…

  14. Focal and aberrant prefrontal engagement during emotion regulation in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rabinak, Christine A.; MacNamara, Annmarie; Kennedy, Amy E.; Angstadt, Mike; Stein, Murray B.; Liberzon, Israel; Phan, K. Luan

    2014-01-01

    Background Collectively, functional neuroimaging studies implicate frontal-limbic dysfunction in the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as reflected by altered amygdala reactivity and deficient prefrontal responses. These neural patterns are often elicited by social signals of threat (fearful/angry faces) and traumatic reminders (combat sounds, script-driven imagery). Although PTSD can be conceptualized as a disorder of emotion dysregulation, few studies to-date have directly investigated the neural correlates of volitional attempts at regulating negative affect in PTSD. Methods Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a well-validated task involving cognitive regulation of negative affect via reappraisal and known to engage prefrontal cortical regions, the authors compared brain activation in veterans with PTSD (n=21) and without PTSD (n=21, combat-exposed controls/CEC), following military combat trauma experience during deployments in Afghanistan or Iraq. The primary outcome measure was brain activation during cognitive reappraisal (i.e., decrease negative affect) as compared to passive viewing (i.e., maintain negative affect) of emotionally-evocative aversive images. Results The subjects in both groups reported similar successful reduction in negative affect following reappraisal. The PTSD group engaged the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during cognitive reappraisal, albeit to a lesser extent than the CEC group. Although the amygdala was engaged in both groups during passive viewing of aversive images, neither group exhibited attenuation of amygdala activation during cognitive reappraisal. Conclusions Veterans with combat-related PTSD showed less recruitment of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex involved in cognitive reappraisal, suggesting focal and aberrant neural activation during volitional, self-regulation of negative affective states. PMID:24677490

  15. Urbanization decreases attentional engagement.

    PubMed

    Linnell, Karina J; Caparos, Serge; de Fockert, Jan W; Davidoff, Jules

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to the urban environment has been shown dramatically to increase the tendency to process contextual information. To further our understanding of this effect of urbanization, we compared performance on a local-selection task of a remote people, the Himba, living traditionally or relocated to town. We showed that (a) spatial attention was defocused in urbanized Himba but focused in traditional Himba (Experiment 1), despite urbanized Himba performing better on a working memory task (Experiment 3); (b) imposing a cognitive load made attention as defocused in traditional as in urbanized Himba (Experiment 2); and (c) using engaging stimuli/tasks made attention as focused in urbanized Himba, and British, as in traditional Himba (Experiments 4 and 5). We propose that urban environments prioritize exploration at the expense of attentional engagement and cognitive control of attentional selection. PMID:23339348

  16. Innovations for combating dentin hypersensitivity: current state of the art.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiming

    2012-06-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity is a common dental complaint, and in severe cases it can impair eating, drinking, and even speaking, thus interfering with the normal daily life of an individual. Throughout years of research, there has been significant advancement in understanding dentin hypersensitivity, and various treatment regimens have been developed for combating the problem. The continued efforts have recently resulted in a novel technology that uses 8% arginine and calcium carbonate for treating dentin hypersensitivity. Formulations of oral care products using this technology--including toothpaste and prophylactic pastes--have demonstrated not only their effectiveness but also their ability to provide instant relief. This paper provides an overview of the etiology of dentin hypersensitivity, the discovery and development of measures for combating the problem, and the available data on the clinical efficacy of products based on 8% arginine and calcium carbonate. PMID:22774324

  17. Sleep patterns in three acute combat fatigue cases.

    PubMed

    Schlosberg, A; Benjamin, M

    1978-06-01

    A preliminary report is presented on the sleep patterns of three combat fatigued patients with recurrent nightmares, insomnia, low frustration thresholds and impotence. All the patients had undergone acute partial sleep deprivation prior to their breakdown. The results show severe deficiency in REM sleep and absence of stage 4 sleep. EMG was usually high with numerous body movements and bursts of tachycardia throughout the night. Nightmares occurred in stage 2. Total effective sleep time was between 129' and 250'. Most of the sleep was in stage 2, and patients woke up with the feeling that "they had not slept at all." It is hypothesized that acute partial sleep deprivation prior to breakdown was an important predisposing factor, and that chronic partial sleep deprivation was a constant aggravating factor of combat fatigue. Replacement therapy for the specific deficient sleep states is proposed. PMID:207680

  18. Menstruation related myths in India: strategies for combating it

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Suneela; Anand, Tanu

    2015-01-01

    Menstruation is a phenomenon unique to girls. However, it has always been surrounded by taboos and myths that exclude women from many aspects of socio-cultural life. In India, the topic has been a taboo until date. Such taboos about menstruation present in many societies impact on girls’ and women's emotional state, mentality and lifestyle and most importantly, health. The challenge, of addressing the socio-cultural taboos and beliefs in menstruation, is further compounded by the low girls’ knowledge levels and understandings of puberty, menstruation, and reproductive health. Thus, there is the need to follow a strategic approach in combating these issues. The current paper aims to discuss menstruation related myths prevalent in India, their impact on women's life, relevance of addressing these issues in primary care and a brief description about various strategies to combat them. PMID:25949964

  19. School Engagement: A "Danse Macabre"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Shelby L.

    2011-01-01

    A recent review of research on "School Engagement" calls for clarification of the concept of engagement due to its potential for addressing problems of student apathy and low achievement. This paper responds to the request for clarification, points out some "distinctions" and "connexions" between engagement and some polarizing issues in the…

  20. Engaging Stakeholders in Curriculum Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Jo Nell

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the importance of parent and community engagement in curriculum development, along with curriculum leadership, engaging stakeholders, and the importance of curriculum. Parent and community member engagement is examined in light of curriculum committee participation as reported by Missouri superintendents. Survey responses…

  1. 25. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW MEMBERS (FRONT TO BACK) CAPTAIN JAMES L. KING, JR. AT LAUNCH CONTROL CONSOLE AND LIEUTENANT KEVIN R. MCCLUNEY AT COMMUNICATIONS CONSOLE. RADIO TRANSMITTER AND RECEIVER RACKS AT FAR RIGHT; ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT RACKS AT FAR LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  2. 29. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE WITH MISSILE COMBAT CREW MEMBERS (FRONT TO BACK) LIEUTENANT KEVIN R. MCCLUNEY AND CAPTAIN JAMES L. KING, JR. AT CONSOLES. REFRIGERATOR AT RIGHT FLANKED BY RADIO EQUIPMENT (RIGHT) AND FILE CABINETS (LEFT). VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  3. [Development of combat medical robots in the US Armed Forces].

    PubMed

    Golota, A S; Ivchenko, E V; Krassiĭ, A B; Kuvakin, V I; Soldatov, E A

    2014-04-01

    The current article is dedicated to the problem of scientific research organization in the field of combat medical robots development in the US Armed Forces. The role of the Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center is singled out. The project A Robotic System for Wounded Patient Extraction and Evacuation from Hostile Environments is described in more detail. It is noted the high cost of such technical systems development and operation. PMID:25051791

  4. Graphics development of DCOR: Deterministic combat model of Oak Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, G.; Azmy, Y.Y.

    1992-10-01

    DCOR is a user-friendly computer implementation of a deterministic combat model developed at ORNL. To make the interpretation of the results more intuitive, a conversion of the numerical solution to a graphic animation sequence of battle evolution is desirable. DCOR uses a coarse computational spatial mesh superimposed on the battlefield. This research is aimed at developing robust methods for computing the position of the combative units over the continuum (and also pixeled) battlefield, from DCOR`s discrete-variable solution representing the density of each force type evaluated at gridpoints. Three main problems have been identified and solutions have been devised and implemented in a new visualization module of DCOR. First, there is the problem of distributing the total number of objects, each representing a combative unit of each force type, among the gridpoints at each time level of the animation. This problem is solved by distributing, for each force type, the total number of combative units, one by one, to the gridpoint with the largest calculated number of units. Second, there is the problem of distributing the number of units assigned to each computational gridpoint over the battlefield area attributed to that point. This problem is solved by distributing the units within that area by taking into account the influence of surrounding gridpoints using linear interpolation. Finally, time interpolated solutions must be generated to produce a sufficient number of frames to create a smooth animation sequence. Currently, enough frames may be generated either by direct computation via the PDE solver or by using linear programming techniques to linearly interpolate intermediate frames between calculated frames.

  5. [Patterns and causes of injuries in a contemporary combat environment].

    PubMed

    Lechner, R; Achatz, G; Hauer, T; Palm, H-G; Lieber, A; Willy, C

    2010-02-01

    Epidemiological analyses of injury patterns and mechanisms help to identify the expertise military surgeons need in a combat setting and accordingly help to adjust infrastructure and training requirements. Therefore, a MEDLINE search (1949-2009), World Wide Web search (keywords "combat, casualties, war, military, wounded and neurosurgery") and an analysis of deaths among allied war casualties in Afghanistan and Iraq were performed. Up to 10th December 2009 there had been 4,688 allied military deaths in Iraq and 1,538 in Afghanistan. Of these 22% died in non-hostile action, 33% in direct combat situations and the majority of 45% in indirect combat actions. The leading causes of injury were explosive devices (70%) and gunshot wounds. Chest or abdominal injuries (40%) and traumatic brain injuries (35%) were the main causes of death for soldiers killed in action. The case fatality rate in Iraq is approximately half that of the Vietnam War, whereas the killed-in-action rate in Afghanistan (18.7%) is similar to the Vietnam War (20%); however, the amputation rate is twice as high in modern conflicts. Approximately 8-15% of the fatal injuries seem to be potentially survivable.Military surgeons must have an excellent expertise in a wide variety of surgical specialties. Life saving emergency care, especially in the fields of thoracic, visceral and vascular surgery as well as practical skills in the fields of neurosurgery and oral and maxillofacial surgery are required. Additionally, it is of vital importance to ensure the availability of sufficient tactical and strategic medical evacuation capabilities for the wounded. PMID:20101383

  6. Combat near-death experiences: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Goza, Tracy H; Holden, Janice M; Kinsey, Lee

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to add to the professional literature regarding combat near-death experiences (cNDEs) and to help clinicians and experiencers (cNDErs) recognize this phenomenon as an experience that is not indicative of mental illness. cNDErs were military personnel whose NDEs occurred during active combat or sequelae. Sixty-eight self-reported survivors of combat-related close brushes with death completed an online survey that included the Near-Death Experience Scale(1) (NDE Scale), the Life-Changes Inventory-Revised(2), and a few open-ended questions. Respondents were 20 cNDErs-participants who scored at least 7 on the NDE Scale-and 48 non-NDErs. Compared to NDErs from two methodologically similar studies, cNDErs scored lower on Bonferroni corrected t-tests than NDErs on the NDE Scale overall(3) (p < 0.0003) and on Affective and Transcendental subscales; they scored higher on the Cognitive subscale(1) (p < 0.0007). In Life-Changes Inventory-Revised total change and six of seven value clusters, cNDErs, compared to non-NDErs, scored in the same direction as numerous other studies of NDE aftereffects, but none of the differences were statistically significant and all reflected small effect sizes except total change and changes in spirituality that reflected medium effect sizes--a finding that corresponded to analysis of narrative responses. PMID:25269129

  7. Scheduling real-time messages in combat vehicle LANs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Paul; Sarkar, Susanta P.

    1999-07-01

    The emergence of LAN architectures in Combat Vehicle computer system is part of an emerging new class of LAN systems. These systems operate in harsh, non-deterministic environments, and are expected to sustain faults and continue operating. The computer system perform dual functions of system control and real-time information exchange. The LANs in these systems have a hybrid message set consisting of vehicle control messages with crisply defined time constraints and real-time information with vaguely defined time constraints. Among platforms of this type, we find combat vehicles of all types, systems involved in the clean up of hazardous materials, space vehicles, and special anti-terrorist vehicles. We present the Adaptive Earliest Deadline First (AEDF) scheduling algorithm and a benefit metric for measuring performance. The AEDF scheduler was developed for the message sets found in combat vehicle LANs. This scheduler guarantees 100 percent of message time constraints under nominal conditions and optimizes scheduling under overload conditions induced by faults. The benefit metric provides an accurate means of evaluating scheduler performance based on message importance, timeliness and state.

  8. Scavenging nucleic acid debris to combat autoimmunity and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Holl, Eda K; Shumansky, Kara L; Borst, Luke B; Burnette, Angela D; Sample, Christopher J; Ramsburg, Elizabeth A; Sullenger, Bruce A

    2016-08-30

    Nucleic acid-containing debris released from dead and dying cells can be recognized as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) or pattern-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by the innate immune system. Inappropriate activation of the innate immune response can engender pathological inflammation and autoimmune disease. To combat such diseases, major efforts have been made to therapeutically target the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that recognize such DAMPs and PAMPs, or the downstream effector molecules they engender, to limit inflammation. Unfortunately, such strategies can limit the ability of the immune system to combat infection. Previously, we demonstrated that nucleic acid-binding polymers can act as molecular scavengers and limit the ability of artificial nucleic acid ligands to activate PRRs. Herein, we demonstrate that nucleic acid scavengers (NASs) can limit pathological inflammation and nucleic acid-associated autoimmunity in lupus-prone mice. Moreover, we observe that such NASs do not limit an animal's ability to combat viral infection, but rather their administration improves survival when animals are challenged with lethal doses of influenza. These results indicate that molecules that scavenge extracellular nucleic acid debris represent potentially safer agents to control pathological inflammation associated with a wide range of autoimmune and infectious diseases. PMID:27528673

  9. Executive Functioning of Combat Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Katy D; Soper, Henry V; Berenji, Gholam R

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates neuropsychological deficits in recently deployed veterans with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Veterans discharged from 2007 to 2012 were recruited from Veterans Affairs clinics. Independent groups of participants with mTBI (n = 57) and those without TBI (n = 57) were administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II, Combat Exposure Scale, Word Memory Test, and the Self-Awareness of Deficits Interview. Neuropsychological instruments included the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, Letter and Category Fluency, Trail-Making Test-Parts A and B, Christiansen H-abbreviated, Soper Neuropsychology Screen, Wechsler Memory Scale subtests Logical Memory I and II, and the Street Completion Test. The mTBI group performed significantly worse on all of the executive and nonexecutive measurements with the exception of Category Fluency, after controlling for age, depression effort, and combat exposure. Depression and combat exposure were greater for the mTBI group. The mTBI group scored poorer on effort, but only the Multiple Choice subtest was significant. The mTBI group had good awareness of their deficits. PMID:26496530

  10. Prediction model for attrition from a combat unit training program.

    PubMed

    Moran, Daniel S; Evans, Rachel K; Arbel, Yael; Hadid, Amir; Laor, Arie; Fuks, Yael

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a prediction model for the attrition rate of soldiers from an 8-month advanced military training program based on physical and psychological factors. Two groups of 59 and 61 healthy, fit young men (18.7 ± 0.7 years) entering a rigorous combat unit training program in the Israeli Defense Forces were recruited to participate in this study. Data on anthropometrics, nutrition, blood measures (chemical and hematological), fitness, and bone quality were collected on the induction day. Psychological questionnaires were completed at 3 time points: baseline--upon entry to basic training (BT), after 2 months, and after 4 months (completion of BT). The data of the 2 groups were pooled together for the analysis and to construct a new prediction model for attrition (Patt) as follows: Patt = 11.20 - 0.87Est(Com4) - 0.72Sc - 0.23%BF; where Est(Com4) is commander appreciation as perceived by the soldier after 4-month BT, Sc is a self-confidence grade, and %BF is the % body fat. The new suggested model successfully predicted 75.3% of subject attrition in the combat unit. We therefore concluded that Special Forces recruits with relatively low body fat percentage (%BF), low self-esteem, and who feel unappreciated by their commander are at a higher dropout risk from a rigorous combat training program. PMID:21988903

  11. Women in Combat: Summary of Findings and a Way Ahead.

    PubMed

    Tepe, Victoria; Yarnell, Angela; Nindl, Bradley C; Van Arsdale, Stephanie; Deuster, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    The Women in Combat Symposium was held at the Defense Health Headquarters April 29 to May 1, 2014, cohosted by the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs and the Consortium for Health and Military Performance. The conference was a call to renew and extend research investment and policy commitment to recognize operational scenarios, requirements, health priorities, and combat-related injury exposures uniquely relevant to the performance and well-being of female Service members. Symposium participants worked in groups to identify knowledge and capability gaps critical to the successful integration, health, and performance of female Service members in combat roles and to develop recommendations for researchers and policy makers to address gaps in three specific areas of concern: Leadership and Peer Behavior, Operational Performance, and Health and Well-Being. Consensus findings are summarized as 20 research gaps and accompanying recommendations. Each represents an opportunity to advance health and performance outcomes and to leverage female Service members' strengths and capacities to the general benefit of all Service members and their families. PMID:26741909

  12. Male combat veterans' narratives of PTSD, masculinity, and health.

    PubMed

    Caddick, Nick; Smith, Brett; Phoenix, Cassandra

    2015-01-01

    This article uniquely examines the ways a group of male combat veterans talk about masculinity and how, following post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), they performed masculinities in the context of a surfing group, and what effects this had upon their health and wellbeing. Participant observations and life history interviews were conducted with a group of combat veterans who belonged to a surfing charity for veterans experiencing PTSD. Data were rigorously explored via narrative analysis. Our findings revealed the ways in which veterans enacted masculinities in accordance with the values that were cultivated during military service. These masculine performances in the surfing group had important effects both on and for the veterans' wellbeing. Significantly, the study highlights how masculine performances can be seen alternately as a danger and as a resource for health and wellbeing in relation to PTSD. The article advances knowledge on combat veterans and mental health with critical implications for the promotion of male veterans' mental health. These include the original suggestion that health-promoting masculine performances might be recognised and supported in PTSD treatment settings. Rather than automatically viewing masculinity as problematic, this article moves the field forward by highlighting how hegemonic masculinities can be reconstructed in positive ways which might improve veterans' health and wellbeing. A video abstract of this article can be found at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BaYzaOP1kAY. PMID:25601067

  13. 48 CFR 47.404 - Air freight forwarders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air freight forwarders. 47... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Air Transportation by U.S.-Flag Carriers 47.404 Air freight forwarders. (a) Agencies may use air freight forwarders that are engaged in international air transportation (49...

  14. 48 CFR 47.404 - Air freight forwarders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air freight forwarders. 47... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Air Transportation by U.S.-Flag Carriers 47.404 Air freight forwarders. (a) Agencies may use air freight forwarders that are engaged in international air transportation (49...

  15. Graphics development of DCOR: Deterministic combat model of Oak Ridge. [Deterministic Combat model of Oak Ridge (DCOR)

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, G. ); Azmy, Y.Y. )

    1992-10-01

    DCOR is a user-friendly computer implementation of a deterministic combat model developed at ORNL. To make the interpretation of the results more intuitive, a conversion of the numerical solution to a graphic animation sequence of battle evolution is desirable. DCOR uses a coarse computational spatial mesh superimposed on the battlefield. This research is aimed at developing robust methods for computing the position of the combative units over the continuum (and also pixeled) battlefield, from DCOR's discrete-variable solution representing the density of each force type evaluated at gridpoints. Three main problems have been identified and solutions have been devised and implemented in a new visualization module of DCOR. First, there is the problem of distributing the total number of objects, each representing a combative unit of each force type, among the gridpoints at each time level of the animation. This problem is solved by distributing, for each force type, the total number of combative units, one by one, to the gridpoint with the largest calculated number of units. Second, there is the problem of distributing the number of units assigned to each computational gridpoint over the battlefield area attributed to that point. This problem is solved by distributing the units within that area by taking into account the influence of surrounding gridpoints using linear interpolation. Finally, time interpolated solutions must be generated to produce a sufficient number of frames to create a smooth animation sequence. Currently, enough frames may be generated either by direct computation via the PDE solver or by using linear programming techniques to linearly interpolate intermediate frames between calculated frames.

  16. Relationship quality and student engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culver, Jennifer

    The purpose of this study was to examine the qualities of support, relatedness, and negative interaction within parent-child and teacher-student relationships and their association with cognitive, psychological, and behavioral engagement. Additionally, this study explored the contributions of cognitive and psychological engagement on behavioral engagement. The role of gender, grade, and ethnicity on relationship quality and engagement was also considered. Participants (n=311) were students in grades three through five from a suburban school district in southeastern Michigan. Perceptions of teacher-student relationship quality varied by grade level. In general, younger students reported greater teacher support and relatedness in comparison to older students. Conversely, older students perceived greater conflict within the teacher-student relationship. Student engagement also varied by grade level, with younger students reporting greater engagement than older students. Ethnicity also contributed to variance in student engagement, with African American students reporting significantly more engagement than Caucasian or Multiracial students. Teacher-student relationship quality was a significant predictor of student engagement, even after controlling for student characteristics and parent-child relationship variables. Results of path analysis revealed that cognitive and psychological engagement contributed significantly to behavioral engagement.

  17. Supreme Court unanimously okays use of RICO to combat antiabortion violence.

    PubMed

    1994-02-01

    The recent US Supreme Court decision that abortion clinics can use a federal antiracketeering law to sue anti-abortion picketers and blockaders provides the abortion rights movement with an important tool for combating escalating violence. The January 24, 1994, decision was issued only 6 weeks after the National Organization for Women vs. Scheidler case was argued. The case stated that groups such as Operation Rescue had conspired to conduct a "nationwide campaign of terror" aimed at depriving women of the right to abortion and forcing abortion clinics to close down, whether through property damage or intimidation of staff and patients. The 1970 Racketeering Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO) provides triple monetary damages and prison sentences of up to 20 years for those who engage in 2 or more incidents of extortion, arson, and kidnapping. The Court is scheduled to review a Florida case, Madsen vs Women's Health Center, and the outcome should clarify the relationship between RICO and First Amendment interests. In this case, a federal appeals court had declared an order by a state judge that prohibited anti-abortion protesters from coming within 300 feet of the abortion clinic or the homes of clinic personnel to be an unconstitutional restriction on free speech in a public form. PMID:12287617

  18. An electrocortical investigation of voluntary emotion regulation in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Jacklynn M; MacNamara, Annmarie; DiGangi, Julia A; Kennedy, Amy E; Rabinak, Christine A; Patwell, Ryan; Greenstein, Justin E; Proescher, Eric; Rauch, Sheila A M; Hajcak, Greg; Phan, K Luan

    2016-03-30

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) - a debilitating disorder characterized by severe deficits in emotion regulation - is prevalent among U.S. military veterans. Research into the pathophysiology of PTSD has focused primarily on emotional reactivity, showing evidence of heightened neural response during negative affect provocation. By comparison, studies of brain functioning during the voluntary regulation of negative affect are limited. In the current study, combat-exposed U.S. military veterans with (n=25) and without (n=25) PTSD performed an emotion regulation task during electroencephalographic (EEG) recording. The late positive potential (LPP) was used as a measure of sustained attention toward, and processing of, negative and neutral pictures, and was scored prior to and after instructions to either maintain or down-regulate emotional response using the strategy of cognitive reappraisal. Results showed that groups did not differ in picture-elicited LPP amplitude either prior to or during cognitive reappraisal; reappraisal reduced the LPP in both groups over time. Time-dependent increases in LPP amplitude as a function of emotional reactivity maintenance were evident in the non-PTSD group only. This latter finding may signal PTSD-related deficits in sustained engagement with emotion-processing over the course of several seconds. PMID:26922156

  19. 40 CFR 257.3-7 - Air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air. 257.3-7 Section 257.3-7... and Practices § 257.3-7 Air. (a) The facility or practice shall not engage in open burning of... 110 of the Clean Air Act, as amended. (c) As used in this section “open burning” means the...

  20. 40 CFR 257.3-7 - Air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air. 257.3-7 Section 257.3-7... and Practices § 257.3-7 Air. (a) The facility or practice shall not engage in open burning of... 110 of the Clean Air Act, as amended. (c) As used in this section “open burning” means the...

  1. Application of networked unattended ground sensors in urban combat and stability operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciarretta, Albert A.; Yerace, Gary A.

    2005-05-01

    Increasingly, the U.S. is being drawn into non-traditional military operations in complex terrain, including villages and cities occupied by a combination of non-combatants and hostile forces. This trend will continue, as the world's urban population continues its significant growth. Of all the missions faced by U.S. military forces, combat and peacekeeping operations in urban terrain present the greatest challenges. In response, commanders will need to employ network-/execution-centric combined arms forces and Joint capabilities at the lowest tactical echelons and with minimal staffs. To do so, commanders will need information, especially from networked unattended ground sensors (UGS), to rapidly and effectively plan and rehearse urban operations, synchronize ground and air forces, command and control mixed assets, coordinate effects (from weapons and actions), and determine logistics support. Today, urban terrain operations" tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) are transforming from painstaking ground assaults with large numbers of forces and excessively destructive remote strikes, to more efficient Joint operations which identify, isolate, and assault nodes with precision weapons and smaller forces. Successful employment of such TTPs will support future command and control (C2) concepts; reduce force requirements, civilian casualties and collateral damage; and shorten mission times. These TTPs, future C2 concepts, and the complex urban environment will drive the networked UGS requirements for future operations. This paper will first address these emerging TTPs, future C2 concepts, and the complex urban environment; and identify associated networked UGS challenges. Next, the paper will discuss the recent uses of networked UGS in experiments and demonstrations. Finally, the paper will discuss the innovative employment of networked UGS in these experiments and demonstrations by Warfighters (e.g., for developing situational understanding, mission planning

  2. Engaging with Policy Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, R.; Miller, S.; Heward, A.

    2011-10-01

    The need to engage with Europe's policy makers is more crucial now than ever. MEPs' understanding of the contribution and importance of planetary science to European research, industry, culture, education and job-creation may have major implications for both the direction of research and future funding for Europe's planetary science community. The mid-term review of the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme is currently in progress and these discussions will feed into the drafting of Framework Eight. With space-going nations around the world redefining priorities, Europe may have an opportunity to take a lead in planetology on a global scale. This should be taken into account when considering planetology within the frameworks of the European Space Policy. This panel discussion, hosted by Dr Robert Massey, Deputy Executive of the Royal Astronomical Session, will look at engaging with policy makers from the point of view of those working in the European Parliament, European Commission, industry, as well as the planetary community.

  3. Development of a lightweight portable ventilator for far-forward battlefield combat casualty support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutchis, Protagoras N.; Smith, Dexter G.; Ko, Harvey W.; Wiesmann, William P.; Pranger, L. Alex

    1999-07-01

    Immediate medical provision substantially reduces the number of fatalities sustained during military operations. However, the shift from large-scale regional conflicts to smaller peacekeeping and humanitarian missions has reduced the military medical support infrastructure. Civilian emergency medical services have long emphasized the 'golden hour' during which a patient must receive definitive medical attention. Without on-scene medical support, injured soldiers must be transported significant distances before receiving advanced medical care, and rapid transport to a medical facility is not always a viable option. Technological solutions enable military medics to deliver advanced medical care on the battlefield. We report here on the development of a small lightweight portable respirator for the treatment of far- forward battlefield casualties. The Far Forward Life Support System (FFLSS) utilizes a combination of COTS (commercial off the shelf) components and custom designed systems to provide ventilatory support to injured combatants. It also incorporates a small IV fluid pump and IV fluids for resuscitation. A microcompressor control system monitors both system performance and patient parameters for system control. Telemetry to a pager-like device worn by the front line medic alerts of any anomalies in ventilator or patient parameters, which will add greatly to triage decisions and resource management. Novel elements of the FLSS design include oxygen generation, low-pressure air generation, available patient suction, and the absence of any high pressure air cylinders. A prototype developed for animal testing will be described in detail as well as further design requirements for the human rated prototype.

  4. A Positron Tomographic Emission Study of Olfactory Induced Emotional Recall in Veterans with and without Combat-related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Vermetten, Eric; Schmahl, Christian; Southwick, Steven M.; Bremner, J Douglas

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Memory for odors is often associated with highly emotional experiences, and odors have long been noted by clinicians to be precipitants of trauma symptoms in PTSD. Primitive brain systems involved in fear responsivity and survival also mediate smell, including the olfactory cortex and amygdala. The purpose of this study was to measure neural correlates of olfaction in PTSD. METHODS We exposed male combat veterans with PTSD (N=8) and without PTSD (N=8) to a set of smells, including diesel (related to traumatic memories of combat), and three other types of smells: odorless air, vanilla/coconut and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) (resp. a neutral, positive, and negative hedonic non-traumatic smell) in conjunction with PET imaging of cerebral blood flow and assessment of psychophysiological and behavioral symptoms. All subjects also underwent a baseline of olfactory acuity. RESULTS PTSD patients rated diesel as unpleasant and distressing, resulting in increased PTSD symptoms and anxiety in PTSD versus combat controls. Exposure to diesel resulted in an increase in regional blood flow (rCBF) in amygdala, insula, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and decreased rCBF in lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) in PTSD in comparison to combat controls. Combat controls showed less rCBF changes on any smell, and did not show amygdala activation upon diesel exposure. CONCLUSIONS These data support the hypothesis that in PTSD trauma-related smells can serve as strong emotional reminders. The findings indicate the involvement of a neural circuitry that shares olfactory elements and memory processing regions when exposed to trauma-related stimuli. PMID:17285093

  5. The stratification of military service and combat exposure, 1934–1994*

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, Alair

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that men who were exposed to combat during wartime differed from those who were not. Yet little is known about how selection into combat has changed over time. This paper estimates sequential logistic models using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine the stratification of military service and combat exposure in the US during the last six decades of the twentieth century. It tests potentially overlapping hypotheses drawn from two competing theories, class bias and dual selection. It also tests a hypothesis, drawn from the life course perspective, that the processes by which people came to see combat have changed historically. The findings show that human capital, institutional screening, and class bias all determined who saw combat. They also show that, net of historical change in the odds of service and combat, the impact of only one background characteristic, race, changed over time. PMID:21113325

  6. Combat veterans: impressions of an analytic observer in a non-analytic setting.

    PubMed

    Stein, Herbert H

    2007-01-01

    The hallmark presentation of combat trauma-nightmares, waking hallucinations, intrusive traumatic memories, and extreme affective reactions to environmental triggers-may best be conceptualized as part of an adaptive mechanism intended to protect the individual against a repetition of trauma. Combat veterans continuously must cope with the extreme affects that combat induced. Fear, rage, guilt, and grief predominate. Their mental and emotional life is complicated by a conscience split between war zone and civilian morality and by the special group dynamics of combat. Optimal clinical understanding of combat-related trauma, whether in a psychoanalytic or general mental health setting, requires an awareness of the interaction of the personal dynamics of each individual with the specific characteristics of their combat situation. PMID:18335611

  7. Modeling and simulation for collateral damage estimation in combat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Steven C.; Martin, Douglas D.

    2005-05-01

    Modeling and simulation (M&S) is increasingly used for decision support during combat operations: M&S is going to war! One of the key operational uses of M&S in combat is collateral damage estimation (CDE). Reducing undesired collateral damage (CD) in war and in operations other than war is important to the United States of America. Injuries to noncombatants and damage to protected sites are uniformly avoided by our forces whenever possible in planning and executing combat operations. This desire to limit unwanted CD presents unique challenges to command and control (C2), especially for time-sensitive targeting (TST). The challenges begin the moment a target is identified because CD estimates must meet specified criteria before target approval is granted. Therefore, CDE tools must be accurate, responsive, and human-factored, with graphics that aid C2 decisions. This paper will describe how CDE tools are used to build three-dimensional models of potential target areas and select appropriate munitions, fusing, and delivery in order to minimize predicted CD. The paper will cover the evolution of CDE from using only range rings around the target to improvements through Operation Allied Force, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation Iraqi Freedom. Positive CDE feedback from various sources, including the Secretary of Defense, lessons learned, and warfighters will be presented. Current CDE tools in the field and CDE tools used in reachback are being improved, and short-term and long-term improvements in those tools and in the CDE methodology will be described in this paper.

  8. Use of damage control and the open abdomen in combat.

    PubMed

    Bograd, Benjamin; Rodriguez, Carlos; Amdur, Richard; Gage, Fred; Elster, Eric; Dunne, James

    2013-08-01

    Despite the well-documented use of damage control laparotomy (DCL) in civilian trauma, its use has not been well described in the combat setting. Therefore, we sought to document the use of DCL and to investigate its effect on patient outcome. Prospective data were collected on 1603 combat casualties injured between April 2003 and January 2009. One hundred seventy patients (11%) underwent an exploratory laparotomy (ex lap) in theater and comprised the study cohort. DCL was defined as an abbreviated ex lap resulting in an open abdomen. Patients were stratified by age, Injury Severity Score (ISS), Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), mechanism of injury, and blood product administration. Multivariate regression analyses were used to determine risks factors for intensive care unit length of stay (ICU LOS), hospital length of stay (HLOS), and the need for DCL. Mean age of the cohort was 24 ± 5 years, ISS was 21 ± 11, and 94 per cent sustained penetrating injury. Patients with DCL comprised 50.6 per cent (n = 86) of the study cohort and had significant increases in ICU admission (P < 0.001), ICU LOS (P < 0.001), HLOS (P < 0.05), ventilator days (P < 0.001), abdominal complications (P < 0.05), but not mortality (P = 0.65) compared with patients without DCL. When compared with the non-DCL group, patients undergoing DCL required significantly more blood products (packed red blood cells, fresh-frozen plasma, platelets, and cryoprecipitate; P < 0.001). Multivariate regression analyses revealed blood transfusion and GCS as significant risk factors for DCL (P < 0.05). Patients undergoing DCL had increased complications and resource use but not mortality compared with patients not undergoing DCL. The need for combat DCL may be different compared with civilian use. Prospective studies to evaluate outcomes of DCL are warranted. PMID:23896239

  9. Variations in health communication needs among combat veterans.

    PubMed

    Schneiderman, Aaron I; Lincoln, Andrew E; Curbow, Barbara; Kang, Han K

    2004-12-01

    In this cross-sectional study of US military combat veterans, we assessed the helpfulness of different media for providing health risk communication messages. We have provided preliminary results from a postal survey of 5000 veterans sampled because of their deployment to Vietnam, the Persian Gulf, or Bosnia-Kosovo. Respondents endorsed the primary care provider as the most helpful source of health information. Access to the Internet and use of this medium for seeking health information differed by race, age, and cohort. PMID:15569954

  10. Application of novel hyperspectral imaging technologies in combat casualty care

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancio, Leopoldo C.

    2010-02-01

    Novel hyperspectral imaging (HSI) methods may play several important roles in Combat Casualty Care: (1) HSI of the skin may provide spatial data on hemoglobin saturation of oxygen, as a "window" into perfusion during shock. (2) HSI or similar technology could be incorporated into closed-loop, feedback-controlled resuscitation systems. (3) HSI may provide information about tissue viability and/or wound infection. (4) HSI in the near-infrared range may provide information on the tissue water content--greatly affected, e.g., by fluid resuscitation. Thus, further refinements in the speed and size of HSI systems are sought to make these capabilities available on the battlefield.

  11. Combating healthcare corruption and fraud with improved global health governance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Corruption is a serious threat to global health outcomes, leading to financial waste and adverse health consequences. Yet, forms of corruption impacting global health are endemic worldwide in public and private sectors, and in developed and resource-poor settings alike. Allegations of misuse of funds and fraud in global health initiatives also threaten future investment. Current domestic and sectorial-level responses are fragmented and have been criticized as ineffective. In order to address this issue, we propose a global health governance framework calling for international recognition of “global health corruption” and development of a treaty protocol to combat this crucial issue. PMID:23088820

  12. Rechargeable battery which combats shape change of the zinc anode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, E. M. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A rechargeable cell or battery is provided in which shape change of the zinc anode is combatted by profiling the ionic conductivity of the paths between the electrodes. The ion flow is greatest at the edges of the electrodes and least at the centers, thereby reducing migration of the zinc ions from edges to the center of the anode. A number of embodiments are disclosed in which the strength and/or amount of electrolyte, and/or the number and/or size of the paths provided by the separator between the electrodes, are varied to provide the desired ionic conductivity profile.

  13. Developmental flight test in combat (Joint STARS at war)

    SciTech Connect

    Muellner, G.K.; Cusimano, G.J. USAF, Electronic Systems Div., Melbourne, FL )

    1992-02-01

    The Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (Joint STARS), which employs a refurbished 707 commercial airframe as its platform and is intended to furnish AWACS-like real-time battlefield intelligence to ground operations, first flew on January 14, 1991, in support of Operation Desert Shield. Attention is presently given to Joint STARS' developmental and testing activity, with emphasis on the cycle-development and testing that occurred in Saudi Arabia and on Desert Storm combat-mission support experience gained with the system. Basic ECCM and the Joint Tactical Information Distribution System are incorporated by Joint STARS.

  14. Supramolecular Antibiotic Switches: A Potential Strategy for Combating Drug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Bai, Haotian; Lv, Fengting; Liu, Libing; Wang, Shu

    2016-08-01

    Bacterial infectious disease is a serious public health concern throughout the world. Pathogen drug resistance, arising from both rational use and abuse/misuse of germicides, complicates the situation. Aside from developing novel antibiotics and antimicrobial agents, molecular approaches have become another significant method to overcome the problem of pathogen drug resistance. Established supramolecular systems, the antibiotic properties of which can be switched "on" and "off" through host-guest interactions, show great potential in combating issues regarding antibiotic resistance in the long term, as indicated by several recent studies. In this Concept, recently developed strategies for antibacterial regulation are summarized and further directions for research into antibiotic switches are proposed. PMID:27312106

  15. A historical overview of combat stress control units of the U.S. Army.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Bryan L; Staudenmeier, James J

    2003-09-01

    Combat stress control units have been deployed to the Gulf War, Somalia, Haiti, Guantanamo Bay, Bosnia, and Kosovo. They have been very flexible and useful mental health tools for commanders in both combat and peacekeeping operations for the past decade. In their operational role they have been effective, but their garrison mission remains unclear. This article summarizes the uses, missions, and lessons learned from the various combat stress control missions around the world. PMID:14529239

  16. Effects of training and simulated combat stress on leg tourniquet application accuracy, time, and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Schreckengaust, Richard; Littlejohn, Lanny; Zarow, Gregory J

    2014-02-01

    The lower extremity tourniquet failure rate remains significantly higher in combat than in preclinical testing, so we hypothesized that tourniquet placement accuracy, speed, and effectiveness would improve during training and decline during simulated combat. Navy Hospital Corpsman (N = 89), enrolled in a Tactical Combat Casualty Care training course in preparation for deployment, applied Combat Application Tourniquet (CAT) and the Special Operations Forces Tactical Tourniquet (SOFT-T) on day 1 and day 4 of classroom training, then under simulated combat, wherein participants ran an obstacle course to apply a tourniquet while wearing full body armor and avoiding simulated small arms fire (paint balls). Application time and pulse elimination effectiveness improved day 1 to day 4 (p < 0.005). Under simulated combat, application time slowed significantly (p < 0.001), whereas accuracy and effectiveness declined slightly. Pulse elimination was poor for CAT (25% failure) and SOFT-T (60% failure) even in classroom conditions following training. CAT was more quickly applied (p < 0.005) and more effective (p < 0.002) than SOFT-T. Training fostered fast and effective application of leg tourniquets while performance declined under simulated combat. The inherent efficacy of tourniquet products contributes to high failure rates under combat conditions, pointing to the need for superior tourniquets and for rigorous deployment preparation training in simulated combat scenarios. PMID:24491604

  17. Temporal changes in combat casualties from afghanistan by nationality: 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Andrew J; Nelson, James H; Burks, Robert; Belmont, Philip J

    2013-04-01

    This study sought to evaluate temporal changes in combat deaths and improvised explosive device (IED)-related fatalities among three coalition allies in Afghanistan: the United States, Canada, and Great Britain. The website icasualties.org was used to identify American, Canadian, and British soldiers killed in combat in Afghanistan between 2006 and 2010. Population-at-risk was determined as the number of personnel serving within the Afghanistan theater for each coalition nation. Unadjusted incidence rates of combat deaths per deployed personnel, and IED deaths as a portion of total combat deaths, were derived and adjusted comparisons performed to control for confounders. Between 2006 and 2010, 1,673 combat deaths occurred in a population of 721,520 soldiers. Fifty percent of all combat deaths occurred as a result of IED attack. British personnel maintained the highest unadjusted risks of combat-related death, as well as IED-associated mortality. As compared to Americans, Canadian personnel were at a significantly increased risk of combat-related death and IED-related fatality. Among Americans, there was a significant reduction in IED-related deaths between 2010 and 2009. For Canadians, no significant change in IED fatalities as compared to total number of troops, or total combat deaths, was appreciated at any point in the study. PMID:23707822

  18. Adult Music Engagement: Perspectives from Three Musically Engaged Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Darrin H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the phenomenon of adult music engagement from the perspectives of musically engaged adults not currently participating in activities that are direct extensions of the typical K-12 music curriculum. Three participants were purposefully chosen and include an avid listener, a church praise team member, and a…

  19. Measuring Teacher Engagement: Development of the Engaged Teachers Scale (ETS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Robert M.; Yerdelen, Sündüs; Durksen, Tracy L.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to create and validate a brief multidimensional scale of teacher engagement--the Engaged Teachers Scale (ETS)--that reflects the particular characteristics of teachers' work in classrooms and schools. We collected data from three separate samples of teachers (total N = 810), and followed five steps in developing and…

  20. Mixed-Handedness in Identical Twins Discordant for Combat Exposure in Vietnam: Relationship to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Jared M; Pitman, Seth R; Tanev, Kaloyan S; Pitman, Roger K; Chemtob, Claude M

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the degree of mixed-handedness in predominantly right-handed Vietnam combat veteran twins and their identical, combat-unexposed cotwins. The "high-risk" cotwins of combat veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) had more mixed-handedness (i.e., less right-handedness) than the "low-risk" cotwins of combat veterans without PTSD. Self-reported combat exposure in combat-exposed twins was a mediator of the association between handedness in their unexposed cotwins and PTSD in the twins themselves. We conclude that mixed-handedness is a familial risk factor for combat-related PTSD. This risk may be mediated in part by a proclivity for mixed-handed soldiers and Marines to experience heavier combat. PMID:26404173

  1. Enhancing US-Japan Cooperation to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) is aimed at preventing, detecting, and responding to infectious disease threats. To move toward these goals, the United States has committed to partner with at least 30 countries around the world. One of the objectives of the GHSA includes “[p]reventing the emergence and spread of antimicrobial drug resistant organisms.” Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a growing global health security problem, with inappropriate use of antimicrobial medications in humans and animals and a lack of new antimicrobial medications contributing to this problem. While AMR is a growing global concern, working on it regionally can make this multifaceted problem more manageable. The United States and Japan, both world leaders in the life sciences, are close allies that have established cooperative programs in medical research and global health that can be used to work on combating AMR and advance the GHSA. Although the United States and Japan have cooperated on health issues in the past, their cooperation on the growing problem of AMR has been limited. Their existing networks, cooperative programs, and close relationships can and should be used to work on combating this expanding problem. PMID:25470465

  2. Changes in blood lactate concentrations during taekwondo combat simulation

    PubMed Central

    Bürger-Mendonça, Marcos; de Oliveira, João Carlos; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa; Bielavsky, Monica; Azevedo, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze blood lactate response before, during and after simulated taekwondo fight in young male athletes. The experiment was composed of simulated official taekwondo fight. During the experiment a total of 7 blood samples (25 μL) were collected that following: at rest, after 1st, 2nd, and 3rd rounds, and 3, 5, and 10 min after the end of combat. The results showed that blood lactate concentrations [Lac]B increased significantly after 1st, 2nd, and 3rd rounds of the combat compared to the rested values. The [Lac]B after 3rd round was higher when compared to 3, 5, and 10 min of recovery. After 10 min of passive recovery, the [Lac]B was significantly lesser than 3 and 5 min of recovery, and 2nd round. These data showed that taekwondo requires high activation of anaerobic lactic metabolism, and improves the ability to rapidly remove the lactate from blood. PMID:26535215

  3. Enhancing US-Japan cooperation to combat antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Gerbin, C Sachi

    2014-01-01

    The Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) is aimed at preventing, detecting, and responding to infectious disease threats. To move toward these goals, the United States has committed to partner with at least 30 countries around the world. One of the objectives of the GHSA includes "[p]reventing the emergence and spread of antimicrobial drug resistant organisms." Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a growing global health security problem, with inappropriate use of antimicrobial medications in humans and animals and a lack of new antimicrobial medications contributing to this problem. While AMR is a growing global concern, working on it regionally can make this multifaceted problem more manageable. The United States and Japan, both world leaders in the life sciences, are close allies that have established cooperative programs in medical research and global health that can be used to work on combating AMR and advance the GHSA. Although the United States and Japan have cooperated on health issues in the past, their cooperation on the growing problem of AMR has been limited. Their existing networks, cooperative programs, and close relationships can and should be used to work on combating this expanding problem. PMID:25470465

  4. Battlefield Documentation of Tactical Combat Casualty Care in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Robinson, John B; Smith, Michael P; Gross, Kirby R; Sauer, Samual W; Geracci, James J; Day, Charlie D; Kotwal, Russ S

    2016-01-01

    Performance improvement is reliant on information and data, as you cannot improve what you do not measure. The US military went to war in 2001 without an integrated trauma care system to collect and analyze combat casualty care data. By 2006, the conflict in Afghanistan began appreciating the capture and consolidation of hospital care documentation into the Department of Defense Trauma Registry. In contrast, a paucity of documentation has existed for prehospital or tactical combat casualty care (TCCC). Using the 75th Ranger casualty documentation model established in 2005, the Joint Trauma System developed a casualty data collection system for prehospital care using the TCCC Card, the TCCC After Action Report (AAR), and the Prehospital Trauma Registry. In 2013, this system was mandated for use by US forces in Afghanistan. The Joint Trauma System also created and deployed a prehospital team to be an integral part of the Joint Theater Trauma System in Afghanistan. This prehospital team provided prehospital training and facilitated prehospital data capture. Described and analyzed in this report are prehospital data captured in Afghanistan from 2013 to 2014 using the TCCC Card and the TCCC AAR. PMID:27215873

  5. Oil combatting in a cold environment using bioremediation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Rytkoenen, J.; Liukkonen, S.; Levchenko, A.; Worthington, T.; Matishov, G.; Petrov, V.

    1995-12-31

    The clean-up of oil spills in the Arctic environment is often limited by severe and cold environmental conditions. Mechanical methods are usually considered to be most favorable for oil spill combatting. However, remote spill sites, long distances, severe environmental conditions and sensitive ecosystems mean that more advanced combatting techniques are also needed to back up conventional recovery and clean-up measures. This paper describes the results of macro-scale tests conducted by VTT Manufacturing Technology to study the effectiveness of biosorbent technology against marine oil spills. The use of biosorbents was studied as a joint research project involving VTT (Finland) and the Murmansk Marine Biological Institute (Russia). Selected biosorbent products of Marine Systems, U.S.A., and the Bios Group, Russia, were used in macro-scale tests conducted in a basin measuring 15.0 {times} 3.0 m in length and width, respectively. This paper outlines the macro-scale test project, including microbiological and chemical studies, supported by toxicity tests and various analyses to understand better the fate of oil, especially the degree of biodegradation during the test.

  6. Artificial intelligence and its impact on combat aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Lawrence M.; Abbot, Kathy; Kleider, Alfred; Moon, D.; Retelle, John

    1987-01-01

    As the threat becomes more sophisticated and weapon systems more complex to meet the threat, the need for machines to assist the pilot in the assessment of information becomes paramount. This is particularly true in real-time, high stress situations. The advent of artificial intelligence (AI) technology offers the opportunity to make quantum advances in the application of machine technology. However, if AI systems are to find their way into combat aircraft, they must meet certain criteria. The systems must be responsive, reliable, easy to use, flexible, and understandable. These criteria are compared with the current status used in a combat airborne application. Current AI systems deal with nonreal time applications and require significant user interaction. On the other hand, aircraft applications require real time, minimum human interaction systems. In order to fill the gap between where technology is now and where it must be for aircraft applications, considerable government research is ongoing in NASA, DARPA, and three services. The ongoing research is briefly summarized. Finally, recognizing that AI technology is in its embryonic stage, and the aircraft needs are very demanding, a number of issues arise. These issues are delineated and findings are provided where appropriate.

  7. Hearing loss associated with US military combat deployment.

    PubMed

    Wells, Timothy S; Seelig, Amber D; Ryan, Margaret A K; Jones, Jason M; Hooper, Tomoko I; Jacobson, Isabel G; Boyko, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to define the risk of hearing loss among US military members in relation to their deployment experiences. Data were drawn from the Millennium Cohort Study. Self-reported data and objective military service data were used to assess exposures and outcomes. Among all 48,540 participants, 7.5% self-reported new-onset hearing loss. Self-reported hearing loss showed moderate to substantial agreement (k = 0.57-0.69) with objective audiometric measures. New-onset hearing loss was associated with combat deployment (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.49-1.77), as well as male sex and older age. Among deployers, new-onset hearing loss was also associated with proximity to improvised explosive devices (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.62-2.73) and with experiencing a combat-related head injury (AOR = 6.88, 95% CI = 3.77-12.54). These findings have implications for health care and disability planning, as well as for prevention programs. PMID:25599756

  8. Methods of body mass reduction by combat sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Brito, Ciro José; Roas A, Fernanda Castro Martins; Brito I, Surian Souza; Marins J, Carlos Bouzas; Córdova, Claudio; Franchini, Emerson

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the methods adopted to reduce body mass (BM) in competitive athletes from the grappling (judo, jujitsu) and striking (karate and tae kwon do) combat sports in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. An exploratory methodology was employed through descriptive research, using a standardized questionnaire with objective questions self-administered to 580 athletes (25.0 ± 3.7 yr, 74.5 ± 9.7 kg, and 16.4% ± 5.1% body fat). Regardless of the sport, 60% of the athletes reported using a method of rapid weight loss (RWL) through increased energy expenditure. Strikers tend to begin reducing BM during adolescence. Furthermore, 50% of the sample used saunas and plastic clothing, and only 26.1% received advice from a nutritionist. The authors conclude that a high percentage of athletes uses RWL methods. In addition, a high percentage of athletes uses unapproved or prohibited methods such as diuretics, saunas, and plastic clothing. The age at which combat sport athletes reduce BM for the first time is also worrying, especially among strikers. PMID:22349031

  9. Hearing loss associated with US military combat deployment

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Timothy S.; Seelig, Amber D.; Ryan, Margaret A. K.; Jones, Jason M.; Hooper, Tomoko I.; Jacobson, Isabel G.; Boyko, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to define the risk of hearing loss among US military members in relation to their deployment experiences. Data were drawn from the Millennium Cohort Study. Self-reported data and objective military service data were used to assess exposures and outcomes. Among all 48,540 participants, 7.5% self-reported new-onset hearing loss. Self-reported hearing loss showed moderate to substantial agreement (k = 0.57-0.69) with objective audiometric measures. New-onset hearing loss was associated with combat deployment (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.49-1.77), as well as male sex and older age. Among deployers, new-onset hearing loss was also associated with proximity to improvised explosive devices (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.62-2.73) and with experiencing a combat-related head injury (AOR = 6.88, 95% CI = 3.77-12.54). These findings have implications for health care and disability planning, as well as for prevention programs. PMID:25599756

  10. Depression, anxiety, and stress in partners of Australian combat veterans and military personnel: a comparison with Australian population norms

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Partners of Australian combat veterans are at an increased risk of experiencing mental health problems. The present study provides a comparative analysis of the mental health of partners of veterans with that of the Australian normative data. To compare different types of groups of partners, the study samples comprised: (a) partners of Australian combat veterans (Sample 1: n = 282, age M = 60.79, SD = 5.05), (b) a sub-sample of partners of Australian combat veterans from the previous sample (Sample 2: n = 50; M = 60.06, SD = 4.80), (c) partners of Special Air Services Regiment (SASR) personnel (Sample 3: n = 40, age M = 34.39SD = 7.01), and (d) partners of current serving military (non-SASR) personnel (Sample 4: n = 38, age M = 32.37, SD = 6.20). Respondents completed measures assessing their reported levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. Samples 1 and 2 comprised partners of Australian military veterans who reported significantly greater symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress than the comparative population norms. The sample of SASR personnel partners (Sample 3) reported significantly lower levels of depression and anxiety, whereas the sample with non-SASR personnel partners (Sample 4) reported a significantly greater stress symptomatology than the comparative norms. Number of deployments was found to be associated with depression, anxiety, and stress in partners of non-SASR veterans (Sample 4). Lessons and protective factors can be learnt from groups within the current military as to what may assist partners and families to maintain a better level of psychosocial health.

  11. Students' Engagement in Literacy Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Seth A.; Malloy, Jacquelynn A.; Parsons, Allison Ward; Burrowbridge, Sarah Cohen

    2015-01-01

    This article offers insight into what makes literacy tasks engaging or disengaging based on observations of and interviews with students. In a yearlong study of a sixth-grade classroom in a Title I school, students engaged in integrated literacy-social studies instruction. Researchers studied the degree of task openness and the degree to which…

  12. Engaged Time in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns E., Beverly H.; Crowley, Paula; Guetzloe, Eleanor

    2008-01-01

    Foremost in an effective curriculum for students with emotional and behavioral disorder (E/BD) is a high level of engaged time--time spent doing meaningful learning activities. Engaged time (time-on-task) is the portion of instructional time that students spend directly involved in learning activities. Walker and Severson (1992) defined the…

  13. Student Engagement and Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourke, Liam; Kanuka, Heather

    2012-01-01

    In this study the authors assessed student engagement during a short-term study-abroad program using the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE). Data were collected from a group of Canadian undergraduates spending six weeks in Mexico. Their program included a 10-day bus tour, three half-credit courses, and accommodations with local families.…

  14. Better Schools through Public Engagement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Milan; Luther, Vicki

    It is increasingly clear that even the best schools must engage in systematic and continuous appraisal of their performance, in partnership with the community. A joint planning process could start by engaging citizens in identifying critical issues, relevant assets, and key strategies that can move the community toward a preferred future. Chapter…

  15. Some Fundamentals of Engaging Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Young, Raymond; Monroe, Martha C.

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that stories serve as a singularly effective replacement for direct experience, a useful but sometimes difficult environmental education technique. Argues that the effectiveness of stories is derived from their ability to engage the attention of the reader. Lists elements that can be used to create cognitively engaging stories. Contains…

  16. Who Engages with Moral Beauty?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diessner, Rhett; Iyer, Ravi; Smith, Meghan M.; Haidt, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Aristotle considered moral beauty to be the "telos" of the human virtues. Displays of moral beauty have been shown to elicit the moral emotion of elevation and cause a desire to become a better person and to engage in prosocial behavior. Study 1 ("N" = 5380) shows engagement with moral beauty is related to several psychological…

  17. Student Engagement: Rhetoric and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Paula; Corbin, Lillian

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there has been much interest in higher education literature and policy on the concepts of student engagement and disengagement. While most academic writings recognise the significance of student engagement, they have tended to concentrate on it in relation to academic activities. Increasingly, universities are "cascading" down the need…

  18. Student Engagement: Buzzword of Fuzzword?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuori, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Global interest in the value of student engagement in higher education has led researchers to question whether the use of the term is clear and consistent. This article investigates the construction of the term "student engagement" at three US universities through an analysis of qualitative data. Whereas a shared understanding of the…

  19. Collaborative Stakeholder Engagement. Special Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Matt; Chrislip, David; Workman, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Stakeholder engagement and collaboration are essential to the development of an effective state plan. Engaging a diverse group of stakeholders tasked with working together to create education policies that will have a positive, lasting impact on students is not as easy as it sounds. Experts in the field argue that the traditional stakeholder…

  20. Students Individual Engagement in GIS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Lene Møller; Christiansen, Frederik; Rump, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops two sets of concepts to theorize why students engage differently in Geographical Information Systems (GIS). These theoretical concepts are used as an analytical lens to explore empirical data on the experiences and engagement of students enrolled in an undergraduate GIS course in planning and management. The analysis shows that…

  1. 14 CFR 296.3 - Indirect cargo air carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Indirect cargo air carrier. 296.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.3 Indirect cargo air carrier. An indirect cargo air carrier is any U.S. citizen who undertakes to engage indirectly in...

  2. 14 CFR 296.3 - Indirect cargo air carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Indirect cargo air carrier. 296.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.3 Indirect cargo air carrier. An indirect cargo air carrier is any U.S. citizen who undertakes to engage indirectly in...

  3. 14 CFR 296.3 - Indirect cargo air carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Indirect cargo air carrier. 296.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.3 Indirect cargo air carrier. An indirect cargo air carrier is any U.S. citizen who undertakes to engage indirectly in...

  4. 29 CFR 1910.425 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Surface-supplied air diving. 1910.425 Section 1910.425... Procedures § 1910.425 Surface-supplied air diving. (a) General. Employers engaged in surface-supplied air...-supplied air diving shall not be conducted at depths deeper than 190 fsw, except that dives with...

  5. 29 CFR 1910.425 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface-supplied air diving. 1910.425 Section 1910.425... Procedures § 1910.425 Surface-supplied air diving. (a) General. Employers engaged in surface-supplied air...-supplied air diving shall not be conducted at depths deeper than 190 fsw, except that dives with...

  6. 14 CFR 296.3 - Indirect cargo air carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indirect cargo air carrier. 296.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.3 Indirect cargo air carrier. An indirect cargo air carrier is any U.S. citizen who undertakes to engage indirectly in...

  7. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  8. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  9. Development of etofenprox-treated U.S. military combat uniforms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, the loss of personnel from death and disease has greatly outnumbered the corresponding loss due to combat during military conflict. In 1951, the U.S. military elected to treat combat uniforms with a blend known as M-1960 for the purpose of personal protection from arthropods that tran...

  10. Does Combat Exposure Make You a More Violent or Criminal Person? Evidence from the Vietnam Draft

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlfs, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This study exploits the differential effects of the Vietnam War across birth cohorts to measure the effects of combat exposure on later violence and crime. Combat exposure and violent acts are measured using self-reports from the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study. I find large positive effects on violence for blacks, suggestive evidence…

  11. 3 CFR 13648 - Executive Order 13648 of July 1, 2013. Combating Wildlife Trafficking

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Executive Order 13648 of July 1, 2013. Combating Wildlife Trafficking 13648 Order 13648 Presidential Documents Executive Orders Executive Order 13648 of July 1, 2013 EO 13648 Combating Wildlife Trafficking By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United...

  12. The Aftermath of Combat-Related PTSD: Toward an Understanding of Transgenerational Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearrow, Melissa; Cosgrove, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The number of military personnel who are involved in combat situations continues to increase. As a result, researchers have identified risk factors associated with the development of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The authors of this article review some of the characteristics of military personnel involved in these conflicts,…

  13. Complex Perceptions of Identity: The Experiences of Student Combat Veterans in Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Shane Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study illustrates how complex perceptions of identity influence the community college experience for student veterans who have been in combat, creating barriers to their overall persistence. The collective experiences of student combat veterans at two community colleges in northwestern Massachusetts are presented, and a Combat…

  14. Mosquito bite protection evaluation of permethrin-treated US military combat uniforms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, the loss of personnel from death and disease has greatly outnumbered the corresponding loss due to combat during military conflict. In 1951, the US military elected to treat their combat uniforms with a blend known as M-1960 for the purpose of personal protection from arthropods that ...

  15. 26 CFR 1.112-1 - Combat zone compensation of members of the Armed Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Forces. 1.112-1 Section 1.112-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY....112-1 Combat zone compensation of members of the Armed Forces. (a) Combat zone compensation exclusion... excludes from gross income the following compensation of members of the Armed Forces: (i)...

  16. 26 CFR 1.112-1 - Combat zone compensation of members of the Armed Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Forces. 1.112-1 Section 1.112-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY....112-1 Combat zone compensation of members of the Armed Forces. (a) Combat zone compensation exclusion... excludes from gross income the following compensation of members of the Armed Forces: (i)...

  17. 26 CFR 1.112-1 - Combat zone compensation of members of the Armed Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Forces. 1.112-1 Section 1.112-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY....112-1 Combat zone compensation of members of the Armed Forces. (a) Combat zone compensation exclusion... excludes from gross income the following compensation of members of the Armed Forces: (i)...

  18. 26 CFR 1.112-1 - Combat zone compensation of members of the Armed Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Forces. 1.112-1 Section 1.112-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY....112-1 Combat zone compensation of members of the Armed Forces. (a) Combat zone compensation exclusion... excludes from gross income the following compensation of members of the Armed Forces: (i)...

  19. 26 CFR 1.112-1 - Combat zone compensation of members of the Armed Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Forces. 1.112-1 Section 1.112-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY....112-1 Combat zone compensation of members of the Armed Forces. (a) Combat zone compensation exclusion... excludes from gross income the following compensation of members of the Armed Forces: (i)...

  20. Associations between Types of Combat Violence and the Acquired Capability for Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Craig J.; Cukrowicz, Kelly C.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that combat exposure might increase risk for suicide. The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) proposes that exposure to painful and provocative experiences such as combat contribute to fearlessness about death and increased pain tolerance, which serve to enhance the individual's capability to attempt suicide.…

  1. Factors that affect mosquito bite prevention from permethrin-treated US military combat uniforms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, casualties from diseases have greatly outnumbered those from combat during military operations. Since 1951, US military combat uniforms have been chemically treated to protect personnel from arthropod attack. In the 1970s and 1980s, permethrin was one of several insecticides evaluate...

  2. [The 75th anniversary of science research and development testing centre of air medicine and military ergonomics SSRDTI of military medicine of Ministry of Defense of the RF].

    PubMed

    Bukhtiiarov, I V; Khomenko, M N; Zhdan'ko, I M

    2010-01-01

    The article presents main stages of forming Science research and development testing centre of air medicine and military ergonomics, results of researches of three main directions: medical-technical (ergonomic) supply of creation, testing and exploitation of air techniques and armament; participating in organization of combat training activity for the purposes of saving professional health, securing of combativity and professional reliability of aircraft pilots; scientific grounding of improvement of medical supply of aviation (improvement of medical control for dynamics of state of health, physiological and psychological resources of organism in course of combat training, creation of automatized diagnostic complexes and etc.). PMID:20536040

  3. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in Korean conflict and World War II combat veterans seeking outpatient treatment.

    PubMed

    McCranie, E W; Hyer, L A

    2000-07-01

    Given important differences in the Korean conflict and World War II, samples of treatment-seeking combat veterans from these wars (30 Korea, 83 World War II) were compared on the prevalence and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). With age, ethnicity, and combat exposure taken into account, the Korean veterans reported significantly more severe symptoms on both interview and self-report PTSD measures. Group differences in the prevalence of current PTSD were in a similar direction but not significant. These results are generally consistent with other studies that have found Korean combat veterans to exhibit higher rates of psychosocial maladjustment than World War II combat veterans. Based on related research with Vietnam veterans, one direction for future investigation is to examine what role stressful postmilitary homecoming experiences may have played in influencing the development and course of combat-related PTSD in the aging cohort of "forgotten" Korean conflict veterans. PMID:10948483

  4. Combat stress reactions, posttraumatic stress disorder, and social adjustment. A study of Israeli veterans.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Z; Mikulincer, M

    1987-05-01

    This study assessed social functioning among three groups of Israeli soldiers: a) front-line soldiers who had been treated for combat stress reaction during the 1982 Lebanon war (N = 382); b) matched control front-line soldiers who did not sustain combat stress reaction (N = 334); and c) combat-ready soldiers who did not participate in the 1982 war (N = 88). Subjects were screened 1 year after the war for posttraumatic stress disorder and social functioning. Results indicated that participation in combat per se did not have adverse effects on postwar social functioning. However, combat stress reactions and posttraumatic stress disorder were found to be associated with a decline in postwar social functioning. The practical and theoretical implications of these findings were discussed. PMID:3572379

  5. Placement of combat stress teams in Afghanistan: reducing barriers to care.

    PubMed

    Jones, David E; Jones, Franca; Suttinger, Laura; Toler, Ayessa; Hammond, Patricia; Medina, Steven

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the medical planning process whereby combat stress and mental health clinicians were placed at Forward Operating Bases in southern and western Afghanistan during a period of intensive surge operations in 2009-2010. The distribution plan for the Combat Stress Control teams was based on previously published guidance on ratios of combat stress personnel to troop end-strength, population at-risk data, and kinetic activity associated with current and future combat operations. The article concludes with outcome data that validates the distribution decisions made through the planning process. Through dissemination of this information, it is hoped that future planners and clinicians can improve the processes involved in providing combat stress and mental health services to forward-deployed troops. PMID:23495454

  6. Lessons Learned: Employment and Tactical Use of The Combat Medic During Stability Support Operations.

    PubMed

    Eldred, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    It is the intent of this article to define the strategy by which Combat Medics have been employed in contemporary stability operations and counterinsurgency conflicts. This article describes the advances in training based on Tactical Combat Casualty Care and how training evolved into an evidence-based model. Training platforms evolved with shifts in mission requirements, new technology, improved medical techniques, and changing protocols. The last portion of this article details recommendations in doctrine, materiel, and training that could enable optimal sustainment standards while retaining operational capability across a wide variety of combat and peace operations. Lessons learned and changes adapted for Medics that are addressed: (1) advances in training and employment of the Combat Medic necessitated by tactics and strategy of current conflicts, (2) Combat Medic regulatory requirements and centralized, just-in-time training, and (3) changes in sustainment training driven by certification requirements and use of medical simulation training centers. PMID:27215893

  7. An automated methodology development. [software design for combat simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawley, L. R.

    1985-01-01

    The design methodology employed in testing the applicability of Ada in large-scale combat simulations is described. Ada was considered as a substitute for FORTRAN to lower life cycle costs and ease the program development efforts. An object-oriented approach was taken, which featured definitions of military targets, the capability of manipulating their condition in real-time, and one-to-one correlation between the object states and real world states. The simulation design process was automated by the problem statement language (PSL)/problem statement analyzer (PSA). The PSL/PSA system accessed the problem data base directly to enhance the code efficiency by, e.g., eliminating non-used subroutines, and provided for automated report generation, besides allowing for functional and interface descriptions. The ways in which the methodology satisfied the responsiveness, reliability, transportability, modifiability, timeliness and efficiency goals are discussed.

  8. Premedication in an autistic, combative child: Challenges and nuances.

    PubMed

    Prakash, S; Pai, V K; Dhar, M; Kumar, A A

    2016-01-01

    Children with autistic spectrum disorders are often encountered in anesthesia practice mainly for outdoor procedural sedation or anesthesia in endoscopy and magnetic resonance imaging suites. We describe a case of a 7-year-old autistic boy who required management of dental caries. He had a phobia to intravenous cannulation, displayed increasing anxiety and became combative on the day of surgery. With parental involvement and distraction, we succeeded in giving oral midazolam by concealing it, with the intent of avoiding intramuscular injection or unnecessary restraint. Lack of knowledge about the medical condition of such a patient can lead to inadequate preoperative preparation and use of restraint on the patient, which might cause anxiety or panic attacks in the operative room. To effectively manage children with special needs one needs to have clear guidelines on the management of uncooperative children, involve parents perioperatively, plan ahead with an emphasis on perioperative analgesia and sometimes incorporate the ethical use of restraint. PMID:27375393

  9. Essential Oils, A New Horizon in Combating Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Polly Soo Xi; Yiap, Beow Chin; Ping, Hu Cai; Lim, Swee Hua Erin

    2014-01-01

    For many years, the battle between humans and the multitudes of infection and disease causing pathogens continues. Emerging at the battlefield as some of the most significant challenges to human health are bacterial resistance and its rapid rise. These have become a major concern in global public health invigorating the need for new antimicrobial compounds. A rational approach to deal with antibiotic resistance problems requires detailed knowledge of the different biological and non-biological factors that affect the rate and extent of resistance development. Combination therapy combining conventional antibiotics and essential oils is currently blooming and represents a potential area for future investigations. This new generation of phytopharmaceuticals may shed light on the development of new pharmacological regimes in combating antibiotic resistance. This review consolidated and described the observed synergistic outcome between essential oils and antibiotics, and highlighted the possibilities of essential oils as the potential resistance modifying agent. PMID:24627729

  10. Clinical presentation of PTSD in World War II combat veterans.

    PubMed

    Hierholzer, R; Munson, J; Peabody, C; Rosenberg, J

    1992-08-01

    Clinicians have increasingly recognized posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Vietnam veterans, but the disorder may be easily overlooked among World War II combat veterans. The authors review recent studies of PTSD in older veterans and describe five cases that illustrate the diverse clinical presentations of PTSD in this population. Symptoms included anxiety, cognitive and somatic complaints, depression, alcohol dependence, and amnestic periods. Despite the varied presentations, a fairly consistent patient profile emerged. Patients avoided reminders of war, showed an exaggerated startle response, and experienced restless sleep and chronic anxiety. Factors associated with exacerbations of symptoms were retirement and reminders of war experiences. Although past studies have emphasized resuppression of the trauma, the authors encourage a flexible approach to treatment, including exploratory techniques. PMID:1427683

  11. Inhibition of Mutation and Combating the Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The emergence of drug-resistant bacteria poses a serious threat to human health. In the case of several antibiotics, including those of the quinolone and rifamycin classes, bacteria rapidly acquire resistance through mutation of chromosomal genes during therapy. In this work, we show that preventing induction of the SOS response by interfering with the activity of the protease LexA renders pathogenic Escherichia coli unable to evolve resistance in vivo to ciprofloxacin or rifampicin, important quinolone and rifamycin antibiotics. We show in vitro that LexA cleavage is induced during RecBC-mediated repair of ciprofloxacin-mediated DNA damage and that this results in the derepression of the SOS-regulated polymerases Pol II, Pol IV and Pol V, which collaborate to induce resistance-conferring mutations. Our findings indicate that the inhibition of mutation could serve as a novel therapeutic strategy to combat the evolution of antibiotic resistance. PMID:15869329

  12. Phage display creates innovative applications to combat hepatitis B virus

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wen Siang; Ho, Kok Lian

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has killed countless lives in human history. The invention of HBV vaccines in the 20th century has reduced significantly the rate of the viral infection. However, currently there is no effective treatment for chronic HBV carriers. Newly emerging vaccine escape mutants and drug resistant strains have complicated the viral eradication program. The entire world is now facing a new threat of HBV and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection. Could phage display provide solutions to these life-threatening problems? This article reviews critically and comprehensively the innovative and potential applications of phage display in the development of vaccines, therapeutic agents, diagnostic reagents, as well as gene and drug delivery systems to combat HBV. The application of phage display in epitope mapping of HBV antigens is also discussed in detail. Although this review mainly focuses on HBV, the innovative applications of phage display could also be extended to other infectious diseases. PMID:25206271

  13. Personality Traits and Family Styles of Combat Medics in Training.

    PubMed

    Escolas, Hollie D; Ray, Lashawnna N; Escolas, Sandra M

    2016-06-01

    This descriptive study examines the relationship between four family types and five personality traits. The four family types are balanced, moderately balanced, midrange, and extreme. The five personality traits are extraversion, openness to experiences, agreeableness, emotional stability, and conscientiousness. Data were collected through anonymous questionnaires distributed to combat-naïve Soldiers at the beginning of their advanced individual training. This study utilized the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale1 and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory2 as measures. Overall the analyses found that participants classified as a balanced family type scored significantly higher on the personality traits of extraversion, agreeableness, and openness to experience than those classified in the family types of extreme, midrange, and moderately balanced. It appears that family types are associated with personality traits. This study opens doors to future research including looking at how family and personality types relate to each other in military units and personnel. PMID:27244064

  14. Premedication in an autistic, combative child: Challenges and nuances

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, S; Pai, VK; Dhar, M; Kumar, AA

    2016-01-01

    Children with autistic spectrum disorders are often encountered in anesthesia practice mainly for outdoor procedural sedation or anesthesia in endoscopy and magnetic resonance imaging suites. We describe a case of a 7-year-old autistic boy who required management of dental caries. He had a phobia to intravenous cannulation, displayed increasing anxiety and became combative on the day of surgery. With parental involvement and distraction, we succeeded in giving oral midazolam by concealing it, with the intent of avoiding intramuscular injection or unnecessary restraint. Lack of knowledge about the medical condition of such a patient can lead to inadequate preoperative preparation and use of restraint on the patient, which might cause anxiety or panic attacks in the operative room. To effectively manage children with special needs one needs to have clear guidelines on the management of uncooperative children, involve parents perioperatively, plan ahead with an emphasis on perioperative analgesia and sometimes incorporate the ethical use of restraint. PMID:27375393

  15. Psychophysiologic identification of subthreshold PTSD in combat veterans.

    PubMed

    Roy, Michael J; Costanzo, Michelle; Leaman, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is linked with adverse health outcomes, and many military service members (SMs) are afflicted with it after they return from combat. Since many SMs have an initial honeymoon period characterized by limited symptoms before the onset of full-blown PTSD, the identification of independent predictors of PTSD upon return from deployment could facilitate early intervention. We measured psychophysiologic responses to stimuli including explosions in a Virtual Iraq/Afghanistan environment, as well as a fear potentiated startle paradigm, in a prospective cohort of SMs who did not meet criteria for PTSD and were within 2 months after return from deployment. We report marked psychophysiologic differences between those with (n = 29) and without (n = 30) subthreshold PTSD symptoms (PTSD Checklist score ≥ 28 vs. < 28). We believe this is evidence that psychophysiologic measures can help to identify individuals at high risk for PTSD. PMID:22954846

  16. Coplanar tail-chase aerial combat as a differential game

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merz, A. W.; Hague, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    A reduced-order version of the one-on-one aerial combat problem is studied as a pursuit-evasion differential game. The coplanar motion takes place at given speeds and given maximum available turn rates, and is described by three state equations which are equivalent to the range, bearing, and heading of one aircraft relative to the other. The purpose of the study is to determine those relative geometries from which either aircraft can be guaranteed a win, regardless of the maneuver strategies of the other. Termination is specified by the tail-chase geometry, at which time the roles of pursuer and evader are known. The roles are found in general, together with the associated optimal turn maneuvers, by solution of the differential game of kind. For the numerical parameters chosen, neither aircraft can win from the majority of possible initial conditions if the other turns optimally in certain critical geometries.

  17. Communities of Color Creating Healthy Environments to Combat Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Subica, Andrew M; Grills, Cheryl T; Douglas, Jason A; Villanueva, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic and racial health disparities present an enduring challenge to community-based health promotion, which rarely targets their underlying population-level determinants (e.g., poverty, food insecurity, health care inequity). We present a novel 3-lens prescription for using community organizing to treat these determinants in communities of color based on the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Communities Creating Healthy Environments initiative, the first national project to combat childhood obesity in communities of color using community organizing strategies. The lenses--Social Justice, Culture-Place, and Organizational Capacity-Organizing Approach--assist health professional-community partnerships in planning and evaluating community organizing-based health promotion programs. These programs activate community stakeholders to alter their community's disease-causing, population-level determinants through grassroots policy advocacy, potentially reducing health disparities affecting communities of color. PMID:26562108

  18. The Challenges of Community Engagement.

    PubMed

    Cormick, Craig

    2010-12-01

    Lyons and Whelan provide a useful list of recommendations as to how community engagement on nanotechnology could be improved, which very few people working in community engagement could disagree with. However, as the conclusions of any study are dependent on the data obtained, if more data had been obtained and analysed then different conclusions might have been reached. Addressing the key issues in the paper and providing more data, also allows an opportunity to expand on current issues relating to community engagement on nanotechnology and the challenges it provides for practitioners. PMID:21258427

  19. National action plan to combat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    1992-06-19

    At no time in recent history has tuberculosis (TB) been as great a concern as it is today. TB cases are on the increase, and the most serious aspect of the problem is the recent occurrence of outbreaks of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB, which pose an urgent public health problem and require rapid intervention. A Task Force composed of representatives of many federal agencies has developed a National Action Plan for addressing this problem. The Task Force identified a number of objectives to be met if MDR-TB is to be successfully combatted. These objectives fall under the categories of a) surveillance and epidemiology--determining the magnitude and nature of the problem; b) laboratory diagnosis--improving the rapidity, sensitivity, and reliability of diagnostic methods for MDR-TB; c) patient management--effectively managing patients who have MDR-TB and preventing patients with drug-susceptible TB from developing drug-resistant disease; d) screening and preventive therapy--identifying persons who are infected with or at risk of developing MDR-TB and preventing them from developing clinically active TB; e) infection control--minimizing the risk of transmission of MDR-TB to patients, workers, and others in institutional settings; f) outbreak control; g) program evaluation--ensuring that TB programs are effective in managing patients and preventing MDR-TB; h) information dissemination/training and education; and i) research to provide new, more effective tools with which to combat MDR-TB. The Action Plan lays out a series of activities to be undertaken at the national level. For each category, the Plan presents statements of problems to be overcome, followed by a summary of the objective to be achieved and steps to be carried out. For each implementation step, responsibility is assigned to the appropriate organization and start-up dates are listed. PMID:1640920

  20. Interventions to combat or prevent drug counterfeiting: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Akl, Elie A; Fadlallah, Racha; Oliver, Sandy; Saleh, Nadine; El-Bawab, Lamya; Rizk, Rana; Farha, Aida; Hamra, Rasha

    2015-01-01

    Objective Drug counterfeiting has serious public health and safety implications. The objective of this study was to systematically review the evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to combat or prevent drug counterfeiting. Data sources We searched multiple electronic databases and the grey literature up to March 2014. Two reviewers completed, in duplicate and independently, the study selection, data abstraction and risk of bias assessment. Study eligibility criteria, participants and interventions We included randomised trials, non-randomised studies, and case studies examining any intervention at the health system-level to combat or prevent drug counterfeiting. Outcomes of interest included changes in failure rates of tested drugs and changes in prevalence of counterfeit medicines. We excluded studies that focused exclusively on substandard, degraded or expired drugs, or that focused on medication errors. Appraisal and synthesis We assessed the risk of bias in each included study. We reported the results narratively and, where applicable, we conducted meta-analyses. Results We included 21 studies representing 25 units of analysis. Overall, we found low quality evidence suggesting positive effects of drug registration (OR=0.23; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.67), and WHO-prequalification of drugs (OR=0.06; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.35) in reducing the prevalence of counterfeit and substandard drugs. Low quality evidence suggests that licensing of drug outlets is probably ineffective (OR=0.66; 95% CI 0.41 to 1.05). For multifaceted interventions (including a mix of regulations, training of inspectors, public-private collaborations and legal actions), low quality evidence suggest they may be effective. The single RCT provided moderate quality evidence of no effect of ‘two extra inspections’ in improving drug quality. Conclusions Policymakers and stakeholders would benefit from registration and WHO-prequalification of drugs and may also consider multifaceted interventions

  1. Medical Movies on the Web Debuts with Gene Kelly's "Combat Fatigue Irritability" 1945 Film | NIH MedlinePlus the ...

    MedlinePlus

    ... Debuts with Gene Kelly's "Combat Fatigue Irritability" 1945 Film Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Actor Gene Kelly in the 1945 film, Combat Fatigue Irritability, now available to the public ...

  2. Citizen Engagement through Public Deliberation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sue E.

    2001-01-01

    Family and consumer sciences professionals can encourage citizen participation in local, state, and national government. The public deliberation model developed by the Kettering Foundation's National Issues Forum is designed to engage citizens in the deliberation process. (JOW)

  3. Engagement Assessment Using EEG Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Feng; Li, Jiang; McKenzie, Frederic; Zhang, Guangfan; Wang, Wei; Pepe, Aaron; Xu, Roger; Schnell, Thomas; Anderson, Nick; Heitkamp, Dean

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present methods to analyze and improve an EEG-based engagement assessment approach, consisting of data preprocessing, feature extraction and engagement state classification. During data preprocessing, spikes, baseline drift and saturation caused by recording devices in EEG signals are identified and eliminated, and a wavelet based method is utilized to remove ocular and muscular artifacts in the EEG recordings. In feature extraction, power spectrum densities with 1 Hz bin are calculated as features, and these features are analyzed using the Fisher score and the one way ANOVA method. In the classification step, a committee classifier is trained based on the extracted features to assess engagement status. Finally, experiment results showed that there exist significant differences in the extracted features among different subjects, and we have implemented a feature normalization procedure to mitigate the differences and significantly improved the engagement assessment performance.

  4. Combating Childhood Obesity: School Leadership Makes a Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisceglie, Rob

    2008-01-01

    An important first step in addressing any public health crisis is raising public awareness. However, getting everyone on board to help solve the underlying causes of that crisis is a daunting task. The childhood obesity epidemic poses such a challenge, particularly in terms of how to best engage and assist principals and other school leaders in…

  5. 5 strategies for combating market uncertainty to deliver value.

    PubMed

    Hegwer, Laura Ramos

    2014-10-01

    To strengthen their market share and balance sheets in preparation for greater financial and regulatory pressures, middle-market hospitals are: Merging when it makes sense. Building strategic partnerships. Developing clinically integrated networks. Making their health plans exchange-ready. Focusing on patient satisfaction and employee engagement. PMID:25647907

  6. Interventions to Combat the Many Facets of Absenteeism: Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Jill Friedman

    2011-01-01

    This paper operationalizes the definition of action research (AR) and the importance of conducting such studies to improve the lives of students and professionals. This paper provides an overview of literature regarding variables related to truancy and absenteeism. The paper discusses the importance of students being present and engaged, negative…

  7. 48 CFR 52.222-50 - Combating Trafficking in Persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Commercial sex act means any sex act on account of which anything of value is given to or received by any... an employee of the Contractor directly engaged in the performance of work under the contract who has... trafficking in persons means— (1) Sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud,...

  8. 48 CFR 52.222-50 - Combating Trafficking in Persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Commercial sex act means any sex act on account of which anything of value is given to or received by any... an employee of the Contractor directly engaged in the performance of work under the contract who has... trafficking in persons means— (1) Sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud,...

  9. Combatting Child Labour: Listen to What the Children Say.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhead, Martin

    1999-01-01

    Details part of a larger project undertaken by Swedish Save the Children in order to inform the current debate about child labor with evidence from working children engaged in a range of occupations, in contrasting regions of the world. Summarizes issues, children's occupational preferences, and views on work and school. (SD)

  10. Emotional processing in Colombian ex-combatants and its relationship with empathy and executive functions.

    PubMed

    Tobón, Carlos; Ibañez, Agustín; Velilla, Lina; Duque, Jon; Ochoa, John; Trujillo, Natalia; Decety, Jean; Pineda, David

    2015-04-01

    In this work, the neural correlates of emotional processing in Colombian ex-combatants with different empathy profiles were compared to normal controls matched for age, gender and educational level. Forty ex-combatants and 20 non ex-combatants were recruited for this study. Empathy levels as well as executive functions were measured. Empathy level was used to create three groups. Group 1 (G1) included ex-combatants with normal empathy scores, and Group 2 included ex-combatants with low scores on at least one empathy sub-scales. In control group (Ctrl), participants with no antecedents of being combatants and with normal scores in empathy were included. Age, gender, educational and intelligence quotients level were controlled among groups. event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while individuals performed an affective picture processing task that included positive, neutral and negative emotional stimuli, which elicit an early modulation of emotion categorization (Early Posterior Negativity (EPN)) and late evaluative process (LPP). EPN differences were found among affective categories, but no group effects were observed at this component. LPP showed a main effect of category and group (higher amplitudes in ex-combatants). There was an inverse correlation between empathy and executive functions scores and ERPs. Results are discussed according to the impact of emotional processing on empathy profile. PMID:25302548

  11. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  12. Risk Factors Associated with Invasive Fungal Infections in Combat Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Carlos J.; Weintrob, Amy C.; Shah, Jinesh; Malone, Debra; Dunne, James R.; Weisbrod, Allison B.; Lloyd, Bradley A.; Warkentien, Tyler E.; Murray, Clinton K.; Wilkins, Kenneth; Shaikh, Faraz; Carson, M. Leigh; Aggarwal, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: In recent years, invasive fungal infections (IFI) have complicated the clinical course of patients with combat-related injuries. Commonalities in injury patterns and characteristics among patients with IFI led to the development of a Joint Trauma System (JTS) clinical practice guideline (CPG) for IFI management. We performed a case-control study to confirm and further delineate risk factors associated with IFI development in combat casualties with the objective of generating data to refine the CPG and promote timelier initiation of treatment. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively for United States (U.S.) military personnel injured during deployment in Afghanistan from June 2009 through August 2011. Cases were identified as IFI based upon wound cultures with fungal growth and/or fungal elements seen on histology, in addition to the presence of recurrent wound necrosis. Controls were matched using date of injury (±3 mo) and injury severity score (±10). Risk factor parameters analyzed included injury circumstances, blood transfusion requirements, amputations after first operative intervention, and associated injuries. Data are expressed as multivariate odds ratios (OR; 95% confidence interval [CI]). Results: Seventy-six IFI cases were identified from 1,133 U.S. military personnel wounded in Afghanistan and matched to 150 controls. Parameters associated significantly with the development of IFI multivariate analysis were blast injuries (OR: 5.7; CI: 1.1–29.6), dismounted at time of injury (OR: 8.5; CI: 1.2–59.8); above the knee amputations (OR: 4.1; CI: 1.3-12.7), and large-volume packed red blood cell (PRBC; >20 U) transfusions within first 24 h (OR: 7.0; CI: 2.5-19.7). Conclusions: Our analysis indicates that dismounted blast injuries, resulting in above the knee amputations, and requirement of large volume PRBC transfusions are independent predictors of IFI development. These data confirm all the preliminary risk factors, except for

  13. Training Strategies to Mitigate Expectancy-Induced Response Bias in Combat Identification: A Research Agenda

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Andrews, Dee H.

    2009-12-01

    Historical assessments of combat fratricide reveal principal contributing factors in the effects of stress, continuous operations or sleep deprivation, poor situational awareness, emotions, and lack of training. This paper discusses what and how improvements in combat identification (CID) may be achieved through training. In addition to skill-based training, CID training must focus on countering the negative effects of expectancy in the face of heightened anxiety and stressors of continuous operations that lead to combat errors or fratricide. The paper examines possible approaches to training for overcoming erroneous expectancies and emotional factors that may distort or limit accurate "blue force" identification.

  14. Training Strategies to Mitigate Expectancy-Induced Response Bias in Combat Identification: A Research Agenda

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Andrews, Dee H.

    2008-04-15

    Historical assessments of combat fratricide reveal principal contributing factors in the effects of stress, continuous operations or sleep deprivation, poor situational awareness, emotions, and lack of training. This paper discusses what and how improvements in combat identification (CID) may be achieved through training. In addition to skill-based training, CID training must focus on countering the negative effects of expectancy in the face of heightened anxiety and stressors of continuous operations that lead to combat errors or fratricide. The paper examines possible approaches to training for overcoming erroneous expectancies and emotional factors that may distort or limit accurate "blue force" identification.

  15. Treating traumatic bleeding in a combat setting: possible role of recombinant activated factor VII.

    PubMed

    Martinowitz, Uri; Zaarur, Menashe; Yaron, Bar-Lavie; Blumenfeld, Amir; Martonovits, Giora

    2004-12-01

    Bleeding is clearly a major cause of morbidity and death after trauma. When bleeding is attributable to transection of major vessels, surgical repair is appropriate. Posttraumatic microvascular bleeding attributable to coagulopathy secondary to metabolic derangements, hypothermia, and depletion or dysfunction of cellular and protein components requires a different approach. Although transfusion of blood products may be necessary to replace the blood loss, it does not always correct the problem of microvascular bleeding. The type of injury, mode of care, and treatment objectives differ significantly for combat-wounded soldiers versus civilian trauma patients. Although hemorrhage is responsible for 50% of combat deaths, published information about coagulation monitoring among combat patients is very limited. These articles summarize the appropriate monitoring of hemostasis among combat trauma patients, review the unique nature of combat casualties and the medical system used to treat them, and discuss information available from civilian studies. Because the development of coagulopathy is relatively infrequent in the young, otherwise healthy, military population, the routine screening measures currently used are adequate to guide initial blood product administration. However, as new intravenous hemostatic agents are used for these patients, better laboratory measures will be required. Although hemorrhage is the leading cause of death for combat casualties, catastrophic hemorrhage is rarely a prehospital combat medical management problem because, when it occurs, it tends to cause death before medical care can be provided. In civilian environments, most seriously injured victims can be reached and transported by emergency medical services personnel within minutes; in combat, it often takes hours simply to transport casualties off the battlefield. In combat situations, even if the transport distances are small, the hazardous nature of the forward combat areas frequently

  16. C. Rick Jones Is IRPA Keynote Lecturer on Stakeholder Engagement

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2008-12-03

    At the recent IRPA 12 Conference in Buenos Aires, Argentina, C. Rick Jones gave the keynote lecture “Stakeholder Engagement in Practice - Now Is the Time to Act!” This was one of the very best talks at the conference, covering IRPA’s draft “Guiding Principles for Radiation Protection Professionals on Stakeholder Engagement” (http://www.irpa.net/images/stories/irpa12/ irpa12%2008-02-1_guiding%20principles(rev).doc).

  17. Game Engagement Theory and Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitton, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    One of the benefits of computer game-based learning is the ability of certain types of game to engage and motivate learners. However, theories of learning and engagement, particularly in the sphere of higher education, typically fail to consider gaming engagement theory. In this article, the author examines the principles of engagement from games…

  18. Higher Education and Civic Engagement: Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Peter

    2006-01-01

    CIRCLE has recently published three detailed fact sheets that update, refine, and in some respects complicate, our knowledge of the links between college education and civic engagement (see "College Attendance and Civic Engagement Among 18 to 25 Year Olds," "Civic Engagement among Recent College Graduates," and "Civic Engagement among 2-year and…

  19. Review of new topical hemostatic dressings for combat casualty care.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Brad L; Littlejohn, Lanny

    2014-05-01

    This review analyzes the new (2008-2013) hemostatic agents and dressings for enhanced efficacy in preclinical studies, and investigates supportive findings among case reports of effectiveness and safety in hospital and prehospital literature. A literature search was conducted using PubMed, National Library of Medicine using key words and phrases. The search revealed a total of 16 articles that fit the criteria established for third-generation hemostatic dressings. There were a total of 9 preclinical, 5 clinical, and 2 prehospital studies evaluated. Evaluation of these third-generation studies reveals that mucoadhesive (chitosan) dressings, particularly Celox Gauze and ChitoGauze, clearly show equal efficacy to Combat Gauze across many dependent variables. Chitosan-based products are ideal prehospital dressings because they are shown to work independently from the physiological clotting mechanisms. Many first-, second-, and third-generation chitosan-based dressings have been in use for years by the United States and other NATO militaries at the point of injury, and during tactical evacuation, in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom without reported complications or side effects. Based on the reported efficacy and long-term safety of chitosan-based products, increased use of Celox Gauze and ChitoGauze within the Department of Defense and civilian venues merits further consideration and open debate. PMID:24806495

  20. Advanced helicopter cockpit and control configurations for helicopter combat missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haworth, Loran A.; Atencio, Adolph, Jr.; Bivens, Courtland; Shively, Robert; Delgado, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Two piloted simulations were conducted by the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate to evaluate workload and helicopter-handling qualities requirements for single pilot operation in a combat Nap-of-the-Earth environment. The single-pilot advanced cockpit engineering simulation (SPACES) investigations were performed on the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator, using the Advanced Digital Optical Control System control laws and an advanced concepts glass cockpit. The first simulation (SPACES I) compared single pilot to dual crewmember operation for the same flight tasks to determine differences between dual and single ratings, and to discover which control laws enabled adequate single-pilot helicopter operation. The SPACES II simulation concentrated on single-pilot operations and use of control laws thought to be viable candidates for single pilot operations workload. Measures detected significant differences between single-pilot task segments. Control system configurations were task dependent, demonstrating a need for inflight reconfigurable control system to match the optimal control system with the required task.

  1. Monitoring combat wound healing by IR hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howle, Chris R.; Spear, Abigail M.; Gazi, Ehsan; Crane, Nicole J.

    2016-03-01

    In recent conflicts, battlefield injuries consist largely of extensive soft injuries from blasts and high energy projectiles, including gunshot wounds. Repair of these large, traumatic wounds requires aggressive surgical treatment, including multiple surgical debridements to remove devitalised tissue and to reduce bacterial load. Identifying those patients with wound complications, such as infection and impaired healing, could greatly assist health care teams in providing the most appropriate and personalised care for combat casualties. Candidate technologies to enable this benefit include the fusion of imaging and optical spectroscopy to enable rapid identification of key markers. Hence, a novel system based on IR negative contrast imaging (NCI) is presented that employs an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) source comprising a periodically-poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) crystal. The crystal operates in the shortwave and midwave IR spectral regions (ca. 1.5 - 1.9 μm and 2.4 - 3.8 μm, respectively). Wavelength tuning is achieved by translating the crystal within the pump beam. System size and complexity are minimised by the use of single element detectors and the intracavity OPO design. Images are composed by raster scanning the monochromatic beam over the scene of interest; the reflection and/or absorption of the incident radiation by target materials and their surrounding environment provide a method for spatial location. Initial results using the NCI system to characterise wound biopsies are presented here.

  2. Preventing and combating elder mistreatment in flanders (belgium): general overview.

    PubMed

    Callewaert, Gerd A G

    2011-10-01

    In Flanders, the state that comprises the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium, the structural attention given to the problem of elder mistreatment has grown slowly throughout the last decade. Equivalent to the evolution in most other western countries, there is nevertheless still a great lack of scientific research, and several governments (federal, regional, supralocal, and local) are still very reluctant to provide sufficient means in order to prevent and combat elder mistreatment. This article aims to present a general overview of the current state of affairs in the regional state of Flanders to address elder mistreatment. More concretely, it will highlight the history of the Flemish Reporting Point for Elder Abuse, what its aims are, and what definition and typology of elder mistreatment it uses in its daily activities. Because of the importance of well-conducted scientific research and excellent academic support in order for policymakers and social services to deal efficiently with elder mistreatment, the lack of scientific research in Flanders also will be briefly highlighted. PMID:21978293

  3. Employer strategies to combat health care plan fraud.

    PubMed

    Pflaum, B B; Rivers, J S

    1991-01-01

    Each year health care fraud drains millions of dollars from employer-sponsored health plans. Historically, employers have taken a rather tolerant view of fraud. As the pressure to manage health plan costs increases, however, many employers are beginning to see the detection and prosecution of fraud as an appropriate part of a cost management program. Fraud in medical insurance covers a wide range of activities in terms of cost and sophistication--from misrepresenting information on a claim, to billing for services never rendered, to falsifying the existence of an entire medical organization. To complicate matters, fraudulent activities can emanate from many, many sources. Perpetrators can include employees, dependents or associates of employees, providers and employees of providers--virtually anyone able to make a claim against a plan. This article addresses actions that employers can take to reduce losses from fraud. The first section suggests policy statements and administrative procedures and guidelines that can be used to discourage employee fraud. Section two addresses the most prevalent form of fraud--provider fraud. To combat provider fraud, employers should set corporate guidelines and should enlist the assistance of employees in identifying fraudulent provider activities. Section three suggests ways to improve fraud detection through the claims payment system--often the first line of defense against fraud. Finally, section four discusses the possibility of civil and criminal remedies and reviews the legal theories under which an increasing number of fraud cases have been prosecuted. PMID:10116952

  4. Electromagnetic investigation at the Combat Maneuver Training Center, Hohenfels, Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.D.; Benson, M.A.; McGinnis, L.D.; Glennon, M.A.

    1997-10-01

    Electromagnetic surveys were conducted at the Combat Maneuver Training Center (CMTC), Hohenfels, Germany to detect zones where solution cavities develop within lowland areas of the karst valley systems. Geologic models indicate that solution activity occurs at the loess-bedrock interface, and is concentrated along loess-filled fracture trends within the underlying carbonate bedrock. Soil arches that develop along these fracture trends have the potential to fail catastrophically, posing a considerable degree of danger to current training activities. Rapid, continuously recording electromagnetic instruments provide an economical solution for locating zones of high conductivity associated with loess-filled fractures. The electromagnetic surveys delineated high-conductivity trends interpreted to be fracture-controlled. In many instances dolines were observed either along or immediately adjacent to these conductivity lineaments. Analysis of anomaly maps indicate that high-conductivity lineaments are aligned subparallel to fracture and joint orientations measured in nearby outcrops. These associations are the basis for predicting locations where solution cavity collapse and doline development will occur in the future. Information derived from the EM data can be extended directly to hydrologic modeling and to safety programs for military training at the CMTC.

  5. Anger intensification with combat-related PTSD and depression comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Oscar I; Novaco, Raymond W; Reger, Mark A; Gahm, Gregory A

    2016-01-01

    Anger is becoming more widely recognized for its involvement in the psychological adjustment problems of current war veterans. Recent research with combat veterans has found anger to be related to psychological distress, psychosocial functioning, and harm risk variables. Using behavioral health data for 2,077 treatment-seeking soldiers who had been deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, this study examined whether anger disposition was intensified for those who met screen-threshold criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Anger was assessed with a 7-item screening measure previously validated with the study population. The study tested the hypothesis that anger would be highest when "PTSD & MDD" were conjoined, compared with "PTSD only," "MDD only," and "no PTSD, no MDD." PTSD and depression were assessed with well-established screening instruments. A self-rated "wanting to harm others" variable was also incorporated. Age, gender, race, military component, military grade, and military unit social support served as covariates. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to test the hypothesis, which was confirmed. Anger was intensified in the PTSD & MDD condition, in which it was significantly higher than in the other 3 conditions. Convergent support was obtained for "wanting to harm others" as an exploratory index. Given the high prevalence and co-occurrence of PTSD and MDD among veterans, the results have research and clinical practice relevance for systematic inclusion of anger assessment postdeployment from risk-assessment and screening standpoints. PMID:25961863

  6. Infrared imaging-based combat casualty care system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, James E., Sr.

    1997-08-01

    A Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract was recently awarded to a start up company for the development of an infrared (IR) image based combat casualty care system. The company, Medical Thermal Diagnostics, or MTD, is developing a light weight, hands free, energy efficient uncooled IR imaging system based upon a Texas Instruments design which will allow emergency medical treatment of wounded soldiers in complete darkness without any type of light enhancement equipment. The principal investigator for this effort, Dr. Gene Luther, DVM, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, LSU School of Veterinary Medicine, will conduct the development and testing of this system with support from Thermalscan, Inc., a nondestructive testing company experienced in IR thermography applications. Initial research has been done with surgery on a cat for feasibility of the concept as well as forensic research on pigs as a close representation of human physiology to determine time of death. Further such studies will be done later as well as trauma studies. IR images of trauma injuries will be acquired by imaging emergency room patients to create an archive of emergency medical situations seen with an infrared imaging camera. This archived data will then be used to develop training material for medical personnel using the system. This system has potential beyond military applications. Firefighters and emergency medical technicians could directly benefit from the capability to triage and administer medical care to trauma victims in low or no light conditions.

  7. Tradeoff Analysis for Combat Service Support Wireless Communications Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Burnette, John R.; Thibodeau, Christopher C.; Greitzer, Frank L.

    2002-02-28

    As the Army moves toward more mobile and agile forces and continued sustainment of numerous high-cost legacy logistics management systems, the requirement for wireless connectivity and a wireless network to supporting organizations has become ever more critical. There are currently several Army communications initiatives underway to resolve this wireless connectivity issue. However, to fully appreciate and understand the value of these initiatives, a Tradeoff Analysis is needed. The present study seeks to identify and assess solutions. The analysis identified issues that impede Interim Brigade Combat Team (IBCT) communication system integration and outlined core requirements for sharing of logistics data between the field and Army battle command systems. Then, the analysis examined wireless communication alternatives as possible solutions for IBCT logistics communications problems. The current baseline system was compared with possible alternatives involving tactical radio systems, wireless/near term digital radio, cellular satellite, and third-generation (3G) wireless technologies. Cellular satellite and 3G wireless technologies offer clear advantages and should be considered for later IBCTs.

  8. Physical Fitness and Depressive Symptoms during Army Basic Combat Training

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Shannon K.; Wilkinson, Larrell L.; Wigfall, Lisa T.; Reynolds, Alexandria M.; Muraca, Stephanie T.; Glover, Saundra H.; Wooten, Nikki R.; Sui, Xuemei; Beets, Michael W.; Durstine, J. Larry; Newman-Norlund, Roger D.; Youngstedt, Shawn D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mental health-related problems are a significant cause of attrition during Basic Combat Training (BCT). Evidence in civilian populations suggests that physical fitness is associated with psychological benefits in civilians, but little is known about the association between physical fitness and psychological adjustment during BCT. Methods This study prospectively examined the association between physical fitness and depressive symptoms in 300 BCT soldiers from May to July, 2012 at Fort Jackson, Columbia, SC. Soldiers completed a baseline Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) and survey within one week of arriving at BCT, and an end of cycle survey after eight weeks of BCT. Soldiers were assigned to the “high” fitness category if they had a passing score on the standard APFT of greater than or equal to 180 points out of 300 points. Soldiers scoring less than 180 points on the APFT were assigned to the “ low” fitness category. Depressive symptoms were measured using the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Results In multivariate analyses, adjusting for baseline demographics, self-reported sleep prior to BCT, BCT confidence, Army identification, and depressive symptoms, the odds of reporting depressive symptoms were 60% lower for soldiers in the high fitness category (odds ratio, OR 0.40; 95% confidence interval, CI 0.19–0.84), compared to soldiers in the low fitness category. Conclusions Analogous to other positive outcomes of soldier fitness, improvement of soldier physical fitness prior to BCT might improve soldiers' psychological health outcomes. PMID:24870581

  9. Serpine2, a potential novel target for combating melanoma metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qi Wei

    2016-01-01

    Early stages of melanoma can be treated by surgical resection of tumor, but there is still no effective treatment once it is progressed to metastatic phases. Although growing family of both metastasis promoting and metastasis suppressor genes have been reported, the molecular mechanisms governing melanoma metastatic cascade are still not completely understood. Therefore, defining the molecules that govern melanoma metastasis may aid the development of more effective therapeutic strategies for combating cancer. In the present study, we found that Serpin Peptidase Inhibitor 2, Serpine2 was involved in the metastasis of melanoma cells. The requirement of Serpine2 in the migration of melanoma cells was confirmed by gene silencing and over-expression in vitro. Moreover, down-regulation of Serpine2 expression strikingly inhibited melanoma cellular metastasis in vivo. Finally, we found that Serpine2 promotes melanoma metastasis through the glycogen synthesis kinase 3β, GSK-3β signaling pathway. To conclude, our findings suggested a novel mechanism underlying the metastasis of melanoma cells which might serve as a new intervention target for the treatment of melanoma. PMID:27347308

  10. Systems medicine and integrated care to combat chronic noncommunicable diseases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We propose an innovative, integrated, cost-effective health system to combat major non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including cardiovascular, chronic respiratory, metabolic, rheumatologic and neurologic disorders and cancers, which together are the predominant health problem of the 21st century. This proposed holistic strategy involves comprehensive patient-centered integrated care and multi-scale, multi-modal and multi-level systems approaches to tackle NCDs as a common group of diseases. Rather than studying each disease individually, it will take into account their intertwined gene-environment, socio-economic interactions and co-morbidities that lead to individual-specific complex phenotypes. It will implement a road map for predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory (P4) medicine based on a robust and extensive knowledge management infrastructure that contains individual patient information. It will be supported by strategic partnerships involving all stakeholders, including general practitioners associated with patient-centered care. This systems medicine strategy, which will take a holistic approach to disease, is designed to allow the results to be used globally, taking into account the needs and specificities of local economies and health systems. PMID:21745417

  11. [Combating smoking in Brazil: the strategic importance of government actions].

    PubMed

    Silva, Sandra Tavares da; Martins, Mariana Campos; Faria, Franciane Rocha de; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre

    2014-02-01

    Brazil is a world benchmark in combating smoking and promoting actions through the National Program for Tobacco Control and other Risk Factors for Cancer (PNCTOFR). This literature review was conducted in order to outline the actions of PNCTOFR and identify evidence of their effectiveness in reducing the prevalence of smoking in Brazil. The documents available in the electronic portals of INCA, the National Policy on Health Promotion, the National Tobacco Control Observatory, the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization were used, in addition to the Lilacs, PubMed Central, SciELO and ScienceDirect databases. The reference bases for analysis of the actions were the areas/dimensions proposed by the International Union for Health Promotion and Education. The restriction of the availability, control of marketing and commercialization, educational activities in schools, assistance in primary care for health professionals and the general population, control of consumption in public places and work are some of the actions that contributed to reduction in the prevalence of smoking in Brazil from 32.7% in 1997 to 14.8% in 2011. The results indicate the effectiveness of the actions of PNCTOFR, albeit smoking is still a public health problem and needs to be curbed. PMID:24863830

  12. Estimation of muscle torque in various combat sports.

    PubMed

    Pędzich, Wioletta; Mastalerz, Andrzej; Sadowski, Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to compare muscle torque of elite combat groups. Twelve taekwondo WTF athletes, twelve taekwondo ITF athletes and nine boxers participated in the study. Measurements of muscle torques were done under static conditions on a special stand which belonged to the Department of Biomechanics. The sum of muscle torque of lower right and left extremities of relative values was significantly higher for taekwondo WTF athletes than for boxers (16%, p < 0.001 for right and 10%, p < 0.05 for left extremities) and taekwondo ITF (10%, p < 0.05 for right and 8% for left extremities). Taekwondo ITF athletes attained significantly higher absolute muscle torque values than boxers for elbow flexors (20%, p < 0.05 for right and 11% for left extremities) and extensors (14% for right and 18%, p < 0.05 for left extremities) and shoulder flexors (10% for right and 12%, p < 0.05 for left extremities) and extensors (11% for right and 1% for left extremities). Taekwondo WTF and taekwondo ITF athletes obtained significantly different relative values of muscle torque of the hip flexors (16%, p < 0.05) and extensors (11%, p < 0.05) of the right extremities. PMID:23394114

  13. Perspective taking combats automatic expressions of racial bias.

    PubMed

    Todd, Andrew R; Bodenhausen, Galen V; Richeson, Jennifer A; Galinsky, Adam D

    2011-06-01

    Five experiments investigated the hypothesis that perspective taking--actively contemplating others' psychological experiences--attenuates automatic expressions of racial bias. Across the first 3 experiments, participants who adopted the perspective of a Black target in an initial context subsequently exhibited more positive automatic interracial evaluations, with changes in automatic evaluations mediating the effect of perspective taking on more deliberate interracial evaluations. Furthermore, unlike other bias-reduction strategies, the interracial positivity resulting from perspective taking was accompanied by increased salience of racial inequalities (Experiment 3). Perspective taking also produced stronger approach-oriented action tendencies toward Blacks (but not Whites; Experiment 4). A final experiment revealed that face-to-face interactions with perspective takers were rated more positively by Black interaction partners than were interactions with nonperspective takers--a relationship that was mediated by perspective takers' increased approach-oriented nonverbal behaviors (as rated by objective, third-party observers). These findings indicate that perspective taking can combat automatic expressions of racial biases without simultaneously decreasing sensitivity to ongoing racial disparities. PMID:21381852

  14. Phytoconstituents as apoptosis inducing agents: strategy to combat cancer.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manish; Kaur, Varinder; Kumar, Subodh; Kaur, Satwinderjeet

    2016-08-01

    Advancement in the field of cancer molecular biology has aided researchers to develop various new chemopreventive agents which can target cancer cells exclusively. Cancer chemopreventive agents have proficiency to inhibit, reverse and delay process of carcinogenesis during its early and later course. Chemopreventive agents can act as antioxidative, antimutagenic/antigenotoxic, anti-inflammatory agents or via aiming various molecular targets in a cell to induce cell death. Apoptosis is a kind of cell death which shows various cellular morphological alterations such as cell shrinkage, blebbing of membrane, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, formation of apoptotic bodies etc. Nowadays, apoptosis is being one of the new approaches for the identification and development of novel anticancer therapies. For centuries, plants are known to play part in daily routine from providing food to management of human health. In the last two decades, diverse phytochemicals and various botanical formulations have been characterized as agents that possess potential to execute cancer cells via inducing apoptosis. Data obtained from the research carried out globally pointed out that natural products are the potential candidates which have capability to combat cancer. In the present review, we surveyed literature on natural products which throws light on the mechanism through which these phytochemicals induce apoptosis in cancer cells. PMID:26239338

  15. 40 CFR 257.3-7 - Air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Air. 257.3-7 Section 257.3-7 Protection... and Practices § 257.3-7 Air. (a) The facility or practice shall not engage in open burning of... 110 of the Clean Air Act, as amended. (c) As used in this section “open burning” means the...

  16. Engagement in clinical interaction: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Kovarsky, Dana

    2009-02-01

    This article defines and reviews the concept of ENGAGEMENT in social interaction. Engagement refers to the level of interpersonal involvement displayed by participants in social situations. Various signals, including both spoken and unspoken signals, display engagement of participants in social exchanges. Engagement has been studied from a variety of perspectives, such as language development in children, educational interactions, human-machine exchanges, and medical encounters. Engagement can be conceptualized from a global level (e.g., engagement of persons with a disability in community life) to a local level (e.g., engagement in a particular conversation). Engagement has not been widely studied in the field of speech-language pathology. Therefore, this special issue on engagement in clinical interactions is offered to provide insights that may help clinicians consider methods of improving clinical practices by heightening client engagement in clinical interactions and communicative exchanges. PMID:19145545

  17. A State of Engagement: NASBE Study Group on Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsi, Ace

    2015-01-01

    Education is a $600 billion-a-year enterprise, but the investments states make in education will not benefit students unless they are physically and mentally present in the classroom. Too many students are not. In this report, the National Association of State Boards of Education asks policymakers to promote student engagement through a suite of…

  18. Engagement and Uncertainty: Emerging Technologies Challenge the Work of Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Weston; Wright, Wynne; Whyte, Kyle; Gasteyer, Stephen P.; Gehrke, Pat J.

    2014-01-01

    Universities' increasing applications of science and technology to address a wide array of societal problems may serve to thwart democratic engagement strategies. For emerging technologies, such challenges are particularly salient, as knowledge is incomplete and application and impact are uncertain or contested. Insights from science and…

  19. Transfer Student Engagement: Blurring of Social and Academic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Jaime; Leonard, Jeannie Brown; Mathias, David

    2013-01-01

    Transfer students are a distinct population. Their characteristics lead to a qualitatively different student experience. Drawing on interviews with a cross-sectional sample of transfer students at George Mason University (GMU), this study focused on the ways transfer students perceived their social and academic engagement, on the ways they engaged…

  20. 75 FR 61519 - Combating Exploitative Child Labor by Promoting Sustainable Livelihoods and Educational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... of the Secretary Combating Exploitative Child Labor by Promoting Sustainable Livelihoods and Educational Opportunities for Children in Egypt AGENCY: Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department... Child Labor by Promoting Sustainable Livelihoods and Educational Opportunities for Children in...

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid neuropeptide Y in combat veterans with and without posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Sah, Renu; Ekhator, Nosakhare N; Jefferson-Wilson, Lena; Horn, Paul S; Geracioti, Thomas D

    2014-02-01

    Accruing evidence indicates that neuropeptide Y (NPY), a peptide neurotransmitter, is a resilience-to-stress factor in humans. We previously reported reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) NPY concentrations in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subjects as compared with healthy, non-combat-exposed volunteers. Here we report CSF NPY in combat-exposed veterans with and without PTSD. We quantified NPY concentrations in morning CSF from 11 male subjects with PTSD from combat in Iraq and/or Afghanistan and from 14 combat-exposed subjects without PTSD. NPY-like immunoreactivity (NPY-LI) was measured by EIA. The relationship between CSF NPY and clinical symptoms, as measured by the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), was assessed, as was the relationship between combat exposure scale (CES) scores and CSF NPY. As compared with the combat-exposed comparison subjects without PTSD, individuals with PTSD had significantly lower concentrations of CSF NPY [mean CSF NPY was 258. 6 ± 21.64 pg/mL in the combat trauma-no PTSD group but only 180.5 ± 12.62 pg/mL in PTSD patients (p=0.008)]. After adjusting for CES and BDI scores the two groups were still significantly different with respect to NPY. Importantly, CSF NPY was negatively correlated with composite CAPS score and intrusive (re-experiencing) subscale scores, but did not significantly correlate with CES or BDI scores. Our current findings further suggest that NPY may regulate the manifestation of PTSD symptomatology, and extend previous observations of low CSF NPY concentrations in the disorder. Central nervous system NPY may be a clinically important pharmacotherapeutic target, and/or diagnostic measure, for PTSD. PMID:24485499

  2. Measuring Engagement in Fourth to Twelfth Grade Classrooms: The Classroom Engagement Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ze; Bergin, Christi; Bergin, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Research on factors that may promote engagement is hampered by the absence of a measure of classroom-level engagement. Literature has suggested that engagement may have 3 dimensions--affective, behavioral, and cognitive. No existing engagement scales measure all 3 dimensions at the classroom level. The Classroom Engagement Inventory (CEI) was…

  3. Morale as a moderator of the combat exposure-PTSD symptom relationship.

    PubMed

    Britt, Thomas W; Adler, Amy B; Bliese, Paul D; Moore, DeWayne

    2013-02-01

    We examined morale as a moderator of the relationship between combat exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a longitudinal study of U.S. soldiers who had participated in a deployment to Iraq. Soldiers (N = 636) completed assessments at 4 (Time 1) and 10 (Time 2) months following their combat deployment. Combat exposure (both breadth and perceived stressfulness), morale, and PTSD symptoms were assessed at Time 1, and PTSD symptoms were assessed again at Time 2. Results of multivariate multiple regressions revealed that morale at Time 1 interacted with both the breadth and stressfulness of combat exposure to predict PTSD symptoms at both Time 1 and Time 2, even when partialling out the effect of unit support. The slope of the given combat exposure and PTSD symptoms relationship was weaker when reports of morale were higher (with the effect size of the interaction ranging from .01 to .04). The results suggest that morale may buffer soldiers from the negative consequences of combat stressors. PMID:23371305

  4. Gene-Environment Interaction of ApoE Genotype and Combat Exposure on PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Michael J.; Genderson, Margo; Grant, Michael D.; Logue, Mark; Zink, Tyler; McKenzie, Ruth; Franz, Carol E.; Panizzon, Matthew; Lohr, James B.; Jerskey, Beth; Kremen, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Factors determining who develops PTSD following trauma are not well understood. The €4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene is associated with dementia and unfavorable outcome following brain insult. PTSD is also associated with dementia. Given evidence that psychological trauma adversely affects the brain, we hypothesized that the apoE genotype moderates effects of psychological trauma on PTSD pathogenesis. To investigate the moderation of the relationship between PTSD symptoms and combat exposure, we used 172 participants with combat trauma sustained during the Vietnam War. PTSD symptoms were the dependent variable and number of combat experiences, apoE genotype, and the combat experiences × apoE genotype interaction were predictors. We also examined the outcome of a diagnosis of PTSD (n = 39) versus no PTSD diagnosis (n = 131). The combat × apoE genotype interaction was significant for both PTSD symptoms (P = .014) and PTSD diagnosis (P = .009). ApoE genotype moderates the relationship between combat exposure and PTSD symptoms. Although the pathophysiology of PTSD is not well understood, the €4 allele is related to reduced resilience of the brain to insult. Our results are consistent with the €4 allele influencing the effects of psychological trauma on the brain, thereby affecting the risk of PTSD. PMID:24132908

  5. Using positive images to manage resistance-to-care and combative behaviors in nursing home residents with dementia: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wei-Ying; Waszynski, Christine; Kessler, Jeanne; Chiang, Yu-Ching; Clarkson, P John

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study attempted to reduce resistance-to-care (RTC) and combative behaviors in nursing home residents with dementia by eliciting their positive affect. Four female residents with dementia were recruited from a nursing facility. Each resident was involved in one intervention trial and one control trial. The response of the residents was assessed by the Agitated Behavior Scale and the Observational Measurement of Engagement Tool. The distress level of the certified nursing assistants (CNAs) delivering the care was reported through the Distress Thermometer. Results showed that the residents displayed fewer behavioral symptoms in the intervention trial than in the control trial. The CNAs reported less distress in the intervention trial than in the control trial. These preliminary findings suggest that it might be feasible to use positive images to reduce residents' behavioral symptoms and decrease the distress of CNAs. PMID:27040950

  6. Civic Education versus Civic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's critique on a new report titled "A Crucible Moment: College Learning and Democracy's Future", and focuses on civic education and civic engagement. The Obama administration's new report confronts a genuine problem in American education. The decline of civic education and knowledge in America is one of the few…

  7. Constructive Engagement with the Corporation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Many of the gravest concerns that critics of corporate culture have about the consequences of academic-corporate relationships are built on little more than ill-informed speculation, fueled by a lack of direct engagement with corporations. The solution to knowledge gap--and the key to liberation from fears of "creeping corporatization"--may…

  8. Lively Discussions! Fostering Engaged Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrell, Linda B., Ed.; Almasi, Janice F., Ed.

    Offering practical, classroom-based strategies teachers can use to promote literacy development, this book presents many examples of children engaging in discussion activities about narrative and informational text that emphasize collaborating, constructing meaning, and using these different types of texts to arrive at new understandings. Chapters…

  9. A Toolkit for Teacher Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grantmakers for Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Teachers are critical to the success of education grantmaking strategies, yet in talking with them we discovered that the world of philanthropy is often a mystery. GFE's Toolkit for Teacher Engagement aims to assist funders in authentically and effectively involving teachers in the education reform and innovation process. Built directly from the…

  10. Research Engagement for School Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Raphael

    2011-01-01

    This thought-provoking book examines the new and growing phenomenon of the "research-engaged school"--schools that not only encourage their staff to carry out their own research, but also use published research to inform practice and improve the quality of education. The author draws upon his scholarship and practice in local authorities, schools…

  11. Engaging Students with Audio Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cann, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Students express widespread dissatisfaction with academic feedback. Teaching staff perceive a frequent lack of student engagement with written feedback, much of which goes uncollected or unread. Published evidence shows that audio feedback is highly acceptable to students but is underused. This paper explores methods to produce and deliver audio…

  12. Student Engagement in Campus Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairo, Allessandra

    2011-01-01

    Faculty, staff, and administrators are all burdened by the lack of time, budgetary constraints, and ever-changing priorities, and facilities staff are no different. With all these constraints, how can real change happen? Student engagement can make facilities work easier and more fulfilling. Involving students from the ground up on projects not…

  13. Motivation, Engagement, and Student Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toshalis, Eric; Nakkula, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Figuring out what motivates and engages individual students is essential. Indeed, it is the prerequisite for implementing student-centered approaches to learning. However, today's teachers--confronting large class sizes, fast-paced academic calendars, and standardized assessments--face particular pressures to lump all students together and "teach…

  14. Participatory Multimedia Learning: Engaging Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiili, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a participatory multimedia learning model for use in designing multimedia learning environments that support an active learning process, creative participation, and learner engagement. Participatory multimedia learning can be defined as learning with systems that enable learners to produce part of the…

  15. Sustaining Engagement and Rural Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longenecker, Randall

    2003-01-01

    The Ohio State University Medical Center, a large urban academic medical center, and Mary Rutan Hospital, a rural community hospital in Logan County, Ohio, have been linked through a series of scholarly engagements spanning more than thirty years. What emerges from a qualitative study of key informants with personal knowledge of this interaction…

  16. Student Engagement and Marketing Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Steven A.; Hunter, Gary L.; Melton, Horace; Goodwin, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    A study is reported that investigates the goals underlying undergraduate students' engagement in their major classes, nonmajor classes, and in extracurricular activities. The qualitative study employs both focus groups and goal-mapping exercises. The results suggest that students tend to focus on utilitarian, attribute-level considerations mainly…

  17. Communicating chemistry for public engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartings, Matthew R.; Fahy, Declan

    2011-09-01

    The communication of chemistry to wider society is difficult because of 'chemophobia', its inherent complexity and its lack of unifying grand themes. To engage with citizens about the benefits and related dangers of the field, chemists must improve their dialogue with broader sections of the public -- but how?

  18. Preparing Teachers to Engage Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary M.; Jacobson, Arminta; Hemmer, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Teacher education has the potential to serve as an important forum for overcoming barriers to the engagement of parents in their children?s education. Nevertheless, parent involvement has yet to hold a central role in the teacher education curriculum (Chavkin & Williams, 1987; de Acosta, 1996; Epstein & Dauber, 1991; Hiatt-Michael, 2001) and in…

  19. Understanding Visitor Engagement and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber, James B.; Pekarik, Andrew J.; Hanemann, Nadine; Doering, Zahava; Lee, Ah-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The authors examine a model of visitor engagement that has been in development over the past 3 years at the Smithsonian Institution. A total of 390 visitors comprised the sample with a subsample ("n" = 102) of visitors who were tracked through an exhibit in the National Museum of Natural History. A 5-factor visitor preference model was…

  20. Nurturing Engaged and Empowered Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Current thinking within education circles suggests that if students are not engaged in class discussions they might not be learning. And if they are not learning--students and teachers--are wasting their time. The Teacher Effectiveness in Language Learning (TELL) Project spells out within its planning domain that teachers should plan lessons…

  1. Engaging Families through Artful Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores how aligned arts and play experiences can extend child and family engagement in a public outdoor space. The importance of outdoor play for children is strongly advocated and in response local governments provide playgrounds and recreational open spaces. To extend further the experiences afforded in such spaces some local…

  2. Civic Engagement and Environmental Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Examining the intersection of civic engagement and environmental literacy is particularly timely because 2012 marked a critical juncture in history: the United Nations Literacy Decade ended, and a 20-year appraisal of the United Nation's Earth Summit commenced. The Literacy Decade, launched in 2003 under the slogan "Literacy as Freedom," situated…

  3. Engaging Students in Quality Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henninger, Mary L.; Richardson, Karen Pagnano

    2016-01-01

    Promoting student engagement for all students in physical education, and specifically in game play, is a challenge faced by many middle and high school physical education teachers. Often, the games we play in physical education are not "good games" because, as early as middle school, some students are already resistant to playing…

  4. Reordering Histology to Enhance Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amerongen, Helen

    2011-01-01

    In redesigning the preclinical curriculum and shifting from a discipline-based approach to an organ system-based approach, faculty at the University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson took the opportunity to restructure the sequence of introductory histology content to make it more engaging and relevant. In this article, the author describes…

  5. Creative Drama Engages Children's Imaginations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Day, Shannon

    1996-01-01

    A teacher describes using melodrama as a way to combine the elements of humor and drama to engage the imaginations of young gifted children. Techniques for use with elementary through junior high students are presented along with the script of a play for first or second graders, with the last lines left blank for students to supply their own…

  6. Engaging Immigrant Students. Classroom Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Lynn; Bloomdahl, Susana Contreras

    2011-01-01

    For an educator who speaks only English, engaging immigrant English language learners (ELL) in the classroom can be a significant challenge. As a former classroom teacher, elementary school principal and guidance counselor, the authors have worked with immigrant student populations in K-12 schools. They have found that a good way to overcome the…

  7. Refreshing Engagement: NSSE at 13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Alexander C.; Gonyea, Robert M.; Kinzie, Jillian

    2013-01-01

    Thirteen years ago, 276 bachelor's-granting colleges and universities inaugurated a new approach to assessing college quality by participating in the first national administration of the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE). This report summarizes what was learned over the NSSE's first 13 years, why the survey is being updated, and new…

  8. Reversible Nut With Engagement Indication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Jay M.

    1995-01-01

    Document describes nut allowing fastener inserted or removed from either side by simply sliding fastener in or out. Detents on each face of nut, when pushed in, ensure positive engagement of threads. Followed by conventional clockwise turning to lock and counterclockwise turning to unlock nut. Detents, when viewed, show whether nut in positive lock.

  9. Utility Building Plan, elevations and sections. March Air Force Base, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Utility Building Plan, elevations and sections. March Air Force Base, Riverside, California, COmbat Operations Center, Utility Building. By Moffatt and Nichol, Engineers, 122 West Fifth Street, Long Beach, California; for the Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, Office of the District Engineer, Los Angeles, California. Drawing no. AW-60-02-03, sheet no. 57, approved March, 1962; specifications no. ENG-04-353-62-66; D.O. series AW 1596/57, Rev. "B"; file drawer 1290. Last revised 3 October 1966 "drawings updated." Various scales. 29 x 41 inches. pencil on paper - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Utility Building, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  10. Implementation Of Fiber Optics In U. S. Naval Combatants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, R. A.; Stewart, R. C.

    1987-12-01

    This paper describes a program wherein fiber optic technology was introduced into the U. S. Navy's AEGIS Cruisers. This program was sponsored and funded for the most part by Naval Sea Systems Command and represents the first significant effort involving naval vessels. Although specific to one ship class, the program achievements are applicable to most naval as well as commercial ships. The process of transitioning fiber optic technology from the laboratory or commercial sector to a military ship is described. The issues addressed and problems resolved during this transition are discussed. Some of the primary issues include transmission data rates, ship producibility and environmental concerns such as temperature extremes, shock, vibration, ionizing radiation, toxic materials, etc. Additionally, the advantages of fiber optic technology specific to U. S. Naval ships are explained. Of particular importance are the developments that evolved from the AEGIS Cruiser program. Developments include a unique cable design, junction boxes, connectors, a splice, emergency repair procedures, a remote motor control system, a torsionmeter system, and a family of sensors and switches. The overall program resulted in the installation of fiber optic systems on three U. S. Navy ships. These installation projects are described along with some of the lessons learned. The paper concludes that the past issues that prevented the use of fiber optic technology in naval ships have been addressed and resolved. Fiber optics has successfully been introduced into naval combatants in data transmission, control, and sensing applications. Normal producibility has been considered such that fiber optic systems have been installed in almost routine fashion by a commercial shipyard. Additionally, human factor considerations have resulted in little or no additional training being required for operational and maintenance personnel.

  11. Microcosm evaluation of autochthonous bioaugmentation to combat marine oil spills.

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulou, Maria; Eickenbusch, P; Pasadakis, Nikos; Venieri, Danae; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2013-09-25

    Oil spills can be disastrous to any ecosystem. Bioremediation through bioaugmentation (addition of oil-degrading bacteria) and biostimulation (addition of nutrients N&P) options can be a promising strategy for combating oil spills following first response actions. However, bioaugmentation is one of the most controversial issues of bioremediation since nutrient addition alone has a greater effect on oil biodegradation than the addition of microbial products that are highly dependent on environmental conditions. There is increasing evidence that the best way to overcome the above barriers is to use microorganisms from the polluted area, an approach proposed as autochthonous bioaugmentation (ABA) and defined as the bioaugmentation technology that uses exclusively microorganisms indigenous to the sites (soil, sand, and water) to be decontaminated. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of an ABA strategy for the successful remediation of polluted marine environments. A consortium was enriched from seawater samples taken from Elefsina Gulf near the Hellenic Petroleum Refinery, a site exposed to chronic crude oil pollution. Pre-adapted consortium was tested alone or in combination with inorganic nutrients in the presence (or not) of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids) in 30-day experiments. Treatment with fertilizers in the presence of biosurfactants exhibited the highest alkane and PAH degradation and showed highest growth over a period of almost 15 days. Considering the above, the use of biostimulation additives in combination with naturally pre-adapted hydrocarbon degrading consortia has proved to be a very effective treatment and it is a promising strategy in the future especially when combined with lipophilic fertilizers instead of inorganic nutrients. Such an approach becomes more pertinent when the oil spill approaches near the shoreline and immediate hydrocarbon degradation is needed. PMID:23835403

  12. Single-session emotion regulation skills training to reduce aggression in combat veterans: A clinical innovation case study.

    PubMed

    Miles, Shannon R; Thompson, Karin E; Stanley, Melinda A; Kent, Thomas A

    2016-05-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common among returning veterans, and aggression frequently co-occurs with PTSD. Veterans with PTSD most commonly engage in impulsive aggression, or aggression that is emotionally charged, unplanned, and uncontrolled, rather than premeditated aggression, which is planned and controlled. Previous research demonstrated a variety of emotions can result in aggression, rather than the traditional conceptualization that only anger leads to aggression. In a veteran sample, deficiencies in the ability to regulate emotions (emotion dysregulation) mediated the relationship between PTSD and impulsive aggression. These results suggest that teaching veterans with PTSD and impulsive aggression how to regulate emotions may decrease aggression. The cases presented illustrate the use of an innovative, single-session emotion regulation treatment for combat veterans with PTSD. Two cases are presented to generate hypotheses on who might benefit from this treatment in the future. The two male veterans treated with this protocol differed in how frequently they used the emotion regulation skills after the treatment and in their treatment outcomes. Teaching veterans how to regulate their emotions in a condensed time frame may be beneficial for certain veterans, and further research on this brief treatment is warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27148951

  13. Fluid/Structure Interaction Computational Investigation of Blast-Wave Mitigation Efficacy of the Advanced Combat Helmet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujicic, M.; Bell, W. C.; Pandurangan, B.; Glomski, P. S.

    2011-08-01

    To combat the problem of traumatic brain injury (TBI), a signature injury of the current military conflicts, there is an urgent need to design head protection systems with superior blast/ballistic impact mitigation capabilities. Toward that end, the blast impact mitigation performance of an advanced combat helmet (ACH) head protection system equipped with polyurea suspension pads and subjected to two different blast peak pressure loadings has been investigated computationally. A fairly detailed (Lagrangian) finite-element model of a helmet/skull/brain assembly is first constructed and placed into an Eulerian air domain through which a single planar blast wave propagates. A combined Eulerian/Lagrangian transient nonlinear dynamics computational fluid/solid interaction analysis is next conducted in order to assess the extent of reduction in intra-cranial shock-wave ingress (responsible for TBI). This was done by comparing temporal evolutions of intra-cranial normal and shear stresses for the cases of an unprotected head and the helmet-protected head and by correlating these quantities with the three most common types of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), i.e., axonal damage, contusion, and subdural hemorrhage. The results obtained show that the ACH provides some level of protection against all investigated types of mTBI and that the level of protection increases somewhat with an increase in blast peak pressure. In order to rationalize the aforementioned findings, a shockwave propagation/reflection analysis is carried out for the unprotected head and helmet-protected head cases. The analysis qualitatively corroborated the results pertaining to the blast-mitigation efficacy of an ACH, but also suggested that there are additional shockwave energy dissipation phenomena which play an important role in the mechanical response of the unprotected/protected head to blast impact.

  14. Assessment of dissociation among combat-exposed soldiers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Barbaros; Celik, Cemil; Oznur, Taner

    2015-01-01

    Background Dissociation is a disruption of and/or discontinuity in the normal, subjective integration of one or more aspects of psychological functioning, including memory, identity, consciousness, perception, and motor control. A limited number of studies investigated combat-related dissociation. Objective The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between dissociative symptoms and combat-related trauma. Method This study included 184 individuals, including 84 patients who were exposed to combat and diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Group I), 50 subjects who were exposed to combat but were not diagnosed with PTSD (Group II), and 50 healthy subjects without combat exposure (Group III). The participants were evaluated using the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) to determine their total and sub-factor (i.e., amnesia, depersonalization/derealization, and absorption) dissociative symptom levels. In addition, Group I and Group II were compared with respect to the relationship between physical injury and DES scores. Results The mean DES scores (i.e., total and sub-factors) of Group I were higher than those of Group II (p<0.001), and Group II's mean DES scores (i.e., total and sub-factors) were higher than those of Group III (p<0.001). Similarly, the number of subjects with high total DES scores (i.e.,>30) was highest in Group I, followed by Group II and Group III. When we compared combat-exposed subjects with high total DES scores, Group I had higher scores than Group II. In contrast, no relationship between the presence of bodily injury and total DES scores could be demonstrated. In addition, our results demonstrated that high depersonalization/derealization factor scores were correlated with bodily injury in PTSD patients. A similar relationship was found between high absorption factor scores and bodily injury for Group II. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that the level of dissociation was significantly higher in subjects

  15. Public Engagement on Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, J.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change communication is complicated by complexity of the scientific problem, multiple perspectives on the magnitude of the risk from climate change, often acrimonious disputes between scientists, high stakes policy options, and overall politicization of the issue. Efforts to increase science literacy as a route towards persuasion around the need for a policy like cap and trade have failed, because the difficulty that a scientist has in attempting to make sense of the social and political complexity is very similar to the complexity facing the general public as they try to make sense of climate science itself. In this talk I argue for a shift from scientists and their institutions as information disseminators to that of public engagement and enablers of public participation. The goal of engagement is not just to inform, but to enable, motivate and educate the public regarding the technical, political, and social dimensions of climate change. Engagement is a two-way process where experts and decision-makers seek input and learn from the public about preferences, needs, insights, and ideas relative to climate change impacts, vulnerabilities, solutions and policy options. Effective public engagement requires that scientists detach themselves from trying to control what the public does with the acquired knowledge and motivation. The goal should not be to "sell" the public on particular climate change solutions, since such advocacy threatens public trust in scientists and their institutions. Conduits for public engagement include the civic engagement approach in the context of community meetings, and perhaps more significantly, the blogosphere. Since 2006, I have been an active participant in the climate blogosphere, focused on engaging with people that are skeptical of AGW. A year ago, I started my own blog Climate Etc. at judithcurry.com. The demographic that I have focused my communication/engagement activities are the technically educated and scientifically

  16. Protective supplied-breathing-air garment

    DOEpatents

    Childers, E.L.; von Hortenau, E.F.

    1982-05-28

    A breathing-air garment for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants is disclosed. The garment includes a suit and a separate head-protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air-delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air-delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit sealed with an adhesive sealing flap.

  17. Auditory Risk of Air Rifles

    PubMed Central

    Lankford, James E.; Meinke, Deanna K.; Flamme, Gregory A.; Finan, Donald S.; Stewart, Michael; Tasko, Stephen; Murphy, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To characterize the impulse noise exposure and auditory risk for air rifle users for both youth and adults. Design Acoustic characteristics were examined and the auditory risk estimates were evaluated using contemporary damage-risk criteria for unprotected adult listeners and the 120-dB peak limit and LAeq75 exposure limit suggested by the World Health Organization (1999) for children. Study sample Impulses were generated by 9 pellet air rifles and 1 BB air rifle. Results None of the air rifles generated peak levels that exceeded the 140 dB peak limit for adults and 8 (80%) exceeded the 120 dB peak SPL limit for youth. In general, for both adults and youth there is minimal auditory risk when shooting less than 100 unprotected shots with pellet air rifles. Air rifles with suppressors were less hazardous than those without suppressors and the pellet air rifles with higher velocities were generally more hazardous than those with lower velocities. Conclusion To minimize auditory risk, youth should utilize air rifles with an integrated suppressor and lower velocity ratings. Air rifle shooters are advised to wear hearing protection whenever engaging in shooting activities in order to gain self-efficacy and model appropriate hearing health behaviors necessary for recreational firearm use. PMID:26840923

  18. Resolution No. 44/172. Plan of Action to Combat Desertification, 19 December 1989.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Resolution No. 44172, December 19, 1989, from the United Nations-General Assembly reviews the plan of action to combat desertification. Step A, implementation of the plan of action to combat desertification begins with recalling of previous resolutions concerning desertification, acknowledges with deep concern the problem of desertification, which has a global impact but is still on the fringe of growing awareness on the part of the international community, and how imperative it is to combat environment deterioration effectively within the framework of the interdependence of nations. It expresses grave concern at the continuing spread and intensification of decertification in developing countries, particularly in Africa, the indescribable human suffering, economic and financial losses, and social disruption caused by that scourge; it acknowledges that drought and desertification place a considerable burden on the economic and financial capacities of the developing countries affected and that the negative effects of the international economic environment impede their efforts to undertake effective and sustained programs to combat desertification, for which they bear primary responsibility. The resolution notes the inadequacy of financial resources for the implementation of the plan of action to combat desertification, urges governments to increase and intensify their efforts and to prioritize decertification control, and requests a report containing expert studies in the specified areas. Step B, implementation in the Sudan-Sahelian region of the plan of action to combat decertification, begins with the recall of previous resolutions, reviews important facts and concerns, urges affected countries to include projects to combat desertification and drought in their national development plans and to accord high priority to them. It invites the United Nations Sudano-Sahelian office to intensify its efforts to mobilize additional resources to support the efforts of the

  19. Phylogeny of Courtship and Male-Male Combat Behavior in Snakes

    PubMed Central

    Senter, Phil; Harris, Shannon M.; Kent, Danielle L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Behaviors involved in courtship and male-male combat have been recorded in a taxonomically broad sample (76 species in five families) of snakes in the clade Boidae + Colubroidea, but before now no one has attempted to find phylogenetic patterns in such behaviors. Here, we present a study of phylogenetic patterns in such behaviors in snakes. Methodology/Principal Findings From the literature on courtship and male-male combat in snakes we chose 33 behaviors to analyze. We plotted the 33 behaviors onto a phylogenetic tree to determine whether phylogenetic patterns were discernible. We found that phylogenetic patterns are discernible for some behaviors but not for others. For behaviors with discernible phylogenetic patterns, we used the fossil record to determine minimum ages for the addition of each behavior to the courtship and combat behavioral repertoire of each snake clade. Conclusions/Significance The phylogenetic patterns of behavior reveal that male-male combat in the Late Cretaceous common ancestors of Boidae and Colubridae involved combatants raising the head and neck and attempting to topple each other. Poking with spurs was added in Boidae. In Lampropeltini the toppling behavior was replaced by coiling without neck-raising, and body-bridging was added. Phylogenetic patterns reveal that courtship ancestrally involved rubbing with spurs in Boidae. In Colubroidea, courtship ancestrally involved chin-rubbing and head- or body-jerking. Various colubroid clades subsequently added other behaviors, e.g. moving undulations in Natricinae and Lampropeltini, coital neck biting in the Eurasian ratsnake clade, and tail quivering in Pantherophis. The appearance of each group in the fossil record provides a minimum age of the addition of each behavior to combat and courtship repertoires. Although many gaps in the story of the evolution of courtship and combat in snakes remain, this study is an important first step in the reconstruction of the evolution of these

  20. Air resources

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This section describes the ambient (surrounding) air quality of the TVA region, discusses TVA emission contributions to ambient air quality, and identifies air quality impacts to human health and welfare. Volume 2 Technical Document 2, Environmental Consequences, describes how changes in TVA emissions could affect regional air quality, human health, environmental resources, and materials. The primary region of the affected environment is broadly defined as the state of Tennessee, as well as southern Kentucky, western Virginia, southern West Virginia, western North Carolina, and northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. This area represents the watershed of the Tennessee River and the 201 counties of the greater TVA service area. Emissions from outside the Tennessee Valley region contribute to air quality in the Valley. Also, TVA emissions are transported outside the Valley and have some impact on air quality beyond the primary study area. Although the study area experiences a number of air quality problems, overall air quality is good.

  1. Strategies to Enhance Physician Engagement.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, Alan H

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare reform and other externally driven healthcare initiatives have introduced a number of new healthcare requirements that are restructuring the way we provide healthcare services. With a growing focus on health plan efficiency and accountability for value-based performance metrics extending across the full spectrum of care, healthcare organizations are looking to develop new models of care to meet the needs of today's healthcare environment. Physician alignment and engagement are keys to success. But many physicians feel threatened, overwhelmed, and frustrated with the changes, and it's beginning to take its toll on physician attitudes and perspectives about care. Enhancing physician engagement requires a multistep process that includes making an effort to better understand their world; encouraging opportunities for input and participation in care redesign; providing education, training, guidance, and support; and making the effort to recognize and thank them for what they do. PMID:26665482

  2. Potency of Massoia Bark in Combating Immunosuppressed-related Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hertiani, Triana; Pratiwi, Sylvia Utami Tunjung; Yuswanto, Agustinus; Permanasari, Prisci

    2016-01-01

    Background: As part of our search for new potential natural resources to eradicate infection, we have revealed the prominent potency of massoia bark (Massoia aromatica Becc, Lauraceae) in combating immunosuppressed-related infection. Materials and Methods: The extract was prepared by macerating the pulverized dried bark in ethanol 95%, followed by solvent evaporation. The oil was extracted from the dried bark by steam-hydrodistillation of which preparative thin-layer chromatography was performed on the oil to isolate the active constituent, C-10 massoia lactone (ML). Anti-biofilm assay against Candida albicans was conducted on polystyrene 96 wells microtiter plates, followed by a confocal laser scanning microscope observation to get three-dimensional profiles of the affected biofilms. Effects on the hyphae development inoculated on RPMI-1640 agar plates were observed for 7 days. Influences of samples on mice macrophage phagocytosis were examined by an in vitro technique. Samples concentration tested were in the range of 2.0–0.0625 mg/mL and done in triplicate. Results: Massoia bark extracts (oil and solid phase) and ML exhibited promising activities as anti-biofilm against C. albicans at IC50 0.074% v/v, 271 μg/mL and 0.026 μg/mL, respectively. The ML did not inhibit the hyphae development at the concentration tested; however, the extracts showed inhibition at 62.5 μg/mL. Macrophage phagocytosis stimulation was correlated to the ML content. Conclusion: Massoia bark is potential to be developed as anti-infective in immunosuppressed condition of which the C10 ML (C10H16O2) plays a major role in exerting activity. SUMMARY Massoia bark extracts (oily and solid phase) and C-10 Massoia lactone exhibited promising activities as antibiofilm against Candida albicans at IC50 are 0.074 %v/v, 271 μg/mL and 0.026 μg/mL respectively. The major constituent, C-10 Massoia lactone (C10H16O2) plays major role in exerting anticandida activity and potentially acts as an

  3. Worm Gear With Hydrostatic Engagement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaiko, Lev I.

    1994-01-01

    In proposed worm-gear transmission, oil pumped at high pressure through meshes between teeth of gear and worm coil. Pressure in oil separates meshing surfaces slightly, and oil reduces friction between surfaces. Conceived for use in drive train between gas-turbine engine and rotor of helicopter. Useful in other applications in which weight critical. Test apparatus simulates and measures some loading conditions of proposed worm gear with hydrostatic engagement.

  4. Combating infectious diseases of poverty: a year on

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Infectious Diseases of Poverty journal, launched a year ago, is a platform to engage outside the traditional disciplinary boundaries, and disseminate high quality science towards the improvement of health. This paper reviews the milestone achievements during its first year of operation. The journal has filled an important niche, addressing some of the main priorities in the Global Report for Research on Infectious Diseases of Poverty. Highlights include the publication of three thematic issues on health systems, surveillance and response systems, as well as co-infection and syndemics. The thematic issues have foregrounded the importance and innovation that can be achieved through transdisciplinary research. The journal has been indexed by PubMed since April 2013, with the publication of a total of 38 articles. Finally, the journal is delivering to wider range readers both in developing and developed countries with sustained efforts with a focus on relevant and strategic information towards elimination of infectious diseases of poverty. PMID:24246007

  5. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  6. Rate of British psychiatric combat casualties compared to recent American wars.

    PubMed

    Price, H H

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines factors leading to the low rate of combat psychiatric casualties in the British recapture of the Falklands compared to the American experience in North Africa, Italy, Europe and South Pacific theatres during World War II, the Korean Conflict and Vietnam. The factors compared are those thought to affect rates seen in these past wars. The factors highlighted are psychiatric screening of evacuees, presence of psychiatric personnel in line units, intensity of combat and use of elite units. Factors also mentioned are presence of possible occult psychiatric casualties such as frostbite and malaria, amount of indirect fire and the offensive or defensive nature of the combat. A unique aspect of the Falklands War examined is the exclusive use of hospital ships to treat psychiatric casualties and the impact of the Geneva Convention rules regarding hospital ships on the classic treatment principles of proximity and expectancy. The types and numbers of various diagnoses are also presented. The British Campaign in the Falklands produced a remarkably low rate of psychiatric casualties. When viewed in light of American experience in recent wars, this low rate represents a concentration of optimal factors leading to healthy function in combat. The results of this war should not be used to predict a similar outcome in future combat as this particular constellation of factors may not recur. PMID:18214088

  7. Injuries associated with combat sports, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    The practice of combat sports creates a potential for training- and sports-related injuries among military members. During the 4-year surveillance period, there were 12,108 cases of injuries associated with combat sports among active component service members; the overall incidence rate was 21.0 per 10,000 person-years (p-yrs). The rates were higher among service members who were male, Hispanic, in the youngest age groups, in the Army, junior enlisted, and in combat-specific occupations. The rate among recruit/ trainees (779.4 per 10,000 p-yrs) was more than 165 times the rate among all other active component service members (non-recruits) (4.7 per 10,000 p-yrs). Sprains, strains, and contusions accounted for more than one-half of the primary (first-listed) diagnoses associated with combat sports cases. More serious conditions such as concussions/head injuries and skull/face fractures/intracranial injuries were reported among 3.9% and 2.1% of all cases and were more common among boxing-related cases. Hand/wrist fractures were also common among boxing cases. Wrestling had comparatively greater proportions of dislocations and open wounds. Although the combat sport training provides many physical and mental benefits to the individual, safety practices should be enforced to reduce the most frequent and serious injuries. PMID:24885879

  8. Civic Engagement and the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Constance; Levine, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Constance Flanagan and Peter Levine survey research on civic engagement among U.S. adolescents and young adults. Civic engagement, they say, is important both for the functioning of democracies and for the growth and maturation it encourages in young adults, but opportunities for civic engagement are not evenly distributed by social class or race…

  9. Engaging Student Learning in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Andy

    2002-01-01

    Explores the significance of engagement as a stance toward teaching and learning, noting how engagement can affect the way teachers and students interact in physical education settings and surrounding environments and presenting activities to encourage engagement (develop performance routines, say and switch, roundtable brainstorm, bubble gum…

  10. Civic Engagement and the "Research College"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomgarden, Alan H.

    2007-01-01

    Liberal arts colleges infrequently appear as prominent models of civic engagement. Yet their low profile and limited role in the higher education engagement discourse masks great potential. This article challenges these institutions to connect liberal education and civic engagement and argues that this is practicable within current priorities and…

  11. Identifying Teaching Methods that Engage Entrepreneurship Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balan, Peter; Metcalfe, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Entrepreneurship education particularly requires student engagement because of the complexity of the entrepreneurship process. The purpose of this paper is to describe how an established measure of engagement can be used to identify relevant teaching methods that could be used to engage any group of entrepreneurship students.…

  12. The Centrality of Engagement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Bruns, Karen; Sonka, Steven T.; Furco, Andrew; Swanson, Louis

    2012-01-01

    The centrality of engagement is critical to the success of higher education in the future. Engagement is essential to most effectively achieving the overall purpose of the university, which is focused on the knowledge enterprise. Today's engagement is scholarly, is an aspect of learning and discovery, and enhances society and higher education.…

  13. The Centrality of Engagement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Bruns, Karen; Sonka, Steven T.; Furco, Andrew; Swanson, Louis

    2016-01-01

    The centrality of engagement is critical to the success of higher education in the future. Engagement is essential to most effectively achieving the overall purpose of the university, which is focused on the knowledge enterprise. Today's engagement is scholarly, is an aspect of learning and discovery, and enhances society and higher education.…

  14. Engagement States and Learning from Educational Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chang, Mido; Evans, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Children's and adolescents' cognitive, affective, and behavioral states of engagement enhance or impede enjoyment of, and performance with, educational games. We propose a comprehensive model of engagement states and apply it to research on educational game development and research on the role of various aspects of engagement on game play and…

  15. Sustaining Student Engagement in Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ateh, Comfort M.; Charpentier, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Many students perceive science to be a difficult subject and are minimally engaged in learning it. This article describes a lesson that embedded an activity to engage students in learning science. It also identifies features of a science lesson that are likely to enhance students' engagement and learning of science and possibly reverse…

  16. Public Engagement and Nanotechnology in Australia.

    PubMed

    Dalton-Brown, Sally

    2016-07-01

    Upstream engagement is commonly regarded as necessary for the smooth implementation of new technologies, particularly when there is an impact on health. Is the healthcare context in Australia geared toward such public engagement? There are established engagement practices for issues of healthcare resourcing, for example; however, the situation becomes more complex with the introduction of a new technology such as nanomedicine. PMID:27348837

  17. Civic Engagement: A Tool for Building Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Jose Zapata

    2011-01-01

    With the growth of a global economy, there is the need for a type of educational system that promotes civic engagement as a means of building new models toward a democratic society. In this article, the author discusses civic engagement as a tool for building democracy. As educators seek to develop models of civic engagement in teacher education,…

  18. The Two Cultures of Undergraduate Academic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brint, Steven; Cantwell, Allison M.; Hanneman, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Using data on upper-division students in the University of California system, we show that two distinct cultures of engagement exist on campus. The culture of engagement in the arts, humanities and social sciences focuses on interaction, participation, and interest in ideas. The culture of engagement in the natural sciences and engineering focuses…

  19. Institutional Level Student Engagement and Organisational Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Velden, Gwen

    2012-01-01

    Driven by the growing presence of market forces within higher education worldwide, universities are changing the way they engage with students. This article explores how a university's internal culture relates to engagement with students and their views. It builds on wider research into student engagement and organisational cultures. The…

  20. Overcoming Barriers to Engaging in College Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Lauren; Shaulskiy, Stephanie; Zircher, Andrew; Sanders, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Underprepared college students face transition issues that prevent full academic engagement. The written responses of 176 students in a learning-strategies course were used to develop a grounded model of overcoming barriers to academic engagement. Findings revealed contexts in which academic engagement involved high costs (i.e., effort, trade-off,…