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Sample records for air commerce regulations

  1. 75 FR 10567 - Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... proposed rule published on October 13, 2009 in the Federal Register (74 FR 52541). The document is also... analysis that describes the effect of the rule on small entities (i.e., small businesses, small... Acquisition regulations, Federal acquisition regulations, Government procurement, Government...

  2. 75 FR 14496 - Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR); Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... final rule published on March 8, 2010 in the Federal Register (75 FR 10568). The document is also... information displays a currently valid OMB control number. In FR Doc. 2010-4132 appearing on page 10568 in the... CFR Part 1352 RIN 0605-AA26 Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR); Correction AGENCY: Department...

  3. Shaping the norms that regulate international commerce of embryos.

    PubMed

    Gard, Julie A; Stringfellow, David A

    2014-01-01

    As various embryo technologies in livestock were developed and evolved to a state of usefulness over the past 40 years, scientists with a specific interest in infectious diseases sought to determine the epidemiologic consequences of movement, especially international movement, of increasing numbers of embryos. Many of the foundational studies in this area were reported in Theriogenology, beginning in the 1970s and especially throughout the 1980s and 1990s. Unquestionably, Theriogenology has been a widely used venue for dissemination of basic information on this subject, which ultimately led to the development of the now universally accepted techniques for certification of embryo health. Today it is well-recognized that movement in commerce of embryos, especially in vivo-derived embryos, is a very low-risk method for exchange of animal germ plasm. This paper chronicles the evolution of strategies for health certification of embryos. An overview is provided of the calculated efforts of practitioners, scientists, and regulators to organize, forge necessary partnerships, stimulate needed research, provide purposeful analysis of the results, and, through these processes, guarantee the universal acceptance of efficient protocols for certifying the health of embryos intended for movement in international commerce.

  4. 15 CFR 19.2 - Why has the Commerce Department issuing these regulations and what do they cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Why has the Commerce Department issuing these regulations and what do they cover? 19.2 Section 19.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION General Provisions § 19.2 Why has the...

  5. Wood stove air flow regulating

    SciTech Connect

    Brefka, P.E.

    1983-10-04

    A wood stove has primary and secondary air regulator doors at the bottom and top, respectively, of the stove door each rotating about the axis of a tightening knob in the center of the door opposite a baffle plate that defines with the door inside an air channel open at the top and bottom.

  6. Regulation of air traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DEVALUEZ

    1922-01-01

    The ways in which the international and internal French air traffic accords interact with each other is outlined in this report. The principal questions covered by the present legislation are as follows: 1) Conditions of safety which must be fulfilled by aircraft; 2) Licenses for members of the crew; 3) Traffic rules to be observed by French and foreign aircraft.

  7. 77 FR 51706 - Transportation of Household Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer Protection Regulations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer Protection Regulations: Household Goods Motor Carrier Record..., 2012, direct final rule concerning the period during which household goods (HHG) motor carriers must retain documentation of an individual shipper's waiver of receipt of printed copies of...

  8. 77 FR 41699 - Transportation of Household Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer Protection Regulations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... Vehicle'' (73 FR 72987) would have on household goods carriers who provide consumers electronic access to... Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer Protection Regulations: Household Goods Motor Carrier Record... household goods carriers before choosing one. The Agency does not believe there are any significant...

  9. International trade and air pollution: estimating the economic costs of air emissions from waterborne commerce vessels in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Kevin P

    2005-10-01

    Although there is a burgeoning literature on the effects of international trade on the environment, relatively little work has been done on where trade most directly effects the environment: the transportation sector. This article shows how international trade is affecting air pollution emissions in the United States' shipping sector. Recent work has shown that cargo ships have been long overlooked regarding their contribution to air pollution. Indeed, ship emissions have recently been deemed "the last unregulated source of traditional air pollutants". Air pollution from ships has a number of significant local, national, and global environmental effects. Building on past studies, we examine the economic costs of this increasing and unregulated form of environmental damage. We find that total emissions from ships are largely increasing due to the increase in foreign commerce (or international trade). The economic costs of SO2 pollution range from dollars 697 million to dollars 3.9 billion during the period examined, or dollars 77 to dollars 435 million on an annual basis. The bulk of the cost is from foreign commerce, where the annual costs average to dollars 42 to dollars 241 million. For NOx emissions the costs are dollars 3.7 billion over the entire period or dollars 412 million per year. Because foreign trade is driving the growth in US shipping, we also estimate the effect of the Uruguay Round on emissions. Separating out the effects of global trade agreements reveals that the trade agreement-led emissions amounted to dollars 96 to dollars 542 million for SO2 between 1993 and 2001, or dollars 10 to dollars 60 million per year. For NOx they were dollars 745 million for the whole period or dollars 82 million per year. Without adequate policy responses, we predict that these trends and costs will continue into the future.

  10. Colorado Air Quality Control Regulations and Ambient Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Health, Denver. Div. of Air Pollution Control.

    Regulations and standards relative to air quality control in Colorado are defined in this publication. Presented first are definitions of terms, a statement of intent, and general provisions applicable to all emission control regulations adopted by the Colorado Air Pollution Control Commission. Following this, three regulations are enumerated: (1)…

  11. Autoimmune regulator, Aire, is a novel regulator of chondrocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Si, Yuan; Inoue, Kazuki; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Kanno, Jun; Imai, Yuuki

    2013-08-01

    Chondrocyte differentiation is controlled by various regulators, such as Sox9 and Runx2, but the process is complex. To further understand the precise underlying molecular mechanisms of chondrocyte differentiation, we aimed to identify a novel regulatory factor of chondrocyte differentiation using gene expression profiles of micromass-cultured chondrocytes at different differentiation stages. From the results of microarray analysis, the autoimmune regulator, Aire, was identified as a novel regulator. Aire stable knockdown cells, and primary cultured chondrocytes obtained from Aire(-/-) mice, showed reduced mRNA expression levels of chondrocyte-related genes. Over-expression of Aire induced the early stages of chondrocyte differentiation by facilitating expression of Bmp2. A ChIP assay revealed that Aire was recruited on an Airebinding site (T box) in the Bmp2 promoter region in the early stages of chondrocyte differentiation and histone methylation was modified. These results suggest that Aire can facilitate early chondrocyte differentiation by expression of Bmp2 through altering the histone modification status of the promoter region of Bmp2. Taken together, Aire might play a role as an active regulator of chondrocyte differentiation, which leads to new insights into the regulatory mechanisms of chondrocyte differentiation.

  12. Emerging Latin American air quality regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hosmer, A.W.; Vitale, E.M.; Guerrero, C.R.; Solorzano-Vincent, L.

    1998-12-31

    Latin America is the most urbanized region in the developing world. In recent years, significant economic growth has resulted in population migration from rural areas to urban centers, as well as in a substantial rise in the standard of living within the Region. These changes have impacted the air quality of Latin American countries as increased numbers of industrial facilities and motor vehicles release pollutants into the air. With the advent of new free trade agreements such as MERCOSUR and NAFTA, economic activity and associated pollutant levels can only be expected to continue to expand in the future. In order to address growing air pollution problems, many Latin America countries including Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica, and Mexico have passed, or will soon pass, new legislation to develop and strengthen their environmental frameworks with respect to air quality. As a first step toward understanding the impacts that this increased environmental regulation will have, this paper will examine the regulatory systems in six Latin American countries with respect to ambient air quality and for each of these countries: review a short history of the air quality problems within the country; outline the legal and institutional framework including key laws and implementing institutions; summarize in brief the current status of the country in terms of program development and implementation; and identify projected future trends. In addition, the paper will briefly review the international treaties that have bearing on Latin American air quality. Finally, the paper will conclude by identifying and exploring emerging trends in individual countries and the region as a whole.

  13. NASA Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Act Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) regulations have greatly impacted materials and processes utilized in the manufacture of aerospace hardware. Code JE/ NASA's Environmental Management Division at NASA Headquarters recognized the need for a formal, Agency-wide review process of CAA regulations. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was selected as the 'Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Act Regulations'. This presentation describes the centralized support provided by MSFC for the management and leadership of NASA's CAA regulation review process.

  14. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 21: Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations Manual is the last in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The manual…

  15. Air-flow regulation system for a coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1984-01-01

    An improved air-flow regulator for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which allows close air-flow regulation from a compressor source even though the pressure variations are too rapid for a single primary control loop to respond. The improved system includes a primary controller to control a valve in the main (large) air supply line to regulate large slow changes in flow. A secondary controller is used to control a smaller, faster acting valve in a secondary (small) air supply line parallel to the main line valve to regulate rapid cyclic deviations in air flow. A low-pass filter with a time constant of from 20 to 50 seconds couples the output of the secondary controller to the input of the primary controller so that the primary controller only responds to slow changes in the air-flow rate, the faster, cyclic deviations in flow rate sensed and corrected by the secondary controller loop do not reach the primary controller due to the high frequency rejection provided by the filter. This control arrangement provides at least a factor of 5 improvement in air-flow regulation for a coal gasifier in which air is supplied by a reciprocating compressor through a surge tank.

  16. Regulation of human autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene translation by miR-220b.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Tomohito; Noguchi, Yukiko; Shindo, Mieko; Morita, Yoshifumi; Oda, Yoshie; Yoshida, Eiko; Hamada, Hiroko; Harada, Mine; Shiokawa, Yuichi; Nishida, Takahiro; Tominaga, Ryuji; Kikushige, Yoshikane; Akashi, Koichi; Kudoh, Jun; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi; Tanaka, Yuka; Umemura, Tsukuru; Taniguchi, Taketoshi; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Kobayashi, Takashi; Mitsuyama, Masao; Kurisaki, Hironori; Katsuta, Hitoshi; Nagafuchi, Seiho

    2013-11-01

    Although mutations of autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene are responsible for autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), presenting a wide spectrum of many characteristic and non-characteristic clinical features, some patients lack AIRE gene mutations. Therefore, something other than a mutation, such as dysregulation of AIRE gene, may be a causal factor for APECED or its related diseases. However, regulatory mechanisms for AIRE gene expression and/or translation have still remained elusive. We found that IL-2-stimulated CD4(+) T (IL-2T) cells showed a high expression of AIRE gene, but very low AIRE protein production, while Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B (EBV-B) cells express both AIRE gene and AIRE protein. By using microarray analysis, we could identify miR-220b as a possible regulatory mechanism for AIRE gene translation in IL-2T cells. Here we report that miR-220b significantly reduced the expression of AIRE protein in AIRE gene with 3'UTR region transfected 293T cells, whereas no alteration of AIRE protein production was observed in the open reading frame of AIRE gene alone transfected cells. In addition, anti-miR-220b reversed the inhibitory function of miR-220b for the expression of AIRE protein in AIRE gene with 3'UTR region transfected cells. Moreover, when AIRE gene transfected cells with mutated 3'UTR were transfected with miR-220b, no reduction of AIRE protein production was observed. Taken together, it was concluded that miR-220b inhibited the AIRE gene translation through the 3'UTR region of AIRE gene, indicating that miR-220b could serve as a regulator for human AIRE gene translation.

  17. 7 CFR 1215.4 - Commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commerce. 1215.4 Section 1215.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Commerce. Commerce means interstate, foreign, or intrastate commerce....

  18. 19 CFR 122.73 - General declaration and air cargo manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard...

  19. State Governmental Immunity from Federal Regulation Based on the Commerce Clause--National League of Cities v. Usery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Art, Robert C.

    1976-01-01

    The significance of National League of Cities v. Usery is that it establishes a new constitutional limitation on the exercise of the federal commerce power. The scope of the new immunity is not well-defined, however, so this article suggests a method for alleviating the problem. (LBH)

  20. Surveying air traffic control specialist perception of scheduling regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Darrius E.

    While there have been several studies conducted on air traffic controller fatigue, there is a lack of research on the subject since the scheduling policy changes that took place in 2012. The effectiveness of these changes has yet to be measured. The goal of this study was to investigate air traffic control specialist views towards the number of hours scheduled between shifts, changes in perception since 2012 regulation changes, and external factors that impact fatigue. A total of 54 FAA air traffic control specialist completed an online questionnaire. The results from the survey showed that the majority of respondents felt the 2012 regulation changes were not sufficient to address fatigue issues, and work with some amount sleep deprivation. The factors that appeared to have the most significant effect on fatigue included facility level, age group, availability of recuperative breaks, and children under 18 in the home.

  1. NASA's Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Act Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia

    2003-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was selected as the Principal Center for review of Clean Air Act (CAA) regulations. The CAA Principal Center is tasked to: 1) Provide centralized support to NASA/HDQ Code JE for the management and leadership of NASA's CAA regulation review process; 2) Identify potential impact from proposed CAA regulations to NASA program hardware and supporting facilities. The Shuttle Environmental Assurance Initiative, one of the responsibilities of the NASA CAA Working Group (WG), is described in part of this viewgraph presentation.

  2. 29 CFR 779.12 - Commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS... interstate and foreign commerce. It is defined in section 3(b) of the Act to mean “trade, commerce... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commerce. 779.12 Section 779.12 Labor Regulations...

  3. 29 CFR 779.12 - Commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS... interstate and foreign commerce. It is defined in section 3(b) of the Act to mean “trade, commerce... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commerce. 779.12 Section 779.12 Labor Regulations...

  4. 29 CFR 779.12 - Commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS... interstate and foreign commerce. It is defined in section 3(b) of the Act to mean “trade, commerce... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commerce. 779.12 Section 779.12 Labor Regulations...

  5. 29 CFR 779.12 - Commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS... interstate and foreign commerce. It is defined in section 3(b) of the Act to mean “trade, commerce... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commerce. 779.12 Section 779.12 Labor Regulations...

  6. 29 CFR 779.12 - Commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS... interstate and foreign commerce. It is defined in section 3(b) of the Act to mean “trade, commerce... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commerce. 779.12 Section 779.12 Labor Regulations...

  7. Health effects of air quality regulations in Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Andrew; Kumar, Naresh

    2011-03-01

    This, the first systematic study, quantifies the health effects of air quality regulations in Delhi, which adopted radical measures to improve air quality, including, for example, the conversion of all commercial vehicles to compressed natural gas (CNG), and the closure of polluting industries in residential areas from 2000 to 2002. Air pollution data, collected at 113 sites (spread across Delhi and its neighboring areas) from July-December 2003, were used to compute exposure at the place of residence of 3989 subjects. A socio-economic and respiratory health survey was administered in 1576 households. This survey collected time-use, residence histories, demographic information, and direct measurements of lung function with subjects. The optimal interpolation methods were used to link air pollution and respiratory health data at the place of their residence. Resident histories, in combination with secondary data, were used to impute cumulative exposure prior to the air-quality interventions, and the effects of recent air quality measures on lung function were then evaluated. Three important findings emerge from the analysis. First, the interventions were associated with a significant improvement in respiratory health. Second, the effect of these interventions varied significantly by gender and income. Third, consistent with a causal interpretation of these results, effects were the strongest among those individuals who spend a disproportionate share of their time out-of-doors.

  8. Health Effects of Air Quality Regulations in Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Andrew; Kumar, Naresh

    2011-01-01

    This, the first systematic study, quantifies the health effects of air quality regulations in Delhi, which adopted radical measures to improve air quality, including, for example, the conversion of all commercial vehicles to compressed natural gas (CNG), and the closure of polluting industries in residential areas from 2000 to 2002. Air pollution data, collected at 113 sites (spread across Delhi and its neighboring areas) from July-December 2003, were used to compute exposure at the place of residence of 3,989 subjects. A socio-economic and respiratory health survey was administered in 1,576 households. This survey collected time-use, residence histories, demographic information, and direct measurements of lung function with subjects. The optimal interpolation methods were used to link air pollution and respiratory health data at the place of their residence. Resident histories, in combination with secondary data, were used to impute cumulative exposure prior to the air-quality interventions, and the effects of recent air quality measures on lung function were then evaluated. Three important findings emerge from the analysis. First, the interventions were associated with a significant improvement in respiratory health. Second, the effect of these interventions varied significantly by gender and income. Third, consistent with a causal interpretation of these results, effects were the strongest among those individuals who spend a disproportionate share of their time out-of-doors. PMID:21461142

  9. Regulation in the Air: Price and Frequency Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deVillemeur, Etienne Billette

    2003-01-01

    Despite deregulation on the air-transportation markets, many connections are still operated by a single operator. Regulation is thus a central issue in this industry. There is however a great concern for the (possibly negative) consequences of price regulation on the quality of services. We argue that both aspects should be considered jointly and propose a mechanism that allow to decentralize the optimal structure of services in this industry. The regulatory procedure is robust to the introduction of heterogeneity in the travellers' valuation of the connections' frequency.

  10. Regulation of indoor air quality: The last frontier of environmental regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, R.B.

    1994-12-31

    Indoor air pollution (IAP) is ranked by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) among the top five environmental risks to human health. The World Health Organization estimates that nearly one in every six commercial buildings in the United States suffers from sick-building syndrome and that occupants of another one in twelve suffer from building-related illnesses. Indoor air quality (IAQ) problems cost American business $10 billion per year through lowered productivity, absenteeism, and medical costs. Yet despite the importance and high cost of IAQ problems, indoor air is not yet specifically addressed in any federal regulatory program. The reason probably is because indoor air is a quanitatively different environment in which traditional modes of regulation, based on pollutant-by pollutant risk assessments, are of limited utility. This paper covers the following topics: four factors influencing IAQ regulation; EPA regulation of indoor air; the role of the consumer product safety commission; OSHA and IAQ issues; state regulation and economic concerns; the pressure for legislation.

  11. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air carriers. 1202.13 Section 1202.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.13 Air carriers. By the... carrier by air engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and every carrier by air transporting mail...

  12. 19 CFR 122.165 - Air cabotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... provided for in 14 CFR 121.153, and those aircraft used exclusively in the service of any government. (b... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Air cabotage. 122.165 Section 122.165 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.165 Air cabotage. (a) The air cabotage law (49 U.S.C....

  13. 19 CFR 122.165 - Air cabotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... provided for in 14 CFR 121.153, and those aircraft used exclusively in the service of any government. (b... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Air cabotage. 122.165 Section 122.165 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.165 Air cabotage. (a) The air cabotage law (49 U.S.C....

  14. 19 CFR 122.165 - Air cabotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... provided for in 14 CFR 121.153, and those aircraft used exclusively in the service of any government. (b... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Air cabotage. 122.165 Section 122.165 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.165 Air cabotage. (a) The air cabotage law (49 U.S.C....

  15. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air carriers. 1202.13 Section 1202.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.13 Air carriers. By the... carrier by air engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and every carrier by air transporting mail...

  16. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air carriers. 1202.13 Section 1202.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.13 Air carriers. By the... carrier by air engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and every carrier by air transporting mail...

  17. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air carriers. 1202.13 Section 1202.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.13 Air carriers. By the... carrier by air engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and every carrier by air transporting mail...

  18. 19 CFR 122.165 - Air cabotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... provided for in 14 CFR 121.153, and those aircraft used exclusively in the service of any government. (b... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Air cabotage. 122.165 Section 122.165 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.165 Air cabotage. (a) The air cabotage law (49 U.S.C....

  19. 19 CFR 122.165 - Air cabotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provided for in 14 CFR 121.153, and those aircraft used exclusively in the service of any government. (b... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air cabotage. 122.165 Section 122.165 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.165 Air cabotage. (a) The air cabotage law (49 U.S.C....

  20. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air carriers. 1202.13 Section 1202.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.13 Air carriers. By the... carrier by air engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and every carrier by air transporting mail...

  1. 76 FR 43230 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Virginia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 55 Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Virginia AGENCY... Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Air Regulations. Requirements applying to OCS sources located within...

  2. 40 CFR 60.2888 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... § 60.2888 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or air curtain incinerators located...

  3. 40 CFR 60.2888 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... § 60.2888 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or air curtain incinerators located...

  4. 40 CFR 60.2888 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... § 60.2888 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or air curtain incinerators located...

  5. 40 CFR 60.2888 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... § 60.2888 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or air curtain incinerators located...

  6. 40 CFR 60.2888 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... § 60.2888 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or air curtain incinerators located...

  7. In Brief: Hazardous waste and air regulation compliance data released

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released, on 6 November, new information on the enforcement of hazardous waste and air regulations by the agency and states. The information includes new summary reports and data from 2004 through 2008 on federal and state enforcement program performance with Clean Air Act (CAA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements. The agency also updated its Enforcement and Compliance Online (ECHO) Web site. Information on facility compliance with water, air, and hazardous waste requirements provides the public with more information about the environmental footprint of each facility. EPA noted that the compliance data do not relate directly to overall hazardous waste management or air quality, which have improved in the United States over the past 30 years owing to the implementation of various environmental programs. More information is available at http://www.epa.gov/compliance/data/results/performance/rcra/index.html, http://www.epa.gov/compliance/data/results/performance/caa/index.html, and http://www.epa-echo.gov/echo/.

  8. 40 CFR 60.2994 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... December 9, 2004 Applicability of State Plans § 60.2994 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or...

  9. 40 CFR 60.2994 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... December 9, 2004 Applicability of State Plans § 60.2994 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or...

  10. 40 CFR 60.2994 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... December 9, 2004 Applicability of State Plans § 60.2994 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or...

  11. 40 CFR 60.2994 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... December 9, 2004 Applicability of State Plans § 60.2994 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or...

  12. 40 CFR 60.2994 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... December 9, 2004 Applicability of State Plans § 60.2994 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or...

  13. The regulation of hazardous air pollutants under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Effects on the Portland cement industry

    SciTech Connect

    Mikols, E.H.; Dougherty, A.

    1996-07-01

    Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) addresses the control of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from major sources of air pollution in the US. In the CAAA, Congress defined 189 compounds as hazardous air pollutants in need of additional control by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Congress directed EPA to identify the major source categories which emit HAPs and to prepare regulations that would reduce and control future HAP emissions. This paper outlines the activities undertaken by EPA to regulate HAP emissions from Portland cement plants and the program developed by the Portland cement manufacturing industry to cope with Title III.

  14. Implications of a stochastic approach to air-quality regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Witten, A.J.; Kornegay, F.C.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Long, E.C. Jr.; Sharp, R.D.; Walsh, P.J.; Zeighami, E.A.; Gordon, J.S.; Lin, W.L.

    1982-09-01

    This study explores the viability of a stochastic approach to air quality regulations. The stochastic approach considered here is one which incorporates the variability which exists in sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) emissions from coal-fired power plants. Emission variability arises from a combination of many factors including variability in the composition of as-received coal such as sulfur content, moisture content, ash content, and heating value, as well as variability which is introduced in power plant operations. The stochastic approach as conceived in this study addresses variability by taking the SO/sub 2/ emission rate to be a random variable with specified statistics. Given the statistical description of the emission rate and known meteorological conditions, it is possible to predict the probability of a facility exceeding a specified emission limit or violating an established air quality standard. This study also investigates the implications of accounting for emissions variability by allowing compliance to be interpreted as an allowable probability of occurrence of given events. For example, compliance with an emission limit could be defined as the probability of exceeding a specified emission value, such as 1.2 lbs SO/sub 2//MMBtu, being less than 1%. In contrast, compliance is currently taken to mean that this limit shall never be exceeded, i.e., no exceedance probability is allowed. The focus of this study is on the economic benefits offered to facilities through the greater flexibility of the stochastic approach as compared with possible changes in air quality and health effects which could result.

  15. 75 FR 9780 - Technical Amendment to the Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 55 Technical Amendment to the Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency... Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations for Alaska. DATES: Effective on March 22, 2010. FOR FURTHER... Information This Notice is to provide a technical correction to the final regulation published at 75 FR...

  16. 14 CFR 221.61 - Rules and regulations governing foreign air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rules and regulations governing foreign air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Governing Tariffs § 221.61 Rules and regulations governing foreign air transportation. Instead of being included in the fares tariffs, the rules...

  17. 14 CFR 221.61 - Rules and regulations governing foreign air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rules and regulations governing foreign air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Governing Tariffs § 221.61 Rules and regulations governing foreign air transportation. Instead of being included in the fares tariffs, the rules...

  18. 14 CFR § 1300.3 - Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STABILIZATION OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET AVIATION DISASTER RELIEF-AIR CARRIER GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM General § 1300.3 Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board. (a)...

  19. 14 CFR 1300.3 - Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STABILIZATION OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET AVIATION DISASTER RELIEF-AIR CARRIER GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM General § 1300.3 Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board. (a)...

  20. Lymphopenia-induced proliferation in the absence of functional Autoimmune regulator (Aire) induces colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kekäläinen, Eliisa; Lehto, Maija-Katri; Smeds, Eero; Pöntynen, Nora; Pekkarinen, Pirkka T; Ulmanen, Ismo; Miettinen, Aaro; Arstila, T Petteri

    2015-09-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is caused by mutations in Autoimmune regulator (Aire), a transcriptional regulator of negative selection in thymus. However, Aire is also expressed in periphery, but the full range of Aire's peripheral function is unknown. Here, we transferred lymphocytes from wildtype donors into lymphopenic recipients with or without functional Aire. Following cell proliferation thus took place in Aire-sufficient or deficient environment. The wildtype lymphocytes hyperproliferated and induced disease in lymphopenic Aire(-/-) but not in Aire(+/+) recipients. The disease was characterized by diarrhea, inflammation, and colitis, and in some recipients pancreatitis, gastritis, and hepatitis was also found. Our results identify Aire as an important regulator of peripheral T cell homeostasis in gastrointestinal tissues. Given a suitable trigger the absence of peripheral Aire leads to dysregulated T cell proliferation and disease.

  1. 77 FR 44231 - Delegation of Authority To Implement and Enforce Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... AGENCY Delegation of Authority To Implement and Enforce Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations to the... enforce sections of the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Air Regulations. To inform regulated facilities and... the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 55 (Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations). On February...

  2. 14 CFR 1300.3 - Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Transportation Stabilization Board. 1300.3 Section 1300.3 Aeronautics and Space AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM STABILIZATION OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET AVIATION DISASTER RELIEF-AIR CARRIER GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM General § 1300.3 Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board. (a)...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix L to Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Pt. 51, App. L Appendix L to Part 51—Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution... air pollution from reaching levels that would cause imminent and substantial endangerment to...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix L to Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Pt. 51, App. L Appendix L to Part 51—Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution... air pollution from reaching levels that would cause imminent and substantial endangerment to...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix L to Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Pt. 51, App. L Appendix L to Part 51—Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution... air pollution from reaching levels that would cause imminent and substantial endangerment to...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix L to Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Pt. 51, App. L Appendix L to Part 51—Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution... air pollution from reaching levels that would cause imminent and substantial endangerment to...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix L to Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Pt. 51, App. L Appendix L to Part 51—Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution... air pollution from reaching levels that would cause imminent and substantial endangerment to...

  8. 14 CFR 1300.3 - Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board. 1300.3 Section 1300.3 Aeronautics and Space AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM STABILIZATION OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET AVIATION DISASTER RELIEF-AIR CARRIER GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM General § 1300.3 Supplementary...

  9. 14 CFR 1300.3 - Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board. 1300.3 Section 1300.3 Aeronautics and Space AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM STABILIZATION OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET AVIATION DISASTER RELIEF-AIR CARRIER GUARANTEE LOAN...

  10. 75 FR 51968 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Massachusetts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 55 Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Massachusetts AGENCY... update to a portion of the Outer Continental Shelf (``OCS'') Air Regulations. Requirements applying...

  11. Some impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act and state clean-air regulations on the fertilizer industry

    SciTech Connect

    Breed, C.E.; Kerns, O.S.

    1992-12-31

    The Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 will intensify national efforts to reduce air pollution. They will have major impacts on governmental agencies and on industrial and commercial facilities throughout the country. As with other industries, it is essential for fertilizer dealers and producers to understand how these changes to the Clean Air Act can significantly change the way they do business. This paper is proffered as an overview of ways in which the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act may impact the fertilizer industry. The nonattainment, toxics, and permit provisions of the amended act will be three areas of particular concern to the fertilizer industry. Implementation of the new regulatory requirements of this legislation promises to be a long and onerous process for all concerned. However, it appears that state and local regulations may have a much more profound impact on the fertilizer industry than the new Clean Air Act.

  12. Some impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act and state clean-air regulations on the fertilizer industry

    SciTech Connect

    Breed, C.E.; Kerns, O.S.

    1992-12-01

    The Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 will intensify national efforts to reduce air pollution. They will have major impacts an governmental agencies and on industrial and commercial facilities throughout the country. As with other industries, it is essential for fertilizer dealers and producers to understand how these changes to the Clean Air Act can significantly change the way they do business. This paper is proffered as an overview of ways in which the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act may impact the fertilizer industry. The nonattainment, toxics, and permit provisions of the amended act will be three areas of particular concern to the fertilizer industry. Implementation of the new regulatory requirements of this legislation promises to be a long and onerous process for all concerned. However, it appears that state and local regulations may have a much more profound impact on the fertilizer industry than the new Clean Air Act.

  13. Intronic regulation of Aire expression by Jmjd6 for self-tolerance induction in the thymus

    PubMed Central

    Yanagihara, Toyoshi; Sanematsu, Fumiyuki; Sato, Tetsuya; Uruno, Takehito; Duan, Xuefeng; Tomino, Takahiro; Harada, Yosuke; Watanabe, Mayuki; Wang, Yuqing; Tanaka, Yoshihiko; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Suyama, Mikita; Yoshinori, Fukui

    2015-01-01

    The thymus has spatially distinct microenvironments, the cortex and the medulla, where the developing T-cells are selected to mature or die through the interaction with thymic stromal cells. To establish the immunological self in the thymus, medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) express diverse sets of tissue-specific self-antigens (TSAs). This ectopic expression of TSAs largely depends on the transcriptional regulator Aire, yet the mechanism controlling Aire expression itself remains unknown. Here, we show that Jmjd6, a dioxygenase that catalyses lysyl hydroxylation of splicing regulatory proteins, is critical for Aire expression. Although Jmjd6 deficiency does not affect abundance of Aire transcript, the intron 2 of Aire gene is not effectively spliced out in the absence of Jmjd6, resulting in marked reduction of mature Aire protein in mTECs and spontaneous development of multi-organ autoimmunity in mice. These results highlight the importance of intronic regulation in controlling Aire protein expression. PMID:26531897

  14. Intronic regulation of Aire expression by Jmjd6 for self-tolerance induction in the thymus.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Toyoshi; Sanematsu, Fumiyuki; Sato, Tetsuya; Uruno, Takehito; Duan, Xuefeng; Tomino, Takahiro; Harada, Yosuke; Watanabe, Mayuki; Wang, Yuqing; Tanaka, Yoshihiko; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Suyama, Mikita; Yoshinori, Fukui

    2015-11-04

    The thymus has spatially distinct microenvironments, the cortex and the medulla, where the developing T-cells are selected to mature or die through the interaction with thymic stromal cells. To establish the immunological self in the thymus, medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) express diverse sets of tissue-specific self-antigens (TSAs). This ectopic expression of TSAs largely depends on the transcriptional regulator Aire, yet the mechanism controlling Aire expression itself remains unknown. Here, we show that Jmjd6, a dioxygenase that catalyses lysyl hydroxylation of splicing regulatory proteins, is critical for Aire expression. Although Jmjd6 deficiency does not affect abundance of Aire transcript, the intron 2 of Aire gene is not effectively spliced out in the absence of Jmjd6, resulting in marked reduction of mature Aire protein in mTECs and spontaneous development of multi-organ autoimmunity in mice. These results highlight the importance of intronic regulation in controlling Aire protein expression.

  15. 19 CFR 122.48 - Air cargo manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Air cargo manifest. 122.48 Section 122.48 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for..., and Overflying the United States § 122.48 Air cargo manifest. (a) When required. Except as provided...

  16. 19 CFR 122.48 - Air cargo manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Air cargo manifest. 122.48 Section 122.48 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for..., and Overflying the United States § 122.48 Air cargo manifest. (a) When required. Except as provided...

  17. 19 CFR 122.48 - Air cargo manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air cargo manifest. 122.48 Section 122.48 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for..., and Overflying the United States § 122.48 Air cargo manifest. (a) When required. Except as provided...

  18. 19 CFR 122.113 - Form for transit air cargo manifest procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form for transit air cargo manifest procedures... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Transit Air Cargo Manifest (TACM) Procedures § 122.113 Form for transit air cargo manifest procedures. A manifest on Customs Form 7509 is...

  19. 19 CFR 122.163 - Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. 122.163...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.163 Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. (a) Application. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  20. 19 CFR 122.113 - Form for transit air cargo manifest procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Form for transit air cargo manifest procedures... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Transit Air Cargo Manifest (TACM) Procedures § 122.113 Form for transit air cargo manifest procedures. A manifest on Customs Form 7509 is...

  1. 19 CFR 122.113 - Form for transit air cargo manifest procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Form for transit air cargo manifest procedures... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Transit Air Cargo Manifest (TACM) Procedures § 122.113 Form for transit air cargo manifest procedures. A manifest on Customs Form 7509 is...

  2. 19 CFR 122.113 - Form for transit air cargo manifest procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Form for transit air cargo manifest procedures... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Transit Air Cargo Manifest (TACM) Procedures § 122.113 Form for transit air cargo manifest procedures. A manifest on Customs Form 7509 is...

  3. 19 CFR 122.113 - Form for transit air cargo manifest procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Form for transit air cargo manifest procedures... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Transit Air Cargo Manifest (TACM) Procedures § 122.113 Form for transit air cargo manifest procedures. A manifest on Customs Form 7509 is...

  4. 19 CFR 122.163 - Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. 122.163...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.163 Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. (a) Application. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  5. 19 CFR 122.163 - Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. 122.163...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.163 Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. (a) Application. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  6. 19 CFR 122.163 - Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. 122.163...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.163 Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. (a) Application. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  7. Recent Developments in the Quantification and Regulation of Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations.

    PubMed

    Heinzen, Tarah

    2015-03-01

    Animal feeding operations (AFOs) emit various air pollutants, including ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, methane, and nitrous oxide. Several of these pollutants are regulated under federal clean air statutes, yet AFOs have largely escaped regulation under these laws because of challenges in accurately estimating the rate and quantity of emissions from various types of livestock operations. Recent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) efforts to collect emissions data, develop an emissions model capable of estimating emissions at AFOs nationwide, and establish emissions estimating methodologies for certain key livestock air pollutants suffered from design flaws and omitted pollutants of concern. Moreover, this process seems to have stalled, delaying other regulatory reforms needed to increase transparency and increase regulation of these facilities. Until EPA establishes these methodologies, significant AFO pollution regulation under the Clean Air Act or emissions reporting statutes will be very difficult to achieve, and the public health and environmental impacts of these emissions will continue unabated. PMID:26231239

  8. Recent Developments in the Quantification and Regulation of Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations.

    PubMed

    Heinzen, Tarah

    2015-03-01

    Animal feeding operations (AFOs) emit various air pollutants, including ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, methane, and nitrous oxide. Several of these pollutants are regulated under federal clean air statutes, yet AFOs have largely escaped regulation under these laws because of challenges in accurately estimating the rate and quantity of emissions from various types of livestock operations. Recent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) efforts to collect emissions data, develop an emissions model capable of estimating emissions at AFOs nationwide, and establish emissions estimating methodologies for certain key livestock air pollutants suffered from design flaws and omitted pollutants of concern. Moreover, this process seems to have stalled, delaying other regulatory reforms needed to increase transparency and increase regulation of these facilities. Until EPA establishes these methodologies, significant AFO pollution regulation under the Clean Air Act or emissions reporting statutes will be very difficult to achieve, and the public health and environmental impacts of these emissions will continue unabated.

  9. Autoimmunity, Not a Developmental Defect, is the Cause for Subfertility of Autoimmune Regulator (Aire) Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Kekäläinen, E; Pöntynen, N; Meri, S; Arstila, T P; Jarva, H

    2015-05-01

    Autoimmune regulator's (AIRE) best characterized role is in the generation immunological tolerance, but it is also involved in many other processes such as spermatogenesis. Loss-of-function mutations in AIRE cause a disease called autoimmune polyendocrinopathy, candidiasis and ectodermal dystrophy (APECED; also called autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1, APS-1) that is dominated by various autoimmune manifestations, mainly endocrinopathies. Both patients with APECED and Aire(-/-) mice suffer from varying levels of infertility, but it is not clear if it is a result of an autoimmune tissue damage or more of a developmental defect. In this study, we wanted to resolve whether or not the reduced fertility of Aire(-/-) mice is dependent on the adaptive immune system and therefore a manifestation of autoimmunity in these mice. We generated lymphopenic mice without Aire expression that were devoid of the autoimmune manifestations previously reported in immunocompetent Aire(-/-) mice. These Aire(-/-) Rag1(-/-) mice regained full fertility. This confirms that the development of infertility in Aire(-/-) mice requires a functional adaptive immune system. We also show that only the male Aire(-/-) mice are subfertile, whereas Aire(-/-) females produce litters normally. Moreover, the male subfertility can be adoptively transferred with lymphocytes from Aire(-/-) donor mice to previously fertile lymphopenic Aire(-/-) recipients. Our data show that subfertility in Aire(-/-) mice is dependent on a functional adaptive immune system thus confirming its autoimmune aetiology.

  10. Impact of Clean Air Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in Neuse River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated impacts of Clean Air Act (CAA) nitrogen emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) models were used. Two scenar...

  11. Exploring Faraday's Law of Electrolysis Using Zinc-Air Batteries with Current Regulative Diodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamata, Masahiro; Paku, Miei

    2007-01-01

    Current regulative diodes (CRDs) are applied to develop new educational experiments on Faraday's law by using a zinc-air battery (PR2330) and a resistor to discharge it. The results concluded that the combination of zinc-air batteries and the CRD array is simpler, less expensive, and quantitative and gives accurate data.

  12. Navajo Generating Station and Air Visibility Regulations: Alternatives and Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Hurlbut, D. J.; Haase, S.; Brinkman, G.; Funk, K.; Gelman, R.; Lantz, E.; Larney, C.; Peterson, D.; Worley, C.; Liebsch, E.

    2012-01-01

    Pursuant to the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced in 2009 its intent to issue rules for controlling emissions from Navajo Generating Station that could affect visibility at the Grand Canyon and at several other national parks and wilderness areas. The final rule will conform to what EPA determines is the best available retrofit technology (BART) for the control of haze-causing air pollutants, especially nitrogen oxides. While EPA is ultimately responsible for setting Navajo Generating Station's BART standards in its final rule, it will be the U.S. Department of the Interior's responsibility to manage compliance and the related impacts. This study aims to assist both Interior and EPA by providing an objective assessment of issues relating to the power sector.

  13. 29 CFR 776.13 - Commerce crossing international boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commerce crossing international boundaries. 776.13 Section 776.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Engaging âin Commerceâ § 776.13 Commerce crossing international boundaries. Under the Act, as amended,...

  14. 29 CFR 776.13 - Commerce crossing international boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commerce crossing international boundaries. 776.13 Section 776.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Engaging âin Commerceâ § 776.13 Commerce crossing international boundaries. Under the Act, as amended,...

  15. 29 CFR 776.13 - Commerce crossing international boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commerce crossing international boundaries. 776.13 Section 776.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Engaging âin Commerceâ § 776.13 Commerce crossing international boundaries. Under the Act, as amended,...

  16. 29 CFR 776.13 - Commerce crossing international boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commerce crossing international boundaries. 776.13 Section 776.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Engaging âin Commerceâ § 776.13 Commerce crossing international boundaries. Under the Act, as amended,...

  17. 29 CFR 776.13 - Commerce crossing international boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commerce crossing international boundaries. 776.13 Section 776.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Engaging âin Commerceâ § 776.13 Commerce crossing international boundaries. Under the Act, as amended,...

  18. An empirical analysis of exposure-based regulation to abate toxic air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Marakovits, D.M.; Considine, T.J.

    1996-11-01

    Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments requires the Environmental Protection Agency to regulate 189 air toxics, including emissions from by-product coke ovens. Economists criticize the inefficiency of uniform standards, but Title III makes no provision for flexible regulatory instruments. Environmental health scientists suggest that population exposure, not necessarily ambient air quality, should motivate environmental air pollution policies. Using an engineering-economic model of the United States steel industry, we estimate that an exposure-based policy can achieve the same level of public health as coke oven emissions standards and can reduce compliance costs by up to 60.0%. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  20. Potential impact of a US climate policy and air quality regulations on future air quality and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Shindell, D. T.; Faluvegi, G.; Pinder, R. W.

    2015-11-01

    We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that reduces 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50 % below 2005 emissions. Using NASA GISS ModelE2, we look at the impacts in year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration), and other US emissions and the rest of the world emissions are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in the future but result in positive radiative forcing. Surface PM2.5 is reduced by ~ 2 μg m-3 on average over the US, and surface ozone by ~ 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the US, mainly due to the PM2.5 reduction (~ 74 200 lives saved). The air quality regulations reduces the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter) more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone), leading a strong positive radiative forcing (RF) by both aerosols direct and indirect forcing: total RF is ~ 0.04 W m-2 over the globe; ~ 0.8 W m-2 over the US. Under the hypothetical climate policy, future US energy relies less on coal and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it leads to climate dis-benefits over the US. In 2055, the US mean total RF is +0.22 W m-2 due to positive aerosol direct and indirect forcing, while the global mean total RF is -0.06 W m-2 due to the dominant negative CO2 RF (instantaneous RF). To achieve a regional-scale climate benefit via a climate policy, it is critical (1) to have multi-national efforts to reduce GHGs emissions and (2) to target emission reduction of light-absorbing species (e.g., BC and O3) on top of long-lived species. The latter is very desirable as the

  1. Old, the new, the states, the evolution of the regulation of air toxics. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Vecera, D.R.

    1993-02-14

    The activism associated with America in the 1960s spilled over into many areas, one of which was a new environmental movement. A product of that movement was the Clean Air Act passed in 1970. The new law included a selection aimed specifically at controlling emissions of hazardous or toxic air pollutants. However, over the next 20 years there was very little government regulation of air toxics, and this section of the Clean Air Act was considered to be a resounding failure. What went wrong. How did this lofty goal to protect human health and the environment end up on the back burner. The article will address the idealism that led to the Clean Air Act legislation, in particular the air toxics program, and explore the realities that scuttled those ideals when it came time to implement the law.

  2. The economics of air quality regulation: the true costs of increased PM2.5 regulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential best available control technologies (BACT) are being considered for promulgation by the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District and other jurisdictions in response to determinations of national ambient air quality standards non-attainment for ozone and PM2.5 by writing dairy-spec...

  3. Inconsistencies in Risk Analyses for Ambient Air Pollutant Regulations.

    PubMed

    Smith, Anne E

    2016-09-01

    This article describes inconsistencies between health risk analyses that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) uses to support its decisions on primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), and in the associated Regulatory Impact Analyses (RIAs) that accompany each NAAQS rulemaking. Quantitative risk estimates are prepared during the NAAQS-setting deliberations using inputs derived from statistical associations between measured pollutant concentrations and health effects. The resulting risk estimates are not directly used to set a NAAQS, but incorporated into a broader evidence-based rationale for the standard that is intended to demonstrate conformity with the statutory requirement that primary NAAQS protect the public health with a margin of safety. In a separate process, EPA staff rely on the same risk calculations to prepare estimates of the benefits of the rule that are reported in its RIA for the standard. Although NAAQS rules and their RIAs are released simultaneously, the rationales used to set the NAAQS have become inconsistent with their RIAs' estimates of benefits, with very large fractions of RIAs' risk-reduction estimates being attributed to populations living in areas that will already be attaining the respective NAAQS. This article explains the source of this inconsistency and provides a quantitative example based on the 2012 revision of the fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) primary NAAQS. This article also demonstrates how this inconsistency is amplified when criteria pollutant co-benefits are calculated in RIAs for non-NAAQS rules, using quantitative examples from the 2011 Mercury and Air Toxics Standards and the currently proposed Clean Power Plan.

  4. Autoimmune regulator (Aire) controls the expression of microRNAs in medullary thymic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Claudia; Evangelista, Adriane F; Marques, Márcia M; Octacílio-Silva, Shirlei; Donadi, Eduardo A; Sakamoto-Hojo, Elza T; Passos, Geraldo A

    2013-04-01

    The autoimmune regulator (Aire) is a transcription factor that controls the ectopic expression of a large set of peripheral tissue antigen (PTA) genes in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs). Recent evidence has demonstrated that Aire releases stalled RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II) from blockage at the promoter region of its target genes. Given that, in addition to messenger RNAs (mRNA), RNA Pol II also transcribes microRNAs (miRNAs), we raised the hypothesis that Aire might play a role as an upstream controller of miRNA transcription. To test this, we initially analyzed the expression profiles of 662 miRNAs in control and Aire-silenced (siRNA) murine mTEC 3.10 cells using microarrays. The bioinformatics programs SAM and Cluster-TreeView were then used to identify the differentially expressed miRNAs and their profiles, respectively. Thirty Aire-dependent miRNAs were identified in the Aire-silenced mTECs, of which 18 were up- and 12 were down-regulated. The down-regulated miR-376 family was the focus of this study because its members (miR-376a, miR-376b and miR-376c) are located in the genome within the Gm2922 open-reading frame (ORF) gene segment on the chromosome 12F1. The T-boxes (TTATTA) and G-boxes (GATTGG), which represent putative RNA Pol II promoter motifs, were located in a portion spanning 10 kb upstream of the ATG codon of Gm2922. Moreover, we found that Gm2922 encodes an mRNA, which was also down-regulated in Aire-silenced mTECs. These results represent the first evidence that Aire can play a role as a controller of transcription of miRNAs located within genomic regions encompassing ORF and/or mRNA genes.

  5. FBXO3 Protein Promotes Ubiquitylation and Transcriptional Activity of AIRE (Autoimmune Regulator).

    PubMed

    Shao, Wei; Zumer, Kristina; Fujinaga, Koh; Peterlin, B Matija

    2016-08-19

    The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) is a transcription factor which is expressed in medullary thymic epithelial cells. It directs the expression of otherwise tissue-specific antigens, which leads to the elimination of autoreactive T cells during development. AIRE is modified post-translationally by phosphorylation and ubiquitylation. In this report we connected these modifications. AIRE, which is phosphorylated on two specific residues near its N terminus, then binds to the F-box protein 3 (FBXO3) E3 ubiquitin ligase. In turn, this SCF(FBXO3) (SKP1-CUL1-F box) complex ubiquitylates AIRE, increases its binding to the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), and potentiates its transcriptional activity. Because P-TEFb is required for the transition from initiation to elongation of transcription, this interaction ensures proper expression of AIRE-responsive tissue-specific antigens in the thymus.

  6. Environmental regulations on air pollution in China and their impact on infant mortality.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shinsuke

    2015-07-01

    This study explores the impact of environmental regulations in China on infant mortality. In 1998, the Chinese government imposed stringent air pollution regulations, in one of the first large-scale regulatory attempts in a developing country. We find that the infant mortality rate fell by 20 percent in the treatment cities designated as "Two Control Zones." The greatest reduction in mortality occurred during the neonatal period, highlighting an important pathophysiologic mechanism, and was largest among infants born to mothers with low levels of education. The finding is robust to various alternative hypotheses and specifications. Further, a falsification test using deaths from causes unrelated to air pollution supports these findings.

  7. The effects of air pollution regulations on the US refining industry. Task 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    Numerous air pollution regulations affecting petroleum refineries recently have been promulgated, have been proposed, or are under consideration at the federal, state, and local level. As shown in Figure ES-1, all of these environmental regulations are intended to take effect over the relatively short time period from 1989 through 1995. In the aggregate these regulatory activities have significant implications for the US refining industry and the Nation, including: Major investment requirements; changes in industry profitability; potential closure of some refineries; and potential changes in crude oil or product import dependence. At issue is whether the cumulative effect of these regulations could so adversely affect the US refining industry that US national security would be affected. In addition to the regulations outlined in Figure ES-1, President Bush recently presented a major new plan to improve the nation`s air quality. The aspects of the President`s plan that could strongly affect US refineries are summarized below.

  8. Potential Impact of a US Climate Policy and Air Quality Regulations on Future Air Quality and Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Faluvegi, Gregory S.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that aims to reduce 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50% below 2005 emissions. Using the NASA GISS ModelE2 general circulation model, we look at the impacts for year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration), and other US emissions data sets and the rest of the world emissions data sets are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in year 2030 and 2055 but result in positive radiative forcing. Under this scenario, no more emission constraints are added after 2020, and the impacts on air quality and climate change are similar between year 2030 and 2055. Surface particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 micron PM(sub 2:5) is reduced by 2 approximately µg/m(sup -3) on average over the USA, and surface ozone by approximately 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the USA, mainly due to the PM(sub 2:5) reduction approximately (74 200 lives saved). The air quality regulations reduce the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter) more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone), leading to a strong positive radiative forcing (RF) over the USA by both aerosols' direct and indirect forcing: the total RF is approximately 0.04 W m(sup -2) over the globe, and approximately 0.8 W m(sup -2) over the USA. Under the hypothetical climate policy, a future CO2 emissions cut is achieved in part by relying less on coal, and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it could lead to potential climate disbenefits over the USA. In 2055, the US

  9. Potential impact of a US climate policy and air quality regulations on future air quality and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yunha; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg; Pinder, Rob W.

    2016-04-01

    We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that aims to reduce 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50 % below 2005 emissions. Using the NASA GISS ModelE2 general circulation model, we look at the impacts for year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration), and other US emissions data sets and the rest of the world emissions data sets are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in year 2030 and 2055 but result in positive radiative forcing. Under this scenario, no more emission constraints are added after 2020, and the impacts on air quality and climate change are similar between year 2030 and 2055. Surface particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) is reduced by ˜ 2 µg m-3 on average over the USA, and surface ozone by ˜ 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the USA, mainly due to the PM2.5 reduction (˜ 74 200 lives saved). The air quality regulations reduce the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter) more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone), leading to a strong positive radiative forcing (RF) over the USA by both aerosols' direct and indirect forcing: the total RF is ˜ 0.04 W m-2 over the globe, and ˜ 0.8 W m-2 over the USA. Under the hypothetical climate policy, a future CO2 emissions cut is achieved in part by relying less on coal, and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it could lead to potential climate disbenefits over the USA. In 2055, the US mean total RF is +0.22 W m-2 due to positive aerosol direct and indirect forcing

  10. The variable immunological self: Genetic variation and nongenetic noise in Aire-regulated transcription

    PubMed Central

    Venanzi, Emily S.; Melamed, Rachel; Mathis, Diane; Benoist, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    The Aire transcription factor plays an important role in immunological self-tolerance by mediating the ectopic expression of peripheral self-antigens by thymic medullary epithelial cells (MECs), and the deletion of thymocytes that recognize them. In Aire-deficient humans or mice, central tolerance is incomplete and multiorgan autoimmune disease results. We examined the variability of Aire's effects on ectopic transcription among individual mice of three different inbred strains. Aire's function was, overall, quite similar in the three backgrounds, although generally stronger in C57BL/6 than in BALB/c or NOD mice, and a minority of Aire-regulated genes did show clear differences. Gene expression profiling of wild-type MECs from single mice, or from the two thymic lobes of the same mouse, revealed significantly greater variability in Aire-controlled ectopic gene expression than in Aire-independent transcripts. This “noisy” ectopic expression did not result from parental or early developmental imprinting, but from programming occurring after the formation of the thymic anlage, resulting from epigenetic effects or from the stochastic nature of Aire activity. Together, genetic and nongenetic variability in ectopic expression of peripheral antigens in the thymus make for differences in the portion of self determinants presented for tolerance induction. This variable self may be beneficial in preventing uniform holes in the T-cell repertoire in individuals of a species, but at the cost of variable susceptibility to autoimmunity. PMID:18838677

  11. 75 FR 25772 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Colorado; Revisions to Regulation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... available, e.g., CBI or other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Certain other material, such as copyrighted material, will be publicly available only in hard copy. Publicly-available docket materials are available either electronically in www.regulations.gov or in hard copy at the Air...

  12. Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in Neuse River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated impacts of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) NOx emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina, USA from 1990 to 2020. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-...

  13. The biophysical and biochemical properties of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) protein.

    PubMed

    Perniola, Roberto; Musco, Giovanna

    2014-02-01

    AIRE (for autoimmune regulator) is a multidomain protein that performs a fundamental function in the thymus and possibly in the secondary lymphoid organs: the regulation, especially in the sense of activation, of the process of gene transcription in cell lines deputed to the presentation of self-antigens to the maturing T lymphocytes. The apoptosis of the elements bearing T-cell receptors with critical affinity for the exhibited self-antigens prevents the escape of autoreactive clones and represents a simple and efficient mechanism of deletional self-tolerance. However, AIRE action relies on an articulated complex of biophysical and biochemical properties, in most cases attributable to single subspecialized domains. Here a thorough review of the matter is presented, with a privileged look at the pathogenic changes of AIRE that interfere with such properties and lead to the impairment in its chief function.

  14. 15 CFR 30.7 - Annotating the bill of lading, air waybill, or other commercial loading documents with proof of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... identified in the ITAR (22 CFR 120 through 130) for the U.S. State Department requirements concerning the... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Annotating the bill of lading, air... CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS General Requirements § 30.7 Annotating the...

  15. 15 CFR 30.7 - Annotating the bill of lading, air waybill, or other commercial loading documents with proof of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... identified in the ITAR (22 CFR 120 through 130) for the U.S. State Department requirements concerning the... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Annotating the bill of lading, air... CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS General Requirements § 30.7 Annotating the...

  16. Models of aire-dependent gene regulation for thymic negative selection.

    PubMed

    Danso-Abeam, Dina; Humblet-Baron, Stephanie; Dooley, James; Liston, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene lead to autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1 (APS1), characterized by the development of multi-organ autoimmune damage. The mechanism by which defects in AIRE result in autoimmunity has been the subject of intense scrutiny. At the cellular level, the working model explains most of the clinical and immunological characteristics of APS1, with AIRE driving the expression of tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs) in the epithelial cells of the thymic medulla. This TRA expression results in effective negative selection of TRA-reactive thymocytes, preventing autoimmune disease. At the molecular level, the mechanism by which AIRE initiates TRA expression in the thymic medulla remains unclear. Multiple different models for the molecular mechanism have been proposed, ranging from classical transcriptional activity, to random induction of gene expression, to epigenetic tag recognition effect, to altered cell biology. In this review, we evaluate each of these models and discuss their relative strengths and weaknesses.

  17. Urban air pollution produces up-regulation of myocardial inflammatory genes and dark chocolate provides cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Reed, William; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Keefe, Sheyla; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2012-05-01

    Air pollution is a serious environmental problem. Elderly subjects show increased cardiac morbidity and mortality associated with air pollution exposure. Mexico City (MC) residents are chronically exposed to high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) and PM-associated lipopolysaccharides (PM-LPS). To test the hypothesis that chronic exposure to urban pollution produces myocardial inflammation, female Balb-c mice age 4 weeks were exposed for 16 months to two distinctly different polluted areas within MC: southwest (SW) and northwest (NW). SW mice were given either no treatment or chocolate 2g/9.5 mg polyphenols/3 times per week. Results were compared to mice kept in clean air. Key inflammatory mediator genes: cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and the LPS receptor CD14 (cluster of differentiation antigen 14) were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Also explored were target NFκB (nuclear factor κB), oxidative stress and antioxidant defense genes. TNF-α, IL-6, and COX-2 were significantly increased in both NW and SWMC mice (p=0.0001). CD14 was up-regulated in SW mice in keeping with the high exposures to particulate matter associated endotoxin. Chocolate administration resulted in a significant down-regulation of TNF-α (p<0.0001), IL-6 (p=0.01), and IL-1β (p=0.02). The up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and the down-regulation of potent oxidases, toll-like receptors, and pro-apoptotic signaling genes completed the protective profile. Exposure to air pollution produces up-regulation of inflammatory myocardial genes and endotoxin plays a key role in the inflammatory response. Regular consumption of dark chocolate may reduce myocardial inflammation and have cardioprotective properties in the setting of air pollution exposures. PMID:20932730

  18. Urban Air Pollution Produces Up-Regulation of Myocardial Inflammatory Genes and Dark Chocolate Provides Cardioprotection

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Reed, William; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Keefe, Sheyla; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution is a serious environmental problem. Elderly subjects show increased cardiac morbidity and mortality associated with air pollution exposure. Mexico City (MC) residents are chronically exposed to high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and PM-associated lipopolysaccharides (PM-LPS). To test the hypothesis that chronic exposure to urban pollution produces myocardial inflammation, female Balb-c mice age 4 weeks were exposed for 16 months to two distinctly different polluted areas within MC: Southwest (SW) and Northwest (NW). SW mice were given either no treatment or chocolate 2g/9.5 mg polyphenols/3 times per week. Results were compared to mice kept in clean air. Key inflammatory mediator genes: cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and the LPS receptor CD14 (cluster of differentiation antigen 14) were measured by real time polymerase chain reaction. Also explored were target NFκB (Nuclear Factor κ B), oxidative stress and antioxidant defense genes. TNF-α, IL-6, and COX-2 were significantly increased in both NW and SWMC mice (p=0.0001). CD14 was up-regulated in SW mice in keeping with the high exposures to particulate matter associated endotoxin. Chocolate administration resulted in a significant down-regulation of TNF-α (p<0.0001), IL-6 (p=0.01), and IL-1β (p=0.02). The up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and the down-regulation of potent oxidases, toll-like receptors, and pro-apoptotic signaling genes completed the protective profile. Exposure to air pollution produces up-regulation of inflammatory myocardial genes and endotoxin plays a key role in the inflammatory response. Regular consumption of dark chocolate may reduce myocardial inflammation and have cardioprotective properties in the setting of air pollution exposures. PMID:20932730

  19. Functional Domains of Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) Modulate INS-VNTR Transcription in Human Thymic Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Avis E; Chen, Chiachen; Breslin, Mary B; Lan, Michael S

    2016-05-20

    INS-VNTR (insulin-variable number of tandem repeats) and AIRE (autoimmune regulator) have been associated with the modulation of insulin gene expression in thymus, which is essential to induce either insulin tolerance or the development of insulin autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes. We sought to analyze whether each functional domain of AIRE is critical for the activation of INS-VNTR in human thymic epithelial cells. Twelve missense or nonsense mutations in AIRE and two chimeric AIRE constructs were generated. A luciferase reporter assay and a pulldown assay using biotinylated INS-class I VNTR probe were performed to examine the transactivation and binding activities of WT, mutant, and chimeric AIREs on the INS-VNTR promoter. Confocal microscopy analysis was performed for WT or mutant AIRE cellular localization. We found that all of the AIRE mutations resulted in loss of transcriptional activation of INS-VNTR except mutant P252L. Using WT/mutant AIRE heterozygous forms to modulate the INS-VNTR target revealed five mutations (R257X, G228W, C311fsX376, L397fsX478, and R433fsX502) that functioned in a dominant negative fashion. The LXXLL-3 motif is identified for the first time to be essential for DNA binding to INS-VNTR, whereas the intact PHD1, PHD2, LXXLL-3, and LXXLL-4 motifs were important for successful transcriptional activation. AIRE nuclear localization in the human thymic epithelial cell line was disrupted by mutations in the homogenously staining region domain and the R257X mutation in the PHD1 domain. This study supports the notion that AIRE mutation could specifically affect human insulin gene expression in thymic epithelial cells through INS-VNTR and subsequently induce either insulin tolerance or autoimmunity. PMID:27048654

  20. Functional Domains of Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) Modulate INS-VNTR Transcription in Human Thymic Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Avis E; Chen, Chiachen; Breslin, Mary B; Lan, Michael S

    2016-05-20

    INS-VNTR (insulin-variable number of tandem repeats) and AIRE (autoimmune regulator) have been associated with the modulation of insulin gene expression in thymus, which is essential to induce either insulin tolerance or the development of insulin autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes. We sought to analyze whether each functional domain of AIRE is critical for the activation of INS-VNTR in human thymic epithelial cells. Twelve missense or nonsense mutations in AIRE and two chimeric AIRE constructs were generated. A luciferase reporter assay and a pulldown assay using biotinylated INS-class I VNTR probe were performed to examine the transactivation and binding activities of WT, mutant, and chimeric AIREs on the INS-VNTR promoter. Confocal microscopy analysis was performed for WT or mutant AIRE cellular localization. We found that all of the AIRE mutations resulted in loss of transcriptional activation of INS-VNTR except mutant P252L. Using WT/mutant AIRE heterozygous forms to modulate the INS-VNTR target revealed five mutations (R257X, G228W, C311fsX376, L397fsX478, and R433fsX502) that functioned in a dominant negative fashion. The LXXLL-3 motif is identified for the first time to be essential for DNA binding to INS-VNTR, whereas the intact PHD1, PHD2, LXXLL-3, and LXXLL-4 motifs were important for successful transcriptional activation. AIRE nuclear localization in the human thymic epithelial cell line was disrupted by mutations in the homogenously staining region domain and the R257X mutation in the PHD1 domain. This study supports the notion that AIRE mutation could specifically affect human insulin gene expression in thymic epithelial cells through INS-VNTR and subsequently induce either insulin tolerance or autoimmunity.

  1. Projections of air toxic emissions from coal-fired utility combustion: Input for hazardous air pollutant regulators

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1993-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required by the 1990 CAAA to promulgate rules for all ``major`` sources of any of these HAPs. According to the HAPs section of the new Title III, any stationary source emitting 10 tons per year (TPY) of one HAP or 25 TPY of a combination of HAPs will be considered and designated a major source. In contrast to the original National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), which were designed to protect public health to ``an ample margin of safety,`` the new Title III, in its first phase, will regulate by industrial category those sources emitting HAPs in excess of the 10/25-TPY threshold levels, regardless of health risks. The trace elements normally associated with coal mineral matter and the various compounds formed during coal combustion have the potential to produce hazardous air toxic emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. Under Title III, the EPA is required to perform certain studies, prior to any regulation of electric utilities; these studies are currently underway. Also, the US Department of Energy (DOE) maintains a vested interest in addressing those energy policy questions affecting electric utility generation, coal mining, and steel producing critical to this country`s economic well-being, where balancing the costs to the producers and users of energy with the benefits of environmental protection to the workers and the general populace remains of significant concern.

  2. Dominant Mutations in the Autoimmune Regulator AIRE Are Associated with Common Organ-Specific Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Oftedal, Bergithe E; Hellesen, Alexander; Erichsen, Martina M; Bratland, Eirik; Vardi, Ayelet; Perheentupa, Jaakko; Kemp, E Helen; Fiskerstrand, Torunn; Viken, Marte K; Weetman, Anthony P; Fleishman, Sarel J; Banka, Siddharth; Newman, William G; Sewell, W A C; Sozaeva, Leila S; Zayats, Tetyana; Haugarvoll, Kristoffer; Orlova, Elizaveta M; Haavik, Jan; Johansson, Stefan; Knappskog, Per M; Løvås, Kristian; Wolff, Anette S B; Abramson, Jakub; Husebye, Eystein S

    2015-06-16

    The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene is crucial for establishing central immunological tolerance and preventing autoimmunity. Mutations in AIRE cause a rare autosomal-recessive disease, autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1), distinguished by multi-organ autoimmunity. We have identified multiple cases and families with mono-allelic mutations in the first plant homeodomain (PHD1) zinc finger of AIRE that followed dominant inheritance, typically characterized by later onset, milder phenotypes, and reduced penetrance compared to classical APS-1. These missense PHD1 mutations suppressed gene expression driven by wild-type AIRE in a dominant-negative manner, unlike CARD or truncated AIRE mutants that lacked such dominant capacity. Exome array analysis revealed that the PHD1 dominant mutants were found with relatively high frequency (>0.0008) in mixed populations. Our results provide insight into the molecular action of AIRE and demonstrate that disease-causing mutations in the AIRE locus are more common than previously appreciated and cause more variable autoimmune phenotypes.

  3. 19 CFR 122.2 - Other Customs laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other Customs laws and regulations. 122.2 Section 122.2 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS General Definitions and Provisions § 122.2 Other Customs laws and regulations. Except as otherwise...

  4. Air quality in natural areas: interface between the public, science and regulation.

    PubMed

    Percy, K E; Karnosky, D F

    2007-10-01

    Natural areas are important interfaces between air quality, the public, science and regulation. In the United States and Canada, national parks received over 315million visits during 2004. Many natural areas have been experiencing decreased visibility, increased ozone (O(3)) levels and elevated nitrogen deposition. Ozone is the most pervasive air pollutant in North American natural areas. There is an extensive scientific literature on O(3) exposure-tree response in chambered environments and, lately, free-air exposure systems. Yet, less is known about O(3) impacts on natural terrestrial ecosystems. To advance scientifically defensible O(3) risk assessment for natural forest areas, species-level measurement endpoints must be socially, economically and ecologically relevant. Exposure-based indices, based on appropriate final endpoints, present an underused opportunity to meet this need. Exposure-plant indices should have a high degree of statistical significance, have high goodness of fit, be biologically plausible and include confidence intervals to define uncertainty. They must be supported by exposure-response functions and be easy to use within an air quality regulation context. Ozone exposure-response indices developed within an ambient air context have great potential for improving risk assessment in natural forest areas and enhancing scientific literacy.

  5. Keratin-dependent regulation of Aire and gene expression in skin tumor keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Ryan P; DePianto, Daryle J; Jacob, Justin T; Han, Minerva C; Chung, Byung-Min; Batazzi, Adriana S; Poll, Brian G; Guo, Yajuan; Han, Jingnan; Ong, SuFey; Zheng, Wenxin; Taube, Janis M; Čiháková, Daniela; Wan, Fengyi; Coulombe, Pierre A

    2015-08-01

    Expression of the intermediate filament protein keratin 17 (K17) is robustly upregulated in inflammatory skin diseases and in many tumors originating in stratified and pseudostratified epithelia. We report that autoimmune regulator (Aire), a transcriptional regulator, is inducibly expressed in human and mouse tumor keratinocytes in a K17-dependent manner and is required for timely onset of Gli2-induced skin tumorigenesis in mice. The induction of Aire mRNA in keratinocytes depends on a functional interaction between K17 and the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein hnRNP K. Further, K17 colocalizes with Aire protein in the nucleus of tumor-prone keratinocytes, and each factor is bound to a specific promoter region featuring an NF-κB consensus sequence in a relevant subset of K17- and Aire-dependent proinflammatory genes. These findings provide radically new insight into keratin intermediate filament and Aire function, along with a molecular basis for the K17-dependent amplification of inflammatory and immune responses in diseased epithelia.

  6. Review of current and anticipated regulations on air protection in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Jilek, P.; Novotny, V.

    1995-12-01

    Environmental issues, especially the solution of the air pollution problem, have taken on great significance in the Czech Republic (which was a part of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic until the end of 1992) since the 1989 {open_quotes}Velvet{close_quotes} Revolution. The former CSFR Federal Committee for the Environment and both the Republic Ministries started immediately with creating new environmental legislation, which is the main governmental tool for protecting the environment in the newly developing democracy state system with a market oriented economy. The inspiration for that activity was found in legislation of developed countries - member states of the European Union, and in German environmental law in particular. This paper surveys the major laws and regulations that gradually came into force in the Czech Republic since 1990. The provisions of the primary significance are the Act No.309/1991 S.B., dated July 9, 1991, on the protection of the air against pollutants - The Clean Air Act, the Act No.218/1992 S.B., dated April 27, 1992, which changes and supplements the Act No.309 - The Clean Air Act, the Measure of the Federal Committee for the Environment of October 1, 1991 to the Clean Air Act, and its amended wordings of June 23, 1992, 84/1991 S.B., and 84/1992 S.B., the Act No.389/1991 S.B., dated September 10, 1991 on the state administration of air protection and charges for the pollution of air, and several regulations based on the Act No.389/1991 S.B., issued in the period 1992 -1993.

  7. Down-regulation of microRNA-144 in air pollution-related lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hong-Li; Wen, Zhe-Sheng; Huang, Yun-Chao; Cheng, Xin; Wang, Gui-Zhen; Zhou, Yong-Chun; Wang, Zai-Yong; Guo, Yong-Qing; Cao, Yi; Zhou, Guang-Biao

    2015-09-23

    Air pollution has been classified as a group 1 carcinogen in humans, but the underlying tumourigenic mechanisms remain unclear. In Xuanwei city of Yunnan Province, the lung cancer incidence is among the highest in China, owing to severe air pollution generated by the combustion of smoky coal, providing a unique opportunity to dissect lung carcinogenesis. To identify abnormal miRNAs critical for air pollution-related tumourigenesis, we performed microRNA microarray analysis in 6 Xuanwei non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) and 4 NSCLCs from control regions where smoky coal was not used. We found 13 down-regulated and 2 up-regulated miRNAs in Xuanwei NSCLCs. Among them, miR-144 was one of the most significantly down-regulated miRNAs. The expanded experiments showed that miR-144 was down-regulated in 45/51 (88.2%) Xuanwei NSCLCs and 34/54 (63%) control region NSCLCs (p = 0.016). MiR-144 interacted with the oncogene Zeb1 at 2 sites in its 3' untranslated region, and a decrease in miR-144 resulted in increased Zeb1 expression and an epithelial mesenchymal transition phenotype. Ectopic expression of miR-144 suppressed NSCLCs in vitro and in vivo by targeting Zeb1. These results indicate that down-regulation of miR-144 is critical for air pollution-related lung cancer, and the miR-144-Zeb1 signalling pathway could represent a potential therapeutic target.

  8. Maryland's efforts to develop regulations creating an air emissions offset trading program

    SciTech Connect

    Guy, D.M.; Zaw-Mon, M.

    1999-07-01

    Under the federal Clean Air Act's New Source Review program, many companies located in or planning to locate in areas that do not meet federal air quality standards or in the Northeast Ozone Transport Region (northern Virginia to Maine) must obtain emission reductions (called offsets) of volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides that are greater than the new emissions that will be released. This offset requirement allows growth in industry while protecting air quality against deterioration. Despite the federal offset requirement, a formal banking and trading program is not mandated by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Still, a mechanism is needed to ensure that emission reduction credits (ERCs) are available for sources to use to meet the offset requirement. Currently, Maryland does not have regulations covering the sale or transfer of ERCs from one facility to another. Maryland works with industry on a case-by-case basis to identify potential sources of ERCs and to assist in obtaining them. Then, the offset requirement and the ERCs used to meet the offsets are incorporated into individual permits using various permitting mechanisms. Desiring certainty and stability in the banking and trading process, Maryland's business community has pressed for regulations to formalize Maryland's procedures. Working over several years through a stakeholder process, Maryland has developed concepts for a trading program and a draft regulation. This paper describes Maryland's current case-by-case banking and trading procedure and traces efforts to develop a regulation to formalize the process. The paper discusses complex policy issues related to establishing a banking and trading program, describes the principal elements of Maryland's draft regulation, and summarizes elements of other states' emissions banking and trading programs.

  9. United States Government Accountability Office report on nanotechnology: nanomaterials are widely used in commerce, but EPA faces challenges in regulating risk.

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology involves the ability to control matter at the scale of a nanometer--one billionth of a meter. The world market for products that contain nanomaterials is expected to reach $2.6 trillion by 2015. In this context, the United States Government Accountability Office (GAO): (1) identified examples of current and potential uses of nanomaterials, (2) determined what is known about the potential human health and environmental risks from nanomaterials, (3) assessed actions the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has taken to better understand and regulate the risks posed by nanomaterials as well as its authorities to do so, and (4) identified approaches that other selected national authorities and U.S. states have taken to address the potential risks associated with nanomaterials. The GAO analyzed selected laws and regulations, reviewed information on the EPA's Nanoscale Materials Stewardship Program, and consulted with EPA officials and legal experts to obtain their perspectives on the EPA's authorities to regulate nanomaterials.

  10. 19 CFR 122.49 - Correction of air cargo manifest or air waybill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial... satisfactory reply within 30 days of entry of the aircraft or receipt of the notice, whichever is later....

  11. 27 CFR 70.445 - Commerce in explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Relating to Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Provisions Relating to Firearms, Shells and Cartridges, and Explosives § 70.445 Commerce in explosives. Part 555 of title 27 CFR contains the regulations... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Commerce in explosives....

  12. 27 CFR 70.445 - Commerce in explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Relating to Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Provisions Relating to Firearms, Shells and Cartridges, and Explosives § 70.445 Commerce in explosives. Part 555 of title 27 CFR contains the regulations... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Commerce in explosives....

  13. 27 CFR 70.445 - Commerce in explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Relating to Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Provisions Relating to Firearms, Shells and Cartridges, and Explosives § 70.445 Commerce in explosives. Part 555 of title 27 CFR contains the regulations... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Commerce in explosives....

  14. 27 CFR 70.445 - Commerce in explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Relating to Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Provisions Relating to Firearms, Shells and Cartridges, and Explosives § 70.445 Commerce in explosives. Part 55 of title 27 CFR contains the regulations... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commerce in explosives....

  15. 27 CFR 70.445 - Commerce in explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Relating to Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Provisions Relating to Firearms, Shells and Cartridges, and Explosives § 70.445 Commerce in explosives. Part 555 of title 27 CFR contains the regulations... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Commerce in explosives....

  16. 29 CFR 779.108 - Goods produced for commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Goods produced for commerce. 779.108 Section 779.108 Labor... transferred puts the goods in interstate or foreign commerce. The fact that goods do move in interstate...

  17. 29 CFR 783.18 - Commerce activities of employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Commerce activities of employees. Prior to the 1961 Amendments, the Fair Labor Standards Act applied to all... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commerce activities of employees. 783.18 Section 783.18... OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR...

  18. 29 CFR 784.18 - Commerce activities of employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Exemptions Provisions of the Act § 784.18 Commerce activities of employees. The Fair Labor Standards Act has... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commerce activities of employees. 784.18 Section 784.18... OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR...

  19. 29 CFR 784.12 - “Commerce.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT APPLICABLE TO...” as used in the Act includes interstate and foreign commerce. It is defined in section 3(b) of the Act... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âCommerce.â 784.12 Section 784.12 Labor...

  20. 29 CFR 779.108 - Goods produced for commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Goods produced for commerce. 779.108 Section 779.108 Labor... transferred puts the goods in interstate or foreign commerce. The fact that goods do move in interstate...

  1. 29 CFR 784.18 - Commerce activities of employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Exemptions Provisions of the Act § 784.18 Commerce activities of employees. The Fair Labor Standards Act has... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commerce activities of employees. 784.18 Section 784.18... OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR...

  2. 29 CFR 784.12 - “Commerce.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT APPLICABLE TO...” as used in the Act includes interstate and foreign commerce. It is defined in section 3(b) of the Act... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âCommerce.â 784.12 Section 784.12 Labor...

  3. 29 CFR 779.108 - Goods produced for commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Goods produced for commerce. 779.108 Section 779.108 Labor... transferred puts the goods in interstate or foreign commerce. The fact that goods do move in interstate...

  4. 29 CFR 783.18 - Commerce activities of employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Commerce activities of employees. Prior to the 1961 Amendments, the Fair Labor Standards Act applied to all... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commerce activities of employees. 783.18 Section 783.18... OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR...

  5. 29 CFR 784.12 - “Commerce.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT APPLICABLE TO...” as used in the Act includes interstate and foreign commerce. It is defined in section 3(b) of the Act... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âCommerce.â 784.12 Section 784.12 Labor...

  6. 29 CFR 783.18 - Commerce activities of employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Commerce activities of employees. Prior to the 1961 Amendments, the Fair Labor Standards Act applied to all... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commerce activities of employees. 783.18 Section 783.18... OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR...

  7. 29 CFR 784.12 - “Commerce.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT APPLICABLE TO...” as used in the Act includes interstate and foreign commerce. It is defined in section 3(b) of the Act... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âCommerce.â 784.12 Section 784.12 Labor...

  8. 29 CFR 783.18 - Commerce activities of employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Commerce activities of employees. Prior to the 1961 Amendments, the Fair Labor Standards Act applied to all... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commerce activities of employees. 783.18 Section 783.18... OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR...

  9. 29 CFR 784.18 - Commerce activities of employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Exemptions Provisions of the Act § 784.18 Commerce activities of employees. The Fair Labor Standards Act has... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commerce activities of employees. 784.18 Section 784.18... OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR...

  10. 29 CFR 784.18 - Commerce activities of employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Exemptions Provisions of the Act § 784.18 Commerce activities of employees. The Fair Labor Standards Act has... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commerce activities of employees. 784.18 Section 784.18... OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR...

  11. 29 CFR 784.12 - “Commerce.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT APPLICABLE TO...” as used in the Act includes interstate and foreign commerce. It is defined in section 3(b) of the Act... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âCommerce.â 784.12 Section 784.12 Labor...

  12. 29 CFR 784.18 - Commerce activities of employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Exemptions Provisions of the Act § 784.18 Commerce activities of employees. The Fair Labor Standards Act has... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commerce activities of employees. 784.18 Section 784.18... OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR...

  13. 29 CFR 783.18 - Commerce activities of employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Commerce activities of employees. Prior to the 1961 Amendments, the Fair Labor Standards Act applied to all... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commerce activities of employees. 783.18 Section 783.18... OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR...

  14. 29 CFR 779.108 - Goods produced for commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Goods produced for commerce. 779.108 Section 779.108 Labor... transferred puts the goods in interstate or foreign commerce. The fact that goods do move in interstate...

  15. 29 CFR 779.108 - Goods produced for commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Goods produced for commerce. 779.108 Section 779.108 Labor... transferred puts the goods in interstate or foreign commerce. The fact that goods do move in interstate...

  16. The Supreme Court, the commerce clause, and natural resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Olen Paul

    1988-07-01

    The Supreme Court's interpretation of the commerce clause controls the balance of power between state and federal governments in the United States. An understanding of the relationship between the different government levels is essential for resource managers concerned with resource and environmental issues. This study examines selected Supreme Court decisions between 1976 and 1988 to answer three questions raised by the commerce clause: (1) Is the regulated item an article of commerce? (2) Do state laws burden interstate commerce? (3) Is federal commerce regulation limited? The balance of power among the justices and the commerce clause theories affecting the federal role in resource management are also examined. Since ratification of the Constitution, the Supreme Court has continuously increased federal power, but states have power to act independently as long as contradictory federal laws do not exist and state law does not impermissively affect commerce. If Congress regulates an individual's use of resources, their power is unquestioned. Future Court decisions will not significantly reduce the federal role in resource management even if the Court's membership changes. Even the supporters of states' rights on the Court realize increased federal power is a necessary part of the country's evolution. The purpose of the commerce clause is to create a national economic unit with free location principles. The Court supports this purpose today and will in the future.

  17. 75 FR 25794 - Regulated Navigation Area: Red Bull Air Race World Championship, Upper New York Bay, Lower Hudson...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA08 Regulated Navigation Area: Red Bull Air Race World... State Park, New Jersey and Ellis Island, New Jersey and New York for the Red Bull Air Race...

  18. Studies in mice deficient for the autoimmune regulator (Aire) and transgenic for the thyrotropin receptor reveal a role for Aire in tolerance for thyroid autoantigens.

    PubMed

    Misharin, Alexander V; Nagayama, Yuji; Aliesky, Holly A; Rapoport, Basil; McLachlan, Sandra M

    2009-06-01

    The autoimmune regulator (Aire) mediates central tolerance for many autoantigens, and autoimmunity occurs spontaneously in Aire-deficient humans and mice. Using a mouse model of Graves' disease, we investigated the role of Aire in tolerance to the TSH receptor (TSHR) in Aire-deficient and wild-type mice (hyperthyroid-susceptible BALB/c background). Mice were immunized three times with TSHR A-subunit expressing adenovirus. The lack of Aire did not influence T-cell responses to TSHR protein or TSHR peptides. However, antibody levels were higher in Aire-deficient than wild-type mice after the second (but not the third) immunization. After the third immunization, hyperthyroidism persisted in a higher proportion of Aire-deficient than wild-type mice. Aire-deficient mice were crossed with transgenic strains expressing high or low-intrathyroidal levels of human TSHR A subunits. In the low-expressor transgenics, Aire deficiency had the same effect on the pattern of the TSHR antibody response to immunization as in nontransgenics, although the amplitude of the response was lower in the transgenics. High-expressor A-subunit transgenics were unresponsive to immunization. We examined intrathymic expression of murine TSHR, thyroglobulin, and thyroid peroxidase (TPO), the latter two being the dominant autoantigens in Hashimoto's thyroiditis (particularly TPO). Expression of the TSHR and thyroglobulin were reduced in the absence of Aire. Dramatically, thymic expression of TPO was nearly abolished. In contrast, the human A-subunit transgene, lacking a potential Aire-binding motif, was unaffected. Our findings provide insight into how varying intrathymic autoantigen expression may modulate thyroid autoimmunity and suggest that Aire deficiency may contribute more to developing Hashimoto's thyroiditis than Graves' disease.

  19. Impact of Partial and Comprehensive Smoke-Free Regulations on Indoor Air Quality in Bars

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeonghoon; Ban, Hyunkyung; Hwang, Yunhyung; Ha, Kwonchul; Lee, Kiyoung

    2016-01-01

    In Korea, smoke-free regulations have been gradually implemented in bars based on venue size. Smoking bans were implemented in 2013 for bars ≥150 m2, in 2014 for bars ≥100 m2, and in 2015 for bars of all sizes. The purpose of this study was to determine indoor fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations in bars before and after implementation of the smoke-free policies based on venue size. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations were measured with real-time aerosol monitors at four time points: (1) pre-regulation (n = 75); (2) after implementing the ban in bars ≥150 m2 (n = 75); (3) after implementing the ban in bars ≥100 m2 (n = 107); and (4) when all bars were smoke-free (n = 79). Our results showed that the geometric mean of the indoor PM2.5 concentrations of all bars decreased from 98.4 μg/m3 pre-regulation to 79.5, 42.9, and 26.6 μg/m3 after the ban on smoking in bars ≥150 m2, ≥100 m2, and all bars, respectively. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations in bars of each size decreased only after the corresponding regulations were implemented. Although smoking was not observed in Seoul bars after smoking was banned in all bars, smoking was observed in 4 of 21 bars in Changwon. Our study concludes that the greatest decrease in PM2.5 concentrations in bars was observed after the regulation covering all bars was implemented. However, despite the comprehensive ban, smoking was observed in bars in Changwon. Strict compliance with the regulations is needed to improve indoor air quality further. PMID:27472349

  20. Impact of Partial and Comprehensive Smoke-Free Regulations on Indoor Air Quality in Bars.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeonghoon; Ban, Hyunkyung; Hwang, Yunhyung; Ha, Kwonchul; Lee, Kiyoung

    2016-07-26

    In Korea, smoke-free regulations have been gradually implemented in bars based on venue size. Smoking bans were implemented in 2013 for bars ≥150 m², in 2014 for bars ≥100 m², and in 2015 for bars of all sizes. The purpose of this study was to determine indoor fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations in bars before and after implementation of the smoke-free policies based on venue size. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations were measured with real-time aerosol monitors at four time points: (1) pre-regulation (n = 75); (2) after implementing the ban in bars ≥150 m² (n = 75); (3) after implementing the ban in bars ≥100 m² (n = 107); and (4) when all bars were smoke-free (n = 79). Our results showed that the geometric mean of the indoor PM2.5 concentrations of all bars decreased from 98.4 μg/m³ pre-regulation to 79.5, 42.9, and 26.6 μg/m³ after the ban on smoking in bars ≥150 m², ≥100 m², and all bars, respectively. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations in bars of each size decreased only after the corresponding regulations were implemented. Although smoking was not observed in Seoul bars after smoking was banned in all bars, smoking was observed in 4 of 21 bars in Changwon. Our study concludes that the greatest decrease in PM2.5 concentrations in bars was observed after the regulation covering all bars was implemented. However, despite the comprehensive ban, smoking was observed in bars in Changwon. Strict compliance with the regulations is needed to improve indoor air quality further.

  1. Impact of Partial and Comprehensive Smoke-Free Regulations on Indoor Air Quality in Bars.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeonghoon; Ban, Hyunkyung; Hwang, Yunhyung; Ha, Kwonchul; Lee, Kiyoung

    2016-01-01

    In Korea, smoke-free regulations have been gradually implemented in bars based on venue size. Smoking bans were implemented in 2013 for bars ≥150 m², in 2014 for bars ≥100 m², and in 2015 for bars of all sizes. The purpose of this study was to determine indoor fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations in bars before and after implementation of the smoke-free policies based on venue size. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations were measured with real-time aerosol monitors at four time points: (1) pre-regulation (n = 75); (2) after implementing the ban in bars ≥150 m² (n = 75); (3) after implementing the ban in bars ≥100 m² (n = 107); and (4) when all bars were smoke-free (n = 79). Our results showed that the geometric mean of the indoor PM2.5 concentrations of all bars decreased from 98.4 μg/m³ pre-regulation to 79.5, 42.9, and 26.6 μg/m³ after the ban on smoking in bars ≥150 m², ≥100 m², and all bars, respectively. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations in bars of each size decreased only after the corresponding regulations were implemented. Although smoking was not observed in Seoul bars after smoking was banned in all bars, smoking was observed in 4 of 21 bars in Changwon. Our study concludes that the greatest decrease in PM2.5 concentrations in bars was observed after the regulation covering all bars was implemented. However, despite the comprehensive ban, smoking was observed in bars in Changwon. Strict compliance with the regulations is needed to improve indoor air quality further. PMID:27472349

  2. The deacetylase Sirt1 is an essential regulator of Aire-mediated induction of central immunological tolerance.

    PubMed

    Chuprin, Anna; Avin, Ayelet; Goldfarb, Yael; Herzig, Yonatan; Levi, Ben; Jacob, Adi; Sela, Asaf; Katz, Shir; Grossman, Moran; Guyon, Clotilde; Rathaus, Moran; Cohen, Haim Y; Sagi, Irit; Giraud, Matthieu; McBurney, Michael W; Husebye, Eystein S; Abramson, Jakub

    2015-07-01

    Aire is a transcriptional regulator that induces the promiscuous expression of thousands of tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs) in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs), a step critical for the induction of immunological self-tolerance. Studies have offered molecular insights into how Aire operates, but more comprehensive understanding of this process still remains elusive. Here we found abundant expression of the protein deacetylase Sirtuin-1 (Sirt1) in mature Aire(+) mTECs, wherein it was required for the expression of Aire-dependent TRA-encoding genes and the subsequent induction of immunological self-tolerance. Our study elucidates a previously unknown molecular mechanism for Aire-mediated transcriptional regulation and identifies a unique function for Sirt1 in preventing organ-specific autoimmunity.

  3. Effects of negative air ions on activity of neural substrates involved in autonomic regulation in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Satoko; Yanagita, Shinya; Amemiya, Seiichiro; Kato, Yumi; Kubota, Natsuko; Ryushi, Tomoo; Kita, Ichiro

    2008-07-01

    The neural mechanism by which negative air ions (NAI) mediate the regulation of autonomic nervous system activity is still unknown. We examined the effects of NAI on physiological responses, such as blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) as well as neuronal activity, in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), locus coeruleus (LC), nucleus ambiguus (NA), and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) with c-Fos immunohistochemistry in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats. In addition, we performed cervical vagotomy to reveal the afferent pathway involved in mediating the effects of NAI on autonomic regulation. NAI significantly decreased BP and HR, and increased HF power of the HRV spectrum. Significant decreases in c-Fos positive nuclei in the PVN and LC, and enhancement of c-Fos expression in the NA and NTS were induced by NAI. After vagotomy, these physiological and neuronal responses to NAI were not observed. These findings suggest that NAI can modulate autonomic regulation through inhibition of neuronal activity in PVN and LC as well as activation of NA neurons, and that these effects of NAI might be mediated via the vagus nerves.

  4. Aire regulates the transfer of antigen from mTECs to dendritic cells for induction of thymic tolerance.

    PubMed

    Hubert, François-Xavier; Kinkel, Sarah A; Davey, Gayle M; Phipson, Belinda; Mueller, Scott N; Liston, Adrian; Proietto, Anna I; Cannon, Ping Z F; Forehan, Simon; Smyth, Gordon K; Wu, Li; Goodnow, Christopher C; Carbone, Francis R; Scott, Hamish S; Heath, William R

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the role of Aire in thymic selection, we examined the cellular requirements for generation of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells in mice expressing OVA under the control of the rat insulin promoter. Aire deficiency reduced the number of mature single-positive OVA-specific CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells in the thymus, independent of OVA expression. Importantly, it also contributed in 2 ways to OVA-dependent negative selection depending on the T-cell type. Aire-dependent negative selection of OVA-specific CD8 T cells correlated with Aire-regulated expression of OVA. By contrast, for OVA-specific CD4 T cells, Aire affected tolerance induction by a mechanism that operated independent of the level of OVA expression, controlling access of antigen presenting cells to medullary thymic epithelial cell (mTEC)-expressed OVA. This study supports the view that one mechanism by which Aire controls thymic negative selection is by regulating the indirect presentation of mTEC-derived antigens by thymic dendritic cells. It also indicates that mTECs can mediate tolerance by direct presentation of Aire-regulated antigens to both CD4 and CD8 T cells.

  5. Electronic commerce: beyond the euphoria.

    PubMed

    Healy, J L; DeLuca, J M

    2000-01-01

    As the center of considerable media attention, case study articles, vendor research, and development efforts, electronic commerce technology is entering healthcare and having a profound effect. The simple truth, however, is that after the drama and excitement begins to wear off, completing a successful e-commerce implementation remains good old-fashioned hard, sometimes monotonous work. To be successful, e-commerce technologies must be planned and implemented with rigorous project standards, and incorporated with significant process and workflow reengineering to actually return significant value to the organization. This article briefs readers on the organizational issues they must consider in evaluating e-commerce readiness--cultural, executive and technological factors that either support or inhibit project and technology success. Readers will be left with the tools to conduct an electronic commerce "readiness assessment" to evaluate the immediate, mid- and long-term potential of electronic commerce; practical remediation strategies for better preparing the organization for the changes inherent in moving to an e-commerce-enabled business model; and comments from the field--advice from organizations that have successfully implemented e-commerce technologies into their ongoing operations. PMID:11066652

  6. Electronic commerce: beyond the euphoria.

    PubMed

    Healy, J L; DeLuca, J M

    2000-01-01

    As the center of considerable media attention, case study articles, vendor research, and development efforts, electronic commerce technology is entering healthcare and having a profound effect. The simple truth, however, is that after the drama and excitement begins to wear off, completing a successful e-commerce implementation remains good old-fashioned hard, sometimes monotonous work. To be successful, e-commerce technologies must be planned and implemented with rigorous project standards, and incorporated with significant process and workflow reengineering to actually return significant value to the organization. This article briefs readers on the organizational issues they must consider in evaluating e-commerce readiness--cultural, executive and technological factors that either support or inhibit project and technology success. Readers will be left with the tools to conduct an electronic commerce "readiness assessment" to evaluate the immediate, mid- and long-term potential of electronic commerce; practical remediation strategies for better preparing the organization for the changes inherent in moving to an e-commerce-enabled business model; and comments from the field--advice from organizations that have successfully implemented e-commerce technologies into their ongoing operations.

  7. 15 CFR 19.7 - When will Commerce entities compromise a Commerce debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.7 When will Commerce entities compromise... Commerce entity may compromise the Commerce debt in accordance with the provisions of 31 CFR part 902 and the Commerce entity's policies and procedures. Legal counsel approval to compromise a Commerce debt...

  8. [E-commerce of pharmaceuticals].

    PubMed

    Shani, Segev

    2003-05-01

    The emergence of the Internet as a new communications and information technology caused major social and cultural changes. The dramatic increase in accessibility and availability of information empowered the consumer by closing the information gap between the consumer and different suppliers. The objective of this article is to review many new internet-supported applications related to the pharmaceutical market. E-commerce is divided into two major components: Business to Consumer (B to C), and Business to Business (B to B). The main applications in B to C are dissemination of medical and drug information, and the sale of drugs through the Internet. Medical information on the Internet is vast and very helpful for patients, however, its reliability is not guaranteed. Online pharmacies increase the accessibility and availability of drugs. Nevertheless, several obstacles such as security of the data provided (both financial and clinical) prevent the widespread use of online pharmacies. Another risk is the health authorities' inability to regulate Internet sites effectively. Therefore, unregulated sale of prescription drugs, fake or substandard, often occurs on the Internet. B to B relates to physicians, clinics, hospitals, HMO's and pharmaceutical companies. There is a vast number of applications ranging from clinical research, marketing and sales promotion, to drug distribution and logistics. In conclusion, the Internet is dynamic and has contributed to the development of numerous new applications in the field of pharmaceuticals. Regulatory authorities should be active in developing new policies that will deal with those new Internet-based applications. PMID:12803063

  9. [E-commerce of pharmaceuticals].

    PubMed

    Shani, Segev

    2003-05-01

    The emergence of the Internet as a new communications and information technology caused major social and cultural changes. The dramatic increase in accessibility and availability of information empowered the consumer by closing the information gap between the consumer and different suppliers. The objective of this article is to review many new internet-supported applications related to the pharmaceutical market. E-commerce is divided into two major components: Business to Consumer (B to C), and Business to Business (B to B). The main applications in B to C are dissemination of medical and drug information, and the sale of drugs through the Internet. Medical information on the Internet is vast and very helpful for patients, however, its reliability is not guaranteed. Online pharmacies increase the accessibility and availability of drugs. Nevertheless, several obstacles such as security of the data provided (both financial and clinical) prevent the widespread use of online pharmacies. Another risk is the health authorities' inability to regulate Internet sites effectively. Therefore, unregulated sale of prescription drugs, fake or substandard, often occurs on the Internet. B to B relates to physicians, clinics, hospitals, HMO's and pharmaceutical companies. There is a vast number of applications ranging from clinical research, marketing and sales promotion, to drug distribution and logistics. In conclusion, the Internet is dynamic and has contributed to the development of numerous new applications in the field of pharmaceuticals. Regulatory authorities should be active in developing new policies that will deal with those new Internet-based applications.

  10. Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in the Neuse River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, M. C.; Knightes, C. D.; Dennis, R. L.; Cooter, E. J.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated impacts of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) NOx emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina, USA from 1990 to 2020. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system were used. CMAQ simulated atmospheric chemical transport and nitrogen deposition. This data was entered into SWAT which simulated watershed hydrology and water quality. Two cases were investigated: one that incorporates CAAA regulatory emissions controls in CMAQ simulation (with) and a second case that does not (without). SWAT model results forecasted a 70% decrease in inorganic nitrogen discharge from the Little River watershed and a 50% decrease for the Nahunta watershed by 2020 under the emission control (with) scenario. Denitrification and plant nitrogen uptake played important roles in nitrogen discharge from each watershed. The nitrogen discharge response time following a change in atmospheric nitrogen deposition was 4 years for the Nahunta watershed and 2 years for the Little River watershed. The longer response time for Nahunta is primarily due to a higher percentage of soybean land cover (22.5% [Nahunta]; 1.6% [Little River]). Agricultural land covers had varied nitrogen response times to changes in atmospheric deposition, particularly for soybean, hay and corn. The studied watersheds retained >80% of all nitrogen delivered by agriculture fertilization, biological fixation and atmospheric deposition.

  11. A miniaturized piezoelectric turbine with self-regulation for increased air speed range

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Hailing Yeatman, Eric M.

    2015-12-14

    This paper presents the design and demonstration of a piezoelectric turbine with self-regulation for increased air speed range. The turbine's transduction is achieved by magnetic “plucking” of a piezoelectric beam by the passing rotor. The increased speed range is achieved by the self-regulating mechanism which can dynamically adjust the magnetic coupling between the magnets on the turbine rotor and the piezoelectric beam using a micro-spring. The spring is controlled passively by the centrifugal force of the magnet on the rotor. This mechanism automatically changes the relative position of the magnets at different rotational speeds, making the coupling weak at low airflow speeds and strong at high speeds. Hence, the device can start up with a low airflow speed, and the output power can be ensured when the airflow speed is high. A theoretical model was established to analyse the turbine's performance, advantages, and to optimize its design parameters. A prototype was fabricated and tested in a wind tunnel. The start-up airflow speed was 2.34 m/s, showing a 30% improvement against a harvester without the mechanism.

  12. A miniaturized piezoelectric turbine with self-regulation for increased air speed range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Hailing; Yeatman, Eric M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the design and demonstration of a piezoelectric turbine with self-regulation for increased air speed range. The turbine's transduction is achieved by magnetic "plucking" of a piezoelectric beam by the passing rotor. The increased speed range is achieved by the self-regulating mechanism which can dynamically adjust the magnetic coupling between the magnets on the turbine rotor and the piezoelectric beam using a micro-spring. The spring is controlled passively by the centrifugal force of the magnet on the rotor. This mechanism automatically changes the relative position of the magnets at different rotational speeds, making the coupling weak at low airflow speeds and strong at high speeds. Hence, the device can start up with a low airflow speed, and the output power can be ensured when the airflow speed is high. A theoretical model was established to analyse the turbine's performance, advantages, and to optimize its design parameters. A prototype was fabricated and tested in a wind tunnel. The start-up airflow speed was 2.34 m/s, showing a 30% improvement against a harvester without the mechanism.

  13. Aire regulates the expression of differentiation-associated genes and self-renewal of embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Bin; Zhang, Jiarong; Chen, Qi; Tao, Bo; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Yang; Chen, Liangbiao; Liu, Yusen; Zhang, Ming

    2010-04-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are pluripotent stem cells from early embryos. It has been well recognized that ESC genomes are maintained in a globally transcriptional hyperactive state, which genetically poised ESCs to the high differentiation potential. However, the transcription factors regulating the global transcription activities in ESCs are not well defined. We show here that mouse and human ESCs express two transcription factors, Aire and Deaf1. Previously known to function in the thymus stromal cells and peripheral lymphoid organs respectively, Aire and Deaf1 help regulate the ectopic expression of diverse tissue-specific antigens to establish self-immune tolerance. Differentiation of ESCs greatly reduced Aire and Deaf1 expression, in a pattern similar to the pluripotent factors, Oct4 and Nanog. Knockdown of Aire in mouse ESCs resulted in significantly decreased clone-forming efficiency as well as attenuated cell cycle, suggesting Aire plays a role in ESC self-renewal. In addition, some differentiation-associated genes that are sporadically expressed in ESCs were reduced in expression upon Aire knockdown. These results suggest that transcription factors such as Aire and Deaf1, which exert global transcriptional regulatory functions, may play important roles in self-renewal of ESCs and maintaining ESC in a transcriptionally hyperactive state.

  14. Allowance trading under the Clean Air Act: Who should regulate, and when?

    SciTech Connect

    Lock, R.

    1993-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore how compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), especially Title IV and emission trading under it, will affect the current relationship between state and federal regulation. It is difficult, with the limited experience we have had under Title IV, to be definitive about or to be a very strong advocate of too many policy positions. What may be most helpful at this point is to identify where the difficult issues in state/federal relations might arise; and then to explore ways in which tensions might be either avoided or resolved. One anticipated conclusion is that a traditional regulatory mindset could be very destructive if applied to this new area of oversight without due sensitivity to what Congress is trying to achieve in Title IV. That concern pervaded the early legislative debates; and it persists today. Title IV presents some unique challenges to state regulators and will require some creative solutions and fresh thinking if the goals of Congress are to be realized and the full benefits that allowance trading can offer are to be reaped by electricity consumers. In the ultimate analysis, Title IV amounts to a massive internalization of the external costs imposed on society by acid rain deposition. (This places in serious question the notion of additional externality {open_quotes}adders{close_quotes} for sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) at the state level for utility supply planning purposes.) The whole point of Title IV is to give those directly charged with compliance, namely power producers, the maximum flexibility to pursue least-cost compliance solutions. Perhaps the biggest single factor in how well they do this will be how state regulators respond to their compliance and allowance trading initiatives.

  15. Air emission regulations for small to moderate sized wood-fired boilers: Final report: Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, M.J.; Tennis, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    Potential commercial wood burners in the Northeast hold the general perception that air pollution regulations pose special difficulties for them. This notion is based on incomplete information regarding the regulations in place and their applicability to small to moderate sized commercial faciliaties (ie. <100 mmBtu/hr). This study was commission by the Coalition of Northeastern Governors (CONEG) Policy Research Center, Inc., under the Northeast Regional Biomass Program, to provide a review of the air quality regulations effecting commercial wood burning installations, specifically identifying those regulations applying to the small to medium size units. This report provides an organized regulatory comparison to relate the different state emission rates with various levels of control techniques. 3 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. 7 CFR 800.30 - Foreign commerce grain business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Foreign commerce grain business. 800.30 Section 800.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS...

  17. 7 CFR 800.30 - Foreign commerce grain business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Foreign commerce grain business. 800.30 Section 800.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS...

  18. 7 CFR 800.30 - Foreign commerce grain business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Foreign commerce grain business. 800.30 Section 800.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS...

  19. 7 CFR 800.30 - Foreign commerce grain business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign commerce grain business. 800.30 Section 800.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS...

  20. 7 CFR 800.30 - Foreign commerce grain business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Foreign commerce grain business. 800.30 Section 800.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS...

  1. An analysis of the background and development of regulations for the air transport of plutonium in the USA

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, J.D.; Luna, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Several aspects of special packagings of plutonium for air transport should be recognized. The accident cases cited by Congressman Scheuer were incidents of local plutonium contamination in military aircraft accidents that had nuclear weapons on board. There is no disputing the occurrence of these military accidents but military weapon shipments were exempted from the provisions of the Scheuer amendment. There have been no recorded civilian aircraft crashes involving plutonium dispersal although there have been civilian aircraft crashes that were severe. Shortly after the introduction of the amendment by Mr. Scheuer on June 20, 1975, there was a serious aircraft crash at JFK International. In his remarks to the House on July 24, 1975 Mr. Scheuer called attention to this event. The NRC originally opposed the provisions of the Scheuer amendment but with the passing of the amendment NRC compiled with its provisions. This led to the development of the plutonium air transport package PAT-1 in the US. The introduction of special rules for the air transport of plutonium into the US packaging regulations has been made them more severe than the provision of the international regulations, IAEA Safety Series 6. The IAEA is now discussing proposed regulations related to the air transport of plutonium. An additional legislative action was introduced the US in December 1987 which would require actual crash tests of packages intended for the air transport of plutonium, the Murkowski amendment. 13 refs.

  2. Impact of sulfur content regulations of shipping fuel on coastal air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyler, André; Wittrock, Folkard; Kattner, Lisa; Mathieu-Üffing, Barbara; Weigelt, Andreas; Peters, Enno; Richter, Andreas; Schmolke, Stefan; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Shipping traffic is a sector that faces an enormous growth rate and contributes substantially to the emissions from the transportation sector, but lacks regulations and controls. Shipping is not enclosed in the Kyoto Protocol. However, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) introduced sufhur limits for marine heavy fuels, nitrogen oxide limits for newly-built ship engines and established Emission Control Areas (ECA) in the North and Baltic Sea as well as around North America with the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI). Recently, on the 1st of January 2015, the allowed sulfur content of marine fuels inside Sulfur Emission Control Areas has been significantly decreased from 1.0% to 0.1%. However, measurements of reactive trace gases and the chemical composition of the marine troposphere along shipping routes are sparse and up to now there is no regular monitoring system available. The project MeSmarT (measurements of shipping emissions in the marine troposphere) is a cooperation between the University of Bremen, the German Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie, BSH) and the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht. This study aims to analyse the influence of shipping emissions on the coastal air quality by evaluating ground-based remote sensing measurements using the MAX-DOAS (Multi AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) technique. Measurements of the atmospheric trace gases nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) have been carried out in the marine troposphere at the MeSmarT measurement sites in Wedel and on Neuwerk and on-board several ship cruises on the North and Baltic Sea. The capability of two-channel MAX-DOAS systems to do simultaneous measurements in the UV and visible spectral range has been used in the so called "onion-peeling" approach to derive spatial distributions of ship emissions and to analyse the movement of the exhausted

  3. E-commerce trade in invasive plants.

    PubMed

    Humair, Franziska; Humair, Luc; Kuhn, Fabian; Kueffer, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Biological invasions are a major concern in conservation, especially because global transport of species is still increasing rapidly. Conservationists hope to anticipate and thus prevent future invasions by identifying and regulating potentially invasive species through species risk assessments and international trade regulations. Among many introduction pathways of non-native species, horticulture is a particularly important driver of plant invasions. In recent decades, the horticultural industry expanded globally and changed structurally through the emergence of new distribution channels, including internet trade (e-commerce). Using an automated search algorithm, we surveyed, on a daily basis, e-commerce trade on 10 major online auction sites (including eBay) of approximately three-fifths of the world's spermatophyte flora. Many recognized invasive plant species (>500 species) (i.e., species associated with ecological or socio-economic problems) were traded daily worldwide on the internet. A markedly higher proportion of invasive than non-invasive species were available online. Typically, for a particular plant family, 30-80% of recognized invasive species were detected on an auction site, but only a few percentages of all species in the plant family were detected on a site. Families that were more traded had a higher proportion of invasive species than families that were less traded. For woody species, there was a significant positive relationship between the number of regions where a species was sold and the number of regions where it was invasive. Our results indicate that biosecurity is not effectively regulating online plant trade. In the future, automated monitoring of e-commerce may help prevent the spread of invasive species, provide information on emerging trade connectivity across national borders, and be used in horizon scanning exercises for early detection of new species and their geographic source areas in international trade.

  4. E-commerce trade in invasive plants.

    PubMed

    Humair, Franziska; Humair, Luc; Kuhn, Fabian; Kueffer, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Biological invasions are a major concern in conservation, especially because global transport of species is still increasing rapidly. Conservationists hope to anticipate and thus prevent future invasions by identifying and regulating potentially invasive species through species risk assessments and international trade regulations. Among many introduction pathways of non-native species, horticulture is a particularly important driver of plant invasions. In recent decades, the horticultural industry expanded globally and changed structurally through the emergence of new distribution channels, including internet trade (e-commerce). Using an automated search algorithm, we surveyed, on a daily basis, e-commerce trade on 10 major online auction sites (including eBay) of approximately three-fifths of the world's spermatophyte flora. Many recognized invasive plant species (>500 species) (i.e., species associated with ecological or socio-economic problems) were traded daily worldwide on the internet. A markedly higher proportion of invasive than non-invasive species were available online. Typically, for a particular plant family, 30-80% of recognized invasive species were detected on an auction site, but only a few percentages of all species in the plant family were detected on a site. Families that were more traded had a higher proportion of invasive species than families that were less traded. For woody species, there was a significant positive relationship between the number of regions where a species was sold and the number of regions where it was invasive. Our results indicate that biosecurity is not effectively regulating online plant trade. In the future, automated monitoring of e-commerce may help prevent the spread of invasive species, provide information on emerging trade connectivity across national borders, and be used in horizon scanning exercises for early detection of new species and their geographic source areas in international trade. PMID:26249172

  5. 19 CFR 122.30 - Other Customs laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other Customs laws and regulations. 122.30 Section 122.30 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.30 Other Customs laws and regulations. Sections 122.2 and 122.161 apply to...

  6. Coal-fired power generaion, new air quality regulations, and future U.S. coal production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Root, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Tighter new regulation of stack gas emissions and competition in power generation are driving electrical utilities to demand cleaner, lower sulfur coal. Historical data on sulfur content of produced coals shows little variability in coal quality for individual mines and individual coal-producing counties over relatively long periods of time. If coal-using power generators follow the compliance patterns established in Phase I of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, then the industry's response to the tighter Phase II emissions standards will result in large amounts of coal production shifting from higher sulfur areas to areas with lower cost low sulfur coal. One reason this shift will likely occur is that currently only 30% of U.S. coal-fired electrical generating capacity is equipped with flue-gas scrubbers. In 1995, coal mines in the higher sulfur areas of the Illinois Basin and Northern and Central Appalachia employed 78% of all coal miners (>70,000 miners). A substantial geographical redistribution of the nation's coal supplies will likely lead to economic dislocations that will reach beyond local coal-producing areas.

  7. Effects of agriculture upon the air quality and climate: research, policy, and regulations.

    PubMed

    Aneja, Viney P; Schlesinger, William H; Erisman, Jan Willem

    2009-06-15

    compounds, volatile organic compounds, greenhouse gases, odor and pathogens, the quantification of landscape processes, and the primary and secondary emissions of PM. Given the serious concerns raised regarding the amount and the impacts of agricultural air emissions, policies must be pursued and regulations must be enacted in orderto make real progress in reducing these emissions and their associated environmental impacts. PMID:19603628

  8. Autoimmune regulator (AIRE)-deficient CD8+CD28low regulatory T lymphocytes fail to control experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Pomié, Céline; Vicente, Rita; Vuddamalay, Yirajen; Lundgren, Brita Ardesjö; van der Hoek, Mark; Enault, Geneviève; Kagan, Jérémy; Fazilleau, Nicolas; Scott, Hamish S; Romagnoli, Paola; van Meerwijk, Joost P M

    2011-07-26

    Mutations in the gene encoding the transcription factor autoimmune regulator (AIRE) are responsible for autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy syndrome. AIRE directs expression of tissue-restricted antigens in the thymic medulla and in lymph node stromal cells and thereby substantially contributes to induction of immunological tolerance to self-antigens. Data from experimental mouse models showed that AIRE deficiency leads to impaired deletion of autospecific T-cell precursors. However, a potential role for AIRE in the function of regulatory T-cell populations, which are known to play a central role in prevention of immunopathology, has remained elusive. Regulatory T cells of CD8(+)CD28(low) phenotype efficiently control immune responses in experimental autoimmune and colitis models in mice. Here we show that CD8(+)CD28(low) regulatory T lymphocytes from AIRE-deficient mice are transcriptionally and phenotypically normal and exert efficient suppression of in vitro immune responses, but completely fail to prevent experimental colitis in vivo. Our data therefore demonstrate that AIRE plays an important role in the in vivo function of a naturally occurring regulatory T-cell population.

  9. Impact of a new gasoline benzene regulation on ambient air pollutants in Anchorage, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Yuriko; Morris, Stephen S.; Salerno, Christopher; Schlapia, Anne M.; Stichick, Mathew

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of a new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard that limits the amount of benzene allowed in gasoline on ambient benzene concentrations. This new standard, together with two companion regulations that limit cold-temperature automotive emissions and the permeability of portable fuel containers, was expected to lower the levels of ambient benzene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) nationwide. In this study the impact of the gasoline benzene standard was evaluated in Anchorage, Alaska in a two-phase ambient air monitoring study conducted before and after the new gasoline standard was implemented. Gasoline sold by Anchorage retailers was also evaluated in each phase to determine the content of benzene and other gasoline components. The average benzene content in Anchorage gasoline was reduced by 70%, from 5.05% (w/w) to 1.53% (w/w) following the implementation of the standard. The annual mean ambient benzene concentration fell by 51%, from 0.99 ppbv in Phase 1 to 0.49 ppbv in Phase 2. Analysis suggests the change in gasoline benzene content alone reduced benzene emissions by 46%. The changes in toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene content in gasoline between Phase 1 and 2 were relatively small and the differences in the mean ambient concentrations of these compounds between phases were modest. Our results suggest that cold winter communities in high latitude and mountainous regions may benefit more from the gasoline benzene standard because of high benzene emissions resulting from vehicle cold start and a tendency to develop atmospheric stagnation conditions in the winter.

  10. Air Pressure Responses to Sudden Vocal Tract Pressure Bleeds During Production of Stop Consonants: New Evidence of Aeromechanical Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, David J.; Weissler, Mark C.

    2011-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate short-latency vocal tract air pressure responses to sudden pressure bleeds during production of voiceless bilabial stop consonants. It was hypothesized that the occurrence of respiratory reflexes would be indicated by distinct patterns of responses as a function of bleed magnitude. In Study 1, 19 adults produced syllable trains of /pΛ/ using a mouthpiece coupled to a computer-controlled perturbator. The device randomly created bleed apertures that ranged from 0 to 40 mm2 during production of the 2nd or 4th syllable of an utterance. Although peak oral air pressure dropped in a linear manner across bleed apertures, it averaged 2 to 3 cm H2O at the largest bleed. While slope of oral pressure also decreased in a linear trend, duration of the oral pressure pulse remained relatively constant. The patterns suggest that respiratory reflexes, if present, have little effect on oral air pressure levels. In Study 2, both oral and subglottal air pressure responses were monitored in 2 adults while bleed apertures of 20 and 40 mm2 were randomly created. For 1 participant, peak oral air pressure dropped across bleed apertures, as in Study 1. Subglottal air pressure and slope, however, remained relatively stable. These patterns provide some support for the occurrence of respiratory reflexes to regulate subglottal air pressure. Overall, the studies indicate that the inherent physiologic processes of the respiratory system, which may involve reflexes, and passive aeromechanical resistance of the upper airway are capable of developing oral air pressure in the face of substantial pressure bleeds. Implications for understanding speech production and the characteristics of individuals with velopharyngeal dysfunction are discussed. PMID:15324286

  11. Air pressure responses to sudden vocal tract pressure bleeds during production of stop consonants: new evidence of aeromechanical regulation.

    PubMed

    Zajac, David J; Weissler, Mark C

    2004-08-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate short-latency vocal tract air pressure responses to sudden pressure bleeds during production of voiceless bilabial stop consonants. It was hypothesized that the occurrence of respiratory reflexes would be indicated by distinct patterns of responses as a function of bleed magnitude. In Study 1, 19 adults produced syllable trains of "puh" using a mouthpiece coupled to a computer-controlled perturbator. The device randomly created bleed apertures that ranged from 0 to 40 mm2 during production of the 2nd or 4th syllable of an utterance. Although peak oral air pressure dropped in a linear manner across bleed apertures, it averaged 2 to 3 cm H2O at the largest bleed. While slope of oral pressure also decreased in a linear trend, duration of the oral pressure pulse remained relatively constant. The patterns suggest that respiratory reflexes, if present, have little effect on oral air pressure levels. In Study 2, both oral and subglottal air pressure responses were monitored in 2 adults while bleed apertures of 20 and 40 mm2 were randomly created. For 1 participant, peak oral air pressure dropped across bleed apertures, as in Study 1. Subglottal air pressure and slope, however, remained relatively stable. These patterns provide some support for the occurrence of respiratory reflexes to regulate subglottal air pressure. Overall, the studies indicate that the inherent physiologic processes of the respiratory system, which may involve reflexes, and passive aeromechanical resistance of the upper airway are capable of developing oral air pressure in the face of substantial pressure bleeds. Implications for understanding speech production and the characteristics of individuals with velopharyngeal dysfunction are discussed.

  12. Expression profile of peripheral tissue antigen genes in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) is dependent on mRNA levels of autoimmune regulator (Aire).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ernna H; Macedo, Claudia; Donate, Paula B; Almeida, Renata S; Pezzi, Nicole; Nguyen, Catherine; Rossi, Marcos A; Sakamoto-Hojo, Elza T; Donadi, Eduardo A; Passos, Geraldo A

    2013-01-01

    In the thymus of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, the expression of the autoimmune regulator (Aire) gene varies with age, and its down-regulation in young mice precedes the later emergence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). In addition, the insulin (Ins2) peripheral tissue antigen (PTA) gene, which is Aire-dependent, is also deregulated in these mice. Based in these findings, we hypothesized that the imbalance in PTA gene expression in the thymus can be associated with slight variations in Aire transcript levels. To test this, we used siRNA to knockdown Aire by in vivo electro-transfection of the thymus of BALB/c mice. The efficiency of the electro-transfection was monitored by assessing the presence of irrelevant Cy3-labeled siRNA in the thymic stroma. Importantly, Aire-siRNA reached medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) down-regulating Aire. As expected, the in vivo Aire knockdown was partial and transient; the maximum 59% inhibition occurred in 48 h. The Aire knockdown was sufficient to down-regulate PTA genes; however, surprisingly, several others, including Ins2, were up-regulated. The modulation of these genes after in vivo Aire knockdown was comparable to that observed in NOD mice before the emergence of T1D. The in vitro transfections of 3.10 mTEC cells with Aire siRNA resulted in samples featuring partial (69%) and complete (100%) Aire knockdown. In these Aire siRNA-transfected 3.10 mTECs, the expression of PTA genes, including Ins2, was down-regulated. This suggests that the expression profile of PTA genes in mTECs is affected by fine changes in the transcription level of Aire.

  13. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) Between NASA Headquarters and MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) for NASA Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, Salvadore V.; Clark-Ingram, Marceia A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a memorandum of agreement on Clean Air Regulations. NASA headquarters (code JE and code M) has asked MSFC to serve as principle center for review of Clean Air Act (CAA) regulations. The purpose of the principle center is to provide centralized support to NASA headquarters for the management and leadership of NASA's CAA regulation review process and to identify the potential impact of proposed CAA reguations on NASA program hardware and supporting facilities. The materials and processes utilized in the manufacture of NASA's programmatic hardware contain HAPs (Hazardous Air Pollutants), VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds), and ODC (Ozone Depleting Chemicals). This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  14. 75 FR 23589 - Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Guard will enforce a safety zone on Lake Washington, WA for the annual Seafair Blue Angels Air Show from... establish a safety zone on the waters of Lake Washington for the annual Seafair Blue Angels Air Show... area is designated as a safety zone: All waters of Lake Washington, Washington State, enclosed by...

  15. 7 CFR 57.35 - Eggs in commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eggs in commerce. 57.35 Section 57.35 Agriculture... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Relation to Other Authorities §...

  16. 7 CFR 57.35 - Eggs in commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eggs in commerce. 57.35 Section 57.35 Agriculture... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Relation to Other Authorities §...

  17. 29 CFR 776.18 - Employees of producers for commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... THE GENERAL COVERAGE OF THE WAGE AND HOURS PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 General... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employees of producers for commerce. 776.18 Section 776.18 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR......

  18. 29 CFR 776.18 - Employees of producers for commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... THE GENERAL COVERAGE OF THE WAGE AND HOURS PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 General... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employees of producers for commerce. 776.18 Section 776.18 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR......

  19. 29 CFR 776.18 - Employees of producers for commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... THE GENERAL COVERAGE OF THE WAGE AND HOURS PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 General... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employees of producers for commerce. 776.18 Section 776.18 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR......

  20. 29 CFR 776.18 - Employees of producers for commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... THE GENERAL COVERAGE OF THE WAGE AND HOURS PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 General... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees of producers for commerce. 776.18 Section 776.18 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR......

  1. 29 CFR 776.18 - Employees of producers for commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... THE GENERAL COVERAGE OF THE WAGE AND HOURS PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 General... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employees of producers for commerce. 776.18 Section 776.18 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR......

  2. 7 CFR 57.35 - Eggs in commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eggs in commerce. 57.35 Section 57.35 Agriculture... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Relation to Other Authorities §...

  3. Social Engineering hits Social Commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degenhardt, Werner; Wiele, Johannes

    Looking at social commerce, a bunch of bewildering phenomena attracts the attention of social psychologists. The way customers participate today shows attitudes and ethical behavior which cannot be explained from the inherent conditions of Web 2.0 environments alone. Fraud often succeeds, when you do not expect it, and honesty can be found under circumstances that do not support honesty at all. The current situation seems to result from customers assigning experience and ethics from real world business to virtual business environments. But there are indications that this situation may change. Social commerce could suffer as soon as customers would use its inherent weaknesses to their own advantage. The following article outlines first approaches to research into this topic.

  4. Getting real about virtual commerce.

    PubMed

    Evans, P; Wurster, T S

    1999-01-01

    In its first generation, electronic commerce has been a landgrab. Space on the Internet was claimed by whoever got there first with enough resources to create a credible business. It took speed, a willingness to experiment, and a lot of cybersavvy. Companies that had performed brilliantly in traditional settings seemed hopelessly flat-footed on the Web. And despite their astronomical valuations, the new e-commerce stars have appeared to be just as confused. Many have yet to make a profit, and no one has any idea when they will. Now, the authors contend, we are entering the second generation of e-commerce, and it will be shaped more by strategy than by experimentation. The key players--branded-goods suppliers, physical retailers, electronic retailers, and pure navigators--will shift their attention from claiming territory to defending or capturing it. They will be forced to focus on strategies to achieve competitive advantage. Success will go to the businesses that get closest to consumers, the ones that help customers navigate their way through the Web. Indeed, the authors argue, navigation is the battlefield on which competitive advantage will be won or lost. There are three dimensions of navigation: Reach is about access and connection. Affiliation is about whose interests the business represents. And richness is the depth of the information that a business gives to or collects about its customers. Navigators and e-retailers have the natural advantage in reach and affiliation, while traditional product suppliers and retailers have the edge in richness. The authors offer practical advice to each player on competing in the second generation of e-commerce. PMID:10662007

  5. Getting real about virtual commerce.

    PubMed

    Evans, P; Wurster, T S

    1999-01-01

    In its first generation, electronic commerce has been a landgrab. Space on the Internet was claimed by whoever got there first with enough resources to create a credible business. It took speed, a willingness to experiment, and a lot of cybersavvy. Companies that had performed brilliantly in traditional settings seemed hopelessly flat-footed on the Web. And despite their astronomical valuations, the new e-commerce stars have appeared to be just as confused. Many have yet to make a profit, and no one has any idea when they will. Now, the authors contend, we are entering the second generation of e-commerce, and it will be shaped more by strategy than by experimentation. The key players--branded-goods suppliers, physical retailers, electronic retailers, and pure navigators--will shift their attention from claiming territory to defending or capturing it. They will be forced to focus on strategies to achieve competitive advantage. Success will go to the businesses that get closest to consumers, the ones that help customers navigate their way through the Web. Indeed, the authors argue, navigation is the battlefield on which competitive advantage will be won or lost. There are three dimensions of navigation: Reach is about access and connection. Affiliation is about whose interests the business represents. And richness is the depth of the information that a business gives to or collects about its customers. Navigators and e-retailers have the natural advantage in reach and affiliation, while traditional product suppliers and retailers have the edge in richness. The authors offer practical advice to each player on competing in the second generation of e-commerce.

  6. 15 CFR 922.44 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.44 Section 922.44 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Regulations of General Applicability §...

  7. 15 CFR 922.44 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.44 Section 922.44 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Regulations of General Applicability §...

  8. 15 CFR 922.44 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.44 Section 922.44 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Regulations of General Applicability §...

  9. 15 CFR 922.44 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.44 Section 922.44 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Regulations of General Applicability §...

  10. 33 CFR 100.909 - Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. 100.909 Section 100.909 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of the...

  11. 33 CFR 100.909 - Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. 100.909 Section 100.909 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of the...

  12. 33 CFR 100.909 - Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. 100.909 Section 100.909 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of the...

  13. 7 CFR 201.65 - Noxious-weed seeds in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds in interstate commerce. 201.65... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.65 Noxious-weed seeds in interstate commerce. Tolerances for rates of occurrence of noxious-weed seeds shall be recognized and shall be applied to...

  14. 7 CFR 201.65 - Noxious-weed seeds in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds in interstate commerce. 201.65... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.65 Noxious-weed seeds in interstate commerce. Tolerances for rates of occurrence of noxious-weed seeds shall be recognized and shall be applied to...

  15. 7 CFR 201.65 - Noxious weed seeds in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Noxious weed seeds in interstate commerce. 201.65... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.65 Noxious weed seeds in interstate commerce. Tolerances for rates of occurrence of noxious-weed seeds shall be recognized and shall be applied to...

  16. 7 CFR 201.65 - Noxious weed seeds in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noxious weed seeds in interstate commerce. 201.65... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.65 Noxious weed seeds in interstate commerce. Tolerances for rates of occurrence of noxious-weed seeds shall be recognized and shall be applied to...

  17. 7 CFR 201.65 - Noxious-weed seeds in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds in interstate commerce. 201.65... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.65 Noxious-weed seeds in interstate commerce. Tolerances for rates of occurrence of noxious-weed seeds shall be recognized and shall be applied to...

  18. 29 CFR 401.10 - Labor organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... commerce. 401.10 Section 401.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.10 Labor... affecting commerce; or (c) Has chartered a local labor organization or subsidiary body which is...

  19. 29 CFR 779.103 - Employees “engaged in commerce.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employees âengaged in commerce.â 779.103 Section 779.103....103 Employees “engaged in commerce.” Employees are “engaged in commerce” within the meaning of the...

  20. 29 CFR 779.103 - Employees “engaged in commerce.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees âengaged in commerce.â 779.103 Section 779.103....103 Employees “engaged in commerce.” Employees are “engaged in commerce” within the meaning of the...

  1. 29 CFR 779.103 - Employees “engaged in commerce.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employees âengaged in commerce.â 779.103 Section 779.103....103 Employees “engaged in commerce.” Employees are “engaged in commerce” within the meaning of the...

  2. 29 CFR 776.11 - Employees doing work related to instrumentalities of commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INTERPRETATIVE BULLETIN ON THE GENERAL COVERAGE OF THE WAGE AND HOURS PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT... commerce. 776.11 Section 776.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... carrying traffic moving in interstate or foreign commerce (even though within a single State);...

  3. 29 CFR 779.103 - Employees “engaged in commerce.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employees âengaged in commerce.â 779.103 Section 779.103....103 Employees “engaged in commerce.” Employees are “engaged in commerce” within the meaning of the...

  4. 29 CFR 779.103 - Employees “engaged in commerce.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employees âengaged in commerce.â 779.103 Section 779.103....103 Employees “engaged in commerce.” Employees are “engaged in commerce” within the meaning of the...

  5. 16 CFR 240.6 - Interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...(d) and 2(e) of the Act. (The commerce standard for sections 2 (d) and (e) is at least as inclusive... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interstate commerce. 240.6 Section 240.6... ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.6 Interstate commerce. The term...

  6. 16 CFR 240.6 - Interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...(d) and 2(e) of the Act. (The commerce standard for sections 2 (d) and (e) is at least as inclusive... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interstate commerce. 240.6 Section 240.6... ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.6 Interstate commerce. The term...

  7. 76 FR 66181 - The Commerce Control List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Part 774 The Commerce Control List CFR Correction In Title 15 of...: Supplement No. 1 to PART 774--THE COMMERCE CONTROL LIST * * * * * 1C118 Titanium-stabilized duplex...

  8. 16 CFR 240.6 - Interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...(d) and 2(e) of the Act. (The commerce standard for sections 2 (d) and (e) is at least as inclusive... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interstate commerce. 240.6 Section 240.6... ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.6 Interstate commerce. The term...

  9. E-Commerce Marketing State Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Tech Prep Curriculum Services.

    This profile provides the curricular framework for Ohio Tech Prep programs in e-commerce marketing beginning in high school and continuing through the end of the associate degree. It includes a comprehensive set of e-commerce marketing competencies that reflect job opportunities and skills required for e-commerce marketing professionals today and…

  10. 16 CFR 240.6 - Interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...(d) and 2(e) of the Act. (The commerce standard for sections 2 (d) and (e) is at least as inclusive... commerce has not been precisely defined in the statute. In general, if there is any part of a business... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate commerce. 240.6 Section...

  11. 16 CFR 240.6 - Interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...(d) and 2(e) of the Act. (The commerce standard for sections 2 (d) and (e) is at least as inclusive... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interstate commerce. 240.6 Section 240.6... ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.6 Interstate commerce. The term...

  12. Potential Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in the Neuse River Basin: a Modeling Investigation Using CMAQ and SWAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been extensive analysis of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) regulation impacts to changes in atmospheric nitrogen deposition; however, few studies have focused on watershed nitrogen transfer particularly regarding long-term predictions. In this study, we investigated impa...

  13. 33 CFR 165.1319 - Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with the general regulations in 33 CFR Part 165, Subpart C, no person or vessel may enter or... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY...

  14. The Development Model Electronic Commerce of Regional Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jun; Cai, Lecai; Li, Hongchan

    With the developing of the agricultural information, it is inevitable trend of the development of agricultural electronic commercial affairs. On the basis of existing study on the development application model of e-commerce, combined with the character of the agricultural information, compared with the developing model from the theory and reality, a new development model electronic commerce of regional agriculture base on the government is put up, and such key issues as problems of the security applications, payment mode, sharing mechanisms, and legal protection are analyzed, etc. The among coordination mechanism of the region is discussed on, it is significance for regulating the development of agricultural e-commerce and promoting the regional economical development.

  15. 15 CFR 30.17 - Customs and Border Protection regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs and Border Protection regulations. 30.17 Section 30.17 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Export Control and...

  16. Mercury emission trend influenced by stringent air pollutants regulation for coal-fired power plants in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudasainee, Deepak; Kim, Jeong-Hun; Seo, Yong-Chil

    2009-12-01

    Regulatory control of mercury emission from anthropogenic sources has become a global concern in the recent past. Coal-fired power plants are one of the largest sources of anthropogenic mercury emission into the atmosphere. This paper summarizes the current reducing trend of mercury emission as co-beneficial effect by more stringent regulation changes to control primary air pollutants with introducing test results from the commercial coal-fired facilities and suggesting a guideline for future regulatory development in Korea. On average, mercury emission concentrations ranged 16.3-2.7 μg Sm -3, 2.4-1.1 μg Sm -3, 3.1-0.7 μg Sm -3 from anthracite coal-fired power plants equipped with electrostatic precipitator (ESP), bituminous coal-fired power plants with ESP + flue gas desulphurization (FGD) and bituminous coal-fired power plants with selective catalytic reactor (SCR) + cold side (CS) - ESP + wet FGD, respectively. Among the existing air pollution control devices, the best configuration for mercury removal in coal-fired power plants was SCR + CS - ESP + wet FGD, which were installed due to the stringent regulation changes to control primary air pollutants emission such as SO 2, NOx and dust. It was estimated that uncontrolled and controlled mercury emission from coal-fired power plants as 10.3 ton yr -1 and 3.2 ton yr -1 respectively. After the installation of ESP, FGD and SCR system, following the enforcement of the stringent regulation, 7.1 ton yr -1 of mercury emission has been reduced (nearly 69%) from coal-fired power plants as a co-benefit control. Based on the overall study, a sample guideline including emission limits were suggested which will be applied to develop a countermeasure for controlling mercury emission from coal-fired power plants.

  17. 77 FR 72744 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... 30, 2012 (77 FR 52630), EPA proposed to incorporate various Santa Barbara County APCD air pollution... action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR... Executive Order 13132 (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999); Is not an economically significant regulatory...

  18. A Critical Review of the Effect of Air Pollution Control Regulations on Land Use Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, John J.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Although a number of recent federal initiatives explicitly require greater coordination of land use and air quality management, viable working relationships among the planning and regulatory agencies have not been developed. The concept of emission density zoning is endorsed. (Author/BT)

  19. 75 FR 55277 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations; Consistency Update for California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... To Emit Limitations (Adopted 03/16/01) XXXI Acid Rain Permit Program (Adopted 02/10/95... FR 67845), EPA proposed to incorporate various South Coast AQMD air pollution control requirements... action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58...

  20. 78 FR 59263 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... 333 Control of Emissions from Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (Adopted 06/19/08) Rule 342... 22, 2011 (76 FR 15898), EPA proposed to incorporate various Santa Barbara County APCD air pollution... action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58...

  1. 76 FR 37274 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... refer to the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, December 5, 1991 (56 FR 63774), and the preamble to the final rule promulgated September 4, 1992 (57 FR 40792) for further background and information on the OCS... February 10, 2011, (76 FR 7518), EPA proposed to approve requirements into the OCS Air...

  2. 78 FR 14917 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... October 9, 2012 (77 FR 61308), EPA proposed to incorporate various Ventura County APCD air pollution... action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR... Executive Order 13132 (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999); Is not an economically significant regulatory...

  3. 76 FR 67600 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Regulations for Control of Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... follows: 0 a. By revising the entry for Sec. 116.116; 0 b. By adding new entries for Sec. Sec. 116.174 and... of Air Pollution by Permits for New Construction or Modification AGENCY: Environmental Protection... October 5, 2010. These revisions amend existing sections and create new sections in Title 30 of the...

  4. Diesel Exhaust Activates & Primes Microglia: Air Pollution, Neuroinflammation, & Regulation of Dopaminergic Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution is linked to central nervous system (CNS) disease, but the mechanisms responsible are poorly understood. Rats exposed to Diesel Exhaust (DE, 2.0,0.5, and 0 mg/m3) by inhalation over 4 weeks demonstrated elevated levels of whole brain IL-6 protein, nitrated proteins,...

  5. 15 CFR 19.14 - How will Commerce entities report Commerce debts to credit bureaus?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... credit bureaus in accordance with the provisions of 31 U.S.C. 3711(e), 31 CFR 901.4, and the Office of... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How will Commerce entities report Commerce debts to credit bureaus? 19.14 Section 19.14 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary...

  6. 15 CFR 19.14 - How will Commerce entities report Commerce debts to credit bureaus?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... credit bureaus in accordance with the provisions of 31 U.S.C. 3711(e), 31 CFR 901.4, and the Office of... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How will Commerce entities report Commerce debts to credit bureaus? 19.14 Section 19.14 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary...

  7. 15 CFR 19.14 - How will Commerce entities report Commerce debts to credit bureaus?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... credit bureaus in accordance with the provisions of 31 U.S.C. 3711(e), 31 CFR 901.4, and the Office of... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will Commerce entities report Commerce debts to credit bureaus? 19.14 Section 19.14 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary...

  8. Market effects of environmental regulation: coal, railroads, and the 1990 Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Busse, M.R.; Keohane, N.O.

    2007-01-01

    Many environmental regulations encourage the use of 'clean' inputs. When the suppliers of such an input have market power, environmental regulation will affect not only the quantity of the input used but also its price. We investigate the effect of the Title IV emissions trading program for sulfur dioxide on the market for low-sulfur coal. We find that the two railroads transporting coal were able to price discriminate on the basis of environmental regulation and geographic location. Delivered prices rose for plants in the trading program relative to other plants, and by more at plants near a low-sulfur coal source.

  9. 15 CFR 781.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Additional Protocol Regulations (APR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CFR parts 781 to 786 that were promulgated by the Department of Commerce to implement and enforce the... Weapons (NPT). ITAR. The International Traffic in Arms Regulations (22 CFR Parts 120-130), which are... collection of environmental samples (e.g., air, water, vegetation, soil, smears) at, and in the...

  10. Cation regulation by the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) during dehydration in air.

    PubMed

    Koh, Huishan; Wright, Jonathan

    2011-06-01

    Many terrestrial arthropods display tight osmotic and ionic regulation of the hemolymph during dehydration. In this study, we sought to quantify the level of regulation of the major hemolymph cations in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea). Inulin space measurements showed that the hemolymph comprises 52 ± 2.2% of the hydrated water content but contributes 71 ± 9.8% of water losses during desiccation. Hemolymph concentrations of Na+, K+ and Ca²+ were measured in variably dehydrated animals using ion-selective microelectrodes and compared with predicted concentrations assuming no regulation. Na+ and Ca²+ are quite tightly regulated, showing respective concentration increases of 20.8% and 7.1% following a 50% reduction in hemolymph volume, but K+ showed no measurable regulation. The excreted cation fraction during desiccation is negligible. Sites of ion sequestration were examined by injecting ²²Na and ⁴⁵Ca into the hemolymph of hydrated animals and assaying tissue-specific activities following dehydration. Na+ is apparently sequestered non-specifically by an unknown mechanism. Ca²+ accumulates in the dorsal somatic tissues, possibly in the calcium pool of the cuticle. How A. vulgare avoids significant disruptions of E(m) and neuromuscular function in the absence of K+ regulation, and how it sequesters Na+, both pose intriguing challenges for future work. PMID:21335098

  11. Cation regulation by the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) during dehydration in air.

    PubMed

    Koh, Huishan; Wright, Jonathan

    2011-06-01

    Many terrestrial arthropods display tight osmotic and ionic regulation of the hemolymph during dehydration. In this study, we sought to quantify the level of regulation of the major hemolymph cations in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea). Inulin space measurements showed that the hemolymph comprises 52 ± 2.2% of the hydrated water content but contributes 71 ± 9.8% of water losses during desiccation. Hemolymph concentrations of Na+, K+ and Ca²+ were measured in variably dehydrated animals using ion-selective microelectrodes and compared with predicted concentrations assuming no regulation. Na+ and Ca²+ are quite tightly regulated, showing respective concentration increases of 20.8% and 7.1% following a 50% reduction in hemolymph volume, but K+ showed no measurable regulation. The excreted cation fraction during desiccation is negligible. Sites of ion sequestration were examined by injecting ²²Na and ⁴⁵Ca into the hemolymph of hydrated animals and assaying tissue-specific activities following dehydration. Na+ is apparently sequestered non-specifically by an unknown mechanism. Ca²+ accumulates in the dorsal somatic tissues, possibly in the calcium pool of the cuticle. How A. vulgare avoids significant disruptions of E(m) and neuromuscular function in the absence of K+ regulation, and how it sequesters Na+, both pose intriguing challenges for future work.

  12. Electronic Commerce "in the dark"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzzi, Maria Claudia; Buzzi, Marina; Leporini, Barbara; Senette, Caterina

    The widespread diffusion of electronic commerce offers a great opportunity for blind people. We describe the results of an electronic survey carried out with 22 blind and 22 sighted users in order to understand the difficulties and obstacles they experience shopping on-line, and solicit their expectations and suggestions for making the interaction simpler and more satisfying. Results show that blind users shop on-line much less than their sighted counterparts, since they encounter more difficulties not only when making a purchase, but even in the navigation phase preceding the commercial transaction. Complex layouts and unstructured content can prevent an e-transaction from being successfully completed. Furthermore, security, privacy and trustiness, common concerns for all consumers, also impact on the fear of buying via Internet for the visually impaired. Poor usability leads to a potential loss of revenue for on-line companies and a lost opportunity to increase a blind person's independence. Providing simpler, more understandable UIs would benefit all users and fuel the expansion of electronic commerce.

  13. The Clean Air Act strictly regulates electric utility emissions and utilities are reducing their emissions significantly

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsman, J.D.

    1998-12-31

    Electric utility SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions have been reduced tremendously, beginning before the first deadlines (1995 for SO{sub 2} and 1996 for NO{sub x}) of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. For the Acid Rain Program, EPA reports that: (1) all 445 affected facilities demonstrated 100 percent compliance for both pollutants and even exceeded the compliance targets; (2) the Acid Rain Program has been very successful; and (3) due to these and other controls, air quality has improved in the United States. Furthermore, the new 8-hour ozone standard, the new PM2.5 standards, the EPA`s 22-state regional NO{sub x} program, the Northeast state petitions for upwind NO{sub x} reductions and EPA`s regional haze proposal will likely lead to substantially greater reductions of utility SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}.

  14. Vibration and recoil control of pneumatic hammers. [by air flow pressure regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinescu, I. N.; Darabont, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    Vibration sources are described for pneumatic hammers used in the mining industry (pick hammers), in boiler shops (riveting hammers), etc., bringing to light the fact that the principal vibration source is the variation in air pressure inside the cylinder. The present state of the art of vibration control of pneumatic hammers as it is practiced abroad, and the solutions adopted for this purpose, are discussed. A new type of pneumatic hammer with a low noise and vibration level is presented.

  15. High relative air humidity and continuous light reduce stomata functionality by affecting the ABA regulation in rose leaves.

    PubMed

    Arve, Louise E; Terfa, Meseret T; Gislerød, Hans Ragnar; Olsen, Jorunn E; Torre, Sissel

    2013-02-01

    Plants developed under high (90%) relative air humidity (RH) have previously been shown to have large, malfunctioning stomata, which results in high water loss during desiccation and reduced dark induced closure. Stomatal movement is to a large extent regulated by abscisic acid (ABA). It has therefore been proposed that low ABA levels contribute to the development of malfunctioning stomata. In this study, we investigated the regulation of ABA content in rose leaves, through hormone analysis and β-glucosidase quantification. Compared with high RH, rose plants developed in moderate RH (60%) and 20 h photoperiod contained higher levels of ABA and β-glucosidase activity. Also, the amount of ABA increased during darkness simultaneously as the ABA-glucose ester (GE) levels decreased. In contrast, plants developed under high RH with 20 h photoperiod showed no increase in ABA levels during darkness, and had low β-glucosidase activity converting ABA-GE to ABA. Continuous lighting (24 h) resulted in low levels of β-glucosidase activity irrespective of RH, indicating that a dark period is essential to activate β-glucosidase. Our results provide new insight into the regulation of ABA under different humidities and photoperiods, and clearly show that β-glucosidase is a key enzyme regulating the ABA pool in rose plants. PMID:22812416

  16. Comparison of the regulated air pollutant emission characteristics of real-world driving cycle and ECE cycle for motorcycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Hung-Lung; Huang, Pei-Hsiu; Lai, Yen-Ming; Lee, Ting-Yi

    2014-04-01

    Motorcycles are an important means of transportation, and their numbers have increased significantly in recent years. However, motorcycles can emit significant amounts of air pollutants; therefore, the emission characteristics and driving patterns of motorcycles are necessary baseline information for the implementation of control measures for motorcycles in urban areas. The selected motorcycles were equipped with global positioning systems (GPS) to obtain speed-time data for determination of the characteristics of real-world driving parameters, and an on-board exhaust gas analyser with data logger was employed to determine the instantaneous concentration of regulated air pollutants from motorcycle exhaust. Results indicated that the time proportions of acceleration, cruising, and deceleration are different from those of the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) driving cycle, and the time percentages of acceleration and deceleration of the ECE cycle are much less than those in Taichung city. In general, the emission factors of the Taichung motorcycle driving cycle (TMDC) were higher HC and lower NOx emission than those of the ECE cycle. The average fuel consumption of tested motorcycles on three roads during workdays was 5% higher than that on weekends. The fuel consumption in the real-world motorcycle driving cycle was also about 7% higher than that of the ECE cycle, which again indicates that the ECE cycle is unsuitable for measuring fuel consumption in the Taichung metropolitan area. Therefore, understanding the local driving cycle is necessary for developing accurate emission data for air pollution control measures for urban areas.

  17. Technology diffusion and environmental regulation: Evidence from electric power plants under the Clean Air Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Elaine F.

    Even though environmental policy can greatly affect the path of technology diffusion, the economics literature contains limited empirical evidence of this relationship. My research will contribute to the available evidence by providing insight into the technology adoption decisions of electric generating firms. Since policies are often evaluated based on the incentives they provide to promote adoption of new technologies, it is important that policy makers understand the relationship between technological diffusion and regulation structure to make informed decisions. Lessons learned from this study can be used to guide future policies such as those directed to mitigate climate change. I first explore the diffusion of scrubbers, a sulfur dioxide (SO 2) abatement technology, in response to federal market-based regulations and state command-and-control regulations. I develop a simple theoretical model to describe the adoption decisions of scrubbers and use a survival model to empirically test the theoretical model. I find that power plants with strict command-and-control regulations have a high probability of installing a scrubber. These findings suggest that although market-based regulations have encouraged diffusion, many scrubbers have been installed because of state regulatory pressure. Although tradable permit systems are thought to give firms more flexibility in choosing abatement technologies, I show that interactions between a permit system and pre-existing command-and-control regulations can limit that flexibility. In a separate analysis, I explore the diffusion of combined cycle (CC) generating units, which are natural gas-fired generating units that are cleaner and more efficient than alternative generating units. I model the decision to consider adoption of a CC generating unit and the extent to which the technology is adopted in response to environmental regulations imposed on new sources of pollutants. To accomplish this, I use a zero-inflated Poisson

  18. 78 FR 2225 - Special Local Regulation; 2013 Lauderdale Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Fort Lauderdale, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We... regulations, we have determined these actions will not significantly affect the human environment....

  19. 75 FR 3387 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... reader may refer to the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, December 5, 1991 (56 FR 63774), and the preamble to the final rule promulgated September 4, 1992 (57 FR 40792) for further background and information on the OCS regulations. On March 3, 2009, (74 FR 1980), EPA proposed to approve requirements into...

  20. 75 FR 10415 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; NSR Reform Regulations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Regulations, Rule AM-06-04'' published December 17, 2008. The final rule approved certain revisions to... sought approval of rule AM-06-04 to implement the NSR Reform provisions that were not vacated by the... Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, Illinois 60604. This facility is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.,...

  1. 75 FR 3617 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Update To Include New Jersey State Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... degrees longitude. \\1\\ The reader may refer to the Proposed Rulemaking, December 5, 1991 (56 FR 63774), and the preamble to the final rule promulgated September 4, 1992 (57 FR 40792) for further background and information on the OCS regulations. On October 2, 2009 (74 FR 50939), EPA proposed to...

  2. POLICY AND SCIENCE: ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF REGULATIONS ON AIR QUALITY AND HUMAN HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will discuss the NOx SIP call and the results of several studies investigating the impact of the regulation on NOx emissions and ozone levels across the northeastern United States. Current research plans to investigate linkages with human health will also be di...

  3. 33 CFR 165.1319 - Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... west highrise of the Interstate 90 bridge; thence westerly along the south side of the bridge to the shoreline on the western terminus of the bridge; thence southerly along the shoreline to Andrews Bay at 47... accordance with the general regulations in 33 CFR Part 165, Subpart C, no person or vessel may enter...

  4. 33 CFR 165.1319 - Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... west highrise of the Interstate 90 bridge; thence westerly along the south side of the bridge to the shoreline on the western terminus of the bridge; thence southerly along the shoreline to Andrews Bay at 47... accordance with the general regulations in 33 CFR Part 165, Subpart C, no person or vessel may enter...

  5. 77 FR 52630 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... Rulemaking, December 5, 1991 (56 FR 63774), and the preamble to the final rule promulgated September 4, 1992 (57 FR 40792) for further background and information on the OCS regulations. Pursuant to section 55.12.../21/12 321 Solvent Cleaning 6/21/12 Machines and Solvent Cleaning. 330 Surface Coating of...

  6. 75 FR 3392 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ....regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA will not know your identity or... Information On September 4, 1992, EPA promulgated 40 CFR part 55,\\1\\ which established requirements to control... FR 63774), and the preamble to the final rule promulgated September 4, 1992 (57 FR 40792) for...

  7. 15 CFR 922.196 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.196 Section 922.196 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary and...

  8. 15 CFR 922.185 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.185 Section 922.185 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National...

  9. 15 CFR 922.165 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.165 Section 922.165 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary §...

  10. 15 CFR 922.165 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.165 Section 922.165 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary §...

  11. 15 CFR 922.165 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.165 Section 922.165 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary §...

  12. 15 CFR 922.196 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.196 Section 922.196 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary and...

  13. 15 CFR 922.165 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.165 Section 922.165 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary §...

  14. 15 CFR 922.185 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.185 Section 922.185 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National...

  15. 15 CFR 922.196 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.196 Section 922.196 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary and...

  16. 15 CFR 922.185 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.185 Section 922.185 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National...

  17. 15 CFR 922.196 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.196 Section 922.196 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary and...

  18. 15 CFR 922.185 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Emergency regulations. 922.185 Section 922.185 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National...

  19. Methane, oxygen, photosynthesis, rubisco and the regulation of the air through time.

    PubMed

    Nisbet, Euan G; Nisbet, R Ellen R

    2008-08-27

    Rubisco I's specificity, which today may be almost perfectly tuned to the task of cultivating the global garden, controlled the balance of carbon gases and O(2) in the Precambrian ocean and hence, by equilibration, in the air. Control of CO(2) and O(2) by rubisco I, coupled with CH(4) from methanogens, has for the past 2.9 Ga directed the global greenhouse warming, which maintains liquid oceans and sustains microbial ecology.Both rubisco compensation controls and the danger of greenhouse runaway (e.g. glaciation) put limits on biological productivity. Rubisco may sustain the air in either of two permissible stable states: either an anoxic system with greenhouse warming supported by both high methane mixing ratios as well as carbon dioxide, or an oxygen-rich system in which CO(2) largely fulfils the role of managing greenhouse gas, and in which methane is necessarily only a trace greenhouse gas, as is N(2)O. Transition from the anoxic to the oxic state risks glaciation. CO(2) build-up during a global snowball may be an essential precursor to a CO(2)-dominated greenhouse with high levels of atmospheric O(2). Photosynthetic and greenhouse-controlling competitions between marine algae, cyanobacteria, and terrestrial C3 and C4 plants may collectively set the CO(2) : O(2) ratio of the modern atmosphere (last few million years ago in a mainly glacial epoch), maximizing the productivity close to rubisco compensation and glacial limits.

  20. Methane, oxygen, photosynthesis, rubisco and the regulation of the air through time.

    PubMed

    Nisbet, Euan G; Nisbet, R Ellen R

    2008-08-27

    Rubisco I's specificity, which today may be almost perfectly tuned to the task of cultivating the global garden, controlled the balance of carbon gases and O(2) in the Precambrian ocean and hence, by equilibration, in the air. Control of CO(2) and O(2) by rubisco I, coupled with CH(4) from methanogens, has for the past 2.9 Ga directed the global greenhouse warming, which maintains liquid oceans and sustains microbial ecology.Both rubisco compensation controls and the danger of greenhouse runaway (e.g. glaciation) put limits on biological productivity. Rubisco may sustain the air in either of two permissible stable states: either an anoxic system with greenhouse warming supported by both high methane mixing ratios as well as carbon dioxide, or an oxygen-rich system in which CO(2) largely fulfils the role of managing greenhouse gas, and in which methane is necessarily only a trace greenhouse gas, as is N(2)O. Transition from the anoxic to the oxic state risks glaciation. CO(2) build-up during a global snowball may be an essential precursor to a CO(2)-dominated greenhouse with high levels of atmospheric O(2). Photosynthetic and greenhouse-controlling competitions between marine algae, cyanobacteria, and terrestrial C3 and C4 plants may collectively set the CO(2) : O(2) ratio of the modern atmosphere (last few million years ago in a mainly glacial epoch), maximizing the productivity close to rubisco compensation and glacial limits. PMID:18487133

  1. Assessing the Health Impacts of Air Pollution Regulations Using BenMAP, the Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbell, B.; McCubbin, D.; Hallberg, A.

    2003-12-01

    The U.S. EPA Office of Air and Radiation has developed BenMAP, the environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program, a new software tool for estimating the health and environmental impacts of environmental regulations. BenMAP is the US EPA's premier tool for estimating benefits associated with air pollution reduction strategies, and has recently been used in evaluating US EPA's Proposed Non-Road Diesel Vehicle Standards and the proposed Clear Skies Act legislation. BenMAP is a geographic information system (GIS) that uses modeled and monitored air quality data combined with population forecasts to develop estimates of changes in community level exposure to ambient environmental pollution (currently ambient air pollution, e.g. ozone and PM). These estimated changes in exposure to ambient pollution are used as inputs to concentration-response functions derived from the epidemiological literature, along with data on baseline incidence of health effects, i.e. county level age and cause specific mortality rates. The resulting point estimates of changes in incidence of health effects, along with their associated uncertainty distributions (currently based on reported standard errors in the literature), are then multiplied by economic unit values (represented by distributions), i.e. the cost of a hospital admission, to derive dollar estimates of health benefits. BenMAP is unique in that it uses highly detailed census and health data matched with spatially detailed environmental quality data to estimate health benefits. The program can also provide estimates of the uncertainty associated with the estimated benefits. Other features of the program include the ability to pool results from multiple studies of the same endpoint, using fixed or random effects weights, or user supplied weights. BenMAP also incorporates functions to manipulate and combine information on environmental quality from many different sources. For the current version focusing on air pollution, these

  2. Identification of novel monosodium urate crystal regulated mRNAs by transcript profiling of dissected murine air pouch membranes

    PubMed Central

    Pessler, Frank; Mayer, Christian T; Jung, Sung Mun; Behrens, Ed M; Dai, Lie; Menetski, Joseph P; Schumacher, H Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The murine air pouch is a bursa-like space that resembles the human synovial membrane. Injection of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals into the pouch elicits an acute inflammatory response similar to human gout. We conducted the present study to identify mRNAs that were highly regulated by MSU crystals in the pouch membrane. Methods Air pouch membranes were meticulously dissected away from the overlying skin. Gene expression differences between MSU crystal stimulated and control membranes were determined by oligonucleotide microarray analysis 9 hours after injection of MSU crystals or buffer only. Differential regulation of selected targets was validated by relative quantitative PCR in time course experiments with dissected air pouch membranes and murine peritoneal macrophages. Results Eleven of the 12 most highly upregulated mRNAs were related to innate immunity and inflammation. They included mRNAs encoding histidine decarboxylase (the enzyme that synthesizes histamine), IL-6, the cell surface receptors PUMA-g and TREM-1, and the polypeptides Irg1 and PROK-2. IL-6 mRNA rose 108-fold 1 hour after crystal injection, coinciding with a surge in mRNAs encoding IL-1β, tumour necrosis factor-α and the immediate early transcription factor Egr-1. The other mRNAs rose up to 200-fold within the subsequent 3 to 8 hours. MSU crystals induced these mRNAs in a dose-dependent manner in cultured macrophages, with similar kinetics but lower fold changes. Among the downregulated mRNAs, quantitative PCR confirmed significant decreases in mRNAs encoding TREM-2 (an inhibitor of macrophage activation) and granzyme D (a constituent of natural killer and cytotoxic T cells) within 50 hours after crystal injection. Conclusion This analysis identified several genes that were previously not implicated in MSU crystal inflammation. The marked rise of the upregulated mRNAs after the early surge in cytokine and Egr-1 mRNAs suggests that they may be part of a 'second wave' of factors

  3. 7 CFR 1220.103 - Commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.103 Commerce. The...

  4. 7 CFR 1220.103 - Commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.103 Commerce. The...

  5. 7 CFR 1220.103 - Commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.103 Commerce. The...

  6. 7 CFR 1220.103 - Commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.103 Commerce. The...

  7. 7 CFR 1220.103 - Commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.103 Commerce. The...

  8. Detection of an autoreactive T-cell population within the polyclonal repertoire that undergoes distinct autoimmune regulator (Aire)-mediated selection.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Ruth T; DeVoss, Jason J; Moon, James J; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; Jenkins, Marc K; Anderson, Mark S

    2012-05-15

    The autoimmune regulator (Aire) plays a critical role in central tolerance by promoting the display of tissue-specific antigens in the thymus. To study the influence of Aire on thymic selection in a physiological setting, we used tetramer reagents to detect autoreactive T cells specific for the Aire-dependent tissue-specific antigen interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP), in the polyclonal repertoire. Two class II tetramer reagents were designed to identify T cells specific for two different peptide epitopes of IRBP. Analyses of the polyclonal T-cell repertoire showed a high frequency of activated T cells specific for both IRBP tetramers in Aire(-/-) mice, but not in Aire(+/+) mice. Surprisingly, although one tetramer-binding T-cell population was efficiently deleted in the thymus in an Aire-dependent manner, the second tetramer-binding population was not deleted and could be detected in both the Aire(-/-) and Aire(+/+) T-cell repertoires. We found that Aire-dependent thymic deletion of IRBP-specific T cells relies on intercellular transfer of IRBP between thymic stroma and bone marrow-derived antigen-presenting cells. Furthermore, our data suggest that Aire-mediated deletion relies not only on thymic expression of IRBP, but also on proper antigen processing and presentation of IRBP by thymic antigen-presenting cells.

  9. DOE regulation of mixed waste. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy Conservation and Power and the Subcommittee on Commerce, Transportation, and Tourism of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session on H. R. 2009 and H. R. 2593, April 10, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Testimony by representatives of the Environmental Protection Agency, citizen environmental organizations, DOE, and universities on the Mixed Hazardous Waste Amendment Act of 1985 (H.R. 2009) and the Military Radioactive Emissions Control Act of 1985 (H.R. 2593) focused on safety aspects of mixed wastes at DOE facilities from the point of view of the general public and the implications for tourism and recreation in affected areas. H.R. 2593 calls for standards and continuous independent monitoring, while H.R. 2009 ensures that wastes the Solid Waste Management Act covers solid wastes containing radioactive material. The testimony covered definitions and interpretations by byproduct material and the problems associated with self-regulation. The testimony of the 10 witnesses follows the text of the two bills.

  10. 15 CFR 922.102 - Prohibited or otherwise regulated activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prohibited or otherwise regulated activities. 922.102 Section 922.102 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL...

  11. 15 CFR 922.193 - Prohibited or otherwise regulated activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prohibited or otherwise regulated activities. 922.193 Section 922.193 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL...

  12. Regulating emission of air pollutants for near-term relief from global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, V.; Xu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The manmade greenhouse gases that are now blanketing the planet is thick enough to warm the system beyond the 20C threshold. Even with a targeted reduction in CO2 emission of 50% by 2050, we will still be adding more than 50 ppm of CO2 and add another 10C to the warming. Fortunately, there are still ways to contain the warming by reducing non-CO2 climate warmers (methane, lower atmosphere ozone, black carbon and HFCs), using available and field tested technologies. The major advantage of going for these 'low-hanging fruits' is that this approach will clean up the air and improve health and food security of south and east Asia, thus engaging developing nations more effectively in climate negotiations. These non-CO2 mitigation actions will have significant (beneficial) impacts on the chemistry, clouds and precipitation of the atmosphere and these have to be quantified adequately. For example, reducing black and organic carbon emissions (through cleaner cooking technologies in developing countries) will also lead to significant reductions in carbon monoxide, which is an ozone precursor. The institutional infrastructure for reducing non-CO2 climate warmers already exist and have a proven track record for successful climate mitigation.

  13. 77 FR 12796 - Commerce Business Apps Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Office of the Secretary Commerce Business Apps Challenge AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OS), Department... help U.S. businesses grow and create jobs. Recently, the White House launched the BusinessUSA Initiative ( www.Business.USA.gov ) to help further these goals. This notice announces the Commerce...

  14. 76 FR 81793 - The Commerce Control List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Part 774 The Commerce Control List CFR Correction In Title 15 of... paragraphs from the end of the entry: 0 79. In Supplement No. 1 to Part 774 (the Commerce Control List...'' for repair, rebuild and overhaul. Excluded from 9E001 to 9E003 control are: technical data,...

  15. 77 FR 48429 - The Commerce Control List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Part 774 The Commerce Control List CFR Correction In the Federal Register published on July 26, 2012, on page 43711, in the third column, in instruction 3.C., ``5A003''...

  16. 77 FR 43711 - The Commerce Control List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Part 774 The Commerce Control List CFR Correction In Title 15 of.... 742.15 of the EAR''. H. On page 807, in part II, in 5E002, after ``Related Controls'' and...

  17. 77 FR 46948 - The Commerce Control List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Part 774 The Commerce Control List CFR Correction In Title 15 of... 7A008, add ``License Requirements'' above ``Reason for Control''. 0 D. On page 843, in 7B101, in the...: Supplement No. 1 to Part 774--The Commerce Control List * * * * * Category 7 * * * * * 7A002 Gyros or...

  18. 76 FR 79054 - The Commerce Control List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Part 774 The Commerce Control List CFR Correction 0 In Title 15 of... for control for NS Column 1 and adding an entry following the remaining NS Column 1 entry that...

  19. Predicting Internet/E-Commerce Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Randall S.; Johnson, Richard A.; Hignite, Michael A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study that analyzed variables in order to identify accurate predictors of individuals' use of the Internet and e-commerce. Results of survey research and a neural network identifies gender, overall computer use, job-related use, and home access as important characteristics that should influence use of the Internet and e-commerce.…

  20. Universities Improve Services with E-Commerce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Gina Adams

    2001-01-01

    This follow-up to a December 2000 article provides more details on Stanford University's venture into the "sell-side" of e-commerce, then describes another "sell-side" success story at the University of Wisconsin. Madison. Discusses experiences on the "buy-side" of e-commerce at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, one of the first…

  1. The Evolution of Electronic Commerce Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkey, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Business schools began introducing electronic commerce programs in the late 1990s at unprecedented rates. In this study, the author examined the evolution in electronic commerce programs offered by AACSB-accredited colleges and universities from 2001 to 2005. Although these programs are declining in number, they provide the necessary skills and…

  2. The Importance of Trust in Electronic Commerce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnasingham, Pauline

    1998-01-01

    Introduces the new concept of trust and how it influences the process of managing the security of an organization operating in an electronic commerce environment. Theoretically, the study aims to develop a framework of trust and security to provide a set of guidelines for secure electronic commerce. (Author/LRW)

  3. Trust and Relationship Building in Electronic Commerce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulou, Panagiota; Andreou, Andreas; Kanellis, Panagiotis; Martakos, Drakoulis

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the need for trust in electronic commerce to build customer relationships focuses on a model drawn from established theoretical work on trust and relationship marketing that highlights differences between traditional and electronic commerce. Considers how trust can be built into virtual environments. (Contains 50 references.)…

  4. Regulating low-NOx and high-burnout deep-air-staging combustion under real-furnace conditions in a 600 MWe down-fired supercritical boiler by strengthening the staged-air effect.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Min; Wang, Zhihua; Zhu, Yanqun; Ling, Zhongqian; Li, Zhengqi

    2014-10-21

    A 600 MW(e) down-fired pulverized-coal supercritical boiler, which was equipped with a deep-air-staging combustion system for reducing the particularly high NOx emissions, suffered from the well-accepted contradiction between low NOx emissions and high carbon in fly ash, in addition to excessively high gas temperatures in the hopper that jeopardized the boiler's safe operations. Previous results uncovered that under low-NOx conditions, strengthening the staged-air effect by decreasing the staged-air angle and simultaneously increasing the staged-air damper opening alleviated the aforementioned problems to some extent. To establish low-NOx and high-burnout circumstances and control the aforementioned hopper temperatures, a further staged-air retrofit with horizontally redirecting staged air through an enlarged staged-air slot area was performed to greatly strengthen the staged-air effect. Full-load industrial-size measurements were performed to confirm the availability of this retrofit. The present data were compared with those published results before the retrofit. High NOx emissions, low carbon in fly ah, and high hopper temperatures (i.e., levels of 1036 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, 3.72%, and about 1300 °C, respectively) appeared under the original conditions with the staged-air angle of 45° and without overfire air (OFA) application. Applying OFA and reducing the angle to 20° achieved an apparent NOx reduction and a moderate hopper temperature decrease while a sharp increase in carbon in fly ash (i.e., levels of 878 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, about 1200 °C, and 9.81%, respectively). Fortunately, the present staged-air retrofit was confirmed to be applicable in regulating low-NOx, high-burnout, and low hopper temperature circumstances (i.e., levels of 867 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, 5.40%, and about 1100 °C, respectively).

  5. Nuclear power meets the 101st Congress, a {open_quotes}one-act{close_quotes} comedy: Regulation of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees under the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, R.

    1992-12-31

    In the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977, Congress directed the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate all radioactive pollutants, including those emitted from facilities licensed and regulated under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Thus began the era of so-called {open_quotes}dual regulation.{close_quotes} Thirteen years later, that era ended with the passage of section 112(d)(9) of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which authorized the EPA to refrain from regulating any category of NRC-licensed facility if it found that NRC regulation was adequate to protect public health. This story of how Congress reversed regulatory policy is actually a story more about nuclear power than air pollution. Dual regulation was authorized in 1977 because of two concerns: fears about the public health risks associated with the nation`s growing commitment to nuclear power and doubts about the integrity of nuclear regulation by the NRC. Although neither of these concerns had abated by 1990, the legislative process was so adroitly manipulated by the proponents of nuclear power that Congress, unwittingly, restored the NRC`s regulatory monopoly.

  6. The relationship between paediatricians and commerce.

    PubMed

    Hilliard, Tom; Chambers, Timothy

    2006-03-01

    The interaction between doctors and commerce, particularly the pharmaceutical industry, has recently been subject to increasing scrutiny. Doctors are now exposed to mounting influence from industry as it spends large amounts of money on marketing, is heavily involved with continuing medical education and sponsors a major proportion of research. Conflicts of interest may exist on both sides of the relationship: doctors can be manipulated and companies need to be profitable. Paediatricians are just as open to this influence as are other members of the medical profession. There is evidence that clinical practice is altered by interaction with industry, although doctors appear to deny the likelihood of being influenced. There are significant concerns over the increasing involvement of the pharmaceutical industry with research, although the regulation of the industry continues to be strengthened and the process of research is becoming more transparent. Disclosure of conflicts of interest involving authorship is now common practice and should extend to all facets of the relationship. However, collaboration continues to be necessary in order to develop new therapies, maximise research and particularly in paediatrics, to test medications in children. Paediatricians need to be aware of the sources of influence and understand current guidelines so that interactions with industry continue to be appropriate.

  7. 50 CFR 402.04 - Counterpart regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED General § 402.04 Counterpart regulations....

  8. 50 CFR 402.04 - Counterpart regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED General § 402.04 Counterpart regulations....

  9. 50 CFR 402.04 - Counterpart regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED General § 402.04 Counterpart regulations....

  10. 50 CFR 402.04 - Counterpart regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED General § 402.04 Counterpart regulations....

  11. 50 CFR 402.04 - Counterpart regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED General § 402.04 Counterpart regulations....

  12. Regulation of CO2 Air Sea Fluxes by Sediments in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, William; Thomas, Helmuth; Hagens, Mathilde; Brenner, Heiko; Pätsch, Johannes; Clargo, Nicola; Salt, Lesley

    2016-04-01

    A multi-tracer approach is applied to assess the impact of boundary fluxes (e.g. benthic input from sediments or lateral inputs from the coastline) on the acid-base buffering capacity, and overall biogeochemistry, of the North Sea. Analyses of both basin-wide observations in the North Sea and transects through tidal basins at the North-Frisian coastline, reveal that surface distributions of the δ13C signature of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) are predominantly controlled by a balance between biological production and respiration. In particular, variability in metabolic DIC throughout stations in the well-mixed southern North Sea indicates the presence of an external carbon source, which is traced to the European continental coastline using naturally-occurring radium isotopes (224Ra and 228Ra). 228Ra is also shown to be a highly effective tracer of North Sea total alkalinity (AT) compared to the more conventional use of salinity. Coastal inputs of metabolic DIC and AT are calculated on a basin-wide scale, and ratios of these inputs suggest denitrification as a primary metabolic pathway for their formation. The AT input paralleling the metabolic DIC release prevents a significant decline in pH as compared to aerobic (i.e. unbuffered) release of metabolic DIC. Finally, long-term pH trends mimic those of riverine nitrate loading, highlighting the importance of coastal AT production via denitrification in regulating pH in the southern North Sea.

  13. Efficient air pollution regulation of coal-fired power in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Therese

    This dissertation evaluates monetary external costs of electricity generation in the People's Republic of China and implications for efficient pollution control policy. It presents an integrated assessment of environmental damages of air emissions of a representative new coal-fired plant in urban areas of north and south China. The simulation evaluates the nature and magnitude of damages in China, transboundary effects in Japan and Korea, and global greenhouse gas warming impacts. The valuation is used to identify efficient abatement policy for Chinese plants over time; evaluate benefits of differentiated policies; and consider the importance of dynamic policy. Potential annual damages of operating a 600-MW power plant without controls in China today would be 43-45 million (U.S. 1995). Annual local damages of 37-40 million far exceed transboundary or greenhouse gas damages (1.4 million and $4.6 million respectively). The largest component of damages is the risk of human mortality and chronic morbidity from long-term exposure to fine particles. Efficient pollution control minimizes the sum of abatement costs and residual unabated damages. Because monetary damages reflect sufferers' willingness to pay to avoid environmental risks, the choice of efficient controls is fundamentally tied to societal values and preferences. The optimal path for Chinese abatement moves from modest dispersion measures at present to combined dispersion and emission controls approaching those of current-day United States, by 2050. The inclusion of transboundary and greenhouse damages does not substantively alter local policies. Welfare benefits are gained by differentiating abatement policy by pollutant, meteorological parameters, and by population density. An analysis of optimal one-time investment in abatement for a plant in a growing economy suggests that some investment is optimal at all incomes but no single level of abatement is suitable for all economies. Forward-looking policy

  14. 15 CFR 30.17 - Customs and Border Protection regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Requirements § 30.17 Customs and Border Protection regulations. Refer to the DHS's CBP regulations, 19 CFR 192... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Customs and Border Protection regulations. 30.17 Section 30.17 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign...

  15. 15 CFR 30.17 - Customs and Border Protection regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Requirements § 30.17 Customs and Border Protection regulations. Refer to the DHS's CBP regulations, 19 CFR 192... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Customs and Border Protection regulations. 30.17 Section 30.17 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign...

  16. 15 CFR 30.17 - Customs and Border Protection regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Requirements § 30.17 Customs and Border Protection regulations. Refer to the DHS's CBP regulations, 19 CFR 192... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Customs and Border Protection regulations. 30.17 Section 30.17 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign...

  17. Biotechnology regulation. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session, December 11, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Eight witnesses from the Department of Agriculture, Environmental Protection Agency, National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, and the Executive Office testified at a hearing examining the costs and benefits of biotechnology advances as background for developing a sound regulatory scheme that will realize the potential of the technology while protecting public health and the environment. The hearing focused on the adequacy of existing laws and the level of scientific knowledge used as a basis for regulation. The purpose was to coordinate the regulatory environment to make it consistent while keeping the biotechnology industry competitive. Additional material submitted for the record by the witnesses and others follows the testimony.

  18. RING Type E3 Ligase CaAIR1 in Pepper Acts in the Regulation of ABA Signaling and Drought Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Park, Chanmi; Lim, Chae Woo; Baek, Woonhee; Lee, Sung Chul

    2015-09-01

    Several E3 ubiquitin ligases have been associated with the response to abiotic and biotic stresses in higher plants. Here, we report that the hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) ABA-Insensitive RING protein 1 gene (CaAIR1) is essential for a hypersensitive response to drought stress. CaAIR1 contains a C3HC4-type RING finger motif, which plays a role for attachment of ubiquitins to the target protein, and a putative transmembrane domain. The expression levels of CaAIR1 are up-regulated in pepper leaves by ABA treatments, drought and NaCl, suggesting its role in the response to abiotic stress. Our analysis showed that CaAIR1 displays self-ubiquitination and is localized in the nucleus. We generated CaAIR1-silenced peppers via virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and CaAIR1-overexpressing (OX) transgenic Arabidopsis plants to evaluate their responses to ABA and drought. VIGS of CaAIR1 in pepper plants conferred an enhanced tolerance to drought stress, which was accompanied by low levels of transpirational water loss in the drought-treated leaves. CaAIR1-OX plants displayed an impaired sensitivity to ABA during seed germination, seedling and adult stages. Moreover, these plants showed enhanced sensitivity to drought stress because of reduced stomatal closure and decreased expression of stress-responsive genes. Thus, our data indicate that CaAIR1 is a negative regulator of the ABA-mediated drought stress tolerance mechanism.

  19. 15 CFR 990.24 - Compliance with other applicable laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance with other applicable laws and regulations. 990.24 Section 990.24 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL...

  20. An Afg2/Spaf-related Cdc48-like AAA ATPase regulates the stability and activity of the C. elegans Aurora B kinase AIR-2

    PubMed Central

    Heallen, Todd R.; Adams, Henry P.; Furuta, Tokiko; Verbrugghe, Koen J.; Schumacher, Jill M.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY The Aurora B kinase is the enzymatic core of the chromosomal passenger complex, which is a critical regulator of mitosis. To identify novel regulators of Aurora B, we performed a genome-wide screen for suppressors of a temperature-sensitive lethal allele of the C. elegans Aurora B kinase AIR-2. This screen uncovered a member of the Afg2/Spaf subfamily of Cdc48-like AAA ATPases as an essential inhibitor of AIR-2 stability and activity. Depletion of CDC-48.3 restores viability to air-2 mutant embryos and leads to abnormally high AIR-2 levels at the late telophase/G1 transition. Furthermore, CDC-48.3 binds directly to AIR-2 and inhibits its kinase activity from metaphase through telophase. While canonical p97/Cdc48 proteins have been assigned contradictory roles in the regulation of Aurora B, our results are the first to identify a member of the Afg2/Spaf AAA ATPases as a critical in vivo inhibitor of this kinase during embryonic development. PMID:18854144

  1. 41 CFR 102-118.80 - Who is responsible for keeping my agency's electronic commerce transportation billing records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... keeping my agency's electronic commerce transportation billing records? 102-118.80 Section 102-118.80... Transportation and Transportation Services § 102-118.80 Who is responsible for keeping my agency's electronic commerce transportation billing records? Your agency's internal financial regulations will...

  2. Event-related potentials elicited by social commerce and electronic-commerce reviews.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yan; Yao, Zhong; Cong, Fengyu; Zhang, Linlin

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing interest regarding the use of electroencephalography (EEG) in social commerce and electronic commerce (e-commerce) research. There are several reviews in the field of social commerce or e-commerce; these have great potential value and mining them is fundamental and significant. To our knowledge, EEG is rarely applied to study these. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of social commerce reviews (SCRs) and e-commerce reviews (ECRs) by using them as stimuli to evoke event-related potentials. All SCRs were from friends through a social media platform, whereas ECRs were from strangers through an e-commerce platform. The experimental design was similar to that of a priming paradigm, and included 40 pairs of stimuli consisting of product information (prime stimulus) and reviews (target stimulus). The results showed that the P300 component was successfully evoked by SCR and ECR stimuli. Moreover, the P300 components elicited by SCRs had higher amplitudes than those elicited by ECRs. These findings indicate that participants paid more attention to SCRs than to ECRs. In addition, the associations between neural responses and reviews in social commerce have the potential to assist companies in studying consumer behaviors, thus permitting them to enhance their social commerce strategies.

  3. Event-related potentials elicited by social commerce and electronic-commerce reviews.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yan; Yao, Zhong; Cong, Fengyu; Zhang, Linlin

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing interest regarding the use of electroencephalography (EEG) in social commerce and electronic commerce (e-commerce) research. There are several reviews in the field of social commerce or e-commerce; these have great potential value and mining them is fundamental and significant. To our knowledge, EEG is rarely applied to study these. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of social commerce reviews (SCRs) and e-commerce reviews (ECRs) by using them as stimuli to evoke event-related potentials. All SCRs were from friends through a social media platform, whereas ECRs were from strangers through an e-commerce platform. The experimental design was similar to that of a priming paradigm, and included 40 pairs of stimuli consisting of product information (prime stimulus) and reviews (target stimulus). The results showed that the P300 component was successfully evoked by SCR and ECR stimuli. Moreover, the P300 components elicited by SCRs had higher amplitudes than those elicited by ECRs. These findings indicate that participants paid more attention to SCRs than to ECRs. In addition, the associations between neural responses and reviews in social commerce have the potential to assist companies in studying consumer behaviors, thus permitting them to enhance their social commerce strategies. PMID:26557933

  4. 15 CFR 19.5 - How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce... administrative costs on Commerce debts in accordance with the provisions of 31 U.S.C. 3717 and 31 CFR 901.9.... Commerce entities may have additional policies regarding how interest, penalties, and administrative...

  5. 15 CFR 19.8 - When will Commerce entities suspend or terminate debt collection on a Commerce debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR part 903 and the Commerce entity's policies and procedures. Legal counsel approval to suspend or terminate collection on a Commerce debt is required as described in Department of Commerce Credit and Debt... terminate debt collection on a Commerce debt? 19.8 Section 19.8 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of...

  6. A Flexible Electronic Commerce Recommendation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Songjie

    Recommendation systems have become very popular in E-commerce websites. Many of the largest commerce websites are already using recommender technologies to help their customers find products to purchase. An electronic commerce recommendation system learns from a customer and recommends products that the customer will find most valuable from among the available products. But most recommendation methods are hard-wired into the system and they support only fixed recommendations. This paper presented a framework of flexible electronic commerce recommendation system. The framework is composed by user model interface, recommendation engine, recommendation strategy model, recommendation technology group, user interest model and database interface. In the recommender strategy model, the method can be collaborative filtering, content-based filtering, mining associate rules method, knowledge-based filtering method or the mixed method. The system mapped the implementation and demand through strategy model, and the whole system would be design as standard parts to adapt to the change of the recommendation strategy.

  7. Modeling the customer in electronic commerce.

    PubMed

    Helander, M G; Khalid, H M

    2000-12-01

    This paper reviews interface design of web pages for e-commerce. Different tasks in e-commerce are contrasted. A systems model is used to illustrate the information flow between three subsystems in e-commerce: store environment, customer, and web technology. A customer makes several decisions: to enter the store, to navigate, to purchase, to pay, and to keep the merchandize. This artificial environment must be designed so that it can support customer decision-making. To retain customers it must be pleasing and fun, and create a task with natural flow. Customers have different needs, competence and motivation, which affect decision-making. It may therefore be important to customize the design of the e-store environment. Future ergonomics research will have to investigate perceptual aspects, such as presentation of merchandize, and cognitive issues, such as product search and navigation, as well as decision making while considering various economic parameters. Five theories on e-commerce research are presented.

  8. View looking from the top of the Commerce Department building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking from the top of the Commerce Department building to the Interstate Commerce Commission (right) and Ariel Rios Federal Building (left) - Interstate Commerce Commission, Constitution Avenue between Twelfth and Fourteenth streets, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. 76 FR 23796 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  10. 78 FR 57370 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  11. 75 FR 64699 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  12. 75 FR 21602 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management matters. DATES: The meeting will be...

  13. 76 FR 38638 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  14. 77 FR 25145 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  15. 75 FR 38779 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  16. 75 FR 75968 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  17. Factors Regulating the Seasonal Cycle of Inter-continental Air Pollution Transport between Asia, the United States and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauzerall, D. L.; Horowitz, L.; Kim, N.

    2002-12-01

    This talk will demonstrate the interdependency of air quality in the northern hemisphere on the emissions and subsequent transport of pollutants from each of the major industrialized continental regions. We examine the contribution that emissions from continental regions in the northern hemisphere make to the composition of the remote troposphere. We also examine the processes that control the concentration of reactive pollutants in continental boundary layers over the United States, Europe and East Asia and export from these boundary layers to the global troposphere. We use the MOZART-2 (Model of Ozone and Related Tracers, version 2) global chemical tracer model with tagged CO from fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions from each region. In conjunction with CO measurements from the Climate Monitoring and Diagnostic Lab (CMDL), we examine the influence that each regions' emissions have on remote surface locations in the northern hemisphere. We find that the remote troposphere of the northern hemisphere contains a mélange of CO emitted from different continental regions the contributions of which vary seasonally as a function of emissions, meteorology and atmospheric lifetime. To examine factors regulating the concentration distributions of O3, CO, NOx, PAN and HNO3 over the United States, Europe and Asia and their export to the global troposphere, we quantify and compare the seasonal contributions of chemistry, advection, convection and deposition to boundary layer concentrations of each chemical species and examine the horizontal and vertical fluxes of each species out of each regions boundary layer to the global troposphere.

  18. DNA-PKcs interacts with Aire and regulates the expression of toll-like receptors in RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, J; Zhu, W; Fu, H; Zhang, Y; Sun, J; Yang, W; Li, Y

    2012-05-01

    The autoimmune regulator (Aire) is a key mediator of the central tolerance for peripheral tissue self-antigen (PTAs) and is involved in the transcriptional control of many antigens in thymic medullary epithelial cells (mTECs). However, the function of Aire in peripheral lymphoid tissues and haematopoietic cells, particularly in monocytes and macrophages, remains poorly understood. We previously found that the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 1, TLR3 and TLR8 was notably upregulated in pEGFPC1/Aire stably transfected RAW264.7 (GFP-Aire/RAW) cells, while the expressions of other TLRs were not significantly changed. The mechanism by which Aire affects TLR1, TLR3 and TLR8 expression is not clear. Interactions with other proteins, such as DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), are crucial for regulating the transcriptional activity of Aire. In this study, we found that Aire and DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) were co-located in the nucleus of GFP-Aire/RAW cells, and they interact with each other. Small interfering RNA knock-down of DNA-PKcs in these cells decreased the expression of TLR1, TLR3 and TLR8, but no change was observed in pEGFPC1 stably transfected RAW264.7 (GFP/RAW) cells. We did not observe any change in the expressions of other TLRs after DNA-PKcs knock-down in GFP-Aire/RAW or GFP/RAW cells. A similar observation has been made in pEGFPC1/Aire or pEGFPC1 transiently transfected primary peritoneal macrophages. Using a luciferase activity assay, we found the that the transcriptional activity of TLR1, TLR3 and TLR8 promoters was also decreased after knock-down of DNA-PKcs in GFP-Aire/RAW cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that DNA-PKcs may interact with Aire to promote the expression of TLRs in RAW264.7 cells.

  19. Interior view, office of the Secretary of Commerce United ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, office of the Secretary of Commerce - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. The electronic-commerce-oriented virtual merchandise model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xiaocui; Lu, Dongming

    2004-03-01

    Electronic commerce has been the trend of commerce activities. Providing with Virtual Reality interface, electronic commerce has better expressing capacity and interaction means. But most of the applications of virtual reality technology in EC, 3D model is only the appearance description of merchandises. There is almost no information concerned with commerce information and interaction information. This resulted in disjunction of virtual model and commerce information. So we present Electronic Commerce oriented Virtual Merchandise Model (ECVMM), which combined a model with commerce information, interaction information and figure information of virtual merchandise. ECVMM with abundant information provides better support to information obtainment and communication in electronic commerce.

  1. Com Ed's fuel buying probed by Illinois Commerce Commission

    SciTech Connect

    Galvin, C.

    1982-06-07

    The Illinois Commerce Commission (ICC) challenged Commonwealth Edison Company's oversupply of coal, which could damage the utility's credit rating and raise rates, after an earlier move to prevent the utility from collecting fuel-adjustment charges. Com Ed also purchased an oversupply of high-priced oil. A loss of credit will worsen Com Ed's financial problems and its nuclear-construction program. Regulators object to poor utility procurement practices following an accepted rate increase. Com Ed testified that the surplus inventory is due to poor planning, but the company is taking corrective steps to adjust its coal contracts despite a glut of coal and a sluggish economy. (DCK)

  2. Regulating low-NOx and high-burnout deep-air-staging combustion under real-furnace conditions in a 600 MWe down-fired supercritical boiler by strengthening the staged-air effect.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Min; Wang, Zhihua; Zhu, Yanqun; Ling, Zhongqian; Li, Zhengqi

    2014-10-21

    A 600 MW(e) down-fired pulverized-coal supercritical boiler, which was equipped with a deep-air-staging combustion system for reducing the particularly high NOx emissions, suffered from the well-accepted contradiction between low NOx emissions and high carbon in fly ash, in addition to excessively high gas temperatures in the hopper that jeopardized the boiler's safe operations. Previous results uncovered that under low-NOx conditions, strengthening the staged-air effect by decreasing the staged-air angle and simultaneously increasing the staged-air damper opening alleviated the aforementioned problems to some extent. To establish low-NOx and high-burnout circumstances and control the aforementioned hopper temperatures, a further staged-air retrofit with horizontally redirecting staged air through an enlarged staged-air slot area was performed to greatly strengthen the staged-air effect. Full-load industrial-size measurements were performed to confirm the availability of this retrofit. The present data were compared with those published results before the retrofit. High NOx emissions, low carbon in fly ah, and high hopper temperatures (i.e., levels of 1036 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, 3.72%, and about 1300 °C, respectively) appeared under the original conditions with the staged-air angle of 45° and without overfire air (OFA) application. Applying OFA and reducing the angle to 20° achieved an apparent NOx reduction and a moderate hopper temperature decrease while a sharp increase in carbon in fly ash (i.e., levels of 878 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, about 1200 °C, and 9.81%, respectively). Fortunately, the present staged-air retrofit was confirmed to be applicable in regulating low-NOx, high-burnout, and low hopper temperature circumstances (i.e., levels of 867 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, 5.40%, and about 1100 °C, respectively). PMID:25256210

  3. Congress, courts, and commerce: upholding the individual mandate to protect the public's health.

    PubMed

    Hodge, James G; Brown, Erin C Fuse; Orenstein, Daniel G; O'Keefe, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Among multiple legal challenges to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) is the premise that PPACA's "individual mandate" (requiring all individuals to obtain health insurance by 2014 or face civil penalties) is inviolate of Congress' interstate commerce powers because Congress lacks the power to regulate commercial "inactivity." Several courts initially considering this argument have rejected it, but federal district courts in Virginia and Florida have concurred, leading to numerous appeals and prospective review of the United States Supreme Court. Despite creative arguments, the dispositive constitutional question is not whether Congress' interstate commerce power extends to commercial inactivity. Rather, it is whether Congress may regulate individual decisions with significant economic ramifications in the interests of protecting and promoting the public's health. This article offers a counter-interpretation of the scope of Congress' interstate commerce power to regulate in furtherance of the public's health.

  4. AMBIENT AIR MONITORING STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act requires EPA to establish national ambient air quality standards and to regulate as necessary, hazardous air pollutants. EPA uses ambient air monitoring to determine current air quality conditions, and to assess progress toward meeting these standards and relat...

  5. Closed loop engine control for regulating NOx emissions, using a two-dimensional fuel-air curve

    DOEpatents

    Bourn, Gary D.; Smith, Jack A.; Gingrich, Jess W.

    2007-01-30

    An engine control strategy that ensures that NOx emissions from the engine will be maintained at an acceptable level. The control strategy is based on a two-dimensional fuel-air curve, in which air manifold pressure (AMP) is a function of fuel header pressure and engine speed. The control strategy provides for closed loop NOx adjustment to a base AMP value derived from the fuel-air curve.

  6. Method of regulating the amount of underfire air for combustion of wood fuels in spreader-stroke boilers

    DOEpatents

    Tuttle, Kenneth L.

    1980-01-01

    A method of metering underfire air for increasing efficiency and reducing particulate emissions from wood-fire, spreader-stoker boilers is disclosed. A portion of the combustion air, approximately one pound of air per pound of wood, is fed through the grate into the fuel bed, while the remainder of the combustion air is distributed above the fuel in the furnace, and the fuel bed is maintained at a depth sufficient to consume all oxygen admitted under fire and to insure a continuous layer of fresh fuel thereover to entrap charred particles inside the fuel bed.

  7. An eCommerce Development Case: Your Company's eCommerce Web Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballenger, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    This case provides a real-world semester long project-oriented case study for students enrolled in an electronic commerce course that has a significant development component. The case provides the technical framework in the form of functional requirements for students to design and build a fully functional transaction processing e-commerce Web…

  8. Drive to dismantle commerce department rolls on

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    Late on November 7, Republican leaders of the House of Representatives tacked a measure to abolish the U.S. Department of Commerce onto a continuing resolution that keeps the federal government running and solvent while the fiscal 1996 budget debate continues. With the existing temporary funding measure expiring on November 13, congressional leaders were working to extend the budget again and to raise the national debt ceiling.The fate of the effort to terminate Commerce—which would eliminate the position of the Secretary of Commerce and shut down or transfer the department's programs to other departments—remained unclear at press time because Senate Republicans had not yet voiced support for the measure. The Clinton Administration has stated that the president would veto any attempt to shut down the Commerce Department; however, the link between the current dismantling measure and the continuing resolution to avert a government shutdown and financial default has further complicated the Administration's position.

  9. 15 CFR 738.3 - Commerce Country Chart structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... as one territory with Switzerland for purposes of the EAR, refer to Switzerland on the Country Chart... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commerce Country Chart structure. 738... COMMERCE CONTROL LIST OVERVIEW AND THE COUNTRY CHART § 738.3 Commerce Country Chart structure. (a)...

  10. 15 CFR 738.3 - Commerce Country Chart structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of the EAR, refer to Switzerland on the Country Chart for licensing requirements. (c) Columns... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commerce Country Chart structure. 738... COMMERCE CONTROL LIST OVERVIEW AND THE COUNTRY CHART § 738.3 Commerce Country Chart structure. (a)...

  11. 29 CFR 401.3 - Industry affecting commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Industry affecting commerce. 401.3 Section 401.3 Labor... STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.3 Industry affecting commerce. Industry affecting commerce means any activity, business, or industry in commerce or in which a labor dispute would hinder...

  12. 29 CFR 401.3 - Industry affecting commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Industry affecting commerce. 401.3 Section 401.3 Labor... STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.3 Industry affecting commerce. Industry affecting commerce means any activity, business, or industry in commerce or in which a labor dispute would hinder...

  13. 29 CFR 401.3 - Industry affecting commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Industry affecting commerce. 401.3 Section 401.3 Labor... STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.3 Industry affecting commerce. Industry affecting commerce means any activity, business, or industry in commerce or in which a labor dispute would hinder...

  14. 29 CFR 401.3 - Industry affecting commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Industry affecting commerce. 401.3 Section 401.3 Labor... STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.3 Industry affecting commerce. Industry affecting commerce means any activity, business, or industry in commerce or in which a labor dispute would hinder...

  15. 29 CFR 401.3 - Industry affecting commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Industry affecting commerce. 401.3 Section 401.3 Labor... STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.3 Industry affecting commerce. Industry affecting commerce means any activity, business, or industry in commerce or in which a labor dispute would hinder...

  16. 15 CFR 738.3 - Commerce Country Chart structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commerce Country Chart structure. 738... COMMERCE CONTROL LIST OVERVIEW AND THE COUNTRY CHART § 738.3 Commerce Country Chart structure. (a) Scope... of each ECCN. (d) Cells. The symbol “X” is used to denote licensing requirements on the Country...

  17. 15 CFR 738.3 - Commerce Country Chart structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commerce Country Chart structure. 738... COMMERCE CONTROL LIST OVERVIEW AND THE COUNTRY CHART § 738.3 Commerce Country Chart structure. (a) Scope... of each ECCN. (d) Cells. The symbol “X” is used to denote licensing requirements on the Country...

  18. The systematic regulation of oyster CgIL17-1 and CgIL17-5 in response to air exposure.

    PubMed

    Xin, Lusheng; Zhang, Huan; Du, Xinyu; Li, Yiqun; Li, Meijia; Wang, Lingling; Wang, Hao; Qiu, Limei; Song, Linsheng

    2016-10-01

    As a proinflammatory cytokine, vertebrate interleukin 17 (IL17) plays a vital role in the balance of inflammation and homeostasis, and is involved in a systemic regulation of glucose homeostasis. In the present study, a remarkable increase of glucose concentration was observed in oyster serum after 2 d air exposure, which was followed by a rapid up-regulation of CgIL17-1 and CgIL17-5. After oysters was received an injection of extra glucose, the mRNA expressions of CgIL17-1 and CgIL17-5 were also significantly up-regulated. The histopathological changes of hepatopancreas were observed after the oysters were treated by the recombinant proteins of CgIL17-1 and CgIL17-5 in vivo or subjected to air exposure. A significant decrease of GSK3β (Glycogen synthase kinase-3β) protein was also observed after the injection of CgIL17-1 and CgIL17-5 recombinant proteins in vivo. When the oysters with CgIL17-1 and CgIL17-5 genes knocked down were subjected to air exposure, the decline of GSK3β concentration was slowed down and it could still be obviously detected after 7 d compared with that in the control. Meanwhile, the expression of CgDefensin and CgDFFA was inhibited, while CgIAP was up-regulated when CgIL17-1 and CgIL17-5 genes were knocked down, and the oysters exhibited higher mortality (p < 0.05) at 3 d, whereas lower at the late stage of air exposure compared with that in the controls. The results collectively suggested that once oysters were exposed to air, the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines CgIL17-1 and CgIL17-5 was induced by the up-regulated glucose concentration in oyster serum, which would be not only a negative feedback to the high glucose concentration through mediating the regulation of GSK3β, but also an inducer on tissue damage and immunocompetence as well as the adaptability to stresses. PMID:27268575

  19. 15 CFR 19.5 - How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... administrative costs on Commerce debts in accordance with the provisions of 31 U.S.C. 3717 and 31 CFR 901.9... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How will Commerce entities add... Debts § 19.5 How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  20. 15 CFR 19.12 - How will Commerce entities offset a Federal employee's salary to collect a Commerce debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... delinquent Commerce debts through non-centralized salary offset. See 5 CFR 550.1109. In these cases, Commerce... § 19.20(c) of this Part or an agent of any Commerce agency designated in Appendix A to 5 CFR part 581... accordance with those authorities, 5 CFR 550.1102(b)(2), and Commerce policies and procedures. See...

  1. 29 CFR 779.22 - Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of... Definitions § 779.22 Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce. The portions of the former and present definitions of “enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production...

  2. 29 CFR 779.22 - Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of... Definitions § 779.22 Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce. The portions of the former and present definitions of “enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production...

  3. 29 CFR 779.22 - Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of... Definitions § 779.22 Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce. The portions of the former and present definitions of “enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production...

  4. 29 CFR 779.22 - Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of... Definitions § 779.22 Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce. The portions of the former and present definitions of “enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production...

  5. Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) Is Expressed in Spermatogenic Cells, and It Altered the Expression of Several Nucleic-Acid-Binding and Cytoskeletal Proteins in Germ Cell 1 Spermatogonial (GC1-spg) Cells.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Karthika; Bhagya, Kongattu P; Kumar, Anil Tr; Devi, Anandavalli N; Sengottaiyan, Jeeva; Kumar, Pradeep G

    2016-08-01

    Autoimmune regulator (AIRE) is a gene associated with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED). AIRE is expressed heavily in the thymic epithelial cells and is involved in maintaining self-tolerance through regulating the expression of tissue-specific antigens. The testes are the most predominant extrathymic location where a heavy expression of AIRE is reported. Homozygous Aire-deficient male mice were infertile, possibly due to impaired spermatogenesis, deregulated germ cell apoptosis, or autoimmunity. We report that AIRE is expressed in the testes of neonatal, adolescent, and adult mice. AIRE expression was detected in glial cell derived neurotrophic factor receptor alpha (GFRα)(+) (spermatogonia), GFRα(-)/synaptonemal complex protein (SCP3)(+) (meiotic), and GFRα(-)/Phosphoglycerate kinase 2 (PGK2)(+) (postmeiotic) germ cells in mouse testes. GC1-spg, a germ-cell-derived cell line, did not express AIRE. Retinoic acid induced AIRE expression in GC1-spg cells. Ectopic expression of AIRE in GC1-spg cells using label-free LC-MS/MS identified a total of 371 proteins that were differentially expressed. 100 proteins were up-regulated, and 271 proteins were down-regulated. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002511. Functional analysis of the differentially expressed proteins showed increased levels of various nucleic-acid-binding proteins and transcription factors and a decreased level of various cytoskeletal and structural proteins in the AIRE overexpressing cells as compared with the empty vector-transfected controls. The transcripts of a select set of the up-regulated proteins were also elevated. However, there was no corresponding decrease in the mRNA levels of the down-regulated set of proteins. Molecular function network analysis indicated that AIRE influenced gene expression in GC1-spg cells by acting at multiple levels, including transcription, translation, RNA processing, protein transport, protein

  6. Modeling the customer in electronic commerce.

    PubMed

    Helander, M G; Khalid, H M

    2000-12-01

    This paper reviews interface design of web pages for e-commerce. Different tasks in e-commerce are contrasted. A systems model is used to illustrate the information flow between three subsystems in e-commerce: store environment, customer, and web technology. A customer makes several decisions: to enter the store, to navigate, to purchase, to pay, and to keep the merchandize. This artificial environment must be designed so that it can support customer decision-making. To retain customers it must be pleasing and fun, and create a task with natural flow. Customers have different needs, competence and motivation, which affect decision-making. It may therefore be important to customize the design of the e-store environment. Future ergonomics research will have to investigate perceptual aspects, such as presentation of merchandize, and cognitive issues, such as product search and navigation, as well as decision making while considering various economic parameters. Five theories on e-commerce research are presented. PMID:11132045

  7. Intelligent agents for e-commerce applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuppala, Krishna

    1999-12-01

    This thesis focuses on development of intelligent agent solutions for e-commerce applications. E-Commerce has several complexities like: lack of information about the players, learning the nature of one's business partners/competitors, finding the right business partner to do business with, using the right strategy to get best profit out of the negotiations etc. The agent models developed can be used in any agent solution for e-commerce. Concepts and techniques from Game Theory and Artificial Intelligence are used. The developed models have several advantages over the existing ones as: the models assume the non-availability of information about other players in the market, the models of players get updated over the time as and when new information comes about the players, the negotiation model incorporates the patience levels of the players and expectations from other players in the market. Power industry has been chosen as the application area for the demonstration of the capabilities and usage of the developed agent models. Two e-commerce scenarios where sellers and buyers can go through the power exchanges to bid in auctions, or make bilateral deals outside of the exchange are addressed. In the first scenario agent helps market participants in coordinating strategies with other participants, bidding in auctions by analyzing and understanding the behavior of other participants. In the second scenario, called "Power Traders Assistant" agent helps power trader, who buys and sells power through bilateral negotiations, in negotiating deals with his customers.

  8. 77 FR 45927 - The Commerce Control List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Part 774 The Commerce Control List CFR Correction In Title 15 of... note following paragraph 6A001.a.1, add ``equipment as follows'' after ``6A001.a.1 does not control... 4. In 6C005, on page 831, add ``License Requirements'' above ``Reason for Control''. 0 5. In...

  9. 77 FR 41670 - The Commerce Control List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Part 774 The Commerce Control List CFR Correction In Title 15 of... Control''. C. On page 665, in 0A986, correct the table under ``License Requirements'' to read as set forth... Control. 2. In Category 1: A. On page 676, in 1A004, add ``(1)'' after the colon, at the beginning...

  10. Marketing Mix for E-Commerce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogorelova, Elena V.; Yakhneeva, Irina V.; Agafonova, Anna N.; Prokubovskaya, Alla O.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the analyzed issue is caused by the need to study the process of transformation of marketing in e-commerce, as the active involvement of business organizations in the field of e-business is often accompanied by problems of applying the usual marketing tools in a virtual environment. The article seeks to identify changes in the…

  11. Training as an E-Commerce Enabler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darch, Helen; Lucas, Trevor

    2002-01-01

    An investigation into lack of skills and awareness as barriers to the use of electronic commerce by 20 small- to medium enterprises within the food industry in Queensland, Australia, found that lack of knowledge and technical skills and structural issues are barriers. A range of training and development strategies are needed. (Contains 20…

  12. Electronic Commerce, Digital Information, and the Firm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Howard

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of the social context of electronic commerce (ecommerce) focuses on information imperatives, or rules that are critical for ecommerce firms. Concludes with a discussion of the organizational changes that can be expected to accompany the incorporation of these imperatives into the mission and core business processes of ecommerce firms.…

  13. Implications of Electronic Commerce for Fiscal Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goolsbee, Austan

    In this chapter, I will consider both sides of the relationship between electronic commerce and fiscal policy. For the impact of electronic commerce on fiscal policy, I will pay particular attention to the potential sales-tax revenue losses. The data suggest that the potential losses are actually modest over the next several years. I will also consider the reverse relationship - how fiscal policy affects Internet commerce. Here the evidence suggests that taxes have a sizable effect. I point out, though, that this only supports special treatment if there is some positive externality. Without one, the tax system will lead to excessive online buying to avoid taxes. I will then deal the neglected issue of taxes and Internet access, which can create large deadweight costs both because demand may be price-sensitive and because taxes can slow the spread of new technologies. Finally, I offer some discussion of the international context of taxes and the Internet and the international temptations to raise rates on E-commerce.

  14. Executives "Plug in" to Electronic Commerce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education & Training, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes a programme, developed by FT Knowledge and the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, USA, to guide managers through the opportunities and threats presented by electronic commerce. Focuses on areas such as marketing, electronic retailing, pricing, product design, supply chain management and communication. Highlights how the…

  15. 29 CFR 776.19 - Employees of independent employers meeting needs of producers for commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS INTERPRETATIVE BULLETIN ON THE GENERAL COVERAGE OF THE WAGE AND HOURS PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 General Engaging in âthe Production of Goods for Commerceâ § 776.19 Employees of... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employees of independent employers meeting needs......

  16. 29 CFR 776.19 - Employees of independent employers meeting needs of producers for commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS INTERPRETATIVE BULLETIN ON THE GENERAL COVERAGE OF THE WAGE AND HOURS PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 General Engaging in âthe Production of Goods for Commerceâ § 776.19 Employees of... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employees of independent employers meeting needs......

  17. 29 CFR 776.19 - Employees of independent employers meeting needs of producers for commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS INTERPRETATIVE BULLETIN ON THE GENERAL COVERAGE OF THE WAGE AND HOURS PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 General Engaging in âthe Production of Goods for Commerceâ § 776.19 Employees of... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employees of independent employers meeting needs......

  18. Beer, Free Speech, and Barriers to Interstate Commerce: A Case of Imported Beer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monseau, Susanna

    2008-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, differences in the treatment of trade in alcoholic beverages in comparison to other commercial goods seem at odds with the federal regulation of interstate trade under the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution, which prohibits "differential treatment of in-state and out-of-state economic interests that…

  19. Air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Although the Environmental Protection Agency proposed controls in the early 1970s, marine vessel emissions remain largely unregulated, in part, because industry, the Coast Guard, and the Maritime Administration questioned the safety, cost, and effects on interstate commerce. The Coast Guard and EPA attempted to resolve some of these issues but discontinued their efforts when EPA reduced its overall budget and the Coast Guard perceived no state interest in regulating vessel emissions. Efforts resumed when the Coast Guard became aware of a growing state movement to regulate vessel emissions; it then requested a study by the National Research Council. The study found that additional operating experience, testing, and studies were necessary. The Coast Guard then began developing safety standards in 1987 and EPA proposed a national ozone strategy.

  20. E-commerce for healthcare supply procurement.

    PubMed

    Arbietman, D; Lirov, E; Lirov, R; Lirov, Y

    2001-01-01

    The total investment of the more than fifty e-commerce startups that entered healthcare supply chain management in the past three years has surpassed $500 million. However, none of these early entrants has delivered on the initial promise of restructuring the entire supply chain, replacing the traditional intermediaries, or at least achieving substantial revenue. This article offers a new business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce solution classification paradigm and uses it to analyze the functional requirements for an effective and, efficient healthcare supply chain marketplace. The analysis exposes several fundamental B2B market complexities that prevent the early entrants from creating a solid customer base and reaching desired liquidity goals. It also identifies several technological solutions to the problems mentioned. These new technologies create a comprehensive and symmetric order-matching engine that is capable of aggregating buy orders, requesting quotes from multiple vendors simultaneously, and negotiating along multiple criteria.

  1. E-commerce for healthcare supply procurement.

    PubMed

    Arbietman, D; Lirov, E; Lirov, R; Lirov, Y

    2001-01-01

    The total investment of the more than fifty e-commerce startups that entered healthcare supply chain management in the past three years has surpassed $500 million. However, none of these early entrants has delivered on the initial promise of restructuring the entire supply chain, replacing the traditional intermediaries, or at least achieving substantial revenue. This article offers a new business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce solution classification paradigm and uses it to analyze the functional requirements for an effective and, efficient healthcare supply chain marketplace. The analysis exposes several fundamental B2B market complexities that prevent the early entrants from creating a solid customer base and reaching desired liquidity goals. It also identifies several technological solutions to the problems mentioned. These new technologies create a comprehensive and symmetric order-matching engine that is capable of aggregating buy orders, requesting quotes from multiple vendors simultaneously, and negotiating along multiple criteria. PMID:11338910

  2. Neuroinflammation, hyperphosphorylated tau, diffuse amyloid plaques, and down-regulation of the cellular prion protein in air pollution exposed children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Kavanaugh, Michael; Block, Michelle; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Osnaya, Norma; Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Guo, Ruixin; Hua, Zhaowei; Zhu, Hongtu; Perry, George; Diaz, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution exposures have been linked to neuroinflammation and neuropathology. Autopsy samples of the frontal cortex from control (n = 8) and pollution-exposed (n = 35) children and young adults were analyzed by RT-PCR (n = 43) and microarray analysis (n = 12) for gene expression changes in oxidative stress, DNA damage signaling, NFκB signaling, inflammation, and neurodegeneration pathways. The effect of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype on the presence of protein aggregates associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology was also explored. Exposed urbanites displayed differential (>2-fold) regulation of 134 genes. Forty percent exhibited tau hyperphosphorylation with pre-tangle material and 51% had amyloid-β (Aβ) diffuse plaques compared with 0% in controls. APOE4 carriers had greater hyperphosphorylated tau and diffuse Aβ plaques versus E3 carriers (Q = 7.82, p = 0.005). Upregulated gene network clusters included IL1, NFκB, TNF, IFN, and TLRs. A 15-fold frontal down-regulation of the prion-related protein (PrP(C)) was seen in highly exposed subjects. The down-regulation of the PrP(C) is critical given its important roles for neuroprotection, neurodegeneration, and mood disorder states. Elevation of indices of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, down-regulation of the PrP(C) and AD-associated pathology are present in young megacity residents. The inducible regulation of gene expression suggests they are evolving different mechanisms in an attempt to cope with the constant state of inflammation and oxidative stress related to their environmental exposures. Together, these data support a role for air pollution in CNS damage and its impact upon the developing brain and the potential etiology of AD and mood disorders. PMID:21955814

  3. The role of integrated resource planning, environmental externalities, and anticipation of future regulation in compliance planning under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Bernow, S.; Biewald, B.; Wulfsberg, K.

    1993-07-01

    Utilities are developing sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission compliance plans to meet limitations of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). Compliance plans will have long-term effects on resource selection, fuel choice, and system dispatch. Use of integrated resource planning (IRP) is necessary to ensure compliance plans are consistent with the overall societal goals. In particular, environmental externalities must be integrated with the compliance planning process. The focus of the CAAA is on air pollution reduction, specifically acid gases and toxics, and attainment of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for criteria pollutants. Title IV specifically focuses on sulfur dioxide with a national allowance trading system, while further regulation of toxics and nitrogen oxides is slated for additional study. Yet, compliance planning based narrowly upon today`s environmental regulations could fail to meet the broad goals of IRP if a larger array of environmental externalities is excluded from the analysis. Compliance planning must consider a broad range of environmental effects from energy production and use to (1) protect society`s long-term stake in environmental quality, and (2) ensure that today`s plans are rich enough to accommodate potential changes in regulation and national environmental goals. The explicit recognition of environmental effects, such as those associated with CO{sub 2} release, will result in prudent compliance plans that take advantage of current opportunities for pollution avoidance and have long-term viability in the face of regulatory change. By including such considerations, the mix of resources acquired and operated (supply and demand, existing and new, conventional and renewable, fuel type and fuel quality, pollution control, and dispatch protocols) will be robust and truly least-cost.

  4. Towards an agent based traffic regulation and recommendation system for the on-road air quality control.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Abderrahmane; El Fazziki, Abdelaziz; Ouarzazi, Jamal; Sadgal, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated and adaptive problem-solving approach to control the on-road air quality by modeling the road infrastructure, managing traffic based on pollution level and generating recommendations for road users. The aim is to reduce vehicle emissions in the most polluted road segments and optimizing the pollution levels. For this we propose the use of historical and real time pollution records and contextual data to calculate the air quality index on road networks and generate recommendations for reassigning traffic flow in order to improve the on-road air quality. The resulting air quality indexes are used in the system's traffic network generation, which the cartography is represented by a weighted graph. The weights evolve according to the pollution indexes and path properties and the graph is therefore dynamic. Furthermore, the systems use the available pollution data and meteorological records in order to predict the on-road pollutant levels by using an artificial neural network based prediction model. The proposed approach combines the benefits of multi-agent systems, Big data technology, machine learning tools and the available data sources. For the shortest path searching in the road network, we use the Dijkstra algorithm over Hadoop MapReduce framework. The use Hadoop framework in the data retrieve and analysis process has significantly improved the performance of the proposed system. Also, the agent technology allowed proposing a suitable solution in terms of robustness and agility.

  5. Towards an agent based traffic regulation and recommendation system for the on-road air quality control.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Abderrahmane; El Fazziki, Abdelaziz; Ouarzazi, Jamal; Sadgal, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated and adaptive problem-solving approach to control the on-road air quality by modeling the road infrastructure, managing traffic based on pollution level and generating recommendations for road users. The aim is to reduce vehicle emissions in the most polluted road segments and optimizing the pollution levels. For this we propose the use of historical and real time pollution records and contextual data to calculate the air quality index on road networks and generate recommendations for reassigning traffic flow in order to improve the on-road air quality. The resulting air quality indexes are used in the system's traffic network generation, which the cartography is represented by a weighted graph. The weights evolve according to the pollution indexes and path properties and the graph is therefore dynamic. Furthermore, the systems use the available pollution data and meteorological records in order to predict the on-road pollutant levels by using an artificial neural network based prediction model. The proposed approach combines the benefits of multi-agent systems, Big data technology, machine learning tools and the available data sources. For the shortest path searching in the road network, we use the Dijkstra algorithm over Hadoop MapReduce framework. The use Hadoop framework in the data retrieve and analysis process has significantly improved the performance of the proposed system. Also, the agent technology allowed proposing a suitable solution in terms of robustness and agility. PMID:27652177

  6. 77 FR 14354 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Submission for OMB Review; U.S.-Flag Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of request for public comments regarding an extension to an existing OMB clearance. SUMMARY: Under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act, the Regulatory Secretariat will be... the necessity for foreign-flag air transportation, to disallow expenditures from funds,...

  7. Air Pressure Responses to Sudden Vocal Tract Pressure Bleeds during Production of Stop Consonants: New Evidence of Aeromechanical Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajac, David J.; Weissler, Mark C.

    2004-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate short-latency vocal tract air pressure responses to sudden pressure bleeds during production of voiceless bilabial stop consonants. It was hypothesized that the occurrence of respiratory reflexes would be indicated by distinct patterns of responses as a function of bleed magnitude. In Study 1, 19 adults…

  8. 33 CFR 100.909 - Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of the South Branch of the Chicago River from the 18th Street Bridge at position 41°51′28″ N, 087°38′06″ W to the Amtrak Bridge at position 41°51′20″ N, 087°38′13″ W. (DATUM: NAD 83). (b) Special Local Regulations....

  9. 33 CFR 100.909 - Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of the South Branch of the Chicago River from the 18th Street Bridge at position 41°51′28″ N, 087°38′06″ W to the Amtrak Bridge at position 41°51′20″ N, 087°38′13″ W. (DATUM: NAD 83). (b) Special Local Regulations....

  10. Closer view looking to the Interstate Commerce Commission building and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Closer view looking to the Interstate Commerce Commission building and Ariel Rios Federal building - Interstate Commerce Commission, Constitution Avenue between Twelfth and Fourteenth streets, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. 75 FR 72792 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee... Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee (Committee), which will take place through a telephone... Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on...

  12. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  13. Research on mobile electronic commerce security technology based on WPKI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo

    2013-07-01

    Through the in-depth study on the existing mobile e-commerce and WAP protocols, this paper presents a security solution of e-commerce system based on WPKI, and describes its implementation process and specific implementation details. This solution uniformly distributes the key used by the various participating entities , to fully ensure the confidentiality, authentication, fairness and integrity of mobile e-commerce payments, therefore has some pract ical value for improving the security of e-commerce system.

  14. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  15. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  16. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  17. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  18. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  19. Up-Regulation of mRNA Ventricular PRNP Prion Protein Gene Expression in Air Pollution Highly Exposed Young Urbanites: Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Glucose Regulated Protein 78, and Nanosized Particles

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Franco-Lira, Maricela; González-Maciel, Angélica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Harritt, Lou; Pérez-Guillé, Beatriz; Ferreira-Azevedo, Lara; Drecktrah, Dan; Zhu, Hongtu; Sun, Qiang; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana; Diaz, Philippe; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2013-01-01

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area children and young adults exposed to high concentrations of air pollutants including fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) vs. clean air controls, exhibit myocardial inflammation and inflammasome activation with a differential right and left ventricular expression of key inflammatory genes and inflammasomes. We investigated the mRNA expression levels of the prion protein gene PRNP, which plays an important role in the protection against oxidative stress and metal toxicity, and the glucose regulated protein 78, a key protein in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling, in ventricular autopsy samples from 30 children and young adults age 19.97 ± 6.8 years with a lifetime of low (n:4) vs. high (n:26) air pollution exposures. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies were carried out in human ventricles, and electron microscopy studies were also done in 5 young, highly exposed Mexico City dogs. There was significant left ventricular PRNP and bi-ventricular GRP78 mRNA up-regulation in Mexico City young urbanites vs. controls. PRNP up-regulation in the left ventricle was significantly different from the right, p < 0.0001, and there was a strong left ventricular PRNP and GRP78 correlation (p = 0.0005). Marked abnormalities in capillary endothelial cells, numerous nanosized particles in myocardial ER and in abnormal mitochondria characterized the highly exposed ventricles. Early and sustained cardiac ER stress could result in detrimental irreversible consequences in urban children, and while highly complex systems maintain myocardial homeostasis, failure to compensate for chronic myocardial inflammation, oxidative and ER stress, and particles damaging myocardial organelles may prime the development of pathophysiological cardiovascular states in young urbanites. Nanosized PM could play a key cardiac myocyte toxicity role. PMID:24287918

  20. Up-regulation of mRNA ventricular PRNP prion protein gene expression in air pollution highly exposed young urbanites: endoplasmic reticulum stress, glucose regulated protein 78, and nanosized particles.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Franco-Lira, Maricela; González-Maciel, Angélica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Harritt, Lou; Pérez-Guillé, Beatriz; Ferreira-Azevedo, Lara; Drecktrah, Dan; Zhu, Hongtu; Sun, Qiang; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana; Diaz, Philippe; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2013-01-01

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area children and young adults exposed to high concentrations of air pollutants including fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) vs. clean air controls, exhibit myocardial inflammation and inflammasome activation with a differential right and left ventricular expression of key inflammatory genes and inflammasomes. We investigated the mRNA expression levels of the prion protein gene PRNP, which plays an important role in the protection against oxidative stress and metal toxicity, and the glucose regulated protein 78, a key protein in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling, in ventricular autopsy samples from 30 children and young adults age 19.97 ± 6.8 years with a lifetime of low (n:4) vs. high (n:26) air pollution exposures. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies were carried out in human ventricles, and electron microscopy studies were also done in 5 young, highly exposed Mexico City dogs. There was significant left ventricular PRNP and bi-ventricular GRP78 mRNA up-regulation in Mexico City young urbanites vs. controls. PRNP up-regulation in the left ventricle was significantly different from the right, p < 0.0001, and there was a strong left ventricular PRNP and GRP78 correlation (p = 0.0005). Marked abnormalities in capillary endothelial cells, numerous nanosized particles in myocardial ER and in abnormal mitochondria characterized the highly exposed ventricles. Early and sustained cardiac ER stress could result in detrimental irreversible consequences in urban children, and while highly complex systems maintain myocardial homeostasis, failure to compensate for chronic myocardial inflammation, oxidative and ER stress, and particles damaging myocardial organelles may prime the development of pathophysiological cardiovascular states in young urbanites. Nanosized PM could play a key cardiac myocyte toxicity role. PMID:24287918

  1. Up-regulation of mRNA ventricular PRNP prion protein gene expression in air pollution highly exposed young urbanites: endoplasmic reticulum stress, glucose regulated protein 78, and nanosized particles.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Franco-Lira, Maricela; González-Maciel, Angélica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Harritt, Lou; Pérez-Guillé, Beatriz; Ferreira-Azevedo, Lara; Drecktrah, Dan; Zhu, Hongtu; Sun, Qiang; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana; Diaz, Philippe; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2013-11-28

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area children and young adults exposed to high concentrations of air pollutants including fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) vs. clean air controls, exhibit myocardial inflammation and inflammasome activation with a differential right and left ventricular expression of key inflammatory genes and inflammasomes. We investigated the mRNA expression levels of the prion protein gene PRNP, which plays an important role in the protection against oxidative stress and metal toxicity, and the glucose regulated protein 78, a key protein in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling, in ventricular autopsy samples from 30 children and young adults age 19.97 ± 6.8 years with a lifetime of low (n:4) vs. high (n:26) air pollution exposures. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies were carried out in human ventricles, and electron microscopy studies were also done in 5 young, highly exposed Mexico City dogs. There was significant left ventricular PRNP and bi-ventricular GRP78 mRNA up-regulation in Mexico City young urbanites vs. controls. PRNP up-regulation in the left ventricle was significantly different from the right, p < 0.0001, and there was a strong left ventricular PRNP and GRP78 correlation (p = 0.0005). Marked abnormalities in capillary endothelial cells, numerous nanosized particles in myocardial ER and in abnormal mitochondria characterized the highly exposed ventricles. Early and sustained cardiac ER stress could result in detrimental irreversible consequences in urban children, and while highly complex systems maintain myocardial homeostasis, failure to compensate for chronic myocardial inflammation, oxidative and ER stress, and particles damaging myocardial organelles may prime the development of pathophysiological cardiovascular states in young urbanites. Nanosized PM could play a key cardiac myocyte toxicity role.

  2. 29 CFR 782.7 - Interstate commerce requirements of exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... assume that such a movement in interstate commerce under the Fair Labor Standards Act is also a movement... so as to constitute interstate commerce within the meaning of the Fair Labor Standards Act. This... interstate commerce under the Fair Labor Standards Act. Of......

  3. 29 CFR 782.7 - Interstate commerce requirements of exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... assume that such a movement in interstate commerce under the Fair Labor Standards Act is also a movement... so as to constitute interstate commerce within the meaning of the Fair Labor Standards Act. This... interstate commerce under the Fair Labor Standards Act. Of......

  4. 29 CFR 782.7 - Interstate commerce requirements of exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... assume that such a movement in interstate commerce under the Fair Labor Standards Act is also a movement... so as to constitute interstate commerce within the meaning of the Fair Labor Standards Act. This... interstate commerce under the Fair Labor Standards Act. Of......

  5. 29 CFR 782.7 - Interstate commerce requirements of exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... assume that such a movement in interstate commerce under the Fair Labor Standards Act is also a movement... so as to constitute interstate commerce within the meaning of the Fair Labor Standards Act. This... interstate commerce under the Fair Labor Standards Act. Of......

  6. 78 FR 48298 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Commerce, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Commerce, TX AGENCY: Federal... Commerce, TX, area, creating additional controlled airspace at Commerce Municipal Airport (78 FR 33019... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec....

  7. Libraries and E-Commerce: Improving Information Services and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Lesley Ellen

    2000-01-01

    Explains e-commerce and discusses how it can be used by special libraries. Highlights include library goals; examples of successful uses of e-commerce; how e-commerce can improve information services, including access to information, new information resources, delivery of information, and broadening information markets; and developing an…

  8. Framing the Future: An E-Commerce Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, John

    This document reports on a study that analyzes the business management processes of Australia's Framing the Future program (FTF) in terms of the extent to which they demonstrate e-commerce principles. Chapter 1 describes the concept of e-commerce in relation to vocational education and training (VET). It defines e-commerce as any business…

  9. Effort to regulate acid aerosol pollution, based on new human health data, still up in the air

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, M.F.

    1990-08-01

    Acid aerosols in the atmosphere are having acute short- and long-term respiratory effects. That is the view of David V. Bates, MD, who spoke recently at the World Conference on Lung Health in Boston, Mass. Bates, who is professor emeritus of medicine in the Department of Health Care and Epidemiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, has spent nearly 40 years in studies that make him, according to colleagues, the guru of respiratory physiology. Acid aerosols are colloidal suspensions of hydrogen ion-containing particles that form the misty air pollution called summer haze. They are generated commonly by sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions from coalfired industrial plants. The emissions are transformed into ammonium bisulfate or sulfuric acid and nitric acid, well-known air pollutants. In the ambient air they mix with ozone. Although researchers do not yet have the sort of massive and unidirectional proof that there is for cigarette smoking causing lung cancer, Bates says, if you want early detection and early action to ameliorate the situation, the kinds of indicators that are now positive are very important indeed.

  10. 15 CFR 19.4 - What notice will Commerce entities send to a debtor when collecting a Commerce debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... 3201(e); 31 U.S.C. 3720B, 31 CFR 285.13, and § 19.17(a) of this Part); (16) If applicable, the Commerce... the Commerce entity intends to garnish the debtor's private sector (i.e., non-Federal) wages (see § 19... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What notice will Commerce...

  11. 29 CFR 570.113 - Employment “in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General Statements of Interpretation of the Child Labor Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employment âin commerce or in the......

  12. 29 CFR 570.113 - Employment “in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General Statements of Interpretation of the Child Labor Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment âin commerce or in the......

  13. 29 CFR 570.113 - Employment “in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General Statements of Interpretation of the Child Labor Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employment âin commerce or in the......

  14. 29 CFR 570.113 - Employment “in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General Statements of Interpretation of the Child Labor Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment âin commerce or in the......

  15. 29 CFR 779.237 - Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of... to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Covered Enterprises § 779.237 Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce. Under section 3(s) the “enterprise” to be covered...

  16. 29 CFR 779.237 - Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of... to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Covered Enterprises § 779.237 Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce. Under section 3(s) the “enterprise” to be covered...

  17. 29 CFR 779.237 - Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of... to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Covered Enterprises § 779.237 Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce. Under section 3(s) the “enterprise” to be covered...

  18. 29 CFR 779.237 - Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of... to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Covered Enterprises § 779.237 Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce. Under section 3(s) the “enterprise” to be covered...

  19. 29 CFR 779.237 - Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of... to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Covered Enterprises § 779.237 Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce. Under section 3(s) the “enterprise” to be covered...

  20. Earth Science Goes E-Commerce

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Software packages commercially marketed by Agri ImaGIS allow customers to analyze farm fields. Agri ImaGIS provides satellite images of farmland and agricultural views to US clients. The company approached NASA-MSU TechLink for access to technology that would improve the company's capabilities to deliver satellite images over the Internet. TechLink found that software with the desired functions had already been developed through NASA's Remote Sensing Database Program. Agri ImaGIS formed a partnership with the University of Minnesota group that allows the company to further develop the software to meet its Internet commerce needs.

  1. User acceptance of mobile commerce: an empirical study in Macau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Ivan K. W.; Lai, Donny C. F.

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to examine the positive and negative factors that can significantly explain user acceptance of mobile commerce (m-commerce) in Macau. A technology acceptance model for m-commerce with five factors is constructed. The proposed model is tested using data collected from 219 respondents. Confirmatory factor analysis is performed to examine the reliability and validity of the model, and structural equation modelling is performed to access the relationship between behaviour intention and each factor. The acceptance of m-commerce is influenced by factors including performance expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions and privacy concern; while effort expectancy is insignificant in this case. The results of the study are useful for m-commerce service providers to adjust their strategies for promoting m-commerce services. This study contributes to the practice by providing a user technology acceptance model for m-commerce that can be used as a foundation for future research.

  2. E-Commerce and Security Governance in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanayei, Ali.; Rajabion, Lila

    Security is very often mentioned as one of the preconditions for the faster growth of e-commerce. Without a secure and reliable internet, customer will continue to be reluctant to provide confidential information online, such as credit card number. Moreover, organizations of all types and sizes around the world rely heavily on technologies of electronic commerce (e-commerce) for conducting their day-to-day business transaction. Providing organizations with a secure e-commerce environment is a major issue and challenging one especially in Middle Eastern countries. Without secure e-commerce, it is almost impossible to take advantage of the opportunities offered by e-commerce technologies. E-commerce can create opportunities for small entrepreneurs in Middle Eastern countries. This requires removing infrastructure blockages in telecommunications and logistics alongside the governance of e-commerce with policies on consumer protection, security of transactions, privacy of records and intellectual property. In this paper, we will explore the legal implications of e-commerce security governance by establishing who is responsible for ensuring compliance with this discipline, demonstrating the value to be derived from information security governance, the methodology of applying information security governance, and liability for non-compliance with this discipline. Our main focus will be on analyzing the importance and implication of e-commerce security governance in developing countries.

  3. A Review of the Current Geographic Distribution of and Debate Surrounding Electronic Cigarette Clean Air Regulations in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kadowaki, Joy; Vuolo, Mike; Kelly, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we present the results of a systematic review of state, county, and municipal restrictions on the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in public spaces within the United States, alongside an overview of the current legal landscape. The lack of federal guidance leaves lower-level jurisdictions to debate the merits of restrictions on use in public spaces without sufficient scientific research. As we show through a geographic assessment of restrictions, this has resulted in an inconsistent patchwork of e-cigarette use bans across the United States of varying degrees of coverage. Bans have emerged over time in a manner that suggests a “bottom up” diffusion of e-cigarette clean air policies. Ultimately, the lack of clinical and scientific knowledge on the risks and potential harm reduction benefits has led to precautionary policymaking, which often lacks grounding in empirical evidence and results in spatially uneven diffusion of policy. PMID:25463920

  4. Development of gas exchange and ion regulation in two species of air-breathing fish, Betta splendens and Macropodus opercularis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Huang; Lin, Hui-Chen

    2015-07-01

    Aquatic air-breathing anabantoids, a group of fish species characterized by the presence of a labyrinth organ and some gills, exhibit morphological variations. This study aimed to examine whether unequal gill growth begins during the early stages and described the sequence of the early gill developmental events in Betta splendens and Macropodus opercularis. To determine when the ion regulatory and gas exchange abilities first appear in the gills, mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) and neuroepithelial cells (NECs) were examined in young B. splendens. To evaluate the relative importance of the gills and the labyrinth organ under different levels of oxygen uptake stress, the levels of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) protein expressions in 2 gills and the labyrinth organ were examined in M. opercularis. We found that the first 3 gills developed earlier than the 4th gill in both species, an indication that the morphological variation begins early in life. In B. splendens, the MRCs and NECs clearly appeared in the first 3 gills at 4 dph and were first found in the 4th gill until 11 dph. The oxygen-sensing ability of the gills was concordant with the ionoregulatory function. In M. opercularis, the hypoxic group had a significantly higher air-breathing frequency. CAII protein expression was higher in the labyrinth organ in the hypoxic group. The gills exhibited increased NKA protein expression in the hypoxic and restricted groups, respectively. Functional plasticity in CAII and NKA protein expressions was found between the gills and the labyrinth organ in adult M. opercularis.

  5. Development of gas exchange and ion regulation in two species of air-breathing fish, Betta splendens and Macropodus opercularis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Huang; Lin, Hui-Chen

    2015-07-01

    Aquatic air-breathing anabantoids, a group of fish species characterized by the presence of a labyrinth organ and some gills, exhibit morphological variations. This study aimed to examine whether unequal gill growth begins during the early stages and described the sequence of the early gill developmental events in Betta splendens and Macropodus opercularis. To determine when the ion regulatory and gas exchange abilities first appear in the gills, mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) and neuroepithelial cells (NECs) were examined in young B. splendens. To evaluate the relative importance of the gills and the labyrinth organ under different levels of oxygen uptake stress, the levels of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) protein expressions in 2 gills and the labyrinth organ were examined in M. opercularis. We found that the first 3 gills developed earlier than the 4th gill in both species, an indication that the morphological variation begins early in life. In B. splendens, the MRCs and NECs clearly appeared in the first 3 gills at 4 dph and were first found in the 4th gill until 11 dph. The oxygen-sensing ability of the gills was concordant with the ionoregulatory function. In M. opercularis, the hypoxic group had a significantly higher air-breathing frequency. CAII protein expression was higher in the labyrinth organ in the hypoxic group. The gills exhibited increased NKA protein expression in the hypoxic and restricted groups, respectively. Functional plasticity in CAII and NKA protein expressions was found between the gills and the labyrinth organ in adult M. opercularis. PMID:25783787

  6. The autoimmune regulator (AIRE), which is defective in autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy patients, is expressed in human epidermal and follicular keratinocytes and associates with the intermediate filament protein cytokeratin 17.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vipul; Pedroza, Luis A; Mace, Emily M; Seeholzer, Steven; Cotsarelis, George; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Payne, Aimee S; Orange, Jordan S

    2011-03-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) syndrome, which is caused by mutation of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene, is a highly variable disease characterized by multiple endocrine failure, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, and various ectodermal defects. AIRE is a transcriptional regulator classically expressed in medullary thymic epithelial cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Previous studies have suggested that AIRE can shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells, although its cytoplasmic functions are poorly characterized. Through mass spectrometry analysis of proteins co-immunoprecipitating with cytoplasmic AIRE, we identified a novel association of AIRE with the intermediate filament protein cytokeratin 17 (K17) in the THP-1 monocyte cell line. We confirmed AIRE expression in HaCaT epidermal keratinocytes, as well as its interaction with K17. Confocal microscopy of human fetal and adult scalp hair follicles demonstrated a cytoplasmic pattern of AIRE staining that moderately colocalized with K17. The cytoplasmic association of AIRE with the intermediate filament network in human epidermal and follicular keratinocytes may provide a new path to understanding the ectodermal abnormalities associated with the APECED syndrome.

  7. E-commerce. Point, click, purchase.

    PubMed

    Menduno, M

    1999-10-01

    Many in health care may still be technology-shy, but there are big savings to be found in business-to-business e-commerce. Some experts estimate that electronic purchasing can trim 18 to 45 percent of costs out of the health care supply chain. That could revolutionize the $140 billion supply industry--but only if buyers and sellers can get on the same page. A whole host of companies are springing up to make that link. It won't be easy. "Anyone can do online ordering," says Joseph Miccio of NCI Consulting. "The real challenge for these vendors is to simultaneously connect all the players in the supply chain through a common database." PMID:10555495

  8. Kantian condemnation of commerce in organs.

    PubMed

    Kerstein, Samuel J

    2009-06-01

    Opponents of commerce in organs sometimes appeal to Kant's Formula of Humanity to justify their position. Kant implies that anyone who sells an integral part of his body violates this principle and thereby acts wrongly. Although appeals to Kant's Formula are apt, they are less helpful than they might be because they invoke the necessity of respecting the dignity of ends in themselves without specifying in detail what dignity is or what it means to respect it, and they cite the wrongness of an agent's treating another merely as a means without clarifying conditions under which this occurs. This paper crystallizes two different approaches to the Formula of Humanity and probes when, according to them, the principle would imply that it is wrong to engage in "live donor" transactions, in which someone chooses to undergo a kidney extraction in exchange for money. PMID:19623820

  9. Kantian condemnation of commerce in organs.

    PubMed

    Kerstein, Samuel J

    2009-06-01

    Opponents of commerce in organs sometimes appeal to Kant's Formula of Humanity to justify their position. Kant implies that anyone who sells an integral part of his body violates this principle and thereby acts wrongly. Although appeals to Kant's Formula are apt, they are less helpful than they might be because they invoke the necessity of respecting the dignity of ends in themselves without specifying in detail what dignity is or what it means to respect it, and they cite the wrongness of an agent's treating another merely as a means without clarifying conditions under which this occurs. This paper crystallizes two different approaches to the Formula of Humanity and probes when, according to them, the principle would imply that it is wrong to engage in "live donor" transactions, in which someone chooses to undergo a kidney extraction in exchange for money.

  10. E-commerce. Point, click, purchase.

    PubMed

    Menduno, M

    1999-10-01

    Many in health care may still be technology-shy, but there are big savings to be found in business-to-business e-commerce. Some experts estimate that electronic purchasing can trim 18 to 45 percent of costs out of the health care supply chain. That could revolutionize the $140 billion supply industry--but only if buyers and sellers can get on the same page. A whole host of companies are springing up to make that link. It won't be easy. "Anyone can do online ordering," says Joseph Miccio of NCI Consulting. "The real challenge for these vendors is to simultaneously connect all the players in the supply chain through a common database."

  11. 15 CFR 19.6 - When will Commerce entities allow a debtor to pay a Commerce debt in installments instead of one...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... provisions of 31 CFR 901.8 and the Commerce entity's policies and procedures. ... Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce... of one lump sum? If a debtor is financially unable to pay the Commerce debt in one lump sum,...

  12. Effects of hypoxia on ionic regulation, glycogen utilization and antioxidative ability in the gills and liver of the aquatic air-breathing fish Trichogaster microlepis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Hui-Chen; Lin, Cheng-Huang

    2015-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that Trichogaster microlepis, a fish with an accessory air-breathing organ, uses a compensatory strategy involving changes in both behavior and protein levels to enhance its gas exchange ability. This compensatory strategy enables the gill ion-regulatory metabolism to maintain homeostasis during exposure to hypoxia. The present study aimed to determine whether ionic regulation, glycogen utilization and antioxidant activity differ in terms of expression under hypoxic stresses; fish were sampled after being subjected to 3 or 12h of hypoxia and 12h of recovery under normoxia. The air-breathing behavior of the fish increased under hypoxia. No morphological modification of the gills was observed. The expression of carbonic anhydrase II did not vary among the treatments. The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase enzyme activity did not decrease, but increases in Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase protein expression and ionocyte levels were observed. The glycogen utilization increased under hypoxia as measured by glycogen phosphorylase protein expression and blood glucose level, whereas the glycogen content decreased. The enzyme activity of several components of the antioxidant system in the gills, including catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxidase dismutase, increased in enzyme activity. Based on the above data, we concluded that T. microlepis is a hypoxia-tolerant species that does not exhibit ion-regulatory suppression but uses glycogen to maintain energy utilization in the gills under hypoxic stress. Components of the antioxidant system showed increased expression under the applied experimental treatments.

  13. 49 CFR 350.335 - What are the consequences if my State has laws or regulations incompatible with the Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to interstate commerce (i.e., rules identical to the FMCSRs and HMRs) and intrastate commerce (i.e... regulations pertaining to intrastate commerce and receiving 50 percent of their basic formula allocation on... enforcement practice pertaining to CMV safety, in either interstate or intrastate commerce, is...

  14. Electronic Commerce in Tourism in China: B2B or B2C?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongxiu; Suomi, Reima

    E-commerce has significantly changed the distribution channels of travel products in the world including China. Online channels are growing important in travel service distribution. In China tourism industry has been developed rapidly with the economic development, more and more international travel service providers are trying to expand their Chinese market through the Internet. This paper sheds lights on the e-commerce development models in China for international travel service providers. It explores the current e-tourism in China from the three different participants in the value chain in tourism industry - consumer, travel agent and travel service provider. The paper also identifies the barriers in B2C arena in international outbound travel market, and discusses the possible approaches for international travel service providers to develop their e-commerce in the huge Chinese market. The results in this study reveal that international travel service providers should focus on B2B model to expand their electronic market in China. B2C development in tourism largely depends on the change of Chinese customers' behavior and the change of international tourism regulations. The findings of the study are expected to assist international travel service providers to understand current e-tourism in China and to support their planning for future e-commerce development in China.

  15. 75 FR 44759 - Department of Commerce Business Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... Department of Commerce Business Forum AGENCY: U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting... that currently conduct business with, or have previously conducted business with or hope to conduct business with DOC. Interested parties are asked to offer comments on the DOC acquisition function for...

  16. Close view of the attic story of the Commerce Department ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close view of the attic story of the Commerce Department building to show the decorative owls, eagles, fruit swags and ribbon festoons - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. 75 FR 7234 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Communications and Information on spectrum policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on March 4, 2010,...

  18. 76 FR 27636 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... 76 FR 23796 (April 28, 2011). The Committee meeting will now be held in Room 6059. All other... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee... location of a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee (Committee). DATES:...

  19. 78 FR 64201 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... Use 4. Spectrum Management via Databases 5. Federal Access to Non-Federal Bands 6. Spectrum Sharing... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce...

  20. The Comparison of Personalization Recommendation for E-Commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ya, Luo

    Personalization recommendation is the key technology in E-commerce, which affects the performance of E-commerce system. This paper mainly introduces personalization recommendation system and its role, and several widely used recommendation technology. Through comparing and analyzing on the strengths and weaknesses of recommendation technology, it concludes that the combined application for a variety of techniques should satisfy the actual needs better.

  1. Borderless Educational Practices in the Development of Commerce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbre, James O., III

    2010-01-01

    Commerce transcends the boundaries of nations. With so many people involved, a common approach and articulation is necessary to advance the interests of commerce for everyone involved. This paper addresses online MBA (Master of Business Administration) degrees and the nature of its presence alongside the more traditional face-to-face MBA program.…

  2. E-Commerce and Privacy: Conflict and Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farah, Badie N.; Higby, Mary A.

    2001-01-01

    Electronic commerce has intensified conflict between businesses' need to collect data and customers' desire to protect privacy. Web-based privacy tools and legislation could add to the costs of e-commerce and reduce profitability. Business models not based on profiling customers may be needed. (SK)

  3. E-Commerce Comes Slowly But Surely to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revenaugh, Mickey

    2000-01-01

    Discusses why e-commerce is being used so sparingly by big business and school purchasers alike, the benefits on going on-line for school buyers, and the integration of e-commerce with the district's accounting and management information systems. Available online services are detailed. (GR)

  4. No Small Change: E-Commerce in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Evan T.

    2002-01-01

    Explains how electronic commerce (e-commerce) principles can be useful for distance education in higher education. Topics include business-to-business and business-to-consumer models; entering the marketplace; understanding the institution's capabilities; knowing the competition; and sound financial models. (LRW)

  5. The Influence of Information Ecology on E-Commerce Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detlor, Brian

    2001-01-01

    Explores the influence of an organization's information ecology, or internal information environment, on a firm's electronic commerce initiatives and plans. Reports results from a case study investigation on the adoption and use of an e-commerce initiative, a corporate portal, by participants at a large Canadian company. (Author/LRW)

  6. Ferment in Business Education: E-Commerce Master's Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durlabhji, Subhash; Fusilier, Marcelline R.

    2002-01-01

    A review of curriculum and course descriptions of 67 Web-based electronic commerce master's programs showed that the number of programs grew 76% over 8 months. More nontechnical than technology-centered courses are offered. Business schools are apparently viewing e-commerce as a completely new discipline. (Contains 26 references.) (SK)

  7. Research Reveals Scale of College Union E-Commerce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Guy Patrick; Henry, Wilma J.

    2000-01-01

    Reports results of a survey of member schools of the Association of College Unions International concerning extent of e-commerce being conducted on the Web. College Web sites were also evaluated for information on e-commerce activities. A list of institutions currently conducting interactive business and the type of business being conducted is…

  8. From EDI to Internet Commerce: The BHP Steel Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Caroline; Swatman, Paula M. C.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the issue of business-to-business electronic commerce implementation and the factors affecting it. Discusses electronic data interchange technology, describes the results of a case study of BHP Steel (Australia), and considers paradigm shifts in implementation issues related to electronic commerce that occur over time. (Author/LRW)

  9. Electronic Commerce: Government Services in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Terrence A., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This newsletter features innovations in resource management and information technology to support New York State government. The newsletter contains the following six sections: (1) "Electronic Commerce: Government Services in the New Millennium" -- examining the need for government involvement in electronic commerce policy and partnership; (2)…

  10. A Framework for Global Electronic Commerce: An Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of the Press Secretary of the White House

    1997-01-01

    An abbreviated version of a longer policy document on electronic commerce released by the Clinton Administration, this article examines principles and recommendations on tariffs, taxes, electronic payment systems, uniform commercial code for electronic commerce, intellectual property protection, privacy, security, telecommunications infrastructure…

  11. Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. Public Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This document presents the text of Public Law 106-229, the "Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act." The act states that, with respect to any transaction in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce: a signature, contract, or other record relating to such transaction may not be denied legal effect, validity, or enforceability…

  12. New Rage on Campus: E-Commerce Degrees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    As electronic commerce expands, higher education attempts to keep up with the demand for instruction. Some universities have added a concentration in e-commerce to their master of business administration program and others are adding majors, certifications, or degrees. (JOW)

  13. 40 CFR 763.169 - Distribution in commerce prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Prohibition of the Manufacture, Importation, Processing, and Distribution in Commerce of Certain Asbestos-Containing Products; Labeling Requirements § 763.169 Distribution in commerce... States or for export, any of the asbestos-containing products listed at § 763.165(a). (b) After August...

  14. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  15. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  16. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  17. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  18. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  19. 77 FR 1513 - Air Show and Air Races; Public Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Air Show and Air Races; Public Hearing TIME AND DATE: 9 a.m., Tuesday, January 10, 2012... hearing is to examine current regulations and oversight practices for air shows and air races,...

  20. 15 CFR 19.9 - When will Commerce entities transfer a Commerce debt to the Treasury Department's Financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... accordance with the procedures described in 31 CFR 285.12. The Financial Management Service takes appropriate... Commerce debt to the Treasury Department's Financial Management Service for collection? 19.9 Section 19.9... Department's Financial Management Service for collection? (a) Commerce entities will transfer any...

  1. 15 CFR 19.9 - When will Commerce entities transfer a Commerce debt to the Treasury Department's Financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... accordance with the procedures described in 31 CFR 285.12. The Financial Management Service takes appropriate... Commerce debt to the Treasury Department's Financial Management Service for collection? 19.9 Section 19.9... Department's Financial Management Service for collection? (a) Commerce entities will transfer any...

  2. 15 CFR 19.9 - When will Commerce entities transfer a Commerce debt to the Treasury Department's Financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... accordance with the procedures described in 31 CFR 285.12. The Financial Management Service takes appropriate... Commerce debt to the Treasury Department's Financial Management Service for collection? 19.9 Section 19.9... Department's Financial Management Service for collection? (a) Commerce entities will transfer any...

  3. 15 CFR 19.9 - When will Commerce entities transfer a Commerce debt to the Treasury Department's Financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... services, a process known as “cross-servicing.” See 31 U.S.C. 3711(g) and 31 CFR 285.12. Commerce entities... accordance with the procedures described in 31 CFR 285.12. The Financial Management Service takes appropriate... to the Commerce debt and the collection action to be taken. See 31 CFR 285.12(b) and...

  4. EPA's Implementation of Laws Regulating Asbestos Hazards in Schools and in the Air. Hearing before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Operations.

    A hearing was held by the Subcommittee on Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources on the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) implementation of laws regulating asbestos hazards in schools and in the air. Presented are testimony as well as letters and statements submitted for the record by leading authorities in the area including: (1) James…

  5. Soil and water warming accelerates phenology and down-regulation of leaf photosynthesis of rice plants grown under free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE).

    PubMed

    Adachi, Minaco; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Fukayama, Hiroshi; Tokida, Takeshi; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Matsunami, Toshinori; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Sameshima, Ryoji; Okada, Masumi

    2014-02-01

    To enable prediction of future rice production in a changing climate, we need to understand the interactive effects of temperature and elevated [CO2] (E[CO2]). We therefore examined if the effect of E[CO2] on the light-saturated leaf photosynthetic rate (Asat) was affected by soil and water temperature (NT, normal; ET, elevated) under open-field conditions at the rice free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) facility in Shizukuishi, Japan, in 2007 and 2008. Season-long E[CO2] (+200 µmol mol(-1)) increased Asat by 26%, when averaged over two years, temperature regimes and growth stages. The effect of ET (+2°C) on Asat was not significant at active tillering and heading, but became negative and significant at mid-grain filling; Asat in E[CO2]-ET was higher than in ambient [CO2] (A[CO2])-NT by only 4%. Photosynthetic down-regulation at E[CO2] also became apparent at mid-grain filling; Asat compared at the same [CO2] in the leaf cuvette was significantly lower in plants grown in E[CO2] than in those grown in A[CO2]. The additive effects of E[CO2] and ET decreased Asat by 23% compared with that of A[CO2]-NT plants. Although total crop nitrogen (N) uptake was increased by ET, N allocation to the leaves and to Rubisco was reduced under ET and E[CO2] at mid-grain filling, which resulted in a significant decrease (32%) in the maximum rate of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation on a leaf area basis. Because the change in N allocation was associated with the accelerated phenology in E[CO2]-ET plants, we conclude that soil and water warming accelerates photosynthetic down-regulation at E[CO2].

  6. Soil and water warming accelerates phenology and down-regulation of leaf photosynthesis of rice plants grown under free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE).

    PubMed

    Adachi, Minaco; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Fukayama, Hiroshi; Tokida, Takeshi; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Matsunami, Toshinori; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Sameshima, Ryoji; Okada, Masumi

    2014-02-01

    To enable prediction of future rice production in a changing climate, we need to understand the interactive effects of temperature and elevated [CO2] (E[CO2]). We therefore examined if the effect of E[CO2] on the light-saturated leaf photosynthetic rate (Asat) was affected by soil and water temperature (NT, normal; ET, elevated) under open-field conditions at the rice free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) facility in Shizukuishi, Japan, in 2007 and 2008. Season-long E[CO2] (+200 µmol mol(-1)) increased Asat by 26%, when averaged over two years, temperature regimes and growth stages. The effect of ET (+2°C) on Asat was not significant at active tillering and heading, but became negative and significant at mid-grain filling; Asat in E[CO2]-ET was higher than in ambient [CO2] (A[CO2])-NT by only 4%. Photosynthetic down-regulation at E[CO2] also became apparent at mid-grain filling; Asat compared at the same [CO2] in the leaf cuvette was significantly lower in plants grown in E[CO2] than in those grown in A[CO2]. The additive effects of E[CO2] and ET decreased Asat by 23% compared with that of A[CO2]-NT plants. Although total crop nitrogen (N) uptake was increased by ET, N allocation to the leaves and to Rubisco was reduced under ET and E[CO2] at mid-grain filling, which resulted in a significant decrease (32%) in the maximum rate of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation on a leaf area basis. Because the change in N allocation was associated with the accelerated phenology in E[CO2]-ET plants, we conclude that soil and water warming accelerates photosynthetic down-regulation at E[CO2]. PMID:24406632

  7. Usability evaluation techniques in mobile commerce applications: A systematic review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.

    2016-08-01

    Obviously, there are a number of literatures concerning the usability of mobile commerce (m-commerce) applications and related areas, but they do not adequately provide knowledge about usability techniques used in most of the empirical usability evaluation for m-commerce application. Therefore, this paper is aimed at producing the usability techniques frequently used in the aspect of usability evaluation for m-commerce applications. To achieve the stated objective, systematic literature review was employed. Sixty seven papers were downloaded in usability evaluation for m-commerce and related areas; twenty one most relevant studies were selected for review in order to extract the appropriate information. The results from the review shows that heuristic evaluation, formal test and think aloud methods are the most commonly used methods in m-commerce application in comparison to cognitive walkthrough and the informal test methods. Moreover, most of the studies applied control experiment (33.3% of the total studies); other studies that applied case study for usability evaluation are 14.28%. The results from this paper provide additional knowledge to the usability practitioners and research community for the current state and use of usability techniques in m-commerce application.

  8. 15 CFR 9.7 - Department of Commerce energy conservation mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Department of Commerce energy conservation mark. 9.7 Section 9.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR A VOLUNTARY LABELING PROGRAM FOR HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT TO EFFECT ENERGY CONSERVATION § 9.7 Department of Commerce...

  9. 78 FR 31551 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Commerce Patent Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... was published in Federal Register at 77 FR 43082, on July 23, 2012. One respondent submitted comments... February 18, 1983, and Executive Order 12591, Facilitating Access to Science and Technology, dated April 10... contracts pertaining to inventions made in the performance of experimental, developmental, or research...

  10. 77 FR 43082 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Commerce Patent Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ..., Facilitating Access to Science and Technology dated April 10, 1987. Under the subpart, a contracting officer...-Ownership by the Government, in solicitations and contracts pertaining to inventions made in the performance... contractor must report all subject inventions to the contracting officer, submit a disclosure of...

  11. A decision technology system for health care electronic commerce.

    PubMed

    Forgionne, G A; Gangopadhyay, A; Klein, J A; Eckhardt, R

    1999-08-01

    Mounting costs have escalated the pressure on health care providers and payers to improve decision making and control expenses. Transactions to form the needed decision data will routinely flow, often electronically, between the affected parties. Conventional health care information systems facilitate flow, process transactions, and generate useful decision information. Typically, such support is offered through a series of stand-alone systems that lose much useful decision knowledge and wisdom during health care electronic commerce (e-commerce). Integrating the stand-alone functions can enhance the quality and efficiency of the segmented support, create synergistic effects, and augment decision-making performance and value for both providers and payers. This article presents an information system that can provide complete and integrated support for e-commerce-based health care decision making. The article describes health care e-commerce, presents the system, examines the system's potential use and benefits, and draws implications for health care management and practice. PMID:10539421

  12. 40 CFR 763.169 - Distribution in commerce prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... any other person who is subject to a ban on distribution in commerce in paragraph (a) or (b) of this section must, within 6 months of the effective date of the ban of a specific asbestos-containing...

  13. E-Commerce May Help Colleges Cut Costs and Paperwork.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Florence

    2000-01-01

    Describes the increasing trend of incorporating electronic commerce methods to purchasing systems at colleges and universities. Provides examples from the University of Pennsylvania, Harvard University (Massachusetts), California State University at Fullerton, and the University of California at Los Angeles. (DB)

  14. A decision technology system for health care electronic commerce.

    PubMed

    Forgionne, G A; Gangopadhyay, A; Klein, J A; Eckhardt, R

    1999-08-01

    Mounting costs have escalated the pressure on health care providers and payers to improve decision making and control expenses. Transactions to form the needed decision data will routinely flow, often electronically, between the affected parties. Conventional health care information systems facilitate flow, process transactions, and generate useful decision information. Typically, such support is offered through a series of stand-alone systems that lose much useful decision knowledge and wisdom during health care electronic commerce (e-commerce). Integrating the stand-alone functions can enhance the quality and efficiency of the segmented support, create synergistic effects, and augment decision-making performance and value for both providers and payers. This article presents an information system that can provide complete and integrated support for e-commerce-based health care decision making. The article describes health care e-commerce, presents the system, examines the system's potential use and benefits, and draws implications for health care management and practice.

  15. 3. 52436 Royal Street, Lille Sarpy's 'Maison De Commerce', Photographed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. 524-36 Royal Street, Lille Sarpy's 'Maison De Commerce', Photographed September, 1936 GENERAL VIEW OF ROYAL STREET (FRONT) FACADE, TAKEN FROM SECOND FLOOR BALCONY ACROSS THE STREET - Royal Street (Commercial Buildings), New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  16. CORECT: Committee On Renewable Energy Commerce and Trade, 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-12-01

    An overview of the activities of CORECT (Committee on Renewable Energy, Commerce and Trade) for 1991 is presented as a series of highlights and photographs of projects underway in Mexico, Guatemala, Montserrat, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, and others.

  17. Commerce Lab: Mission analysis and payload integration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The needs of an aggressive commercial microgravity program are identified, space missions are defined, and infrastructural issues are identified and analyzed. A commercial laboratory, commerce lab, is conceived to be one or more an array of carriers which would fly aboard the space shuttle and accommodate microgravity science experiment payloads. Commerce lab is seen as a logical transition between currently planned space shuttle missions and future microgravity missions centered around the space station.

  18. E-Commerce Sites: Use Intention by Brazilian Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimaraes, Cayley; Lacerda, Lucas; Antunes, Diego R.

    This article discusses the behavior of Brazilian's intention of use e-commerce sites. To explain its use, or not, the Unified Theory of Acceptance of Technology (UTAUT) was used. A survey was conducted through a questionnaire based on variables from UTAUT available for twenty days over the Web, that prompted 1900 responses. The results indicate that Effort and Social Influence are the variables of the model that better explain Brazilian user's intention to use e-commerce sites.

  19. 50 CFR 216.86 - Local regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Local regulations. 216.86 Section 216.86..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.86 Local regulations. Local regulations will be published from...

  20. Cell volume regulation in the perfused liver of a freshwater air-breathing cat fish Clarias batrachus under aniso-osmotic conditions: roles of inorganic ions and taurine.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Carina; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2006-12-01

    The roles of various inorganic ions and taurine, an organic osmolyte, in cell volume regulation were investigated in the perfused liver of a freshwater air-breathing catfish Clarias batrachus under aniso-osmotic conditions. There was a transient increase and decrease of liver cell volume following hypotonic (-80 mOsmol/l) and hypertonic (+80 mOsmol/l) exposures,respectively, which gradually decreased/increased near to the control level due to release/uptake of water within a period of 25-30 min. Liver volume decrease was accompanied by enhanced efflux of K+ (9.45 +/- 0.54 micromol/g liver) due to activation of Ba(2+)- and quinidine-sensitive K(+) channel, and to a lesser extent due to enhanced efflux of Cl(-) (4.35+/- 0.25 micromol/g liver) and Na+ (3.68+/- 0.37 micromol/g liver). Conversely, upon hypertonic exposure, there was amiloride-and ouabain-sensitive uptake of K+ (9.78+/- 0.65 micromol/g liver), and also Cl(-) (3.72 +/- 0.25 micromol/g liver).The alkalization/acidification of the liver effluents under hypo-/hypertonicity was mainly due to movement of various ions during volume regulatory processes. Taurine,an important organic osmolyte, appears also to play a very important role in hepatocyte cell volume regulation in the walking catfish as evidenced by the fact that hypo- and hyper-osmolarity caused transient efflux (5.68 +/- 0.38 micromol/g liver) and uptake (6.38 +/- 0.45 micromol/g liver) of taurine, respectively. The taurine efflux was sensitive to 4,4' -di-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS, an anion channel blocker), but the uptake was insensitive to DIDS, thus indicating that the release and uptake of taurine during volume regulatory processes are unidirectional. Although the liver of walking catfish possesses the RVD and RVI mechanisms, it is to be noted that liver cells remain partly swollen and shrunken during anisotonic exposures,thereby possibly causing various volume-sensitive metabolic changes in the liver as reported earlier

  1. Air Pollution and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  2. Ambient salinity modifies the action of triiodothyronine in the air-breathing fish Anabas testudineus Bloch: effects on mitochondria-rich cell distribution, osmotic and metabolic regulations.

    PubMed

    Peter, M C Subhash; Leji, J; Peter, Valsa S

    2011-04-01

    The hydromineral and metabolic actions of thyroid hormone on osmotic acclimation in fish is less understood. We, therefore, studied the short-term action of triiodothyronine (T(3)), the potent thyroid hormone, on the distribution and the function of gill mitochondria-rich (MR) cells and on the whole body hydromineral and metabolic regulations of air-breathing fish (Anabas testudineus) adapted to either freshwater (FW) or acclimated to seawater (SA; 30 g L(-1)). As expected, 24 h T(3) injection (100 ng g(-1)) elevated (P<0.05) plasma T(3) but classically reduced (P<0.05) plasma T(4). The higher Na(+), K(+)-ATPase immunoreactivity and the varied distribution pattern of MR cells in the gills of T(3)-treated FW and SA fish, suggest an action of T(3) on gill MR cell migration, though the density of these cells remained unchanged after T(3) treatment. The ouabain-sensitive Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity, a measure of hydromineral competence, showed increases (P<0.05) in the gills of both FW and SA fish after T(3) administration, but inhibited (P<0.05) in the kidney of the FW fish and not in the SA fish. Exogenous T(3) reduced glucose (P<0.05) and urea (P<0.05) in the plasma of FW fish, whereas these metabolites were elevated (P<0.05) in the SA fish, suggesting a modulatory effect of ambient salinity on the T(3)-driven metabolic actions. Our data identify gill MR cell as a target for T(3) action as it promotes the spatial distribution and the osmotic function of these cells in both fresh water and in seawater. The results besides confirming the metabolic and osmotic actions of T(3) in fish support the hypothesis that the differential actions of T(3) may be due to the direct influence of ambient salinity, a major environmental determinant that alters the osmotic and metabolic strategies of fish.

  3. Brd4 bridges the transcriptional regulators, Aire and P-TEFb, to promote elongation of peripheral-tissue antigen transcripts in thymic stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hideyuki; Bansal, Kushagra; Schaefer, Uwe; Chapman, Trevor; Rioja, Inmaculada; Proekt, Irina; Anderson, Mark S; Prinjha, Rab K; Tarakhovsky, Alexander; Benoist, Christophe; Mathis, Diane

    2015-08-11

    Aire controls immunologic tolerance by inducing a battery of thymic transcripts encoding proteins characteristic of peripheral tissues. Its unusually broad effect is achieved by releasing RNA polymerase II paused just downstream of transcriptional start sites. We explored Aire's collaboration with the bromodomain-containing protein, Brd4, uncovering an astonishing correspondence between those genes induced by Aire and those inhibited by a small-molecule bromodomain blocker. Aire:Brd4 binding depended on an orchestrated series of posttranslational modifications within Aire's caspase activation and recruitment domain. This interaction attracted P-TEFb, thereby mobilizing downstream transcriptional elongation and splicing machineries. Aire:Brd4 association was critical for tolerance induction, and its disruption could account for certain point mutations that provoke human autoimmune disease. Our findings evoke the possibility of unanticipated immunologic mechanisms subtending the potent antitumor effects of bromodomain blockers.

  4. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  5. 50 CFR 216.2 - Scope of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... marine mammal products, see 50 CFR part 18. ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Introduction § 216.2 Scope of regulations. This part 216 applies solely to marine mammals and marine...

  6. 50 CFR 216.2 - Scope of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... marine mammal products, see 50 CFR part 18. ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Introduction § 216.2 Scope of regulations. This part 216 applies solely to marine mammals and marine...

  7. 50 CFR 216.4 - Other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Introduction § 216.4 Other laws and regulations. (a) Federal. Nothing in this part, nor any...

  8. 50 CFR 216.4 - Other laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Introduction § 216.4 Other laws and regulations. (a) Federal. Nothing in this part, nor any...

  9. 50 CFR 216.2 - Scope of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... marine mammal products, see 50 CFR part 18. ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Introduction § 216.2 Scope of regulations. This part 216 applies solely to marine mammals and marine...

  10. 50 CFR 216.2 - Scope of regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... marine mammal products, see 50 CFR part 18. ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Introduction § 216.2 Scope of regulations. This part 216 applies solely to marine mammals and marine...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1929 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1929 Section 52.1929 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air... preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  12. 14 CFR Section 04 - Air Carrier Groupings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air Carrier Groupings Section 04 Section 04... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Section 04 Air Carrier Groupings (a) All large certificated air carriers are placed into three basic air carrier groupings...

  13. 14 CFR Section 04 - Air Carrier Groupings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air Carrier Groupings Section 04 Section 04... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Section 04 Air Carrier Groupings (a) All large certificated air carriers are placed into three basic air carrier groupings...

  14. 14 CFR Section 04 - Air Carrier Groupings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air Carrier Groupings Section 04 Section 04... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Section 04 Air Carrier Groupings (a) All large certificated air carriers are placed into three basic air carrier groupings...

  15. 14 CFR Section 04 - Air Carrier Groupings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air Carrier Groupings Section 04 Section 04... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Section 04 Air Carrier Groupings (a) All large certificated air carriers are placed into three basic air carrier groupings...

  16. 78 FR 61743 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations: Initial Implementation of Export Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... October 3, 2013 Part VII Department of Commerce Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Parts 730, 732, 734... / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Parts 730... Reform; Correction AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Final rule;...

  17. Study on supply chain management in tourism e-commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yaodong; Wu, Shuyan; Ma, Haiyan

    2009-07-01

    On-line customer research has been conducted for European and American markets by marketers and academics. Whilst e-Commerce and tourism develop rapidly in China, and the fraud information in E-commerce market makes the conditions of information asymmetry becoming more seriously, understanding of Chinese internet travelers is required. This paper reviews current research on supply chain management (SCM) within the context of tourism. SCM in the manufacturing industry has attracted widespread research interest over the past two decades, whereas studies of SCM in the tourism e-commerce are very limited. The potential benefit of considering not only individual enterprises but also the tourism value chain becomes evident. This paper presents the model e-market structure and process analysis of tourism e-commerce, and also sets up tourism supply chain and tourism e-commerce system to probe how to apply tourism ecommerce to promote the sustainable development of tourism. The paper also identifies key research questions in TSCM worthy of future theoretical and empirical exploration.

  18. Agent-based services for B2B electronic commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Elizabeth; Ivezic, Nenad; Rhodes, Tom; Peng, Yun

    2000-12-01

    The potential of agent-based systems has not been realized yet, in part, because of the lack of understanding of how the agent technology supports industrial needs and emerging standards. The area of business-to-business electronic commerce (b2b e-commerce) is one of the most rapidly developing sectors of industry with huge impact on manufacturing practices. In this paper, we investigate the current state of agent technology and the feasibility of applying agent-based computing to b2b e-commerce in the circuit board manufacturing sector. We identify critical tasks and opportunities in the b2b e-commerce area where agent-based services can best be deployed. We describe an implemented agent-based prototype system to facilitate the bidding process for printed circuit board manufacturing and assembly. These activities are taking place within the Internet Commerce for Manufacturing (ICM) project, the NIST- sponsored project working with industry to create an environment where small manufacturers of mechanical and electronic components may participate competitively in virtual enterprises that manufacture printed circuit assemblies.

  19. 15 CFR 9.7 - Department of Commerce energy conservation mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... conservation mark. 9.7 Section 9.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR A VOLUNTARY LABELING PROGRAM FOR HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT TO EFFECT ENERGY CONSERVATION § 9.7 Department of Commerce energy conservation mark. The Department of Commerce shall develop...

  20. An Exploratory Investigation of Requisite Skills Needed by Developers of E-Commerce Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aladwani, Adel M.

    The aim of this exploratory study is to identify the skills needed by developers of Electronic Commerce (e-Commerce) systems. The paper proposes a framework pertaining to three categories of e-Commerce development knowledge: technical, human, and organizational. The initial findings reveal that there are some 16 possible e-Commerce skills tapping…