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Sample records for air commerce regulations

  1. 75 FR 10567 - Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ...We, the Department of Commerce, issue a final rule to bring the Commerce Acquisition Regulation in alignment with the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) and to streamline DOC's internal policy and guidance. This final rule updates the entire CAR through FAC 2005-...

  2. 75 FR 14496 - Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR); Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... CFR Part 1352 RIN 0605-AA26 Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR); Correction AGENCY: Department of...: On March 8, 2010, the Department of Commerce published a final rule to amend the CAR to update the regulations since its last revision on September 12, 1995. That rule updated the CAR to bring it...

  3. 77 FR 25371 - Transportation of Household Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer Protection Regulations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer Protection Regulations: Released Rates of Motor Carriers of..., 1995) abolished the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), which previously had jurisdiction over the... goods motor carriers that provide for-hire transportation in interstate or foreign commerce....

  4. 77 FR 41699 - Transportation of Household Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer Protection Regulations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer Protection Regulations: Household Goods Motor Carrier Record... commerce. This rulemaking is based on the statutory provisions cited above and on the Household Goods Mover... HOUSEHOLD GOODS IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE; CONSUMER PROTECTION REGULATIONS 0 1. The authority citation for...

  5. Shaping the norms that regulate international commerce of embryos.

    PubMed

    Gard, Julie A; Stringfellow, David A

    2014-01-01

    As various embryo technologies in livestock were developed and evolved to a state of usefulness over the past 40 years, scientists with a specific interest in infectious diseases sought to determine the epidemiologic consequences of movement, especially international movement, of increasing numbers of embryos. Many of the foundational studies in this area were reported in Theriogenology, beginning in the 1970s and especially throughout the 1980s and 1990s. Unquestionably, Theriogenology has been a widely used venue for dissemination of basic information on this subject, which ultimately led to the development of the now universally accepted techniques for certification of embryo health. Today it is well-recognized that movement in commerce of embryos, especially in vivo-derived embryos, is a very low-risk method for exchange of animal germ plasm. This paper chronicles the evolution of strategies for health certification of embryos. An overview is provided of the calculated efforts of practitioners, scientists, and regulators to organize, forge necessary partnerships, stimulate needed research, provide purposeful analysis of the results, and, through these processes, guarantee the universal acceptance of efficient protocols for certifying the health of embryos intended for movement in international commerce.

  6. International Safety Regulation and Standards for Space Travel and Commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelton, J. N.; Jakhu, R.

    The evolution of air travel has led to the adoption of the 1944 Chicago Convention that created the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), headquartered in Montreal, Canada, and the propagation of aviation safety standards. Today, ICAO standardizes and harmonizes commercial air safety worldwide. Space travel and space safety are still at an early stage of development, and the adoption of international space safety standards and regulation still remains largely at the national level. This paper explores the international treaties and conventions that govern space travel, applications and exploration today and analyzes current efforts to create space safety standards and regulations at the national, regional and global level. Recent efforts to create a commercial space travel industry and to license commercial space ports are foreseen as means to hasten a space safety regulatory process.

  7. 15 CFR 19.2 - Why has the Commerce Department issuing these regulations and what do they cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Why has the Commerce Department issuing these regulations and what do they cover? 19.2 Section 19.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION General Provisions § 19.2 Why has the...

  8. 77 FR 51706 - Transportation of Household Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer Protection Regulations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 375 RIN 2126-AB41 Transportation of Household Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer Protection Regulations: Household Goods Motor Carrier...

  9. International trade and air pollution: estimating the economic costs of air emissions from waterborne commerce vessels in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Kevin P

    2005-10-01

    Although there is a burgeoning literature on the effects of international trade on the environment, relatively little work has been done on where trade most directly effects the environment: the transportation sector. This article shows how international trade is affecting air pollution emissions in the United States' shipping sector. Recent work has shown that cargo ships have been long overlooked regarding their contribution to air pollution. Indeed, ship emissions have recently been deemed "the last unregulated source of traditional air pollutants". Air pollution from ships has a number of significant local, national, and global environmental effects. Building on past studies, we examine the economic costs of this increasing and unregulated form of environmental damage. We find that total emissions from ships are largely increasing due to the increase in foreign commerce (or international trade). The economic costs of SO2 pollution range from dollars 697 million to dollars 3.9 billion during the period examined, or dollars 77 to dollars 435 million on an annual basis. The bulk of the cost is from foreign commerce, where the annual costs average to dollars 42 to dollars 241 million. For NOx emissions the costs are dollars 3.7 billion over the entire period or dollars 412 million per year. Because foreign trade is driving the growth in US shipping, we also estimate the effect of the Uruguay Round on emissions. Separating out the effects of global trade agreements reveals that the trade agreement-led emissions amounted to dollars 96 to dollars 542 million for SO2 between 1993 and 2001, or dollars 10 to dollars 60 million per year. For NOx they were dollars 745 million for the whole period or dollars 82 million per year. Without adequate policy responses, we predict that these trends and costs will continue into the future.

  10. Colorado Air Quality Control Regulations and Ambient Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Health, Denver. Div. of Air Pollution Control.

    Regulations and standards relative to air quality control in Colorado are defined in this publication. Presented first are definitions of terms, a statement of intent, and general provisions applicable to all emission control regulations adopted by the Colorado Air Pollution Control Commission. Following this, three regulations are enumerated: (1)…

  11. Output-Based Regulations: A Handbook for Air Regulators

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This handbook assists air regulators in developing emission regulations that recognize the pollution prevention benefits of CHP, and to assist CHP project owners in understanding and complying with output-based environmental regulations.

  12. An assessment of indoor air quality in recent Mexican immigrant housing in Commerce City, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Shelly L.; Scaramella, Peter; Campe, Joseph; Goss, Cynthia W.; Diaz-Castillo, Sandra; Hendrikson, Ed; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Litt, Jill

    An indoor air quality assessment was conducted on 100 homes of recent Mexican immigrants in Commerce City, Colorado, an urban industrial community north of Denver. Head of households were administered a family health survey, filled out an activity diary, and participated in a home inspection. Carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO 2) were measured for 24 h inside the main living area and outside of the homes. Harvard Impactors were used to collect 24-h samples of PM 2.5 at the same locations for gravimetric analysis. Dust samples were collected by vacuuming carpeting and flooring at four locations within the home and analyzed by ELISA for seven allergens. Mean indoor and outdoor PM 2.5 levels were 27.2 and 8.5 μg m -3, respectively. Indoor PM 2.5 and CO 2 were elevated in homes for which the number of hours with door/window open was zero compared to homes in which the number of hours was high (>15 h). Indoor PM 2.5 levels did not correlate with outdoor levels and tended to increase with number of inhabitants, and results indicate that the source of indoor particles were occupants and their activities, excluding smoking and cooking. Mean indoor CO 2 and CO levels were 1170 and 2.4 ppm, respectively. Carbon monoxide was higher than the 24-h National Ambient Air Quality Standard in 3 of the homes. The predominant allergens were cat ( Fel d 1) and mouse ( Mus m 1) allergens, found in 20 and 34 homes, respectively.

  13. Electric Commerce

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    numbed) FIE9 02 GRU U-RU Business Communication Protocol (BCP), computerized commerce , E -bankinj 09 02 -CD -ce electronic commerce , E -marketplace, E ...payment 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse If neceuriy and ident by block number) Computerized Commerce , or E - Commerce , is commercial transaction (e.g...continued] This report describes many aspects of E - Commerce and its potential benefits: electronic gathering of needed pre-purchase information; E -CBD

  14. Electronic Commerce and Competitive Procurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    Explains the application of electronic commerce techniques (electronic data interchange (EDI), electronic mail (E-mail), electronic bulletin boards...purchase procedures of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR). Changes to the FAR to recognize electronic commerce are recommended. Also discussed...are opportunities to use electronic commerce and small business and legal considerations of electronic commerce . This report describes how electronic

  15. Emerging Latin American air quality regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hosmer, A.W.; Vitale, E.M.; Guerrero, C.R.; Solorzano-Vincent, L.

    1998-12-31

    Latin America is the most urbanized region in the developing world. In recent years, significant economic growth has resulted in population migration from rural areas to urban centers, as well as in a substantial rise in the standard of living within the Region. These changes have impacted the air quality of Latin American countries as increased numbers of industrial facilities and motor vehicles release pollutants into the air. With the advent of new free trade agreements such as MERCOSUR and NAFTA, economic activity and associated pollutant levels can only be expected to continue to expand in the future. In order to address growing air pollution problems, many Latin America countries including Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica, and Mexico have passed, or will soon pass, new legislation to develop and strengthen their environmental frameworks with respect to air quality. As a first step toward understanding the impacts that this increased environmental regulation will have, this paper will examine the regulatory systems in six Latin American countries with respect to ambient air quality and for each of these countries: review a short history of the air quality problems within the country; outline the legal and institutional framework including key laws and implementing institutions; summarize in brief the current status of the country in terms of program development and implementation; and identify projected future trends. In addition, the paper will briefly review the international treaties that have bearing on Latin American air quality. Finally, the paper will conclude by identifying and exploring emerging trends in individual countries and the region as a whole.

  16. Danube refinery operates under complex air regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Aalund, L.R.

    1994-05-30

    A good example of a major refinery coping with German environmental regulations is the Erdoel-Raffinerie Neustadt GmbH Co. (ERN) refinery near the town of Neustadt a.d. Donau, or Neustadt on the Danube, in lower Bavaria. The 7 million tons/year (144,000 b/d) complex refinery deals regularly with nearly 30 different crude oils, arriving via the Italian port of Trieste and the Trans Alpine Line from the Middle East, North and West Africa, Venezuela, and the North Sea. Table 1 is a listing of these crudes and some of their characteristics that are important in the refinery's environmental program. ERN is in a relatively isolated pastoral setting of fields and forests about 1[1/2] miles south of the Danube. Hops which go into the world famous Bavarian beers are a major crop in the region and the refinery is only 2 miles from a spa popular since the Romans occupied the Danube valley. German physicians still send patients there to relax, drink the waters, and breathe the country air for a variety of ailments. In short, ERN is in a high-profile setting that demands maximum attention be paid to environmental matters. The paper first describes the various German regulations that affect refineries, then discusses the monitoring and waste processing operations being performed by the ERN refinery.

  17. NASA Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Act Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) regulations have greatly impacted materials and processes utilized in the manufacture of aerospace hardware. Code JE/ NASA's Environmental Management Division at NASA Headquarters recognized the need for a formal, Agency-wide review process of CAA regulations. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was selected as the 'Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Act Regulations'. This presentation describes the centralized support provided by MSFC for the management and leadership of NASA's CAA regulation review process.

  18. 15 CFR 30.28 - “Split shipments” by air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false âSplit shipmentsâ by air. 30.28 Section 30.28 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Special Provisions and...

  19. 15 CFR 30.28 - “Split shipments” by air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false âSplit shipmentsâ by air. 30.28 Section 30.28 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Special Provisions and...

  20. 15 CFR 30.28 - “Split shipments” by air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false âSplit shipmentsâ by air. 30.28 Section 30.28 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Special Provisions and...

  1. 15 CFR 30.28 - “Split shipments” by air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false âSplit shipmentsâ by air. 30.28 Section 30.28 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Special Provisions and...

  2. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 21: Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations Manual is the last in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The manual…

  3. Air-flow regulation system for a coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1984-01-01

    An improved air-flow regulator for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which allows close air-flow regulation from a compressor source even though the pressure variations are too rapid for a single primary control loop to respond. The improved system includes a primary controller to control a valve in the main (large) air supply line to regulate large slow changes in flow. A secondary controller is used to control a smaller, faster acting valve in a secondary (small) air supply line parallel to the main line valve to regulate rapid cyclic deviations in air flow. A low-pass filter with a time constant of from 20 to 50 seconds couples the output of the secondary controller to the input of the primary controller so that the primary controller only responds to slow changes in the air-flow rate, the faster, cyclic deviations in flow rate sensed and corrected by the secondary controller loop do not reach the primary controller due to the high frequency rejection provided by the filter. This control arrangement provides at least a factor of 5 improvement in air-flow regulation for a coal gasifier in which air is supplied by a reciprocating compressor through a surge tank.

  4. 29 CFR 779.12 - Commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commerce. 779.12 Section 779.12 Labor Regulations Relating... OR SERVICES General Some Basic Definitions § 779.12 Commerce. Commerce as used in the Act includes interstate and foreign commerce. It is defined in section 3(b) of the Act to mean “trade,...

  5. 7 CFR 1215.4 - Commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commerce. 1215.4 Section 1215.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Commerce. Commerce means interstate, foreign, or intrastate commerce....

  6. 29 CFR 401.1 - Commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commerce. 401.1 Section 401.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.1 Commerce. Commerce means trade, traffic, commerce,...

  7. 19 CFR 122.73 - General declaration and air cargo manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard...

  8. 19 CFR 122.73 - General declaration and air cargo manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard...

  9. 19 CFR 122.73 - General declaration and air cargo manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard...

  10. 19 CFR 122.73 - General declaration and air cargo manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard...

  11. Surveying air traffic control specialist perception of scheduling regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Darrius E.

    While there have been several studies conducted on air traffic controller fatigue, there is a lack of research on the subject since the scheduling policy changes that took place in 2012. The effectiveness of these changes has yet to be measured. The goal of this study was to investigate air traffic control specialist views towards the number of hours scheduled between shifts, changes in perception since 2012 regulation changes, and external factors that impact fatigue. A total of 54 FAA air traffic control specialist completed an online questionnaire. The results from the survey showed that the majority of respondents felt the 2012 regulation changes were not sufficient to address fatigue issues, and work with some amount sleep deprivation. The factors that appeared to have the most significant effect on fatigue included facility level, age group, availability of recuperative breaks, and children under 18 in the home.

  12. 15 CFR 807.2 - Department of Commerce rules applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Department of Commerce rules applicable. 807.2 Section 807.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PUBLIC INFORMATION § 807.2 Department...

  13. 15 CFR 738.3 - Commerce Country Chart structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commerce Country Chart structure. 738.3 Section 738.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION...

  14. NASA's Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Act Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia

    2003-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was selected as the Principal Center for review of Clean Air Act (CAA) regulations. The CAA Principal Center is tasked to: 1) Provide centralized support to NASA/HDQ Code JE for the management and leadership of NASA's CAA regulation review process; 2) Identify potential impact from proposed CAA regulations to NASA program hardware and supporting facilities. The Shuttle Environmental Assurance Initiative, one of the responsibilities of the NASA CAA Working Group (WG), is described in part of this viewgraph presentation.

  15. Health effects of air quality regulations in Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Andrew; Kumar, Naresh

    2011-03-01

    This, the first systematic study, quantifies the health effects of air quality regulations in Delhi, which adopted radical measures to improve air quality, including, for example, the conversion of all commercial vehicles to compressed natural gas (CNG), and the closure of polluting industries in residential areas from 2000 to 2002. Air pollution data, collected at 113 sites (spread across Delhi and its neighboring areas) from July-December 2003, were used to compute exposure at the place of residence of 3989 subjects. A socio-economic and respiratory health survey was administered in 1576 households. This survey collected time-use, residence histories, demographic information, and direct measurements of lung function with subjects. The optimal interpolation methods were used to link air pollution and respiratory health data at the place of their residence. Resident histories, in combination with secondary data, were used to impute cumulative exposure prior to the air-quality interventions, and the effects of recent air quality measures on lung function were then evaluated. Three important findings emerge from the analysis. First, the interventions were associated with a significant improvement in respiratory health. Second, the effect of these interventions varied significantly by gender and income. Third, consistent with a causal interpretation of these results, effects were the strongest among those individuals who spend a disproportionate share of their time out-of-doors.

  16. 19 CFR 122.165 - Air cabotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Air cabotage. 122.165 Section 122.165 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.165 Air cabotage. (a) The air cabotage law (49 U.S.C. 41703... of U.S. registration except those foreign-registered aircraft leased or chartered to a U.S....

  17. 19 CFR 122.165 - Air cabotage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air cabotage. 122.165 Section 122.165 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.165 Air cabotage. (a) The air cabotage law (49 U.S.C. 41703... of U.S. registration except those foreign-registered aircraft leased or chartered to a U.S....

  18. Regulation in the Air: Price and Frequency Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deVillemeur, Etienne Billette

    2003-01-01

    Despite deregulation on the air-transportation markets, many connections are still operated by a single operator. Regulation is thus a central issue in this industry. There is however a great concern for the (possibly negative) consequences of price regulation on the quality of services. We argue that both aspects should be considered jointly and propose a mechanism that allow to decentralize the optimal structure of services in this industry. The regulatory procedure is robust to the introduction of heterogeneity in the travellers' valuation of the connections' frequency.

  19. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 774 - The Commerce Control List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2015-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2015-01-01 2015-01-01 false The Commerce Control List No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 774 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS THE COMMERCE CONTROL LIST Pt. 774, Supp....

  20. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 774 - The Commerce Control List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false The Commerce Control List No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 774 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS THE COMMERCE CONTROL LIST Pt. 774, Supp....

  1. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 774 - The Commerce Control List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false The Commerce Control List No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 774 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS THE COMMERCE CONTROL LIST Pt. 774, Supp....

  2. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 774 - The Commerce Control List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false The Commerce Control List No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 774 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS THE COMMERCE CONTROL LIST Pt. 774, Supp....

  3. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 774 - The Commerce Control List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false The Commerce Control List No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 774 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS THE COMMERCE CONTROL LIST Pt. 774, Supp....

  4. Regulation of indoor air quality: The last frontier of environmental regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, R.B.

    1994-12-31

    Indoor air pollution (IAP) is ranked by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) among the top five environmental risks to human health. The World Health Organization estimates that nearly one in every six commercial buildings in the United States suffers from sick-building syndrome and that occupants of another one in twelve suffer from building-related illnesses. Indoor air quality (IAQ) problems cost American business $10 billion per year through lowered productivity, absenteeism, and medical costs. Yet despite the importance and high cost of IAQ problems, indoor air is not yet specifically addressed in any federal regulatory program. The reason probably is because indoor air is a quanitatively different environment in which traditional modes of regulation, based on pollutant-by pollutant risk assessments, are of limited utility. This paper covers the following topics: four factors influencing IAQ regulation; EPA regulation of indoor air; the role of the consumer product safety commission; OSHA and IAQ issues; state regulation and economic concerns; the pressure for legislation.

  5. 76 FR 43230 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Virginia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 55 Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Virginia AGENCY... Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Air Regulations. Requirements applying to OCS sources located within...

  6. 76 FR 7518 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 55 Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Alaska AGENCY... of the Outer Continental Shelf (``OCS'') Air Regulations. Requirements applying to OCS sources..., Intergovernmental relations, Nitrogen dioxide, Nitrogen oxides, Outer Continental Shelf, Ozone, Particulate...

  7. 40 CFR 60.2888 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... § 60.2888 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or air curtain incinerators located...

  8. 40 CFR 60.2888 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... § 60.2888 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or air curtain incinerators located...

  9. 40 CFR 60.2888 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... § 60.2888 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or air curtain incinerators located...

  10. 40 CFR 60.2888 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... § 60.2888 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or air curtain incinerators located...

  11. 40 CFR 60.2888 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... § 60.2888 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or air curtain incinerators located...

  12. Definition of Regulated Air Pollutant for Purposes of Title V

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  13. 29 CFR 779.237 - Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce. 779.237 Section 779.237 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND... commerce or in the production of goods for commerce. Under section 3(s) the “enterprise” to be covered...

  14. Atomicity in Electronic Commerce,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    tremendous demand for the ability to electronically buy and sell goods over networks. Electronic commerce has inspired a large variety of work... commerce . It then briefly surveys some major types of electronic commerce pointing out flaws in atomicity. We pay special attention to the atomicity...problems of proposals for digital cash. The paper presents two examples of highly atomic electronic commerce systems: NetBill and Cryptographic Postage Indicia.

  15. 75 FR 51950 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Massachusetts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 55 Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Massachusetts AGENCY... portion of the Outer Continental Shelf (``OCS'') Air Regulations. Requirements applying to OCS sources... established requirements to control air pollution from Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) sources in order...

  16. 40 CFR 60.2994 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... December 9, 2004 Applicability of State Plans § 60.2994 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or...

  17. 40 CFR 60.2994 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... December 9, 2004 Applicability of State Plans § 60.2994 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or...

  18. 40 CFR 60.2994 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... December 9, 2004 Applicability of State Plans § 60.2994 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2994 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... December 9, 2004 Applicability of State Plans § 60.2994 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or...

  20. 40 CFR 60.2994 - Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Are air curtain incinerators regulated... December 9, 2004 Applicability of State Plans § 60.2994 Are air curtain incinerators regulated under this subpart? (a) Air curtain incinerators that burn less than 35 tons per day of municipal solid waste or...

  1. 19 CFR 122.48 - Air cargo manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for... paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section, an air cargo manifest need not be filed or retained aboard the... air express or freight shall be manifested as other air express or freight. (e) Accompanied baggage...

  2. 15 CFR Supplement No. 4 to Part 774 - Commerce Control List Order of Review

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... No. Supplement No. 4 to Part 774 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS THE COMMERCE CONTROL LIST Pt. 774, Supp. 4 Supplement No. 4 to Part 774—Commerce Control...

  3. Implications of a stochastic approach to air-quality regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Witten, A.J.; Kornegay, F.C.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Long, E.C. Jr.; Sharp, R.D.; Walsh, P.J.; Zeighami, E.A.; Gordon, J.S.; Lin, W.L.

    1982-09-01

    This study explores the viability of a stochastic approach to air quality regulations. The stochastic approach considered here is one which incorporates the variability which exists in sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) emissions from coal-fired power plants. Emission variability arises from a combination of many factors including variability in the composition of as-received coal such as sulfur content, moisture content, ash content, and heating value, as well as variability which is introduced in power plant operations. The stochastic approach as conceived in this study addresses variability by taking the SO/sub 2/ emission rate to be a random variable with specified statistics. Given the statistical description of the emission rate and known meteorological conditions, it is possible to predict the probability of a facility exceeding a specified emission limit or violating an established air quality standard. This study also investigates the implications of accounting for emissions variability by allowing compliance to be interpreted as an allowable probability of occurrence of given events. For example, compliance with an emission limit could be defined as the probability of exceeding a specified emission value, such as 1.2 lbs SO/sub 2//MMBtu, being less than 1%. In contrast, compliance is currently taken to mean that this limit shall never be exceeded, i.e., no exceedance probability is allowed. The focus of this study is on the economic benefits offered to facilities through the greater flexibility of the stochastic approach as compared with possible changes in air quality and health effects which could result.

  4. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requirements for transit air cargo transport. 122...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Transit Air Cargo Manifest (TACM) Procedures § 122.117 Requirements for transit air cargo transport. (a) Transportation—(1) Port to port. Transit air cargo may...

  5. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Requirements for transit air cargo transport. 122...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Transit Air Cargo Manifest (TACM) Procedures § 122.117 Requirements for transit air cargo transport. (a) Transportation—(1) Port to port. Transit air cargo may...

  6. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Requirements for transit air cargo transport. 122...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Transit Air Cargo Manifest (TACM) Procedures § 122.117 Requirements for transit air cargo transport. (a) Transportation—(1) Port to port. Transit air cargo may...

  7. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for transit air cargo transport. 122...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Transit Air Cargo Manifest (TACM) Procedures § 122.117 Requirements for transit air cargo transport. (a) Transportation—(1) Port to port. Transit air cargo may...

  8. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requirements for transit air cargo transport. 122...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Transit Air Cargo Manifest (TACM) Procedures § 122.117 Requirements for transit air cargo transport. (a) Transportation—(1) Port to port. Transit air cargo may...

  9. 77 FR 44231 - Delegation of Authority To Implement and Enforce Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... AGENCY Delegation of Authority To Implement and Enforce Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations to the... enforce sections of the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Air Regulations. To inform regulated facilities and... the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 55 (Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations). On February...

  10. 14 CFR 1300.3 - Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplementary regulations of the Air Transportation Stabilization Board. 1300.3 Section 1300.3 Aeronautics and Space AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM STABILIZATION OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET AVIATION DISASTER RELIEF-AIR CARRIER GUARANTEE LOAN...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix L to Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Pt. 51, App. L Appendix L to Part 51—Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution... air pollution from reaching levels that would cause imminent and substantial endangerment to...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix L to Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Pt. 51, App. L Appendix L to Part 51—Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution... air pollution from reaching levels that would cause imminent and substantial endangerment to...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 51 - Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Air Pollution Emergency Episodes L Appendix L to Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Pt. 51, App. L Appendix L to Part 51—Example Regulations for Prevention of Air Pollution... air pollution from reaching levels that would cause imminent and substantial endangerment to...

  14. 75 FR 23589 - Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance... Guard will enforce a safety zone on Lake Washington, WA for the annual Seafair Blue Angels Air Show from... establish a safety zone on the waters of Lake Washington for the annual Seafair Blue Angels Air...

  15. 75 FR 9780 - Technical Amendment to the Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 55 Technical Amendment to the Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency... Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations for Alaska. DATES: Effective on March 22, 2010. FOR...

  16. 76 FR 37274 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 55 Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Alaska AGENCY... of the Outer Continental Shelf (``OCS'') Air Regulations proposed in the Federal Register on February..., Nitrogen oxides, Outer Continental Shelf, Ozone, Particulate matter, Permits, Reporting and...

  17. 75 FR 51968 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Massachusetts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 55 Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Massachusetts AGENCY... update to a portion of the Outer Continental Shelf (``OCS'') Air Regulations. Requirements applying...

  18. 7 CFR 57.35 - Eggs in commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eggs in commerce. 57.35 Section 57.35 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Eggs in commerce. (a)(1) For eggs that moved or are moving in interstate or foreign commerce, no...

  19. 7 CFR 57.35 - Eggs in commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eggs in commerce. 57.35 Section 57.35 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Eggs in commerce. (a)(1) For eggs that moved or are moving in interstate or foreign commerce, no...

  20. 19 CFR 122.48 - Air cargo manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Air cargo manifest. 122.48 Section 122.48 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for..., and Overflying the United States § 122.48 Air cargo manifest. (a) When required. Except as provided...

  1. 19 CFR 122.163 - Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. 122.163...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.163 Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. (a) Application. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  2. 19 CFR 122.163 - Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. 122.163...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.163 Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. (a) Application. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  3. 19 CFR 122.113 - Form for transit air cargo manifest procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Form for transit air cargo manifest procedures... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Transit Air Cargo Manifest (TACM) Procedures § 122.113 Form for transit air cargo manifest procedures. A manifest on Customs Form 7509 is...

  4. 19 CFR 122.163 - Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. 122.163...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.163 Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. (a) Application. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  5. 19 CFR 122.113 - Form for transit air cargo manifest procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form for transit air cargo manifest procedures... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Transit Air Cargo Manifest (TACM) Procedures § 122.113 Form for transit air cargo manifest procedures. A manifest on Customs Form 7509 is...

  6. 19 CFR 122.113 - Form for transit air cargo manifest procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Form for transit air cargo manifest procedures... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Transit Air Cargo Manifest (TACM) Procedures § 122.113 Form for transit air cargo manifest procedures. A manifest on Customs Form 7509 is...

  7. 19 CFR 122.163 - Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. 122.163...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.163 Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. (a) Application. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  8. 19 CFR 122.163 - Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. 122.163...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.163 Transit air cargo traveling to U.S. ports. (a) Application. If transit air cargo is traveling from the port of arrival to another U.S....

  9. 19 CFR 122.113 - Form for transit air cargo manifest procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Form for transit air cargo manifest procedures... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Transit Air Cargo Manifest (TACM) Procedures § 122.113 Form for transit air cargo manifest procedures. A manifest on Customs Form 7509 is...

  10. 19 CFR 122.113 - Form for transit air cargo manifest procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Form for transit air cargo manifest procedures... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Transit Air Cargo Manifest (TACM) Procedures § 122.113 Form for transit air cargo manifest procedures. A manifest on Customs Form 7509 is...

  11. Showcase for Commerce

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-07

    1 unclassified unclassified Showcase for Commerce Tank Automotive Research, Development & Engineering Center (TARDEC) Mr. Paul Skalny Executive...for Commerce 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Paul Skalny 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f...WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) US Army RDECOM-TARDEC 6501 E 11 Mile Rd Warren, MI 48397-5000, USA 8. PERFORMING

  12. US space commerce, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, Scott

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the US share of commercial payloads in comparison with Ariane's share; world communications satellite orders; the US share of prime contracts for construction of commercial communications satellites; emerging markets; space activities at the Commerce Department (DOC); Office of Space Commerce (OSC) mission description; key drivers for commercial space; and general DOC space policy themes.

  13. Some impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act and state clean-air regulations on the fertilizer industry

    SciTech Connect

    Breed, C.E.; Kerns, O.S.

    1992-12-01

    The Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 will intensify national efforts to reduce air pollution. They will have major impacts an governmental agencies and on industrial and commercial facilities throughout the country. As with other industries, it is essential for fertilizer dealers and producers to understand how these changes to the Clean Air Act can significantly change the way they do business. This paper is proffered as an overview of ways in which the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act may impact the fertilizer industry. The nonattainment, toxics, and permit provisions of the amended act will be three areas of particular concern to the fertilizer industry. Implementation of the new regulatory requirements of this legislation promises to be a long and onerous process for all concerned. However, it appears that state and local regulations may have a much more profound impact on the fertilizer industry than the new Clean Air Act.

  14. Some impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act and state clean-air regulations on the fertilizer industry

    SciTech Connect

    Breed, C.E.; Kerns, O.S.

    1992-12-31

    The Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 will intensify national efforts to reduce air pollution. They will have major impacts on governmental agencies and on industrial and commercial facilities throughout the country. As with other industries, it is essential for fertilizer dealers and producers to understand how these changes to the Clean Air Act can significantly change the way they do business. This paper is proffered as an overview of ways in which the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act may impact the fertilizer industry. The nonattainment, toxics, and permit provisions of the amended act will be three areas of particular concern to the fertilizer industry. Implementation of the new regulatory requirements of this legislation promises to be a long and onerous process for all concerned. However, it appears that state and local regulations may have a much more profound impact on the fertilizer industry than the new Clean Air Act.

  15. Recent Developments in the Quantification and Regulation of Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations.

    PubMed

    Heinzen, Tarah

    2015-03-01

    Animal feeding operations (AFOs) emit various air pollutants, including ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, methane, and nitrous oxide. Several of these pollutants are regulated under federal clean air statutes, yet AFOs have largely escaped regulation under these laws because of challenges in accurately estimating the rate and quantity of emissions from various types of livestock operations. Recent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) efforts to collect emissions data, develop an emissions model capable of estimating emissions at AFOs nationwide, and establish emissions estimating methodologies for certain key livestock air pollutants suffered from design flaws and omitted pollutants of concern. Moreover, this process seems to have stalled, delaying other regulatory reforms needed to increase transparency and increase regulation of these facilities. Until EPA establishes these methodologies, significant AFO pollution regulation under the Clean Air Act or emissions reporting statutes will be very difficult to achieve, and the public health and environmental impacts of these emissions will continue unabated.

  16. 76 FR 34867 - Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance... Guard will enforce the annual Seafair Blue Angels Air Show safety zone on Lake Washington, Seattle, WA... enforcement period, no person or vessel may enter or transit this safety zone unless authorized by the...

  17. Impact of Clean Air Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in Neuse River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated impacts of Clean Air Act (CAA) nitrogen emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) models were used. Two scenar...

  18. Exploring Faraday's Law of Electrolysis Using Zinc-Air Batteries with Current Regulative Diodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamata, Masahiro; Paku, Miei

    2007-01-01

    Current regulative diodes (CRDs) are applied to develop new educational experiments on Faraday's law by using a zinc-air battery (PR2330) and a resistor to discharge it. The results concluded that the combination of zinc-air batteries and the CRD array is simpler, less expensive, and quantitative and gives accurate data.

  19. 76 FR 67600 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Regulations for Control of Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... Administrative Code (TAC), Chapter 116--Control of Air Pollution by Permits for New Construction or Modification... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Regulations for Control of Air Pollution by Permits for New Construction or Modification AGENCY: Environmental...

  20. Electronic Commerce user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD`s Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases & Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  1. Electronic Commerce user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD's Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  2. 33 CFR 165.1319 - Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair... Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1319 Safety Zone Regulations, Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance... Federal Register. (b) Location. The following is a safety zone: All waters of Lake Washington,...

  3. Navajo Generating Station and Air Visibility Regulations: Alternatives and Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Hurlbut, D. J.; Haase, S.; Brinkman, G.; Funk, K.; Gelman, R.; Lantz, E.; Larney, C.; Peterson, D.; Worley, C.; Liebsch, E.

    2012-01-01

    Pursuant to the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced in 2009 its intent to issue rules for controlling emissions from Navajo Generating Station that could affect visibility at the Grand Canyon and at several other national parks and wilderness areas. The final rule will conform to what EPA determines is the best available retrofit technology (BART) for the control of haze-causing air pollutants, especially nitrogen oxides. While EPA is ultimately responsible for setting Navajo Generating Station's BART standards in its final rule, it will be the U.S. Department of the Interior's responsibility to manage compliance and the related impacts. This study aims to assist both Interior and EPA by providing an objective assessment of issues relating to the power sector.

  4. Old, the new, the states, the evolution of the regulation of air toxics. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Vecera, D.R.

    1993-02-14

    The activism associated with America in the 1960s spilled over into many areas, one of which was a new environmental movement. A product of that movement was the Clean Air Act passed in 1970. The new law included a selection aimed specifically at controlling emissions of hazardous or toxic air pollutants. However, over the next 20 years there was very little government regulation of air toxics, and this section of the Clean Air Act was considered to be a resounding failure. What went wrong. How did this lofty goal to protect human health and the environment end up on the back burner. The article will address the idealism that led to the Clean Air Act legislation, in particular the air toxics program, and explore the realities that scuttled those ideals when it came time to implement the law.

  5. Air Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  6. 29 CFR 779.239 - Meaning of “engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Meaning of âengaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.â 779.239 Section 779.239 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND... commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.” The term “engaged in commerce or in the production...

  7. Potential impact of a US climate policy and air quality regulations on future air quality and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Shindell, D. T.; Faluvegi, G.; Pinder, R. W.

    2015-11-01

    We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that reduces 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50 % below 2005 emissions. Using NASA GISS ModelE2, we look at the impacts in year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration), and other US emissions and the rest of the world emissions are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in the future but result in positive radiative forcing. Surface PM2.5 is reduced by ~ 2 μg m-3 on average over the US, and surface ozone by ~ 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the US, mainly due to the PM2.5 reduction (~ 74 200 lives saved). The air quality regulations reduces the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter) more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone), leading a strong positive radiative forcing (RF) by both aerosols direct and indirect forcing: total RF is ~ 0.04 W m-2 over the globe; ~ 0.8 W m-2 over the US. Under the hypothetical climate policy, future US energy relies less on coal and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it leads to climate dis-benefits over the US. In 2055, the US mean total RF is +0.22 W m-2 due to positive aerosol direct and indirect forcing, while the global mean total RF is -0.06 W m-2 due to the dominant negative CO2 RF (instantaneous RF). To achieve a regional-scale climate benefit via a climate policy, it is critical (1) to have multi-national efforts to reduce GHGs emissions and (2) to target emission reduction of light-absorbing species (e.g., BC and O3) on top of long-lived species. The latter is very desirable as the

  8. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  9. High capacity for extracellular acid-base regulation in the air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus.

    PubMed

    Damsgaard, Christian; Gam, Le Thi Hong; Tuong, Dang Diem; Thinh, Phan Vinh; Huong Thanh, Do Thi; Wang, Tobias; Bayley, Mark

    2015-05-01

    The evolution of accessory air-breathing structures is typically associated with reduction of the gills, although branchial ion transport remains pivotal for acid-base and ion regulation. Therefore, air-breathing fishes are believed to have a low capacity for extracellular pH regulation during a respiratory acidosis. In the present study, we investigated acid-base regulation during hypercapnia in the air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus in normoxic and hypoxic water at 28-30°C. Contrary to previous studies, we show that this air-breathing fish has a pronounced ability to regulate extracellular pH (pHe) during hypercapnia, with complete metabolic compensation of pHe within 72 h of exposure to hypoxic hypercapnia with CO2 levels above 34 mmHg. The high capacity for pHe regulation relies on a pronounced ability to increase levels of HCO3(-) in the plasma. Our study illustrates the diversity in the physiology of air-breathing fishes, such that generalizations across phylogenies may be difficult.

  10. The economics of air quality regulation: the true costs of increased PM2.5 regulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential best available control technologies (BACT) are being considered for promulgation by the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District and other jurisdictions in response to determinations of national ambient air quality standards non-attainment for ozone and PM2.5 by writing dairy-spec...

  11. Estimating causal effects of air quality regulations using principal stratification for spatially correlated multivariate intermediate outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zigler, Corwin M; Dominici, Francesca; Wang, Yun

    2012-04-01

    Methods for causal inference regarding health effects of air quality regulations are met with unique challenges because (1) changes in air quality are intermediates on the causal pathway between regulation and health, (2) regulations typically affect multiple pollutants on the causal pathway towards health, and (3) regulating a given location can affect pollution at other locations, that is, there is interference between observations. We propose a principal stratification method designed to examine causal effects of a regulation on health that are and are not associated with causal effects of the regulation on air quality. A novel feature of our approach is the accommodation of a continuously scaled multivariate intermediate response vector representing multiple pollutants. Furthermore, we use a spatial hierarchical model for potential pollution concentrations and ultimately use estimates from this model to assess validity of assumptions regarding interference. We apply our method to estimate causal effects of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments among approximately 7 million Medicare enrollees living within 6 miles of a pollution monitor.

  12. Report: EPA Relying on Existing Clean Air Act Regulations to Reduce Atmospheric Deposition to the Chesapeake Bay and its Watershed

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2007-P-00009, February 28, 2007. EPA’s Chesapeake Bay Program Office is relying on anticipated nitrogen deposition reductions from Clean Air Act (CAA) regulations already issued by EPA, combined with other non-air sources' anticipated reductions.

  13. 77 FR 45927 - The Commerce Control List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... The Commerce Control List CFR Correction In Title 15 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 300 to... follows'' after ``6A001.a.1 does not control''. 0 B. On page 807, in paragraph a.1.a.1.a, remove ``20...'' above ``Reason for Control''. 0 5. In 6D001, on page 831, remove ``CIV: * * *'' and add ``CIV: N/A''...

  14. Rationing health protection: a proposal to exempt nuisance dust from US Clean Air Act regulations.

    PubMed

    Centner, Terence J; Colson, Gregory

    2013-03-15

    The US House of Representative has passed a bill called the "Farm Dust Regulation Prevention Act" (Dust Act) that would exempt most types of particulate matter (PM) in rural areas from the air quality controls of the US Clean Air Act. The Dust Act would markedly change the country's air quality standards. An examination of the proposed provisions shows that they would exempt non-combustion PM pollutants from mining, smelting, petroleum production, and power generation from existing air quality standards. Persons downwind from pollutants generated in rural areas could be exposed to concentrations of carcinogenic heavy metals, asbestos, and benzene known to adversely affect their health and ecological resources. Existing federal air quality standards based on science would be replaced by a flexible standard that rations health protection.

  15. Regulation of Stomatal Defense by Air Relative Humidity1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chitrakar, Reejana; Thompson, Blaine K.; Obulareddy, Nisita; Hambright, W. Sealy

    2016-01-01

    It has long been observed that environmental conditions play crucial roles in modulating immunity and disease in plants and animals. For instance, many bacterial plant disease outbreaks occur after periods of high humidity and rain. A critical step in bacterial infection is entry into the plant interior through wounds and natural openings, such as stomata, which are adjustable microscopic pores in the epidermal tissue. Several studies have shown that stomatal closure is an integral part of the plant immune response to reduce pathogen invasion. In this study, we found that high humidity can effectively compromise Pseudomonas syringae-triggered stomatal closure in both Phaseolus vulgaris and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which is accompanied by early up-regulation of the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway and simultaneous down-regulation of salicylic acid (SA) pathway in guard cells. Furthermore, SA-dependent response, but not JA-dependent response, is faster in guard cells than in whole leaves, suggesting that the SA signaling in guard cells may be independent from other cell types. Thus, we conclude that high humidity, a well-known disease-promoting environmental condition, acts in part by suppressing stomatal defense and is linked to hormone signaling in guard cells. PMID:27702841

  16. 19 CFR 122.48 - Air cargo manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Air cargo manifest. 122.48 Section 122.48 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements...

  17. 19 CFR 122.48 - Air cargo manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Air cargo manifest. 122.48 Section 122.48 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements...

  18. 19 CFR 122.48 - Air cargo manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Air cargo manifest. 122.48 Section 122.48 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements...

  19. 29 CFR 784.12 - “Commerce.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âCommerce.â 784.12 Section 784.12 Labor Regulations... FISHING AND OPERATIONS ON AQUATIC PRODUCTS General Some Basic Definitions § 784.12 “Commerce.” “Commerce” as used in the Act includes interstate and foreign commerce. It is defined in section 3(b) of the...

  20. Environmental regulations on air pollution in China and their impact on infant mortality.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shinsuke

    2015-07-01

    This study explores the impact of environmental regulations in China on infant mortality. In 1998, the Chinese government imposed stringent air pollution regulations, in one of the first large-scale regulatory attempts in a developing country. We find that the infant mortality rate fell by 20 percent in the treatment cities designated as "Two Control Zones." The greatest reduction in mortality occurred during the neonatal period, highlighting an important pathophysiologic mechanism, and was largest among infants born to mothers with low levels of education. The finding is robust to various alternative hypotheses and specifications. Further, a falsification test using deaths from causes unrelated to air pollution supports these findings.

  1. The effects of air pollution regulations on the US refining industry. Task 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    Numerous air pollution regulations affecting petroleum refineries recently have been promulgated, have been proposed, or are under consideration at the federal, state, and local level. As shown in Figure ES-1, all of these environmental regulations are intended to take effect over the relatively short time period from 1989 through 1995. In the aggregate these regulatory activities have significant implications for the US refining industry and the Nation, including: Major investment requirements; changes in industry profitability; potential closure of some refineries; and potential changes in crude oil or product import dependence. At issue is whether the cumulative effect of these regulations could so adversely affect the US refining industry that US national security would be affected. In addition to the regulations outlined in Figure ES-1, President Bush recently presented a major new plan to improve the nation`s air quality. The aspects of the President`s plan that could strongly affect US refineries are summarized below.

  2. The variable immunological self: genetic variation and nongenetic noise in Aire-regulated transcription.

    PubMed

    Venanzi, Emily S; Melamed, Rachel; Mathis, Diane; Benoist, Christophe

    2008-10-14

    The Aire transcription factor plays an important role in immunological self-tolerance by mediating the ectopic expression of peripheral self-antigens by thymic medullary epithelial cells (MECs), and the deletion of thymocytes that recognize them. In Aire-deficient humans or mice, central tolerance is incomplete and multiorgan autoimmune disease results. We examined the variability of Aire's effects on ectopic transcription among individual mice of three different inbred strains. Aire's function was, overall, quite similar in the three backgrounds, although generally stronger in C57BL/6 than in BALB/c or NOD mice, and a minority of Aire-regulated genes did show clear differences. Gene expression profiling of wild-type MECs from single mice, or from the two thymic lobes of the same mouse, revealed significantly greater variability in Aire-controlled ectopic gene expression than in Aire-independent transcripts. This "noisy" ectopic expression did not result from parental or early developmental imprinting, but from programming occurring after the formation of the thymic anlage, resulting from epigenetic effects or from the stochastic nature of Aire activity. Together, genetic and nongenetic variability in ectopic expression of peripheral antigens in the thymus make for differences in the portion of self determinants presented for tolerance induction. This variable self may be beneficial in preventing uniform holes in the T-cell repertoire in individuals of a species, but at the cost of variable susceptibility to autoimmunity.

  3. Potential Impact of a US Climate Policy and Air Quality Regulations on Future Air Quality and Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Faluvegi, Gregory S.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that aims to reduce 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50% below 2005 emissions. Using the NASA GISS ModelE2 general circulation model, we look at the impacts for year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration), and other US emissions data sets and the rest of the world emissions data sets are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in year 2030 and 2055 but result in positive radiative forcing. Under this scenario, no more emission constraints are added after 2020, and the impacts on air quality and climate change are similar between year 2030 and 2055. Surface particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 micron PM(sub 2:5) is reduced by 2 approximately µg/m(sup -3) on average over the USA, and surface ozone by approximately 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the USA, mainly due to the PM(sub 2:5) reduction approximately (74 200 lives saved). The air quality regulations reduce the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter) more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone), leading to a strong positive radiative forcing (RF) over the USA by both aerosols' direct and indirect forcing: the total RF is approximately 0.04 W m(sup -2) over the globe, and approximately 0.8 W m(sup -2) over the USA. Under the hypothetical climate policy, a future CO2 emissions cut is achieved in part by relying less on coal, and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it could lead to potential climate disbenefits over the USA. In 2055, the US

  4. Potential impact of a US climate policy and air quality regulations on future air quality and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yunha; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg; Pinder, Rob W.

    2016-04-01

    We have investigated how future air quality and climate change are influenced by the US air quality regulations that existed or were proposed in 2013 and a hypothetical climate mitigation policy that aims to reduce 2050 CO2 emissions to be 50 % below 2005 emissions. Using the NASA GISS ModelE2 general circulation model, we look at the impacts for year 2030 and 2055. The US energy-sector emissions are from the GLIMPSE project (GEOS-Chem LIDORT Integrated with MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) for the Purpose of Scenario Exploration), and other US emissions data sets and the rest of the world emissions data sets are based on the RCP4.5 scenario. The US air quality regulations are projected to have a strong beneficial impact on US air quality and public health in year 2030 and 2055 but result in positive radiative forcing. Under this scenario, no more emission constraints are added after 2020, and the impacts on air quality and climate change are similar between year 2030 and 2055. Surface particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) is reduced by ˜ 2 µg m-3 on average over the USA, and surface ozone by ˜ 8 ppbv. The improved air quality prevents about 91 400 premature deaths in the USA, mainly due to the PM2.5 reduction (˜ 74 200 lives saved). The air quality regulations reduce the light-reflecting aerosols (i.e., sulfate and organic matter) more than the light-absorbing species (i.e., black carbon and ozone), leading to a strong positive radiative forcing (RF) over the USA by both aerosols' direct and indirect forcing: the total RF is ˜ 0.04 W m-2 over the globe, and ˜ 0.8 W m-2 over the USA. Under the hypothetical climate policy, a future CO2 emissions cut is achieved in part by relying less on coal, and thus SO2 emissions are noticeably reduced. This provides air quality co-benefits, but it could lead to potential climate disbenefits over the USA. In 2055, the US mean total RF is +0.22 W m-2 due to positive aerosol direct and indirect forcing

  5. Evaluating the effectiveness of air quality regulations: A review of accountability studies and frameworks.

    PubMed

    Henneman, Lucas R F; Liu, Cong; Mulholland, James A; Russell, Armistead G

    2017-02-01

    Assessments of past environmental policies-termed accountability studies-contribute important information to the decision-making process used to review the efficacy of past policies, and subsequently aid in the development of effective new policies. These studies have used a variety of methods that have achieved varying levels of success at linking improvements in air quality and/or health to regulations. The Health Effects Institute defines the air pollution accountability framework as a chain of events that includes the regulation of interest, air quality, exposure/dose, and health outcomes, and suggests that accountability research should address impacts for each of these linkages. Early accountability studies investigated short-term, local regulatory actions (for example, coal use banned city-wide on a specific date or traffic pattern changes made for Olympic Games). Recent studies assessed regulations implemented over longer time and larger spatial scales. Studies on broader scales require accountability research methods that account for effects of confounding factors that increase over time and space. Improved estimates of appropriate baseline levels (sometimes termed "counterfactual"-the expected state in a scenario without an intervention) that account for confounders and uncertainties at each link in the accountability chain will help estimate causality with greater certainty. In the direct accountability framework, researchers link outcomes with regulations using statistical methods that bypass the link-by-link approach of classical accountability. Direct accountability results and methods complement the classical approach. New studies should take advantage of advanced planning for accountability studies, new data sources (such as satellite measurements), and new statistical methods. Evaluation of new methods and data sources is necessary to improve investigations of long-term regulations, and associated uncertainty should be accounted for at each link to

  6. Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in Neuse River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated impacts of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) NOx emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina, USA from 1990 to 2020. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-...

  7. 78 FR 46552 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Massachusetts; Regulations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ...; Regulations Limiting Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds and Nitrogen Oxides AGENCY: Environmental... air pollution control requirements for stationary sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and... CMR 7.05, Fuels All Districts. c. Revisions to 310 CMR 7.18, Volatile and Halogenated...

  8. 75 FR 3392 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 55 Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Alaska AGENCY... 50.410. Requirements applying to Outer Continental Shelf (``OCS'') sources located within 25 miles of..., Intergovernmental relations, Nitrogen dioxide, Nitrogen oxides, Outer Continental Shelf, Ozone, Particulate...

  9. The biophysical and biochemical properties of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) protein.

    PubMed

    Perniola, Roberto; Musco, Giovanna

    2014-02-01

    AIRE (for autoimmune regulator) is a multidomain protein that performs a fundamental function in the thymus and possibly in the secondary lymphoid organs: the regulation, especially in the sense of activation, of the process of gene transcription in cell lines deputed to the presentation of self-antigens to the maturing T lymphocytes. The apoptosis of the elements bearing T-cell receptors with critical affinity for the exhibited self-antigens prevents the escape of autoreactive clones and represents a simple and efficient mechanism of deletional self-tolerance. However, AIRE action relies on an articulated complex of biophysical and biochemical properties, in most cases attributable to single subspecialized domains. Here a thorough review of the matter is presented, with a privileged look at the pathogenic changes of AIRE that interfere with such properties and lead to the impairment in its chief function.

  10. Urban Air Pollution Produces Up-Regulation of Myocardial Inflammatory Genes and Dark Chocolate Provides Cardioprotection

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Reed, William; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Keefe, Sheyla; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution is a serious environmental problem. Elderly subjects show increased cardiac morbidity and mortality associated with air pollution exposure. Mexico City (MC) residents are chronically exposed to high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and PM-associated lipopolysaccharides (PM-LPS). To test the hypothesis that chronic exposure to urban pollution produces myocardial inflammation, female Balb-c mice age 4 weeks were exposed for 16 months to two distinctly different polluted areas within MC: Southwest (SW) and Northwest (NW). SW mice were given either no treatment or chocolate 2g/9.5 mg polyphenols/3 times per week. Results were compared to mice kept in clean air. Key inflammatory mediator genes: cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and the LPS receptor CD14 (cluster of differentiation antigen 14) were measured by real time polymerase chain reaction. Also explored were target NFκB (Nuclear Factor κ B), oxidative stress and antioxidant defense genes. TNF-α, IL-6, and COX-2 were significantly increased in both NW and SWMC mice (p=0.0001). CD14 was up-regulated in SW mice in keeping with the high exposures to particulate matter associated endotoxin. Chocolate administration resulted in a significant down-regulation of TNF-α (p<0.0001), IL-6 (p=0.01), and IL-1β (p=0.02). The up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and the down-regulation of potent oxidases, toll-like receptors, and pro-apoptotic signaling genes completed the protective profile. Exposure to air pollution produces up-regulation of inflammatory myocardial genes and endotoxin plays a key role in the inflammatory response. Regular consumption of dark chocolate may reduce myocardial inflammation and have cardioprotective properties in the setting of air pollution exposures. PMID:20932730

  11. Urban air pollution produces up-regulation of myocardial inflammatory genes and dark chocolate provides cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Reed, William; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Keefe, Sheyla; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2012-05-01

    Air pollution is a serious environmental problem. Elderly subjects show increased cardiac morbidity and mortality associated with air pollution exposure. Mexico City (MC) residents are chronically exposed to high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) and PM-associated lipopolysaccharides (PM-LPS). To test the hypothesis that chronic exposure to urban pollution produces myocardial inflammation, female Balb-c mice age 4 weeks were exposed for 16 months to two distinctly different polluted areas within MC: southwest (SW) and northwest (NW). SW mice were given either no treatment or chocolate 2g/9.5 mg polyphenols/3 times per week. Results were compared to mice kept in clean air. Key inflammatory mediator genes: cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and the LPS receptor CD14 (cluster of differentiation antigen 14) were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Also explored were target NFκB (nuclear factor κB), oxidative stress and antioxidant defense genes. TNF-α, IL-6, and COX-2 were significantly increased in both NW and SWMC mice (p=0.0001). CD14 was up-regulated in SW mice in keeping with the high exposures to particulate matter associated endotoxin. Chocolate administration resulted in a significant down-regulation of TNF-α (p<0.0001), IL-6 (p=0.01), and IL-1β (p=0.02). The up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and the down-regulation of potent oxidases, toll-like receptors, and pro-apoptotic signaling genes completed the protective profile. Exposure to air pollution produces up-regulation of inflammatory myocardial genes and endotoxin plays a key role in the inflammatory response. Regular consumption of dark chocolate may reduce myocardial inflammation and have cardioprotective properties in the setting of air pollution exposures.

  12. Dominant Mutations in the Autoimmune Regulator AIRE Are Associated with Common Organ-Specific Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Oftedal, Bergithe E; Hellesen, Alexander; Erichsen, Martina M; Bratland, Eirik; Vardi, Ayelet; Perheentupa, Jaakko; Kemp, E Helen; Fiskerstrand, Torunn; Viken, Marte K; Weetman, Anthony P; Fleishman, Sarel J; Banka, Siddharth; Newman, William G; Sewell, W A C; Sozaeva, Leila S; Zayats, Tetyana; Haugarvoll, Kristoffer; Orlova, Elizaveta M; Haavik, Jan; Johansson, Stefan; Knappskog, Per M; Løvås, Kristian; Wolff, Anette S B; Abramson, Jakub; Husebye, Eystein S

    2015-06-16

    The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene is crucial for establishing central immunological tolerance and preventing autoimmunity. Mutations in AIRE cause a rare autosomal-recessive disease, autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1), distinguished by multi-organ autoimmunity. We have identified multiple cases and families with mono-allelic mutations in the first plant homeodomain (PHD1) zinc finger of AIRE that followed dominant inheritance, typically characterized by later onset, milder phenotypes, and reduced penetrance compared to classical APS-1. These missense PHD1 mutations suppressed gene expression driven by wild-type AIRE in a dominant-negative manner, unlike CARD or truncated AIRE mutants that lacked such dominant capacity. Exome array analysis revealed that the PHD1 dominant mutants were found with relatively high frequency (>0.0008) in mixed populations. Our results provide insight into the molecular action of AIRE and demonstrate that disease-causing mutations in the AIRE locus are more common than previously appreciated and cause more variable autoimmune phenotypes.

  13. 40 CFR 204.57-9 - Prohibition of distribution in commerce; manufacturer's -remedy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... commerce; manufacturer's -remedy. 204.57-9 Section 204.57-9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Portable Air Compressors § 204.57-9 Prohibition of distribution in commerce; manufacturer's -remedy. (a... noise emission tests conducted pursuant to this Subpart B may not be distributed in commerce...

  14. 75 FR 25794 - Regulated Navigation Area: Red Bull Air Race World Championship, Upper New York Bay, Lower Hudson...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA08 Regulated Navigation Area: Red Bull Air Race World... State Park, New Jersey and Ellis Island, New Jersey and New York for the Red Bull Air Race World Championship, an event scheduled to be held over water. This regulation is necessary to protect...

  15. Projections of air toxic emissions from coal-fired utility combustion: Input for hazardous air pollutant regulators

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1993-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required by the 1990 CAAA to promulgate rules for all ``major`` sources of any of these HAPs. According to the HAPs section of the new Title III, any stationary source emitting 10 tons per year (TPY) of one HAP or 25 TPY of a combination of HAPs will be considered and designated a major source. In contrast to the original National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), which were designed to protect public health to ``an ample margin of safety,`` the new Title III, in its first phase, will regulate by industrial category those sources emitting HAPs in excess of the 10/25-TPY threshold levels, regardless of health risks. The trace elements normally associated with coal mineral matter and the various compounds formed during coal combustion have the potential to produce hazardous air toxic emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. Under Title III, the EPA is required to perform certain studies, prior to any regulation of electric utilities; these studies are currently underway. Also, the US Department of Energy (DOE) maintains a vested interest in addressing those energy policy questions affecting electric utility generation, coal mining, and steel producing critical to this country`s economic well-being, where balancing the costs to the producers and users of energy with the benefits of environmental protection to the workers and the general populace remains of significant concern.

  16. Air quality in natural areas: interface between the public, science and regulation.

    PubMed

    Percy, K E; Karnosky, D F

    2007-10-01

    Natural areas are important interfaces between air quality, the public, science and regulation. In the United States and Canada, national parks received over 315million visits during 2004. Many natural areas have been experiencing decreased visibility, increased ozone (O(3)) levels and elevated nitrogen deposition. Ozone is the most pervasive air pollutant in North American natural areas. There is an extensive scientific literature on O(3) exposure-tree response in chambered environments and, lately, free-air exposure systems. Yet, less is known about O(3) impacts on natural terrestrial ecosystems. To advance scientifically defensible O(3) risk assessment for natural forest areas, species-level measurement endpoints must be socially, economically and ecologically relevant. Exposure-based indices, based on appropriate final endpoints, present an underused opportunity to meet this need. Exposure-plant indices should have a high degree of statistical significance, have high goodness of fit, be biologically plausible and include confidence intervals to define uncertainty. They must be supported by exposure-response functions and be easy to use within an air quality regulation context. Ozone exposure-response indices developed within an ambient air context have great potential for improving risk assessment in natural forest areas and enhancing scientific literacy.

  17. Air pollution is pushing wind speed into a regulator of surface solar irradiance in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. W.; Yang, Y. H.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhao, N.; Zhang, J. H.

    2014-05-01

    Analysis in 27 cities across China shows that surface solar irradiance (SSI) and wind speed track similar decadal trends in 1961-2011, suggesting wind speed as a possible regulator of SSI. This assumption is further confirmed by the continuously widening gap in annually averaged daily SSI between windy and windless clear-sky days with worsening air pollution. Wider gaps are noted for more polluted cities and seasons. The gap in SSI between windy and windless conditions could therefore serve as a good indicator for air quality. The regulatory effect of wind speed on SSI starts to be important when air pollution index exceeds the boundary of 125. A plausible mechanism of wind speed regulating SSI through interactions with aerosols is proposed. There are two cut-off points of 2.5 m s-1 and 3.5 m s-1 wind speeds. Winds <2.5 m s-1 noticeably disperse air pollutants and thereby enhance SSI. Above the 2.5 m s-1 threshold, air pollution and SSI become largely insensitive to changing wind speeds. Winds in excess of 3.5 m s-1 could enhance aerosol concentration probably by inducing dust-storms, which in turn attenuate SSI.

  18. Electronic Commerce Removing Regulatory Impediments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    AD-A252 691 ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Removing Regulatory Impediments ~DuiG A% ELECTE I JUL1 8 1992 0 C D Daniel J. Drake John A. Ciucci ... - ""N ST AT KE...Management Institute 6400 Goldsboro Road Bethesda, Maryland 20817-5886 92 LMI Executive Summary ELECTRONIC COMMERCE : REMOVING REGULATORY IMPEDIMENTS... Electronic Commerce techniques, such as electronic mail and electronic data interchange (EDI), enable Government agencies to conduct business without the

  19. 15 CFR 19.7 - When will Commerce entities compromise a Commerce debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will Commerce entities compromise a Commerce debt? 19.7 Section 19.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.7 When will Commerce entities...

  20. 15 CFR 19.14 - How will Commerce entities report Commerce debts to credit bureaus?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will Commerce entities report Commerce debts to credit bureaus? 19.14 Section 19.14 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.14 How will Commerce...

  1. Review of current and anticipated regulations on air protection in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Jilek, P.; Novotny, V.

    1995-12-01

    Environmental issues, especially the solution of the air pollution problem, have taken on great significance in the Czech Republic (which was a part of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic until the end of 1992) since the 1989 {open_quotes}Velvet{close_quotes} Revolution. The former CSFR Federal Committee for the Environment and both the Republic Ministries started immediately with creating new environmental legislation, which is the main governmental tool for protecting the environment in the newly developing democracy state system with a market oriented economy. The inspiration for that activity was found in legislation of developed countries - member states of the European Union, and in German environmental law in particular. This paper surveys the major laws and regulations that gradually came into force in the Czech Republic since 1990. The provisions of the primary significance are the Act No.309/1991 S.B., dated July 9, 1991, on the protection of the air against pollutants - The Clean Air Act, the Act No.218/1992 S.B., dated April 27, 1992, which changes and supplements the Act No.309 - The Clean Air Act, the Measure of the Federal Committee for the Environment of October 1, 1991 to the Clean Air Act, and its amended wordings of June 23, 1992, 84/1991 S.B., and 84/1992 S.B., the Act No.389/1991 S.B., dated September 10, 1991 on the state administration of air protection and charges for the pollution of air, and several regulations based on the Act No.389/1991 S.B., issued in the period 1992 -1993.

  2. Down-regulation of microRNA-144 in air pollution-related lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Hong-Li; Wen, Zhe-Sheng; Huang, Yun-Chao; Cheng, Xin; Wang, Gui-Zhen; Zhou, Yong-Chun; Wang, Zai-Yong; Guo, Yong-Qing; Cao, Yi; Zhou, Guang-Biao

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has been classified as a group 1 carcinogen in humans, but the underlying tumourigenic mechanisms remain unclear. In Xuanwei city of Yunnan Province, the lung cancer incidence is among the highest in China, owing to severe air pollution generated by the combustion of smoky coal, providing a unique opportunity to dissect lung carcinogenesis. To identify abnormal miRNAs critical for air pollution-related tumourigenesis, we performed microRNA microarray analysis in 6 Xuanwei non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) and 4 NSCLCs from control regions where smoky coal was not used. We found 13 down-regulated and 2 up-regulated miRNAs in Xuanwei NSCLCs. Among them, miR-144 was one of the most significantly down-regulated miRNAs. The expanded experiments showed that miR-144 was down-regulated in 45/51 (88.2%) Xuanwei NSCLCs and 34/54 (63%) control region NSCLCs (p = 0.016). MiR-144 interacted with the oncogene Zeb1 at 2 sites in its 3′ untranslated region, and a decrease in miR-144 resulted in increased Zeb1 expression and an epithelial mesenchymal transition phenotype. Ectopic expression of miR-144 suppressed NSCLCs in vitro and in vivo by targeting Zeb1. These results indicate that down-regulation of miR-144 is critical for air pollution-related lung cancer, and the miR-144-Zeb1 signalling pathway could represent a potential therapeutic target. PMID:26395400

  3. The Self-Regulated Induction of United States Cold Air Outbreaks by the North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, R. X.; Westby, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Wintertime cold air outbreaks (CAOs) over the eastern United States (US) are often linked to the negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and accompanied by enhanced northerly flow from Canada. However, this relationship is not one-to-one and the physical mechanism responsible for this upstream influence has not been previously determined. Here we perform a near-surface heat budget analysis in conjunction with piecewise potential vorticity inversions to identify the underlying physical mechanism. For the events of interest, several days prior to CAO onset, the NAO pattern intensifies and retrogresses westward from its canonical position. During this time, the NAO pattern induces lower-tropospheric easterly flow extending from the North Atlantic into Canada, leading to the formation of a prominent near-surface warm air anomaly over northeast Canada. The newly created warm air anomaly, in turn, induces enhanced northwesterly flow over the eastern US seaboard and, counterintuitively, contributes to the establishment of cold air anomalies and CAO onset over the eastern US. Thereafter, however, the Canadian warm air anomaly invades southeastern and central Canada, thereby eliminating the cold air within the original source region and effectively shutting off the CAO event. Thus, the lower-tropospheric warm anomaly over Canada serves to (a) physically connect the NAO to the US CAO events and (b) regulate the duration of the CAO event.

  4. The complexities of air pollution regulation: the need for an integrated research and regulatory perspective.

    PubMed

    Nadadur, Srikanth S; Miller, C Andrew; Hopke, Philip K; Gordon, Terry; Vedal, Sverre; Vandenberg, John J; Costa, Daniel L

    2007-12-01

    The Clean Air Act mandates the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to periodically reassess existing and new science that underlie the regulation of major ambient pollutants -- particulate matter (PM) and tropospheric ozone being most notable. While toxic effects have been ascribed individually to these and other pollutants in the air, it is clear that mixtures of these contaminants have the potential to interact and thereby influence their overall toxic outcomes. It follows that a more comprehensive assessment of the potential health effects of the air pollution complex might better protect human health; however, traditional regulatory drivers and funding constraints have impeded progress to such a goal. Despite difficulties in empirically conducting studies of complex mixtures of air pollutants and acquiring relevant exposure data, there remains a need to develop integrated, interdisciplinary research and analytical strategies to provide more comprehensive (and relevant) assessments of associated health outcomes and risks. The research and assessment communities are endeavoring to dissect this complexity using varied approaches Here we present five interdisciplinary perspectives of this evolving line of thought among researchers and those who use such data in assessment: (1) analyses that coordinate air quality-health analyses utilizing representative polluted U.S. air sheds to apportion source and component-specific health risks; (2) novel approaches to characterize air quality in terms of emission sources and how emission reduction strategies might effectively impact pollutant levels; (3) insights from present-day studies of effects of single ambient pollutants in animal and controlled clinical toxicology studies and how these are evolving to address air pollution; (4) refinements in epidemiologic health assessments that take advantage of the complexities of existent air quality conditions; and (5) new approaches to integrative analyses to establish the

  5. Electronic commerce: beyond the euphoria.

    PubMed

    Healy, J L; DeLuca, J M

    2000-01-01

    As the center of considerable media attention, case study articles, vendor research, and development efforts, electronic commerce technology is entering healthcare and having a profound effect. The simple truth, however, is that after the drama and excitement begins to wear off, completing a successful e-commerce implementation remains good old-fashioned hard, sometimes monotonous work. To be successful, e-commerce technologies must be planned and implemented with rigorous project standards, and incorporated with significant process and workflow reengineering to actually return significant value to the organization. This article briefs readers on the organizational issues they must consider in evaluating e-commerce readiness--cultural, executive and technological factors that either support or inhibit project and technology success. Readers will be left with the tools to conduct an electronic commerce "readiness assessment" to evaluate the immediate, mid- and long-term potential of electronic commerce; practical remediation strategies for better preparing the organization for the changes inherent in moving to an e-commerce-enabled business model; and comments from the field--advice from organizations that have successfully implemented e-commerce technologies into their ongoing operations.

  6. 19 CFR 122.49 - Correction of air cargo manifest or air waybill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial... satisfactory reply within 30 days of entry of the aircraft or receipt of the notice, whichever is later....

  7. [E-commerce of pharmaceuticals].

    PubMed

    Shani, Segev

    2003-05-01

    The emergence of the Internet as a new communications and information technology caused major social and cultural changes. The dramatic increase in accessibility and availability of information empowered the consumer by closing the information gap between the consumer and different suppliers. The objective of this article is to review many new internet-supported applications related to the pharmaceutical market. E-commerce is divided into two major components: Business to Consumer (B to C), and Business to Business (B to B). The main applications in B to C are dissemination of medical and drug information, and the sale of drugs through the Internet. Medical information on the Internet is vast and very helpful for patients, however, its reliability is not guaranteed. Online pharmacies increase the accessibility and availability of drugs. Nevertheless, several obstacles such as security of the data provided (both financial and clinical) prevent the widespread use of online pharmacies. Another risk is the health authorities' inability to regulate Internet sites effectively. Therefore, unregulated sale of prescription drugs, fake or substandard, often occurs on the Internet. B to B relates to physicians, clinics, hospitals, HMO's and pharmaceutical companies. There is a vast number of applications ranging from clinical research, marketing and sales promotion, to drug distribution and logistics. In conclusion, the Internet is dynamic and has contributed to the development of numerous new applications in the field of pharmaceuticals. Regulatory authorities should be active in developing new policies that will deal with those new Internet-based applications.

  8. 29 CFR 779.109 - Amount of activities which constitute engaging in commerce or in the production of goods for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of activities which constitute engaging in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce. 779.109 Section 779.109 Labor Regulations Relating to... Engaged in Commerce Or in the Production of Goods for Commerce § 779.109 Amount of activities...

  9. 15 CFR 19.15 - How will Commerce entities refer Commerce debts to private collection agencies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will Commerce entities refer Commerce debts to private collection agencies? 19.15 Section 19.15 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.15 How...

  10. 19 CFR 122.48a - Electronic information for air cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic information for air cargo required in... OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members...

  11. 19 CFR 122.48a - Electronic information for air cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electronic information for air cargo required in... OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members...

  12. 19 CFR 122.48a - Electronic information for air cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electronic information for air cargo required in... OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members...

  13. 19 CFR 122.2 - Other Customs laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other Customs laws and regulations. 122.2 Section 122.2 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS General Definitions and Provisions § 122.2 Other...

  14. 19 CFR 122.30 - Other Customs laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other Customs laws and regulations. 122.30 Section 122.30 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.30 Other Customs laws and...

  15. 29 CFR 776.11 - Employees doing work related to instrumentalities of commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... commerce. 776.11 Section 776.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... commerce. (a) Another large category of employees covered as “engaged in commerce” is comprised of... instrumentalities of commerce. (See the cases cited in footnote 28 to § 776.9. See also the discussion of...

  16. Notification: Preliminary Research on the Office of Air and Radiation’s Timekeeping Practices and Compliance With Regulations and Policies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OA-FY17-0090, December 29, 2016. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research on the Office of Air and Radiation’s timekeeping practices and compliance with federal regulations and related EPA policies and procedures.

  17. Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD) Naturally Occurring Asbestos Regulations and Enforcement Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, M.

    2012-12-01

    BAAQMD has been delegated local enforcement of the Naturally-Occurring Asbestos Airborne Toxic Control Measure for Construction, Grading, Quarrying, and Surface Mining Operations, Section 93105, Title 17, California Code of Regulation ("NOA ATCM") by the state Air Resource Board. BAAQMD will present an overview of how BAAQMD administers and enforces the NOA ATCM, as well as a discussion of various issues that have arisen at NOA projects BAAQMD has overseen, and steps that have been taken in the interest of protecting the public health.

  18. E-commerce trade in invasive plants.

    PubMed

    Humair, Franziska; Humair, Luc; Kuhn, Fabian; Kueffer, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Biological invasions are a major concern in conservation, especially because global transport of species is still increasing rapidly. Conservationists hope to anticipate and thus prevent future invasions by identifying and regulating potentially invasive species through species risk assessments and international trade regulations. Among many introduction pathways of non-native species, horticulture is a particularly important driver of plant invasions. In recent decades, the horticultural industry expanded globally and changed structurally through the emergence of new distribution channels, including internet trade (e-commerce). Using an automated search algorithm, we surveyed, on a daily basis, e-commerce trade on 10 major online auction sites (including eBay) of approximately three-fifths of the world's spermatophyte flora. Many recognized invasive plant species (>500 species) (i.e., species associated with ecological or socio-economic problems) were traded daily worldwide on the internet. A markedly higher proportion of invasive than non-invasive species were available online. Typically, for a particular plant family, 30-80% of recognized invasive species were detected on an auction site, but only a few percentages of all species in the plant family were detected on a site. Families that were more traded had a higher proportion of invasive species than families that were less traded. For woody species, there was a significant positive relationship between the number of regions where a species was sold and the number of regions where it was invasive. Our results indicate that biosecurity is not effectively regulating online plant trade. In the future, automated monitoring of e-commerce may help prevent the spread of invasive species, provide information on emerging trade connectivity across national borders, and be used in horizon scanning exercises for early detection of new species and their geographic source areas in international trade.

  19. Impact of Partial and Comprehensive Smoke-Free Regulations on Indoor Air Quality in Bars

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeonghoon; Ban, Hyunkyung; Hwang, Yunhyung; Ha, Kwonchul; Lee, Kiyoung

    2016-01-01

    In Korea, smoke-free regulations have been gradually implemented in bars based on venue size. Smoking bans were implemented in 2013 for bars ≥150 m2, in 2014 for bars ≥100 m2, and in 2015 for bars of all sizes. The purpose of this study was to determine indoor fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations in bars before and after implementation of the smoke-free policies based on venue size. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations were measured with real-time aerosol monitors at four time points: (1) pre-regulation (n = 75); (2) after implementing the ban in bars ≥150 m2 (n = 75); (3) after implementing the ban in bars ≥100 m2 (n = 107); and (4) when all bars were smoke-free (n = 79). Our results showed that the geometric mean of the indoor PM2.5 concentrations of all bars decreased from 98.4 μg/m3 pre-regulation to 79.5, 42.9, and 26.6 μg/m3 after the ban on smoking in bars ≥150 m2, ≥100 m2, and all bars, respectively. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations in bars of each size decreased only after the corresponding regulations were implemented. Although smoking was not observed in Seoul bars after smoking was banned in all bars, smoking was observed in 4 of 21 bars in Changwon. Our study concludes that the greatest decrease in PM2.5 concentrations in bars was observed after the regulation covering all bars was implemented. However, despite the comprehensive ban, smoking was observed in bars in Changwon. Strict compliance with the regulations is needed to improve indoor air quality further. PMID:27472349

  20. Effects of negative air ions on activity of neural substrates involved in autonomic regulation in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Satoko; Yanagita, Shinya; Amemiya, Seiichiro; Kato, Yumi; Kubota, Natsuko; Ryushi, Tomoo; Kita, Ichiro

    2008-07-01

    The neural mechanism by which negative air ions (NAI) mediate the regulation of autonomic nervous system activity is still unknown. We examined the effects of NAI on physiological responses, such as blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) as well as neuronal activity, in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), locus coeruleus (LC), nucleus ambiguus (NA), and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) with c-Fos immunohistochemistry in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats. In addition, we performed cervical vagotomy to reveal the afferent pathway involved in mediating the effects of NAI on autonomic regulation. NAI significantly decreased BP and HR, and increased HF power of the HRV spectrum. Significant decreases in c-Fos positive nuclei in the PVN and LC, and enhancement of c-Fos expression in the NA and NTS were induced by NAI. After vagotomy, these physiological and neuronal responses to NAI were not observed. These findings suggest that NAI can modulate autonomic regulation through inhibition of neuronal activity in PVN and LC as well as activation of NA neurons, and that these effects of NAI might be mediated via the vagus nerves.

  1. Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in the Neuse River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, M. C.; Knightes, C. D.; Dennis, R. L.; Cooter, E. J.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated impacts of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) NOx emissions regulations on the fate and transport of nitrogen for two watersheds in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina, USA from 1990 to 2020. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system were used. CMAQ simulated atmospheric chemical transport and nitrogen deposition. This data was entered into SWAT which simulated watershed hydrology and water quality. Two cases were investigated: one that incorporates CAAA regulatory emissions controls in CMAQ simulation (with) and a second case that does not (without). SWAT model results forecasted a 70% decrease in inorganic nitrogen discharge from the Little River watershed and a 50% decrease for the Nahunta watershed by 2020 under the emission control (with) scenario. Denitrification and plant nitrogen uptake played important roles in nitrogen discharge from each watershed. The nitrogen discharge response time following a change in atmospheric nitrogen deposition was 4 years for the Nahunta watershed and 2 years for the Little River watershed. The longer response time for Nahunta is primarily due to a higher percentage of soybean land cover (22.5% [Nahunta]; 1.6% [Little River]). Agricultural land covers had varied nitrogen response times to changes in atmospheric deposition, particularly for soybean, hay and corn. The studied watersheds retained >80% of all nitrogen delivered by agriculture fertilization, biological fixation and atmospheric deposition.

  2. 40 CFR 204.57-9 - Prohibition of distribution in commerce; manufacturer's -remedy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... commerce; manufacturer's -remedy. 204.57-9 Section 204.57-9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Portable Air Compressors § 204.57-9 Prohibition of distribution in commerce; manufacturer's -remedy. (a... manufacturer demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Administrator that such subgroup does not exhibit...

  3. Social Engineering hits Social Commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degenhardt, Werner; Wiele, Johannes

    Looking at social commerce, a bunch of bewildering phenomena attracts the attention of social psychologists. The way customers participate today shows attitudes and ethical behavior which cannot be explained from the inherent conditions of Web 2.0 environments alone. Fraud often succeeds, when you do not expect it, and honesty can be found under circumstances that do not support honesty at all. The current situation seems to result from customers assigning experience and ethics from real world business to virtual business environments. But there are indications that this situation may change. Social commerce could suffer as soon as customers would use its inherent weaknesses to their own advantage. The following article outlines first approaches to research into this topic.

  4. A miniaturized piezoelectric turbine with self-regulation for increased air speed range

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Hailing Yeatman, Eric M.

    2015-12-14

    This paper presents the design and demonstration of a piezoelectric turbine with self-regulation for increased air speed range. The turbine's transduction is achieved by magnetic “plucking” of a piezoelectric beam by the passing rotor. The increased speed range is achieved by the self-regulating mechanism which can dynamically adjust the magnetic coupling between the magnets on the turbine rotor and the piezoelectric beam using a micro-spring. The spring is controlled passively by the centrifugal force of the magnet on the rotor. This mechanism automatically changes the relative position of the magnets at different rotational speeds, making the coupling weak at low airflow speeds and strong at high speeds. Hence, the device can start up with a low airflow speed, and the output power can be ensured when the airflow speed is high. A theoretical model was established to analyse the turbine's performance, advantages, and to optimize its design parameters. A prototype was fabricated and tested in a wind tunnel. The start-up airflow speed was 2.34 m/s, showing a 30% improvement against a harvester without the mechanism.

  5. A miniaturized piezoelectric turbine with self-regulation for increased air speed range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Hailing; Yeatman, Eric M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the design and demonstration of a piezoelectric turbine with self-regulation for increased air speed range. The turbine's transduction is achieved by magnetic "plucking" of a piezoelectric beam by the passing rotor. The increased speed range is achieved by the self-regulating mechanism which can dynamically adjust the magnetic coupling between the magnets on the turbine rotor and the piezoelectric beam using a micro-spring. The spring is controlled passively by the centrifugal force of the magnet on the rotor. This mechanism automatically changes the relative position of the magnets at different rotational speeds, making the coupling weak at low airflow speeds and strong at high speeds. Hence, the device can start up with a low airflow speed, and the output power can be ensured when the airflow speed is high. A theoretical model was established to analyse the turbine's performance, advantages, and to optimize its design parameters. A prototype was fabricated and tested in a wind tunnel. The start-up airflow speed was 2.34 m/s, showing a 30% improvement against a harvester without the mechanism.

  6. Getting real about virtual commerce.

    PubMed

    Evans, P; Wurster, T S

    1999-01-01

    In its first generation, electronic commerce has been a landgrab. Space on the Internet was claimed by whoever got there first with enough resources to create a credible business. It took speed, a willingness to experiment, and a lot of cybersavvy. Companies that had performed brilliantly in traditional settings seemed hopelessly flat-footed on the Web. And despite their astronomical valuations, the new e-commerce stars have appeared to be just as confused. Many have yet to make a profit, and no one has any idea when they will. Now, the authors contend, we are entering the second generation of e-commerce, and it will be shaped more by strategy than by experimentation. The key players--branded-goods suppliers, physical retailers, electronic retailers, and pure navigators--will shift their attention from claiming territory to defending or capturing it. They will be forced to focus on strategies to achieve competitive advantage. Success will go to the businesses that get closest to consumers, the ones that help customers navigate their way through the Web. Indeed, the authors argue, navigation is the battlefield on which competitive advantage will be won or lost. There are three dimensions of navigation: Reach is about access and connection. Affiliation is about whose interests the business represents. And richness is the depth of the information that a business gives to or collects about its customers. Navigators and e-retailers have the natural advantage in reach and affiliation, while traditional product suppliers and retailers have the edge in richness. The authors offer practical advice to each player on competing in the second generation of e-commerce.

  7. Electronic Commerce on the Internet.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    electronic commerce , where companies transact business spontaneously over the Internet. In restructuring its procurement processes, The Federal Government has a unique opportunity to exploit this electronic marketplace, and to influence its development in ways that benefit us all. This report describes a vision of the electronic marketplace, the requirements it must satisfy, an architecture for addressing those requirements, and a graceful migration path to the marketplace from current EDI technology and practice. It identifies five key concepts for government

  8. Allowance trading under the Clean Air Act: Who should regulate, and when?

    SciTech Connect

    Lock, R.

    1993-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore how compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), especially Title IV and emission trading under it, will affect the current relationship between state and federal regulation. It is difficult, with the limited experience we have had under Title IV, to be definitive about or to be a very strong advocate of too many policy positions. What may be most helpful at this point is to identify where the difficult issues in state/federal relations might arise; and then to explore ways in which tensions might be either avoided or resolved. One anticipated conclusion is that a traditional regulatory mindset could be very destructive if applied to this new area of oversight without due sensitivity to what Congress is trying to achieve in Title IV. That concern pervaded the early legislative debates; and it persists today. Title IV presents some unique challenges to state regulators and will require some creative solutions and fresh thinking if the goals of Congress are to be realized and the full benefits that allowance trading can offer are to be reaped by electricity consumers. In the ultimate analysis, Title IV amounts to a massive internalization of the external costs imposed on society by acid rain deposition. (This places in serious question the notion of additional externality {open_quotes}adders{close_quotes} for sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) at the state level for utility supply planning purposes.) The whole point of Title IV is to give those directly charged with compliance, namely power producers, the maximum flexibility to pursue least-cost compliance solutions. Perhaps the biggest single factor in how well they do this will be how state regulators respond to their compliance and allowance trading initiatives.

  9. Aire employs a histone-binding module to mediate immunological tolerance, linking chromatin regulation with organ-specific autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Koh, Andrew S; Kuo, Alex J; Park, Sang Youn; Cheung, Peggie; Abramson, Jakub; Bua, Dennis; Carney, Dylan; Shoelson, Steven E; Gozani, Or; Kingston, Robert E; Benoist, Christophe; Mathis, Diane

    2008-10-14

    Aire induces ectopic expression of peripheral tissue antigens (PTAs) in thymic medullary epithelial cells, which promotes immunological tolerance. Beginning with a broad screen of histone peptides, we demonstrate that the mechanism by which this single factor controls the transcription of thousands of genes involves recognition of the amino-terminal tail of histone H3, but not of other histones, by one of Aire's plant homeodomain (PHD) fingers. Certain posttranslational modifications of H3 tails, notably dimethylation or trimethylation at H3K4, abrogated binding by Aire, whereas others were tolerated. Similar PHD finger-H3 tail-binding properties were recently reported for BRAF-histone deacetylase complex 80 and DNA methyltransferase 3L; sequence alignment, molecular modeling, and biochemical analyses showed these factors and Aire to have structure-function relationships in common. In addition, certain PHD1 mutations underlying the polyendocrine disorder autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiases-ectodermaldystrophy compromised Aire recognition of H3. In vitro binding assays demonstrated direct physical interaction between Aire and nucleosomes, which was in part buttressed by its affinity to DNA. In vivo Aire interactions with chromosomal regions depleted of H3K4me3 were dependent on its H3 tail-binding activity, and this binding was necessary but not sufficient for the up-regulation of genes encoding PTAs. Thus, Aire's activity as a histone-binding module mediates the thymic display of PTAs that promotes self-tolerance and prevents organ-specific autoimmunity.

  10. 16 CFR 801.3 - Activities in or affecting commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Activities in or affecting commerce. 801.3 Section 801.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.3...

  11. 16 CFR 801.3 - Activities in or affecting commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Activities in or affecting commerce. 801.3 Section 801.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.3...

  12. 16 CFR 801.3 - Activities in or affecting commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities in or affecting commerce. 801.3 Section 801.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.3...

  13. 16 CFR 801.3 - Activities in or affecting commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Activities in or affecting commerce. 801.3 Section 801.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.3...

  14. 16 CFR 801.3 - Activities in or affecting commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Activities in or affecting commerce. 801.3 Section 801.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.3...

  15. 7 CFR 57.35 - Eggs in commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eggs in commerce. 57.35 Section 57.35 Agriculture... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Relation to Other Authorities §...

  16. 7 CFR 57.35 - Eggs in commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eggs in commerce. 57.35 Section 57.35 Agriculture... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Relation to Other Authorities §...

  17. 7 CFR 57.35 - Eggs in commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eggs in commerce. 57.35 Section 57.35 Agriculture... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs Relation to Other Authorities §...

  18. 29 CFR 401.3 - Industry affecting commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.3 Industry affecting commerce. Industry affecting...” within the meaning of the Labor Management Relations Act, 1947, as amended, or the Railway Labor Act,...

  19. Effects of agriculture upon the air quality and climate: research, policy, and regulations.

    PubMed

    Aneja, Viney P; Schlesinger, William H; Erisman, Jan Willem

    2009-06-15

    compounds, volatile organic compounds, greenhouse gases, odor and pathogens, the quantification of landscape processes, and the primary and secondary emissions of PM. Given the serious concerns raised regarding the amount and the impacts of agricultural air emissions, policies must be pursued and regulations must be enacted in orderto make real progress in reducing these emissions and their associated environmental impacts.

  20. Impact of sulfur content regulations of shipping fuel on coastal air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyler, André; Wittrock, Folkard; Kattner, Lisa; Mathieu-Üffing, Barbara; Weigelt, Andreas; Peters, Enno; Richter, Andreas; Schmolke, Stefan; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Shipping traffic is a sector that faces an enormous growth rate and contributes substantially to the emissions from the transportation sector, but lacks regulations and controls. Shipping is not enclosed in the Kyoto Protocol. However, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) introduced sufhur limits for marine heavy fuels, nitrogen oxide limits for newly-built ship engines and established Emission Control Areas (ECA) in the North and Baltic Sea as well as around North America with the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI). Recently, on the 1st of January 2015, the allowed sulfur content of marine fuels inside Sulfur Emission Control Areas has been significantly decreased from 1.0% to 0.1%. However, measurements of reactive trace gases and the chemical composition of the marine troposphere along shipping routes are sparse and up to now there is no regular monitoring system available. The project MeSmarT (measurements of shipping emissions in the marine troposphere) is a cooperation between the University of Bremen, the German Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie, BSH) and the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht. This study aims to analyse the influence of shipping emissions on the coastal air quality by evaluating ground-based remote sensing measurements using the MAX-DOAS (Multi AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) technique. Measurements of the atmospheric trace gases nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) have been carried out in the marine troposphere at the MeSmarT measurement sites in Wedel and on Neuwerk and on-board several ship cruises on the North and Baltic Sea. The capability of two-channel MAX-DOAS systems to do simultaneous measurements in the UV and visible spectral range has been used in the so called "onion-peeling" approach to derive spatial distributions of ship emissions and to analyse the movement of the exhausted

  1. Building the DAML Electronic Commerce Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    COMPUTER GATEWAYS, *COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, INFORMATION EXCHANGE, INTEROPERABILITY, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, SEMANTICS, INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, COMPUTER APPLICATIONS, INTERNET, BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING, ELECTRONIC COMMERCE .

  2. Building the DAML Electronic Commerce Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-02-15

    COMPUTER GATEWAYS, *COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, INFORMATION EXCHANGE, INTEROPERABILITY, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, SEMANTICS, INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, COMPUTER APPLICATIONS, INTERNET, BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING, ELECTRONIC COMMERCE .

  3. Electronic Commerce: A National Performance Review Initiative.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    This study of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) was conducted as part of IDA’s Central Research Program. Electronic commerce is one of... commerce is nothing more than conducting business via electronic means. An outgrowth of the NPR, the electronic commerce initiative, commits the...private, and public sectors are committed to implementing electronic commerce throughout the United States. The objective ol this paper is to enhance

  4. 16 CFR 240.6 - Interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate commerce. 240.6 Section 240.6... ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.6 Interstate commerce. The term interstate commerce has not been precisely defined in the statute. In general, if there is any part of a...

  5. 16 CFR 240.6 - Interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...(d) and 2(e) of the Act. (The commerce standard for sections 2 (d) and (e) is at least as inclusive... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interstate commerce. 240.6 Section 240.6... ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.6 Interstate commerce. The term...

  6. E-Commerce Marketing State Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Tech Prep Curriculum Services.

    This profile provides the curricular framework for Ohio Tech Prep programs in e-commerce marketing beginning in high school and continuing through the end of the associate degree. It includes a comprehensive set of e-commerce marketing competencies that reflect job opportunities and skills required for e-commerce marketing professionals today and…

  7. 75 FR 14401 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Michigan; PSD Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... comments. 2. E-mail: blakley.pamela@epa.gov . 3. Fax: (312) 692-2450. 4. Mail: Pamela Blakley, Chief, Air... Boulevard, Chicago, Illinois 60604. 5. Hand Delivery: Pamela Blakley, Chief, Air Permits Section,...

  8. Coal-fired power generaion, new air quality regulations, and future U.S. coal production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Root, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Tighter new regulation of stack gas emissions and competition in power generation are driving electrical utilities to demand cleaner, lower sulfur coal. Historical data on sulfur content of produced coals shows little variability in coal quality for individual mines and individual coal-producing counties over relatively long periods of time. If coal-using power generators follow the compliance patterns established in Phase I of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, then the industry's response to the tighter Phase II emissions standards will result in large amounts of coal production shifting from higher sulfur areas to areas with lower cost low sulfur coal. One reason this shift will likely occur is that currently only 30% of U.S. coal-fired electrical generating capacity is equipped with flue-gas scrubbers. In 1995, coal mines in the higher sulfur areas of the Illinois Basin and Northern and Central Appalachia employed 78% of all coal miners (>70,000 miners). A substantial geographical redistribution of the nation's coal supplies will likely lead to economic dislocations that will reach beyond local coal-producing areas.

  9. Electronic Commerce "in the dark"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzzi, Maria Claudia; Buzzi, Marina; Leporini, Barbara; Senette, Caterina

    The widespread diffusion of electronic commerce offers a great opportunity for blind people. We describe the results of an electronic survey carried out with 22 blind and 22 sighted users in order to understand the difficulties and obstacles they experience shopping on-line, and solicit their expectations and suggestions for making the interaction simpler and more satisfying. Results show that blind users shop on-line much less than their sighted counterparts, since they encounter more difficulties not only when making a purchase, but even in the navigation phase preceding the commercial transaction. Complex layouts and unstructured content can prevent an e-transaction from being successfully completed. Furthermore, security, privacy and trustiness, common concerns for all consumers, also impact on the fear of buying via Internet for the visually impaired. Poor usability leads to a potential loss of revenue for on-line companies and a lost opportunity to increase a blind person's independence. Providing simpler, more understandable UIs would benefit all users and fuel the expansion of electronic commerce.

  10. Impact of air pollution control regulations on thermal enhanced oil recovery production in the United States. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, J.F.; Rouge, J.D.; Beekley, P.K.; Husband, S.N.; Arnold, C.W.; Menzies, W.R.; Balentine, H.W.

    1982-03-01

    This study assesses the impact of air pollution control regulations on the costs of present and future thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) production. The conclusions of this study indicate that lengthy permitting processes, limited control sytem availability, and costly control system requirements complicate regulatory compliance and constrain TEOR production expansion. Seven heavy oil production areas with potential for increased TEOR production were selected for detailed analyses. Five of these areas are in California: central Kern County, western Kern County, Coalinga, San Ardo, and Los Angeles Basin. The other two areas are the Slocum field in Texas and the Smackover field in Arkansas. Air pollution control rule and regulation requirements were determined for each production area. State-of-the-art air pollution control technology was assessed and costs were estimated for the control systems needed to comply with previous new source review (NSR) and retrofit rules in each area. For each California production area, the maximum potential increase in TEOR production was estimated, based on available emission offsets. Potential increases in the Texas and Arkansas fields were not projected because production is expected to decrease in these areas. Costs were calculated for the control systems required to allow the maximum increase in TEOR production. An air quality impact analysis was performed for the four largest production areas in California. The results of this analysis allowed estimation of the air quality changes associated with the maximum TEOR production increase and compliance with retrofit and NSR rules.

  11. Policy implications of genetic information on regulation under the Clean Air Act: the case of particulate matter and asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Kramer, C Bradley; Cullen, Alison C; Faustman, Elaine M

    2006-03-01

    The U.S. Clean Air Act (CAA) explicitly guarantees the protection of sensitive human subpopulations from adverse health effects associated with air pollution exposure. Identified subpopulations, such as asthmatics, may carry multiple genetic susceptibilities to disease onset and progression and thus qualify for special protection under the CAA. Scientific advances accelerated as a result of the groundbreaking Human Genome Project enable the quantification of genetic information that underlies such human variability in susceptibility and the cellular mechanisms of disease. In epidemiology and regulatory toxicology, genetic information can more clearly elucidate human susceptibility essential to risk assessment, such as in support of air quality regulation. In an effort to encourage the incorporation of genomic information in regulation, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued an Interim Policy on Genomics. Additional research strategy and policy documents from the National Academy of Science, the U.S. EPA, and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services further promote the expansion of asthma genetics research for human health risk assessment. Through a review of these government documents, we find opportunities for the inclusion of genetic information in the regulation of air pollutants. In addition, we identify sources of information in recent scientific research on asthma genetics relevant to regulatory standard setting. We conclude with recommendations on how to integrate these approaches for the improvement of regulatory health science and the prerequisites for inclusion of genetic information in decision making.

  12. The Development Model Electronic Commerce of Regional Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jun; Cai, Lecai; Li, Hongchan

    With the developing of the agricultural information, it is inevitable trend of the development of agricultural electronic commercial affairs. On the basis of existing study on the development application model of e-commerce, combined with the character of the agricultural information, compared with the developing model from the theory and reality, a new development model electronic commerce of regional agriculture base on the government is put up, and such key issues as problems of the security applications, payment mode, sharing mechanisms, and legal protection are analyzed, etc. The among coordination mechanism of the region is discussed on, it is significance for regulating the development of agricultural e-commerce and promoting the regional economical development.

  13. 76 FR 29609 - Wassenaar Arrangement 2010 Plenary Agreements Implementation: Commerce Control List, Definitions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ...The Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) maintains, as part of the agency's Export Administration Regulations (EAR), the Commerce Control List (CCL), which identifies items subject to Department of Commerce export controls. This final rule revises the CCL to implement changes made to the Wassenaar Arrangement's List of Dual-Use Goods and Technologies (Wassenaar List) maintained and agreed to......

  14. 7 CFR 201.65 - Noxious weed seeds in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Noxious weed seeds in interstate commerce. 201.65... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.65 Noxious weed seeds in interstate commerce. Tolerances for rates of occurrence of noxious-weed seeds shall be recognized and shall be applied to...

  15. 7 CFR 201.65 - Noxious-weed seeds in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds in interstate commerce. 201.65... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.65 Noxious-weed seeds in interstate commerce. Tolerances for rates of occurrence of noxious-weed seeds shall be recognized and shall be applied to...

  16. 7 CFR 201.65 - Noxious-weed seeds in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Noxious-weed seeds in interstate commerce. 201.65... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.65 Noxious-weed seeds in interstate commerce. Tolerances for rates of occurrence of noxious-weed seeds shall be recognized and shall be applied to...

  17. 7 CFR 201.65 - Noxious weed seeds in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noxious weed seeds in interstate commerce. 201.65... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.65 Noxious weed seeds in interstate commerce. Tolerances for rates of occurrence of noxious-weed seeds shall be recognized and shall be applied to...

  18. 33 CFR 100.909 - Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. 100.909 Section 100.909 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of the...

  19. 33 CFR 100.909 - Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. 100.909 Section 100.909 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of the...

  20. 33 CFR 100.909 - Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. 100.909 Section 100.909 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of the...

  1. 15 CFR 19.19 - Will Commerce entities issue a refund if money is erroneously collected on a Commerce debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Will Commerce entities issue a refund if money is erroneously collected on a Commerce debt? 19.19 Section 19.19 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts §...

  2. 15 CFR 19.16 - When will Commerce entities refer Commerce debts to the Department of Justice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will Commerce entities refer Commerce debts to the Department of Justice? 19.16 Section 19.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.16 When...

  3. 15 CFR 19.11 - How will Commerce entities use tax refund offset to collect a Commerce debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will Commerce entities use tax refund offset to collect a Commerce debt? 19.11 Section 19.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.11 How...

  4. 15 CFR 19.8 - When will Commerce entities suspend or terminate debt collection on a Commerce debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will Commerce entities suspend or terminate debt collection on a Commerce debt? 19.8 Section 19.8 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.8 When...

  5. Impact of a new gasoline benzene regulation on ambient air pollutants in Anchorage, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Yuriko; Morris, Stephen S.; Salerno, Christopher; Schlapia, Anne M.; Stichick, Mathew

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of a new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard that limits the amount of benzene allowed in gasoline on ambient benzene concentrations. This new standard, together with two companion regulations that limit cold-temperature automotive emissions and the permeability of portable fuel containers, was expected to lower the levels of ambient benzene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) nationwide. In this study the impact of the gasoline benzene standard was evaluated in Anchorage, Alaska in a two-phase ambient air monitoring study conducted before and after the new gasoline standard was implemented. Gasoline sold by Anchorage retailers was also evaluated in each phase to determine the content of benzene and other gasoline components. The average benzene content in Anchorage gasoline was reduced by 70%, from 5.05% (w/w) to 1.53% (w/w) following the implementation of the standard. The annual mean ambient benzene concentration fell by 51%, from 0.99 ppbv in Phase 1 to 0.49 ppbv in Phase 2. Analysis suggests the change in gasoline benzene content alone reduced benzene emissions by 46%. The changes in toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene content in gasoline between Phase 1 and 2 were relatively small and the differences in the mean ambient concentrations of these compounds between phases were modest. Our results suggest that cold winter communities in high latitude and mountainous regions may benefit more from the gasoline benzene standard because of high benzene emissions resulting from vehicle cold start and a tendency to develop atmospheric stagnation conditions in the winter.

  6. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) Between NASA Headquarters and MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) for NASA Principal Center for Review of Clean Air Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, Salvadore V.; Clark-Ingram, Marceia A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a memorandum of agreement on Clean Air Regulations. NASA headquarters (code JE and code M) has asked MSFC to serve as principle center for review of Clean Air Act (CAA) regulations. The purpose of the principle center is to provide centralized support to NASA headquarters for the management and leadership of NASA's CAA regulation review process and to identify the potential impact of proposed CAA reguations on NASA program hardware and supporting facilities. The materials and processes utilized in the manufacture of NASA's programmatic hardware contain HAPs (Hazardous Air Pollutants), VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds), and ODC (Ozone Depleting Chemicals). This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  7. 77 FR 56124 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Michigan; PSD and NSR Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Michigan; PSD and... consistent with the Federal requirements of the prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) construction... source review (NSR) in Class I areas attaining the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. DATES:...

  8. Department of Commerce Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... Part IV Department of Commerce Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (DOC) DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Office of the Secretary 13 CFR Ch. III 15 CFR Subtitle A; Subtitle B, Chs. I, II, III, VII, VIII, IX, and XI 19 CFR Ch. III 37 CFR Chs. I, IV, and V 48 CFR Ch. 13 50 CFR Chs. II, III, IV, and VI Spring 2010 Semiannual Agenda...

  9. NS/EP Implications of Electronic Commerce

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    THE PRESIDENT’S NATIONAL SECURITY TELECOMMUNICATIONS ADVISORY COMMITTEE NS/EP IMPLICATIONS OF ELECTRONIC COMMERCE JUNE 1999 Form SF298 Citation Data... Electronic Commerce Procedures Contract or Grant Number Program Element Number Authors Project Number Task Number Work Unit Number Performing Organization...99 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NS/EP Implications of Electronic Commerce 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) President’s

  10. 29 CFR 776.11 - Employees doing work related to instrumentalities of commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS... also be covered as engaged in the production of goods for commerce. See Lewis v. Florida Power &...

  11. 7 CFR 1220.103 - Commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.103 Commerce. The...

  12. 7 CFR 1220.103 - Commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.103 Commerce. The...

  13. 7 CFR 1220.103 - Commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.103 Commerce. The...

  14. 7 CFR 1220.103 - Commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.103 Commerce. The...

  15. 7 CFR 1220.103 - Commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.103 Commerce. The...

  16. Air humidity and carotid rete function in thermo-regulation of the goat

    PubMed Central

    Jessen, Claus; Pongratz, Hans

    1979-01-01

    1. The effects of air humidity on respiratory rate have been studied in conscious goats exposed to an air temperature of + 33 °C. Before the experiments the animals had been chronically implanted with hypothalamic thermodes and intravascular heat exchangers to manipulate hypothalamic and general body core temperatures. 2. Raising air humidity from 37 to 96% at constant air temperature resulted in a rise of respiratory rate, an immediate increase in hypothalamic temperature and a delayed smaller increase in general body core temperature. 3. The rise of respiratory rate was smaller when general body core temperature was clamped at its control level and was absent when hypothalamic and general body core temperatures were clamped at their control levels during the humid air phase. 4. It is concluded that the effect of high air humidity on respiratory rate in goats is predominantly the result of a rise in hypothalamic temperature acting on local thermosensitive structures. The carotid rete heat exchanger is thought to provide the thermal link between the evaporating surfaces of the upper respiratory tract and the hypothalamus. 5. This function of the carotid rete heat exchanger is restricted to heat stressed animals. In animals subject to central cooling no local effects on hypothalamic temperature could be observed when the temperature of the inspired air was altered from + 33 to - 17 °C. PMID:490377

  17. DOE regulation of mixed waste. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy Conservation and Power and the Subcommittee on Commerce, Transportation, and Tourism of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session on H. R. 2009 and H. R. 2593, April 10, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Testimony by representatives of the Environmental Protection Agency, citizen environmental organizations, DOE, and universities on the Mixed Hazardous Waste Amendment Act of 1985 (H.R. 2009) and the Military Radioactive Emissions Control Act of 1985 (H.R. 2593) focused on safety aspects of mixed wastes at DOE facilities from the point of view of the general public and the implications for tourism and recreation in affected areas. H.R. 2593 calls for standards and continuous independent monitoring, while H.R. 2009 ensures that wastes the Solid Waste Management Act covers solid wastes containing radioactive material. The testimony covered definitions and interpretations by byproduct material and the problems associated with self-regulation. The testimony of the 10 witnesses follows the text of the two bills.

  18. 75 FR 10415 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; NSR Reform Regulations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... on EPA's NSR Web site, under Regulations & Standards, at http://www.epa.gov/nsr . II. Judicial Review... Reform Regulations--Notice of Action Denying Petition for Reconsideration and Request for Administrative... Regulations, Rule AM-06-04'' published December 17, 2008. The final rule approved certain revisions...

  19. Air Emissions Inventory Guidance for Implementation of Ozone and Particulate Matter NAAQS and Regional Haze Regulations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Guidance document on how to develop emission inventories to meet State Implementation Plan requirements for complying with the 8-hour ozone national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS), the revised particulate matter (PM) NAAQS, and the regional haze reg

  20. Fact Sheet: Proposed Hazardous Air Pollutant Regulation for the Miscellaneous Cellulose Products Manufacturing

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This August 2000 document contains information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Cellulose Products Manufacturing. Some of the products of this industry are: cellulose, cellophane, and rayon.

  1. Predictions of U.K. regulated power station contributions to regional air pollution and deposition: a model comparison exercise.

    PubMed

    Chemel, Charles; Sokhi, Ranjeet S; Dore, Anthony J; Sutton, Paul; Vincent, Keith J; Griffiths, Stephen J; Hayman, Garry D; Wright, Raymond D; Baggaley, Matthew; Hallsworth, Stephen; Prain, H Douglas; Fisher, Bernard E A

    2011-11-01

    Contributions of the emissions from a U.K. regulated fossil-fuel power station to regional air pollution and deposition are estimated using four air quality modeling systems for the year 2003. The modeling systems vary in complexity and emphasis in the way they treat atmospheric and chemical processes, and include the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system in its versions 4.6 and 4.7, a nested modeling system that combines long- and short-range impacts (referred to as TRACK-ADMS [Trajectory Model with Atmospheric Chemical Kinetics-Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling System]), and the Fine Resolution Atmospheric Multi-pollutant Exchange (FRAME) model. An evaluation of the baseline calculations against U.K. monitoring network data is performed. The CMAQ modeling system version 4.6 data set is selected as the reference data set for the model footprint comparison. The annual mean air concentration and total deposition footprints are summarized for each modeling system. The footprints of the power station emissions can account for a significant fraction of the local impacts for some species (e.g., more than 50% for SO2 air concentration and non-sea-salt sulfur deposition close to the source) for 2003. The spatial correlation and the coefficient of variation of the root mean square error (CVRMSE) are calculated between each model footprint and that calculated by the CMAQ modeling system version 4.6. The correlation coefficient quantifies model agreement in terms of spatial patterns, and the CVRMSE measures the magnitude of the difference between model footprints. Possible reasons for the differences between model results are discussed. Finally, implications and recommendations for the regulatory assessment of the impact of major industrial sources using regional air quality modeling systems are discussed in the light of results from this case study.

  2. 15 CFR 19.13 - How will Commerce entities use administrative wage garnishment to collect a Commerce debt from a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will Commerce entities use administrative wage garnishment to collect a Commerce debt from a debtor's wages? 19.13 Section 19.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To...

  3. 15 CFR 19.9 - When will Commerce entities transfer a Commerce debt to the Treasury Department's Financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will Commerce entities transfer a Commerce debt to the Treasury Department's Financial Management Service for collection? 19.9 Section 19.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures...

  4. Trust and Relationship Building in Electronic Commerce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulou, Panagiota; Andreou, Andreas; Kanellis, Panagiotis; Martakos, Drakoulis

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the need for trust in electronic commerce to build customer relationships focuses on a model drawn from established theoretical work on trust and relationship marketing that highlights differences between traditional and electronic commerce. Considers how trust can be built into virtual environments. (Contains 50 references.)…

  5. The Evolution of Electronic Commerce Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkey, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Business schools began introducing electronic commerce programs in the late 1990s at unprecedented rates. In this study, the author examined the evolution in electronic commerce programs offered by AACSB-accredited colleges and universities from 2001 to 2005. Although these programs are declining in number, they provide the necessary skills and…

  6. The Importance of Trust in Electronic Commerce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnasingham, Pauline

    1998-01-01

    Introduces the new concept of trust and how it influences the process of managing the security of an organization operating in an electronic commerce environment. Theoretically, the study aims to develop a framework of trust and security to provide a set of guidelines for secure electronic commerce. (Author/LRW)

  7. Universities Improve Services with E-Commerce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Gina Adams

    2001-01-01

    This follow-up to a December 2000 article provides more details on Stanford University's venture into the "sell-side" of e-commerce, then describes another "sell-side" success story at the University of Wisconsin. Madison. Discusses experiences on the "buy-side" of e-commerce at the Massachusetts Institute of…

  8. Predicting Internet/E-Commerce Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Randall S.; Johnson, Richard A.; Hignite, Michael A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study that analyzed variables in order to identify accurate predictors of individuals' use of the Internet and e-commerce. Results of survey research and a neural network identifies gender, overall computer use, job-related use, and home access as important characteristics that should influence use of the Internet and e-commerce.…

  9. 77 FR 46948 - The Commerce Control List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Part 774 The Commerce Control List CFR Correction In Title 15 of... 7A008, add ``License Requirements'' above ``Reason for Control''. 0 D. On page 843, in 7B101, in the...: Supplement No. 1 to Part 774--The Commerce Control List * * * * * Category 7 * * * * * 7A002 Gyros or...

  10. 77 FR 48429 - The Commerce Control List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Part 774 The Commerce Control List CFR Correction In the Federal Register published on July 26, 2012, on page 43711, in the third column, in instruction 3.C., ``5A003''...

  11. 76 FR 81793 - The Commerce Control List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Part 774 The Commerce Control List CFR Correction In Title 15 of... paragraphs from the end of the entry: 0 79. In Supplement No. 1 to Part 774 (the Commerce Control List...'' for repair, rebuild and overhaul. Excluded from 9E001 to 9E003 control are: technical data,...

  12. 77 FR 43711 - The Commerce Control List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Part 774 The Commerce Control List CFR Correction In Title 15 of.... 742.15 of the EAR''. H. On page 807, in part II, in 5E002, after ``Related Controls'' and...

  13. 76 FR 79054 - The Commerce Control List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Part 774 The Commerce Control List CFR Correction 0 In Title 15 of... for control for NS Column 1 and adding an entry following the remaining NS Column 1 entry that...

  14. 15 CFR 30.17 - Customs and Border Protection regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Customs and Border Protection regulations. 30.17 Section 30.17 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Export Control and...

  15. 15 CFR 30.19 - Other Federal agency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Other Federal agency regulations. 30.19 Section 30.19 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Export Control and...

  16. 15 CFR 30.17 - Customs and Border Protection regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Customs and Border Protection regulations. 30.17 Section 30.17 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Export Control and...

  17. 15 CFR 30.16 - Export Administration Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Export Administration Regulations. 30.16 Section 30.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Export Control and...

  18. 15 CFR 30.19 - Other Federal agency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Other Federal agency regulations. 30.19 Section 30.19 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Export Control and...

  19. 15 CFR 30.19 - Other Federal agency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Other Federal agency regulations. 30.19 Section 30.19 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Export Control and...

  20. 15 CFR 30.19 - Other Federal agency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Other Federal agency regulations. 30.19 Section 30.19 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Export Control and...

  1. 15 CFR 30.16 - Export Administration Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Export Administration Regulations. 30.16 Section 30.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Export Control and...

  2. 15 CFR 30.17 - Customs and Border Protection regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Customs and Border Protection regulations. 30.17 Section 30.17 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Export Control and...

  3. 15 CFR 30.17 - Customs and Border Protection regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Customs and Border Protection regulations. 30.17 Section 30.17 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Export Control and...

  4. 15 CFR 30.17 - Customs and Border Protection regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs and Border Protection regulations. 30.17 Section 30.17 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Export Control and...

  5. Potential Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in the Neuse River Basin: a Modeling Investigation Using CMAQ and SWAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been extensive analysis of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) regulation impacts to changes in atmospheric nitrogen deposition; however, few studies have focused on watershed nitrogen transfer particularly regarding long-term predictions. In this study, we investigated impa...

  6. The relationship between paediatricians and commerce.

    PubMed

    Hilliard, Tom; Chambers, Timothy

    2006-03-01

    The interaction between doctors and commerce, particularly the pharmaceutical industry, has recently been subject to increasing scrutiny. Doctors are now exposed to mounting influence from industry as it spends large amounts of money on marketing, is heavily involved with continuing medical education and sponsors a major proportion of research. Conflicts of interest may exist on both sides of the relationship: doctors can be manipulated and companies need to be profitable. Paediatricians are just as open to this influence as are other members of the medical profession. There is evidence that clinical practice is altered by interaction with industry, although doctors appear to deny the likelihood of being influenced. There are significant concerns over the increasing involvement of the pharmaceutical industry with research, although the regulation of the industry continues to be strengthened and the process of research is becoming more transparent. Disclosure of conflicts of interest involving authorship is now common practice and should extend to all facets of the relationship. However, collaboration continues to be necessary in order to develop new therapies, maximise research and particularly in paediatrics, to test medications in children. Paediatricians need to be aware of the sources of influence and understand current guidelines so that interactions with industry continue to be appropriate.

  7. Development of an algorithm to regulate pump output for a closed air-loop type pneumatic biventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kyoung Won; Lee, Jung Joo; Hwang, Chang Mo; Choi, Jaesoon; Choi, Hyuk; Choi, Seong Wook; Sun, Kyung

    2009-12-01

    The closed air space-type of extracorporeal pneumatic ventricular assist device (VAD) developed by the Korea Artificial Organ Center utilizes a bellows-transforming mechanism to generate the air pressure required to pump blood. This operating mechanism can reduce the size and weight of the driving unit; however, the output of the blood pump can be affected by the pressure loading conditions of the blood sac. Therefore, to guarantee a proper pump output level, regardless of the pressure loading conditions that vary over time, automatic pump output regulation of the blood pump is required. We describe herein a pump output regulation algorithm that was developed to maintain pump output around a reference level against various afterload pressures, and verified the pump performance in vitro. Based on actual operating conditions in animal experiments, the pumping rate was limited to 40-84 beats per minute, and the afterload pressure was limited to 80-150 mm Hg. The tested reference pump output was 4.0 L/min. During experiments, the pump output was successfully and automatically regulated within the preset area regardless of the varying afterload conditions. The results of this preliminary experiment can be used as the basis for an automatic control algorithm that can enhance the stability and reliability of the applied VAD.

  8. [Detection of potentially carcinogenic compounds persisting in atmospheric air and having high priority for hygienic regulation].

    PubMed

    Ingel', F I; Legostaeva, T B; Antipanova, N A; Krivtsova, E K; Iurtseva, N A

    2012-01-01

    The algorithm for the choice of potentially carcinogenic compounds (PCS) among emitted into air and results of the study, undertaken for realization of this algorithm are presented. The investigation was carried out in Magnitogorsk - Russian town of black metallurgy - in frames of the other study, aimed to evaluation of the influence of atmospheric pollution on children's health and genomic instability. The 11 PCS for further profound study of biological activity were selected out of more than 300 PCS, persisting in the air. The carcinogenic activity for 6 compounds out of these 11 ones was already have been found out before, that testifies correctness of the created approach and its adequacy for detection PCS in atmospheric air.

  9. Mercury emission trend influenced by stringent air pollutants regulation for coal-fired power plants in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudasainee, Deepak; Kim, Jeong-Hun; Seo, Yong-Chil

    2009-12-01

    Regulatory control of mercury emission from anthropogenic sources has become a global concern in the recent past. Coal-fired power plants are one of the largest sources of anthropogenic mercury emission into the atmosphere. This paper summarizes the current reducing trend of mercury emission as co-beneficial effect by more stringent regulation changes to control primary air pollutants with introducing test results from the commercial coal-fired facilities and suggesting a guideline for future regulatory development in Korea. On average, mercury emission concentrations ranged 16.3-2.7 μg Sm -3, 2.4-1.1 μg Sm -3, 3.1-0.7 μg Sm -3 from anthracite coal-fired power plants equipped with electrostatic precipitator (ESP), bituminous coal-fired power plants with ESP + flue gas desulphurization (FGD) and bituminous coal-fired power plants with selective catalytic reactor (SCR) + cold side (CS) - ESP + wet FGD, respectively. Among the existing air pollution control devices, the best configuration for mercury removal in coal-fired power plants was SCR + CS - ESP + wet FGD, which were installed due to the stringent regulation changes to control primary air pollutants emission such as SO 2, NOx and dust. It was estimated that uncontrolled and controlled mercury emission from coal-fired power plants as 10.3 ton yr -1 and 3.2 ton yr -1 respectively. After the installation of ESP, FGD and SCR system, following the enforcement of the stringent regulation, 7.1 ton yr -1 of mercury emission has been reduced (nearly 69%) from coal-fired power plants as a co-benefit control. Based on the overall study, a sample guideline including emission limits were suggested which will be applied to develop a countermeasure for controlling mercury emission from coal-fired power plants.

  10. Federal Air Pollutant Emission Regulations and Preliminary Estimates of Potential-to-Emit from Biorefineries, Pathway #2: Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-oil Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatt, Arpit; Zhang, Yimin; Heath, Garvin; Thomas, Mae; Renzaglia, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Biorefineries are subject to environmental laws, including complex air quality regulations that aim to protect and improve the quality of the air. These regulations govern the amount of certain types of air pollutants that can be emitted from different types of emission sources. To determine which federal air emission regulations potentially apply to the fast pyrolysis biorefinery, we first identified the types of regulated air pollutants emitted to the ambient environment by the biorefinery or from specific equipment. Once the regulated air pollutants are identified, we review the applicability criteria of each federal air regulation to determine whether the fast pyrolysis biorefinery or specific equipment is subject to it. We then estimate the potential-to-emit of pollutants likely to be emitted from the fast pyrolysis biorefinery to understand the air permitting requirements.

  11. Federal Air Pollutant Emission Regulations and Preliminary Estimates of Potential-to-Emit from Biorefineries. Pathway #1: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass-to-Sugars and Biological Conversion of Sugars-to-Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yimin; Bhatt, Arpit; Heath, Garvin; Thomas, Mae; Renzaglia, Jason

    2016-02-01

    Biorefineries are subject to environmental laws, including complex air quality regulations that aim to protect and improve the quality of the air. These regulations govern the amount of certain types of air pollutants that can be emitted from different types of emission sources. To determine which federal air emission regulations potentially apply to the sugars-to-hydrocarbon (HC) biorefinery, we first identified the types of regulated air pollutants emitted to the ambient environment by the biorefinery or from specific equipment. Once the regulated air pollutants are identified, we review the applicability criteria of each federal air regulation to determine whether the sugars-to-HC biorefinery or specific equipment is subject to it. We then estimate the potential-to-emit of pollutants likely to be emitted from the sugars-to-HC biorefinery to understand the air permitting requirements.

  12. Interpretation of Ambient Air in Situations Involving Leased Land Under the Regulations for Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  13. Guidance Determining Applicability of New Major Source Regulations in the Granting of Construction Permits to Sources of Air Emissions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  14. 75 FR 25798 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Colorado; Revisions to Regulation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... Wynkoop Street, Denver, Colorado 80202-1129. Hand Delivery: Callie A. Videtich, Director, Air Program, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 8, Mailcode 8P-AR, 1595 Wynkoop Street, Denver, Colorado 80202..., Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 8, 1595 Wynkoop Street, Denver, Colorado 80202-1129. EPA...

  15. Diesel Exhaust Activates & Primes Microglia: Air Pollution, Neuroinflammation, & Regulation of Dopaminergic Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution is linked to central nervous system (CNS) disease, but the mechanisms responsible are poorly understood. Rats exposed to Diesel Exhaust (DE, 2.0,0.5, and 0 mg/m3) by inhalation over 4 weeks demonstrated elevated levels of whole brain IL-6 protein, nitrated proteins,...

  16. A Critical Review of the Effect of Air Pollution Control Regulations on Land Use Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, John J.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Although a number of recent federal initiatives explicitly require greater coordination of land use and air quality management, viable working relationships among the planning and regulatory agencies have not been developed. The concept of emission density zoning is endorsed. (Author/BT)

  17. An Analysis of Federal Airport and Air Carrier Employee Access Control, Screening. and Training Regulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    traveling public, air carriers, and persons employed by or conducting business at public airports. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Airport Security , Federal...26 4. Sterile Area 28 5. Exclusive Area 28 E. SECURITY ALERT LEVELS 29 F. AIRPORT SECURITY TOOLS 30 1. Electronic Detection System 31 a... Security Coordinator ASP Airport Security Program BIS Biometrie Identification System CCTV Closed Circuit Television CJIS Criminal Justice Information

  18. 29 CFR 1620.3 - General coverage of employees “engaged in * * * the production of goods for commerce.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... production of goods for commerce.â 1620.3 Section 1620.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... “engaged in * * * the production of goods for commerce.” (a) Like the FLSA, the EPA applies to employees “engaged in * * * the production of goods for commerce.” The broad meaning of “commerce” as defined...

  19. Market effects of environmental regulation: coal, railroads, and the 1990 Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Busse, M.R.; Keohane, N.O.

    2007-01-01

    Many environmental regulations encourage the use of 'clean' inputs. When the suppliers of such an input have market power, environmental regulation will affect not only the quantity of the input used but also its price. We investigate the effect of the Title IV emissions trading program for sulfur dioxide on the market for low-sulfur coal. We find that the two railroads transporting coal were able to price discriminate on the basis of environmental regulation and geographic location. Delivered prices rose for plants in the trading program relative to other plants, and by more at plants near a low-sulfur coal source.

  20. Cation regulation by the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) during dehydration in air.

    PubMed

    Koh, Huishan; Wright, Jonathan

    2011-06-01

    Many terrestrial arthropods display tight osmotic and ionic regulation of the hemolymph during dehydration. In this study, we sought to quantify the level of regulation of the major hemolymph cations in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea). Inulin space measurements showed that the hemolymph comprises 52 ± 2.2% of the hydrated water content but contributes 71 ± 9.8% of water losses during desiccation. Hemolymph concentrations of Na+, K+ and Ca²+ were measured in variably dehydrated animals using ion-selective microelectrodes and compared with predicted concentrations assuming no regulation. Na+ and Ca²+ are quite tightly regulated, showing respective concentration increases of 20.8% and 7.1% following a 50% reduction in hemolymph volume, but K+ showed no measurable regulation. The excreted cation fraction during desiccation is negligible. Sites of ion sequestration were examined by injecting ²²Na and ⁴⁵Ca into the hemolymph of hydrated animals and assaying tissue-specific activities following dehydration. Na+ is apparently sequestered non-specifically by an unknown mechanism. Ca²+ accumulates in the dorsal somatic tissues, possibly in the calcium pool of the cuticle. How A. vulgare avoids significant disruptions of E(m) and neuromuscular function in the absence of K+ regulation, and how it sequesters Na+, both pose intriguing challenges for future work.

  1. 15 CFR 16.10 - The Department of Commerce Mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Department of Commerce Mark. 16.10 Section 16.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR A VOLUNTARY CONSUMER PRODUCT INFORMATION LABELING PROGRAM § 16.10 The Department of Commerce Mark. The Department...

  2. Comparison of the regulated air pollutant emission characteristics of real-world driving cycle and ECE cycle for motorcycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Hung-Lung; Huang, Pei-Hsiu; Lai, Yen-Ming; Lee, Ting-Yi

    2014-04-01

    Motorcycles are an important means of transportation, and their numbers have increased significantly in recent years. However, motorcycles can emit significant amounts of air pollutants; therefore, the emission characteristics and driving patterns of motorcycles are necessary baseline information for the implementation of control measures for motorcycles in urban areas. The selected motorcycles were equipped with global positioning systems (GPS) to obtain speed-time data for determination of the characteristics of real-world driving parameters, and an on-board exhaust gas analyser with data logger was employed to determine the instantaneous concentration of regulated air pollutants from motorcycle exhaust. Results indicated that the time proportions of acceleration, cruising, and deceleration are different from those of the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) driving cycle, and the time percentages of acceleration and deceleration of the ECE cycle are much less than those in Taichung city. In general, the emission factors of the Taichung motorcycle driving cycle (TMDC) were higher HC and lower NOx emission than those of the ECE cycle. The average fuel consumption of tested motorcycles on three roads during workdays was 5% higher than that on weekends. The fuel consumption in the real-world motorcycle driving cycle was also about 7% higher than that of the ECE cycle, which again indicates that the ECE cycle is unsuitable for measuring fuel consumption in the Taichung metropolitan area. Therefore, understanding the local driving cycle is necessary for developing accurate emission data for air pollution control measures for urban areas.

  3. A Flexible Electronic Commerce Recommendation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Songjie

    Recommendation systems have become very popular in E-commerce websites. Many of the largest commerce websites are already using recommender technologies to help their customers find products to purchase. An electronic commerce recommendation system learns from a customer and recommends products that the customer will find most valuable from among the available products. But most recommendation methods are hard-wired into the system and they support only fixed recommendations. This paper presented a framework of flexible electronic commerce recommendation system. The framework is composed by user model interface, recommendation engine, recommendation strategy model, recommendation technology group, user interest model and database interface. In the recommender strategy model, the method can be collaborative filtering, content-based filtering, mining associate rules method, knowledge-based filtering method or the mixed method. The system mapped the implementation and demand through strategy model, and the whole system would be design as standard parts to adapt to the change of the recommendation strategy.

  4. Modeling the customer in electronic commerce.

    PubMed

    Helander, M G; Khalid, H M

    2000-12-01

    This paper reviews interface design of web pages for e-commerce. Different tasks in e-commerce are contrasted. A systems model is used to illustrate the information flow between three subsystems in e-commerce: store environment, customer, and web technology. A customer makes several decisions: to enter the store, to navigate, to purchase, to pay, and to keep the merchandize. This artificial environment must be designed so that it can support customer decision-making. To retain customers it must be pleasing and fun, and create a task with natural flow. Customers have different needs, competence and motivation, which affect decision-making. It may therefore be important to customize the design of the e-store environment. Future ergonomics research will have to investigate perceptual aspects, such as presentation of merchandize, and cognitive issues, such as product search and navigation, as well as decision making while considering various economic parameters. Five theories on e-commerce research are presented.

  5. 76 FR 66181 - The Commerce Control List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ...: Supplement No. 1 to PART 774--THE COMMERCE CONTROL LIST * * * * * 1C118 Titanium-stabilized duplex stainless... and 4.5-7.0 weight percent nickel; a.2. Having a titanium content of greater than 0.10 weight...

  6. 75 FR 3617 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Update To Include New Jersey State Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ..., Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Sulfur oxides. Dated: December 30, 2009. Judith A. Enck, Regional.... Variances N.J.A.C. 7:27-6.7. Exceptions Chapter 27 Subchapter 7--Sulfur (Effective 3/1/67) N.J.A.C. 7:27-7.1. Definitions N.J.A.C. 7:27-7.2. Control and prohibition of air pollution from sulfur compounds Chapter...

  7. Event-related potentials elicited by social commerce and electronic-commerce reviews.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yan; Yao, Zhong; Cong, Fengyu; Zhang, Linlin

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing interest regarding the use of electroencephalography (EEG) in social commerce and electronic commerce (e-commerce) research. There are several reviews in the field of social commerce or e-commerce; these have great potential value and mining them is fundamental and significant. To our knowledge, EEG is rarely applied to study these. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of social commerce reviews (SCRs) and e-commerce reviews (ECRs) by using them as stimuli to evoke event-related potentials. All SCRs were from friends through a social media platform, whereas ECRs were from strangers through an e-commerce platform. The experimental design was similar to that of a priming paradigm, and included 40 pairs of stimuli consisting of product information (prime stimulus) and reviews (target stimulus). The results showed that the P300 component was successfully evoked by SCR and ECR stimuli. Moreover, the P300 components elicited by SCRs had higher amplitudes than those elicited by ECRs. These findings indicate that participants paid more attention to SCRs than to ECRs. In addition, the associations between neural responses and reviews in social commerce have the potential to assist companies in studying consumer behaviors, thus permitting them to enhance their social commerce strategies.

  8. MpWIP regulates air pore complex development in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Jones, Victor A S; Dolan, Liam

    2017-04-15

    The colonisation of the land by plants was accompanied by the evolution of complex tissues and multicellular structures comprising different cell types as morphological adaptations to the terrestrial environment. Here, we show that the single WIP protein in the early-diverging land plant Marchantia polymorpha L. is required for the development of the multicellular gas exchange structure: the air pore complex. This 16-cell barrel-shaped structure surrounds an opening between epidermal cells that facilitates the exchange of gases between the chamber containing the photosynthetic cells inside the plant and the air outside. MpWIP is expressed in cells of the developing air pore complex and the morphogenesis of the complex is defective in plants with reduced MpWIP function. The role of WIP proteins in the control of different multicellular structures in M. polymorpha and the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana suggests that these proteins controlled the development of multicellular structures in the common ancestor of land plants. We hypothesise that WIP genes were subsequently co-opted in the control of morphogenesis of novel multicellular structures that evolved during the diversification of land plants.

  9. Air travel and pregnancy outcomes: a review of pregnancy regulations and outcomes for passengers, flight attendants, and aviators.

    PubMed

    Magann, Everett F; Chauhan, Suneet P; Dahlke, Joshua D; McKelvey, Samantha S; Watson, Erin M; Morrison, John C

    2010-06-01

    To review flight regulations and gestational complications associated with air travel in pregnant passengers, flight attendants, and aviators. A literature search was undertaken on the relationship of air travel and spontaneous pregnancy losses, intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD), birth weight<10th percentile, preterm delivery, and neonatal intensive care unit admissions. The literature search identified 128 abstracts, of which 9 evaluated air travel and pregnancy outcomes. The risk of a pregnancy loss (spontaneous abortion or IUFD) was greater in flight attendants than controls (odds ratio [OR]: 1.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29, 2.04). The risk of preterm birth<37 weeks was greater in passengers than controls (OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.93). However, the risk of preeclampsia (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.58, 1.27), neonatal intensive care unit admissions (OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.78, 1.82), or birth weight<10th percentile (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 0.62, 2.48) was not increased. Flight attendants did not have an increased risk of preterm birth compared to controls (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 0.85, 2.22) or delivering infants with birth weight<10th percentile (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 0.68, 3.74). The risks of spontaneous abortions and other adverse pregnancy outcomes have been poorly studied in a limited number of investigations. An analysis of the available information suggests a greater risk of spontaneous abortions or IUFD in flight attendants, and a greater risk of preterm birth<37 weeks in air passengers. However, the literature on which these findings are based is generally not of high methodologic quality.

  10. 15 CFR 19.5 - How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce debt? 19.5 Section 19.5 Commerce and... Debts § 19.5 How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  11. 15 CFR 19.5 - How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce debt? 19.5 Section 19.5 Commerce and... Debts § 19.5 How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  12. 15 CFR 19.5 - How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce debt? 19.5 Section 19.5 Commerce and... Debts § 19.5 How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  13. 15 CFR 19.5 - How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce debt? 19.5 Section 19.5 Commerce and... Debts § 19.5 How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  14. 15 CFR 19.5 - How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce debt? 19.5 Section 19.5 Commerce and... Debts § 19.5 How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  15. Technology diffusion and environmental regulation: Evidence from electric power plants under the Clean Air Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Elaine F.

    Even though environmental policy can greatly affect the path of technology diffusion, the economics literature contains limited empirical evidence of this relationship. My research will contribute to the available evidence by providing insight into the technology adoption decisions of electric generating firms. Since policies are often evaluated based on the incentives they provide to promote adoption of new technologies, it is important that policy makers understand the relationship between technological diffusion and regulation structure to make informed decisions. Lessons learned from this study can be used to guide future policies such as those directed to mitigate climate change. I first explore the diffusion of scrubbers, a sulfur dioxide (SO 2) abatement technology, in response to federal market-based regulations and state command-and-control regulations. I develop a simple theoretical model to describe the adoption decisions of scrubbers and use a survival model to empirically test the theoretical model. I find that power plants with strict command-and-control regulations have a high probability of installing a scrubber. These findings suggest that although market-based regulations have encouraged diffusion, many scrubbers have been installed because of state regulatory pressure. Although tradable permit systems are thought to give firms more flexibility in choosing abatement technologies, I show that interactions between a permit system and pre-existing command-and-control regulations can limit that flexibility. In a separate analysis, I explore the diffusion of combined cycle (CC) generating units, which are natural gas-fired generating units that are cleaner and more efficient than alternative generating units. I model the decision to consider adoption of a CC generating unit and the extent to which the technology is adopted in response to environmental regulations imposed on new sources of pollutants. To accomplish this, I use a zero-inflated Poisson

  16. 77 FR 25145 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  17. 75 FR 75968 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  18. 75 FR 64699 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  19. 77 FR 35941 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  20. 78 FR 57370 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  1. 76 FR 38638 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  2. 78 FR 35260 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  3. 77 FR 48968 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  4. 75 FR 21602 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management matters. DATES: The meeting will be...

  5. 76 FR 23796 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  6. 77 FR 69597 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  7. 77 FR 5494 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  8. 78 FR 49260 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  9. 78 FR 18235 - Special Local Regulations; 2013 Lauderdale Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Fort Lauderdale, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ..., Atlantic Ocean; Fort Lauderdale, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a special local regulation on the Atlantic Ocean and the entrance of Port... effective from 10 a.m. on April 18, 2013, until 5:30 p.m. on Sunday, April 21, 2013. The Atlantic...

  10. POLICY AND SCIENCE: ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF REGULATIONS ON AIR QUALITY AND HUMAN HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will discuss the NOx SIP call and the results of several studies investigating the impact of the regulation on NOx emissions and ozone levels across the northeastern United States. Current research plans to investigate linkages with human health will also be di...

  11. Air Quality Benefits of Ship Fuel Regulations in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, L.; Harley, R. A.; Fairley, D.; Martien, P. T.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean-going vessels burning high-sulfur heavy fuel oil are an important emission source of air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and particulate matter. Beginning July 1, 2009, an emission control area was put into effect at ports and along the California coastline, requiring use of low-sulfur marine fuels in place of heavy fuel oil in main engines of ships. To assess impacts of the fuel changes on air quality at the Port of Oakland and in the surrounding San Francisco Bay area, we analyzed speciated fine particle composition data from 4 urban sites and 2 more remote sites (Point Reyes and Pinnacles) from the IMPROVE network. Measured changes in concentrations of vanadium, a useful and specific tracer for heavy fuel oil combustion, are related to overall changes in primary aerosol emissions from ships. The results indicate a substantial reduction in vanadium concentrations after the fuel change, and a 13 to 38% decrease in SO2 concentration, with the SO2 decrease varying depending on proximity to shipping lanes. We inferred from emission factors documented in the literature that marine vessel contributions to primary fine particulate matter mass in the Bay Area, prior to the fuel change, were on the order of 1 to 5%.

  12. Methane, oxygen, photosynthesis, rubisco and the regulation of the air through time.

    PubMed

    Nisbet, Euan G; Nisbet, R Ellen R

    2008-08-27

    Rubisco I's specificity, which today may be almost perfectly tuned to the task of cultivating the global garden, controlled the balance of carbon gases and O(2) in the Precambrian ocean and hence, by equilibration, in the air. Control of CO(2) and O(2) by rubisco I, coupled with CH(4) from methanogens, has for the past 2.9 Ga directed the global greenhouse warming, which maintains liquid oceans and sustains microbial ecology.Both rubisco compensation controls and the danger of greenhouse runaway (e.g. glaciation) put limits on biological productivity. Rubisco may sustain the air in either of two permissible stable states: either an anoxic system with greenhouse warming supported by both high methane mixing ratios as well as carbon dioxide, or an oxygen-rich system in which CO(2) largely fulfils the role of managing greenhouse gas, and in which methane is necessarily only a trace greenhouse gas, as is N(2)O. Transition from the anoxic to the oxic state risks glaciation. CO(2) build-up during a global snowball may be an essential precursor to a CO(2)-dominated greenhouse with high levels of atmospheric O(2). Photosynthetic and greenhouse-controlling competitions between marine algae, cyanobacteria, and terrestrial C3 and C4 plants may collectively set the CO(2) : O(2) ratio of the modern atmosphere (last few million years ago in a mainly glacial epoch), maximizing the productivity close to rubisco compensation and glacial limits.

  13. 15 CFR 922.102 - Prohibited or otherwise regulated activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prohibited or otherwise regulated activities. 922.102 Section 922.102 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN...

  14. 2 CFR 1326.970 - Nonprocurement transaction (Department of Commerce supplement to government-wide definition at 2...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Commerce supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180.970). 1326.970 Section 1326.970 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NONPROCUREMENT DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION Definitions § 1326.970 Nonprocurement transaction (Department of...

  15. 41 CFR 102-118.80 - Who is responsible for keeping my agency's electronic commerce transportation billing records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... keeping my agency's electronic commerce transportation billing records? 102-118.80 Section 102-118.80... Transportation and Transportation Services § 102-118.80 Who is responsible for keeping my agency's electronic commerce transportation billing records? Your agency's internal financial regulations will...

  16. 41 CFR 102-118.80 - Who is responsible for keeping my agency's electronic commerce transportation billing records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... keeping my agency's electronic commerce transportation billing records? 102-118.80 Section 102-118.80... Transportation and Transportation Services § 102-118.80 Who is responsible for keeping my agency's electronic commerce transportation billing records? Your agency's internal financial regulations will...

  17. 41 CFR 102-118.80 - Who is responsible for keeping my agency's electronic commerce transportation billing records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... keeping my agency's electronic commerce transportation billing records? 102-118.80 Section 102-118.80... Transportation and Transportation Services § 102-118.80 Who is responsible for keeping my agency's electronic commerce transportation billing records? Your agency's internal financial regulations will...

  18. 41 CFR 102-118.80 - Who is responsible for keeping my agency's electronic commerce transportation billing records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... keeping my agency's electronic commerce transportation billing records? 102-118.80 Section 102-118.80... Transportation and Transportation Services § 102-118.80 Who is responsible for keeping my agency's electronic commerce transportation billing records? Your agency's internal financial regulations will...

  19. 41 CFR 102-118.80 - Who is responsible for keeping my agency's electronic commerce transportation billing records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... keeping my agency's electronic commerce transportation billing records? 102-118.80 Section 102-118.80... commerce transportation billing records? Your agency's internal financial regulations will identify... transportation billing records for legal and auditing purposes. Therefore, your agency must forward all...

  20. Interior view, office of the Secretary of Commerce United ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, office of the Secretary of Commerce - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. The electronic-commerce-oriented virtual merchandise model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xiaocui; Lu, Dongming

    2004-03-01

    Electronic commerce has been the trend of commerce activities. Providing with Virtual Reality interface, electronic commerce has better expressing capacity and interaction means. But most of the applications of virtual reality technology in EC, 3D model is only the appearance description of merchandises. There is almost no information concerned with commerce information and interaction information. This resulted in disjunction of virtual model and commerce information. So we present Electronic Commerce oriented Virtual Merchandise Model (ECVMM), which combined a model with commerce information, interaction information and figure information of virtual merchandise. ECVMM with abundant information provides better support to information obtainment and communication in electronic commerce.

  2. 78 FR 2225 - Special Local Regulation; 2013 Lauderdale Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Fort Lauderdale, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ..., go to http://www.regulations.gov , type the docket number USCG-2012-1073 in the ``SEARCH'' box and... docket number USCG-2012-1073 in the ``SEARCH'' box and click ``SEARCH.'' Click on Open Docket Folder on.... 1233. 0 2. Add a temporary Sec. 100.35T07-1073 to read as follows: Sec. 100.35T07-1073 Special...

  3. 50 CFR 402.04 - Counterpart regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED General § 402.04 Counterpart regulations....

  4. 50 CFR 402.04 - Counterpart regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED General § 402.04 Counterpart regulations....

  5. 50 CFR 402.04 - Counterpart regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED General § 402.04 Counterpart regulations....

  6. 50 CFR 402.04 - Counterpart regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED General § 402.04 Counterpart regulations....

  7. 50 CFR 402.04 - Counterpart regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED General § 402.04 Counterpart regulations....

  8. PYR/RCAR receptors contribute to ozone-, reduced air humidity-, darkness-, and CO2-induced stomatal regulation.

    PubMed

    Merilo, Ebe; Laanemets, Kristiina; Hu, Honghong; Xue, Shaowu; Jakobson, Liina; Tulva, Ingmar; Gonzalez-Guzman, Miguel; Rodriguez, Pedro L; Schroeder, Julian I; Broschè, Mikael; Kollist, Hannes

    2013-07-01

    Rapid stomatal closure induced by changes in the environment, such as elevation of CO2, reduction of air humidity, darkness, and pulses of the air pollutant ozone (O3), involves the SLOW ANION CHANNEL1 (SLAC1). SLAC1 is activated by OPEN STOMATA1 (OST1) and Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases. OST1 activation is controlled through abscisic acid (ABA)-induced inhibition of type 2 protein phosphatases (PP2C) by PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE/REGULATORY COMPONENTS OF ABA RECEPTOR (PYR/RCAR) receptor proteins. To address the role of signaling through PYR/RCARs for whole-plant steady-state stomatal conductance and stomatal closure induced by environmental factors, we used a set of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants defective in ABA metabolism/signaling. The stomatal conductance values varied severalfold among the studied mutants, indicating that basal ABA signaling through PYR/RCAR receptors plays a fundamental role in controlling whole-plant water loss through stomata. PYR/RCAR-dependent inhibition of PP2Cs was clearly required for rapid stomatal regulation in response to darkness, reduced air humidity, and O3. Furthermore, PYR/RCAR proteins seem to function in a dose-dependent manner, and there is a functional diversity among them. Although a rapid stomatal response to elevated CO2 was evident in all but slac1 and ost1 mutants, the bicarbonate-induced activation of S-type anion channels was reduced in the dominant active PP2C mutants abi1-1 and abi2-1. Further experiments with a wider range of CO2 concentrations and analyses of stomatal response kinetics suggested that the ABA signalosome partially affects the CO2-induced stomatal response. Thus, we show that PYR/RCAR receptors play an important role for the whole-plant stomatal adjustments and responses to low humidity, darkness, and O3 and are involved in responses to elevated CO2.

  9. Effects of biodiesel on emissions of regulated air pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under engine durability testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Chien, Shu-Mei; Lo, Mei-Yu; Lan, John Chi-Wei; Lu, Wen-Chang; Ku, Yong-Yuan

    An 80,000-km durability test was performed on two engines using diesel and biodiesel (methyl ester of waste cooking oil) as fuel in order to examine emissions resulting from the use of biodiesel. The test biodiesel (B20) was blended with 80% diesel and 20% methyl ester derived from waste cooking oil. Emissions of regulated air pollutants, including CO, HC, NO x, particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured at 20,000-km intervals. The identical-model engines were installed on a standard dynamometer equipped with a dilution tunnel used to measure the pollutants. To simulate real-world driving conditions, emission measurements were made in accordance with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) FTP transient cycle guidelines. At 0 km of the durability test, HC, CO and PM emission levels were lower for the B20 engine than those for diesel. After running for 20,000 km and longer, they were higher. However, the deterioration coefficients for these regulated air pollutants were not statistically higher than 1.0, implying that the emission factors do not increase significantly after 80,000 km of driving. Total (gaseous+particulate phase) PAH emission levels for both B20 and diesel decreased as the driving mileage accumulated. However, for the engine using B20 fuel, particulate PAH emissions increased as engine mileage increased. The average total PAH emission factors were 1097 and 1437 μg bhp h -1 for B20 and diesel, respectively. For B20, the benzo[ a]pyrene equivalence emission factors were 0.77, 0.24, 0.20, 7.48, 5.43 and 14.1 μg bhp h -1 for 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-ringed and total PAHs. Results show that B20 use can reduce both PAH emission and its corresponding carcinogenic potency.

  10. Building an intellectual infrastructure for space commerce

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Struthers, Jeffrey L.

    1992-01-01

    Competition in commerce requires an 'intellectual infrastructure', that is, a work force with extensive scientific and technical knowledge and a thorough understanding of the business world. This paper focuses on the development of such intellectual infrastructure for space commerce. Special consideration is given to the contributions to this development by the 17 Centers for the Commercial Development of Space Program conducting commercially oriented research in eight specialized areas: automation and robotics, remote sensing, life sciences, materials processing in space, space power, space propulsion, space structures and materials, and advanced satellite communications. Attention is also given to the Space Business Development Center concept aimed at addressing a variety of barriers common to the development of space commerce.

  11. Electronic commerce can cut purchasing costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, T.

    1995-06-01

    Electronic commerce could be the most important strategy exercised by utilities involved in transmission and distribution in the next five to ten years. One key element of electronic commerce is electronic data interchange (EDI). EDI is the direct, standardized computer-to-computer exchange of business documents, such as purchase orders, invoices, payments and inventory analysis between trading partners. EDI enables business documents delivery in seconds instead of days. Inventory has been a big expense for utilities, especially in the transmission and distribution area. In order to provide and restore electrical service to customers, utilities have been required to stock high levels of many different items. At times, warehouse personnel have had difficulty determining the minimum quantity needed for a particular part so items are stocked just-in-case.Electronic commerce will allow utilities to more accurately determine minimum stocking requirements and reduce inventory without sacrificing customer service.

  12. An eCommerce Development Case: Your Company's eCommerce Web Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballenger, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    This case provides a real-world semester long project-oriented case study for students enrolled in an electronic commerce course that has a significant development component. The case provides the technical framework in the form of functional requirements for students to design and build a fully functional transaction processing e-commerce Web…

  13. Regulating low-NOx and high-burnout deep-air-staging combustion under real-furnace conditions in a 600 MWe down-fired supercritical boiler by strengthening the staged-air effect.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Min; Wang, Zhihua; Zhu, Yanqun; Ling, Zhongqian; Li, Zhengqi

    2014-10-21

    A 600 MW(e) down-fired pulverized-coal supercritical boiler, which was equipped with a deep-air-staging combustion system for reducing the particularly high NOx emissions, suffered from the well-accepted contradiction between low NOx emissions and high carbon in fly ash, in addition to excessively high gas temperatures in the hopper that jeopardized the boiler's safe operations. Previous results uncovered that under low-NOx conditions, strengthening the staged-air effect by decreasing the staged-air angle and simultaneously increasing the staged-air damper opening alleviated the aforementioned problems to some extent. To establish low-NOx and high-burnout circumstances and control the aforementioned hopper temperatures, a further staged-air retrofit with horizontally redirecting staged air through an enlarged staged-air slot area was performed to greatly strengthen the staged-air effect. Full-load industrial-size measurements were performed to confirm the availability of this retrofit. The present data were compared with those published results before the retrofit. High NOx emissions, low carbon in fly ah, and high hopper temperatures (i.e., levels of 1036 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, 3.72%, and about 1300 °C, respectively) appeared under the original conditions with the staged-air angle of 45° and without overfire air (OFA) application. Applying OFA and reducing the angle to 20° achieved an apparent NOx reduction and a moderate hopper temperature decrease while a sharp increase in carbon in fly ash (i.e., levels of 878 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, about 1200 °C, and 9.81%, respectively). Fortunately, the present staged-air retrofit was confirmed to be applicable in regulating low-NOx, high-burnout, and low hopper temperature circumstances (i.e., levels of 867 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, 5.40%, and about 1100 °C, respectively).

  14. Building the DAML Electronic Commerce Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    refined the eCommerce domain ontology requirements identified in the previous quarter. The effort this quarter focused on analyzing e-business models...the predominant means of marketing in many industries, causing a massive upswing in 2004 and driving fundamental changes to the way enterprises do...business with each other. Also, it is assumed that e-marketplaces will drive nearly 40 percent of B2B e-commerce transactions in 2004. The probability of occurrence of the market outcomes predicted above is estimated at about 20 percent.

  15. Analysis of the performance of an air-water heat pump: Regulation of intrinsic performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Neuville, H.; Reybillet, M.; Patureau, J. P.

    Improvements for an electrical compressor heat pump of around 12 kW with air as a heat source are examined. To test the heat pump under different weather conditions a test loop has been built. On the condenser side a water circuit with several capacities and heat exchangers simulates the thermal behavior of a 120 sq m dwelling. A commercial domestic heat pump was extensively tested. The instantaneous performance of the heat pump agreed well with the data claimed by the manufacturer. The annual energy saving, however, was significantly less due to the following: (1) loss of efficiency caused by defrosting cycles; (2) loss of efficiency due to inadequate thermal load matching between the heat pump and the house. It was shown that control of the condensing temperature can bring energy savings of 10 percent. This could probably also be realized by load matching with a compressor with a variable speed; and (3) the inefficient operation of components such as the evaporator and the condenser heat exchangers and the expansion valve. Optimization could lead to a considerable improvement. Modifications in the compressor are proposed which may lead to an increase in efficiency to 60 or 70 percent.

  16. Regulating emission of air pollutants for near-term relief from global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, V.; Xu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The manmade greenhouse gases that are now blanketing the planet is thick enough to warm the system beyond the 20C threshold. Even with a targeted reduction in CO2 emission of 50% by 2050, we will still be adding more than 50 ppm of CO2 and add another 10C to the warming. Fortunately, there are still ways to contain the warming by reducing non-CO2 climate warmers (methane, lower atmosphere ozone, black carbon and HFCs), using available and field tested technologies. The major advantage of going for these 'low-hanging fruits' is that this approach will clean up the air and improve health and food security of south and east Asia, thus engaging developing nations more effectively in climate negotiations. These non-CO2 mitigation actions will have significant (beneficial) impacts on the chemistry, clouds and precipitation of the atmosphere and these have to be quantified adequately. For example, reducing black and organic carbon emissions (through cleaner cooking technologies in developing countries) will also lead to significant reductions in carbon monoxide, which is an ozone precursor. The institutional infrastructure for reducing non-CO2 climate warmers already exist and have a proven track record for successful climate mitigation.

  17. Congress, courts, and commerce: upholding the individual mandate to protect the public's health.

    PubMed

    Hodge, James G; Brown, Erin C Fuse; Orenstein, Daniel G; O'Keefe, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Among multiple legal challenges to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) is the premise that PPACA's "individual mandate" (requiring all individuals to obtain health insurance by 2014 or face civil penalties) is inviolate of Congress' interstate commerce powers because Congress lacks the power to regulate commercial "inactivity." Several courts initially considering this argument have rejected it, but federal district courts in Virginia and Florida have concurred, leading to numerous appeals and prospective review of the United States Supreme Court. Despite creative arguments, the dispositive constitutional question is not whether Congress' interstate commerce power extends to commercial inactivity. Rather, it is whether Congress may regulate individual decisions with significant economic ramifications in the interests of protecting and promoting the public's health. This article offers a counter-interpretation of the scope of Congress' interstate commerce power to regulate in furtherance of the public's health.

  18. 29 CFR 784.18 - Commerce activities of employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commerce activities of employees. 784.18 Section 784.18... Exemptions Provisions of the Act § 784.18 Commerce activities of employees. The Fair Labor Standards Act has... foreign commerce or (b) in the production of goods for such commerce, which is defined to include...

  19. 29 CFR 776.13 - Commerce crossing international boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commerce crossing international boundaries. 776.13 Section... Engaging âin Commerceâ § 776.13 Commerce crossing international boundaries. Under the Act, as amended, an employee engaged in “trade commerce, transportation, transmission, or communication” between any State...

  20. 7 CFR 800.30 - Foreign commerce grain business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign commerce grain business. 800.30 Section 800.30... § 800.30 Foreign commerce grain business. “Foreign commerce grain business” is defined as the business of buying grain for sale in foreign commerce or the business of handling, weighing, or...

  1. 40 CFR 763.169 - Distribution in commerce prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution in commerce prohibitions... Commerce of Certain Asbestos-Containing Products; Labeling Requirements § 763.169 Distribution in commerce prohibitions. (a) After August 25, 1992, no person shall distribute in commerce, either for use in the...

  2. 29 CFR 779.108 - Goods produced for commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Goods produced for commerce. 779.108 Section 779.108 Labor... Coverage Employees Engaged in Commerce Or in the Production of Goods for Commerce § 779.108 Goods produced for commerce. Goods are “produced for commerce” if they are “produced, manufactured, mined, handled...

  3. 7 CFR 800.30 - Foreign commerce grain business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Foreign commerce grain business. 800.30 Section 800.30... § 800.30 Foreign commerce grain business. “Foreign commerce grain business” is defined as the business of buying grain for sale in foreign commerce or the business of handling, weighing, or...

  4. 7 CFR 800.30 - Foreign commerce grain business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Foreign commerce grain business. 800.30 Section 800.30... § 800.30 Foreign commerce grain business. “Foreign commerce grain business” is defined as the business of buying grain for sale in foreign commerce or the business of handling, weighing, or...

  5. Chamber of Commerce reception for Dr. Lucas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Dr. William R. Lucas, Marshall's fourth Center Director (1974-1986), delivers a speech in front of a picture of the lunar landscape with Earth looming in the background while attending a Huntsville Chamber of Commerce reception honoring his achievements as Director of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  6. Training as an E-Commerce Enabler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darch, Helen; Lucas, Trevor

    2002-01-01

    An investigation into lack of skills and awareness as barriers to the use of electronic commerce by 20 small- to medium enterprises within the food industry in Queensland, Australia, found that lack of knowledge and technical skills and structural issues are barriers. A range of training and development strategies are needed. (Contains 20…

  7. Executives "Plug in" to Electronic Commerce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education & Training, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes a programme, developed by FT Knowledge and the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, USA, to guide managers through the opportunities and threats presented by electronic commerce. Focuses on areas such as marketing, electronic retailing, pricing, product design, supply chain management and communication. Highlights how the…

  8. Implications of Electronic Commerce for Fiscal Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goolsbee, Austan

    In this chapter, I will consider both sides of the relationship between electronic commerce and fiscal policy. For the impact of electronic commerce on fiscal policy, I will pay particular attention to the potential sales-tax revenue losses. The data suggest that the potential losses are actually modest over the next several years. I will also consider the reverse relationship - how fiscal policy affects Internet commerce. Here the evidence suggests that taxes have a sizable effect. I point out, though, that this only supports special treatment if there is some positive externality. Without one, the tax system will lead to excessive online buying to avoid taxes. I will then deal the neglected issue of taxes and Internet access, which can create large deadweight costs both because demand may be price-sensitive and because taxes can slow the spread of new technologies. Finally, I offer some discussion of the international context of taxes and the Internet and the international temptations to raise rates on E-commerce.

  9. Marketing Mix for E-Commerce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogorelova, Elena V.; Yakhneeva, Irina V.; Agafonova, Anna N.; Prokubovskaya, Alla O.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the analyzed issue is caused by the need to study the process of transformation of marketing in e-commerce, as the active involvement of business organizations in the field of e-business is often accompanied by problems of applying the usual marketing tools in a virtual environment. The article seeks to identify changes in the…

  10. Intelligent agents for e-commerce applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuppala, Krishna

    1999-12-01

    This thesis focuses on development of intelligent agent solutions for e-commerce applications. E-Commerce has several complexities like: lack of information about the players, learning the nature of one's business partners/competitors, finding the right business partner to do business with, using the right strategy to get best profit out of the negotiations etc. The agent models developed can be used in any agent solution for e-commerce. Concepts and techniques from Game Theory and Artificial Intelligence are used. The developed models have several advantages over the existing ones as: the models assume the non-availability of information about other players in the market, the models of players get updated over the time as and when new information comes about the players, the negotiation model incorporates the patience levels of the players and expectations from other players in the market. Power industry has been chosen as the application area for the demonstration of the capabilities and usage of the developed agent models. Two e-commerce scenarios where sellers and buyers can go through the power exchanges to bid in auctions, or make bilateral deals outside of the exchange are addressed. In the first scenario agent helps market participants in coordinating strategies with other participants, bidding in auctions by analyzing and understanding the behavior of other participants. In the second scenario, called "Power Traders Assistant" agent helps power trader, who buys and sells power through bilateral negotiations, in negotiating deals with his customers.

  11. Electronic Commerce, Digital Information, and the Firm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Howard

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of the social context of electronic commerce (ecommerce) focuses on information imperatives, or rules that are critical for ecommerce firms. Concludes with a discussion of the organizational changes that can be expected to accompany the incorporation of these imperatives into the mission and core business processes of ecommerce firms.…

  12. Regulation of CO2 Air Sea Fluxes by Sediments in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, William; Thomas, Helmuth; Hagens, Mathilde; Brenner, Heiko; Pätsch, Johannes; Clargo, Nicola; Salt, Lesley

    2016-04-01

    A multi-tracer approach is applied to assess the impact of boundary fluxes (e.g. benthic input from sediments or lateral inputs from the coastline) on the acid-base buffering capacity, and overall biogeochemistry, of the North Sea. Analyses of both basin-wide observations in the North Sea and transects through tidal basins at the North-Frisian coastline, reveal that surface distributions of the δ13C signature of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) are predominantly controlled by a balance between biological production and respiration. In particular, variability in metabolic DIC throughout stations in the well-mixed southern North Sea indicates the presence of an external carbon source, which is traced to the European continental coastline using naturally-occurring radium isotopes (224Ra and 228Ra). 228Ra is also shown to be a highly effective tracer of North Sea total alkalinity (AT) compared to the more conventional use of salinity. Coastal inputs of metabolic DIC and AT are calculated on a basin-wide scale, and ratios of these inputs suggest denitrification as a primary metabolic pathway for their formation. The AT input paralleling the metabolic DIC release prevents a significant decline in pH as compared to aerobic (i.e. unbuffered) release of metabolic DIC. Finally, long-term pH trends mimic those of riverine nitrate loading, highlighting the importance of coastal AT production via denitrification in regulating pH in the southern North Sea.

  13. RING Type E3 Ligase CaAIR1 in Pepper Acts in the Regulation of ABA Signaling and Drought Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Park, Chanmi; Lim, Chae Woo; Baek, Woonhee; Lee, Sung Chul

    2015-09-01

    Several E3 ubiquitin ligases have been associated with the response to abiotic and biotic stresses in higher plants. Here, we report that the hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) ABA-Insensitive RING protein 1 gene (CaAIR1) is essential for a hypersensitive response to drought stress. CaAIR1 contains a C3HC4-type RING finger motif, which plays a role for attachment of ubiquitins to the target protein, and a putative transmembrane domain. The expression levels of CaAIR1 are up-regulated in pepper leaves by ABA treatments, drought and NaCl, suggesting its role in the response to abiotic stress. Our analysis showed that CaAIR1 displays self-ubiquitination and is localized in the nucleus. We generated CaAIR1-silenced peppers via virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and CaAIR1-overexpressing (OX) transgenic Arabidopsis plants to evaluate their responses to ABA and drought. VIGS of CaAIR1 in pepper plants conferred an enhanced tolerance to drought stress, which was accompanied by low levels of transpirational water loss in the drought-treated leaves. CaAIR1-OX plants displayed an impaired sensitivity to ABA during seed germination, seedling and adult stages. Moreover, these plants showed enhanced sensitivity to drought stress because of reduced stomatal closure and decreased expression of stress-responsive genes. Thus, our data indicate that CaAIR1 is a negative regulator of the ABA-mediated drought stress tolerance mechanism.

  14. E-commerce for healthcare supply procurement.

    PubMed

    Arbietman, D; Lirov, E; Lirov, R; Lirov, Y

    2001-01-01

    The total investment of the more than fifty e-commerce startups that entered healthcare supply chain management in the past three years has surpassed $500 million. However, none of these early entrants has delivered on the initial promise of restructuring the entire supply chain, replacing the traditional intermediaries, or at least achieving substantial revenue. This article offers a new business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce solution classification paradigm and uses it to analyze the functional requirements for an effective and, efficient healthcare supply chain marketplace. The analysis exposes several fundamental B2B market complexities that prevent the early entrants from creating a solid customer base and reaching desired liquidity goals. It also identifies several technological solutions to the problems mentioned. These new technologies create a comprehensive and symmetric order-matching engine that is capable of aggregating buy orders, requesting quotes from multiple vendors simultaneously, and negotiating along multiple criteria.

  15. Commerce Lab: Mission analysis. Payload integration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marvin, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of the commerce lab mission analysis and payload integration study are discussed. A mission model which accommodates commercial users and provides a basic data base for future mission planning is described. The data bases developed under this study include: (1) user requirements; (2) apparatus capabilities and availabilities; and (3) carrier capabilities. These data bases are synthesized in a trades and analysis phase along with the STS flight opportunities. Optimum missions are identified.

  16. A Business Case for Electronic Commerce

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    Electronic Commerce . This report presents the results of that examination. Based upon an examination of 16 key documents, we estimate that DoD could realize direct and indirect cost savings of almost $1.2 billion over a 10-year period by replacing these manually processed documents with their electronic equivalents. To achieve those savings, DoD would need to make investments totaling approximately $80 million in new systems and procedures. (Author)

  17. 15 CFR 30.16 - Export Administration Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export Administration Regulations. 30... OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Export Control and Licensing Requirements § 30.16 Export Administration Regulations. The EAR issued by the U.S. Department of Commerce,...

  18. Factors Regulating the Seasonal Cycle of Inter-continental Air Pollution Transport between Asia, the United States and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauzerall, D. L.; Horowitz, L.; Kim, N.

    2002-12-01

    This talk will demonstrate the interdependency of air quality in the northern hemisphere on the emissions and subsequent transport of pollutants from each of the major industrialized continental regions. We examine the contribution that emissions from continental regions in the northern hemisphere make to the composition of the remote troposphere. We also examine the processes that control the concentration of reactive pollutants in continental boundary layers over the United States, Europe and East Asia and export from these boundary layers to the global troposphere. We use the MOZART-2 (Model of Ozone and Related Tracers, version 2) global chemical tracer model with tagged CO from fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions from each region. In conjunction with CO measurements from the Climate Monitoring and Diagnostic Lab (CMDL), we examine the influence that each regions' emissions have on remote surface locations in the northern hemisphere. We find that the remote troposphere of the northern hemisphere contains a mélange of CO emitted from different continental regions the contributions of which vary seasonally as a function of emissions, meteorology and atmospheric lifetime. To examine factors regulating the concentration distributions of O3, CO, NOx, PAN and HNO3 over the United States, Europe and Asia and their export to the global troposphere, we quantify and compare the seasonal contributions of chemistry, advection, convection and deposition to boundary layer concentrations of each chemical species and examine the horizontal and vertical fluxes of each species out of each regions boundary layer to the global troposphere.

  19. Environmental Assessment: Military Family Housing Privatization Maxwell Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Water Resources) Montgomery Chamber of Commerce George , Randall (President) Montgomery County – City Public Library Montgomery County...Force Base Personnel, Interviewer; Tamara Carroll. Zervos , Spero G. 2001. A Brief History of Maxwell AFB. Maxwell AFB, AL: Air University History...35486- 6999 205-247-3589 Montgomery Chamber of Commerce President Randall George 41 Commerce Street Montgomery, AL 36101 PO Box 79 Montgomery, AL

  20. 33 CFR 100.909 - Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. 100.909 Section 100.909 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of the South Branch of the Chicago River from the West 18th Street Bridge at position 41°51′28″ N, 087°38′06″ W to...

  1. Beer, Free Speech, and Barriers to Interstate Commerce: A Case of Imported Beer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monseau, Susanna

    2008-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, differences in the treatment of trade in alcoholic beverages in comparison to other commercial goods seem at odds with the federal regulation of interstate trade under the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution, which prohibits "differential treatment of in-state and out-of-state economic interests that…

  2. 29 CFR 401.10 - Labor organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labor organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce. 401.10 Section 401.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.10...

  3. 75 FR 38779 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information... public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee (Committee). The Committee provides advice to the Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum...

  4. 76 FR 27636 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee... location of a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee (Committee). DATES: The.../spectrum . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On April 28, 2011, the National Telecommunications and...

  5. 75 FR 72792 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee... Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee (Committee), which will take place through a telephone... Communications and Information on spectrum management policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on...

  6. 78 FR 64201 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information Administration, U.S. Department of...

  7. 76 FR 61672 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information Administration, U.S. Department of...

  8. 78 FR 23541 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information Administration, U.S. Department of...

  9. 15 CFR 19.3 - Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)? 19.3 Section 19.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION General Provisions § 19.3 Do these regulations adopt the...

  10. 15 CFR 19.3 - Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)? 19.3 Section 19.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION General Provisions § 19.3 Do these regulations adopt the...

  11. 15 CFR 19.3 - Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)? 19.3 Section 19.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION General Provisions § 19.3 Do these regulations adopt the...

  12. 15 CFR 19.3 - Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)? 19.3 Section 19.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION General Provisions § 19.3 Do these regulations adopt the...

  13. 15 CFR 19.3 - Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Do these regulations adopt the Federal Claims Collection Standards (FCCS)? 19.3 Section 19.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION General Provisions § 19.3 Do these regulations adopt the...

  14. 15 CFR 990.23 - Compliance with NEPA and the CEQ regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Compliance with NEPA and the CEQ regulations. 990.23 Section 990.23 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL...

  15. 15 CFR 990.23 - Compliance with NEPA and the CEQ regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Compliance with NEPA and the CEQ regulations. 990.23 Section 990.23 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL...

  16. 15 CFR 990.23 - Compliance with NEPA and the CEQ regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compliance with NEPA and the CEQ regulations. 990.23 Section 990.23 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL...

  17. 15 CFR 990.23 - Compliance with NEPA and the CEQ regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compliance with NEPA and the CEQ regulations. 990.23 Section 990.23 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL...

  18. 15 CFR 990.23 - Compliance with NEPA and the CEQ regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance with NEPA and the CEQ regulations. 990.23 Section 990.23 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL...

  19. Research on mobile electronic commerce security technology based on WPKI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo

    2013-07-01

    Through the in-depth study on the existing mobile e-commerce and WAP protocols, this paper presents a security solution of e-commerce system based on WPKI, and describes its implementation process and specific implementation details. This solution uniformly distributes the key used by the various participating entities , to fully ensure the confidentiality, authentication, fairness and integrity of mobile e-commerce payments, therefore has some pract ical value for improving the security of e-commerce system.

  20. 33 CFR 100.909 - Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of the South Branch of the Chicago River from the 18th Street Bridge at position 41°51′28″ N, 087°38′06″ W to the Amtrak Bridge at position 41°51′20″ N, 087°38′13″ W. (DATUM: NAD 83). (b) Special Local Regulations....

  1. 29 CFR 783.18 - Commerce activities of employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commerce activities of employees. 783.18 Section 783.18... Commerce activities of employees. Prior to the 1961 Amendments, the Fair Labor Standards Act applied to all employees, not specifically exempted, who are engaged (a) in interstate or foreign commerce or (b) in...

  2. Libraries and E-Commerce: Improving Information Services and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Lesley Ellen

    2000-01-01

    Explains e-commerce and discusses how it can be used by special libraries. Highlights include library goals; examples of successful uses of e-commerce; how e-commerce can improve information services, including access to information, new information resources, delivery of information, and broadening information markets; and developing an…

  3. Framing the Future: An E-Commerce Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, John

    This document reports on a study that analyzes the business management processes of Australia's Framing the Future program (FTF) in terms of the extent to which they demonstrate e-commerce principles. Chapter 1 describes the concept of e-commerce in relation to vocational education and training (VET). It defines e-commerce as any business…

  4. Earth Science Goes E-Commerce

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Software packages commercially marketed by Agri ImaGIS allow customers to analyze farm fields. Agri ImaGIS provides satellite images of farmland and agricultural views to US clients. The company approached NASA-MSU TechLink for access to technology that would improve the company's capabilities to deliver satellite images over the Internet. TechLink found that software with the desired functions had already been developed through NASA's Remote Sensing Database Program. Agri ImaGIS formed a partnership with the University of Minnesota group that allows the company to further develop the software to meet its Internet commerce needs.

  5. Closed loop engine control for regulating NOx emissions, using a two-dimensional fuel-air curve

    DOEpatents

    Bourn, Gary D.; Smith, Jack A.; Gingrich, Jess W.

    2007-01-30

    An engine control strategy that ensures that NOx emissions from the engine will be maintained at an acceptable level. The control strategy is based on a two-dimensional fuel-air curve, in which air manifold pressure (AMP) is a function of fuel header pressure and engine speed. The control strategy provides for closed loop NOx adjustment to a base AMP value derived from the fuel-air curve.

  6. Method of regulating the amount of underfire air for combustion of wood fuels in spreader-stroke boilers

    DOEpatents

    Tuttle, Kenneth L.

    1980-01-01

    A method of metering underfire air for increasing efficiency and reducing particulate emissions from wood-fire, spreader-stoker boilers is disclosed. A portion of the combustion air, approximately one pound of air per pound of wood, is fed through the grate into the fuel bed, while the remainder of the combustion air is distributed above the fuel in the furnace, and the fuel bed is maintained at a depth sufficient to consume all oxygen admitted under fire and to insure a continuous layer of fresh fuel thereover to entrap charred particles inside the fuel bed.

  7. 15 CFR 19.6 - When will Commerce entities allow a debtor to pay a Commerce debt in installments instead of one...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will Commerce entities allow a debtor to pay a Commerce debt in installments instead of one lump sum? 19.6 Section 19.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect...

  8. 15 CFR 19.6 - When will Commerce entities allow a debtor to pay a Commerce debt in installments instead of one...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce... of one lump sum? If a debtor is financially unable to pay the Commerce debt in one lump sum, a Commerce entity may accept payment of a Commerce debt in regular installments, in accordance with...

  9. 15 CFR 19.4 - What notice will Commerce entities send to a debtor when collecting a Commerce debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Commerce entity intends to garnish the debtor's private sector (i.e., non-Federal) wages (see § 19.... 3201(e); 31 U.S.C. 3720B, 31 CFR 285.13, and § 19.17(a) of this Part); (16) If applicable, the Commerce... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What notice will Commerce...

  10. Basic Information about Air Emissions Monitoring

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site is about types of air emissions monitoring and the Clean Air Act regulations, including Ambient Air Quality Monitoring, Stationary Source Emissions Monitoring, and Continuous Monitoring Systems.

  11. User acceptance of mobile commerce: an empirical study in Macau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Ivan K. W.; Lai, Donny C. F.

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to examine the positive and negative factors that can significantly explain user acceptance of mobile commerce (m-commerce) in Macau. A technology acceptance model for m-commerce with five factors is constructed. The proposed model is tested using data collected from 219 respondents. Confirmatory factor analysis is performed to examine the reliability and validity of the model, and structural equation modelling is performed to access the relationship between behaviour intention and each factor. The acceptance of m-commerce is influenced by factors including performance expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions and privacy concern; while effort expectancy is insignificant in this case. The results of the study are useful for m-commerce service providers to adjust their strategies for promoting m-commerce services. This study contributes to the practice by providing a user technology acceptance model for m-commerce that can be used as a foundation for future research.

  12. Space commerce - Preparing for the next century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Barbara A.

    1991-01-01

    The role of NASA in space commerce is discussed in terms of providing direct assistance to the private sector and in terms of the most suitable industrial areas for such support. The primary mechanism for such support is the program of Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) which selects industrial high-technology projects to help make them viable. The research spans such fields as remote sensing, crop forecasting, and microgravity materials processing. The collaboration of NASA and private industry is discussed in terms of sounding-rocket projects, the Commercial Experiment Transporter, and academic/industrial programs designed to generate enthusiasm for commercial space research. The future of such research is expected to focus on CCDSs for microgravity-developed products, commercial infrastructure, SEI, and commercial use of the Space Station Freedom.

  13. E-commerce. Point, click, purchase.

    PubMed

    Menduno, M

    1999-10-01

    Many in health care may still be technology-shy, but there are big savings to be found in business-to-business e-commerce. Some experts estimate that electronic purchasing can trim 18 to 45 percent of costs out of the health care supply chain. That could revolutionize the $140 billion supply industry--but only if buyers and sellers can get on the same page. A whole host of companies are springing up to make that link. It won't be easy. "Anyone can do online ordering," says Joseph Miccio of NCI Consulting. "The real challenge for these vendors is to simultaneously connect all the players in the supply chain through a common database."

  14. Kantian condemnation of commerce in organs.

    PubMed

    Kerstein, Samuel J

    2009-06-01

    Opponents of commerce in organs sometimes appeal to Kant's Formula of Humanity to justify their position. Kant implies that anyone who sells an integral part of his body violates this principle and thereby acts wrongly. Although appeals to Kant's Formula are apt, they are less helpful than they might be because they invoke the necessity of respecting the dignity of ends in themselves without specifying in detail what dignity is or what it means to respect it, and they cite the wrongness of an agent's treating another merely as a means without clarifying conditions under which this occurs. This paper crystallizes two different approaches to the Formula of Humanity and probes when, according to them, the principle would imply that it is wrong to engage in "live donor" transactions, in which someone chooses to undergo a kidney extraction in exchange for money.

  15. 15 CFR 922.185 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 922.185 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary § 922.185 Emergency regulations. Where necessary to prevent or minimize the destruction of,...

  16. 15 CFR 922.185 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 922.185 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary § 922.185 Emergency regulations. Where necessary to prevent or minimize the destruction of,...

  17. 15 CFR 922.185 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 922.185 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary § 922.185 Emergency regulations. Where necessary to prevent or minimize the destruction of,...

  18. 15 CFR 922.185 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 922.185 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary § 922.185 Emergency regulations. Where necessary to prevent or minimize the destruction of,...

  19. 15 CFR 922.185 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 922.185 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary § 922.185 Emergency regulations. Where necessary to prevent or minimize the destruction of,...

  20. E-Commerce and Security Governance in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanayei, Ali.; Rajabion, Lila

    Security is very often mentioned as one of the preconditions for the faster growth of e-commerce. Without a secure and reliable internet, customer will continue to be reluctant to provide confidential information online, such as credit card number. Moreover, organizations of all types and sizes around the world rely heavily on technologies of electronic commerce (e-commerce) for conducting their day-to-day business transaction. Providing organizations with a secure e-commerce environment is a major issue and challenging one especially in Middle Eastern countries. Without secure e-commerce, it is almost impossible to take advantage of the opportunities offered by e-commerce technologies. E-commerce can create opportunities for small entrepreneurs in Middle Eastern countries. This requires removing infrastructure blockages in telecommunications and logistics alongside the governance of e-commerce with policies on consumer protection, security of transactions, privacy of records and intellectual property. In this paper, we will explore the legal implications of e-commerce security governance by establishing who is responsible for ensuring compliance with this discipline, demonstrating the value to be derived from information security governance, the methodology of applying information security governance, and liability for non-compliance with this discipline. Our main focus will be on analyzing the importance and implication of e-commerce security governance in developing countries.

  1. 15 CFR § 772.1 - Definitions of terms as used in the Export Administration Regulations (EAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2015-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2015-01-01 2015-01-01 false Definitions of terms as used in the Export Administration Regulations (EAR). § 772.1 Section § 772.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION...

  2. 15 CFR § 772.1 - Definitions of terms as used in the Export Administration Regulations (EAR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2016-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2016-01-01 2016-01-01 false Definitions of terms as used in the Export Administration Regulations (EAR). § 772.1 Section § 772.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION...

  3. Brucella Melitensis 16M Regulates the Effect of AIR Domain on Inflammatory Factors, Autophagy, and Apoptosis in Mouse Macrophage through the ROS Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tiansen; Xu, Yafang; Liu, Laizhen; Huang, Meiling; Wang, Zhen; Tong, Zhixia; Zhang, Hui; Guo, Fei; Chen, Chuangfu

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by Brucella. Brucella can invade and persist inside host cells, which results in chronic infection. We constructed AIR interference and overexpression lentiviruses to acquire AIR interference, overexpression, and rescue stable expression cell lines. We also established a Brucella melitensis 16M-infected macrophage model, which was treated with either the vehicle control or NAC (ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. Confocal laser microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence quantitative PCR, flow cytometry, ELISA, and Western blot were used to detect inflammation, cell autophagy and apoptosis-related protein expression levels, ROS levels, and the distribution of mitochondria. It was found that after interference and overexpression of AIR, ROS release was significantly changed, and mitochondria became abnormally aggregated. B. melitensis 16M activated the NLRP3/AIM2 inflammatory complex, and induced RAW264.7 cells to secrete IL-1β and IL-18 through the ROS pathway. B. melitensis 16M also altered autophagy-related gene expression, increased autophagy activity, and induced cell apoptosis through the ROS pathway. The results showed that after B. melitensis 16M infection, ROS induced apoptosis, inflammation, and autophagy while AIR inhibited autophagosome maturation and autophagy initiation. Autophagy negatively regulated the activation of inflammasomes and prevented inflammation from occurring. In addition, mitophagy could promote cell apoptosis. PMID:27907115

  4. Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce, Including Electronic Data Interchange

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    FROM - TO) xx-xx-2002 to xx-xx-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce , Including Electronic Data Interchange...Report 12/1/1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce , Including Electronic Data Interchange 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...Maximum 200 Words) Electronic commerce (EC) is the use of documents in electronic form, rather than paper, for carrying out functions of business or

  5. Freight Containers in Intermodal and Land Bridge Commerce.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    r AD-AB95 861 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA FI 15/5 FREIGHT CONTAINERS IN INTER DAL AND LAND BRIDGE COMMERCE .(U) UNCLASSIFIED SE G... COMMERCE by *James Stephen Walters September 1980 4 .4 Thesis Advisor: Dan C. Boger Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 81 29 SECURITY...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited Freight Containers in Intermodal and Land Bridge Commerce by James Stephen Walters Lieutenant

  6. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  7. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  8. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  9. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  10. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  11. Neuroinflammation, hyperphosphorylated tau, diffuse amyloid plaques, and down-regulation of the cellular prion protein in air pollution exposed children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Kavanaugh, Michael; Block, Michelle; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Osnaya, Norma; Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Guo, Ruixin; Hua, Zhaowei; Zhu, Hongtu; Perry, George; Diaz, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution exposures have been linked to neuroinflammation and neuropathology. Autopsy samples of the frontal cortex from control (n = 8) and pollution-exposed (n = 35) children and young adults were analyzed by RT-PCR (n = 43) and microarray analysis (n = 12) for gene expression changes in oxidative stress, DNA damage signaling, NFκB signaling, inflammation, and neurodegeneration pathways. The effect of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype on the presence of protein aggregates associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology was also explored. Exposed urbanites displayed differential (>2-fold) regulation of 134 genes. Forty percent exhibited tau hyperphosphorylation with pre-tangle material and 51% had amyloid-β (Aβ) diffuse plaques compared with 0% in controls. APOE4 carriers had greater hyperphosphorylated tau and diffuse Aβ plaques versus E3 carriers (Q = 7.82, p = 0.005). Upregulated gene network clusters included IL1, NFκB, TNF, IFN, and TLRs. A 15-fold frontal down-regulation of the prion-related protein (PrP(C)) was seen in highly exposed subjects. The down-regulation of the PrP(C) is critical given its important roles for neuroprotection, neurodegeneration, and mood disorder states. Elevation of indices of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, down-regulation of the PrP(C) and AD-associated pathology are present in young megacity residents. The inducible regulation of gene expression suggests they are evolving different mechanisms in an attempt to cope with the constant state of inflammation and oxidative stress related to their environmental exposures. Together, these data support a role for air pollution in CNS damage and its impact upon the developing brain and the potential etiology of AD and mood disorders.

  12. Win–Win strategies to promote air pollutant control policies and non-fossil energy target regulation in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lining; Patel, Pralit L.; Yu, Sha; Liu, Bo; McLeod, Jeff; Clarke, Leon E.; Chen, Wenying

    2016-02-01

    The rapid growth of energy consumption in China has led to increased emissions of air pollutants. As a response, in its 12th Five Year Plan the Chinese government proposed mitigation targets for SO2 and NOx emissions. Herein we have investigated mitigation measures taken in different sectors and their corresponding impacts on the energy system. Additionally, as non-fossil energy development has gained traction in addressing energy and environmental challenges in China, we further investigated the impact of non-fossil energy development on air pollutant emissions, and then explored interactions and co-benefits between these two types of policies. An extended Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) was used in this study, which includes an additional air pollutant emissions control module coupling multiple end-of-pipe (EOP) control technologies with energy technologies, as well as more detailed end-use sectors in China. We find that implementing EOP control technologies would reduce air pollution in the near future, but with little room left to implement these EOP technologies, other cleaner and more efficient technologies are also effective. These technologies would reduce final energy consumption, increase electricity’s share in final energy, and increase the share of non-fossil fuels in primary energy and electricity consumption. Increasing non-fossil energy usage at China’s proposed adoption rate would in turn also reduce SO2 and NOx emissions, however, the reductions from this policy alone still lag behind the targeted requirements of air pollutant reduction. Fortunately, a combination of air pollutant controls and non-fossil energy development could synergistically help realize the respective individual targets, and would result in lower costs than would addressing these issues separately.

  13. The role of integrated resource planning, environmental externalities, and anticipation of future regulation in compliance planning under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Bernow, S.; Biewald, B.; Wulfsberg, K.

    1993-07-01

    Utilities are developing sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission compliance plans to meet limitations of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). Compliance plans will have long-term effects on resource selection, fuel choice, and system dispatch. Use of integrated resource planning (IRP) is necessary to ensure compliance plans are consistent with the overall societal goals. In particular, environmental externalities must be integrated with the compliance planning process. The focus of the CAAA is on air pollution reduction, specifically acid gases and toxics, and attainment of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for criteria pollutants. Title IV specifically focuses on sulfur dioxide with a national allowance trading system, while further regulation of toxics and nitrogen oxides is slated for additional study. Yet, compliance planning based narrowly upon today`s environmental regulations could fail to meet the broad goals of IRP if a larger array of environmental externalities is excluded from the analysis. Compliance planning must consider a broad range of environmental effects from energy production and use to (1) protect society`s long-term stake in environmental quality, and (2) ensure that today`s plans are rich enough to accommodate potential changes in regulation and national environmental goals. The explicit recognition of environmental effects, such as those associated with CO{sub 2} release, will result in prudent compliance plans that take advantage of current opportunities for pollution avoidance and have long-term viability in the face of regulatory change. By including such considerations, the mix of resources acquired and operated (supply and demand, existing and new, conventional and renewable, fuel type and fuel quality, pollution control, and dispatch protocols) will be robust and truly least-cost.

  14. Air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Although the Environmental Protection Agency proposed controls in the early 1970s, marine vessel emissions remain largely unregulated, in part, because industry, the Coast Guard, and the Maritime Administration questioned the safety, cost, and effects on interstate commerce. The Coast Guard and EPA attempted to resolve some of these issues but discontinued their efforts when EPA reduced its overall budget and the Coast Guard perceived no state interest in regulating vessel emissions. Efforts resumed when the Coast Guard became aware of a growing state movement to regulate vessel emissions; it then requested a study by the National Research Council. The study found that additional operating experience, testing, and studies were necessary. The Coast Guard then began developing safety standards in 1987 and EPA proposed a national ozone strategy.

  15. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  16. Towards an agent based traffic regulation and recommendation system for the on-road air quality control.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Abderrahmane; El Fazziki, Abdelaziz; Ouarzazi, Jamal; Sadgal, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated and adaptive problem-solving approach to control the on-road air quality by modeling the road infrastructure, managing traffic based on pollution level and generating recommendations for road users. The aim is to reduce vehicle emissions in the most polluted road segments and optimizing the pollution levels. For this we propose the use of historical and real time pollution records and contextual data to calculate the air quality index on road networks and generate recommendations for reassigning traffic flow in order to improve the on-road air quality. The resulting air quality indexes are used in the system's traffic network generation, which the cartography is represented by a weighted graph. The weights evolve according to the pollution indexes and path properties and the graph is therefore dynamic. Furthermore, the systems use the available pollution data and meteorological records in order to predict the on-road pollutant levels by using an artificial neural network based prediction model. The proposed approach combines the benefits of multi-agent systems, Big data technology, machine learning tools and the available data sources. For the shortest path searching in the road network, we use the Dijkstra algorithm over Hadoop MapReduce framework. The use Hadoop framework in the data retrieve and analysis process has significantly improved the performance of the proposed system. Also, the agent technology allowed proposing a suitable solution in terms of robustness and agility.

  17. Directive on odour in ambient air: an established system of odour measurement and odour regulation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Both, R

    2001-01-01

    The legal basis for any requirement with respect to ambient air quality is the German Federal Protection Act for Ambient Air. According to article 3 Federal Protection Act all odours caused by plants are defined as an annoyance. The problem is to find out whether an annoyance has to be considered as a significant disturbance. In the Directive on Odour in Ambient Air a complete system is designed, beginning with measurement methods and concluding with ambient air quality requirements. In the following paper the tenor of the Directive on Odour is presented, some main aspects of more than five years of practical experience will be shown and a perspective on some future investigations and developments will be given. As a conclusion it is pointed out that in practice, the Directive on Odours has been successful. Both methods, field measurements with panels and dispersion modelling, are generally qualified for the determination of odour loads. The restriction of odour loads by limit values expressed as odour frequency per year for certain areas has been established in a lot of cases.

  18. Air Pressure Responses to Sudden Vocal Tract Pressure Bleeds during Production of Stop Consonants: New Evidence of Aeromechanical Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajac, David J.; Weissler, Mark C.

    2004-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate short-latency vocal tract air pressure responses to sudden pressure bleeds during production of voiceless bilabial stop consonants. It was hypothesized that the occurrence of respiratory reflexes would be indicated by distinct patterns of responses as a function of bleed magnitude. In Study 1, 19 adults…

  19. Up-Regulation of mRNA Ventricular PRNP Prion Protein Gene Expression in Air Pollution Highly Exposed Young Urbanites: Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Glucose Regulated Protein 78, and Nanosized Particles

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Franco-Lira, Maricela; González-Maciel, Angélica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Harritt, Lou; Pérez-Guillé, Beatriz; Ferreira-Azevedo, Lara; Drecktrah, Dan; Zhu, Hongtu; Sun, Qiang; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana; Diaz, Philippe; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2013-01-01

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area children and young adults exposed to high concentrations of air pollutants including fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) vs. clean air controls, exhibit myocardial inflammation and inflammasome activation with a differential right and left ventricular expression of key inflammatory genes and inflammasomes. We investigated the mRNA expression levels of the prion protein gene PRNP, which plays an important role in the protection against oxidative stress and metal toxicity, and the glucose regulated protein 78, a key protein in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling, in ventricular autopsy samples from 30 children and young adults age 19.97 ± 6.8 years with a lifetime of low (n:4) vs. high (n:26) air pollution exposures. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies were carried out in human ventricles, and electron microscopy studies were also done in 5 young, highly exposed Mexico City dogs. There was significant left ventricular PRNP and bi-ventricular GRP78 mRNA up-regulation in Mexico City young urbanites vs. controls. PRNP up-regulation in the left ventricle was significantly different from the right, p < 0.0001, and there was a strong left ventricular PRNP and GRP78 correlation (p = 0.0005). Marked abnormalities in capillary endothelial cells, numerous nanosized particles in myocardial ER and in abnormal mitochondria characterized the highly exposed ventricles. Early and sustained cardiac ER stress could result in detrimental irreversible consequences in urban children, and while highly complex systems maintain myocardial homeostasis, failure to compensate for chronic myocardial inflammation, oxidative and ER stress, and particles damaging myocardial organelles may prime the development of pathophysiological cardiovascular states in young urbanites. Nanosized PM could play a key cardiac myocyte toxicity role. PMID:24287918

  20. Up-regulation of mRNA ventricular PRNP prion protein gene expression in air pollution highly exposed young urbanites: endoplasmic reticulum stress, glucose regulated protein 78, and nanosized particles.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Franco-Lira, Maricela; González-Maciel, Angélica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Harritt, Lou; Pérez-Guillé, Beatriz; Ferreira-Azevedo, Lara; Drecktrah, Dan; Zhu, Hongtu; Sun, Qiang; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana; Diaz, Philippe; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2013-11-28

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area children and young adults exposed to high concentrations of air pollutants including fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) vs. clean air controls, exhibit myocardial inflammation and inflammasome activation with a differential right and left ventricular expression of key inflammatory genes and inflammasomes. We investigated the mRNA expression levels of the prion protein gene PRNP, which plays an important role in the protection against oxidative stress and metal toxicity, and the glucose regulated protein 78, a key protein in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling, in ventricular autopsy samples from 30 children and young adults age 19.97 ± 6.8 years with a lifetime of low (n:4) vs. high (n:26) air pollution exposures. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies were carried out in human ventricles, and electron microscopy studies were also done in 5 young, highly exposed Mexico City dogs. There was significant left ventricular PRNP and bi-ventricular GRP78 mRNA up-regulation in Mexico City young urbanites vs. controls. PRNP up-regulation in the left ventricle was significantly different from the right, p < 0.0001, and there was a strong left ventricular PRNP and GRP78 correlation (p = 0.0005). Marked abnormalities in capillary endothelial cells, numerous nanosized particles in myocardial ER and in abnormal mitochondria characterized the highly exposed ventricles. Early and sustained cardiac ER stress could result in detrimental irreversible consequences in urban children, and while highly complex systems maintain myocardial homeostasis, failure to compensate for chronic myocardial inflammation, oxidative and ER stress, and particles damaging myocardial organelles may prime the development of pathophysiological cardiovascular states in young urbanites. Nanosized PM could play a key cardiac myocyte toxicity role.

  1. 78 FR 48298 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Commerce, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Commerce, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at Commerce, TX. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation...

  2. 40 CFR 763.169 - Distribution in commerce prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Prohibition of the Manufacture, Importation, Processing, and Distribution in Commerce of Certain Asbestos-Containing Products; Labeling Requirements § 763.169 Distribution in commerce... States or for export, any of the asbestos-containing products listed at § 763.165(a). (b) After August...

  3. 75 FR 7234 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee.... ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum... Communications and Information on spectrum policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on March 4, 2010,...

  4. 27 CFR 70.445 - Commerce in explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Commerce in explosives. 70... Relating to Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Provisions Relating to Firearms, Shells and Cartridges, and Explosives § 70.445 Commerce in explosives. Part 555 of title 27 CFR contains the...

  5. 27 CFR 70.445 - Commerce in explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Commerce in explosives. 70... Relating to Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Provisions Relating to Firearms, Shells and Cartridges, and Explosives § 70.445 Commerce in explosives. Part 555 of title 27 CFR contains the...

  6. 27 CFR 70.445 - Commerce in explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Commerce in explosives. 70... Relating to Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Provisions Relating to Firearms, Shells and Cartridges, and Explosives § 70.445 Commerce in explosives. Part 555 of title 27 CFR contains the...

  7. 27 CFR 70.445 - Commerce in explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Commerce in explosives. 70... Relating to Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Provisions Relating to Firearms, Shells and Cartridges, and Explosives § 70.445 Commerce in explosives. Part 555 of title 27 CFR contains the...

  8. 27 CFR 70.445 - Commerce in explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commerce in explosives. 70... Relating to Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Provisions Relating to Firearms, Shells and Cartridges, and Explosives § 70.445 Commerce in explosives. Part 55 of title 27 CFR contains the...

  9. Borderless Educational Practices in the Development of Commerce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbre, James O., III

    2010-01-01

    Commerce transcends the boundaries of nations. With so many people involved, a common approach and articulation is necessary to advance the interests of commerce for everyone involved. This paper addresses online MBA (Master of Business Administration) degrees and the nature of its presence alongside the more traditional face-to-face MBA program.…

  10. From EDI to Internet Commerce: The BHP Steel Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Caroline; Swatman, Paula M. C.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the issue of business-to-business electronic commerce implementation and the factors affecting it. Discusses electronic data interchange technology, describes the results of a case study of BHP Steel (Australia), and considers paradigm shifts in implementation issues related to electronic commerce that occur over time. (Author/LRW)

  11. New Rage on Campus: E-Commerce Degrees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    As electronic commerce expands, higher education attempts to keep up with the demand for instruction. Some universities have added a concentration in e-commerce to their master of business administration program and others are adding majors, certifications, or degrees. (JOW)

  12. 44 CFR 351.28 - The Department of Commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Department of Commerce... Assignments § 351.28 The Department of Commerce. (a) Assist State and local governments in determining their... in responding to radiological emergencies. (e) Provide representation to and support for the...

  13. The Comparison of Personalization Recommendation for E-Commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ya, Luo

    Personalization recommendation is the key technology in E-commerce, which affects the performance of E-commerce system. This paper mainly introduces personalization recommendation system and its role, and several widely used recommendation technology. Through comparing and analyzing on the strengths and weaknesses of recommendation technology, it concludes that the combined application for a variety of techniques should satisfy the actual needs better.

  14. Electronic Commerce: Government Services in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Terrence A., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This newsletter features innovations in resource management and information technology to support New York State government. The newsletter contains the following six sections: (1) "Electronic Commerce: Government Services in the New Millennium" -- examining the need for government involvement in electronic commerce policy and…

  15. Close view of the attic story of the Commerce Department ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close view of the attic story of the Commerce Department building to show the decorative owls, eagles, fruit swags and ribbon festoons - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. Public Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This document presents the text of Public Law 106-229, the "Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act." The act states that, with respect to any transaction in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce: a signature, contract, or other record relating to such transaction may not be denied legal effect, validity, or…

  17. A Framework for Global Electronic Commerce: An Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of the Press Secretary of the White House

    1997-01-01

    An abbreviated version of a longer policy document on electronic commerce released by the Clinton Administration, this article examines principles and recommendations on tariffs, taxes, electronic payment systems, uniform commercial code for electronic commerce, intellectual property protection, privacy, security, telecommunications infrastructure…

  18. Strategic Plan for Electronic Commerce, Defense Personnel Support Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    faster, less expensive and far more accurate electronic commerce business methods that use Electronic Data Interchange standards. As a context for that...management responsibilities, establishes a plan of action and milestones, and describes ongoing electronic commerce projects at the corporate and business unit level.

  19. E-Commerce and Privacy: Conflict and Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farah, Badie N.; Higby, Mary A.

    2001-01-01

    Electronic commerce has intensified conflict between businesses' need to collect data and customers' desire to protect privacy. Web-based privacy tools and legislation could add to the costs of e-commerce and reduce profitability. Business models not based on profiling customers may be needed. (SK)

  20. Research Reveals Scale of College Union E-Commerce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Guy Patrick; Henry, Wilma J.

    2000-01-01

    Reports results of a survey of member schools of the Association of College Unions International concerning extent of e-commerce being conducted on the Web. College Web sites were also evaluated for information on e-commerce activities. A list of institutions currently conducting interactive business and the type of business being conducted is…

  1. E-Commerce Comes Slowly But Surely to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revenaugh, Mickey

    2000-01-01

    Discusses why e-commerce is being used so sparingly by big business and school purchasers alike, the benefits on going on-line for school buyers, and the integration of e-commerce with the district's accounting and management information systems. Available online services are detailed. (GR)

  2. Ferment in Business Education: E-Commerce Master's Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durlabhji, Subhash; Fusilier, Marcelline R.

    2002-01-01

    A review of curriculum and course descriptions of 67 Web-based electronic commerce master's programs showed that the number of programs grew 76% over 8 months. More nontechnical than technology-centered courses are offered. Business schools are apparently viewing e-commerce as a completely new discipline. (Contains 26 references.) (SK)

  3. The Influence of Information Ecology on E-Commerce Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detlor, Brian

    2001-01-01

    Explores the influence of an organization's information ecology, or internal information environment, on a firm's electronic commerce initiatives and plans. Reports results from a case study investigation on the adoption and use of an e-commerce initiative, a corporate portal, by participants at a large Canadian company. (Author/LRW)

  4. Investigating the Identity Theft Prevention Strategies in M-Commerce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Mahmood Hussain; Ahmed, Javed; Soomro, Zahoor Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Mobile commerce has provided extended business opportunities for online organisations and made it easier for customers to purchase products on-line from anywhere at any time. However, there are several risks associated with it, especially the identity theft. Online organisations commonly use electronic commerce approaches; however, these have some…

  5. 75 FR 44759 - Department of Commerce Business Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... Department of Commerce Business Forum AGENCY: U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting... that currently conduct business with, or have previously conducted business with or hope to conduct business with DOC. Interested parties are asked to offer comments on the DOC acquisition function for...

  6. No Small Change: E-Commerce in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Evan T.

    2002-01-01

    Explains how electronic commerce (e-commerce) principles can be useful for distance education in higher education. Topics include business-to-business and business-to-consumer models; entering the marketplace; understanding the institution's capabilities; knowing the competition; and sound financial models. (LRW)

  7. Electronic Commerce in Tourism in China: B2B or B2C?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongxiu; Suomi, Reima

    E-commerce has significantly changed the distribution channels of travel products in the world including China. Online channels are growing important in travel service distribution. In China tourism industry has been developed rapidly with the economic development, more and more international travel service providers are trying to expand their Chinese market through the Internet. This paper sheds lights on the e-commerce development models in China for international travel service providers. It explores the current e-tourism in China from the three different participants in the value chain in tourism industry - consumer, travel agent and travel service provider. The paper also identifies the barriers in B2C arena in international outbound travel market, and discusses the possible approaches for international travel service providers to develop their e-commerce in the huge Chinese market. The results in this study reveal that international travel service providers should focus on B2B model to expand their electronic market in China. B2C development in tourism largely depends on the change of Chinese customers' behavior and the change of international tourism regulations. The findings of the study are expected to assist international travel service providers to understand current e-tourism in China and to support their planning for future e-commerce development in China.

  8. Research on JD e-commerce's delivery model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhiguo; Ma, Mengkun; Feng, Chaoying

    2017-03-01

    E-commerce enterprises represented by JD have made a great contribution to the economic growth and economic development of our country. Delivery, as an important part of logistics, has self-evident importance. By establishing efficient and perfect self-built logistics systems and building good cooperation models with third-party logistics enterprises, e-commerce enterprises have created their own logistics advantages. Characterized by multi-batch and small-batch, e-commerce is much more complicated than traditional transaction. It's not easy to decide which delivery model e-commerce enterprises should adopt. Having e-commerce's logistics delivery as the main research object, this essay aims to find a more suitable logistics delivery model for JD's development.

  9. Effort to regulate acid aerosol pollution, based on new human health data, still up in the air

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, M.F.

    1990-08-01

    Acid aerosols in the atmosphere are having acute short- and long-term respiratory effects. That is the view of David V. Bates, MD, who spoke recently at the World Conference on Lung Health in Boston, Mass. Bates, who is professor emeritus of medicine in the Department of Health Care and Epidemiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, has spent nearly 40 years in studies that make him, according to colleagues, the guru of respiratory physiology. Acid aerosols are colloidal suspensions of hydrogen ion-containing particles that form the misty air pollution called summer haze. They are generated commonly by sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions from coalfired industrial plants. The emissions are transformed into ammonium bisulfate or sulfuric acid and nitric acid, well-known air pollutants. In the ambient air they mix with ozone. Although researchers do not yet have the sort of massive and unidirectional proof that there is for cigarette smoking causing lung cancer, Bates says, if you want early detection and early action to ameliorate the situation, the kinds of indicators that are now positive are very important indeed.

  10. 15 CFR 19.12 - How will Commerce entities offset a Federal employee's salary to collect a Commerce debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Commerce entities must obtain the services of a hearing official who is not under the supervision or... entitled to payments from the Civil Service Retirement Fund and Disability Fund, the Federal Employee... have been made, Commerce entities may request that money due and payable to the employee from the...

  11. 15 CFR 922.44 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... provisions of this section do not apply to the Cordell Bank, Florida Keys, Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale... 922.44 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... Emergency regulations. Where necessary to prevent or minimize the destruction of, loss of, or injury to...

  12. 15 CFR 922.44 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... provisions of this section do not apply to the Cordell Bank, Florida Keys, Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale... 922.44 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... Emergency regulations. Where necessary to prevent or minimize the destruction of, loss of, or injury to...

  13. 15 CFR 922.44 - Emergency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... provisions of this section do not apply to the Cordell Bank, Florida Keys, Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale... 922.44 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... Emergency regulations. Where necessary to prevent or minimize the destruction of, loss of, or injury to...

  14. Impact of fuel quality regulation and speed reductions on shipping emissions: implications for climate and air quality.

    PubMed

    Lack, Daniel A; Cappa, Christopher D; Langridge, Justin; Bahreini, Roya; Buffaloe, Gina; Brock, Charles; Cerully, Kate; Coffman, Derek; Hayden, Katherine; Holloway, John; Lerner, Brian; Massoli, Paola; Li, Shao-Meng; McLaren, Robert; Middlebrook, Ann M; Moore, Richard; Nenes, Athanasios; Nuaaman, Ibraheem; Onasch, Timothy B; Peischl, Jeff; Perring, Anne; Quinn, Patricia K; Ryerson, Tom; Schwartz, Joshua P; Spackman, Ryan; Wofsy, Steven C; Worsnop, Doug; Xiang, Bin; Williams, Eric

    2011-10-15

    Atmospheric emissions of gas and particulate matter from a large ocean-going container vessel were sampled as it slowed and switched from high-sulfur to low-sulfur fuel as it transited into regulated coastal waters of California. Reduction in emission factors (EFs) of sulfur dioxide (SO₂), particulate matter, particulate sulfate and cloud condensation nuclei were substantial (≥ 90%). EFs for particulate organic matter decreased by 70%. Black carbon (BC) EFs were reduced by 41%. When the measured emission reductions, brought about by compliance with the California fuel quality regulation and participation in the vessel speed reduction (VSR) program, are placed in a broader context, warming from reductions in the indirect effect of SO₄ would dominate any radiative changes due to the emissions changes. Within regulated waters absolute emission reductions exceed 88% for almost all measured gas and particle phase species. The analysis presented provides direct estimations of the emissions reductions that can be realized by California fuel quality regulation and VSR program, in addition to providing new information relevant to potential health and climate impact of reduced fuel sulfur content, fuel quality and vessel speed reductions.

  15. Usability evaluation techniques in mobile commerce applications: A systematic review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.

    2016-08-01

    Obviously, there are a number of literatures concerning the usability of mobile commerce (m-commerce) applications and related areas, but they do not adequately provide knowledge about usability techniques used in most of the empirical usability evaluation for m-commerce application. Therefore, this paper is aimed at producing the usability techniques frequently used in the aspect of usability evaluation for m-commerce applications. To achieve the stated objective, systematic literature review was employed. Sixty seven papers were downloaded in usability evaluation for m-commerce and related areas; twenty one most relevant studies were selected for review in order to extract the appropriate information. The results from the review shows that heuristic evaluation, formal test and think aloud methods are the most commonly used methods in m-commerce application in comparison to cognitive walkthrough and the informal test methods. Moreover, most of the studies applied control experiment (33.3% of the total studies); other studies that applied case study for usability evaluation are 14.28%. The results from this paper provide additional knowledge to the usability practitioners and research community for the current state and use of usability techniques in m-commerce application.

  16. A review of the current geographic distribution of and debate surrounding electronic cigarette clean air regulations in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, Joy; Vuolo, Mike; Kelly, Brian C

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present the results of a systematic review of state, county, and municipal restrictions on the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in public spaces within the United States, alongside an overview of the current legal landscape. The lack of federal guidance leaves lower-level jurisdictions to debate the merits of restrictions on use in public spaces without sufficient scientific research. As we show through a geographic assessment of restrictions, this has resulted in an inconsistent patchwork of e-cigarette use bans across the United States of varying degrees of coverage. Bans have emerged over time in a manner that suggests a "bottom up" diffusion of e-cigarette clean air policies. Ultimately, the lack of clinical and scientific knowledge on the risks and potential harm reduction benefits has led to precautionary policymaking, which often lacks grounding in empirical evidence and results in spatially uneven diffusion of policy.

  17. A Review of the Current Geographic Distribution of and Debate Surrounding Electronic Cigarette Clean Air Regulations in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kadowaki, Joy; Vuolo, Mike; Kelly, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we present the results of a systematic review of state, county, and municipal restrictions on the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in public spaces within the United States, alongside an overview of the current legal landscape. The lack of federal guidance leaves lower-level jurisdictions to debate the merits of restrictions on use in public spaces without sufficient scientific research. As we show through a geographic assessment of restrictions, this has resulted in an inconsistent patchwork of e-cigarette use bans across the United States of varying degrees of coverage. Bans have emerged over time in a manner that suggests a “bottom up” diffusion of e-cigarette clean air policies. Ultimately, the lack of clinical and scientific knowledge on the risks and potential harm reduction benefits has led to precautionary policymaking, which often lacks grounding in empirical evidence and results in spatially uneven diffusion of policy. PMID:25463920

  18. Development of gas exchange and ion regulation in two species of air-breathing fish, Betta splendens and Macropodus opercularis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Huang; Lin, Hui-Chen

    2015-07-01

    Aquatic air-breathing anabantoids, a group of fish species characterized by the presence of a labyrinth organ and some gills, exhibit morphological variations. This study aimed to examine whether unequal gill growth begins during the early stages and described the sequence of the early gill developmental events in Betta splendens and Macropodus opercularis. To determine when the ion regulatory and gas exchange abilities first appear in the gills, mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) and neuroepithelial cells (NECs) were examined in young B. splendens. To evaluate the relative importance of the gills and the labyrinth organ under different levels of oxygen uptake stress, the levels of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) protein expressions in 2 gills and the labyrinth organ were examined in M. opercularis. We found that the first 3 gills developed earlier than the 4th gill in both species, an indication that the morphological variation begins early in life. In B. splendens, the MRCs and NECs clearly appeared in the first 3 gills at 4 dph and were first found in the 4th gill until 11 dph. The oxygen-sensing ability of the gills was concordant with the ionoregulatory function. In M. opercularis, the hypoxic group had a significantly higher air-breathing frequency. CAII protein expression was higher in the labyrinth organ in the hypoxic group. The gills exhibited increased NKA protein expression in the hypoxic and restricted groups, respectively. Functional plasticity in CAII and NKA protein expressions was found between the gills and the labyrinth organ in adult M. opercularis.

  19. 15 CFR 19.21 - What does a Commerce entity do upon receipt of a request to offset the salary of a Commerce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) of this section. (e) Request for hearing official. A Commerce entity will provide a hearing official... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What does a Commerce entity do upon receipt of a request to offset the salary of a Commerce entity employee to collect a debt owed by...

  20. Commerce Lab - A program of commercial flight opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, J.; Atkins, H. L.; Williams, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Commerce Lab is conceived as an adjunct to the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) by providing a focal point for commercial missions which could utilize existing NSTS carrier and resource capabilities for on-orbit experimentation in the microgravity sciences. In this context, the Commerce Lab program provides mission planning for private sector involvement in the space program, in general, and the commercial exploitation of the microgravity environment for materials processing research and development. It is expected that Commerce Lab will provide a logical transition between currently planned NSTS missions and future microgravity science and commercial R&D missions centered around the Space Station. The present study identifies candidate Commerce Lab flight experiments and their development status and projects a mission traffic model that can be used in commercial mission planning.

  1. A decision technology system for health care electronic commerce.

    PubMed

    Forgionne, G A; Gangopadhyay, A; Klein, J A; Eckhardt, R

    1999-08-01

    Mounting costs have escalated the pressure on health care providers and payers to improve decision making and control expenses. Transactions to form the needed decision data will routinely flow, often electronically, between the affected parties. Conventional health care information systems facilitate flow, process transactions, and generate useful decision information. Typically, such support is offered through a series of stand-alone systems that lose much useful decision knowledge and wisdom during health care electronic commerce (e-commerce). Integrating the stand-alone functions can enhance the quality and efficiency of the segmented support, create synergistic effects, and augment decision-making performance and value for both providers and payers. This article presents an information system that can provide complete and integrated support for e-commerce-based health care decision making. The article describes health care e-commerce, presents the system, examines the system's potential use and benefits, and draws implications for health care management and practice.

  2. E-Commerce May Help Colleges Cut Costs and Paperwork.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Florence

    2000-01-01

    Describes the increasing trend of incorporating electronic commerce methods to purchasing systems at colleges and universities. Provides examples from the University of Pennsylvania, Harvard University (Massachusetts), California State University at Fullerton, and the University of California at Los Angeles. (DB)

  3. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Colusa County Chamber of Commerce ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Colusa County Chamber of Commerce Booklet - Album of the 'County of Good Luck' Original: 1908 Re-photo: September 1940 - Hall of Records & County Jail, Colusa, Colusa County, CA

  4. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Sacramento Chamber of Commerce Original: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Sacramento Chamber of Commerce Original: 1851 (Drawing) Re-photo: April 1940 GENERAL VIEW - Sutter's Mill, American River (submerged), Coloma, El Dorado County, CA

  5. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Sacramento Chamber of Commerce Original: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Sacramento Chamber of Commerce Original: Re-photo: April 1940 GOLD DISCOVERED HERE JANUARY 20, 1848 - Sutter's Mill, American River (submerged), Coloma, El Dorado County, CA

  6. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... terms of title II of the Railway Labor Act, which was approved April 10, 1936, all of title I, except section 3, which relates to the National Railroad Adjustment Board, was extended to cover every common carrier by air engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and every carrier by air transporting mail...

  7. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... terms of title II of the Railway Labor Act, which was approved April 10, 1936, all of title I, except section 3, which relates to the National Railroad Adjustment Board, was extended to cover every common carrier by air engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and every carrier by air transporting mail...

  8. E-Commerce Sites: Use Intention by Brazilian Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimaraes, Cayley; Lacerda, Lucas; Antunes, Diego R.

    This article discusses the behavior of Brazilian's intention of use e-commerce sites. To explain its use, or not, the Unified Theory of Acceptance of Technology (UTAUT) was used. A survey was conducted through a questionnaire based on variables from UTAUT available for twenty days over the Web, that prompted 1900 responses. The results indicate that Effort and Social Influence are the variables of the model that better explain Brazilian user's intention to use e-commerce sites.

  9. Commerce Lab: Mission analysis and payload integration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The needs of an aggressive commercial microgravity program are identified, space missions are defined, and infrastructural issues are identified and analyzed. A commercial laboratory, commerce lab, is conceived to be one or more an array of carriers which would fly aboard the space shuttle and accommodate microgravity science experiment payloads. Commerce lab is seen as a logical transition between currently planned space shuttle missions and future microgravity missions centered around the space station.

  10. 49 CFR 350.335 - What are the consequences if my State has laws or regulations incompatible with the Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to interstate commerce (i.e., rules identical to the FMCSRs and HMRs) and intrastate commerce (i.e... regulations pertaining to intrastate commerce and receiving 50 percent of their basic formula allocation on... enforcement practice pertaining to CMV safety, in either interstate or intrastate commerce, is...

  11. 77 FR 43082 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Commerce Patent Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request to review and approve an extension of a previously... information on those who are to respond, through the use of appropriate technological collection techniques...

  12. 78 FR 31551 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Commerce Patent Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... contracts pertaining to inventions made in the performance of experimental, developmental, or research work... to: (1) Encourage maximum participation of industry in federally supported research and development... without unduly encumbering future research and discovery; (3) Promote the commercialization and...

  13. 15 CFR 30.18 - Department of State regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Department of State regulations. 30.18... CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Export Control and Licensing Requirements § 30.18 Department of State regulations. (a) The USPPI or the authorized agent shall file...

  14. 15 CFR 30.18 - Department of State regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Department of State regulations. 30.18... CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Export Control and Licensing Requirements § 30.18 Department of State regulations. (a) The USPPI or the authorized agent shall file...

  15. 15 CFR 30.18 - Department of State regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Department of State regulations. 30.18... CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Export Control and Licensing Requirements § 30.18 Department of State regulations. (a) The USPPI or the authorized agent shall file...

  16. 15 CFR 30.18 - Department of State regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Department of State regulations. 30.18... CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Export Control and Licensing Requirements § 30.18 Department of State regulations. (a) The USPPI or the authorized agent shall file...

  17. 49 CFR 171.1 - Applicability of Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR) to persons and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... regulations to persons who transport hazardous materials in commerce. In addition, the law authorizes the Secretary to apply these regulations to persons who cause hazardous materials to be transported in commerce... transported in commerce is present in a package or transport conveyance when it is not, and to anyone...

  18. 49 CFR 171.1 - Applicability of Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR) to persons and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... regulations to persons who transport hazardous materials in commerce. In addition, the law authorizes the Secretary to apply these regulations to persons who cause hazardous materials to be transported in commerce... transported in commerce is present in a package or transport conveyance when it is not, and to anyone...

  19. Zero-Net-Charge Air Ionizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, W. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Instrument monitors air supplied by air ionizer and regulates ionizer to ensure net charge neutral. High-impedance electrometer and nulling control amplifier regulate output of air ionizer. Primarily intended to furnish ionized air having no net charge, instrument adaptable to generating air with positive or negative net charge is so desired. Useful where integrated circuit chips are manufactured, inspected, tested or assembled.

  20. Getting along with reporters, environmentalists, and regulators: how to get your company`s message on the air

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, A.

    1994-09-01

    Oil and gas companies continue to get clobbered with expensive and punishing environmental regulations and drilling bans because they have done a poor job of convincing the public, the press, and the government that their operating practices are environmentally safe. The oil industry also continues to be perceived as arrogant and secretive, which only aggravates its problems. Smart operators must learn to balance profitable development with earth-friendliness. They also must learn to tell their story more effectively and openly, not just through big trade groups like the API and IPAA, but as individual small businessmen working to improve the economies and job bases of their local communities. That means being more forthcoming with next-door neighbors and environmental groups, befriending local and national reporters who cover their companies, and fine-tuning messages and communications skills. Companies also can improve their image and hopefully lighten their regulatory burden by thinking up creative, win-win solutions to environmental problems their projects create. One company solved the problem of where to dump offshore channel dredging waste, for example, by creating a new island off south Texas with a carefully planted habitat that last year attracted a pair of endangered whooping cranes. State regulators loved it, it cost very little, and the press coverage was extremely positive.

  1. Getting along with reporters, environmentalists, and regulators: How to get your company`s message on the air

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, A.

    1994-12-31

    Oil and gas companies continue to get clobbered with expensive and punishing environmental regulations and drilling bans because they have done a poor job of convincing the public, the press, and the government that their operating practices are environmentally safe. The oil industry also continues to be perceived of as arrogant and secretive, which only aggravates its problems. Smart operators must learn to balance profitable development with earth-friendliness. They also must learn to tell their story more effectively and openly, not just through big trade groups like the API and IPAA, but as individual small businessmen working to improve the economies and job bases of their local communities. That means being more forthcoming with next-door neighbors and environmental groups, befriending local and national reporters who cover their companies, and fine-tuning messages and communications skills. Companies also can improve their images and, ideally, lighten their regulatory burdens by thinking of creative, win-win solutions to environmental problems their projects create. One company, for example, solved the problem of where to dump offshore channel dredging waste by creating a new island off South Texas with a carefully planted habitat that last year attracted a pair of endangered whooping cranes. State regulators loved it, it cost very little, and the press coverage was extremely positive.

  2. Federal, State, and Local regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.M.; Brandenburg, B.L. )

    1991-08-01

    This article is a review of federal, state, and local regulations pertinent treatment of leachate from hazardous materials landfills in California. The topics covered include under federal regulations: pretreatment, whole-effluent toxicity, hazardous waste regulation; under state regulations: hazardous waste regulations, air toxics, environmental quality act; under local regulations: local limits, toxicity-regional water quality board, air emissions and district code.

  3. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  4. 14 CFR 298.52 - Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air taxi operations by commuter air... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Commuter Air Carrier Authorizations § 298.52 Air taxi operations by commuter air carriers. (a) A...

  5. 77 FR 1513 - Air Show and Air Races; Public Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Air Show and Air Races; Public Hearing TIME AND DATE: 9 a.m., Tuesday, January 10, 2012... hearing is to examine current regulations and oversight practices for air shows and air races,...

  6. Agent-based services for B2B electronic commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Elizabeth; Ivezic, Nenad; Rhodes, Tom; Peng, Yun

    2000-12-01

    The potential of agent-based systems has not been realized yet, in part, because of the lack of understanding of how the agent technology supports industrial needs and emerging standards. The area of business-to-business electronic commerce (b2b e-commerce) is one of the most rapidly developing sectors of industry with huge impact on manufacturing practices. In this paper, we investigate the current state of agent technology and the feasibility of applying agent-based computing to b2b e-commerce in the circuit board manufacturing sector. We identify critical tasks and opportunities in the b2b e-commerce area where agent-based services can best be deployed. We describe an implemented agent-based prototype system to facilitate the bidding process for printed circuit board manufacturing and assembly. These activities are taking place within the Internet Commerce for Manufacturing (ICM) project, the NIST- sponsored project working with industry to create an environment where small manufacturers of mechanical and electronic components may participate competitively in virtual enterprises that manufacture printed circuit assemblies.

  7. Study on supply chain management in tourism e-commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yaodong; Wu, Shuyan; Ma, Haiyan

    2009-07-01

    On-line customer research has been conducted for European and American markets by marketers and academics. Whilst e-Commerce and tourism develop rapidly in China, and the fraud information in E-commerce market makes the conditions of information asymmetry becoming more seriously, understanding of Chinese internet travelers is required. This paper reviews current research on supply chain management (SCM) within the context of tourism. SCM in the manufacturing industry has attracted widespread research interest over the past two decades, whereas studies of SCM in the tourism e-commerce are very limited. The potential benefit of considering not only individual enterprises but also the tourism value chain becomes evident. This paper presents the model e-market structure and process analysis of tourism e-commerce, and also sets up tourism supply chain and tourism e-commerce system to probe how to apply tourism ecommerce to promote the sustainable development of tourism. The paper also identifies key research questions in TSCM worthy of future theoretical and empirical exploration.

  8. 15 CFR 971.804 - Amendment to regulations for conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Miscellaneous § 971.804...

  9. 15 CFR 971.804 - Amendment to regulations for conservation, protection of the environment, and safety of life and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Miscellaneous § 971.804...

  10. 15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration Regulations, the International Traffic in... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR) § 710.6 Relationship between...

  11. 15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration Regulations, the International Traffic in... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR) § 710.6 Relationship between...

  12. 15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration Regulations, the International Traffic in... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR) § 710.6 Relationship between...

  13. 15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration Regulations, the International Traffic in... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR) § 710.6 Relationship between...

  14. 15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration Regulations, the International Traffic in... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR) § 710.6 Relationship between...

  15. EPA's Implementation of Laws Regulating Asbestos Hazards in Schools and in the Air. Hearing before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Operations.

    A hearing was held by the Subcommittee on Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources on the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) implementation of laws regulating asbestos hazards in schools and in the air. Presented are testimony as well as letters and statements submitted for the record by leading authorities in the area including: (1) James…

  16. Comparative study of regulated and unregulated air pollutant emissions before and after conversion of automobiles from gasoline power to liquefied petroleum gas/gasoline dual-fuel retrofits.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Chien, Shu-Mei; Cheng, Man-Ting; Peng, Chiung-Yu

    2007-12-15

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is increasingly being examined as an alternative to gasoline use in automobiles as interest grows in reducing air pollutant emissions. In this study, emissions of regulated (CO, THC, NO(x)) and unregulated air pollutants, including CO2, particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and BTEX (acronym for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene), were measured before and after conversion of nine gasoline-powered automobiles to LPG/ gasoline dual-fuel retrofits. The tests were conducted on a standard chassis dynamometer in accordance with the United States Environmental Protection Agency FTP-75 test procedure, with the exception that all tests were conducted under hot-start driving conditions. The influences of LPG on air pollutant emission levels and carcinogenic potency were investigated and compared with gasoline. The results showed average emission factors of 0.14 g/km, 0.33 mg/km, 0.09 g/km, 0.44 g/km, and 197 g/km for CO, THC, NO(x), PM, and CO2, respectively, for LPG/ gasoline dual-fuel retrofits. Paired-sample t-test results indicated that the emissions of CO (p = 0.03), THC (p = 0.04), and CO2 (p = 4.6 x 10(-8)) were significantly reduced with the retrofit in comparison with gasoline-powered automobiles. The reduction percentages were 71%, 89%, and 14% for CO, THC, and CO2, respectively. The average total PAH emission factor for LPG was 217 microg/km, which is significantly lower than gasoline (863 microg/km; p = 0.05). The PAH corresponding carcinogenicities (BaP(eq)) were calculated via toxic equivalencies based on benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Paired-sample t-test results fortotal BaP(eq) emissions showed no significant difference between gasoline (30.0 microg/km) and LPG (24.8 microg/km) at a confidence level of 95%. The discrepancy between PAH and BaP(eq) emissions resulted from the higher emission percentages of high molecular weight PAHs for LPG, which might be from lubricant oil. The average emission factors of

  17. Research on suppliers selection for e-commerce alliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Chunhua; Sun, Bin; Liu, Dongsheng

    2009-07-01

    First, the characteristics of suppliers in the e-Commerce alliances of certain industries will be analyzed in this paper and the initial model to select suppliers is built. Then, the history performances of providers in the initial model and the ability to cooperate with others are recorded and analyzed. Based on the analysis above and considering the restriction of supply, the number of re-sellers and the price of products, an improved model to select suppliers in the e-Commerce alliance of certain industries called "the mix-integers model" is built. Finally, a mathematical example is used to describe how the mix-integers model to work.

  18. Commerce lab: Mission analysis and payload integration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Conceived as one or more arrays of carriers which would fly aboard space shuttle, Commerce Lab can provide a point of focus for implementing a series of shuttle flights, co-sponsored by NASA and U.S. domestic concerns, for performing materials processing in research and pre-commercial investigations. As an orbiting facility for testing, developing, and implementing hardware and procedures, Commerce Lab can enhance space station development and hasten space platform production capability. Tasks considered include: (1) synthesis of user requirements and identification of common element and voids; (2) definition of performance and infrastructure requirement and alternative approaches; and (3) carrier, mission model, and infrastructure development.

  19. Soil and water warming accelerates phenology and down-regulation of leaf photosynthesis of rice plants grown under free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE).

    PubMed

    Adachi, Minaco; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Fukayama, Hiroshi; Tokida, Takeshi; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Matsunami, Toshinori; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Sameshima, Ryoji; Okada, Masumi

    2014-02-01

    To enable prediction of future rice production in a changing climate, we need to understand the interactive effects of temperature and elevated [CO2] (E[CO2]). We therefore examined if the effect of E[CO2] on the light-saturated leaf photosynthetic rate (Asat) was affected by soil and water temperature (NT, normal; ET, elevated) under open-field conditions at the rice free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) facility in Shizukuishi, Japan, in 2007 and 2008. Season-long E[CO2] (+200 µmol mol(-1)) increased Asat by 26%, when averaged over two years, temperature regimes and growth stages. The effect of ET (+2°C) on Asat was not significant at active tillering and heading, but became negative and significant at mid-grain filling; Asat in E[CO2]-ET was higher than in ambient [CO2] (A[CO2])-NT by only 4%. Photosynthetic down-regulation at E[CO2] also became apparent at mid-grain filling; Asat compared at the same [CO2] in the leaf cuvette was significantly lower in plants grown in E[CO2] than in those grown in A[CO2]. The additive effects of E[CO2] and ET decreased Asat by 23% compared with that of A[CO2]-NT plants. Although total crop nitrogen (N) uptake was increased by ET, N allocation to the leaves and to Rubisco was reduced under ET and E[CO2] at mid-grain filling, which resulted in a significant decrease (32%) in the maximum rate of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation on a leaf area basis. Because the change in N allocation was associated with the accelerated phenology in E[CO2]-ET plants, we conclude that soil and water warming accelerates photosynthetic down-regulation at E[CO2].

  20. 15 CFR 801.12 - Rules and regulations for the BE-180, Benchmark Survey of Financial Services Transactions between...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rules and regulations for the BE-180, Benchmark Survey of Financial Services Transactions between U.S. Financial Services Providers and Foreign Persons. 801.12 Section 801.12 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and...

  1. 15 CFR 9.7 - Department of Commerce energy conservation mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... conservation mark. 9.7 Section 9.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR A VOLUNTARY LABELING PROGRAM FOR HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT TO EFFECT ENERGY CONSERVATION § 9.7 Department of Commerce energy conservation mark. The Department of Commerce shall develop...

  2. 15 CFR 9.7 - Department of Commerce energy conservation mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... conservation mark. 9.7 Section 9.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR A VOLUNTARY LABELING PROGRAM FOR HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT TO EFFECT ENERGY CONSERVATION § 9.7 Department of Commerce energy conservation mark. The Department of Commerce shall develop...

  3. 5 CFR 5001.103 - Impartiality determinations for members of the Interstate Commerce Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Interstate Commerce Commission. 5001.103 Section 5001.103 Administrative Personnel INTERSTATE COMMERCE COMMISSION SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE COMMISSION § 5001.103 Impartiality determinations for members of the Interstate Commerce Commission. A...

  4. 76 FR 5559 - Public Availability of Department of Commerce FY 2010 Service Contract Inventory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Public Availability of Department of Commerce FY 2010 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Public Availability of FY 2010 Service Contract... 2010 (Pub. L. 111-117), Department of Commerce is publishing this notice to advise the public of...

  5. 15 CFR 9.7 - Department of Commerce energy conservation mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Department of Commerce energy... FOR A VOLUNTARY LABELING PROGRAM FOR HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT TO EFFECT ENERGY CONSERVATION § 9.7 Department of Commerce energy conservation mark. The Department of Commerce shall develop...

  6. 64 FR 16913 - Request for Comments on the Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Electronic Commerce...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-04-07

    ...) Electronic Commerce Steering Group Work Plan AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Commerce. ACTION... Administration (DOC/ITA) seeks comment on the APEC Electronic Commerce Steering Group work program. DATES... text in the subject line of the message: ``APEC Electronic Commerce Steering Group work...

  7. 15 CFR 9.7 - Department of Commerce energy conservation mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Department of Commerce energy... FOR A VOLUNTARY LABELING PROGRAM FOR HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT TO EFFECT ENERGY CONSERVATION § 9.7 Department of Commerce energy conservation mark. The Department of Commerce shall develop...

  8. 15 CFR 9.7 - Department of Commerce energy conservation mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Department of Commerce energy... FOR A VOLUNTARY LABELING PROGRAM FOR HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT TO EFFECT ENERGY CONSERVATION § 9.7 Department of Commerce energy conservation mark. The Department of Commerce shall develop...

  9. An Exploratory Investigation of Requisite Skills Needed by Developers of E-Commerce Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aladwani, Adel M.

    The aim of this exploratory study is to identify the skills needed by developers of Electronic Commerce (e-Commerce) systems. The paper proposes a framework pertaining to three categories of e-Commerce development knowledge: technical, human, and organizational. The initial findings reveal that there are some 16 possible e-Commerce skills tapping…

  10. A Novel Trust Service Provider for Internet Based Commerce Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siyal, M. Y.; Barkat, B.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a framework for enhancing trust in Internet commerce. Shows how trust can be provided through a network of Trust Service Providers (TSp). Identifies a set of services that should be offered by a TSp. Presents a distributed object-oriented implementation of trust services using CORBA, JAVA and XML. (Author/AEF)

  11. 29 CFR 782.7 - Interstate commerce requirements of exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Supp. 279 (D. Md.). See also, Walling v. Villaume Box & Lbr. Co., 58 F. Supp. 150 (D. Minn.). And see... interstate commerce). (Walling v. Craig, 53 F. Supp. 479 (D. Minn). See also Engbretson v. E. J. Albrecht Co... Constr. Co., 318 U.S. 740, 742.) Employees so engaged are not, however, brought within the...

  12. The proportions of mutagens among chemicals in commerce.

    PubMed

    Zeiger, E; Margolin, B H

    2000-10-01

    It has been estimated that there are approximately 80,000 chemicals in commerce. Thus, it is not possible to test all these substances for mutagenicity and carcinogenicity; it is possible, however, to test or make estimates from selected subsets of these chemicals. For example, in the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP), 35% of the chemicals tested for mutagenicity in Salmonella were positive, as were 52% of the chemicals tested for carcinogenicity in rodents. In contrast, in the U.S. EPA Gene-Tox database, the proportions of chemicals that are Salmonella mutagens is 56%. These and other databases may be biased toward positive responses because they generally have been developed to look at specific structural or use classes of chemicals or chemicals suspected of genetic or carcinogenic activity. To address the question of the proportions of mutagens among all chemicals in commerce, a database of 100 chemicals was created from a random selection of chemicals in commerce. These chemicals were tested for mutagenicity in Salmonella and 22% were mutagenic. The mutagenicity of the 46 highest U.S. production organic chemicals was also compiled; 20% were mutagenic. These values provide a more accurate estimate of the proportions of mutagens among chemicals in commerce than can be derived from published mutagenicity databases.

  13. Obesity in minority women: calories, commerce, and culture.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Sharon T

    2009-06-01

    Obesity is increasing at epidemic rates in all women, but especially in minority women and children. Factors that contribute to this include changes in caloric intake and expenditure (calories), cost and ease of acquiring food along with pressures from the marketplace and media (commerce) and the community response to the increasing prevalence of obesity and sedentary lifestyle (culture).

  14. GHX, Broadlane form latest e-commerce linkup.

    PubMed

    2002-08-01

    Broadlane agreed in June to connect its electronic commerce system to the supplier-owned site run by GHX. As a result, contract compliance could either improve or be more easily evaded, depending on hospitals' response to the wider choice of suppliers.

  15. Electronic Commerce: Canadian Community Colleges and Institutes of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges.

    This paper reports on the Canadian college system's collaboration with industry and community services in the development and delivery of non-credit e-commerce courses offered through continuing education departments at community colleges and institutes of technology. The paper argues that, in today's changing economy, the accelerated need for…

  16. Semiotic Analysis of Brazilian E-Commerce Signs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimaraes, Cayley; de Paula, Alice G.; Antunes, Diego R.

    A Semiotic analysis of pictographic signs used in Brazilian e-commerce sites is presented. This study shows a low mapping between the intended function in the system and the desired goal from the user. A better understanding of the Theory of Sign Production and Semiotic Engineering Methods for sign re-design is recommended.

  17. "Emmerce" Immersion: The Emerging World of Electronic Commerce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuck, Lysbeth

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the effects of Web-based electronic commerce, or "emmerce," on online user. Defines "cookies" and Persistent Client State HTTP Cookies or "magic cookies" on Macintosh computers. Examines underlying technologies that make up "cashless" transactions; growing demand for micropayments; CyberCash,…

  18. Business Students Flock to Courses on Electronic Commerce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    1999-01-01

    Business schools across the country are specializing in electronic commerce, in which teams of students create online businesses available on the Internet only to participating institutions. The courses offer students an opportunity to see how an online retailing business is conducted, including creating and maintaining Web sites, advertising…

  19. Real Electronic Commerce: Smart Cards on the Superhighway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, David

    1997-01-01

    Technologies of payment rather than technologies of connection are the real trigger for the expansion of electronic commerce on the Internet. This article discusses "smart cards," highlighting Mondex, the electronic purse developed in the United Kingdom. Predicts that cash will be replaced by "e-cash," which is cheaper to make,…

  20. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)