Science.gov

Sample records for air conditioner load

  1. Air Conditioner/Dehumidifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An ordinary air conditioner in a very humid environment must overcool the room air, then reheat it. Mr. Dinh, a former STAC associate, devised a heat pipe based humidifier under a NASA Contract. The system used heat pipes to precool the air; the air conditioner's cooling coil removes heat and humidity, then the heat pipes restore the overcooled air to a comfortable temperature. The heat pipes use no energy, and typical savings are from 15-20%. The Dinh Company also manufactures a "Z" coil, a retrofit cooling coil which may be installed on an existing heater/air conditioner. It will also provide free hot water. The company has also developed a photovoltaic air conditioner and solar powered water pump.

  2. Ventilating Air-Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinh, Khanh

    1994-01-01

    Air-conditioner provides ventilation designed to be used alone or incorporated into cooling or heating system operates efficiently only by recirculating stale air within building. Energy needed to operate overall ventilating cooling or heating system slightly greater than operating nonventilating cooling or heating system. Helps to preserve energy efficiency while satisfying need for increased forced ventilation to prevent accumulation of undesired gases like radon and formaldehyde. Provides fresh treated air to variety of confined spaces: hospital surgeries, laboratories, clean rooms, and printing shops and other places where solvents used. In mobile homes and portable classrooms, eliminates irritant chemicals exuded by carpets, panels, and other materials, ensuring healthy indoor environment for occupants.

  3. Stirling Air Conditioner for Compact Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Infinia is developing a compact air conditioner that uses an unconventional high efficient Stirling cycle system (vs. conventional vapor compression systems) to produce cool air that is energy efficient and does not rely on polluting refrigerants. The Stirling cycle system is a type of air conditioning system that uses a motor with a piston to remove heat to the outside atmosphere using a gas refrigerant. To date, Stirling systems have been expensive and have not had the right kind of heat exchanger to help cool air efficiently. Infinia is using chip cooling technology from the computer industry to make improvements to the heat exchanger and improve system performance. Infinia’s air conditioner uses helium gas as refrigerant, an environmentally benign gas that does not react with other chemicals and does not burn. Infinia’s improvements to the Stirling cycle system will enable the cost-effective mass production of high-efficiency air conditioners that use no polluting refrigerants.

  4. High Efficiency Room Air Conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This project was undertaken as a CRADA project between UT-Battelle and Geberal Electric Company and was funded by Department of Energy to design and develop of a high efficiency room air conditioner. A number of novel elements were investigated to improve the energy efficiency of a state-of-the-art WAC with base capacity of 10,000 BTU/h. One of the major modifications was made by downgrading its capacity from 10,000 BTU/hr to 8,000 BTU/hr by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity (8,000 BTU/hr) but high efficiency compressor having an EER of 9.7 as compared with 9.3 of the original compressor. However, all heat exchangers from the original unit were retained to provide higher EER. The other subsequent major modifications included- (i) the AC fan motor was replaced by a brushless high efficiency ECM motor along with its fan housing, (ii) the capillary tube was replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and (iii) the unit was tested with a drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration)/R125 (10% molar concentration). The WAC was tested in the environmental chambers at ORNL as per the design rating conditions of AHAM/ASHRAE (Outdoor- 95F and 40%RH, Indoor- 80F, 51.5%RH). All these modifications resulted in enhancing the EER of the WAC by up to 25%.

  5. Air Conditioner Compressor Performance Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning; Xie, YuLong; Huang, Zhenyu

    2008-09-05

    During the past three years, the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Load Modeling Task Force (LMTF) has led the effort to develop the new modeling approach. As part of this effort, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Southern California Edison (SCE), and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Solutions tested 27 residential air-conditioning units to assess their response to delayed voltage recovery transients. After completing these tests, different modeling approaches were proposed, among them a performance modeling approach that proved to be one of the three favored for its simplicity and ability to recreate different SVR events satisfactorily. Funded by the California Energy Commission (CEC) under its load modeling project, researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) led the follow-on task to analyze the motor testing data to derive the parameters needed to develop a performance models for the single-phase air-conditioning (SPAC) unit. To derive the performance model, PNNL researchers first used the motor voltage and frequency ramping test data to obtain the real (P) and reactive (Q) power versus voltage (V) and frequency (f) curves. Then, curve fitting was used to develop the P-V, Q-V, P-f, and Q-f relationships for motor running and stalling states. The resulting performance model ignores the dynamic response of the air-conditioning motor. Because the inertia of the air-conditioning motor is very small (H<0.05), the motor reaches from one steady state to another in a few cycles. So, the performance model is a fair representation of the motor behaviors in both running and stalling states.

  6. Switching on the Aire conditioner.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Mitsuru

    2015-12-01

    Aire has been cloned as the gene responsible for a hereditary type of organ-specific autoimmune disease. Aire controls the expression of a wide array of tissue-restricted Ags by medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs), thereby leading to clonal deletion and Treg-cell production, and ultimately to the establishment of self-tolerance. However, relatively little is known about the mechanism responsible for the control of Aire expression itself. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Haljasorg et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2015. 45: 3246-3256] have reported the presence of an enhancer element for Aire that binds with NF-κB components downstream of the TNF receptor family member, RANK (receptor activator of NF-κB). The results suggest that RANK has a dual mode of action in Aire expression: one involving the promotion of mTEC differentiation and the other involving activation of the molecular switch for Aire within mature mTECs. PMID:26643138

  7. Switching on the Aire conditioner.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Mitsuru

    2015-12-01

    Aire has been cloned as the gene responsible for a hereditary type of organ-specific autoimmune disease. Aire controls the expression of a wide array of tissue-restricted Ags by medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs), thereby leading to clonal deletion and Treg-cell production, and ultimately to the establishment of self-tolerance. However, relatively little is known about the mechanism responsible for the control of Aire expression itself. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Haljasorg et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2015. 45: 3246-3256] have reported the presence of an enhancer element for Aire that binds with NF-κB components downstream of the TNF receptor family member, RANK (receptor activator of NF-κB). The results suggest that RANK has a dual mode of action in Aire expression: one involving the promotion of mTEC differentiation and the other involving activation of the molecular switch for Aire within mature mTECs.

  8. 10 CFR 429.15 - Room air conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Room air conditioners. 429.15 Section 429.15 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.15 Room air conditioners. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to room air...

  9. 10 CFR 429.15 - Room air conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Room air conditioners. 429.15 Section 429.15 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.15 Room air conditioners. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to room air...

  10. 10 CFR 429.15 - Room air conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Room air conditioners. 429.15 Section 429.15 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.15 Room air conditioners. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to room air...

  11. 16 CFR Appendix E to Part 305 - Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Room Air Conditioners E Appendix E to Part... PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. E Appendix E to Part 305—Room Air Conditioners Range Information Manufacturer's rated cooling capacity in...

  12. Energy savings potential in air conditioners and chiller systems

    DOE PAGES

    Kaya, Durmus; Alidrisi, Hisham

    2014-01-22

    In the current paper we quantified and evaluated the energy saving potential in air conditioners and chiller systems. Here, we also showed how to reduce the cost of air conditioners and chiller systems in existing facilities on the basis of payback periods. Among the measures investigated were: (1) installing higher efficiency air conditioners, (2) installing higher efficiency chillers, (3) duty cycling air conditioning units, and (4) utilizing existing economizers on air conditioning units. For each method, examples were provided from Arizona, USA. In these examples, the amount of saved energy, the financial evaluation of this energy, and the investment costmore » and pay back periods were calculated.« less

  13. Energy savings potential in air conditioners and chiller systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kaya, Durmus; Alidrisi, Hisham

    2014-01-22

    In the current paper we quantified and evaluated the energy saving potential in air conditioners and chiller systems. Here, we also showed how to reduce the cost of air conditioners and chiller systems in existing facilities on the basis of payback periods. Among the measures investigated were: (1) installing higher efficiency air conditioners, (2) installing higher efficiency chillers, (3) duty cycling air conditioning units, and (4) utilizing existing economizers on air conditioning units. For each method, examples were provided from Arizona, USA. In these examples, the amount of saved energy, the financial evaluation of this energy, and the investment cost and pay back periods were calculated.

  14. Understanding Energy Impacts of Oversized Air Conditioners; NREL Highlights, Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This NREL highlight describes a simulation-based study that analyzes the energy impacts of oversized residential air conditioners. Researchers found that, if parasitic power losses are minimal, there is very little increase in energy use for oversizing an air conditioner. The research demonstrates that new residential air conditioners can be sized primarily based on comfort considerations, because capacity typically has minimal impact on energy efficiency. The results of this research can be useful for contractors and homeowners when choosing a new air conditioner or heat pump during retrofits of existing homes. If the selected unit has a crankcase heater, performing proper load calculations to be sure the new unit is not oversized will help avoid excessive energy use.

  15. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the technical development of a high efficiency window air conditioner. In order to achieve higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of the R410A unit was downgraded by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. The other subsequent major modifications included – the AC fan motor being replaced with a brushless high efficiency electronically commuted motor (ECM) motor, the capillary tube being replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and R410A being replaced with drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (85% molar concentration)/R125 (15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant EER enhancement of the modified unit.

  16. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    DOE PAGES

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the technical development of a high efficiency window air conditioner. In order to achieve higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of the R410A unit was downgraded by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. The other subsequent major modifications included – the AC fan motor being replaced with a brushless high efficiency electronically commuted motor (ECM) motor, the capillary tube being replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, andmore » R410A being replaced with drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (85% molar concentration)/R125 (15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant EER enhancement of the modified unit.« less

  17. Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, Jon

    2012-03-02

    This presentation describes a new approach to modeling residential air conditioners and heat pumps, which allows users to model systems by specifying only the more readily-available SEER/EER/HSPF-type metrics. Manufacturer data was used to generate full sets of model inputs for over 450 heat pumps and air conditioners. A sensitivity analysis identified which inputs can be safely defaulted “behind-the-scenes” without negatively impacting the reliability of energy simulations.

  18. Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, J.

    2012-03-01

    A new approach to modeling residential air conditioners and heat pumps allows users to model systems by specifying only the more readily-available SEER/EER/HSPF-type metrics. Manufacturer data was used to generate full sets of model inputs for over 450 heat pumps and air conditioners. A sensitivity analysis identified which inputs can be safely defaulted 'behind-the-scenes' without negatively impacting the reliability of energy simulations.

  19. Air-conditioner filters enriching dust mites allergen

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Pengfei; Zhu, Haibin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Zhao, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    We detected the concentration of dust mites allergen (Der f1 & Der p1) in the air of different places before and after the starting of air-conditioners in Wuhu City, Anhui, China, and to discuss the relation between the dust mites allergen in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the air-conditioner filters in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households respectively. Concentrations of dust mites major group allergen 1 (Der f 1, Der p1) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentration of Der f1 in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households was 1.52 μg/g, 1.24 μg/g, 1.31 μg/g and 1.46 μg/g respectively, and the concentration of Der p1 in above-mentioned places was 1.23 μg/g, 1.12 μg/g, 1.16 μg/g and 1.18 μg/g respectively. The concentration of Der f1 & Der p1 in air was higher after the air-conditioners starting one hours later, and the difference was significant (P<0.05, respectively). Additionally, dot-ELISA findings revealed that the allergen extracted from the dust was capable of reacting with IgE from the sera of asthma mice allergic to dust mites. The study concludes that air-conditioner filters can enrich dust mites major group allergen, and the allergens can induce asthma. The air-conditioner filters shall be cleaned or replaced regularly to prevent or reduce accumulation of the dust mites and its allergens. PMID:26064381

  20. Air-conditioner filters enriching dust mites allergen.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Pengfei; Zhu, Haibin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Zhao, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    We detected the concentration of dust mites allergen (Der f1 & Der p1) in the air of different places before and after the starting of air-conditioners in Wuhu City, Anhui, China, and to discuss the relation between the dust mites allergen in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the air-conditioner filters in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households respectively. Concentrations of dust mites major group allergen 1 (Der f 1, Der p1) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentration of Der f1 in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households was 1.52 μg/g, 1.24 μg/g, 1.31 μg/g and 1.46 μg/g respectively, and the concentration of Der p1 in above-mentioned places was 1.23 μg/g, 1.12 μg/g, 1.16 μg/g and 1.18 μg/g respectively. The concentration of Der f1 & Der p1 in air was higher after the air-conditioners starting one hours later, and the difference was significant (P<0.05, respectively). Additionally, dot-ELISA findings revealed that the allergen extracted from the dust was capable of reacting with IgE from the sera of asthma mice allergic to dust mites. The study concludes that air-conditioner filters can enrich dust mites major group allergen, and the allergens can induce asthma. The air-conditioner filters shall be cleaned or replaced regularly to prevent or reduce accumulation of the dust mites and its allergens. PMID:26064381

  1. Swozzle based burner tube premixer including inlet air conditioner for low emissions combustion

    DOEpatents

    Tuthill, Richard Sterling; Bechtel, II, William Theodore; Benoit, Jeffrey Arthur; Black, Stephen Hugh; Bland, Robert James; DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne; Meyer, Stefan Martin; Taura, Joseph Charles; Battaglioli, John Luigi

    2002-01-01

    A burner for use in a combustion system of a heavy-duty industrial gas turbine includes a fuel/air premixer having an air inlet, a fuel inlet, and an annular mixing passage. The fuel/air premixer mixes fuel and air into a uniform mixture for injection into a combustor reaction zone. The burner also includes an inlet flow conditioner disposed at the air inlet of the fuel/air premixer for controlling a radial and circumferential distribution of incoming air. The pattern of perforations in the inlet flow conditioner is designed such that a uniform air flow distribution is produced at the swirler inlet annulus in both the radial and circumference directions. The premixer includes a swozzle assembly having a series of preferably air foil shaped turning vanes that impart swirl to the airflow entering via the inlet flow conditioner. Each air foil contains internal fuel flow passages that introduce natural gas fuel into the air stream via fuel metering holes that pass through the walls of the air foil shaped turning vanes. By injecting fuel in this manner, an aerodynamically clean flow field is maintained throughout the premixer. By injecting fuel via two separate passages, the fuel/air mixture strength distribution can be controlled in the radial direction to obtain optimum radial concentration profiles for control of emissions, lean blow outs, and combustion driven dynamic pressure activity as machine and combustor load are varied.

  2. Rooftop Unitary Air Conditioner with Integral Dedicated Outdoor Air System

    SciTech Connect

    Tiax Llc

    2006-02-28

    Energy use of rooftop and other unitary air-conditioners in commercial applications accounts for about 1 quad (10{sup 15} Btu) of primary energy use annually in the U.S. [Reference 7]. The realization that this cooling equipment accounts for the majority of commercial building cooled floorspace and the majority also of commercial building energy use has spurred development of improved-efficiency equipment as well as development of stricter standards addressing efficiency levels. Another key market driver affecting design of rooftop air-conditioning equipment has been concern regarding comfort and the control of humidity. Trends for increases in outdoor air ventilation rates in certain applications, and the increasing concern about indoor air quality problems associated with humidity levels and moisture in buildings points to a need for improved dehumidification capability in air-conditioning equipment of all types. In many cases addressing this issue exacerbates energy efficiency, and vice versa. The integrated dedicated outdoor air system configuration developed in this project addresses both energy and comfort/humidity issues.

  3. Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, J.; Booten, C.; Christensen, D.; Tomerlin, J.

    2013-03-01

    Window air conditioners are the dominant cooling product for residences, in terms of annual unit sales. They are inexpensive, portable and can be installed by the owner. For this reason, they are an attractive solution for supplemental cooling, for retrofitting air conditioning into a home which lacks ductwork, and for renters. Window air conditioners for sale in the United States are required to meet very modest minimum efficiency standards. Four window air conditioners' performance were tested in the Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory on NREL's campus in Golden, CO. In order to separate and study the refrigerant system's performance, the unit's internal leakage pathways, the unit's fanforced ventilation, and the leakage around the unit resulting from installation in a window, a series of tests were devised that focused on each aspect of the unit's performance. These tests were designed to develop a detailed performance map to determine whole-house performance in different climates. Even though the test regimen deviated thoroughly from the industry-standard ratings test, the results permit simple calculation of an estimated rating for both capacity and efficiency that would result from a standard ratings test. Using this calculation method, it was found that the three new air conditioners' measured performance was consistent with their ratings. This method also permits calculation of equivalent SEER for the test articles. Performance datasets were developed across a broad range of indoor and outdoor operating conditions, and used them to generate performance maps.

  4. 48 CFR 52.223-12 - Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and Air Conditioners. 52.223-12 Section 52.223-12 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-12 Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners. As prescribed in 23.804(b), insert the following clause: Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners (MAY 1995) The Contractor...

  5. 48 CFR 52.223-12 - Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and Air Conditioners. 52.223-12 Section 52.223-12 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-12 Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners. As prescribed in 23.804(b), insert the following clause: Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners (MAY 1995) The Contractor...

  6. 48 CFR 52.223-12 - Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and Air Conditioners. 52.223-12 Section 52.223-12 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-12 Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners. As prescribed in 23.804(b), insert the following clause: Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners (MAY 1995) The Contractor...

  7. 48 CFR 52.223-12 - Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and Air Conditioners. 52.223-12 Section 52.223-12 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-12 Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners. As prescribed in 23.804(b), insert the following clause: Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners (MAY 1995) The Contractor...

  8. 48 CFR 52.223-12 - Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and Air Conditioners. 52.223-12 Section 52.223-12 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-12 Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners. As prescribed in 23.804(b), insert the following clause: Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners (MAY 1995) The Contractor...

  9. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An extensive review of the literature was conducted which was concerned with the characterization of systems and equipment that could be applicable to the development of solar-powered air conditioners based on the Rankine cycle approach, and the establishment of baseline data defining the performance, physical characteristics, and cost of systems using the LiBr/H2O absorption cycle.

  10. Development of vehicle magnetic air conditioner (VMAC) technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gschneidner, Karl A., Jr.; Pecharsky, V.K.; Jiles, David; Zimm, Carl B.

    2001-08-28

    The objective of Phase I was to explore the feasibility of the development of a new solid state refrigeration technology - magnetic refrigeration - in order to reduce power consumption of a vehicle air conditioner by 30%. The feasibility study was performed at Iowa State University (ISU) together with Astronautics Corporation of America Technology Center (ACATC), Madison, WI, through a subcontract with ISU.

  11. Domestic Refrigeration, Freezer, and Window Air Conditioner Service. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemons, Mark

    This curriculum guide contains six units of instruction for a course in domestic refrigerator, freezer, and window air conditioner service. The units cover the following topics: (1) service fundamentals; (2) mechanical components and functions; (3) electrical components and control devices; (4) refrigerator and freezer service; (5) domestic ice…

  12. Monitoring and evaluation of replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency air conditioners in single-family detached houses in Austin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, R.; Hough, R.E. and Associates, Inc., Syracuse, NY )

    1991-10-01

    The US DOE initiated this project to evaluate the performance of an air conditioner retrofit program in Austin, Texas. The City's Austin's Resource Management Department pursued this project to quantify the retrofit effect of replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency air conditioners in single-family detached homes. If successfully implemented, this retrofit program could help defer construction of a new power plant which is a major goal of this department. The project compares data collected from 12 houses during two cooling seasons under pre-retrofit and then post-retrofit air conditioner units. The existing low-efficiency air conditioners were monitored during the 1987 cooling season, replaced during the 1987--88 heating season with new, smaller sized, high-efficiency units, and then monitored again during the 1988 cooling season. Results indicated that the air conditioner retrofits reduce the annual air conditioner electric consumption and peak electric demand by an average of 38%. When normalized to the nominal capacity of the air conditioner, average demand savings were 1.12 W/ft{sup 2} and estimated annual energy savings were 1.419 kWh/ft{sup 2}. Individual air conditioner power requirements were found to be a well defined function of outdoor temperature as expected. In the absence of detailed data, estimates of the peak demand reductions of new air conditioners can be made from the manufacturer's specifications. Air conditioner energy consumption proved to be strongly linear as a function of the outdoor temperature as expected when taken as an aggregate. No noticeable differences in the diversity factor of the air conditioner usage were found. Analysis of the retrofit effect using PRISM yields estimates of the reduction in normalized annual consumption (NAC) and annual cooling consumption of 12% and 30%. 2 refs., 11 figs., 17 tabs.

  13. The Performance of a Desiccant-Based air Conditioner on a Florida School

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.

    2001-08-22

    Indoor air quality has become a major public health issue in recent years. ASHRAE standard 62-1989-which is an attempt to improve indoor air quality by increasing building ventilation rates-greatly increases the latent loads on many buildings. In more humid climates, the Sensible Heat Ratio (SHR) of a building's air conditioner (which is the fraction of total delivered cooling that is sensible) is too high to meet the existing latent loads. The implementation of ASHRAE 62-1989 will only exacerbate this problem.

  14. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The initial objective of the program was the optimization (in terms of cost and performance) of a Rankine cycle mechanical refrigeration system which utilizes thermal energy from a flat solar collector for air conditioning residential buildings. However, feasibility investigations of the adsorption process revealed that a dessicant-type air conditioner offers many significant advantages. As a result, limited efforts were expended toward the optimization of such a system.

  15. Additional cooling and heating load improvements in seasonal performance modeling of room and central air conditioners and heat pumps. Topical report, Subtask 3. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-09

    The study focuses on improving the load modeling technique of Seasonal Performance Model (SPM) in order to estimate a more realistic load for seasonal analysis calculations on an hourly basis. A computer simulation program, Seasonal Performance Model Load (SPMLD), was used to calculate the cooling and heating loads for a typical residence in Caribou, Maine; Columbia, Missouri; and Fort Worth, Texas. The derivation of the SPMLD is described and changes made to improve cooling and heating load estimates are identified. (MCW)

  16. Assessment of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants for Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Pradeep; Shen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants for window air conditioners that currently use refrigerant R410A for residential and commercial applications. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and a mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration) and R125 (10% molar concentration). Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The ORNL Heat Pump Design Model was calibrated with the baseline data and was used to assess the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners.

  17. Analysis of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerant Options for Window Air Conditioners

    DOE PAGES

    Bansal, Pradeep; Shen, Bo

    2015-03-12

    This paper presents a technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants as alternatives to R410A for window air conditioners. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, a mixture of R32/R125 with 90%/10% molar concentration, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and R134a. Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The heat pump design model (HPDM) was modified and calibrated with the baseline data and was used to evaluate the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners. Amongmore » all the refrigerants studied, R32 offers the best efficiency and the lowest Global Warming Potential (GWP), and hence its use will result in the overall environmental friendliness.« less

  18. Analysis of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerant Options for Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Pradeep; Shen, Bo

    2015-03-12

    This paper presents a technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants as alternatives to R410A for window air conditioners. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, a mixture of R32/R125 with 90%/10% molar concentration, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and R134a. Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The heat pump design model (HPDM) was modified and calibrated with the baseline data and was used to evaluate the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners. Among all the refrigerants studied, R32 offers the best efficiency and the lowest Global Warming Potential (GWP), and hence its use will result in the overall environmental friendliness.

  19. Study on the Refrigeration Cycle of Automotive Air-Conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Junichiro; Honda, Itsuro; Kanazawa, Koji; Ohba, Hideki; Uemura, Masakazu

    The steady state characteristics of a refrigeration cycle for automotive air-conditioners using Freon 12 gas is studied numerically. The numerical method for the simulation of a refrigeration cycle executed on a personal computer is presented. The model for a refrigeration cycle consists of a compressor, condenser, expansion valve and evaporator. Non linear equations for pressure, temperature and refrigerant mass are calculated by the Newton-Raphson method. In particular, experimental date are employed for calculation of compressor condition and influence of refrigerator oil is considered. From the comparison with the experiment, it is made c1ear that this simulation is useful for the prediction of the performance of a refrigeration cycle. Therefore, the optimum design and the shortening of the design process for automotive air-conditioners are possible by this simulation.

  20. Development and Analysis of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioner Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Judkoff, R.

    2012-04-01

    This report documents the design of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP AC) prototype and the testing to prove its performance. Previous numerical modeling and building energy simulations indicate a DEVAP AC can save significant energy compared to a conventional vapor compression AC (Kozubal et al. 2011). The purposes of this research were to build DEVAP prototypes, test them to validate the numerical model, and identify potential commercialization barriers.

  1. Determining benefits and costs of improved central air conditioner efficiencies

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenquist, G.; Levok, A.; Chan, P.; McMahon, J.

    2001-01-12

    Economic impacts on individual consumers from possible revisions to U.S. residential-type central air conditioner energy-efficiency standards are examined using a life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis. LCC is the consumer's cost of purchasing and installing a central air conditioner and operating it over its lifetime. This approach makes it possible to evaluate the economic impacts on individual consumers from the revised standards. The methodology allows an examination of groups of the population which benefit or lose from suggested efficiency standards. The results show that the economic benefits to consumers due to modest increases in efficiency are significant. For an efficiency increase of 20percent over the existing minimum standard (i.e., 12 SEER), 35percent of households with central air conditioners experience significant LCC savings, with an average savings of $453, while 25percent show significant LCC losses, with an average loss of $158 compared to apre-standard LCC average of $5,170. The remainder of the population (40percent) are largely unaffected.

  2. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Conditioners (Cooling Only): All capacities 10.6 16.5 Heat Pumps (Cooling Function): All capacities 10.6 16.0 Split System Units Central Air Conditioners (Cooling Only): All capacities 10.9 23.0 Heat Pumps (Cooling... Conditioners H Appendix H to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER...

  3. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Conditioners (Cooling Only): All capacities 10.6 16.5 Heat Pumps (Cooling Function): All capacities 10.6 16.0 Split System Units Central Air Conditioners (Cooling Only): All capacities 10.9 23.0 Heat Pumps (Cooling... Conditioners H Appendix H to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER...

  4. Building pressurization control with rooftop air conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, S.

    1982-10-01

    The modulated exhaust fan appears to be the most cost effective positive means to maintain close building pressure control with rooftop air conditioning, but because building construction and applications vary, every building's pressure control needs must be analyzed. Requirements will vary from no relief to barometric dampers to return fans to modulated exhaust fans. As heating and cooling costs continue to rise and tighter building codes prevail, proper selection of building pressure control is one area that must be monitored more carefully by the HVAC system designer.

  5. A hybrid air conditioner driven by a hybrid solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Alili, Ali

    The objective of this thesis is to search for an efficient way of utilizing solar energy in air conditioning applications. The current solar Air Conditioners (A/C)s suffer from low Coefficient of Performance (COP) and performance degradation in hot and humid climates. By investigating the possible ways of utilizing solar energy in air conditioning applications, the bottlenecks in these approaches were identified. That resulted in proposing a novel system whose subsystem synergy led to a COP higher than unity. The proposed system was found to maintain indoor comfort at a higher COP compared to the most common solar A/Cs, especially under very hot and humid climate conditions. The novelty of the proposed A/C is to use a concentrating photovoltaic/thermal collector, which outputs thermal and electrical energy simultaneously, to drive a hybrid A/C. The performance of the hybrid A/C, which consists of a desiccant wheel, an enthalpy wheel, and a vapor compression cycle (VCC), was investigated experimentally. This work also explored the use of a new type of desiccant material, which can be regenerated with a low temperature heat source. The experimental results showed that the hybrid A/C is more effective than the standalone VCC in maintaining the indoor conditions within the comfort zone. Using the experimental data, the COP of the hybrid A/C driven by a hybrid solar collector was found to be at least double that of the current solar A/Cs. The innovative integration of its subsystems allows each subsystem to do what it can do best. That leads to lower energy consumption which helps reduce the peak electrical loads on electric utilities and reduces the consumer operating cost since less energy is purchased during the on peak periods and less solar collector area is needed. In order for the proposed A/C to become a real alternative to conventional systems, its performance and total cost were optimized using the experimentally validated model. The results showed that for an

  6. Zero Carryover Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Solar Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Lowenstein, A.; Slayzak, S.; Kozubal, E.

    2006-07-01

    A novel liquid-desiccant air conditioner that dries and cools building supply air will transform the use of direct-contact liquid-desiccant systems in HVAC applications, improving comfort, air quality, and providing energy-efficient humidity control.

  7. Huffing air conditioner fluid: a cool way to die?

    PubMed

    Phatak, Darshan R; Walterscheid, Jeffrey

    2012-03-01

    "Huffing," the form of substance abuse involving inhalants, is growing in popularity because of the ease and availability of chemical inhalants in many household products. The purpose in huffing is to achieve euphoria when the chemicals in question interact with the central nervous system in combination with oxygen displacement. The abuser is lulled into a false sense of safety despite the well-documented potential for lethal cardiac arrhythmia and the effects of chronic inhalant abuse, including multisystem organ failure, and brain damage. Huffing air conditioner fluid is a growing problem given the accessibility to outdoor units and their fluid components, such as difluorochloromethane(chlorodifluoromethane, Freon), and we have classified multiple cases of accidental death due to the toxicity of difluorochloromethane. Given the ubiquity of these devices and the vast lack of gating or security devices, they make an inviting target for inhalant abusers. Acute huffing fatalities have distinct findings that are present at the scene, given the position of the decedent and proximity to the air conditioner unit. The purpose of the autopsy in these cases is to exclude other potential causes of death and to procure specimens for toxicological analysis.

  8. Huffing air conditioner fluid: a cool way to die?

    PubMed

    Phatak, Darshan R; Walterscheid, Jeffrey

    2012-03-01

    "Huffing," the form of substance abuse involving inhalants, is growing in popularity because of the ease and availability of chemical inhalants in many household products. The purpose in huffing is to achieve euphoria when the chemicals in question interact with the central nervous system in combination with oxygen displacement. The abuser is lulled into a false sense of safety despite the well-documented potential for lethal cardiac arrhythmia and the effects of chronic inhalant abuse, including multisystem organ failure, and brain damage. Huffing air conditioner fluid is a growing problem given the accessibility to outdoor units and their fluid components, such as difluorochloromethane(chlorodifluoromethane, Freon), and we have classified multiple cases of accidental death due to the toxicity of difluorochloromethane. Given the ubiquity of these devices and the vast lack of gating or security devices, they make an inviting target for inhalant abusers. Acute huffing fatalities have distinct findings that are present at the scene, given the position of the decedent and proximity to the air conditioner unit. The purpose of the autopsy in these cases is to exclude other potential causes of death and to procure specimens for toxicological analysis. PMID:22442834

  9. 10 CFR 431.92 - Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... heat pumps. 431.92 Section 431.92 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps § 431.92 Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. The following definitions...

  10. 10 CFR 431.92 - Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... heat pumps. 431.92 Section 431.92 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps § 431.92 Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. The following definitions...

  11. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Manufacturer's rated cooling capacities (Btu's/hr.) Range of SEER's Low High Single Package Units Central Air Conditioners (Cooling Only): All capacities 10.6 16.5 Heat Pumps (Cooling Function): All capacities 10.6 16.0 Split System Units Central Air Conditioners (Cooling Only): All capacities 10.9 23.0 Heat Pumps...

  12. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... for Central Air Conditioners Manufacturer's rated cooling capacities (Btu's/hr.) Range of SEER's Low High Single Package Units Central Air Conditioners (Cooling Only): All capacities 10.6 16.5 Heat Pumps...): All capacities 10.9 23.0 Heat Pumps (Cooling Function): All capacities 10.9 21.0...

  13. 10 CFR 431.96 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial air conditioners and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Test Procedures § 431.96 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. (a) Scope. This section contains test... efficiency of commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. 431.96 Section 431.96 Energy DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. Dirty air conditioners: Energy implications of coil fouling

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, Jeffrey; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2002-03-01

    Residential air conditioning is responsible for a substantial amount of peak electrical demand and energy consumption throughout most of the United States. Coil fouling, the deposition of indoor dusts and other particulate matter on evaporator heat exchangers, increases system pressure drop and, correspondingly, decreases system air flow and air conditioner performance. In this paper, we apply experimental and simulation results describing particle deposition on evaporator coils as well as research about indoor particle and dust concentrations to determine coil fouling rates. The results suggest that typical coils foul enough to double evaporator pressure drop in about 7.5 years, much sooner than the expected 15-30 year life time for an evaporator coil. The most important parameters in determining coil fouling times are the efficiency of the filter and indoor particle concentrations, although filter bypass and duct and coil design are important as well. The reduced air flows that result from coil fouling cause typical efficiency and capacity degradations of less than 5%, however they can be much greater for marginal systems or extreme conditions. These energy issues, as well as possible indoor air quality issues resulting from fouling by biological aerosols, suggest that regular coil cleaning to ameliorate low flow and the elimination of filter bypass should be an important part of residential air conditioning commissioning and maintenance practices.

  15. High-Efficiency Rooftop Air Conditioners: Small Commercial ACs Could Add Up to Big Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Hollomon, J Bradford; Gilbride, Theresa L.

    2003-04-01

    This paper describes a technology procurement conducted by DOE, PNNL, and the Defense Logistics Agency to increase the availability of energy-efficient, packaged, unitary ''rooftop'' air conditioners. The procurement encourages air conditioner manufacturers to produce equipment that exceeds federal energy efficiency standards by at least 25 percent at a lower first cost. Program developers have also sought to aggregate market demand by organizing groups of large-volume buyers of air conditioning equipment. A Cost Estimator tool developed by PNNL to help consumers determine the cost effectiveness, based on local climate conditions, of purchasing energy efficient air conditioners for their own facilities is also described.

  16. Shortening the Defrost Time on a Heat Pump Air Conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Eiji; Yamazaki, Masaya; Kawamura, Toshiaki

    Methods to shorten the defrost time have been studied on a heat pump air conditioner. The experiment has been carried out using a 0.75kW heat pump and the energy balance during defrosting has been analyzed. We have found that the following methods are effective to shorten the defrost time; (1) Increase in power inqut to the compressor during defrosting, (2) Utilization of the compressor for thermal energy storage, (3) Reduction of the water left on the outdoor heat exchanger fins. The heat pump with the new defrosting system has been made on an experimental basis. lts defrost time is 1 minute and 55 seconds under the defrost condition of the Japanese Industrial Standard. The defrost time of a conventional heat pump is about 4 or 5 minutes.

  17. Development of a solar powered residential air conditioner (General optimization)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowen, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    A commercially available 3-ton residential Lithium Bromide (LiBr) absorption air conditioner was modified for use with lower temperature solar heated water. The modification included removal of components such as the generator, concentration control chamber, liquid trap, and separator; and the addition of a Chrysler designed generator, an off-the-shelf LiBr-solution pump. The design goal of the modified unit was to operate with water as the heat-transfer fluid at a target temperature of 85 C (185 F), 29.4 C (85 F) cooling water inlet, producing 10.5 kW (3 tons) of cooling. Tests were performed on the system before and after modification to provide comparative data. At elevated temperatures (96 C, 205 F), the test results show that Lithium Bromide was carried into the condenser due to the extremely violent boiling and degraded the evaporator performance.

  18. Using Field-Metered Data to Quantify Annual Energy Use of Portable Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, Thomas; Willem, Henry; Ni, Chun Chun; Stratton, Hannah; Chen, Yuting; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Iyer, Maithili; Price, Sarah; Dunham, Camilla

    2014-12-01

    As many regions of the United States experience rising temperatures, consumers have come to rely increasingly on cooling appliances (including portable air conditioners) to provide a comfortable indoor temperature. Home occupants sometimes use a portable air conditioner (PAC) to maintain a desired indoor temperature in a single room or enclosed space. Although PACs in residential use are few compared to centrally installed and room air conditioning (AC) units, the past few years have witnessed an increase of PACs use throughout the United States. There is, however, little information and few research projects focused on the energy consumption and performance of PACs, particularly studies that collect information from field applications of PACs. The operation and energy consumption of PACs may differ among geographic locations and households, because of variations in cooling load, frequency, duration of use, and other user-selected settings. In addition, the performance of building envelope (thermal mass and air leakage) as well as inter-zonal mixing within the building would substantially influence the ability to control and maintain desirable indoor thermal conditions. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted an initial field-metering study aimed at increasing the knowledge and data related to PAC operation and energy consumption in the United States.

  19. High-Efficiency Rooftop Air Conditioners: Innovative Procurement to Achieve Advances in Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hollomon, Brad

    2003-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Defense Logistics Agency, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recently conducted a technology procurement to increase the availability of energy-efficient, packaged unitary ''rooftop'' air conditioners. The procurement encouraged air conditioner manufacturers to produce equipment that exceeded US energy efficiency standards by at least 25% at a lower life-cycle cost. An outgrowth of the project, a web-based cost estimator tool is now available to help consumers determine the cost-effectiveness of purchasing energy-efficient air conditioners based on climate conditions and other factors at their own locations.

  20. Effect of air-conditioner on fungal contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Nobuo; Fujita, Tadao

    Air-conditioners (AC) produce much dew and wet conditions inside their apparatus, when in operation. We studied the fungal contamination in AC and found that the average fungal contamination of AC filters was about 5-fold greater than that of a carpet, and Cladosporium and Penicillium were predominant in AC filters. The fungal contamination inside AC, which were used everyday, increased more markedly than those not used daily, e.g. a few days per week or rarely. Moreover, the airborne fungal contamination in rooms during air-conditioning was about 2-fold greater than one in rooms without AC, and was highest when air-conditioning started and decreased gradually with time. We recognized that the airborne fungal contamination was controlled by the environmental condition of the rooms, in which AC were used. It is suggested that AC might promote mold allergies in users via airborne fungal spores derived from the AC. On the other hand, AC was estimated to remove moisture in the room atmosphere and carpets, and reduce the relative humidity in rooms. It was found that the average fungal contamination in the house dust of carpets with AC was suppressed by two-third of that in rooms without AC. The use of AC for suppressing fungal hazards was discussed.

  1. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile – High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This Top Innovation profile explains how comprehensive performance testing by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory led to simple, affordable methods that homeowners could employ for increasing the energy efficiency of window air conditioners.

  2. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brendemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  3. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner: System optimization preliminary specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseau, J.; Hwang, K. C.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations aimed at the optimization of a baseline Rankine cycle solar powered air conditioner and the development of a preliminary system specification were conducted. Efforts encompassed the following: (1) investigations of the use of recuperators/regenerators to enhance the performance of the baseline system, (2) development of an off-design computer program for system performance prediction, (3) optimization of the turbocompressor design to cover a broad range of conditions and permit operation at low heat source water temperatures, (4) generation of parametric data describing system performance (COP and capacity), (5) development and evaluation of candidate system augmentation concepts and selection of the optimum approach, (6) generation of auxiliary power requirement data, (7) development of a complete solar collector-thermal storage-air conditioner computer program, (8) evaluation of the baseline Rankine air conditioner over a five day period simulating the NASA solar house operation, and (9) evaluation of the air conditioner as a heat pump.

  4. Effects of Air Conditioner Use on Real-World Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H; Thomas, John F

    2013-01-01

    Vehicle data were acquired on-road and on a chassis dynamometer to assess fuel consumption under several steady cruise conditions and at idle. Data were gathered for various air conditioner (A/C) settings and with the A/C off and the windows open. Two vehicles were used in the comparisonstudy: a 2009 Ford Explorer and a 2009 Toyota Corolla. At steady speeds between 64.4 and 112.7 kph (40 and 70 mph), both vehicles consumed more fuel with the A/C on at maximum cooling load (compressor at 100% duty cycle) than when driving with the windows down. The Explorer maintained this trend beyond 112.7 kph (70 mph), while the Corolla fuel consumption with the windows down matched that of running the A/C at 120.7 kph (75 mph), and exceeded it at 128.7 kph (80 mph). The largest incremental fuel consumption rate penalty due to air conditioner use occurred was nearly constant with a weakslight trend of increasing consumption with increasing compressor (and vehicle) speed. Lower consumption is seenobserved at idle for both vehicles, likely due to the low compressor speed at this operating point

  5. 16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air... CONSERVATION ACT (âENERGY LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. I Appendix I to Part 305—Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners Manufacturer's rated heating capacity (Btu's/hr.) Range of HSPF's...

  6. 16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air... RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. I Appendix I to Part 305—Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners Manufacturer's rated heating capacity (Btu's/hr.) Range of HSPF's Low High Single Package Units Heat...

  7. 16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air... RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. I Appendix I to Part 305—Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners Manufacturer's rated heating capacity (Btu's/hr.) Range of HSPF's Low High Single Package Units Heat...

  8. 16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air... RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. I Appendix I to Part 305—Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners Manufacturer's rated heating capacity (Btu's/hr.) Range of HSPF's Low High Single Package Units Heat...

  9. 16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air... RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. I Appendix I to Part 305—Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners Manufacturer's rated heating capacity (Btu's/hr.) Range of HSPF's Low High Single Package Units Heat...

  10. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners H Appendix H to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC... RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. H Appendix H to Part 305—Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air...

  11. Study on Actual Performance and Exhaust Heat of Air-conditioner Concerning Heat Island Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinomiya, Naruaki; Nishimura, Nobuya; Iyota, Hiroyuki; Kurata, Satoru

    A novel simple measuring method of actual performance of room air-conditioners by neural net work analysis (NNW) has been developed. The actual performance for a long term which is difficult to be measured by air enthalpy method is able to be measured easily by this method. In other words, actual performance of room air-conditioners can be measured by the proposed NNW method without measurement of air flow at indoor unit and outdoor unit which changes due to clogging of heat exchanger by dust. In order to gather data for training and testing the proposed NNW method, the room air-conditioner for experiment was set up. Inputs to NNW are outdoor temperature, indoor temperature, indoor wet-bulb temperature, inlet temperature of evaporator, outlet temperature of evaporator, condensation temperature and power consumption. The output from NNW is COP. The COP by NNW method has mean errors under 2.8% in quasi-steady operation condition and has mean errors under 4.6% in unsteady operation condition, compared to the COP of air enthalpy method. Results show that the COP of air conditioners can be measured easily for a long term using NNW within a high degree of accuracy.

  12. 10 CFR 431.96 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial air conditioners and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... certified ratings that is required to be maintained under 10 CFR 429.71. (f) Manufacturer involvement in... efficiency of commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. 431.96 Section 431.96 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Test Procedures § 431.96 Uniform test method for the measurement...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps M Appendix M to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Note: The procedures and calculations that refer to off... determine compliance with energy conservation standards for central air conditioners and heat pumps at...

  14. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps M Appendix M to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Note: The procedures and calculations that refer to off... determine compliance with energy conservation standards for central air conditioners and heat pumps at...

  15. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps M Appendix M to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Note: The procedures and calculations that refer to off... determine compliance with energy conservation standards for central air conditioners and heat pumps at...

  16. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brandemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost-effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  17. 10 CFR 429.16 - Central air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... more than one indoor unit, a “tested combination” as defined in 10 CFR 430.2 shall be used for tests... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Central air conditioners and heat pumps. 429.16 Section... and heat pumps. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The general requirements...

  18. 10 CFR 431.92 - Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... applications; rated for sensible coefficient of performance (SCOP) and tested in accordance with 10 CFR 431.96... heat pumps. 431.92 Section 431.92 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps §...

  19. 10 CFR 429.16 - Central air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... more than one indoor unit, a “tested combination” as defined in 10 CFR 430.2 shall be used for tests... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Central air conditioners and heat pumps. 429.16 Section... and heat pumps. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The general requirements...

  20. 10 CFR 429.16 - Central air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... more than one indoor unit, a “tested combination” as defined in 10 CFR 430.2 shall be used for tests... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Central air conditioners and heat pumps. 429.16 Section... and heat pumps. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The general requirements...

  1. Product lifetime, energy efficiency and climate change: A case study of air conditioners in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Daisuke

    2016-10-01

    This study proposed a modelling technique for estimating life-cycle CO2 emissions of durable goods by considering changes in product lifetime and energy efficiency. The stock and flow of durable goods was modelled by Weibull lifetime distributions and the trend in annual energy efficiency (i.e., annual electricity consumption) of an "average" durable good was formulated as a reverse logistic curve including a technologically critical value (i.e., limit energy efficiency) with respect to time. I found that when the average product lifetime is reduced, there is a trade-off between the reduction in emissions during product use (use phase), due to the additional purchases of new, more energy-efficient air conditioners, and the increase in emissions arising from the additional production of new air conditioners stimulated by the reduction of the average product lifetime. A scenario analysis focused on residential air conditioners in Japan during 1972-2013 showed that for a reduction of average lifetime of 1 year, if the air conditioner energy efficiency limit can be improved by 1.4% from the estimated current efficiency level, then CO2 emissions can be reduced by approximately the same amount as for an extension of average product lifetime of 1 year. PMID:27423771

  2. Technical and economic analysis of energy efficiency of Chinese room air conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Fridley, David G.; Rosenquist, Gregory; Jiang, Lin; Li, Aixian; Xin, Dingguo; Cheng, Jianhong

    2001-02-01

    China has experienced tremendous growth in the production and sales of room air conditioners over the last decade. Although minimum room air conditioner energy efficiency standards have been in effect since 1989, no efforts were made during most of the 1990's to update the standard to be more reflective of current market conditions. In 1999, China's State Bureau of Technical Supervision (SBTS) included in their annual plan the development and revision of the 1989 room air conditioner standard, and experts from SBTS worked together with LBNL to analyze the new standards. Based on the engineering and life cycle-cost analyses performed, the most predominant type of room air conditioner in the Chinese market (split-type with a cooling capacity between 2500 and 4500 W (8500 Btu/h and 15,300Btu/h)) can have its efficiency increased cost-effectively to an energy efficiency ratio (EER) of 2.92 W/W (9.9 Btu/hr/W). If an EER standard of 2.92 W/W became effective in 2001, Chinese consumers would be estimated to save over 3.5 billion Yuan (420 million U.S. dollars) over the period of 2001-2020. Carbon emissions over the same period would be reduced by approximately 12 million metric tonnes.

  3. Product lifetime, energy efficiency and climate change: A case study of air conditioners in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Daisuke

    2016-10-01

    This study proposed a modelling technique for estimating life-cycle CO2 emissions of durable goods by considering changes in product lifetime and energy efficiency. The stock and flow of durable goods was modelled by Weibull lifetime distributions and the trend in annual energy efficiency (i.e., annual electricity consumption) of an "average" durable good was formulated as a reverse logistic curve including a technologically critical value (i.e., limit energy efficiency) with respect to time. I found that when the average product lifetime is reduced, there is a trade-off between the reduction in emissions during product use (use phase), due to the additional purchases of new, more energy-efficient air conditioners, and the increase in emissions arising from the additional production of new air conditioners stimulated by the reduction of the average product lifetime. A scenario analysis focused on residential air conditioners in Japan during 1972-2013 showed that for a reduction of average lifetime of 1 year, if the air conditioner energy efficiency limit can be improved by 1.4% from the estimated current efficiency level, then CO2 emissions can be reduced by approximately the same amount as for an extension of average product lifetime of 1 year.

  4. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... (ii) Each heat pump label, except as noted in paragraph (g)(4)(iii) of this section, shall contain two... only heat pump label shall contain a range of comparability consisting of the lowest and highest... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling for central air conditioners,...

  5. The System Impact of Air-Conditioner Under-voltage Protection Schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning; Yang, Bo; Huang, Zhenyu; Bravo, Richard

    2009-03-31

    This paper presents simulation results of evaluating an under-voltage protection scheme designed to take stalled air-conditioner (a/c) units offline such that the slow voltage recovery phenomena can be solved on areas heavily loaded with a/c motors during summer peak periods. A three feeder test-bed has been first used to quantify the effectiveness of the protection scheme and the sensitivity of the under-voltage relay settings. Then two real system events of the Western US power grid have been studied to evaluate the area impact of the protection scheme proposed by Southern California Edison. The study demonstrates that by taking all or most of the stalled a/c unit offline, the feeder voltage will recover in a few seconds, much quicker than the tens of seconds that the standard thermal relays imbedded in the motors need to trip the units. The drawback of the control scheme is that after the voltage recover, it settled at a higher voltage than before the faults because a large chuck of load has been shed.

  6. Desiccant-assisted air conditioner improves IAQ and comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Meckler, M. )

    1994-10-01

    This article describes a system which offers the advantage of downsizing the evaporator coil and condensing unit capacities for comparable design loads, which in turn provides numerous benefits. Airborne microorganisms, which are responsible for many acute diseases, infections, and allergies, are well protected indoors by the moisture surrounding them. While the human body is generally the host for various bacteria and viruses, fungi can grow in moist places. It has been concluded that an optimum relative humidity (RH) range of 40 to 60 percent is necessary to minimize or eliminate the bacterial, viral, and fungal growth. In addition, humidity also has an effect on air cleanliness--it reduces the presence of dust particles--and on the deterioration of the building structure and its contents. Therefore, controlling humidity is a very important factor to human comfort in minimizing adverse health effects and maximizing the structural longevity of the building.

  7. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps M Appendix M to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps 1. DEFINITIONS 2. TESTING CONDITIONS 2.1Test room... conditioners and heat pumps, and systems composed of multiple mini-split units (outdoor units located...

  8. Low GWP Refrigerants Modelling Study for a Room Air Conditioner Having Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Bhandari, Mahabir S

    2016-01-01

    Microchannel heat exchangers (MHX) have found great successes in residential and commercial air conditioning applications, being compact heat exchangers, to reduce refrigerant charge and material cost. This investigation aims to extend the application of MHXs in split, room air conditioners (RAC), per fundamental heat exchanger and system modelling. For this paper, microchannel condenser and evaporator models were developed, using a segment-to-segment modelling approach. The microchannel heat exchanger models were integrated to a system design model. The system model is able to predict the performance indices, such as cooling capacity, efficiency, sensible heat ratio, etc. Using the calibrated system and heat exchanger models, we evaluated numerous low GWP (global warming potential) refrigerants. The predicted system performance indices, e.g. cooling efficiency, compressor discharge temperature, and required compressor displacement volume etc., are compared. Suitable replacements for R22 and R-410A for the room air conditioner application are recommended.

  9. Study on Variable Capacity Control Mechanism of Scroll Compressor for Automotive Air Conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Takahisa; Shigeoka, Tetsuo

    As for the automotive air conditioner, (1) to keep the automotive cabin temperature in a comfortable region, (2) to improve driving feeling, (3) to drive the air conditioning system economically through all seasons, are universally required. Recently, from these points, compressors with variable capacity control mechanism for automotive air conditioners have been remarkably requested. We have developed a scroll comoressor with variable capacity control mechanism. The capacity control mechanism, which changes the channel area of the bypass hole continuously, according to the suction gas pressure and the discharge gas pressure, has been developed. In this report, we describe the mechanism of variable capacity control and the performance simulation program that has been developed for the scroll compressor. Further, we describe the measuring results of cylinder pressure behavior, the results of energy loss analysis and the effect of comfort, drivability, power saving in the refrigerating cycle using the developed capacity control compressor.

  10. Performance characteristics of a turbo expander substituted for expansion valve on air-conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Soo-Yong; Cho, Chong-Hyun; Kim, Chaesil

    2008-09-15

    An experimental study is conducted on a small turbo expander which could be applied to the expansion process in place of expansion valves in refrigerator or air-conditioner to improve the cycle efficiency by recovering energy from the throttling process. The operating gas is HFC134a and the maximum cooling capacity of experiment apparatus is 32.7 kW. Four different turbo expanders are tested to find the performance characteristics of the turbo expander when they operate at a low partial admission rate. The partial admission rate is 1.70% or 2.37, and expanders are operated in the supersonic flow. In the experiment, pressure and temperature are measured at 10 different locations in the experimental apparatus. In addition to these measurements, output power at the turbo expander is measured through a generator installed on a rotor shaft with the rotational speed. Performance data of the turbo expander are obtained at many part load operations by adjusting the output power of the generator. A maximum of 15.8% total-to-static efficiency is obtained when the pressure ratio and the partial admission ratio are 2.37 and 1.70%, respectively. Experimental results show that the optimal velocity ratio decreases when the pressure ratio is decreased, and peak efficiencies, which are obtained at locally maximized efficiency depending on the operating condition, vary linearly against the subcooling temperature or the pressure ratio. (author)

  11. Air conditioner operation behaviour based on students' skin temperature in a classroom.

    PubMed

    Song, Gook-Sup; Lim, Jae-Han; Ahn, Tae-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    A total of 25 college students participated in a study to determine when they would use an air conditioner during a lecture in a university classroom. The ambient temperature and relative humidity were measured 75 cm above the floor every minute. Skin temperatures were measured every minute at seven points, according to the recommendation of Hardy and Dubois. The average clothing insulation value (CLO) of subjects was 0.53 ± 0.07 CLO. The mean air velocity in the classroom was 0.13 ± 0.028 m/s. When the subjects turned the air conditioner both on and off, the average ambient temperatures, relative humidity and mean skin temperatures were 27.4 and 23.7 °C (p = 0.000), 40.9 and 40.0% (p = 0.528) and 32.7 and 32.2 °C (p = 0.024), respectively. When the status of the air conditioner was changed, the differences of skin temperatures in core body parts (head, abdomen and thigh) were not statistically significant. However, in the extremities (mid-lower arm, hand, shin and instep), the differences were statistically significant. Subjects preferred a fluctuating environment to a constant temperature condition. We found that a changing environment does not affect classroom study. PMID:21665190

  12. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or without energizing active air-cleaning components or devices such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation... conditioners at 10 CFR 430.32(b). 1. Definitions. 1.1 “Active mode” means a mode in which the room...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or without energizing active air-cleaning components or devices such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation... conditioners at 10 CFR 430.32(b). 1. Definitions. 1.1“Active mode” means a mode in which the room...

  14. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or without energizing active air-cleaning components or devices such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation... conditioners at 10 CFR 430.32(b). 1. Definitions. 1.1“Active mode” means a mode in which the room...

  15. Techno-Economic Analysis of Indian Draft Standard Levels for RoomAir Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

    2007-03-01

    The Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) finalized its first set of efficiency standards and labels for room air conditioners in July of 2006. These regulations followed soon after the publication of levels for frost-free refrigerators in the same year. As in the case of refrigerators, the air conditioner program introduces Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) and comparative labels simultaneously, with levels for one to five stars. Also like the refrigerator program, BEE defined several successive program phases of increasing stringency. In support of BEE's refrigerator program, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) produced an analysis of national impacts of standards in collaboration with the Collaborative Labeling and Standards Program (CLASP). That analysis drew on LBNL's experience with standards programs in the United States, as well as many other countries. Subsequently, as part of the process for setting optimal levels for air conditioner regulations, CLASP commissioned LBNL to provide support to BEE in the form of a techno-economic evaluation of air conditioner efficiency technologies. This report describes the methodology and results of this techno-economic evaluation. The analysis consists of three components: (1) Cost effectiveness to consumers of efficiency technologies relative to current baseline. (2) Impacts on the current market from efficiency regulations. (3) National energy and financial impacts. The analysis relied on detailed and up-to-date technical data made available by BEE and industry representatives. Technical parameters were used in conjunction with knowledge about air conditioner use patterns in the residential and commercial sectors, and prevailing marginal electricity prices, in order to give an estimate of per-unit financial impacts. In addition, the overall impact of the program was evaluated by combining unit savings with market forecasts in order to yield national impacts. LBNL presented preliminary results

  16. EER, COP, and the Second Law Efficiency for Air Conditioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leff, Harvey S.; Teeters, William D.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the relationship existing between coefficient of performance (COP) and energy efficiency ratio (EER) in air conditioning units and introduces new efficiency parameters measured relative to the energy extracted from the primary energy source. (SL)

  17. Using Field-Metered Data to Quantify Annual Energy Use of Portable Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, Thomas; Willem, Henry; Ni, Chun Chun; Stratton, Hannah; Chen, Yuting; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Iyer, Maithili; Price, Sarah; Dunham, Camilla

    2014-12-12

    As many regions of the United States experience rising temperatures, consumers have come to rely increasingly on cooling appliances (including portable air conditioners) to provide a comfortable indoor temperature. Home occupants sometimes use a portable air conditioner (PAC) to maintain a desired indoor temperature in a single room or enclosed space. Although PACs in residential use are few compared to centrally installed and room air conditioning (AC) units, the past few years have witnessed an increase of PACs use throughout the United States. There is, however, little information and few research projects focused on the energy consumption and performance of PACs, particularly studies that collect information from field applications of PACs. The operation and energy consumption of PACs may differ among geographic locations and households, because of variations in cooling load, frequency, duration of use, and other user-selected settings. In addition, the performance of building envelope (thermal mass and air leakage) as well as inter-zonal mixing within the building would substantially influence the ability to control and maintain desirable indoor thermal conditions. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted an initial field-metering study aimed at increasing the knowledge and data related to PAC operation and energy consumption in the United States. LBNL performed its field-metering study from mid-April to late October 2014. The study, which monitored 19 sites in the Northeastern United States (4 in upstate New York and 15 near Philadelphia), collected real-time data on PAC energy consumption along with information regarding housing characteristics, consumer behavior, and environmental conditions that were expected to affect PAC performance. Given the limited number of test sites, this study was not intended to be statistically representative of PAC users in the United States but rather to understand the system response to the cooling demand and to

  18. Room Air Conditioners; Appliance Repair--Advanced: 9027.04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This Quinmester course includes installations, electrical and mechanical servicing, reverse cycle air conditioning, malfunctions, troubleshooting and repair, discharge, pump down, and recharging the system. The course may be taught as a two or three Quinmester credit course. In each instance the course consists of six instructional blocks:…

  19. Automotive absorption air conditioner utilizing solar and motor waste heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popinski, Z. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    In combination with the ground vehicles powered by a waste heat generating electric motor, a cooling system including a generator for driving off refrigerant vapor from a strong refrigerant absorbant solution is described. A solar collector, an air-cooled condenser connected with the generator for converting the refrigerant vapor to its liquid state, an air cooled evaporator connected with the condenser for returning the liquid refrigerant to its vapor state, and an absorber is connected to the generator and to the evaporator for dissolving the refrigerant vapor in the weak refrigerant absorbant solution, for providing a strong refrigerant solution. A pump is used to establish a pressurized flow of strong refrigerant absorbant solution from the absorber through the electric motor, and to the collector.

  20. Measure Guideline. Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, David; Dakin, Bill

    2013-03-01

    This guideline responds to the need for an efficient means of identifying, diagnosing, and repairing faults in air conditioning systems in existing homes that are undergoing energy upgrades. Inadequate airflow due to constricted ducts or undersized filters, improper refrigerant charge, and other system defects can be corrected at a fraction of the cost of equipment replacement and can yield significant savings. The guideline presents a two-step approach to diagnostics and repair.

  1. Measure Guideline: Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.

    2013-03-01

    This guideline responds to the need for an efficient means of identifying, diagnosing, and repairing faults in air conditioning systems in existing homes that are undergoing energy upgrades. Inadequate airflow due to constricted ducts or undersized filters, improper refrigerant charge, and other system defects can be corrected at a fraction of the cost of equipment replacement and can yield significant savings. The guideline presents a two-step approach to diagnostics and repair.

  2. Development of solar driven absorption air conditioners and heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao, K.; Wahlig, M.; Wali, E.; Rasson, J.; Molishever, E.

    1980-03-01

    The development of absorption refrigeration systems for solar active heating and cooling applications is discussed. The approaches investigated are those using air-cooled condenser-absorber and those leading to coefficient of performances (COP) that increase continuously with heat source temperature. This is primarily an experimental project, with the emphasis on designing, fabricating and testing absorption chillers in operating regimes that are particularly suited for solar energy applications. Its demonstrated that the conventional single-effect ammonia-water absorption cycle can be used (with minor modifications) for solar cooling.

  3. Measurement of Fine Particles From Mobile and Stationary Sources, and Reducing the Air Conditioner Power Consumption in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Eli Henry

    We study the PM2.5and ultrafine exhaust emissions from a new natural gas-fired turbine power facility to better understand air pollution in California. To characterize the emissions from new natural gas turbines, a series of tests were performed on a GE LMS100 gas turbine. These tests included PM2.5 and wet chemical tests for SO2/SO 3 and NH3, as well as ultrafine (less than 100 nm in diameter) particulate matter measurements. The turbine exhaust had an average particle number concentration that was 2.3x103 times higher than ambient air. The majority of these particles were nanoparticles; at the 100 nm size, stack particle concentrations were about 20 times higher than ambient, and increased to 3.9x104 times higher on average in the 2.5 - 3 nm particle size range. This study also found that ammonia emissions were higher than expected, but in compliance with permit conditions. This was possibly due to an ammonia imbalance entering the catalyst, some flue gas bypassing the catalyst, or not enough catalyst volume. SO3 accounted for an average of 23% of the total sulfur oxides emissions measured. Some of the SO3 is formed in the combustion process, it is likely that the majority formed as the SO2 in the combustion products passed across the oxidizing CO catalyst and SCR catalyst. The 100 MW turbine sampled in this study emitted particle loadings similar to those previously measured from turbines in the SCAQMD area, however, the turbine exhaust contained far more particles than ambient air. The power consumed by an air conditioner accounts for a significant fraction of the total power used by hybrid and electric vehicles especially during summer. This study examined the effect of recirculation of cabin air on power consumption of mobile air conditioners both in-lab and on-road. Real time power consumption and vehicle mileage were recorded by an On Board Diagnostic monitor and carbon balance method. Vehicle mileage improved with increased cabin air recirculation. The

  4. A liquid overfeeding military air conditioner with a quench valve

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.; Bolton, C.W.

    1997-12-31

    A 3.3-ton rated military air-conditioning unit has been studied experimentally for baseline and liquid overfeeding (LOF) operation. The tests before any modification, using the nameplate-specified refrigerant charge, showed the measured cooling capacity to be less than 1% off the rated capacity at 95 F (35 C) ambient temperature. The test results, after modification, indicate that LOF operation outperforms the baseline case over a wide ambient temperature range in terms of cooling capacity, power consumption, and system coefficient of performance (COP). At a 95 F (35 C) test point, LOF operation has a cooling capacity of 51,100 Btu per hour, which is an 18% improvement over the baseline operation capacity of 42,500 Btu per hour. The COP for LOF at 95 F (35 C) is 2.62, which is 29% better than the baseline COP of 2.03. However, an optimal refrigerant charge is essential for LOF to work properly.

  5. China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Pierrot, Andre

    2010-06-07

    of all countries energy strategies. As we all know, a very large amount of total energy consumption is due to energy consuming products and equipment, which account for about 50% of China's total energy consumption. However, the current average energy utilization efficiency of this sector is only about 60%, 10 percent lower than the international advanced level. Therefore, China's energy consuming products and equipment sector holds great energy-saving potential. On the other hand, the energy supplied to these products is mainly from fossil fuel combustion, a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Therefore, improving the energy efficiency and augmenting the market share of market-dominant energy consuming products is of significant importance to achieving China's energy saving and emission reduction target and is an effective means to deal with energy and environmental constraints and climate change issues. Main energy consuming products generally include widely-used home appliances, industrial equipment, office equipment, transportation vehicles, etc. China is one of the major manufacturers and exporters of energy end-using products such as air-conditioners, refrigerators, televisions, etc. Their overall energy efficiency is comparatively low and the products are poorly designed, leading to great energy-saving potential. For example, electricity consumption of air conditioners accounts for about 20% of China's total electricity consumption and 40% of the summer electricity peak load in large and medium cities. However, less than 5% of units sold in the domestic market in 2009 reached the standard's highly efficient level of grade 2 above. The electricity consumption of electric motors and their related drive systems accounts for about 60% of China's total electricity consumption; however, less than 2% of the domestic market share consists of energy-efficient electric motor products. Promoting the energy efficiency and market shares of main energy

  6. Development of 100-W High-Efficiency MPPT Power Conditioner and Evaluation of TEG System with Battery Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagayoshi, Hiroshi; Nakabayashi, Tatsuya; Maiwa, Hiroshi; Kajikawa, Takenobu

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes a practical high-efficiency thermoelectric (TE) power conditioner with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control for thermoelectric generators and the operation results for a battery load system. This power conditioner comprises a high-frequency step-up/step-down switching converter and a microcontroller; a synchronized switching circuit is introduced to achieve high conversion efficiency. Furthermore, it is equipped with a battery charge control program and has a maximum conversion efficiency of 96.7%. An impedance matching method developed for MPPT control showed excellent response against a change in the TEG output, making it suitable for solar TEGs as well as general applications.

  7. A liquid over-feeding military air conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1995-07-01

    A 3.3-ton military air conditioning unit has been studied experimentally in both baseline (as received) and as modified for liquid over-feeding (LOF) operation. Tne baseline test, using a proper refrigerant charge, showed the measured cooling capacity to be less than 1% off the rated capacity at 95{degrees}F ambient temperature. The test results indicate that LOF operation outperforms the baseline case over a wide ambient temperature range in terms of cooling capacity, power consumption, and system coefficient of performance (COP). At a 95{degrees}F test point, LOF operation has a cooling capacity of 51,100 BTU per hour, which is a 28.9% improvement over the baseline operation capacity of 39,600 BTU per hour. The COP for LOF at 95{degrees}F is 2.62, which is 29% better than the baseline COP of 2.03. However, an optimal refrigerant charge is essential for LOF to work properly.

  8. Air Sample Conditioner Helps the Waste Treatment Plant Meet Emissions Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Flaherty, Julia E.; Pekour, Mikhail S.

    2014-12-02

    The air in three of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) melter off-gas discharge stacks will be hot and humid after passing through the train of emission abatement equipment. The off-gas temperature and humidity levels will be incompatible with the airborne emissions monitoring equipment required for this type of stack. To facilitate sampling from these facilities, an air sample conditioner system will be installed to introduce cool, dry air into the sample stream to reduce the temperature and dew point. This will avoid thermal damage to the instrumentation and problematic condensation. The complete sample transport system must also deliver at least 50% of the particles in the sample airstream to the sample collection and on-line analysis equipment. The primary components of the sample conditioning system were tested in a laboratory setting. The sample conditioner itself is based on a commercially-available porous tube filter design. It consists of a porous sintered metal tube inside a coaxial metal jacket. The hot gas sample stream passes axially through the porous tube, and the dry, cool air is injected into the jacket and through the porous wall of the inner tube, creating an effective sample diluter. The dilution and sample air mix along the entire length of the porous tube, thereby simultaneously reducing the dew point and temperature of the mixed sample stream. Furthermore, because the dilution air enters through the porous tube wall, the sample stream does not come in contact with the porous wall and particle deposition is reduced in this part of the sampling system. Tests were performed with an environmental chamber to supply air with the temperature and humidity needed to simulate the off-gas conditions. Air from the chamber was passed through the conditioning system to test its ability to reduce the temperature and dew point of the sample stream. To measure particle deposition, oil droplets in the range of 9 to 11 micrometer

  9. Optimum dry-cooling sub-systems for a solar air conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. L. S.; Namkoong, D.

    1978-01-01

    Dry-cooling sub-systems for residential solar powered Rankine compression air conditioners were economically optimized and compared with the cost of a wet cooling tower. Results in terms of yearly incremental busbar cost due to the use of dry-cooling were presented for Philadelphia and Miami. With input data corresponding to local weather, energy rate and capital costs, condenser surface designs and performance, the computerized optimization program yields design specifications of the sub-system which has the lowest annual incremental cost.

  10. Liquid Desiccant in Air Conditioners: Nano-Engineered Porous Hollow Fiber Membrane-Based Air Conditioning System

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-02

    BEETIT Project: UTRC is developing an air conditioning system that is optimized for use in warm and humid climates. UTRC’s air conditioning system integrates a liquid drying agent or desiccant and a traditional vapor compression system found in 90% of air conditioners. The drying agent reduces the humidity in the air before it is cooled, using less energy. The technology uses a membrane as a barrier between the air and the liquid salt stream allowing only water vapor to pass through and not the salt molecules. This solves an inherent problem with traditional liquid desiccant systems—carryover of the liquid drying agent into the conditioned air stream—which eliminates corrosion and health issues

  11. A Proposal for the Time Domain Modeling of Split Air Conditioners for Consumer Reimbursement Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezende, Paulo Henrique Oliveira; Almeida Junior, Afonso Bernardino; Gondim, Isaque Nogueira; Oliveira, José Carlos

    2015-04-01

    This paper deals with computer application procedures for the evaluation of the causal consistency between anomalous phenomena manifested in electrical networks, along with the physical damage associated with electrical equipment and possible reimbursement requests. The focus is on the development of an air conditioner appliance model of the type known as split founded upon a representation, in the time domain, in accordance with the Alternative Transients Program (ATP) simulator requirements. This approach permits investigations concerning the performance of the product when submitted to ideal and non-ideal supply conditions. Once the equipment model is implemented in the program, a set of investigative studies are carried out to show the device performance under specific energy quality disturbance conditions. In addition, there are still the results for the validation of the process established through the correlation between computational performance of the air conditioner with corresponding studies carried out experimentally, which are presented herein. Moreover, once the effectiveness of the developed model is verified, it is implemented into the Requests for Reimbursement Software. Investigations related to the correlation between disturbances and the levels of thermal and dielectric tolerance are then performed aiming at illustrating the use of the research results for the reimbursement analyzes purposes.

  12. Energy Impacts of Oversized Residential Air Conditioners -- Simulation Study of Retrofit Sequence Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Booten, C.; Christensen, C.; Winkler, J.

    2014-11-01

    This research addresses the question of what are the energy consequences for oversizing of an air conditioner in a home. Conventional wisdom holds that oversizing the AC results in significant energy penalties. However, the reason for this was shown to be due to crankcase heaters and not due to cycling performance of the AC, and is only valid for a particular set of assumptions. Adding or removing individual characteristics, such as ducts or crankcase heaters, can have measurable impacts on energy use. However, with all other home characteristics held constant, oversizing the AC generally has a small effect on cooling energy use, even if the cycling performance of the unit is poor. The relevant aspects of air conditioner modeling are discussed to illustrate the effects of the cycling loss coefficient, Cd, capacity, climate, ducts and parasitic losses such as crankcase heaters. A case study of a typical 1960's vintage home demonstrates results in the context of whole building simulations using EnergyPlus.

  13. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner: Economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The results of investigations aimed at the development of cost models to be used in the economic assessment of Rankine-powered air conditioning systems for residential application are summarized. The rationale used in the development of the cost model was to: (1) collect cost data on complete systems and on the major equipment used in these systems; (2) reduce these data and establish relationships between cost and other engineering parameters such as weight, size, power level, etc; and (3) derive simple correlations from which cost-to-the-user can be calculated from performance requirements. The equipment considered in the survey included heat exchangers, fans, motors, and turbocompressors. This kind of hardware represents more than 2/3 of the total cost of conventional air conditioners.

  14. [A patient with acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis with a diagnosis of air-conditioner lung, who responded to therapy].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Rie; Kamiya, Hiroyuki; Ikushima, Souichiro; Oristu, Masaru; Takemura, Tamiko

    2010-02-01

    The patient was a 48-year-old woman and current smoker. In May 2007, she moved to a new residence. In the middle of the following month, she developed acute respiratory distress and a fever (38 degrees C) after running her air conditioner continuously throughout the night. The chest X-ray film showed diffuse infiltrative shadows in the middle and lower lung fields. After hospital admission, her oxygenation improved without treatment and the infiltrates improved over the clinical course. As a consequence, we suspected hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The bronchoalveolar lavage showed predominant lymphocytes of 72.6%, with a low CD 4/8 ratio of 0.2. Transbronchial lung biopsy findings corresponded to acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The results of the environmental challenge test were positive only when her air conditioner was on, resulting, in a diagnosis of air-conditioner lung. Several microorganisms were detected in an environmental sample, but 20 kinds of serum precipitating antibodies were negative on a thorough screening, so no responsible antigen could be identified. The patient's symptoms did not recur after her air conditioner was replaced. PMID:20184245

  15. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room...

  17. Particulate matter concentrations in residences: an intervention study evaluating stand-alone filters and air conditioners

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, S.; Du, L.; Mentz, G.; Mukherjee, B.; Parker, E.; Godwin, C.; Chin, J.-Y.; O'Toole, A.; Robins, T.; Rowe, Z.; Lewis, T.

    2014-01-01

    This study, a randomized controlled trial, evaluated the effectiveness of free-standing air filters and window air conditioners (ACs) in 126 low-income households of children with asthma. Households were randomized into a control group, a group receiving a free-standing HEPA filter placed in the child's sleeping area, and a group receiving the filter and a window-mounted AC. Indoor air quality (IAQ) was monitored for week-long periods over three to four seasons. High concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and carbon dioxide were frequently seen. When IAQ was monitored, filters reduced PM levels in the child's bedroom by an average of 50%. Filter use varied greatly among households and declined over time, for example, during weeks when pollutants were monitored, filter use was initially high, averaging 84 ± 27%, but dropped to 63 ± 33% in subsequent seasons. In months when households were not visited, use averaged only 34 ± 30%. Filter effectiveness did not vary in homes with central or room ACs. The study shows that measurements over multiple seasons are needed to characterize air quality and filter performance. The effectiveness of interventions using free-standing air filters depends on occupant behavior, and strategies to ensure filter use should be an integral part of interventions. PMID:22145709

  18. Effect of central ventilation and air conditioner system on the concentration and health risk from airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jinze; Zhu, Lizhong

    2013-03-01

    Central ventilation and air conditioner systems are widely utilized nowadays in public places for air exchange and temperature control, which significantly influences the transfer of pollutants between indoors and outdoors. To study the effect of central ventilation and air conditioner systems on the concentration and health risk from airborne pollutants, a spatial and temporal survey was carried out using polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as agent pollutants. During the period when the central ventilation system operated without air conditioning (AC-off period), concentrations of 2-4 ring PAHs in the model supermarket were dominated by outdoor levels, due to the good linearity between indoor air and outdoor air (r(p) > 0.769, p < 0.05), and the slopes (1.2-4.54) indicated that ventilating like the model supermarket increased the potential health risks from low molecular weight PAHs. During the period when the central ventilation and air conditioner systems were working simultaneously (AC-on period), although the total levels of PAHs were increased, the concentrations and percentage of the particulate PAHs indoors declined significantly. The BaP equivalency (BaPeq) concentration indicated that utilization of air conditioning reduced the health risks from PAHs in the model supermarket. PMID:23923426

  19. Life-cycle cost and payback period analysis for commercial unitary air conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenquist, Greg; Coughlin, Katie; Dale, Larry; McMahon, James; Meyers, Steve

    2004-03-31

    This report describes an analysis of the economic impacts of possible energy efficiency standards for commercial unitary air conditioners and heat pumps on individual customers in terms of two metrics: life-cycle cost (LCC) and payback period (PBP). For each of the two equipment classes considered, the 11.5 EER provides the largest mean LCC savings. The results show how the savings vary among customers facing different electricity prices and other conditions. At 11.5 EER, at least 80% of the users achieve a positive LCC savings. At 12.0 EER, the maximum efficiency analyzed, mean LCC savings are lower but still positive. For the {ge} $65,000 Btu/h to <135,000 Btu/h equipment class, 59% of users achieve a positive LCC savings. For the $135,000 Btu/h to <240,000 Btu/h equipment class, 91% of users achieve a positive LCC savings.

  20. Modeling of a second-generation solar-driven Rankine air conditioner. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Denius, M.W.; Batton, W.D.

    1984-07-01

    Ten configurations of a second-generation (2G), solar-powered, Rankine-driven air conditioner were simulated and the data presented for use in companion studies. The results of the analysis show that the boiling-in-collector (BIC) configuration generates more power per collector area than the other configurations. The models used to simulate the configuration are presented in this report. The generated data are also presented. Experimental work was done under this study to both improve a novel refrigerant and oil lubrication system for the centrifugal compressor and investigate the aerodynamic unloading characteristics of the centrifugal compressor. The information generated was used to define possible turbo-gearbox configurations for use in the second generation computer simulation.

  1. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner: Screening analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Screening analysis aimed at the definition of an optimum configuration of a Rankine cycle solar-powered air conditioner designed for residential application were conducted. Initial studies revealed that system performance and cost were extremely sensitive to condensing temperature and to the type of condenser used in the system. Consequently, the screening analyses were concerned with the generation of parametric design data for different condenser approaches; i. e., (1) an ambient air condenser, (2) a humidified ambient air condenser (3) an evaporative condenser, and (4) a water condenser (with a cooling tower). All systems feature a high performance turbocompressor and a single refrigerant (R-11) for the power and refrigeration loops. Data were obtained by computerized methods developed to permit system characterization over a broad range of operating and design conditions. The criteria used for comparison of the candidate system approaches were (1) overall system COP (refrigeration effect/solar heat input), (2) auxiliary electric power for fans and pumps, and (3) system installed cost or cost to the user.

  2. A Novel, Low-Cost, Reduced-Sensor Approach for Providing Smart Renote Monitoring and Diagnostics for Packaged Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R.

    2009-09-01

    This report describes conceptually an approach to providing automated remote performance and conditioning monitoring and fault detection for air conditioners and heat pumps that shows great promise to reduce the capital and installation costs of such systems from over $1000 per unit to $200 to $400 per unit. The approach relies on non-intrusive electric load monitoring (NIELM) to enable separation of the power use signals of compressors and fans in the air conditioner or heat pump. Then combining information on the power uses and one or two air temperature measurements, changes in energy efficiency and occurrence of major faults would be detected. By decreasing the number of sensors used from between ten and twenty in current diagnostic monitoring systems to three for the envisaged system, the capital cost of the monitoring system hardware and the cost of labor for installation would be decreased significantly. After describing the problem being addressed and the concept for performance monitoring and fault detection in more detail, the report identifies specific conditions and faults that the proposed method would detect, discusses specific needs for successful use of the NIELM approach, and identifies the major elements in the path from concept to a commercialized monitoring and diagnostic system.

  3. Field evaluation of advanced controls for the retrofit of packaged air conditioners and heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2015-09-01

    This paper documents the magnitude of energy savings achievable in the field by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop units (RTUs) with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for RTUs. A total of 66 RTUs on 8 different buildings were retrofitted with a commercially available advanced controller for improving RTU operational efficiency. The controller features enhanced air-side economizer control, multi-speed fan control, and demand controlled ventilation. Of the 66 RTUs, 18 are packaged heat pumps and the rest are packaged air conditioners with gas heat. The eight buildings cover four building types and four climate conditions. Based on the data collected for about a whole year, the advanced controller reduced the normalized annual RTU energy consumption between 22% and 90%, with an average of 57% for all RTUs. The average fractional savings uncertainty was 12% at 95% confidence level. Normalized annual electricity savings were in the range between 0.47 kWh/h (kWh per hour of RTU operation) and 7.21 kWh/h, with an average of 2.39 kWh/h. RTUs greater than 53 kW and runtime greater than 14 hours per day had payback periods less than 3 years even at $0.05/kWh.

  4. Flow control of a centrifugal fan in a commercial air conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jiyu; Bang, Kyeongtae; Choi, Haecheon; Seo, Eung Ryeol; Kang, Yonghun

    2015-11-01

    Air-conditioning fans require a low noise level to provide user comfort and quietness. The aerodynamic noise sources are generated by highly unsteady, turbulent structures near the fan blade. In this study, we investigate the flow characteristics of a centrifugal fan in an air-conditioner indoor unit and suggest control ideas to develop a low noise fan. The experiment is conducted at the operation condition where the Reynolds number is 163000 based on the blade tip velocity and chord length. Intermittent separation occurs at the blade leading edge and thus flow significantly fluctuates there, whereas vortex shedding occurs at the blade trailing edge. Furthermore, the discharge flow observed in the axial plane near the shroud shows low-frequency intermittent behaviors, resulting in high Reynolds stresses. To control these flow structures, we modify the shapes of the blade leading edge and shroud of the centrifugal fan and obtain noise reduction. The flow characteristics of the base and modified fans will be discussed. Supported by 0420-20130051.

  5. Consumer life-cycle cost impacts of energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenquist, Gregory; Chan, Peter; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James; Van Buskirk, Robert

    2001-10-10

    In support of the federal government's efforts to raise the minimum energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps, a consumer life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis was conducted to demonstrate the economic impacts on individual consumers from revisions to the standards. LCC is the consumer's cost of purchasing and installing an air conditioner or heat pump and operating the unit over its lifetime. The LCC analysis is conducted on a nationally representative sample of air conditioner and heat pump consumers resulting in a distribution of LCC impacts showing the percentage of consumers that are either benefiting or being burdened by increased standards. Relative to the existing minimum efficiency standard of 10 SEER, the results show that a majority of split system air conditioner and heat pump consumers will either benefit or be insignificantly impacted by increased efficiency standards of up to 13 SEER.

  6. Progress towards Managing Residential Electricity Demand: Impacts of Standards and Labeling for Refrigerators and Air Conditioners in India

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

    2009-05-30

    The development of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling (EES&L) began in earnest in India in 2001 with the Energy Conservation Act and the establishment of the Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE). The first main residential appliance to be targeted was refrigerators, soon to be followed by room air conditioners. Both of these appliances are of critical importance to India's residential electricity demand. About 15percent of Indian households own a refrigerator, and sales total about 4 million per year, but are growing. At the same time, the Indian refrigerator market has seen a strong trend towards larger and more consumptive frost-free units. Room air conditioners in India have traditionally been sold to commercial sector customers, but an increasing number are going to the residential sector. Room air conditioner sales growth in India peaked in the last few years at 20percent per year. In this paper, we perform an engineering-based analysis using data specific to Indian appliances. We evaluate costs and benefits to residential and commercial sector consumers from increased equipment costs and utility bill savings. The analysis finds that, while the BEE scheme presents net benefits to consumers, there remain opportunities for efficiency improvement that would optimize consumer benefits, according to Life Cycle Cost analysis. Due to the large and growing market for refrigerators and air conditioners in India, we forecast large impacts from the standards and labeling program as scheduled. By 2030, this program, if fully implemented would reduce Indian residential electricity consumption by 55 TWh. Overall savings through 2030 totals 385 TWh. Finally, while efficiency levels have been set for several years for refrigerators, labels and MEPS for these products remain voluntary. We therefore consider the negative impact of this delay of implementation to energy and financial savings achievable by 2030.

  7. Air Conditioner Charging. Automotive Mechanics. Air Conditioning. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spignesi, B.

    This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on automobile air conditioning, consists of a student guide and an instructor guide dealing with air conditioning charging. Covered in the module are checking the air conditioning system for leaks, checking and adding refrigerant oil as needed, evacuating the system,…

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions for refrigerant choices in room air conditioner units.

    PubMed

    Galka, Michael D; Lownsbury, James M; Blowers, Paul

    2012-12-01

    In this work, potential replacement refrigerants for window-mounted room air conditioners (RACs) in the U.S. have been evaluated using a greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions analysis. CO(2)-equivalent emissions for several hydrofluoroethers (HFEs) and other potential replacements were compared to the most widely used refrigerants today. Included in this comparison are pure refrigerants that make up a number of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) mixtures, pure hydrocarbons, and historically used refrigerants such as propane and ammonia. GHG emissions from direct and indirect sources were considered in this thermodynamic analysis. Propylene, dimethyl ether, ammonia, R-152a, propane, and HFE-152a all performed effectively in a 1 ton window unit and produced slightly lower emissions than the currently used R-22 and R-134a. The results suggest that regulation of HFCs in this application would have some effect on reducing emissions since end-of-life emissions remain at 55% of total refrigerant charge despite EPA regulations that mandate 80% recovery. Even so, offsite emissions due to energy generation dominate over direct GHG emissions and all the refrigerants perform similarly in totals of indirect GHG emissions. PMID:23136858

  9. Incidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in central air conditioner filter dust from a new office building.

    PubMed

    Ni, Hong-Gang; Cao, Shan-Ping; Chang, Wen-Jing; Zeng, Hui

    2011-07-01

    This study examined polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in central air conditioner filter (CACF) dust from a new office building in Shenzhen, China. Human exposure to PBDE via dust inhalation and ingestion were also estimated. PBDEs level in CACF dust was lower than those in the other countries and regions. Approximately 0.671 pg/kg bw/day PM(2.5) (Particulate Matter up to 2.5 μm in size) bounded Σ(15)PBDEs can be inhaled deep into the lungs and 4.123 pg/kg bw/day PM(10) (Particulate Matter up to 10 μm in size) bounded Σ(15)PBDEs tend to be deposited in the upper parts of the respiratory system. The average total intake of Σ(15)PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion for adults reached ∼ 141 pg/kg bw/day in this building. This value was far below the reference dose (RfD) recommended by United States Environmental Protection Agency. Human exposure to PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion in the new building is less than the old ones. PMID:21497428

  10. Local Voltage Support from Distributed Energy Resources to Prevent Air Conditioner Motor Stalling

    SciTech Connect

    Baone, Chaitanya A; Xu, Yan; Kueck, John D

    2010-01-01

    Microgrid voltage collapse often happens when there is a high percentage of low inertia air-conditioning (AC) motors in the power systems. The stalling of the AC motors results in Fault Induced Delayed Voltage Recovery (FIDVR). A hybrid load model including typical building loads, AC motor loads, and other induction motor loads is built to simulate the motoring stalling phenomena. Furthermore, distributed energy resources (DE) with local voltage support capability are utilized to boost the local bus voltage during a fault, and prevent the motor stalling. The simulation results are presented. The analysis of the simulation results show that local voltage support from multiple DEs can effectively and economically solve the microgrid voltage collapse problem.

  11. Spinning Reserves from Controllable Packaged Through the Wall Air Conditioner (PTAC) Units

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-02

    This report summarizes the feasibility of providing spinning reserves from packaged through the wall air conditioning (PTAC) units. Spinning reserves, together with non-spinning reserves, compose the contingency reserves; the essential resources that the power system operator uses to restore the generation and load balance and maintain bulk power system reliability in the event of a major generation or transmission outage. Spinning reserves are the fastest responding and most expensive reserves. Many responsive load technologies could (and we hope will) be used to provide spinning reserve. It is also easier for many loads (including air conditioning loads) to provide the relatively shorter and less frequent interruptions required to respond to contingencies than it is for them to reduce consumption for an entire peak period. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is conducting research on obtaining spinning reserve from large pumping loads and from residential and small commercial thermostat controlled heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) units. The technology selected for this project, Digi-Log's retrofit PTAC controller, offers significant advantages. To evaluate the availability of spinning reserve capacity from responsive heating and air conditioning loads, ORNL obtained data from a number of units operating over a year at a motel in the TVA service territory. A total of 24 PTAC units in as many rooms were fitted with Digi-Log's supervisory control unit that could be controlled from the motel front desk. Twelve of the rooms formed the group in which the controller was controlled from the hotel front desk only. The remaining twelve rooms were controlled by the occupant and formed the uncontrolled group. This enables us to evaluate the spinning reserve capacity from PTACS that were operating normally and from those under active energy management. A second generation of the Digi-Log controller that will respond quickly enough to provide spinning reserve

  12. Future emissions and atmospheric fate of HFC-1234yf from mobile air conditioners in Europe.

    PubMed

    Henne, Stephan; Shallcross, Dudley E; Reimann, Stefan; Xiao, Ping; Brunner, Dominik; O'Doherty, Simon; Buchmann, Brigitte

    2012-02-01

    HFC-1234yf (2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene) is under discussion for replacing HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) as a cooling agent in mobile air conditioners (MACs) in the European vehicle fleet. Some HFC-1234yf will be released into the atmosphere, where it is almost completely transformed to the persistent trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). Future emissions of HFC-1234yf after a complete conversion of the European vehicle fleet were assessed. Taking current day leakage rates and predicted vehicle numbers for the year 2020 into account, European total HFC-1234yf emissions from MACs were predicted to range between 11.0 and 19.2 Gg yr(-1). Resulting TFA deposition rates and rainwater concentrations over Europe were assessed with two Lagrangian chemistry transport models. Mean European summer-time TFA mixing ratios of about 0.15 ppt (high emission scenario) will surpass previously measured levels in background air in Germany and Switzerland by more than a factor of 10. Mean deposition rates (wet + dry) of TFA were estimated to be 0.65-0.76 kg km(-2) yr(-1), with a maxium of ∼2.0 kg km(-2) yr(-1) occurring in Northern Italy. About 30-40% of the European HFC-1234yf emissions were deposited as TFA within Europe, while the remaining fraction was exported toward the Atlantic Ocean, Central Asia, Northern, and Tropical Africa. Largest annual mean TFA concentrations in rainwater were simulated over the Mediterranean and Northern Africa, reaching up to 2500 ng L(-1), while maxima over the continent of about 2000 ng L(-1) occurred in the Czech Republic and Southern Germany. These highest annual mean concentrations are at least 60 times lower than previously determined to be a safe level for the most sensitive aquatic life-forms. Rainwater concentrations during individual rain events would still be 1 order of magnitude lower than the no effect level. To verify these results future occasional sampling of TFA in the atmospheric environment should be considered. If future HFC-1234yf

  13. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-Conditioning Electricity Savings from Standard Energy Conservation Measures, Radiant Barriers, and High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    A field test involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMs) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The average measured pre-weatherization air-conditioning electricity consumption was 1664 kWh/year ($119/year). Ten percent of the houses used less than 250 kWh/year, while another 10% used more than 3000 kWh/year. An average reduction in air-conditioning electricity consumption of 535 kWh/year ($38/year and 28% of pre-weatherization consumption) was obtained from replacement of one low-efficiency window air conditioner (EER less than 7.0) per house with a high-efficiency unit (EER greater than 9.0). For approximately the same cost, savings tripled to 1503 kWh/year ($107/year and 41% of pre-weatherization consumption) in those houses with initial air-conditioning electricity consumption greater than 2750 kWh/year. For these houses, replacement of a low-efficiency air conditioner with a high-efficiency unit was cost effective using the incremental cost of installing a new unit now rather than later; the average installation cost for these houses under a weatherization program was estimated to be $786. The

  14. 75 FR 14368 - Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... and the national energy savings (NES) and net present value (NPV) at various standard levels. There is... the real consumer cost of capital and puts the LCC in present-value terms. The PBP represents the... conditioners and heat pumps. 66 FR 7170. The amended standards would have increased the minimum SEER to 13...

  15. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Department of Energy for those products in 10 CFR part 430, manufacturers shall affix labels to covered... 10 CFR part 430 for non-weatherized, and mobile home furnaces and content of labels for weatherized... conditioners issued by the Department of Energy in 10 CFR part 430. (1) Headlines and texts, as illustrated...

  16. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-conditioning electricity savings from standard energy conservation measures, radiant barriers, and high-efficiency window air conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.P.; Levins, W.P.

    1992-08-01

    A field test Involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMS) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) programs directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption should be targeted at clients with high consumption to improve cost effectiveness; (2) replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency units should be considered an option in a weatherization program directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption; (3) ECMs currently being installed under the Oklahoma WAP (chosen based on effectiveness at reducing space-heating energy consumption) should continue to be justified based on their space-heating energy savings potential only; and (4) attic radiant barriers should not be included in the Oklahoma WAP if alternatives with verified savings are available or until further testing demonstrates energy savings or other benefits in this typo of housing.

  17. Development of a double-effect air conditioner-heater (deach) phase 2. Final report, January 1989-December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    De Vuono, A.C.; Landstrom, D.K.; Osborne, R.L.; Christensen, R.N.; Flanigan, L.

    1992-12-01

    The report describes the results of Phase II of a multi-phase project to develop a high-efficiency, gas-fired, residential size air-conditioner/heater based on a double-effect, absorption cycle using LiBr and water as working fluids. The results discussed include experimental and analytical analysis of various options for key components and subsystems including absorber, direct expansion evaporator, solution heat exchangers and burner/generator subsystem. The thermodynamic model used to evaluate various system design tradeoffs is also discussed. The results of the Phase II effort provided the basis for full-scale, integrated breadboard testing to be conducted in Phase III of the project.

  18. Influence of surrounding structures upon the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of the outdoor unit of a split air-conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chengjun; Liu, Jiang; Pan, Jie

    2014-07-01

    DC-inverter split air-conditioner is widely used in Chinese homes as a result of its high-efficiency and energy-saving. Recently, the researches on its outdoor unit have focused on the influence of surrounding structures upon the aerodynamic and acoustic performance, however they are only limited to the influence of a few parameters on the performance, and practical design of the unit requires more detailed parametric analysis. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics(CFD) and computational aerodynamic acoustics(CAA) simulation based on FLUENT solver is used to study the influence of surrounding structures upon the aforementioned properties of the unit. The flow rate and sound pressure level are predicted for different rotating speed, and agree well with the experimental results. The parametric influence of three main surrounding structures(i.e. the heat sink, the bell-mouth type shroud and the outlet grille) upon the aerodynamic performance of the unit is analyzed thoroughly. The results demonstrate that the tip vortex plays a major role in the flow fields near the blade tip and has a great effect on the flow field of the unit. The inlet ring's size and throat's depth of the bell-mouth type shroud, and the through-flow area and configuration of upwind and downwind sections of the outlet grille are the most important factors that affect the aerodynamic performance of the unit. Furthermore, two improved schemes against the existing prototype of the unit are developed, which both can significantly increase the flow rate more than 6 %(i.e. 100 m3·h-1) at given rotating speeds. The inevitable increase of flow noise level when flow rate is increased and the advantage of keeping a lower rotating speed are also discussed. The presented work could be a useful guideline in designing the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of the split air-conditioner in engineering practice.

  19. The use of heteroduplex analysis of polymerase chain reaction products to support the possible transmission of Legionella pneumophila from a malfunctioning automobile air conditioner.

    PubMed

    Pinar, Ahmet; Ramirez, Julio A; Schindler, Laura L; Miller, Richard D; Summersgill, James T

    2002-03-01

    Air conditioner condensates have not been previously associated with cases of Legionnaires' disease. We report the possible transmission of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 from a malfunctioning automobile air conditioning system's leaking water onto the floorboard of a car driven for a long distance by the patient. Heteroduplex analysis of polymerase chain reaction products was used to help establish an epidemiologic link between the water specimen and the patient. PMID:11918120

  20. Cardio-Muscular Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In the mid-sixties, Gary Graham, a Boeing designer, developed a cardiovascular conditioner for a planned Air Force orbiting laboratory. After the project was cancelled, Graham participated in space station conditioning studies for the Skylab program. Twenty years later, he used this expertise to develop the Shuttle 2000-1, a physical therapy and athletic development conditioner, available through Contemporary Designs. The machine is used by football teams, sports clinics and medical rehabilitation centers. Cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength development are promoted through both kinetic and plyometric exercises.

  1. High-Efficiency Variable Dehumidification for Air Conditioners: ClimaStat

    SciTech Connect

    West, Michael K., Ph.D. P.E.

    2006-04-30

    Advantek has successfully developed the first low-cost technology offering significant improvement in both Seasonal Energy Efficiency (SEER) and comfort & humidity control. A production prototype was constructed based on a commercial roof top package unit. The prototype was operated under a wide range of psychrometric conditions. Test data was analyzed to identify refinements, which were implemented to further improve performance in an iterative procedure that resulted in a fully optimized technology. The latest results show an increase in dehumidification capacity of 56% with ClimaStat™ in full dehumidify mode vs. with ClimaStat™ off. Dehumidification improved by a factor of 1.7 to 1.9 – meaning that the unit can provide nearly twice the water removal per unit of sensible cooling load. Performance testing results have been consistent, verifiable and repeatable. . ClimaStat™ cost-effectively controls humidity on-demand and improves indoor air quality while reducing annual energy costs. Test data clearly shows that ClimaStat™ costs 20% to 60% less to operate. ClimaStat™ is ready for market.

  2. Improving Best Air Conditioner Efficiency by 20-30% through a High Efficiency Fan and Diffuser Stage Coupled with an Evaporative Condenser Pre-Cooler

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Danny S; Sherwin, John R; Raustad, Richard

    2014-04-10

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) conducted a research project to improve the best residential air conditioner condenser technology currently available on the market by retrofitting a commercially-available unit with both a high efficiency fan system and an evaporative pre-cooler. The objective was to integrate these two concepts to achieve an ultra-efficient residential air conditioner design. The project produced a working prototype that was 30% more efficient compared to the best currently-available technologies; the peak the energy efficiency ratio (EER) was improved by 41%. Efficiency at the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) standard B-condition which is used to estimate seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER), was raised from a nominal 21 Btu/Wh to 32 Btu/Wh.

  3. Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working at high pressures in a compressor for an air conditioner.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul Jin; Choi, Hyo Hyun; Sohn, Chae Hoon

    2011-01-15

    Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working in a compressor for an air conditioner is studied experimentally. The adopted lubricating oil is an unknown mixture with multi-components and known to have flash point temperature of 170 °C. First, its auto-ignition temperature is measured 365 °C at atmospheric pressure. The lubricating oil works under high-pressure condition up to 30 atm and it is heated and cooled down repeatedly. Accordingly, auto-ignition temperatures or flammable limits of lubricating oil are required at high pressures with respect to fire safety. Because there is not a standard test method for the purpose, a new ignition-test method is proposed in this study and thereby, auto-ignition temperatures are measured over the pressure range below 30 atm. The measured temperatures range from 215 °C to 255 °C and they strongly depend on pressure of gas mixture consisting of oil vapor, nitrogen, and oxygen. They are close to flash point temperature and the lubricating oil can be hazardous when it works for high-pressure operating condition and abundant air flows into a compressor. PMID:20934810

  4. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Shrestha, Som S.; Linkous, Randall Lee; Goetzler, William; Guernsey, Matt; Kassuga, Theo

    2015-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient Temperature Testing Program for Low-GWP Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-Global Warming Potential (low-GWP) alternatives to Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high ambient temperature conditions. This interim working paper describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerants selection process, the test procedures, and the preliminary results.

  5. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Shrestha, Som S.; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Linkous, Randall Lee; Goetzler, William; Guernsey, Matt; Kassuga, Theo

    2015-10-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for low– global warming potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high-ambient-temperature conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerant selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.

  6. Increased prevalence of IgG-induced sensitization and hypersensitivity pneumonitis (humidifier lung) in nonsmokers exposed to aerosols of a contaminated air conditioner.

    PubMed

    Baur, X; Richter, G; Pethran, A; Czuppon, A B; Schwaiblmair, M

    1992-01-01

    Specific IgG antibodies against antigens of a contaminated air conditioner were estimated in serum of 134 workers of a printing company. Altogether 64% of the workers investigated revealed significantly elevated levels (> 3 U/ml) of IgG antibodies specific to these antigens as compared to a nonexposed control group. The occurrence of IgG antibodies for microbial extracts were 25% for Fusarium, 23% for Penicillium notatum, 13% for Alternaria tenuis, 12% for Aureobasidium pullulans, 9% for Sphaeropsidales species, 3% for Micropolyspora faeni, 2% for Aspergillus fumigatus and 2% for Thermoactionomyces vulgaris. Out of the 86 workers with elevated IgG antibodies for air conditioner antigens, 59 were nonsmokers. Considering a cut-off level of 10 U/ml IgG for high values, the proportion of smokers to nonsmokers becomes even more pronounced (6 to 36 respectively, binominal test p < 0.001). This is despite the fact that the distribution of smokers and nonsmokers among the 134 workers is approximately equal (60 to 74). All 3 workers with clinical diagnosis of humidifier lung or humidifier fever belonged to the nonsmoker group. Our findings indicate that crude water extracts of contaminated air conditioners are the best choice as antigen source for the diagnosis of humidifier lung in exposed workers. Nonsmokers are shown to have a high risk for immunological sensitization. PMID:1485005

  7. 10 CFR 431.92 - Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... water, or gas, but may not include reverse cycle refrigeration as a heating means. Single package... measurement. Commercial package air-conditioning and heating equipment means air-cooled, water-cooled, evaporatively-cooled, or water source (not including ground water source) electrically operated, unitary...

  8. 76 FR 19913 - Compliance Testing Procedures: Correction Factor for Room Air Conditioners

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... that as atmospheric pressure drops, so does the air density and, therefore, the mass of air in a room. As atmospheric pressure drops, the efficiency of a unit would also drop because there would be less... (Atmospheric Pressure Inputs). Condenser Inlet Pressure psia 14.695 14.204 13.713 13.222 12.731...

  9. Factors influencing on the bioaccessibility of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in size-specific dust from air conditioner filters.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yingxin; Yang, Dan; Wang, Xinxin; Huang, Ningbao; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhang, Dongping; Fu, Jiamo

    2013-11-01

    Size-specific concentrations and bioaccessibility of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in dust from air conditioner filters were measured, and the factors influencing the PBDE bioaccessibility were determined. Generally, the PBDE concentrations increased with decreasing dust particle size, and BDE209 (deca-BDE) was generally the predominant congener. The bioaccessibility ranged from 20.3% to 50.8% for tri- to hepta-BDEs, and from 5.1% to 13.9% for BDE209 in dust fractions of varied particle size. The bioaccessibility of most PBDE congeners decreased with increasing dust particle size. The way of being of PBDE (adsorbed to dust surface or incorporated into polymers) in dust significantly influenced the bioaccessibility. There was a significant negative correlation between the tri- to hepta-BDE bioaccessibility and organic matter (OM) contents in dust. Furthermore, tri- to hepta-BDE bioaccessibility increased with increasing polarity of OMs, while with decreasing aromaticity of OMs. The tri- to hepta-BDE bioaccessibility significantly positively correlated with the surface areas and pore volumes of dust. Using multiple linear regression analysis, it was found that the OM contents and pore volumes of dust were the most important factors to influence the tri- to hepta-BDE bioaccessibility and they could be used to estimate the bioaccessibility of tri- to hepta-BDEs according to the following equation: bioaccessibility (%)=45.05-0.49 × OM%+1.79 × pore volume. However, BDE209 bioaccessibility did not correlate to any of these factors. PMID:24144462

  10. Final Project Report Load Modeling Transmission Research

    SciTech Connect

    Lesieutre, Bernard; Bravo, Richard; Yinger, Robert; Chassin, Dave; Huang, Henry; Lu, Ning; Hiskens, Ian; Venkataramanan, Giri

    2012-03-31

    The research presented in this report primarily focuses on improving power system load models to better represent their impact on system behavior. The previous standard load model fails to capture the delayed voltage recovery events that are observed in the Southwest and elsewhere. These events are attributed to stalled air conditioner units after a fault. To gain a better understanding of their role in these events and to guide modeling efforts, typical air conditioner units were testing in laboratories. Using data obtained from these extensive tests, new load models were developed to match air conditioner behavior. An air conditioner model is incorporated in the new WECC composite load model. These models are used in dynamic studies of the West and can impact power transfer limits for California. Unit-level and systemlevel solutions are proposed as potential solutions to the delayed voltage recovery problem.

  11. Preliminary design package for residential heating/cooling system: Rankine air conditioner redesign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A summary of the preliminary redesign and development of a marketable single family heating and cooling system is presented. The interim design and schedule status of the residential (3-ton) redesign, problem areas and solutions, and the definition of plans for future design and development activities were discussed. The proposed system for a single-family residential heating and cooling system is a single-loop, solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air heating subsystem with solar-assisted domestic water heating and a Rankine-driven expansion air-conditioning subsystem.

  12. Gohieria fusca (Acari: Astigmata) found in the filter dusts of air conditioners in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaopin; Zhan, Xiaodong; Zhao, Jinhong; Wei, Guo

    2014-10-06

    Objetivo: La Gohieria fusca (Oudemans, 1902) se reproduce en la harina de trigo, arroz, maíz, piensos, salvado de trigo y los medicamentos a base de hierbas, además de en otros productos almacenados; este ácaro puede tener una reactividad cruzada de leve a moderada con alérgenos de los ácaros del polvo domésticos, una importante fuente de alérgenos de interior asociada al asma y otras afecciones alérgicas. Los sistemas de aire acondicionado son indispensables en edificios públicos y civiles, y las pantallas de estos aparatos son los lugares donde más se acumula el polvo. Se realizó este estudio con el fin de investigar si la Gohieria fusca puede reproducirse en las pantallas de los acondicionadores de aire instalados en espacios públicos o viviendas en la ciudad de Wuhu, provincia de Anhui, China. Métodos: Se recogieron 430 muestras de polvo de los filtros de los sistemas de aire acondicionado en la cafeterías de centros educativos, mercados, hoteles y edificios civiles entre junio y septiembre de 2013, y se aisló la Gohieria fusca de dichas muestras. Resultados: Los resultados indicaron que la Gohieria fusca estaba presente en 98 de las 430 muestras (22,79%), y la tasa de reproducción fue significativa en los filtros del aire acondicionado de diferentes espacios (c2=18.294, P.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF A LINEAR COMPRESSOR FOR AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the design, building, testing, and delivering to the Environmental Protection Agency of a linear compressor for operation in a 3.0- ton (10.5 kW) residential air-conditioning and heat pumping system. The compressor design evolved from a linear resonant piston...

  14. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner. Program review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Progress in the effort to develop a residential solar-powered air conditioning system is reported. The topics covered include the objectives, scope and status of the program. The results of state-of-art, design, and economic studies and component and system data are also presented.

  15. Fuel conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, M.L.; Nelson, O.L. Jr.

    1988-06-28

    A fuel conditioner is described comprising 10 to 80% of a polar oxygenated hydrocarbon having an average molecular weight from about 250 to about 500, an acid acid number from about 25 to about 125, and a saponification number from about 30 to about 250; and 5 to 50% of an oxygenated compatibilizing agent having a solubility parameter of from about 8.8 to about 11.5 and moderate to strong hydrogen-bonding capacity.

  16. COP improvement of refrigerator/freezers, air-conditioners, and heat pumps using nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westra, Douglas G.

    1993-01-01

    With the February, 1992 announcement by President Bush to move the deadline for outlawing CFC (chloro-fluoro-carbon) refrigerants from the year 2000 to the year 1996, the refrigeration and air-conditioning industries have been accelerating their efforts to find alternative refrigerants. Many of the alternative refrigerants being evaluated require synthetic lubricants, are less efficient, and have toxicity problems. One option to developing new, alternative refrigerants is to combine existing non-CFC refrigerants to form a nonazeotropic mixture, with the concentration optimized for the given application so that system COP (Coefficient Of Performance) may be maintained or even improved. This paper will discuss the dilemma that industry is facing regarding CFC phase-out and the problems associated with CFC alternatives presently under development. A definition of nonazeotropic mixtures will be provided, and the characteristics and COP benefits of nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures will be explained using thermodynamic principles. Limitations and disadvantages of nonazeotropic mixtures will be discussed, and example systems using such mixtures will be reviewed.

  17. Properties and Cycle Performance of Refrigerant Blends Operating Near and Above the Refrigerant Critical Point, Task 2: Air Conditioner System Study

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr A. Domanski; W. Vance Payne

    2002-10-31

    The main goal of this project was to investigate and compare the performance of an R410A air conditioner to that of an R22 air conditioner, with specific interest in performance at high ambient temperatures at which the condenser of the R410A system may be operating above the refrigerant's critical point. Part 1 of this project consisted of conducting comprehensive measurements of thermophysical for refrigerant R125 and refrigerant blends R410A and R507A and developing new equation of state formulations and mixture models for predicting thermophysical properties of HFC refrigerant blends. Part 2 of this project conducted performance measurements of split-system, 3-ton R22 and R410A residential air conditioners in the 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C) outdoor temperature range and development of a system performance model. The performance data was used in preparing a beta version of EVAP-COND, a windows-based simulation package for predicting performance of finned-tube evaporators and condensers. The modeling portion of this project also included the formulation of a model for an air-conditioner equipped with a thermal expansion valve (TXV). Capacity and energy efficiency ratio (EER) were measured and compared. The R22 system's performance was measured over the outdoor ambient temperature range of 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C). The same test range was planned for the R410A system. However, the compressor's safety system cut off the compressor at the 135.0 F (57.2 C) test temperature. The highest measurement on this system was at 130.0 F (54.4 C). Subsequently, a custom-manufactured R410A compressor with a disabled safety system and a more powerful motor was installed and performance was measured at outdoor temperatures up to 155.0 F (68.3 C). Both systems had similar capacity and EER performance at 82.0 F (27.8 C). The capacity and EER degradation of both systems were nearly linearly dependent with rising ambient outdoor ambient test temperatures. The performance

  18. Endow My Air Conditioner!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Charles E. P.

    1982-01-01

    Administrators need to plan and set priorities in various energy/maintenance areas, and trustees and legislators, faculty and students have to be educated regarding maintenance and conservation. Cost of energy consumption by area and department must be worked out. (MLW)

  19. Development of a Double-Effect Air-Conditioner Heater (DEACH). Phase 3 and final report, January 1990-December 1991. Phase 3, September 1987-December 1991. Overall project

    SciTech Connect

    De Vuono, A.C.; Hanna, W.T.; Osborne, R.L.; Ball, D.A.

    1992-04-01

    The report describes development efforts on a Double-Effect Air-Conditioner Heater (DEACH). Based on a double-effect LiBr/H2O absorption cycle, the DEACH was focused on residential applications with the primary objective being a low first-cost efficient gas-fired cooling system. The concept included compact integrated heat exchangers, direct heat rejection to outdoor air (no cooling tower), and ability to self-decrystallize. The performance goals of the system were essentially demonstrated in a full-scale (3 refrigeration ton), fully integrated breadboard. However, the projected manufacturing cost was somewhat above the original target and even further above that deemed competitive at the end of the project. Therefore, technical development was stopped in late 1991.

  20. 78. PIPING CHANNEL FOR FUEL LOADING, FUEL TOPPING, COMPRESSED AIR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. PIPING CHANNEL FOR FUEL LOADING, FUEL TOPPING, COMPRESSED AIR, GASEOUS NITROGEN, AND HELIUM - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  1. Understanding the Dehumidification Performance of Air-Conditioning Equipment at Part-Load Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Don B. Shirey III; Hugh I. Henderson Jr; Richard A. Raustad

    2006-01-01

    Air conditioner cooling coils typically provide both sensible cooling and moisture removal. Data from a limited number of field studies (Khattar et al. 1985; Henderson and Rengarajan 1996; Henderson 1998) have demonstrated that the moisture removal capacity of a cooling coil degrades at part-load conditions--especially when the supply fan operates continuously while the cooling coil cycles on and off. Degradation occurs because moisture that condenses on the coil surfaces during the cooling cycle evaporates back into air stream when the coil is off. This degradation affects the ability of cooling equipment to maintain proper indoor humidity levels and may negatively impact indoor air quality. This report summarizes the results of a comprehensive project to better understand and quantify the moisture removal (dehumidification) performance of cooling coils at part-load conditions. A review of the open literature was initially conducted to learn from previous research on this topic. Detailed performance measurements were then collected for eight cooling coils in a controlled laboratory setting to understand the impact of coil geometry and operating conditions on transient moisture condensation and evaporation by the coils. Measurements of cooling coil dehumidification performance and space humidity levels were also collected at seven field test sites. Finally, an existing engineering model to predict dehumidification performance degradation for single-stage cooling equipment at part-load conditions (Henderson and Rengarajan 1996) was enhanced to include a broader range of fan control strategies and an improved theoretical basis for modeling off-cycle moisture evaporation from cooling coils. The improved model was validated with the laboratory measurements, and this report provides guidance for users regarding proper model inputs. The model is suitable for use in computerized calculation procedures such as hourly or sub-hourly building energy simulation programs (e

  2. Solar-Powered, Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Low-Electricity Humidity Control: Report and Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, J.; Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Miller, J.; Lowenstein, A.; Barker, G.; Slayzak, S.

    2012-11-01

    The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the capabilities of a new high-performance, liquid-desiccant dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) to enhance cooling efficiency and comfort in humid climates while substantially reducing electric peak demand at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB), which is 12 miles east of Panama City, Florida.

  3. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in central air-conditioner filter dust and relevance of non-dietary exposure in occupational indoor environments in Greece.

    PubMed

    Besis, Athanasios; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Botsaropoulou, Elisavet; Samara, Constantini

    2014-05-01

    Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous in the indoor environment owing to their use in consumer products and various studies around the world have found higher concentrations indoors than outdoors. Central air conditioner (A/C) systems have been widely used in many workplaces, therefore, studying of PBDEs in central A/C filter dust is useful to better understand the occurrences and health implications of PBDEs in indoor environments. The present study examined the occurrence of PBDEs in central A/C filter dust collected from various workplaces (n = 20) in Thessaloniki, Greece. The sum concentrations of 21 target congeners (∑21PBDE) in A/C dust ranged between 84 and 4062 ng g(-1) with a median value of 1092 ng g(-1), while BDE-209 was found to be the most abundant BDE congener. The daily intake via dust ingestion of PBDEs estimated for the employees of the occupational settings ranged from 3 to 45 ng day(-1) (median 12 ng day(-1)). PMID:24556227

  4. Photovoltaic array: Power conditioner interface characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, C. C.; Hill, G. M.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The electrical output (power, current, and voltage) of flat plate solar arrays changes constantly, due primarily to changes in cell temperature and irradiance level. As a result, array loads such as dc-to-ac power conditioners must be capable of accommodating widely varying input levels while maintaining operation at or near the maximum power point of the array. The array operating characteristics and extreme output limits necessary for the systematic design of array load interfaces under a wide variety of climatic conditions are studied. A number of interface parameters are examined, including optimum operating voltage, voltage energy, maximum power and current limits, and maximum open circuit voltage. The effect of array degradation and I-V curve fill factor or the array power conditioner interface is also discussed. Results are presented as normalized ratios of power conditioner parameters to array parameters, making the results universally applicable to a wide variety of system sizes, sites, and operating modes.

  5. Reducing minimum air flow at low boiler loads

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, B.L.; Lange, H.B.; Brown, R.L.

    1997-09-01

    One aspect of boiler operation that impairs performance at low loads is the practice of maintaining the flow of air to the boiler at or above 25% of the full-load air flow even though the boiler load may be reduced well below 25%. This is done in accordance with National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 8502, a guideline which boiler insurers generally require. The intent of the minimum air flow rate guideline is to reduce the likelihood of a boiler explosion being caused by an unexpected accumulation of unburned fuel in the boiler, by maintaining a minimum purge rate through the boiler. Operation at high excess air reduces boiler efficiency, increases NO{sub x} emissions and, in some cases, negatively impacts flame stability. Under a contract with EPRI, Carnot is currently engaged in a program aimed at more fully establishing the economics of and technical basis for safe reduced air flow operation at low boiler loads and developing guidelines for its implementation on any boiler. In Phase 1 of this program, discussions were initiated with the NFPA, and detailed boiler combustion and heat-transfer analyses were combined with cost models to quantify the benefits and costs of reduced air flow operation on a wide variety of boilers. The cost/benefit analysis investigated gas- and/or oil-fired boilers including tangential, wall and opposed-fired designs. Phase 2 of the program is to consist of a series of demonstrations of reduced air flow operation on working utility boilers. These demonstrations are to cover gas, oil and coal fuels and the major boiler design types.

  6. Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, E.

    2013-02-01

    This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

  7. Prediction of Air Conditioning Load Response for Providing Spinning Reserve - ORNL Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Ally, Moonis Raza; Rice, C Keith

    2009-02-01

    This report assesses the use of air conditioning load for providing spinning reserve and discusses the barriers and opportunities. Air conditioning load is well suited for this service because it often increases during heavy load periods and can be curtailed for short periods with little impact to the customer. The report also provides an appendix describing the ambient temperature effect on air conditioning load.

  8. NREL's Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes how the DEVAP air conditioner was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-conditioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the electricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equipment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on hot summer days, which can lead to escalating power costs, brownouts, and rolling blackouts. DEVAP employs an innovative combination of air-cooling technologies to reduce energy use by up to 81%. DEVAP also shifts most of the energy needs to thermal energy sources, reducing annual electricity use by up to 90%. In doing so, DEVAP is estimated to cut peak electrical demand by nearly 80% in all climates. Widespread use of this cooling cycle would dramatically cut peak electrical loads throughout the country, saving billions of dollars in investments and operating costs for our nation's electrical utilities. Water is already used as a refrigerant in evaporative coolers, a common and widely used energy-saving technology for arid regions. The technology cools incoming hot, dry air by evaporating water into it. The energy absorbed by the water as it evaporates, known as the latent heat of vaporization, cools the air while humidifying it. However, evaporative coolers only function when the air is dry, and they deliver humid air that can lower the comfort level for building occupants. And even many dry climates like Phoenix, Arizona, have a humid season when evaporative cooling won't work well. DEVAP extends the applicability of evaporative cooling by first using a liquid desiccant-a water-absorbing material-to dry the air. The dry air is then passed to an indirect evaporative

  9. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  10. Cell module and fuel conditioner development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, D. Q., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The test results of and post test analysis of Stack 559 are reported. The design features and construction status of Stacks 560, 561, 562 and 563 are described. The measurements of cell materials compressibility are rationalized and summarized and an explanation of their uses is given. Preliminary results of a manifold material/coating survey are given. The results of shift converter catalyst performance tests and reforming catalyst aging tests are reported. State points for full load and part load operation of the fuel conditioning subsystem tabulated. Work on the data base for the fuel conditioner ancillary subsystems is summarized.

  11. Field performance of the Gallagher flow conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, J.E.; LaNasa, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper contains a summary of the current {open_quotes}state of the art{close_quotes} for flow conditioners, the basis for the Gallagher Flow Conditioner (GFC), and experimental results from several evaluations. Experimental results for the GFC indicate a maximum metering uncertainty of approximately plus or minus one-tenth of one percent ({+-} 0.10%) due to upstream flow disturbances for orifice meters and virtually zero for other inferential flowmeters. Experiments have been conducted at five commercial laboratories, seven field laboratories, line sizes form 25 to 460 mm (1 to 18 inch), over a Reynolds number range of 2,000 to 3,000,000, for three inferential flowmeters -orifice, turbine and vortex. The GFC has been tested in a multitude of fluid applications --- natural gas, dry air, nine different crude oils, polymer-grade ethylene, etcetera. In these applications the flowing stream has ranged from clean to very dirty. Based on independently conducted research results, it is the authors` opinions that the GFC {open_quotes}isolates{close_quotes} flowmeters from piping-induced disturbances and, thereby, allows more accurate metering of fluids flowing in pipelines. The device achieves the optimal flow conditioner objectives and maintains pseudofully developed flow in a pipe with respect to the axial position.

  12. Spinning Reserve from Hotel Air Conditioning Load - SHORT VERSION

    SciTech Connect

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J

    2008-01-01

    Even though preliminary tests were not conducted during times of highest system or hotel loading during the summer, they showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22 to 37 percent depending on the outdoor temperature and time of day. Full response occurred in 12 to 60 seconds from when the system operator's command to shed load was issued and the load drop was very rapid.

  13. Improving DOE-2's RESYS routine: User defined functions to provide more accurate part load energy use and humidity predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Hugh I.; Parker, Danny; Huang, Yu J.

    2000-08-04

    In hourly energy simulations, it is important to properly predict the performance of air conditioning systems over a range of full and part load operating conditions. An important component of these calculations is to properly consider the performance of the cycling air conditioner and how it interacts with the building. This paper presents improved approaches to properly account for the part load performance of residential and light commercial air conditioning systems in DOE-2. First, more accurate correlations are given to predict the degradation of system efficiency at part load conditions. In addition, a user-defined function for RESYS is developed that provides improved predictions of air conditioner sensible and latent capacity at part load conditions. The user function also provides more accurate predictions of space humidity by adding ''lumped'' moisture capacitance into the calculations. The improved cooling coil model and the addition of moisture capacitance predicts humidity swings that are more representative of the performance observed in real buildings.

  14. Air Pollution Critical Loads in the U.S.: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blett, T. F.

    2012-12-01

    "Critical loads" describe the amount of air pollution initiating harmful changes in sensitive ecosystems. Critical loads generally have both a "science" component, describing the amount of deposition needed to alter chemical indicators (such as surface water acid neutralizing capacity) or biological endpoints (such as lichen biodiversity) and a "policy" component where critical loads are evaluated and utilized to help make land management or regulatory decisions. Critical loads science and policy have both made substantial headway in the U.S. over the past decade. For example, a recent review of critical loads of nitrogen cited over 300 published papers relevant to critical loads development in the U.S. The National Atmospheric Deposition Program's Critical Loads Science Subcommittee (CLAD) has recently synthesized most available U.S. critical loads data into a national-scale database and used it to develop maps for modeled surface water acidification, modeled soil acidification, and empirically derived excess nitrogen effects. Air quality regulators and land managers are increasingly using critical loads, in conjunction with policy objectives, to establish goals (target loads) for deposition reductions needed to improve sensitive resource conditions in impacted areas. These goals help focus air pollution emissions reduction efforts where they will be most effective. We will discuss critical loads history in the U.S., provide an overview of some of the most recent national-scale critical loads products, and outline future needs.

  15. Electric Load Analysis of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Toshiyuki

    This paper is an evaluation study of electric loads of a production type of HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicle) under a commuting monitor in Beijing. The monitor was implemented with a half year between hot and cold season by Japanese resident staff drove the vehicle mostly from house to the office. The commuting monitor analysis is done with the data to the same route and the same driver. The observation study of the commuting monitor reveals the following technical findings. Motor re-generation energy gradually decreases from hot season to cold season. Mahalanobis distance analysis could be found out the cause of the electric energy decrease when air conditioner unloaded. The high level of the air conditioner load affects the vehicle input (throttle openings). Although the re-generation load changes along with the environment temperature, the motor-assisted input load tends to steady states. That means the engine is supplied almost steady power from the motor irrespective with environment temperature. Battery keeps control the temperatures refer to environment temperature level. The hybrid air conditioner system worked efficiently which revealed with the difference of load levels between a travel mode and an idling stop mode. There is no notable running difference between an idling mode and the idling stop mode both in summer and in winter.

  16. Hybrid respiration-signal conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinard, G. A.; Steffen, D. A.; Sturm, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Hybrid impedance-pneumograph and respiration-rate signal conditioner element of hand-held vital signs monitor measures changes in impedance of chest during breathing cycle and generates analog respiration signal as output along with synchronous square wave that can be monitored by breath-rate processor.

  17. Transportation loads with air versus leaf spring suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, T.A.; Weinacht, D.J.; Tafoya, J.I.

    1988-06-01

    Data acquisition equipment was installed on a heavily loaded drop- platform trailer. Accelerations were recorded at various locations on the trailer during a trip from Los Alamos to the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Road conditions varied from paved primary and secondary highways to very rough crushed rock roads at NTS. Data for transient events, such as railroad crossings and bridges, were also recorded. Descriptions of the tractor/trailer configuration, instrumentation, and data analysis techniques are presented. Reduced data are presented in the form of power spectral density plots and response spectra (shock spectra) plots. Finally, recommended load factors for use in designing payloads that are to be transported on heavily loaded trailers are discussed.

  18. Development of a linear compressor for air conditioners and heat pumps. Design and test report. Final report, October 1995-November 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Waldron, W.D.

    1997-09-01

    The report discusses the design, building, testing, and delivering to the Environmental Protection Agency of a linear compressor for operation in a 3.0-ton (10.5 kW) resident air-conditioning and heat pumping system. During the design work, the Resonant Piston Compression (RPC) was modified to extend its range into the heating mode, and a voltage controller was developed that could sense the proximity of the compressor plunger to the top dead center and bottom dead center stops and limit the plunger stroke. The test program that followed construction was successful, except for several minor difficulties, including a failure in the epoxy bond of the compressor plunger. The test results proved the performance advantage of the RPC in terms of a high Seasonal Energy Efficiency Rating potential and also demonstrated that the compressor can be controlled in a stable manner using low cost, commercially available motor control devices.

  19. Bond strength of resin-modified glass ionomer restorative materials using a no-rinse conditioner.

    PubMed

    Suihkonen, Rian W; Vandewalle, Kraig S; Dossett, Jon M

    2012-01-01

    A paste-paste resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI) restorative material has been introduced recently with a new conditioner that requires no rinsing. The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of an encapsulated RMGI (Fuji II LC) and a new paste-paste RMGI (Fuji Filling LC) to dentin conditioned with 20% polyacrylic acid (Cavity Conditioner), a new no-rinse conditioner (Self Conditioner,), or no conditioner. Mounted human third molars were flattened and the dentin surface was conditioned. The RMGI restorative materials were mixed and incrementally inserted into a mold and photocured. The specimens were loaded until failure in a universal testing machine after 24 hours of storage in distilled water. Fuji II LC had significantly greater bond strength to dentin than Fuji Filling LC. The use of Cavity Conditioner or Self Conditioner resulted in bond strengths that were not significantly different from each other; however, both produced greater bond strengths than those in the non-conditioned groups. PMID:23220322

  20. Signal conditioner test set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, W. H.; Stigberg, J. D. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A system was developed for testing components contained in a signal conditioning module with a transistor and capacitor included in a circuit. The system includes a housing with a socket into which the module to be tested is plugged. A test switch is provided for selectively connecting a variable load to either a transistor or capacitor in the circuit for testing the operation. A signal generating circuit is provided for generating signals for use in testing the components of the module.

  1. Shampoos, conditioners, and camouflage techniques.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2013-01-01

    This article examines hair care in persons with hair loss. The use of shampoos, conditioners, and hair styling products to camouflage hair loss is discussed. Because hair is nonliving, medical treatments are limited to only inducing change in the follicles within the scalp skin and do not improve the hair loss actually witnessed by the patient. There is therefore a need to accompany medical treatment of hair loss with cosmetic hair treatment to optimize patient satisfaction.

  2. Cell module and fuel conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, D. Q., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The results of the completed tests on Stack 561 and the on-going tests of 562 (23 cell stacks of the MK-1 and M-2 designs respectively) are reported and their performance is compared. Results of the on-going endurance test of Stack 560 (5 cell, MK-2) are reported. Plans for fabrication of Stacks 563 and 564 (23 cell stacks of the MK-1 and MK-2 design) are summarized. Results of the burner tests are given. Excellent performance was achieved on simulated anode exhaust gas over very wide load and air/fuel ranges.

  3. Load calculation and system evaluation for electric vehicle climate control

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves-Saborio, S.; Comfort, W.J. III

    1993-10-27

    Providing air conditioning for electric vehicles (EVs) represents an important challenge, because vapor compression air conditioners, which are common in gasoline powered vehicles, may consume a substantial part of the total energy stored in the EV battery. This report consists of two major parts. The first part is a cooling and heating load calculation for electric vehicles. The second part is an evaluation of several systems that can be used to provide the desired cooling and heating in EVs. Four cases are studied. Short range and full range EVs are each analyzed twice, first with the regular vehicle equipment, and then with a fan and heat reflecting windows, to reduce hot soak. Recent legislation has allowed the use of combustion heating whenever the ambient temperature drops below 5{degrees}C. This has simplified the problem of heating, and made cooling the most important problem. Therefore, systems described in this project are designed for cooling, and their applicability to heating at temperatures above 5{degrees}C is described. If the air conditioner systems cannot be used to cover the whole heating load at 5{degrees}C, then the vehicle requires a complementary heating system (most likely a heat recovery system or electric resistance heating). Air conditioners are ranked according to their overall weight. The overall weight is calculated by adding the system weight and the weight of the battery necessary to provide energy for system operation.

  4. Load Capacity Estimation of Foil Air Journal Bearings for Oil-Free Turbomachinery Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Valco, Mark J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces a simple "Rule of Thumb" (ROT) method to estimate the load capacity of foil air journal bearings, which are self-acting compliant-surface hydrodynamic bearings being considered for Oil-Free turbo-machinery applications such as gas turbine engines. The ROT is based on first principles and data available in the literature and it relates bearing load capacity to the bearing size and speed through an empirically based load capacity coefficient, D. It is shown that load capacity is a linear function of bearing surface velocity and bearing projected area. Furthermore, it was found that the load capacity coefficient, D, is related to the design features of the bearing compliant members and operating conditions (speed and ambient temperature). Early bearing designs with basic or "first generation" compliant support elements have relatively low load capacity. More advanced bearings, in which the compliance of the support structure is tailored, have load capacities up to five times those of simpler designs. The ROT enables simplified load capacity estimation for foil air journal bearings and can guide development of new Oil-Free turbomachinery systems.

  5. Comfort air temperature influence on heating and cooling loads of a residential building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanciu, C.; Șoriga, I.; Gheorghian, A. T.; Stanciu, D.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents the thermal behavior and energy loads of a two-level residential building designed for a family of four, two adults and two students, for different inside comfort levels reflected by the interior air temperature. Results are intended to emphasize the different thermal behavior of building elements and their contribution to the building's external load. The most important contributors to the building thermal loss are determined. Daily heating and cooling loads are computed for 12 months simulation in Bucharest (44.25°N latitude) in clear sky conditions. The most important aspects regarding sizing of thermal energy systems are emphasized, such as the reference months for maximum cooling and heating loads and these loads’ values. Annual maximum loads are encountered in February and August, respectively, so these months should be taken as reference for sizing thermal building systems, in Bucharest, under clear sky conditions.

  6. 7 CFR 3201.92 - Fuel conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel conditioners. 3201.92 Section 3201.92... Designated Items § 3201.92 Fuel conditioners. (a) Definition. Products formulated to improve the performance... fuel system. (b) Minimum biobased content. The Federal preferred procurement product must have...

  7. 7 CFR 3201.92 - Fuel conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel conditioners. 3201.92 Section 3201.92... Designated Items § 3201.92 Fuel conditioners. (a) Definition. Products formulated to improve the performance... fuel system. (b) Minimum biobased content. The Federal preferred procurement product must have...

  8. Low-noise pulse conditioner

    DOEpatents

    Bird, David A.

    1983-01-01

    A low-noise pulse conditioner is provided for driving electronic digital processing circuitry directly from differentially induced input pulses. The circuit uses a unique differential-to-peak detector circuit to generate a dynamic reference signal proportional to the input peak voltage. The input pulses are compared with the reference signal in an input network which operates in full differential mode with only a passive input filter. This reduces the introduction of circuit-induced noise, or jitter, generated in ground referenced input elements normally used in pulse conditioning circuits, especially speed transducer processing circuits.

  9. A Method to Exchange Air Nitrogen Emission Reductions for Watershed Nitrogen Load Reductions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation of the method developed for the Chesapeake Bay Program to estimate changes in nitrogen loading to Chesapeake due to changes in Bay State state-level nitrogen oxide emissions to support air-water trading by the Bay States. Type for SticsUnder AMAD Application QAPP, QA...

  10. Opportunities to Reduce Air-Conditioning Loads Through Lower Cabin Soak Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, R.; Cuddy, M.; Keyser, M.; Rugh, J.

    1999-07-12

    Air-conditioning loads can significantly reduce electric vehicle (EV) range and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) fuel economy. In addition, a new U. S. emissions procedure, called the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP), has provided the motivation for reducing the size of vehicle air-conditioning systems in the United States. The SFTP will measure tailpipe emissions with the air-conditioning system operating. If the size of the air-conditioning system is reduced, the cabin soak temperature must also be reduced, with no penalty in terms of passenger thermal comfort. This paper presents the impact of air-conditioning on EV range and HEV fuel economy, and compares the effectiveness of advanced glazing and cabin ventilation. Experimental and modeled results are presented.

  11. Space shuttle aps propellant thermal conditioner study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical and experimental effort was completed to evaluate a baffle type thermal conditioner for superheating O2 and H2 at supercritical pressures. The thermal conditioner consisted of a heat exchanger and an integral reactor (gas generator) operating on O2/H2 propellants. Primary emphasis was placed on the hydrogen conditioner with some effort on the oxygen conditioner and a study completed of alternate concepts for use in conditioning oxygen. A hydrogen conditioner was hot fire tested under a range of conditions to establish ignition, heat exchange and response parameters. A parallel technology task was completed to further evaluate the integral reactor and heat exchanger with the side mounted electrical spark igniter.

  12. Conditioner for a helically transported electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Changbiao.

    1992-05-01

    The kinetic theory is developed to investigate a conditioner for a helically transported electron beam. Linear expressions for axial velocity spread are derived. Numerical simulation is used to check the theoretical results and examine nonlinear aspects of the conditioning process. The results show that in the linear regime the action of the beam conditioner on a pulsed beam mainly depends on the phase at which the beam enters the conditioner and depends only slightly on the operating wavelength. In the nonlinear regime, however, the action of the conditioner strongly depends on the operating wavelength and only slightly upon the entrance phase. For a properly chosen operating wavelength, a little less than the electron's relativistic cyclotron wavelength, the conditioner can decrease the axial velocity spread of a pulsed beam down to less than one-third of its initial value.

  13. Conditioner for a helically transported electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Changbiao

    1992-05-01

    The kinetic theory is developed to investigate a conditioner for a helically transported electron beam. Linear expressions for axial velocity spread are derived. Numerical simulation is used to check the theoretical results and examine nonlinear aspects of the conditioning process. The results show that in the linear regime the action of the beam conditioner on a pulsed beam mainly depends on the phase at which the beam enters the conditioner and depends only slightly on the operating wavelength. In the nonlinear regime, however, the action of the conditioner strongly depends on the operating wavelength and only slightly upon the entrance phase. For a properly chosen operating wavelength, a little less than the electron`s relativistic cyclotron wavelength, the conditioner can decrease the axial velocity spread of a pulsed beam down to less than one-third of its initial value.

  14. Conditioner for a helically transported electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.

    1992-05-01

    The kinetic theory is developed to investigate a conditioner for a helically imported electron beam. Linear expressions for axial velocity spread are derived. Numerical simulation is used to check the theoretical results and examine nonlinear aspects of the conditioning process. The results show that in the linear regime the action of the beam conditioner on a pulsed beam mainly depends on the phase at which the beam enters the conditioner and depends only slightly on the operating wavelength. In the nonlinear regime, however, the action of the conditioner strongly depends on the operating wavelength and only slightly upon the entrance phase. For a properly chosen operating wavelength, a little less than the electron's relativistic cyclotron wavelength, the conditioner can decrease the axial velocity spread of a pulsed beam down to less than one-third of its initial value.

  15. Conditioner for a helically transported electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.

    1992-05-01

    The kinetic theory is developed to investigate a conditioner for a helically imported electron beam. Linear expressions for axial velocity spread are derived. Numerical simulation is used to check the theoretical results and examine nonlinear aspects of the conditioning process. The results show that in the linear regime the action of the beam conditioner on a pulsed beam mainly depends on the phase at which the beam enters the conditioner and depends only slightly on the operating wavelength. In the nonlinear regime, however, the action of the conditioner strongly depends on the operating wavelength and only slightly upon the entrance phase. For a properly chosen operating wavelength, a little less than the electron`s relativistic cyclotron wavelength, the conditioner can decrease the axial velocity spread of a pulsed beam down to less than one-third of its initial value.

  16. Numerical Simulations of Blast Loads from Near-Field Ground Explosions in Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrociński, Stanisław; Flis, Leszek

    2015-12-01

    Numerical simulations of air blast loading in the near-field acting on the ground have been performed. A simplified blast model based on empirical blast loading data representing spherical and hemispherical explosive shapes has been simulated. Conwep is an implementation of the empirical blast models presented by Kingery and Bulmash, which is also implemented in the commercial code LS-DYNA based on work done by Rahnders-Pehrson and Bannister. This makes it possible to simulate blast loads acting on structures representing spherical and hemispherical explosive shapes of TNT with reasonable computational effort as an alternative to the SPH and Eulerian model. The CPU time for the simplified blast model is however considerably shorter and may still be useful in time consuming concept studies. Reasonable numerical results using reasonable model sizes can be achieved not only for modelling near-field explosions in air but most areas of geotechnical. Calculation was compared with blast SPH and Eulerian model.

  17. Formulation of humic-based soil conditioners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amanova, M. A.; Mamytova, G. A.; Mamytova, B. A.; Kydralieva, K. A.; Jorobekova, Sh. J.

    2009-04-01

    The goal of the study is to prepare soil conditioners (SC) able to carry out the following functions: (i) the chemical conditioning of soil mainly comprising the adjustment of pH, (ii) the balancing of inorganic nutrients, (iii) the physical conditioning of soil mainly comprising the improvement of water permeability, air permeability and water retention properties, and (iv) improvement of the ecological system concerning of useful microorganisms activity in the soil. The SC was made of a mixture of inorganic ingredients, a chemical composition and physical and chemical properties of which promoted improvement of physical characteristic of soil and enrichment by its mineral nutritious elements. In addition to aforesaid ingredients, this soil conditioner contains agronomical-valued groups of microorganisms having the function promoting the growth of the crop. As organic component of SC humic acids (HA) was used. HA serve many major functions that result in better soil and plant health. In soil, HA can increase microbial and mycorrhizal activity while enhancing nutrient uptake by plant roots. HA work as a catalyst by stimulating root and plant growth, it may enhance enzymatic activity that in turn accelerates cell division which can lead to increased yields. HA can help to increase crop yields, seed germination, and much more. In short, humic acids helps keep healthy plants health. The first stage goal was to evaluate mineral and organic ingredients for formulation of SC. Soil conditioners assessed included ash and slag. The use of slags has been largelly used in agriculture as a source of lime and phosphoric acid. The silicic acid of slags reduces Al-acitivity thus, promoting a better assimilation of P-fertilizer by plants. Additionally, silicic acid is also known to improve soil moisture capacity, thus enhancing soil water availability to plants. Physico-chemical characteristics of ash and slag were determined, as a total - about 20 samples. Results include

  18. Estimates of air emissions from asphalt storage tanks and truck loading

    SciTech Connect

    Trumbore, D.C.

    1999-12-31

    Title V of the 1990 Clean Air Act requires the accurate estimation of emissions from all US manufacturing processes, and places the burden of proof for that estimate on the process owner. This paper is published as a tool to assist in the estimation of air emission from hot asphalt storage tanks and asphalt truck loading operations. Data are presented on asphalt vapor pressure, vapor molecular weight, and the emission split between volatile organic compounds and particulate emissions that can be used with AP-42 calculation techniques to estimate air emissions from asphalt storage tanks and truck loading operations. Since current AP-42 techniques are not valid in asphalt tanks with active fume removal, a different technique for estimation of air emissions in those tanks, based on direct measurement of vapor space combustible gas content, is proposed. Likewise, since AP-42 does not address carbon monoxide or hydrogen sulfide emissions that are known to be present in asphalt operations, this paper proposes techniques for estimation of those emissions. Finally, data are presented on the effectiveness of fiber bed filters in reducing air emissions in asphalt operations.

  19. High efficiency laser spectrum conditioner

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Norman R.

    1980-01-01

    A high efficiency laser spectrum conditioner for generating a collinear parallel output beam containing a predetermined set of frequencies from a multifrequency laser. A diffraction grating and spherical mirror are used in combination, to disperse the various frequencies of the input laser beam and direct these frequencies along various parallel lines spatially separated from one another to an apertured mask. Selection of the desired frequencies is accomplished by placement of apertures at locations on the mask where the desired frequencies intersect the mask. A recollimated parallel output beam with the desired set of frequencies is subsequently generated utilizing a mirror and grating matched and geometrically aligned in the same manner as the input grating and mirror.

  20. Low-noise pulse conditioner

    DOEpatents

    Bird, D.A.

    1981-06-16

    A low-noise pulse conditioner is provided for driving electronic digital processing circuitry directly from differentially induced input pulses. The circuit uses a unique differential-to-peak detector circuit to generate a dynamic reference signal proportional to the input peak voltage. The input pulses are compared with the reference signal in an input network which operates in full differential mode with only a passive input filter. This reduces the introduction of circuit-induced noise, or jitter, generated in ground referenced input elements normally used in pulse conditioning circuits, especially speed transducer processing circuits. This circuit may be used for conditioning the sensor signal from the Fidler coil in a gas centrifuge for separation of isotopic gaseous mixtures.

  1. Effects of Temperature, Humidity and Air Flow on Fungal Growth Rate on Loaded Ventilation Filters.

    PubMed

    Tang, W; Kuehn, T H; Simcik, Matt F

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the fungal growth ratio on loaded ventilation filters under various temperature, relative humidity (RH), and air flow conditions in a controlled laboratory setting. A new full-size commercial building ventilation filter was loaded with malt extract nutrients and conidia of Cladosporium sphaerospermum in an ASHRAE Standard 52.2 filter test facility. Small sections cut from this filter were incubated under the following conditions: constant room temperature and a high RH of 97%; sinusoidal temperature (with an amplitude of 10°C, an average of 23°C, and a period of 24 hr) and a mean RH of 97%; room temperature and step changes between 97% and 75% RH, 97% and 43% RH, and 97% and 11% RH every 12 hr. The biomass on the filter sections was measured using both an elution-culture method and by ergosterol assay immediately after loading and every 2 days up to 10 days after loading. Fungal growth was detected earlier using ergosterol content than with the elution-culture method. A student's t-test indicated that Cladosporium sphaerospermum grew better at the constant room temperature condition than at the sinusoidal temperature condition. By part-time exposure to dry environments, the fungal growth was reduced (75% and 43% RH) or even inhibited (11% RH). Additional loaded filters were installed in the wind tunnel at room temperature and an RH greater than 95% under one of two air flow test conditions: continuous air flow or air flow only 9 hr/day with a flow rate of 0.7 m(3)/s (filter media velocity 0.15 m/s). Swab tests and a tease mount method were used to detect fungal growth on the filters at day 0, 5, and 10. Fungal growth was detected for both test conditions, which indicates that when temperature and relative humidity are optimum, controlling the air flow alone cannot prevent fungal growth. In real applications where nutrients are less sufficient than in this laboratory study, fungal growth rate may be reduced under the same operating conditions.

  2. Influence of storage methods on the surface roughness of tissue conditioners.

    PubMed

    Hong, Guan; Li, YingAi; Maeda, Takeshi; Mizumachi, Wataru; Sadamori, Shinsuke; Hamada, Taizo; Murata, Hiroshi

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of three kinds of storage methods on surface roughness of tissue conditioners. Four commercial tissue conditioners (GC Soft Liner, Softone, Fictioner, and Hydro-Cast) were used in this study. Five samples of each material were stored in distilled water, air, and a denture cleanser (Polident). Mean surface roughness (R(a)) values of dental stone casts made from the tissue conditioners were measured after 0, 1, 3, 7, and 14 days of immersion using a profilometer. Significant differences in the R(a) values of the specimens were found among the three storage methods. The values of R(a) significantly increased with increase in immersion time for each storage method, except for the materials stored in air. It was found that the materials stored in air showed the most stable and lowest values of R(a). Results obtained suggested that a tissue conditioner exhibited smooth and minimal change in surface roughness with time when stored in air than in distilled water and denture cleanser. PMID:18540387

  3. Affect of Air Leakage into a Thermal-Vacuum Chamber on Helium Refrigeration Heat Load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Sam; Meagher, Daniel; Linza, Robert; Saheli, Fariborz; Vargas, Gerardo; Lauterbach, John; Reis, Carl; Ganni, Venkatarao (Rao); Homan, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    NASA s Johnson Space Center (JSC) Building 32 houses two large thermal-vacuum chambers (Chamber A and Chamber B). Within these chambers are liquid nitrogen shrouds to provide a thermal environment and helium panels which operate at 20K to provide cryopumping. Some amount of air leakage into the chambers during tests is inevitable. This causes "air fouling" of the helium panel surfaces due to the components of the air that adhere to the panels. The air fouling causes the emittance of the helium panels to increase during tests. The increase in helium panel emittance increases the heat load on the helium refrigerator that supplies the 20K helium for those panels. Planning for thermal-vacuum tests should account for this increase to make sure that the helium refrigerator capacity will not be exceeded over the duration of a test. During a recent test conducted in Chamber B a known-size air leak was introduced to the chamber. Emittance change of the helium panels and the affect on the helium refrigerator was characterized. A description of the test and the results will be presented.

  4. Controlling a rabbet load and air/oil seal temperatures in a turbine

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Mark Christopher

    2002-01-01

    During a standard fired shutdown of a turbine, a loaded rabbet joint between the fourth stage wheel and the aft shaft of the machine can become unloaded causing a gap to occur due to a thermal mismatch at the rabbet joint with the bearing blower turned on. An open or unloaded rabbet could cause the parts to move relative to each other and therefore cause the rotor to lose balance. If the bearing blower is turned off during a shutdown, the forward air/oil seal temperature may exceed maximum design practice criterion due to "soak-back." An air/oil seal temperature above the established maximum design limits could cause a bearing fire to occur, with catastrophic consequences to the machine. By controlling the bearing blower according to an optimized blower profile, the rabbet load can be maintained, and the air/oil seal temperature can be maintained below the established limits. A blower profile is determined according to a thermodynamic model of the system.

  5. A piloted simulation investigation of the normal load factor and longitudinal thrust required for air-to-air acquisition and tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalley, Matthew S.

    1993-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was performed by the U.S. Army Aeroflighydynamics Directorate to develop insight into the maneuverability requirements for aggressive helicopter maneuvering tasks such as air-to-air combat. Both a conventional helicopter and a helicopter with auxiliary thrust were examined. The aircraft parameters of interest were the normal and longitudinal load factor envelopes. Of particular interest were the mission performance and handling qualities tradeoffs with the parameters of interest. Two air-to-air acquisition and tracking tasks and a return-to-cover task were performed to assess mission performance. Results indicate that without auxiliary thrust, the ownship normal load factor capability needs to match that of the adversary in order to provide satisfactory handling qualities. Auxiliary thrust provides significant handling qualities advantages and can be substituted to some extent for normal load factor capability. Auxiliary thrust levels as low as 0.2 thrust/weight can provide significant handling qualities advantages.

  6. Effects of dissolved air flotation hydraulic loading rate on water treatment performance

    SciTech Connect

    Tobiason, J.E.; Edzwald, J.K.; Amato, T.; Maggi, L.J.

    1999-07-01

    The performance of dissolved air flotation (DAF) followed by granular media filtration for water treatment was evaluated via pilot-scale studies for two water sources. The study focused on short flocculation times (5--8 minutes), high DAF hydraulic loading rates (17--44 m/hr (7--18 gpm/ft{sup 2})) and rapid rate filtration (10--20 m/hr (4--8 gpm/ft{sup 2})). Excellent treatment performance was achieved in terms of DAF clarified water turbidity, filtered water turbidity, organic matter removal and filtered water production. Bubble carryover from the DAF tank was mitigated by employing either internal or external air removal strategies. Overall, the results demonstrate the effectiveness of an integrated, high rate flocculation/DAF/filtration water treatment strategy.

  7. Filter collection efficiency and growth of microorganisms on filters loaded with outdoor air

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, S.J. |; Kuehn, T.H.; Pui, D.Y.H.; Vesley, D.; Streifel, A.J.

    1995-08-01

    A laboratory setup was used to challenge a glass fiber media filter, a polymer fiber media filter, and a two-stage electrostatic precipitator (electronic air cleaner) with 100% ambient outside air for one year. Over the year, fractional efficiency measurements were made as well as microbial sampling to determine filter effectiveness on ambient viable bioaerosols. Both of the media filters demonstrated greater than 90% effectiveness on fungi and bacteria bioaerosols. The electrostatic precipitator demonstrated initial efficiency of 95% or greater, which decreased over time as the device was overloaded. Normal maintenance of the electrostatic precipitator was minimized in an effort to create conditions favorable to microbial growth. Over the span of the year, no observable microbial growth took place on any of the filters. Subsequent tests on the loaded filters, however, showed that observable microbial growth occurred within a month of continuous exposure to 90% relative humidity.

  8. Aeroacoustic Characteristics of Model Jet Test Facility Flow Conditioners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinzie, Kevin W.; Henderson, Brenda S.; Haskin, Harry H.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental investigation of flow conditioning devices used to suppress internal rig noise in high speed, high temperature experimental jet facilities is discussed. The aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics of a number of devices including pressure loss and extraneous noise generation are measured. Both aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics are strongly dependent on the porosity of the flow conditioner and the closure ratio of the duct system. For unchoked flow conditioners, the pressure loss follows conventional incompressible flow models. However, for choked flow conditioners, a compressible flow model where the duct and flow conditioner system is modeled as a convergent-divergent nozzle can be used to estimate pressure loss. Choked flow conditioners generate significantly more noise than unchoked conditioners. In addition, flow conditioners with small hole diameters or sintered metal felt material generate less self-noise noise compared to flow conditioners with larger holes.

  9. 49 CFR 179.220-17 - Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air inlet devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., venting and air inlet devices. 179.220-17 Section 179.220-17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-17 Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air...

  10. 49 CFR 179.200-16 - Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air inlet devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., venting and air inlet devices. 179.200-16 Section 179.200-16 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.200-16 Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air...

  11. 49 CFR 179.220-17 - Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air inlet devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., venting and air inlet devices. 179.220-17 Section 179.220-17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-17 Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air...

  12. 49 CFR 179.200-16 - Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air inlet devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., venting and air inlet devices. 179.200-16 Section 179.200-16 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.200-16 Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air...

  13. 49 CFR 179.200-16 - Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air inlet devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., venting and air inlet devices. 179.200-16 Section 179.200-16 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.200-16 Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air...

  14. 49 CFR 179.220-17 - Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air inlet devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., venting and air inlet devices. 179.220-17 Section 179.220-17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-17 Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air...

  15. 49 CFR 179.200-16 - Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air inlet devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., venting and air inlet devices. 179.200-16 Section 179.200-16 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.200-16 Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air...

  16. 49 CFR 179.220-17 - Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air inlet devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., venting and air inlet devices. 179.220-17 Section 179.220-17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-17 Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air...

  17. 46 CFR 56.15-5 - Fluid-conditioner fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fluid-conditioner fittings. 56.15-5 Section 56.15-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Fittings § 56.15-5 Fluid-conditioner fittings. (a) Fluid conditioner fittings certified in accordance with subpart 50.25 of...

  18. AirDyn: an instrumented model-scale helicopter for measuring unsteady aerodynamic loading in airwakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Curran, J.; Padfield, G. D.; Owen, I.

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes the design, calibration and application of an instrument that measures the effects of unsteady air flow (airwake) on a helicopter in flight. The instrument is a 1/54th-scale model helicopter that is mounted on a six-component dynamic force balance to measure the forces and moments that an airwake imposes onto the helicopter; it is therefore an 'Airwake Dynamometer' to which we have given the name AirDyn. The AirDyn has been designed, in particular, to measure the effect of a ship airwake on a helicopter translating over the ship's landing deck. The AirDyn, which has been implemented in a water tunnel, in preference to a wind tunnel, senses the integrated effect of a turbulent airwake on the helicopter, and the resulting unsteady forces and moments are an indication of the workload the pilot would need to exert to counteract these effects in a real helicopter. Binocular sensing elements and semiconductor strain gauges have been adopted to achieve high sensitivity and relatively high stiffness. The compact strain gauge balance is fitted into the helicopter fuselage, and protective coatings and a flexible bellows are used to seal the balance and protect it from the water. The coefficient matrix of the AirDyn has been obtained by static calibrations, while impulse excitation tests have confirmed that its frequency response is suitable for the measurements of unsteady loads. The application of the instrument is illustrated by using it to quantify the effect that a bulky ship mast has on the airwake and thus on a helicopter as it lands onto a simplified ship in a scaled 50 knot headwind.

  19. Effect of load carriage on gait due to firefighting air bottle configuration.

    PubMed

    Park, Kiwon; Hur, Pilwon; Rosengren, Karl S; Horn, Gavin P; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2010-07-01

    The air bottle configuration (mass and size) used with a firefighter's self-contained breathing apparatus may affect functional gait performance and slip/trip/fall risk, contributing to one of the most common and costly fire ground injuries to this population. To examine the potential effect of bottle mass and size on firefighter gait performance, four 30-min air bottle configurations were tested. To quantify biomechanical gait performance, kinetic and kinematic gait data were collected on 24 male firefighters while walking at normal and fast speeds during three conditions (no obstacle, 10 cm or 30 cm stationary obstacle). Bottle mass, obstacle height and walking speed - but not bottle size - were found to significantly impact gait parameters. Ten subjects (42%) contacted the taller obstacle while wearing heavier bottles, suggesting greater risk for tripping. Heavier bottles also resulted in larger forces by the trailing leg in both the anterior-posterior and vertical directions, suggesting greater risk for slipping. These results suggest that increased bottle weight may result in a decrease in gait performance and an increase in fall risk. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Occupations, such as firefighting, often require use of a self-contained breathing apparatus that includes a pressurised air bottle. No systematic assessment has investigated how modest changes in load carriage due to bottle configuration (mass and size) might affect gait behaviour, especially when crossing obstacles. Bottle mass, but not size, was found to decrease gait performance and increase fall risk.

  20. Effect of load carriage on gait due to firefighting air bottle configuration.

    PubMed

    Park, Kiwon; Hur, Pilwon; Rosengren, Karl S; Horn, Gavin P; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2010-07-01

    The air bottle configuration (mass and size) used with a firefighter's self-contained breathing apparatus may affect functional gait performance and slip/trip/fall risk, contributing to one of the most common and costly fire ground injuries to this population. To examine the potential effect of bottle mass and size on firefighter gait performance, four 30-min air bottle configurations were tested. To quantify biomechanical gait performance, kinetic and kinematic gait data were collected on 24 male firefighters while walking at normal and fast speeds during three conditions (no obstacle, 10 cm or 30 cm stationary obstacle). Bottle mass, obstacle height and walking speed - but not bottle size - were found to significantly impact gait parameters. Ten subjects (42%) contacted the taller obstacle while wearing heavier bottles, suggesting greater risk for tripping. Heavier bottles also resulted in larger forces by the trailing leg in both the anterior-posterior and vertical directions, suggesting greater risk for slipping. These results suggest that increased bottle weight may result in a decrease in gait performance and an increase in fall risk. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Occupations, such as firefighting, often require use of a self-contained breathing apparatus that includes a pressurised air bottle. No systematic assessment has investigated how modest changes in load carriage due to bottle configuration (mass and size) might affect gait behaviour, especially when crossing obstacles. Bottle mass, but not size, was found to decrease gait performance and increase fall risk. PMID:20582769

  1. Flow conditioner location effects in orifice flowmeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, J. L.; Sindt, C. F.; Lewis, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    Tests sponsored by Gas Research Institute were conducted with orifice flowmeters of two nominal sizes: 104 mm and 52 mm. For the 104 mm orifice meter, the authors compared discharge coefficients measured in two common piping configurations used by laboratories to establish baseline flow conditions. The discharge coefficients are similar for beta ratios of 0.43, 0.55, and 0.67, but not for the 0.73 beta ratio plate. For other tests with the orifice meter, a 90 degree elbow or a reducer was located upstream of the orifice plate and flow conditioner. Two beta ratios (0.54, 0.67) were tested in the 52 mm orifice meter in baseline configuration and with an elbow at 17D and a flow conditioner at 12D. For many of the tests, differential pressures were measured at more than one flange tap location. Placing the flow conditioner too close to the orifice plate in either meter yields discharge coefficients below baseline values. The location of the flow conditioner with respect to the orifice plate appears to influence meter performance more significantly than the type or location of flow disturbance upstream of it.

  2. Effects of load voltage on voltage breakdown modes of electrical exploding aluminum wires in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Li, Xingwen; Yang, Zefeng; Wang, Kun; Chao, Youchuang; Shi, Zongqian; Jia, Shenli; Qiu, Aici

    2015-06-01

    The effects of the load voltage on the breakdown modes are investigated in exploding aluminum wires driven by a 1 kA, 0.1 kA/ns pulsed current in air. From laser probing images taken by laser shadowgraphy, schlieren imaging, and interferometry, the position of the shockwave front, the plasma channel, and the wire core edge of the exploding product can be determined. The breakdown mode makes a transition from the internal mode, which involves breakdown inside the wire core, to the shunting mode, which involves breakdown in the compressed air, with decreasing charging voltage. The breakdown electrical field for a gaseous aluminum wire core of nearly solid density is estimated to be more than 20 kV/cm, while the value for gaseous aluminum of approximately 0.2% solid density decreases to 15-20 kV/cm. The breakdown field in shunting mode is less than 20 kV/cm and is strongly affected by the vaporized aluminum, the desorbed gas, and the electrons emitted from the wire core during the current pause. Ohmic heating during voltage collapses will induce further energy deposition in the current channel and thus will result in different expansion speeds for both the wire core and the shockwave front in the different modes.

  3. Effects of load voltage on voltage breakdown modes of electrical exploding aluminum wires in air

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jian; Li, Xingwen Yang, Zefeng; Wang, Kun; Chao, Youchuang; Shi, Zongqian; Jia, Shenli; Qiu, Aici

    2015-06-15

    The effects of the load voltage on the breakdown modes are investigated in exploding aluminum wires driven by a 1 kA, 0.1 kA/ns pulsed current in air. From laser probing images taken by laser shadowgraphy, schlieren imaging, and interferometry, the position of the shockwave front, the plasma channel, and the wire core edge of the exploding product can be determined. The breakdown mode makes a transition from the internal mode, which involves breakdown inside the wire core, to the shunting mode, which involves breakdown in the compressed air, with decreasing charging voltage. The breakdown electrical field for a gaseous aluminum wire core of nearly solid density is estimated to be more than 20 kV/cm, while the value for gaseous aluminum of approximately 0.2% solid density decreases to 15–20 kV/cm. The breakdown field in shunting mode is less than 20 kV/cm and is strongly affected by the vaporized aluminum, the desorbed gas, and the electrons emitted from the wire core during the current pause. Ohmic heating during voltage collapses will induce further energy deposition in the current channel and thus will result in different expansion speeds for both the wire core and the shockwave front in the different modes.

  4. Evaluation of load management as an electric system resource

    SciTech Connect

    Geier, D.L.; Samaniego, G.M.

    1986-08-01

    Load Management is currently being evaluated by many utilities, including San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG and E), as a demand-side alternative to conventional electric system resources. The industry has identified improved load factors, capacity benefits, and lowering system costs as major operational benefits of load management, but there are still many uncertainties associated with its use as an electric system resource. This paper will address two specific areas. The first area is intended to establish general resource requirements, from the operating standpoint, that can be applied to all resources, Conventional and Alternate. The second will address the potential of load management as an electric system resource. The SDG and E air conditioner control program will be evaluated in detail utilizing the established resource requirements.

  5. Landing Characteristics of a Reentry Capsule with a Torus-Shaped Air Bag for Load Alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGehee, John R.; Hathaway, Melvin E.

    1960-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been made to determine the landing characteristics of a conical-shaped reentry capsule by using torus-shaped air bags for impact-load alleviation. An impact bag was attached below the large end of the capsule to absorb initial impact loads and a second bag was attached around the canister to absorb loads resulting from impact on the canister when the capsule overturned. A 1/6-scale dynamic model of the configuration was tested for nominal flight paths of 60 deg. and 90 deg. (vertical), a range of contact attitudes from -25 deg. to 30 deg., and a vertical contact velocity of 12.25 feet per second. Accelerations were measured along the X-axis (roll) and Z-axis (yaw) by accelerometers rigidly installed at the center of gravity of the model. Actual flight path, contact attitudes, and motions were determined from high-speed motion pictures. Landings were made on concrete and on water. The peak accelerations along the X-axis for landings on concrete were in the order of 3Og for a 0 deg. contact attitude. A horizontal velocity of 7 feet per second, corresponding to a flight path of 60 deg., had very little effect upon the peak accelerations obtained for landings on concrete. For contact attitudes of -25 deg. and 30 deg. the peak accelerations along the Z-axis were about +/- l5g, respectively. The peak accelerations measured for the water landings were about one-third lower than the peak accelerations measured for the landings on concrete. Assuming a rigid body, computations were made by using Newton's second law of motion and the force-stroke characteristics of the air bag to determine accelerations for a flight path of 90 deg. (vertical) and a contact attitude of 0 deg. The computed and experimental peak accelerations and strokes at peak acceleration were in good agreement for the model. The special scaling appears to be applicable for predicting full-scale time and stroke at peak acceleration for a landing on concrete from a 90 deg

  6. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized-bed-augmented compressed-air energy-storage system: system load following capability

    SciTech Connect

    Lessard, R.D.; Blecher, W.A.; Merrick, D.

    1981-09-01

    The load-following capability of fluidized bed combustion-augmented compressed air energy storage systems was evaluated. The results are presented in two parts. The first part is an Executive Summary which provides a concise overview of all major elements of the study including the conclusions, and, second, a detailed technical report describing the part-load and load following capability of both the pressurized fluid bed combustor and the entire pressurized fluid bed combustor/compressed air energy storage system. The specific tasks in this investigation were to: define the steady-state, part-load operation of the CAES open-bed PFBC; estimate the steady-state, part-load performance of the PFBC/CAES system and evaluate any possible operational constraints; simulate the performance of the PFBC/CAES system during transient operation and assess the load following capability of the system; and establish a start-up procedure for the open-bed PFBC and evaluate the impact of this procedure. The conclusions are encouraging and indicate that the open-bed PFBC/CAES power plant should provide good part-load and transient performance, and should have no major equipment-related constraints, specifically, no major problems associated with the performance or design of either the open-end PFBC or the PFBC/CAES power plant in steady-state, part-load operation are envisioned. The open-bed PFBC/CAES power plant would have a load following capability which would be responsive to electric utility requirements for a peak-load power plant. The open-bed PFBC could be brought to full operating conditions within 15 min after routine shutdown, by employing a hot-start mode of operation. The PFBC/CAES system would be capable of rapid changes in output power (12% of design load per minute) over a wide output power range (25% to 100% of design output). (LCL)

  7. Sensitivity analysis of air gap motion with respect to wind load and mooring system for semi-submersible platform design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Fa-li; Nie, Yan; Yang, De-qing; Dong, Gang; Cui, Jin

    2016-07-01

    A design of semi-submersible platform is mainly based on the extreme response analysis due to the forces experienced by the components during lifetime. The external loads can induce the extreme air gap response and potential deck impact to the semi-submersible platform. It is important to predict air gap response of platforms accurately in order to check the strength of local structures which withstand the wave slamming due to negative air gap. The wind load cannot be simulated easily by model test in towing tank whereas it can be simulated accurately in wind tunnel test. Furthermore, full scale simulation of the mooring system in model test is still a tuff work especially the stiffness of the mooring system. Owing to the above mentioned problem, the model test results are not accurate enough for air gap evaluation. The aim of this paper is to present sensitivity analysis results of air gap motion with respect to the mooring system and wind load for the design of semi-submersible platform. Though the model test results are not suitable for the direct evaluation of air gap, they can be used as a good basis for tuning the radiation damping and viscous drag in numerical simulation. In the presented design example, a numerical model is tuned and validated by ANSYS AQWA based on the model test results with a simple 4 line symmetrical horizontal soft mooring system. According to the tuned numerical model, sensitivity analysis studies of air gap motion with respect to the mooring system and wind load are performed in time domain. Three mooring systems and five simulation cases about the presented platform are simulated based on the results of wind tunnel tests and sea-keeping tests. The sensitivity analysis results are valuable for the floating platform design.

  8. 49 CFR 179.220-17 - Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air inlet devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., venting and air inlet devices. 179.220-17 Section 179.220-17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-17 Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and...

  9. 49 CFR 179.200-16 - Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and air inlet devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., venting and air inlet devices. 179.200-16 Section 179.200-16 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.200-16 Gauging devices, top loading and unloading devices, venting and...

  10. Copper-catalyzed N-arylation of amines with part-per-million catalyst loadings under air at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ruilong; Fu, Hua; Ling, Yun

    2011-08-21

    An efficient copper-catalyzed method for N-arylation of amines has been developed with part-per-million catalyst loadings at room temperature under air. Reactions of substituted (E)-1-(2-halophenyl)alkanone oximes with aliphatic amines or aromatic amines provided the N-arylation products in good to excellent yields. PMID:21727962

  11. The Effect of Journal Roughness and Foil Coatings on the Performance of Heavily Loaded Foil Air Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radil, Kevin C.; DellaCorte, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    Foil air bearing load capacity tests were conducted to investigate if a solid lubricant coating applied to the surface of the bearing's top foil can function as a break-in coating. Two foil coating materials, a conventional soft polymer film (polyimide) and a hard ceramic (alumina), were independently evaluated against as-ground and worn (run-in) journals coated with NASA PS304, a high-temperature solid lubricant composite coating. The foil coatings were evaluated at journal rotational speeds of 30,000 rpm and at 25 C. Tests were also performed on a foil bearing with a bare (uncoated) nickel-based superalloy top foil to establish a baseline for comparison. The test results indicate that the presence of a top foil solid lubricant coating is effective at increasing the load capacity performance of the foil bearing. Compared to the uncoated baseline, the addition of the soft polymer coating on the top foil increased the bearing load coefficient by 120% when operating against an as-ground journal surface and 85 percent against a run-in journal surface. The alumina coating increased the load coefficient by 40% against the as-ground journal but did not have any affect when the bearing was operated with the run-in journal. The results suggest that the addition of solid lubricant films provide added lubrication when the air film is marginal indicating that as the load capacity is approached foil air bearings transition from hydrodynamic to mixed and boundary lubrication.

  12. High-efficiency particulate air filter test stand and aerosol generator for particle loading studies.

    PubMed

    Arunkumar, R; Hogancamp, Kristina U; Parsons, Michael S; Rogers, Donna M; Norton, Olin P; Nagel, Brian A; Alderman, Steven L; Waggoner, Charles A

    2007-08-01

    This manuscript describes the design, characterization, and operational range of a test stand and high-output aerosol generator developed to evaluate the performance of 30 x 30 x 29 cm(3) nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters under variable, highly controlled conditions. The test stand system is operable at volumetric flow rates ranging from 1.5 to 12 standard m(3)/min. Relative humidity levels are controllable from 5%-90% and the temperature of the aerosol stream is variable from ambient to 150 degrees C. Test aerosols are produced through spray drying source material solutions that are introduced into a heated stainless steel evaporation chamber through an air-atomizing nozzle. Regulation of the particle size distribution of the aerosol challenge is achieved by varying source solution concentrations and through the use of a postgeneration cyclone. The aerosol generation system is unique in that it facilitates the testing of standard HEPA filters at and beyond rated media velocities by consistently providing, into a nominal flow of 7 standard m(3)/min, high mass concentrations (approximately 25 mg/m(3)) of dry aerosol streams having count mean diameters centered near the most penetrating particle size for HEPA filters (120-160 nm). Aerosol streams that have been generated and characterized include those derived from various concentrations of KCl, NaCl, and sucrose solutions. Additionally, a water insoluble aerosol stream in which the solid component is predominantly iron (III) has been produced. Multiple ports are available on the test stand for making simultaneous aerosol measurements upstream and downstream of the test filter. Types of filter performance related studies that can be performed using this test stand system include filter lifetime studies, filtering efficiency testing, media velocity testing, evaluations under high mass loading and high humidity conditions, and determination of the downstream particle size distributions.

  13. High-efficiency particulate air filter test stand and aerosol generator for particle loading studies.

    PubMed

    Arunkumar, R; Hogancamp, Kristina U; Parsons, Michael S; Rogers, Donna M; Norton, Olin P; Nagel, Brian A; Alderman, Steven L; Waggoner, Charles A

    2007-08-01

    This manuscript describes the design, characterization, and operational range of a test stand and high-output aerosol generator developed to evaluate the performance of 30 x 30 x 29 cm(3) nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters under variable, highly controlled conditions. The test stand system is operable at volumetric flow rates ranging from 1.5 to 12 standard m(3)/min. Relative humidity levels are controllable from 5%-90% and the temperature of the aerosol stream is variable from ambient to 150 degrees C. Test aerosols are produced through spray drying source material solutions that are introduced into a heated stainless steel evaporation chamber through an air-atomizing nozzle. Regulation of the particle size distribution of the aerosol challenge is achieved by varying source solution concentrations and through the use of a postgeneration cyclone. The aerosol generation system is unique in that it facilitates the testing of standard HEPA filters at and beyond rated media velocities by consistently providing, into a nominal flow of 7 standard m(3)/min, high mass concentrations (approximately 25 mg/m(3)) of dry aerosol streams having count mean diameters centered near the most penetrating particle size for HEPA filters (120-160 nm). Aerosol streams that have been generated and characterized include those derived from various concentrations of KCl, NaCl, and sucrose solutions. Additionally, a water insoluble aerosol stream in which the solid component is predominantly iron (III) has been produced. Multiple ports are available on the test stand for making simultaneous aerosol measurements upstream and downstream of the test filter. Types of filter performance related studies that can be performed using this test stand system include filter lifetime studies, filtering efficiency testing, media velocity testing, evaluations under high mass loading and high humidity conditions, and determination of the downstream particle size distributions. PMID

  14. High-efficiency particulate air filter test stand and aerosol generator for particle loading studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunkumar, R.; Hogancamp, Kristina U.; Parsons, Michael S.; Rogers, Donna M.; Norton, Olin P.; Nagel, Brian A.; Alderman, Steven L.; Waggoner, Charles A.

    2007-08-01

    This manuscript describes the design, characterization, and operational range of a test stand and high-output aerosol generator developed to evaluate the performance of 30×30×29cm3 nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters under variable, highly controlled conditions. The test stand system is operable at volumetric flow rates ranging from 1.5to12standardm3/min. Relative humidity levels are controllable from 5%-90% and the temperature of the aerosol stream is variable from ambient to 150°C. Test aerosols are produced through spray drying source material solutions that are introduced into a heated stainless steel evaporation chamber through an air-atomizing nozzle. Regulation of the particle size distribution of the aerosol challenge is achieved by varying source solution concentrations and through the use of a postgeneration cyclone. The aerosol generation system is unique in that it facilitates the testing of standard HEPA filters at and beyond rated media velocities by consistently providing, into a nominal flow of 7standardm3/min, high mass concentrations (˜25mg/m3) of dry aerosol streams having count mean diameters centered near the most penetrating particle size for HEPA filters (120-160nm). Aerosol streams that have been generated and characterized include those derived from various concentrations of KCl, NaCl, and sucrose solutions. Additionally, a water insoluble aerosol stream in which the solid component is predominantly iron (III) has been produced. Multiple ports are available on the test stand for making simultaneous aerosol measurements upstream and downstream of the test filter. Types of filter performance related studies that can be performed using this test stand system include filter lifetime studies, filtering efficiency testing, media velocity testing, evaluations under high mass loading and high humidity conditions, and determination of the downstream particle size distributions.

  15. Demolition of a hospital building by controlled explosion: the impact on filamentous fungal load in internal and external air.

    PubMed

    Bouza, E; Peláez, T; Pérez-Molina, J; Marín, M; Alcalá, L; Padilla, B; Muñoz, P; Adán, P; Bové, B; Bueno, M J; Grande, F; Puente, D; Rodríguez, M P; Rodríguez-Créixems, M; Vigil, D; Cuevas, O

    2002-12-01

    The demolition of a maternity building at our institution provided us with the opportunity to study the load of filamentous fungi in the air. External (nearby streets) and internal (within the hospital buildings) air was sampled with an automatic volumetric machine (MAS-100 Air Samplair) at least daily during the week before the demolition, at 10, 30, 60, 90,120, 180, 240, 420, 540 and 660 min post-demolition, daily during the week after the demolition and weekly during weeks 2, 3 and 4 after demolition. Samples were duplicated to analyse reproducibility. Three hundred and forty samples were obtained: 115 external air, 69 'non-protected' internal air and 156 protected internal air [high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered air under positive pressure]. A significant increase in the colony count of filamentous fungi occurred after the demolition. Median colony counts of external air on demolition day were significantly higher than from internal air (70.2 cfu/m(3) vs 35.8 cfu/m(3)) (P < 0.001). Mechanical demolition on day +4 also produced a significant difference between external and internal air (74.5 cfu/m(3) vs 41.7 cfu/m(3)). The counts returned to baseline levels on day +11. Most areas with a protected air supply yielded no colonies before demolition day and remained negative on demolition day. The reproducibility of the count method was good (intra-assay variance: 2.4 cfu/m(3)). No episodes of invasive filamentous mycosis were detected during the three months following the demolition. Demolition work was associated with a significant increase in the fungal colony counts of hospital external and non-protected internal air. Effective protective measures may be taken to avoid the emergence of clinical infections.

  16. Incorporating residential AC load control into ancillary service markets: Measurement and settlement

    SciTech Connect

    Bode, Josh L.; Sullivan, Michael J.; Berghman, Dries; Eto, Joseph H.

    2013-05-01

    Many pre-existing air conditioner load control programs can provide valuable operational flexibility but have not been incorporated into electricity ancillary service markets or grid operations. Multiple demonstrations have shown that residential air conditioner (AC) response can deliver resources quickly and can provide contingency reserves. A key policy hurdle to be overcome before AC load control can be fully incorporated into markets is how to balance the accuracy, cost, and complexity of methods available for the settlement of load curtailment. Overcoming this hurdle requires a means for assessing the accuracy of shorter-term AC load control demand reduction estimation approaches in an unbiased manner. This paper applies such a method to compare the accuracy of approaches varying in cost and complexity ? including regression analysis, load matching and control group approaches ? using feeder data, household data and AC end-use data. We recommend a practical approach for settlement, relying on an annually updated set of tables, with pre-calculated reduction estimates. These tables allow users to look up the demand reduction per device based on daily maximum temperature, geographic region and hour of day, simplifying settlement and providing a solution to the policy problem presented in this paper.

  17. Air-Loads Prediction of a UH-60A Rotor inside the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, I-Chung; Romander, Ethan A.; Potsdam, Mark; Yeo, Hyeonsoo

    2010-01-01

    The presented research extends the capability of a loose coupling computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational structure dynamics (CSD) code to calculate the flow-field around a rotor and test stand mounted inside a wind tunnel. Comparison of predicted air-load results for a full-scale UH-60A rotor recently tested inside the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at Ames Research Center and in free-air flight are made for three challenging flight data points from the earlier conducted UH-60A Air-loads Program. Overall results show that the extension of the coupled CFD/CSD code to the wind-tunnel environment is generally successful.

  18. Cell module and fuel conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, D. Q., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of stack height changes with temperature and cell material characteristics were made. Stack 559 was assembled and components were fabricated for 560, 561, and 562. Stack 425 was transferred from the parallel DOE program and installed in the OS/IES simulation loop for mechanical and electrical testing. Construction and preliminary checkout of the 2 kW test facility was completed and design and procurement of the 8 kW test facility was initiated. The fuel conditioning subsystem design continued to evolve and the state points for the current design were calculated at full and part load conditions. Steam reforming catalyst activity tests were essentially completed and aging tests and CO shift converter tests were initiated.

  19. Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low-Load Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Backman, C.; German, A.; Dakin, B.; Springer, D.

    2013-12-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  20. Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low-Load Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Backman, C.; German, A.; Dakin, B.; Springer, D.

    2013-12-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  1. Do residential air-conditioning rebates miss the mark?

    SciTech Connect

    Stickney, B.; Shepard, M.

    1994-12-31

    The rebates utilities provide for residential central air conditioners and heat pumps to encourage improved cooling efficiency may inadvertently reward higher peak demand in many cases. This problem could be avoided by using both efficiency and peak performance to determine eligibility for rebates. Such changes to incentive formulas would better align the utilities` DSM programs with the dual goals of improved efficiency and peak demand reduction. Improved peak performance would be especially advantageous for sunbelt utilities whose residential cooling load is highly coincident with the summer peak. Air conditioning has been called the utilities` ``load from hell,`` because it is intermittent, unpredictable, and is the largest contributor to summer peak demand, requiring massive investments in power generation and delivery capacity. It is no wonder then that more DSM programs are targeted at space cooling than at any other end use. Ironically, however, all of the residential rebate programs the authors examined for central air conditioners and heat pumps are based on the seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER), which provides a valuable measure of seasonal energy efficiency but is not a good indicator of peak demand. Residential central air conditioning incentive programs for eight major utilities are based exclusively on SEER and most ratchet up the incentive levels with increasing SEER. None include the measure for peak demand for residential cooling equipment, which is the so-called energy efficiency ratio, or EER.

  2. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  3. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...

  4. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. 870.2050 Section 870.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A biopotential amplifier and...

  5. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. 870.2050 Section 870.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A biopotential amplifier and...

  6. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...

  7. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. 870.2050 Section 870.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A biopotential amplifier and...

  8. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...

  9. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...

  10. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. 870.2050 Section 870.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A biopotential amplifier and...

  11. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. 870.2050 Section 870.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... conditioner is a device used to amplify or condition an electrical signal of biologic origin....

  12. Evaluation of Ag nanoparticle coated air filter against aerosolized virus: Anti-viral efficiency with dust loading.

    PubMed

    Joe, Yun Haeng; Park, Dae Hoon; Hwang, Jungho

    2016-01-15

    In this study, the effect of dust loading on the anti-viral ability of an anti-viral air filter was investigated. Silver nanoparticles approximately 11 nm in diameter were synthesized via a spark discharge generation system and were used as anti-viral agents coated onto a medium air filter. The pressure drop, filtration efficiency, and anti-viral ability of the filter against aerosolized bacteriophage MS2 virus particles were tested with dust loading. The filtration efficiency and pressure drop increased with dust loading, while the anti-viral ability decreased. Theoretical analysis of anti-viral ability with dust loading was carried out using a mathematical model based on that presented by Joe et al. (J. Hazard. Mater.; 280: 356-363, 2014). Our model can be used to compare anti-viral abilities of various anti-viral agents, determine appropriate coating areal density of anti-viral agent on a filter, and predict the life cycle of an anti-viral filter. PMID:26434534

  13. Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countriesand what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in theResidential Sector

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2007-05-01

    The dynamics of air conditioning are of particular interestto energy analysts, both because of the high energy consumption of thisproduct, but also its disproportionate impact on peak load. This paperaddresses the special role of this end use as a driver of residentialelectricity consumption in rapidly developing economies. Recent historyhas shown that air conditioner ownership can grow grows more rapidly thaneconomic growth in warm-climate countries. In 1990, less than a percentof urban Chinese households owned an air conditioner; by 2003 this numberrose to 62 percent. The evidence suggests a similar explosion of airconditioner use in many other countries is not far behind. Room airconditioner purchases in India are currently growing at 20 percent peryear, with about half of these purchases attributed to the residentialsector. This paper draws on two distinct methodological elements toassess future residential air conditioner 'business as usual' electricityconsumption by country/region and to consider specific alternative 'highefficiency' scenarios. The first component is an econometric ownershipand use model based on household income, climate and demographicparameters. The second combines ownership forecasts and stock accountingwith geographically specific efficiency scenarios within a uniqueanalysis framework (BUENAS) developed by LBNL. The efficiency scenariomodule considers current efficiency baselines, available technologies,and achievable timelines for development of market transformationprograms, such as minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) andlabeling programs. The result is a detailed set of consumption andemissions scenarios for residential air conditioning.

  14. Life Cycle Assessment of Residential Heating and Cooling Systems in Minnesota A comprehensive analysis on life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and cost-effectiveness of ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems compared to the conventional gas furnace and air conditioner system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mo

    Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) technologies for residential heating and cooling are often suggested as an effective means to curb energy consumption, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and lower homeowners' heating and cooling costs. As such, numerous federal, state and utility-based incentives, most often in the forms of financial incentives, installation rebates, and loan programs, have been made available for these technologies. While GSHP technology for space heating and cooling is well understood, with widespread implementation across the U.S., research specific to the environmental and economic performance of these systems in cold climates, such as Minnesota, is limited. In this study, a comparative environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted of typical residential HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) systems in Minnesota to investigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for delivering 20 years of residential heating and cooling—maintaining indoor temperatures of 68°F (20°C) and 75°F (24°C) in Minnesota-specific heating and cooling seasons, respectively. Eight residential GSHP design scenarios (i.e. horizontal loop field, vertical loop field, high coefficient of performance, low coefficient of performance, hybrid natural gas heat back-up) and one conventional natural gas furnace and air conditioner system are assessed for GHG and life cycle economic costs. Life cycle GHG emissions were found to range between 1.09 × 105 kg CO2 eq. and 1.86 × 10 5 kg CO2 eq. Six of the eight GSHP technology scenarios had fewer carbon impacts than the conventional system. Only in cases of horizontal low-efficiency GSHP and hybrid, do results suggest increased GHGs. Life cycle costs and present value analyses suggest GSHP technologies can be cost competitive over their 20-year life, but that policy incentives may be required to reduce the high up-front capital costs of GSHPs and relatively long payback periods of more than 20 years. In addition

  15. Effects of a non-rinse conditioner on the enamel of primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Fava, Marcelo; Myaki, Silvio Issáo; Arana-Chavez, Victor Elias; Fava-de-Moraes, Flavio

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate by scanning electron microscopy the morphological aspects of the enamel of primary teeth after etching with 36% phosphoric acid or a non-rinse conditioner. Ten naturally exfoliated anterior primary teeth were selected. The samples were subjected to prophylaxis with pumice paste and water using a low-speed hand piece. Etching was done on the buccal surface. Specimens were divided into 2 groups: G1 (n=10): etching with 36% phosphoric acid gel - Conditioner 36 (Dentsply) for 20 s, followed by water rinse for 15 s; G2 (n=10): etching with NRC - Non Rinse Conditioner (Dentsply) for 20 s, followed by air drying for 15 s. The samples were dehydrated, mounted on metal stubs, coated with gold and observed with Jeol JSM-6100 scanning electron microscope. Electron-micrographic analysis showed that both etching agents were effective for etching the enamel of primary teeth causing the formation of microporosities on the enamel surface, although the etching pattern was more effective with the use of 36% phosphoric acid gel. PMID:15057391

  16. A compact orifice meter/flow conditioner package

    SciTech Connect

    Karnik, U.

    1995-12-31

    Flow conditioners have been the center of attention within the natural gas industry for several years. Their importance stems from the fact that, in the presence of existing installations such as elbows, accurate orifice metering can be obtained, within a specified meter length, only if the flow non-uniformities are eliminated. The tube bundle has, thus far, proven to be ineffective in terms of repeatability and reliability. Thus, NOVA embarked on the mission to find a flow conditioner which would, within the shortest possible meter length, provide accurate and repeatable metering. Of the several flow conditioners discussed in the literature, the approach adopted by Laws, based on screen theory, is best suited to achieve the desired results. However, the Laws flow conditioner has some functional flaws, for example, the claim of a fully developed flow with no account for the effect of Reynolds number. Hence, NOVA has re-designed and modified the existing Laws flow conditioner has some functional flaws, for example, the claim of a fully developed flow with no account for the effect of Reynolds number. Hence, NOVA has re-designed and modified the existing Laws flow conditioner using screen theory. This program, initiated in 1991, has resulted in a perforated plate flow conditioner sandwiched in a meter run with an overall length of 13D.

  17. Characterization of Viral Load, Viability and Persistence of Influenza A Virus in Air and on Surfaces of Swine Production Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Neira, Victor; Rabinowitz, Peter; Rendahl, Aaron; Paccha, Blanca; Gibbs, Shawn G.; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Indirect transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) in swine is poorly understood and information is lacking on levels of environmental exposure encountered by swine and people during outbreaks of IAV in swine barns. We characterized viral load, viability and persistence of IAV in air and on surfaces during outbreaks in swine barns. IAV was detected in pigs, air and surfaces from five confirmed outbreaks with 48% (47/98) of oral fluid, 38% (32/84) of pen railing and 43% (35/82) of indoor air samples testing positive by IAV RT-PCR. IAV was isolated from air and oral fluids yielding a mixture of subtypes (H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2). Detection of IAV RNA from air was sustained during the outbreaks with maximum levels estimated between 7 and 11 days from reported onset. Our results indicate that during outbreaks of IAV in swine, aerosols and surfaces in barns contain significant levels of IAV potentially representing an exposure hazard to both swine and people. PMID:26757362

  18. Characterization of Viral Load, Viability and Persistence of Influenza A Virus in Air and on Surfaces of Swine Production Facilities.

    PubMed

    Neira, Victor; Rabinowitz, Peter; Rendahl, Aaron; Paccha, Blanca; Gibbs, Shawn G; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Indirect transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) in swine is poorly understood and information is lacking on levels of environmental exposure encountered by swine and people during outbreaks of IAV in swine barns. We characterized viral load, viability and persistence of IAV in air and on surfaces during outbreaks in swine barns. IAV was detected in pigs, air and surfaces from five confirmed outbreaks with 48% (47/98) of oral fluid, 38% (32/84) of pen railing and 43% (35/82) of indoor air samples testing positive by IAV RT-PCR. IAV was isolated from air and oral fluids yielding a mixture of subtypes (H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2). Detection of IAV RNA from air was sustained during the outbreaks with maximum levels estimated between 7 and 11 days from reported onset. Our results indicate that during outbreaks of IAV in swine, aerosols and surfaces in barns contain significant levels of IAV potentially representing an exposure hazard to both swine and people. PMID:26757362

  19. Main rotor free wake geometry effects on blade air loads and response for helicopters in steady maneuvers. Volume 1: Theoretical formulation and analysis of results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadler, S. G.

    1972-01-01

    A mathematical model and computer program were implemented to study the main rotor free wake geometry effects on helicopter rotor blade air loads and response in steady maneuvers. The theoretical formulation and analysis of results are presented.

  20. 75 FR 27227 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Central Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... as a public meeting to discuss and receive comment on the preliminary analysis. 75 FR 14368. The NOPM... Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and... conservation standards for residential central air conditioners and heat pumps; the analytical...

  1. 75 FR 31223 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Residential Central Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... method for crediting heat pumps that provide a demand defrost capability. 53 FR 8304. The next revision... Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 105... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Residential Central Air Conditioners and...

  2. Lemongrass-Incorporated Tissue Conditioner Against Candida albicans Culture

    PubMed Central

    Amornvit, Pokpong; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tissue conditioner is applied popularly with dental prosthesis during wound healing process but it becomes a reservoir of oral microbiota, especially Candida species after long-term usage. Several antifungal drugs have been mixed with this material to control fungal level. In this study, lemongrass essential oil was added into COE-COMFORT tissue conditioner before being determined for anti-Candida efficacy. Materials and Methods: Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil was primarily determined for antifungal activity against C. albicans American type culture collection (ATCC) 10231 and MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) value by agar disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods, respectively. COE-COMFORT tissue conditioner was prepared as recommended by the manufacturer after a fixed volume of the oil at its MIC or higher concentrations were mixed thoroughly in its liquid part. Antifungal efficacy of the tissue conditioner with/without herb was finally analyzed. Results: Lemongrass essential oil displayed potent antifungal activity against C. albicans ATCC 10231and its MIC value was 0.06% (v/v). Dissimilarly, the tissue conditioner containing the oil at MIC level did not cease the growth of the tested fungus. Both reference and clinical isolates of C. albicans were completely inhibited after exposed to the tissue conditioner containing at least 0.25% (v/v) of the oil (approximately 4-time MIC). The tissue conditioner without herb or with nystatin was employed as negative or positive control, respectively. Conclusion: COE-COMFORT tissue conditioner supplemented with lemongrass essential oil obviously demonstrated another desirable property as in vitro anti-Candida efficacy to minimize the risk of getting Candidal infection. PMID:25177638

  3. 16 CFR Appendix E to Part 305 - Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER...'s/yr Range of Estimated Annual Operating Costs (Dollars/Year) LOW HIGH Without Reverse Cycle and... $112 14,000 to 19,999 Btu $105 $176 20,000 and more Btu $166 $338 Without Reverse Cycle and...

  4. 16 CFR Appendix E to Part 305 - Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND WATER USE LABELING FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âENERGY... Without Reverse Cycle and with Louvered Sides: Less than 6,000 Btu $42 $48 6,000 to 7,999 Btu 50 72 8,000 to 13,999 Btu 66 115 14,000 to 19,999 Btu 117 195 20,000 and more Btu 169 382 Without Reverse...

  5. 16 CFR Appendix E to Part 305 - Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER...'s/yr Range of Estimated Annual Operating Costs (Dollars/Year) LOW HIGH Without Reverse Cycle and... $112 14,000 to 19,999 Btu $105 $176 20,000 and more Btu $166 $338 Without Reverse Cycle and...

  6. 16 CFR Appendix E to Part 305 - Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER...'s/yr Range of Estimated Annual Operating Costs (Dollars/Year) LOW HIGH Without Reverse Cycle and... $112 14,000 to 19,999 Btu $105 $176 20,000 and more Btu $166 $338 Without Reverse Cycle and...

  7. Absorption generator for solar-powered air-conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowen, D. J.; Murray, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Device passes solar-heated water through coils. Hot lithium Bromide/Water solution leaves through central stand-pipe, and water vapor leaves through refrigerant outlet at top. Matching generation temperature to collector efficiency helps cut costs.

  8. Modeling and Control of Aggregated Air Conditioning Loads Under Realistic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chin-Yao; Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2013-02-24

    Demand-side control is playing an increasingly important role in smart grid control strategies. Modeling the dynamical behavior of a large population of appliances is especially important to evaluate the effectiveness of various load control strategies. In this paper, a high accuracy aggregated model is first developed for a population of HVAC units. The model efficiently includes statistical information of the population, systematically deals with heterogeneity, and accounts for a second-order effect necessary to accurately capture the transient dynamics in the collective response. Furthermore, the model takes into account the lockout effect of the compressor in order to represent the dynamics of the system under control more accurately. Then, a novel closed loop load control strategy is designed to track a desired demand curve and to ensure a stable and smooth response.

  9. Study of loading/air back-pulse cleaning cycles on the performance of ceramic membrane filters

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, Charles; Alderman, Steven; Parsons, Michael; Hogoncamp, Kristina; Alderman, Steven

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The most commonly identified threats to conventional glass fiber HEPA filter performance are moisture and rapid blinding of filters by smoke. Regenerable filter media composed of ceramics or sintered metal can be utilized as pre-filters to protect the more vulnerable glass fiber HEPA filters in the event of upset conditions. Additionally, used in a pre-filtering application, the use of these regenerable filters can potentially extend the lifetime of conventional units. A series of tests have been conducted using CeraMem ceramic membrane filters in an effort to evaluate their performance after repeated loading and air back pulse cleaning. This was done in an effort to access filter performance after repeated loading/cleaning cycles. The filters were loaded using a solid potassium chloride aerosol challenge. The filters were evaluated for pressure drop and filtering efficiency changes from one cleaning cycle to the next. Additionally, the particle size distribution of the aerosol penetrating the filters was measured. (authors)

  10. Decrease in air pollution load in urban environment of Bratislava (Slovakia) inferred from accumulation of metal elements in lichens.

    PubMed

    Guttová, Anna; Lackovičová, Anna; Pišút, Ivan; Pišút, Peter

    2011-11-01

    The study illustrates the response of epiphytic lichens to changing atmospheric conditions in Central Europe, where the emission of air pollutants has significantly decreased from 1990, in the area in and around Bratislava City. Variation in concentrations of seven metal elements (Cu, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the thalli of Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Parmelia sulcata is assessed. Samples of these species were exposed in lichen bags in 39 sites throughout the territory of the city (more than 300 km(2)) during the period December 2006-February 2007. The samples were analyzed by AAS for metal element contents prior to and after exposure. The decrease in air pollution (for all studied elements by more than 90%) corresponded to a decrease in the accumulation of elements in lichen thalli, e.g. the contents of Pb decreased by 69% and of Cd by 34% on average. The results show also variations in accumulation between with different lichen species. The background values of metal element contents in thalli of H. physodes growing in situ were measured in semi-natural sites in Slovakia. It is suggested that these can be used as a reference in large-scale monitoring studies in Central Europe. Analysis of compatible data from the current study, and the study performed at the end of 1990s shows a significant decrease of metal elements in the air pollution load. PMID:21327486

  11. Decrease in air pollution load in urban environment of Bratislava (Slovakia) inferred from accumulation of metal elements in lichens.

    PubMed

    Guttová, Anna; Lackovičová, Anna; Pišút, Ivan; Pišút, Peter

    2011-11-01

    The study illustrates the response of epiphytic lichens to changing atmospheric conditions in Central Europe, where the emission of air pollutants has significantly decreased from 1990, in the area in and around Bratislava City. Variation in concentrations of seven metal elements (Cu, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the thalli of Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Parmelia sulcata is assessed. Samples of these species were exposed in lichen bags in 39 sites throughout the territory of the city (more than 300 km(2)) during the period December 2006-February 2007. The samples were analyzed by AAS for metal element contents prior to and after exposure. The decrease in air pollution (for all studied elements by more than 90%) corresponded to a decrease in the accumulation of elements in lichen thalli, e.g. the contents of Pb decreased by 69% and of Cd by 34% on average. The results show also variations in accumulation between with different lichen species. The background values of metal element contents in thalli of H. physodes growing in situ were measured in semi-natural sites in Slovakia. It is suggested that these can be used as a reference in large-scale monitoring studies in Central Europe. Analysis of compatible data from the current study, and the study performed at the end of 1990s shows a significant decrease of metal elements in the air pollution load.

  12. Design of Interline Unified Power Quality Conditioner for Power Quality Disturbances using Simulink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumaraswamy, G.; Reddy, Y. Rajasekhar; Harikrishna, Ch.

    2012-10-01

    Proliferation of electronic equipment in commercial and industrial processes has resulted in increasingly sensitive electrical loads to be fed from power distribution system which introduce contamination to voltage and current waveforms at the point of common coupling of industrial loads. The unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) is connected between two different feeders (lines), hence this method of connection of the UPQC is called as Interline UPQC (IUPQC).This paper proposes a new connection for a UPQC to improve the power quality of two feeders in a distribution system. Interline Unified Power Quality Conditioner (IUPQC), specifically aims at the integration of series VSC and Shunt VSC to provide high quality power supply by means of voltage sag/swell compensation, harmonic elimination and power factor correction in a power distribution network, so that improved power quality can be made available at the point of common coupling. The structure, control and capability of the IUPQC are discussed in this paper. The efficiency of the proposed configuration has been verified through simulation using MATLAB/ SIMULINK.

  13. Embedding Quantum into Classical: Contextualization vs Conditionalization

    PubMed Central

    Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N.; Kujala, Janne V.

    2014-01-01

    We compare two approaches to embedding joint distributions of random variables recorded under different conditions (such as spins of entangled particles for different settings) into the framework of classical, Kolmogorovian probability theory. In the contextualization approach each random variable is “automatically” labeled by all conditions under which it is recorded, and the random variables across a set of mutually exclusive conditions are probabilistically coupled (imposed a joint distribution upon). Analysis of all possible probabilistic couplings for a given set of random variables allows one to characterize various relations between their separate distributions (such as Bell-type inequalities or quantum-mechanical constraints). In the conditionalization approach one considers the conditions under which the random variables are recorded as if they were values of another random variable, so that the observed distributions are interpreted as conditional ones. This approach is uninformative with respect to relations between the distributions observed under different conditions because any set of such distributions is compatible with any distribution assigned to the conditions. PMID:24681665

  14. B and F Signal Conditioner Checkout Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magleby, Alyssa; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    ATK Thiokol Propulsion, Test Services uses B&F Signal Conditioning units to provide excitation power and shunt calibration information to the data recording systems. Gage measurements such as force, temperature, pressure, strain, etc. are recorded using this equipment. Approximately 2500 reusable instrumentation B&F Signal Conditioning units were purchased over an interval from 1978 to 1988 at a cost of around $1000 each. Through use and over time, the relay contacts on the signal conditioning mode cards have become corroded, resulting in excessive contact resistance. This causes inaccurate and inconsistent calibration data and could jeopardize the test results. These signal conditioning cards are needed for product testing for an estimated five more years, therefore, it is necessary to develop a solution to isolate the malfunctioning units for repair. The current screening method requires Test Area technicians to check cards manually, however the connections and measurements required for this process are inefficient and time consuming. To resolve this problem, funding was approved to design and build two B&F Signal Conditioner Checkout Units. Each unit will allow technicians to test relay contact resistance on signal conditioning mode cards before they are installed for data collection procedures. This tool will allow Test Area to resolve calibration accuracy problems and extend the life of the data acquisition equipment, as well as save troubleshooting time for the technicians.

  15. Influence of dust loading on the alpha-particle energy resolution of continuous air monitors for thin deposits of radioactive aerosols.

    PubMed

    Huang, Suilou; Schery, Stephen D; Alcantara, Raul E; Rodgers, John C; Wasiolek, Piotr T

    2002-12-01

    Alpha-particle continuous air monitors must sometimes be operated in dusty environments where significant dust loading of the filter can be anticipated. It is important to understand how this dust loading affects the response of the continuous air monitors. Not only must a filter be changed if there is a reduction in airflow, but a change may be necessary if the energy resolution deteriorates and the continuous air monitor loses sensitivity and specificity for the radioactive aerosols of interest. A series of experiments were conducted to investigate alpha-particle energy resolution of continuous air monitor filters, particularly under dust loading conditions. Aerosol particles of various sizes were tagged with radon decay products to serve as surrogates for radioactive aerosols of interest such as plutonium or uranium. While the size of radioactive aerosols, filter type, and dust type affected the energy resolution, the thickness of an underlying (nonradioactive) dust layer did not show significant effect for the materials studied and a loading range of 0.01-10 mg x cm(-2). Our results indicate that it is possible for continuous air monitors to detect the release of radioactive aerosols with little deterioration in energy resolution under conditions of significant dust loading provided that the deposited layer of radioactive aerosols remains thin (< or = 0.1 mg x cm(-2)).

  16. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Waste Composition and High Efficiency Particulate Air Filter Loading

    SciTech Connect

    ZIMMERMAN, B.D.

    2000-12-11

    This analysis evaluates the effect of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) waste isotopic composition on Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) accidents involving high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter failure in Double-Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRTs). The HEPA Filter Failure--Exposure to High Temperature or Pressure, and Steam Intrusion From Interfacing Systems accidents are considered. The analysis concludes that dose consequences based on the PFP waste isotopic composition are bounded by previous FSAR analyses. This supports USQD TF-00-0768.

  17. Spectra of conditionalization and typicality in the multiverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2016-02-01

    An approach to testing theories describing a multiverse, that has gained interest of late, involves comparing theory-generated probability distributions over observables with their experimentally measured values. It is likely that such distributions, were we indeed able to calculate them unambiguously, will assign low probabilities to any such experimental measurements. An alternative to thereby rejecting these theories, is to conditionalize the distributions involved by restricting attention to domains of the multiverse in which we might arise. In order to elicit a crisp prediction, however, one needs to make a further assumption about how typical we are of the chosen domains. In this paper, we investigate interactions between the spectra of available assumptions regarding both conditionalization and typicality, and draw out the effects of these interactions in a concrete setting; namely, on predictions of the total number of species that contribute significantly to dark matter. In particular, for each conditionalization scheme studied, we analyze how correlations between densities of different dark matter species affect the prediction, and explicate the effects of assumptions regarding typicality. We find that the effects of correlations can depend on the conditionalization scheme, and that in each case atypicality can significantly change the prediction. In doing so, we demonstrate the existence of overlaps in the predictions of different "frameworks" consisting of conjunctions of theory, conditionalization scheme and typicality assumption. This conclusion highlights the acute challenges involved in using such tests to identify a preferred framework that aims to describe our observational situation in a multiverse.

  18. Design and demonstration of a storage-assisted air conditioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzuto, J. E.

    1981-03-01

    The system is a peak-shaving system designed to provide a levelized air conditioning load. The system also requires minimum air conditioner and thermal storage capacity. The storage-assisted air conditioning system uses a Glauber's salt-based phase change material in sausage like containers called CHUBS. The CHUBS are two (2) inches in diameter and 20 inches long. They are stacked in modules of 64 CHUBS which are appropriately spaced and oriented in the storage system so that air may pass perpendicular to the long axis of the CHUBS. The phase change material, has a thermal storage capacity in the range of 45 to 50 Btu/lb and a transition temperature of approximately 55 F.

  19. Allergies to molds caused by fungal spores in air conditioning equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Schata, M.; Jorde, W. ); Elixmann, J.H.; Linskens, H.F. )

    1989-01-01

    People suffering from various symptoms while in air-conditioned rooms often show sensitizations to fungi that can be isolated when the fungi are removed from air conditioners. By using specific challenge tests it was shown that fungal spores in air conditioners can evoke allergic symptoms. Hyposensitization was the specific therapy prescribed for such allergic reactions. After hyposensitization therapy, more than 70% of the patients so treated could live and work again in air-conditioned rooms without developing specific symptoms.

  20. The role of loading rate, backwashing, water and air velocities in an up-flow nitrifying tertiary filter.

    PubMed

    Vigne, Emmanuelle; Choubert, Jean-Marc; Canler, Jean-Pierre; Heduit, Alain; Sørensen, Kim Helleshøj; Lessard, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The vertical distribution of nitrification performances in an up-flow biological aerated filter operated at tertiary nitrification stage is evaluated in this paper. Experimental data were collected from a semi-industrial pilot-plant under various operating conditions. The actual and the maximum nitrification rates were measured at different levels inside the up-flow biofilter. A nitrogen loading rate higher than 1.0 kg NH4-Nm(-3)_mediad(-1) is necessary to obtain nitrification activity over all the height of the biofilter. The increase in water and air velocities from 6 to 10 m h(-1) and 10 to 20 m h(-1) has increased the nitrification rate by 80% and 20% respectively. Backwashing decreases the maximum nitrification rate in the media by only 3-14%. The nitrification rate measured at a level of 0.5 m above the bottom of the filter is four times higher than the applied daily average volumetric nitrogen loading rate up to 1.5 kg NH4-N m(-3)_mediad(-1). Finally, it is shown that 58% of the available nitrification activity is mobilized in steady-state conditions while up to 100% is used under inflow-rate increase.

  1. COMPOSITION CHANGES IN REFRIGERANT BLENDS FOR AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three refrigerant blends used to replace CFC-12 in automotive air conditioners were evaluated for composition changes due to typical servicing and leakage. When recommended service procedures were followed, changes in blend compositions were relatively small. Small changes in b...

  2. Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide-Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Karagiozis, A.N.

    2007-05-15

    This document serves as the final report documenting work completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Fraunhofer Institute in Building Physics (Holzkirchen, Germany) under an international CRADA No. 0575 with Fraunhofer Institute of Bauphysics of the Federal Republic of Germany for Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads. This CRADA required a multi-faceted approach to building envelope research that included a moisture engineering approach by blending extensive material property analysis, laboratory system and sub-system thermal and moisture testing, and advanced moisture analysis prediction performance. The Participant's Institute for Building physics (IBP) and the Contractor's Buildings Technology Center (BTC) identified potential research projects and activities capable of accelerating and advancing the development of innovative, low energy and durable building envelope systems in diverse climates. This allowed a major leverage of the limited resources available to ORNL to execute the required Department of Energy (DOE) directives in the area of moisture engineering. A joint working group (ORNL and Fraunhofer IBP) was assembled and a research plan was executed from May 2000 to May 2005. A number of key deliverables were produced such as adoption of North American loading into the WUFI-software. in addition the ORNL Weather File Analyzer was created and this has been used to address environmental loading for a variety of US climates. At least 4 papers have been co-written with the CRADA partners, and a chapter in the ASTM Manual 40 on Moisture Analysis and Condensation Control. All deliverables and goals were met and exceeded making this collaboration a success to all parties involves.

  3. Investigation of Techniques to Improve Continuous Air Monitors Under Conditions of High Dust Loading in Environmental Settings

    SciTech Connect

    Suilou Huang; Stephen D. Schery; John C. Rodgers

    2002-07-23

    A number of DOE facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), use alpha-particle environmental continuous air monitors (ECAMs) to monitor air for unwanted releases of radioactive aerosols containing such materials as plutonium and uranium. High sensitivity, ease of operation, and lack of false alarms are all important for ECAMs. The object of the project was to conduct investigations to improve operation of ECAMs, particularly under conditions where a lot of nonradioactive dust may be deposited on the filters (conditions of high dust loading). The presence of such dust may increase the frequency with which filters must be changed and can lead to an increased incidence of false alarms due to deteriorated energy resolution and response specificity to the radionuclides of interest. A major finding of the investigation, not previously documented, was that under many conditions thick layers of underlying nonradioactive dust do not decrease energy resolution and specificity for target radionuclides if the radioactive aerosol arrives as a sudden thin burst deposit, as commonly occurs in the early-warning alarm mode. As a result, operators of ECAMs may not need to change filters as often as previously thought and have data upon which to base more reliable operating procedures.

  4. An analysis of available data on effects of wing-fuselage-tail and wing-nacelle interference on the distribution of the air load among components of airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollner, Bertram C

    1949-01-01

    Available information on the effects of wing-fuselage-tail and wing-nacelle interference on the distribution of the air load among components of airplanes is analyzed. The effects of wing and nacelle incidence, horizontal andvertical position of wing and nacelle, fuselage shape, wing section and filleting are considered. Where sufficient data were unavailable to determine the distribution of the air load, the change in lift caused by interference between wing and fuselage was found. This increment is affected to the greatest extent by vertical wing position.

  5. 21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3750 Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872... and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a device... to a tooth surface. (b) Classification. Class II....

  7. 21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872... and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a device... to a tooth surface. (b) Classification. Class II....

  8. 21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872... and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a device... to a tooth surface. (b) Classification. Class II....

  9. Smart sensors enable smart air conditioning control.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection. PMID:24961213

  10. Smart sensors enable smart air conditioning control.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-06-24

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection.

  11. Smart Sensors Enable Smart Air Conditioning Control

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection. PMID:24961213

  12. Two lighter than air systems in opposing flight regimes: An unmanned short haul, heavy load transport balloon and a manned, light payload airship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohl, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Lighter Than Air vehicles are generally defined or categorized by the shape of the balloon, payload capacity and operational flight regime. Two balloon systems that are classed as being in opposite categories are described. One is a cable guided, helium filled, short haul, heavy load transport Lighter Than Air system with a natural shaped envelope. The other is a manned, aerodynamic shaped airship which utilizes hot air as the buoyancy medium and is in the light payload class. While the airship is in the design/fabrication phase with flight tests scheduled for the latter part of 1974, the transport balloon system has been operational for some eight years.

  13. Main rotor free wake geometry effects on blade air loads and response for helicopters in steady maneuvers. Volume 2: Program listings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadler, S. G.

    1972-01-01

    A mathematical model and computer program was implemented to study the main rotor free wake geometry effects on helicopter rotor blade air loads and response in steady maneuvers. Volume 1 (NASA CR-2110) contains the theoretical formulation and analysis of results. Volume 2 contains the computer program listing.

  14. Transforming PC Power Supplies into Smart Car Battery Conditioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Ascariz, J. M.; Boquete-Vazquez, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory project consisting of a PC power supply modification into an intelligent car-battery conditioner with both wireless and wired networking capabilities. Adding a microcontroller to an average PC power supply transforms it into a flexible, intelligent device that can be configured and that is suitable to keep car…

  15. 21 CFR 882.1845 - Physiological signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Physiological signal conditioner. 882.1845 Section 882.1845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... integrator or differentiator used to modify physiological signals for recording and processing....

  16. 21 CFR 882.1845 - Physiological signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Physiological signal conditioner. 882.1845 Section 882.1845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... integrator or differentiator used to modify physiological signals for recording and processing....

  17. 21 CFR 882.1845 - Physiological signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Physiological signal conditioner. 882.1845 Section 882.1845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... integrator or differentiator used to modify physiological signals for recording and processing....

  18. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices §...

  19. Contraction pre-conditioner in finite-difference electromagnetic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavich, Nikolay; Zhdanov, Michael S.

    2016-09-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach to constructing an effective pre-conditioner for finite-difference (FD) electromagnetic modelling in geophysical applications. This approach is based on introducing an FD contraction operator, similar to one developed for integral equation formulation of Maxwell's equation. The properties of the FD contraction operator were established using an FD analogue of the energy equality for the anomalous electromagnetic field. A new pre-conditioner uses a discrete Green's function of a 1-D layered background conductivity. We also developed the formulae for an estimation of the condition number of the system of FD equations pre-conditioned with the introduced FD contraction operator. Based on this estimation, we have established that the condition number is bounded by the maximum conductivity contrast between the background conductivity and actual conductivity. When there are both resistive and conductive anomalies relative to the background, the new pre-conditioner is advantageous over using the 1-D discrete Green's function directly. In our numerical experiments with both resistive and conductive anomalies, for a land geoelectrical model with 1:10 contrast, the method accelerates convergence of an iterative method (BiCGStab) by factors of 2-2.5, and in a marine example with 1:50 contrast, by a factor of 4.6, compared to direct use of the discrete 1-D Green's function as a pre-conditioner.

  20. Thermionic reactor power conditioner design for nuclear electric propulsion.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, A. S.; Tasca, D. M.

    1971-01-01

    Consideration of the effects of various thermionic reactor parameters and requirements upon spacecraft power conditioning design. A basic spacecraft is defined using nuclear electric propulsion, requiring approximately 120 kWe. The interrelationships of reactor operating characteristics and power conditioning requirements are discussed and evaluated, and the effects on power conditioner design and performance are presented.

  1. Flow conditioner location effects in orifice flowmeters. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.L.; Sindt, C.F.; Lewis, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Tests sponsored by Gas Research Institute were conducted with orifice flowmeters of two nominal sizes: 104 mm (4 in) and 52 mm (2 in). For the 104 mm orifice meter the authors compared discharge coefficients measured in two common piping configurations used by laboratories to establish baseline flow conditions. The discharge coefficients are similar for beta ratios of 0.43, 0.55, and 0.67, but not for the 0.73 beta ratio plate. For other tests with the orifice meter, a 90 degree elbow or a reducer was located upstream of the orifice plate and flow conditioner. Two beta ratios (0.54, 0.67) were tested in the 52 mm orifice meter in baseline configuration and with an elbow at 17D and a flow conditioner at 12D. For many of the tests, differential pressures were measured at more than one flange tap location. Placing the flow conditioner too close to the orifice plate in either meter yields discharge coefficients below baseline values. The location of the flow conditioner with respect to the orifice plate appears to influence meter performance more significantly than the type or location of flow disturbance upstream of it.

  2. Effect of metal conditioner on bonding of porcelain to cobalt-chromium alloy

    PubMed Central

    Kajihara, Yutaro; Takenouchi, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Takuo; Suzuki, Shiro; Minami, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two different metal conditioners for non-precious metal alloys for the bonding of porcelain to a cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Disk-shaped specimens (2.5×10.0 mm) were cast with Co-Cr alloy and used as adherend materials. The bonding surfaces were polished with a 600-grid silicon carbide paper and airborne-particle abraded using 110 µm alumina particles. Bonding specimens were fabricated by applying and firing either of the metal conditioners on the airborne-particle abraded surface, followed by firing porcelain into 5 mm in diameter and 3 mm in height. Specimens without metal conditioner were also fabricated. Shear bond strength for each group (n=8) were measured and compared (α=.05). Sectional view of bonding interface was observed by SEM. EDS analysis was performed to determine the chemical elements of metal conditioners and to determine the failure modes after shear test. RESULTS There were significant differences among three groups, and two metal conditioner-applied groups showed significantly higher values compared to the non-metal conditioner group. The SEM observation of the sectional view at bonding interface revealed loose contact at porcelain-alloy surface for non-metal conditioner group, however, close contact at both alloy-metal conditioner and metal conditioner-porcelain interfaces for both metal conditioner-applied groups. All the specimens showed mixed failures. EDS analysis showed that one metal conditioner was Si-based material, and another was Ti-based material. Si-based metal conditioner showed higher bond strengths compared to the Ti-based metal conditioner, but exhibited more porous failure surface failure. CONCLUSION Based on the results of this study, it can be stated that the application of metal conditioner is recommended for the bonding of porcelain to cobalt-chromium alloys. PMID:26949481

  3. Air-To-Water Heat Pumps with Radiant Delivery in Low Load Homes: Tucson, Arizona and Chico, California (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  4. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these

  5. Bacterial counts associated with sawdust and recycled manure bedding treated with commercial conditioners.

    PubMed

    Hogan, J S; Bogacz, V L; Thompson, L M; Romig, S; Schoenberger, P S; Weiss, W P; Smith, K L

    1999-08-01

    Bacteria counts associated with untreated organic bedding materials were compared with those of bedding treated with either an alkaline commercial bedding conditioner, acidic commercial bedding conditioner, or hydrated lime. Bedding materials were recycled manure and kiln-dried sawdust. The effects of bedding treatments on bacteria counts differed between bedding types. Each of the bedding treatments significantly reduced bacteria in recycled manure prior to use. The alkaline conditioner and hydrated lime effectively inhibited bacteria in recycled manure for 1 d. Bedding counts and teat swabs of cows housed on recycled manure treated with the alkaline conditioner were reduced on d 2. The use of the acid conditioner in recycled manure had little effect on bacteria in bedding. Sawdust differed from recycled manure in that bacteria in untreated sawdust prior to use were minimal, and populations increased rapidly during the first 2 d after use as bedding. The acid conditioner had a bacteriostatic effect in sawdust, evident by the reduction of bacteria on d 2. The alkaline conditioner and hydrated lime did not alter bacteria counts in sawdust compared with untreated sawdust. Antibacterial activity of each conditioner deteriorated between d 2 and d 6 in both beddings. The antibacterial activities of conditioners were related to the pH of bedding materials. The use of commercial bedding conditioners initially reduced bacterial counts; however, the antibacterial effects had diminished between d 2 and 6 after use in bedding. PMID:10480094

  6. Cell module and fuel conditioner development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, D. Q., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The phosphoric acid fuel cell module (stack) development which culminated in an 80 cell air-cooled stack with separated gas cooling and treed cooling plates is described. The performance of the 80 cell stack was approx. 100 mV per cell higher than that attained during phase 1. The components and materials performed stably for over 8000 hours in a 5 cell stack. The conceptual design of a fuel conditioning system is described.

  7. Advanced Signal Conditioners for Data-Acquisition Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucena, Angel; Perotti, Jose; Eckhoff, Anthony; Medelius, Pedro

    2004-01-01

    Signal conditioners embodying advanced concepts in analog and digital electronic circuitry and software have been developed for use in data-acquisition systems that are required to be compact and lightweight, to utilize electric energy efficiently, and to operate with high reliability, high accuracy, and high power efficiency, without intervention by human technicians. These signal conditioners were originally intended for use aboard spacecraft. There are also numerous potential terrestrial uses - especially in the fields of aeronautics and medicine, wherein it is necessary to monitor critical functions. Going beyond the usual analog and digital signal-processing functions of prior signal conditioners, the new signal conditioner performs the following additional functions: It continuously diagnoses its own electronic circuitry, so that it can detect failures and repair itself (as described below) within seconds. It continuously calibrates itself on the basis of a highly accurate and stable voltage reference, so that it can continue to generate accurate measurement data, even under extreme environmental conditions. It repairs itself in the sense that it contains a micro-controller that reroutes signals among redundant components as needed to maintain the ability to perform accurate and stable measurements. It detects deterioration of components, predicts future failures, and/or detects imminent failures by means of a real-time analysis in which, among other things, data on its present state are continuously compared with locally stored historical data. It minimizes unnecessary consumption of electric energy. The design architecture divides the signal conditioner into three main sections: an analog signal section, a digital module, and a power-management section. The design of the analog signal section does not follow the traditional approach of ensuring reliability through total redundancy of hardware: Instead, following an approach called spare parts tool box, the

  8. Dimensional stability and weight changes of tissue conditioners.

    PubMed

    Murata, H; Kawamura, M; Hamada, T; Saleh, S; Kresnoadi, U; Toki, K

    2001-10-01

    The dimensional stability of tissue conditioners characterizes the ability of the materials to yield accurate functional impressions of oral mucosa. This study evaluated the linear dimensional changes with time of six tissue conditioners (COE Comfort, FITT, GC Soft-Liner, Hydro-Cast, SR-Ivoseal and Visco-Gel) using a travelling microscope, and relationship between these changes and weight changes. The absorption and solubility of these materials were also determined. The percentage changes in dimension and weight in water storage were measured at 2 (baseline), 8 and 24 h, and 2, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days after specimen preparation. All materials except SR-Ivoseal exhibited shrinkage and weight loss during water storage, whilst SR-Ivoseal exhibited expansion and an increase in weight. The percentage solubility for all materials except SR-Ivoseal was higher than the percentage absorption. A positive linear relationship was found between the percentage changes in linear dimension and those in weight (r=0.797 - 0.986, P < 0.05). Water absorption and solubility of the materials were found to be associated with dimensional changes. The results suggest that the period recommended for forming functional impressions would be 24 h after insertion in the mouth. In addition, it is important to select tissue conditioners suitable for functional impressions because of the wide ranges of dimensional stability among the materials. PMID:11737562

  9. Dimensional stability and weight changes of tissue conditioners.

    PubMed

    Murata, H; Kawamura, M; Hamada, T; Saleh, S; Kresnoadi, U; Toki, K

    2001-10-01

    The dimensional stability of tissue conditioners characterizes the ability of the materials to yield accurate functional impressions of oral mucosa. This study evaluated the linear dimensional changes with time of six tissue conditioners (COE Comfort, FITT, GC Soft-Liner, Hydro-Cast, SR-Ivoseal and Visco-Gel) using a travelling microscope, and relationship between these changes and weight changes. The absorption and solubility of these materials were also determined. The percentage changes in dimension and weight in water storage were measured at 2 (baseline), 8 and 24 h, and 2, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days after specimen preparation. All materials except SR-Ivoseal exhibited shrinkage and weight loss during water storage, whilst SR-Ivoseal exhibited expansion and an increase in weight. The percentage solubility for all materials except SR-Ivoseal was higher than the percentage absorption. A positive linear relationship was found between the percentage changes in linear dimension and those in weight (r=0.797 - 0.986, P < 0.05). Water absorption and solubility of the materials were found to be associated with dimensional changes. The results suggest that the period recommended for forming functional impressions would be 24 h after insertion in the mouth. In addition, it is important to select tissue conditioners suitable for functional impressions because of the wide ranges of dimensional stability among the materials.

  10. Air Conditioning Overflow Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center helped a local inventor develop a prototype of an attachment for central air conditioners and heat pumps that helps monitor water levels to prevent condensation overflow. The sensor will indicate a need for drain line maintenance and prevent possible damage caused by drain pan water spillover. An engineer in the Stennis Space Center prototype Development Laboratory used SSC sensor technology in the development of the sensor.

  11. An Evaluation of the Water Heater Load Potential for Providing Regulation Service

    SciTech Connect

    Kondoh, Junji; Lu, Ning; Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2011-08-31

    This paper investigates the possibility of providing aggregated regulation services with small loads, such as water heaters or air conditioners. A direct-load control algorithm is presented to aggregate the water heater load for the purpose of regulation. A dual-element electric water heater model is developed, which accounts for both thermal dynamics and users’ water consumptions. A realistic regulation signal was used to evaluate the number of water heaters needed and the operational characteristics of a water heater when providing 2-MW regulation service. Modeling results suggest that approximately 33,333 water heaters are needed to provide a 2-MW regulation service 24 hours a day. However, if water heaters only provide regulation from 6:00 to 24:00, approximately 20,000 will be needed. Because the control algorithm has considered the thermal setting of the water heater, the customer comfort is obstructed little. Therefore, the aggregated regulation service provided by water heater loads can become a major source of revenue for load-service entities when the smart grid enables the direct load control.

  12. Efficiency of Energy Use in the United States: Transportation, space heating, and air conditioning provide opportunities for large energy savings.

    PubMed

    Hirst, E; Moyers, J C

    1973-03-30

    We described three uses of energy for which greater efficiency is feasible: transportation, space heating, and air conditioning. Shifts to less energy-intensive transportation modes could substantially reduce energy consumption; the magnitude of such savings would, of course, depend on the extent of such shifts and possible load factor changes. The hypothetical transportation scenario described here results in a 22 percent savings in energy for transportation in 1970, a savings of 2800 trillion Btu. To the homeowner, increasing the amount of building insulation and, in some cases, adding storm windows would reduce energy consumption and provide monetary savings. If all homes in 1970 had the "economic optimum" amount of insulation, energy consumption for residential heating would have been 42 percent less than if the homes were insulated to meet the pre-1971 FHA standards, a savings of 3100 trillion Btu. Increased utilization of energy-efficient air conditioners and of building insulation would provide significant energy savings and help to reduce peak power demands during the summer. A 67 percent increase in energy efficiency for room air conditioners would have saved 15.8 billion kilowatt-hours in 1970. In conclusion, it is possible-from an engineering point of view-to effect considerable energy savings in the United States. Increases in the efficiency of energy use would provide desired end results with smaller energy inputs. Such measures will not reduce the level of energy consumption, but they could slow energy growth rates.

  13. Temperature rise tests on a forced-oil-air cooled (FOA) (OFAF) core-form transformer, including loading beyond nameplate

    SciTech Connect

    Thaden, M.V.; Mehta, S.P.; Tuli, S.C.; Grubb, R.L.

    1995-04-01

    Results of temperature rise tests performed in accordance with PC57.119/ Draft 12, recommended Procedures for Performing Temperature Rise Tests on Oil-Immersed Power Transformers at Loads Beyond Nameplate Ratings, are presented. Tested data is compared with calculated values using IEEE and IEC loading guide equations and exponential power constants are determined and are compared with those given in the loading guide. Discussion is offered that may be useful in future drafts of the procedure and to the users of the proposed test procedure.

  14. Mystery of Foil Air Bearings for Oil-free Turbomachinery Unlocked: Load Capacity Rule-of-thumb Allows Simple Estimation of Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Valco, Mark J.

    2002-01-01

    The Oil-Free Turbomachinery team at the NASA Glenn Research Center has unlocked one of the mysteries surrounding foil air bearing performance. Foil air bearings are self-acting hydrodynamic bearings that use ambient air, or any fluid, as their lubricant. In operation, the motion of the shaft's surface drags fluid into the bearing by viscous action, creating a pressurized lubricant film. This lubricating film separates the stationary foil bearing surface from the moving shaft and supports load. Foil bearings have been around for decades and are widely employed in the air cycle machines used for cabin pressurization and cooling aboard commercial jetliners. The Oil-Free Turbomachinery team is fostering the maturation of this technology for integration into advanced Oil-Free aircraft engines. Elimination of the engine oil system can significantly reduce weight and cost and could enable revolutionary new engine designs. Foil bearings, however, have complex elastic support structures (spring packs) that make the prediction of bearing performance, such as load capacity, difficult if not impossible. Researchers at Glenn recently found a link between foil bearing design and load capacity performance. The results have led to a simple rule-of-thumb that relates a bearing's size, speed, and design to its load capacity. Early simple designs (Generation I) had simple elastic (spring) support elements, and performance was limited. More advanced bearings (Generation III) with elastic supports, in which the stiffness is varied locally to optimize gas film pressures, exhibit load capacities that are more than double those of the best previous designs. This is shown graphically in the figure. These more advanced bearings have enabled industry to introduce commercial Oil-Free gas-turbine-based electrical generators and are allowing the aeropropulsion industry to incorporate the technology into aircraft engines. The rule-of-thumb enables engine and bearing designers to easily size and

  15. Locally produced natural conditioners for dewatering of faecal sludge.

    PubMed

    Gold, Moritz; Dayer, Pauline; Faye, Marie Christine Amie Sene; Clair, Guillaume; Seck, Alsane; Niang, Seydou; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Strande, Linda

    2016-11-01

    In urban areas of low-income countries, treatment of faecal sludge (FS) is insufficient or non-existent. This results in large amounts of FS being dumped into the environment. Existing treatment technologies for FS, such as settling-thickening tanks and drying beds, are land intensive which is limiting in urban areas. Enhanced settling and dewatering by conditioning was evaluated in order to reduce the treatment footprint (or increase treatment capacity). Conventional wastewater conditioners, such as commercially available lime and polymers, are expensive, and commonly rely on complex supply chains for use in low-income countries. Therefore, the treatment performance of five conditioners which could be produced locally was evaluated: Moringa oleifera seeds and press cake, Jatropha curcas seeds, Jatropha Calotropis leaves and chitosan. M. oleifera seeds and press cake, and chitosan improved settling and dewatering and had a similar performance compared to lime and polymers. Optimal dosages were 400-500 kg M. oleifera/t TS, 300-800 kg lime/t TS and 25-50 kg polymer solution/t TS. In comparison, chitosan required 1.5-3.75 kg/t TS. These dosages are comparable to those recommended for wastewater (sludge). The results indicate that conditioning of FS can reduce total suspended solids (TSS) in the effluent of settling-thickening tanks by 22-81% and reduce dewatering time with drying beds by 59-97%. This means that the area of drying beds could be reduced by 59-97% with end-use as soil conditioner, or 9-26% as solid fuel. Least expensive options and availability will depend on the local context. In Dakar, Senegal, chitosan produced from shrimp waste appears to be most promising. PMID:26984372

  16. Locally produced natural conditioners for dewatering of faecal sludge

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Moritz; Dayer, Pauline; Faye, Marie Christine Amie Sene; Clair, Guillaume; Seck, Alsane; Niang, Seydou; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Strande, Linda

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In urban areas of low-income countries, treatment of faecal sludge (FS) is insufficient or non-existent. This results in large amounts of FS being dumped into the environment. Existing treatment technologies for FS, such as settling-thickening tanks and drying beds, are land intensive which is limiting in urban areas. Enhanced settling and dewatering by conditioning was evaluated in order to reduce the treatment footprint (or increase treatment capacity). Conventional wastewater conditioners, such as commercially available lime and polymers, are expensive, and commonly rely on complex supply chains for use in low-income countries. Therefore, the treatment performance of five conditioners which could be produced locally was evaluated: Moringa oleifera seeds and press cake, Jatropha curcas seeds, Jatropha Calotropis leaves and chitosan. M. oleifera seeds and press cake, and chitosan improved settling and dewatering and had a similar performance compared to lime and polymers. Optimal dosages were 400–500 kg M. oleifera/t TS, 300–800 kg lime/t TS and 25–50 kg polymer solution/t TS. In comparison, chitosan required 1.5–3.75 kg/t TS. These dosages are comparable to those recommended for wastewater (sludge). The results indicate that conditioning of FS can reduce total suspended solids (TSS) in the effluent of settling-thickening tanks by 22–81% and reduce dewatering time with drying beds by 59–97%. This means that the area of drying beds could be reduced by 59–97% with end-use as soil conditioner, or 9–26% as solid fuel. Least expensive options and availability will depend on the local context. In Dakar, Senegal, chitosan produced from shrimp waste appears to be most promising. PMID:26984372

  17. Low-cost multi-vehicle air temperature measurements for heat load assessment in local-scale climate applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuvela-Aloise, Maja; Weyss, Gernot; Aloise, Giulliano; Mifka, Boris; Löffelmann, Philemon; Hollosi, Brigitta; Nemec, Johana; Vucetic, Visnja

    2014-05-01

    In the recent years there has been a strong interest in exploring the potential of low-cost measurement devices as alternative source of meteorological monitoring data, especially in the urban areas where high-density observations become crucial for appropriate heat load assessment. One of the simple, but efficient approaches for gathering large amount of spatial data is through mobile measurement campaigns in which the sensors are attached to driving vehicles. However, non-standardized data collecting procedure, instrument quality, their response-time and design, variable device ventilation and radiation protection influence the reliability of the gathered data. We investigate what accuracy can be expected from the data collected through low-cost mobile measurements and whether the achieved quality of the data is sufficient for validation of the state-of-the-art local-scale climate models. We tested 5 types of temperature sensors and data loggers: Maxim iButton, Lascar EL-USB-2-LCD+ and Onset HOBO UX100-003 as market available devices and self-designed solar powered Arduino-based data loggers combined with the AOSONG AM2315 and Sensirion SHT21 temperature and humidity sensors. The devices were calibrated and tested in stationary mode at the Austrian Weather Service showing accuracy between 0.1°C and 0.8°C, which was mostly within the device specification range. In mobile mode, the best response-time was found for self-designed device with Arduino-based data logger and Sensirion SHT21 sensor. However, the device lacks the mechanical robustness and should be further improved for broad-range applications. We organized 4 measurement tours: two taking place in urban environment (Vienna, Austria in July 2011 and July 2013) and two in countryside with complex terrain of Mid-Adriatic islands (Hvar and Korcula, Croatia in August 2013). Measurements were taken on clear-sky, dry and hot days. We combined multiple devices attached to bicycle and cars with different

  18. Polysaccharide (guar) as a soil conditioner. [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.

    1986-05-01

    The author tested a polysaccharide (guar) derived from guar bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub.) was tested in soil flocculation tests and found that use of acid solutions to fully dissolve the guar leads to more effective soil conditioning than otherwise would be possible, and that guar does not lead to strong water-stable aggregates. Larger quantities were needed to improve emergence and growth of plants in a glasshouse than for synthetic soil conditioners. The effects of soil conditioning with guar did not last long.

  19. Final Report Recommended Actions to Reduce Electrical Peak Loads at the Marine Corps Air Station at Camp Pendleton, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hail, John C.; Brown, Daryl R.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.; Underhill, Ronald M.

    2001-05-08

    PNNL conducted a walk-through audit of Marine Corps Air Station at Camp Pendleton. The audit inspected a significant portion of the site and identified a large number of similar energy saving opportunities across all building types.

  20. Customer Impact Evaluation for the 2009 Southern California Edison Participating Load Pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Gifford, William; Bodmann, Shawn; Young, Paul; Eto, Joseph H.; Laundergan, Jeremy

    2010-05-28

    The 2009 Participating Load Pilot Customer Impact Evaluation provides evidence that short duration demand response events which cycle off air conditioners for less than thirty minutes in a hot, dry environment do not lead to a significant degradation in the comfort level of residents participating in the program. This was investigated using: (1) Analysis of interval temperature data collected from inside residences of select program participants; and (2) Direct and indirect customer feedback from surveys designed and implemented by Southern California Edison at the conclusion of the program season. There were 100 indoor temperature monitors that were acquired by LBNL for this study that transmitted temperature readings at least once per hour with corresponding timestamps during the program season, June-October, 2009. Recorded temperatures were transferred from the onsite telemetry devices to a mesh network, stored, and then delivered to KEMA for analysis. Following an extensive data quality review, temperature increases during each of the thirty demand response test events were calculated for each device. The results are as follows: (1) Even for tests taking place during outside temperatures in excess of 100 degrees Fahrenheit, over 85 percent of the devices measured less than a 0.5 degree Fahrenheit temperature increase indoors during the duration of the event. (2) For the increases that were observed, none was more than 5 degrees and it was extremely rare for increases to be more than 2 degrees. At the end of the testing season SCE and KEMA designed and conducted a survey of the a facilities and public works managers and approximately 100 customers feedback survey to assess the extent the PLP events were noticed or disrupted the comfort level of participants. While only a small sampling of 3 managers and 16 customer surveys were completed, their responses indicate: (1) No customer reported even a moderate level of discomfort from the cycling-off of their air

  1. Size-Segregated Aerosol Composition and Mass Loading of Atmospheric Particles as Part of the Pacific Northwest 2001(PNW2001) Air Quality Study In Puget Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disselkamp, R. S.; Barrie, L. A.; Shutthanadan, S.; Cliff, S.; Cahill, T.

    2001-12-01

    In mid-August, 2001, an aircraft-based air-quality study was performed in the Puget Sound, WA, area entitled PNW2001 (http://www.pnl.gov/pnw2001). The objectives of this field campaign were the following: 1. reveal information about the 3-dimensional distribution of ozone, its gaseous precursors and fine particulate matter during weather conditions favoring air pollution; 2. derive information about the accuracy of urban and biogenic emissions inventories that are used to drive the air quality forecast models; and 3. examine the accuracy of modeled ozone concentration with that observed. In support of these efforts, we collected time-averaged ( { ~}10 minute averages), size-segregated, aerosol composition and mass-loading information using ex post facto analysis techniques of synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (s-XRF), proton induced x-ray emissions(PIXE), proton elastic scattering (PESA), and scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM). This is the first time these analysis techniques have been used together on samples collected from aircraft using an optimized 3-stage rotating drum impactor. In our presentation, we will discuss the aerosol components in three aerosol size fractions as identified by statistical analysis of multielemental data (including total mass, H, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Pb) and relate variations in these components to physical aerosol properties, other gaseous trace constituents and to air mass origin.

  2. Shampoo and Conditioners: What a Dermatologist Should Know?

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Paschal; Rathi, Sanjay K

    2015-01-01

    Dermatologists many a times encounter questions from patients and even colleagues asking about how to keep their hair looking clean, healthy and beautiful. Therefore, familiarity and a basic knowledge of the available hair care products will help them to guide their patients properly. A shampoo not only provides the cleaning of the scalp skin and hair as its primary function, but in addition also serves to condition and beautify hair and acts as an adjunct in the management of various scalp disorders. To achieve this, various ingredients in the correct proportion are mixed to provide a shampoo which is suitable for individuals having different hair types and hair need. Among the ingredients that go into the making of a shampoo are detergents, conditioners, thickeners, sequestering agents, pH adjusters, preservatives and specialty additives. Hair conditioners are designed to improve hair manageability, decrease hair static electricity and add luster. They are used in several ways depending upon the state of hair and requirement of the individual. This article attempts to put forward the basic and practical aspects regarding use of these products. PMID:26120149

  3. Shampoo and Conditioners: What a Dermatologist Should Know?

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Paschal; Rathi, Sanjay K

    2015-01-01

    Dermatologists many a times encounter questions from patients and even colleagues asking about how to keep their hair looking clean, healthy and beautiful. Therefore, familiarity and a basic knowledge of the available hair care products will help them to guide their patients properly. A shampoo not only provides the cleaning of the scalp skin and hair as its primary function, but in addition also serves to condition and beautify hair and acts as an adjunct in the management of various scalp disorders. To achieve this, various ingredients in the correct proportion are mixed to provide a shampoo which is suitable for individuals having different hair types and hair need. Among the ingredients that go into the making of a shampoo are detergents, conditioners, thickeners, sequestering agents, pH adjusters, preservatives and specialty additives. Hair conditioners are designed to improve hair manageability, decrease hair static electricity and add luster. They are used in several ways depending upon the state of hair and requirement of the individual. This article attempts to put forward the basic and practical aspects regarding use of these products.

  4. Solar-powered air-conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, D. C.; Rousseau, J.

    1977-01-01

    Report focuses on recent study on development of solar-powered residential air conditioners and is based on selected literature through 1975. Its purposes are to characterize thermal and mechanical systems that might be useful in development of Rankine-cycle approach to solar cooling and assessment of a Lithium Bromide/Water absorption cycle system.

  5. Face Sheet/Core Disbond Growth in Honeycomb Sandwich Panels Subjected to Ground-Air-Ground Pressurization and In-Plane Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Zhi M.; Krueger, Ronald; Rinker, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Typical damage modes in light honeycomb sandwich structures include face sheet/core disbonding and core fracture, both of which can pose a threat to the structural integrity of a component. These damage modes are of particular interest to aviation certification authorities since several in-service occurrences, such as rudder structural failure and other control surface malfunctions, have been attributed to face sheet/core disbonding. Extensive studies have shown that face sheet/core disbonding and core fracture can lead to damage propagation caused by internal pressure changes in the core. The increasing use of composite sandwich construction in aircraft applications makes it vitally important to understand the effect of ground-air-ground (GAG) cycles and conditions such as maneuver and gust loads on face sheet/core disbonding. The objective of the present study was to use a fracture mechanics based approach developed earlier to evaluate the loading at the disbond front caused by ground-air-ground pressurization and in-plane loading. A honeycomb sandwich panel containing a circular disbond at one face sheet/core interface was modeled with three-dimensional (3D) solid finite elements. The disbond was modeled as a discrete discontinuity and the strain energy release rate along the disbond front was computed using the Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT). Special attention was paid to the pressure-deformation coupling which can decrease the pressure load within the disbonded sandwich section significantly when the structure is highly deformed. The commercial finite element analysis software, Abaqus/Standard, was used for the analyses. The recursive pressure-deformation coupling problem was solved by representing the entrapped air in the honeycomb cells as filled cavities in Abaqus/Standard. The results show that disbond size, face sheet thickness and core thickness are important parameters that determine crack tip loading at the disbond front. Further, the pressure

  6. Air Conditioning. Trade and Industrial Education Trade Preparatory Training Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.

    One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the building occupations cluster of the construction/fabrication occupational group, this guide identifies the essentials of the air conditioning trade as recommended by the successful air conditioner. An instructional program based upon the implementation of the guide is expected to prepare a…

  7. 15 CFR 30.7 - Annotating the bill of lading, air waybill, or other commercial loading documents with proof of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... identified in the ITAR (22 CFR 120 through 130) for the U.S. State Department requirements concerning the... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Annotating the bill of lading, air... CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS General Requirements § 30.7 Annotating the...

  8. 15 CFR 30.7 - Annotating the bill of lading, air waybill, or other commercial loading documents with proof of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... identified in the ITAR (22 CFR 120 through 130) for the U.S. State Department requirements concerning the... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Annotating the bill of lading, air... CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS General Requirements § 30.7 Annotating the...

  9. Assessment of the Losses Due to Self Absorption by Mass Loading on Radioactive Particulate Air Stack Sample Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brian M.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2011-01-18

    This report discusses the effect of mass loading of a membrane filter on the self absorption of radioactive particles. A relationship between mass loading and percent loss of activity is presented. Sample filters were collected from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) facilities in order to analyze the current self absorption correction factor of 0.85 that is being used for both alpha and beta particles. Over an eighteen month period from February 2009 to July 2010, 116 samples were collected and analyzed from eight different building stacks in an effort coordinated by the Effluent Management group. Eleven unused filters were also randomly chosen to be analyzed in order to determine background radiation. All of these samples were collected and analyzed in order to evaluate the current correction factor being used.

  10. Air atmospheric pressure plasma jet pretreatment for drop-wise loading of dexamethasone on hydroxyapatite scaffold for increase of osteoblast attachment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Kwon, Jae-Sung; Kim, Yong Hee; Choi, Eun Ha; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2014-10-01

    Periodontal disease affects alveolar bone resorption around the involved teeth. To gain bone height, bone graft materials have been widely used with drug carriers. Application of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) treatment is widely studied due to its ability to change surface characteristics without topographical change. The aim of this study is to identify whether the air APPJ (AAPPJ) treatment before drop-wise loading performance could change loaded amount of dexamethasone, and induce increase of cell attachment and proliferation. The results suggested that AAPPJ treatment decreased the contact angle down to about 13 degrees, which increased gradually but significantly lowered at least 4 days compared to no-treated group. After AAPPJ treatment, hydrocarbon was removed with change of zeta potential into positive charge. However, the AAPPJ treatment did not change the quantity or releasing profile of dexamethasone (p > 0.05). Confocal analysis combined with DNA proliferation analysis showed increase of osteoblast attachment and proliferation. Hence, AAPPJ could be a useful pretreatment method before drop-wise loading on HA scaffold with dexamethasone for increase of osteoblast attachment. PMID:25942843

  11. Power quality enhancement at distribution level utilizing the unified power quality conditioner (UPQC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadkikar, Vinod

    The present doctoral work is based on the philosophy of optimal utilization of the available resources in a most effective and efficient way to improve the product efficiency and to reduce the overall cost. This work proposes a novel control philosophy termed as power angle control (PAC), in which both the series and shunt inverters share the load reactive power in co-ordination with each other without affecting the basic UPQC compensation capabilities. This eventually results in a better utilization of the series inverter, reduction in the shunt inverter rating to some extent and ultimately in the reduction of the overall cost of UPQC. Moreover, in this thesis work several other control approaches are also proposed, such as, unit vector template generation, quadrature voltage injection, generalized single-phase p-q theory and novel current unbalance compensation approach. All the developed concepts are successfully validated through digital simulation as well as extensive experimental investigations. Keywords. power quality, active power filter, unified power quality conditioner, reactive power compensation, harmonics compensation.

  12. Research: Testing of a Novel Portable Body Temperature Conditioner Using a Thermal Manikin.

    PubMed

    Heller, Daniel; Heller, Alex; Moujaes, Samir; Williams, Shelley J; Hoffmann, Ryan; Sarkisian, Paul; Khalili, Kaveh; Rockenfeller, Uwe; Browder, Timothy D; Kuhls, Deborah A; Fildes, John J

    2016-01-01

    A battery-operated active cooling/heating device was developed to maintain thermoregulation of trauma victims in austere environments while awaiting evacuation to a hospital for further treatment. The use of a thermal manikin was adopted for this study in order to simulate load testing and evaluate the performance of this novel portable active cooling/heating device for both continuous (external power source) and battery power. The performance of the portable body temperature conditioner (PBTC) was evaluated through cooling/heating fraction tests to analyze the heat transfer between a thermal manikin and circulating water blanket to show consistent performance while operating under battery power. For the cooling/heating fraction tests, the ambient temperature was set to 15°C ± 1°C (heating) and 30°C ± 1°C (cooling). The PBTC water temperature was set to 37°C for the heating mode tests and 15°C for the cooling mode tests. The results showed consistent performance of the PBTC in terms of cooling/heating capacity while operating under both continuous and battery power. The PBTC functioned as intended and shows promise as a portable warming/cooling device for operation in the field. PMID:27632039

  13. A killer application: Controllable lighting systems as a load management strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Desmond, J.F.

    1999-07-01

    What exactly is a Killer Application? Simply put, it is any technological advance that changes the rules of an industry in a positive way, and by extension the lives of that industry`s customers. Under this heading, the use of controlled lighting as a load management strategy quite precisely fills the job description of a Killer APP. Load management is defined as the modification of energy usage patterns in response to external conditions. Historically, it was focused on interruptible loads, e.g., air conditioners, hot water heaters. As such, it was seen by building managers and occupants as inconvenient or uncomfortable. Lighting was never considered. That was then. With the marginal cost of electricity today reaching more than 20 times the cost of electricity at off-peak hours, load management, re-framed as the building-wide application of controlled lighting, has emerged as a dynamic, proven energy strategy. It comprehensively addresses changes in energy costs. By employing leading-edge technologies to reduce lighting energy costs, it reduces, under certain rate structures, the average cost of energy for every kilowatt-hour used throughout the entire facility. It is the first application to make utility deregulation pay off big for businesses.

  14. Solar Absorption Refrigeration System for Air-Conditioning of a Classroom Building in Northern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Tanmay; Varun; Kumar, Anoop

    2015-10-01

    Air-conditioning is a basic tool to provide human thermal comfort in a building space. The primary aim of the present work is to design an air-conditioning system based on vapour absorption cycle that utilizes a renewable energy source for its operation. The building under consideration is a classroom of dimensions 18.5 m × 13 m × 4.5 m located in Hamirpur district of Himachal Pradesh in India. For this purpose, cooling load of the building was calculated first by using cooling load temperature difference method to estimate cooling capacity of the air-conditioning system. Coefficient of performance of the refrigeration system was computed for various values of strong and weak solution concentration. In this work, a solar collector is also designed to provide required amount of heat energy by the absorption system. This heat energy is taken from solar energy which makes this system eco-friendly and sustainable. A computer program was written in MATLAB to calculate the design parameters. Results were obtained for various values of solution concentrations throughout the year. Cost analysis has also been carried out to compare absorption refrigeration system with conventional vapour compression cycle based air-conditioners.

  15. Air-particle abrasion on zirconia ceramic using different protocols: effects on biaxial flexural strength after cyclic loading, phase transformation and surface topography.

    PubMed

    Souza, Rodrigo O A; Valandro, Luiz F; Melo, Renata M; Machado, João P B; Bottino, Marco A; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different air-particle abrasion protocols on the biaxial flexural strength and structural stability of zirconia ceramics. Zirconia ceramic specimens (ISO 6872) (Lava, 3M ESPE) were obtained (N=336). The specimens (N=118, n=20 per group) were randomly assigned to one of the air-abrasion protocols: Gr1: Control (as-sintered); Gr2: 50 µm Al2O3 (2.5 bar); Gr3: 50 µm Al2O3 (3.5 bar); Gr4: 110 µm Al2O3(2.5 bar); Gr5: 110 µm Al2O3 (3.5 bar); Gr6: 30 µm SiO2 (2.5 bar) (CoJet); Gr7: 30 µm SiO2(3.5 bar); Gr8: 110 µm SiO2 (2.5 bar) (Rocatec Plus); and Gr9: 110 µm SiO2 (3.5 bar) (duration: 20 s, distance: 10 mm). While half of the specimens were tested immediately, the other half was subjected to cyclic loading in water (100,000 cycles; 50 N, 4 Hz, 37 °°C) prior to biaxial flexural strength test (ISO 6872). Phase transformation (t→m), relative amount of transformed monoclinic zirconia (FM), transformed zone depth (TZD) and surface roughness were measured. Particle type (p=0.2746), pressure (p=0.5084) and cyclic loading (p=0.1610) did not influence the flexural strength. Except for the air-abraded group with 110 µm Al2O3 at 3.5 bar, all air-abrasion protocols increased the biaxial flexural strength (MPa) (Controlnon-aged: 1,030 ± 153, Controlaged: 1,138 ± 138; Experimentalnon-aged: 1,307 ± 184-1,554 ± 124; Experimentalaged: 1,308 ± 118-1,451 ± 135) in both non-aged and aged conditions, respectively. Surface roughness (Ra) was the highest with 110 µm Al2O3(0.84 µm. FM values ranged from 0% to 27.21%, higher value for the Rocatec Plus (110 µm SiO2) and 110 µm Al2O3 groups at 3.5 bar pressure. TZD ranged between 0 and 1.43 µm, with the highest values for Rocatec Plus and 110 µm Al2O3 groups at 3.5 bar pressure.

  16. Air Conditioning with Magnetic Refrigeration : An Efficient, Green Compact Cooling System Using Magnetic Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Astronautics is developing an air conditioning system that relies on magnetic fields. Typical air conditioners use vapor compression to cool air. Vapor compression uses a liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb the heat, and pump the heat out into the external environment. Astronautics’ design uses a novel property of certain materials, called “magnetocaloric materials”, to achieve the same result as liquid refrigerants. These magnetocaloric materials essentially heat up when placed within a magnetic field and cool down when removed, effectively pumping heat out from a cooler to warmer environment. In addition, magnetic refrigeration uses no ozone-depleting gases and is safer to use than conventional air conditioners which are prone to leaks.

  17. Effects of flow conditioners and tap location on orifice flowmeter performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, J. L.; Sindt, C. F.; Lewis, M. A.; Brennan, J. A.

    1991-10-01

    Current research is being conducted to provide information which will be used to improve the existing industry standards for proper installation of orifice meters. The research includes experimental investigation of a Zanker, an etoile, and several tube bundle flow conditioners at various positions relative to the orifice plate. Also included are the effects of pressure tap location, both with and without flow conditioning, as reflected in determination of discharge coefficients. Of the flow conditioners tested at approximately 11 pipe diameters upstream of the orifice plate, the Zanker flow conditioner resulted in discharge coefficients most similar to baseline values. There was only a slight difference in orifice meter performance when a flanged or an in-line tube bundle flow conditioner was used at the tested location upstream of the orifice plate. The effect of pressure tap location was found to be significant with the 0.73 beta ratio plate. Recommendations for future research, as a result of these findings, are included.

  18. Technology Solutions Case Study: Air-To-Water Heat Pumps with Radiant Delivery in Low Load Homes, Tucson, Arizona and Chico, California

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  19. Effects of conditioners on surface hardness of hair fibers: an investigation using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ruetsch, S B; Kamath, Y K; Kintrup, L; Schwark, H-J

    2003-01-01

    Conditioners are known to have a prophylactic effect on hair damage caused by cosmetic chemical treatments or mechanical grooming procedures. They are known to impart softness and smoothness to hair by moisturizing the fiber. Since the amount of conditioners deposited on the fiber is very small in quantity, it is conceivable that mainly the surface is moisturized. This is especially true of polymeric conditioners, which deposit preferentially on the surface of the fiber, rather than penetrate into the cortex. Therefore, this study strictly investigates whether cationic polymeric conditioners impart softness to the surface cuticle cell as a result of their hydrophilicity, with no regard to its applicability to cosmetic effects. Such softening can be detected by indentation of the surface and can be quantified by measuring the depth of the indent in real time. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), equipped with nano-indentation capability, is ideally suited for this purpose. In this work it was used to determine changes in the microhardness (micromechanical properties) of the hair fiber surface as a result of fiber/conditioner/moisture interactions. In a preliminary study, we observed that the scale faces of hair treated with Polyquaternium 10 (PQ-10) conditioner gave deeper indents, while scale edges yielded shallower ones in comparison to cuticle cells of untreated hair. This suggests that the conditioner softens the scale face and hardens the scale edges. However, because of significant amounts of conditioner residues left on the scale face, this conclusion was rather ambiguous. Therefore, the study was repeated in which multiple indentations were made on the surface cuticle cells of a larger number of the same hair fibers before and after multiple applications of the conditioner. This reduces errors due to fiber-to-fiber variation in pre-existing microhardness differences in surface cuticle cells. Also, the larger number of fibers investigated in the current work

  20. Effects of polyacrylamide soil conditioner on the iron status of soybean plants. [Glycine max

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.; Wallace, G.A.; Abouzamzam, A.M.; Char, J.W.

    1986-05-01

    An iron-inefficient cultivar of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. Bragg cv. PI-54619-5-1 was grown in two different calcareous soils, a Natrargid and a Torrifluvents, to determine if improvement of soil aeration with a synthetic polyacrylamide as a soil conditioner would decrease the tendency of the cultivar to lime-induced chlorosis. The results suggest that when soil is well aerated with good drainage from use of the soil conditioner, the iron status of plants is improved.

  1. Unipolar pulse and bipolar noise testing of wideband signal noise conditioner (MC476-0132-0034)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Information is presented on performance characteristics of the shuttle orbiter wideband signal conditioner when subjected to special types of input signals. Design analysis of the signal flow path through the signal conditioning amplifier was performed followed by acutal testing of the amplifier with various signal inputs. Results indicate that the signal conditioner should perform acceptably if the shuttle orbiter flight vibration signal levels are in accord with preflight predictions.

  2. Air conditioning system

    DOEpatents

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  3. Design and evaluation of an inlet conditioner to dry particles for real-time particle sizers.

    PubMed

    Peters, Thomas M; Riss, Adam L; Holm, Ricky L; Singh, Manisha; Vanderpool, Robert W

    2008-04-01

    Real-time particle sizers provide rapid information about atmospheric particles, particularly peak exposures, which may be important in the development of adverse health outcomes. However, these instruments are subject to erroneous readings in high-humidity environments when compared with measurements from filter-based, federal reference method (FRM) samplers. Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the ability of three inlet conditioners to dry aerosol prior to entering a real-time particle sizer for measuring coarse aerosols (Model 3321 Aerodynamic Particle Sizer, APS) under simulated highly humid conditions. Two 30 day field studies in Birmingham, AL, USA were conducted to compare the response of two APSs operated with and without an inlet conditioner to that measured with FRM samplers. In field studies, the correlation of PM(10-2.5) derived from the APS and that measured with the FRM was substantially stronger with an inlet conditioner applied (r2 ranged from 0.91 to 0.99) than with no conditioner (r2 = 0.61). Laboratory experiments confirmed the ability of the heater and desiccant conditioner to remove particle-borne moisture. In field tests, water was found associated with particles across the sizing range of the APS (0.5 microm to 20 microm) when relative humidity was high in Birmingham. Certain types of inlet conditioners may substantially improve the correlation between particulate mass concentration derived from real-time particle sizers and filter-based samplers in humid conditions. PMID:18385876

  4. Mass loading of size-segregated atmospheric aerosols in the ambient air during fireworks episodes in eastern Central India.

    PubMed

    Nirmalkar, Jayant; Deb, Manas K; Deshmukh, Dhananjay K; Verma, Santosh K

    2013-04-01

    The effects of combustion of the fire crackers on the air quality in eastern Central India were studied for the first time during Diwali festival. This case study analyzes the size distribution and temporal variation of aerosols collected in the rural area of eastern Central India during pre-diwali, Diwali and post-diwali period for the year of 2011. Fifteen aerosol samples were collected during the special case study of Diwali period using Andersen sampler. The mean concentrations of PM10 (respirable particulate matter) were found to be 212.8 ± 4.2, 555.5 ± 20.2 and 284.4 ± 5.8 during pre-diwali, Diwali and post-diwali period, respectively. During Diwali festival PM10 concentration was about 2.6 and 1.9 times higher than pre-diwali and post-diwali period, respectively. PM2.5 (fine) and PM1 (submicron) concentrations during Diwali festival were more than 2 times higher than pre-diwali and post-diwali.

  5. Estimation of air pollutant emission loads from construction and operational activities of a port and harbour in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Joshy; Patil, R S; Gupta, S K

    2009-12-01

    Port causes environmental and health concerns in coastal cities if its operation and development are not made environmentally compatible and sustainable. An emission inventory is necessary to assess the impact of port projects or growth in marine activity as well as to plan mitigation strategies. In this study, a detailed emission inventory of total suspended particulate (TSP) matter, respirable particulate matter (PM(10)), sulphur dioxide (SO(2)) and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) for a port having operation and construction activities in parallel is compiled. The study has been done for 1 year. Results show that the maximum contribution of emission of air pollutants in the port area was from TSP (68.5%) and the minimum was from SO(2) (5.3%) to the total pollutants considered in this study. Total TSP emission from all activities of the port was 4,452 tyr(-1) and PM(10) emission was 903 tyr(-1) in the year 2006. Re-suspension of dust from paved roads was the major contributor of TSP and PM(10) in the road transport sector. Construction activities of the port had contributed 3.9% of TSP and 7.4% of PM(10) to total emission of particulate matter. Of the total particulate emissions from various port activities approximately 20% of TSP could be attributed to PM(10). The sectoral composition indicates that major contribution of SO(2) emission in the port was from maritime sector and major contribution of NO(x) was from road transport sector.

  6. Estimation of air pollutant emission loads from construction and operational activities of a port and harbour in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Joshy; Patil, R S; Gupta, S K

    2009-12-01

    Port causes environmental and health concerns in coastal cities if its operation and development are not made environmentally compatible and sustainable. An emission inventory is necessary to assess the impact of port projects or growth in marine activity as well as to plan mitigation strategies. In this study, a detailed emission inventory of total suspended particulate (TSP) matter, respirable particulate matter (PM(10)), sulphur dioxide (SO(2)) and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) for a port having operation and construction activities in parallel is compiled. The study has been done for 1 year. Results show that the maximum contribution of emission of air pollutants in the port area was from TSP (68.5%) and the minimum was from SO(2) (5.3%) to the total pollutants considered in this study. Total TSP emission from all activities of the port was 4,452 tyr(-1) and PM(10) emission was 903 tyr(-1) in the year 2006. Re-suspension of dust from paved roads was the major contributor of TSP and PM(10) in the road transport sector. Construction activities of the port had contributed 3.9% of TSP and 7.4% of PM(10) to total emission of particulate matter. Of the total particulate emissions from various port activities approximately 20% of TSP could be attributed to PM(10). The sectoral composition indicates that major contribution of SO(2) emission in the port was from maritime sector and major contribution of NO(x) was from road transport sector. PMID:19030999

  7. Electronic Power Conditioner for Ku-band Travelling Wave Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowstubha, Palle; Krishnaveni, K.; Ramesh Reddy, K.

    2016-07-01

    A highly sophisticated regulated power supply is known as electronic power conditioner (EPC) is required to energise travelling wave tubes (TWTs), which are used as RF signal amplifiers in satellite payloads. The assembly consisting of TWT and EPC together is known as travelling wave tube amplifier (TWTA). EPC is used to provide isolated and conditioned voltage rails with tight regulation to various electrodes of TWT and makes its RF performance independent of solar bus variations which are caused due to varying conditions of eclipse and sunlit. The payload mass and their power consumption is mainly due to the existence of TWTAs that represent about 35 % of total mass and about 70-90 % (based on the type of satellite application) of overall dc power consumption. This situation ensures a continuous improvement in the design of TWTAs and their associated EPCs to realize more efficient and light products. Critical technologies involved in EPCs are design and configuration, closed loop regulation, component and material selection, energy limiting of high voltage (HV) outputs and potting of HV card etc. This work addresses some of these critical technologies evolved in realizing and testing the state of art of EPC and it focuses on the design of HV supply with a HV and high power capability, up to 6 kV and 170 WRF, respectively required for a space TWTA. Finally, an experimental prototype of EPC with a dc power of 320 W provides different voltages required by Ku-band TWT in open loop configuration.

  8. Cold-air investigation of a 3 1/2-stage fan-drive turbine with a stage loading factor of 4 designed for an integral lift engine. 1: Turbine design and performance of first stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, W. J.; Schum, H. J.; Behning, F. P.

    1975-01-01

    The design of the 3 1/2-stage turbine is described, and the cold-air performance of the first stage, modified for axial inlet conditions, is presented. The performance of the modified single-stage turbine and of two comtemporary high-stage-loading-factor turbines is compared with that estimated with a reference prediction method.

  9. Breakthrough Video: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) invented a breakthrough technology that improves air conditioning in a novel way—with heat. NREL combined desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90% less electricity and up to 80% less total energy than traditional air conditioning (AC). This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP), also controls humidity more effectively to improve the comfort of people in buildings.

  10. Proposal for a Vehicle Level Test Procedure to Measure Air Conditioning Fuel Use

    SciTech Connect

    Rugh, J. P.

    2010-04-01

    The air-conditioning (A/C) compressor load significantly impacts the fuel economy of conventional vehicles and the fuel use/range of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). A National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) vehicle performance analysis shows the operation of the air conditioner reduces the charge depletion range of a 40-mile range PHEV from 18% to 30% in a worst case hot environment. Designing for air conditioning electrical loads impacts PHEV and electric vehicle (EV) energy storage system size and cost. While automobile manufacturers have climate control procedures to assess A/C performance, and the U.S. EPA has the SCO3 drive cycle to measure indirect A/C emissions, there is no automotive industry consensus on a vehicle level A/C fuel use test procedure. With increasing attention on A/C fuel use due to increased regulatory activities and the development of PHEVs and EVs, a test procedure is needed to accurately assess the impact of climate control loads. A vehicle thermal soak period is recommended, with solar lamps that meet the SCO3 requirements or an alternative heating method such as portable electric heaters. After soaking, the vehicle is operated over repeated drive cycles or at a constant speed until steady-state cabin air temperature is attained. With this method, the cooldown and steady-state A/C fuel use are measured. This method can be run at either different ambient temperatures to provide data for the GREEN-MAC-LCCP model temperature bins or at a single representative ambient temperature. Vehicles with automatic climate systems are allowed to control as designed, while vehicles with manual climate systems are adjusted to approximate expected climate control settings. An A/C off test is also run for all drive profiles. This procedure measures approximate real-world A/C fuel use and assess the impact of thermal load reduction strategies.

  11. Comparative Evaluation of Physical Properties of Four Tissue Conditioners Relined to Modeling Plastic Material

    PubMed Central

    Monzavi, Abbas; Siadat, Hakimeh; Atai, Mohammad; Alikhasi, Marzieh; Nazari, Vahideh; Sheikhzadeh, Sadigheh

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the interaction of tissue conditioners and modeling plastics. This study evaluates the influence of a variety of commercial tissue conditioners on alteration of viscoelastic properties of modeling plastics. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, the dynamic viscoelastic properties of four commercially available tissue conditioners (TC), Visco-gel (VG), GC Soft-Liner (SL), FITT (FT), and Coe Comfort (CC), relined to modeling plastics with a thickness of 2mm were evaluated after 1 and 7 days of water immersion with the use of storage modulus, loss modulus, and tan delta parameters. Values for these three parameters for each tissue conditioner were statistically analyzed by Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney tests with P value sets at<0.05. Results: Complex modulus and loss tangent values of TC were not significantly different among specimens containing 0, 2, 5 and 10 wt.%-SZ, respectively. In FT and TC containing 2 wt.%-SZ, these values were not significantly different between 1 and 28 days in both water- and saliva immersions. Conclusion: The results suggest that relining with modeling plastics does affect TC’s inherent dynamic viscoelastic properties, while the other tissue conditioners investigated may be found to have changed viscoelastic properties as a consequence of vicinity to the modeling plastics. PMID:24910661

  12. Effect of sealant application and thermal cycling on bond strength of tissue conditioners to acrylic resin.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Francisca Neta Cruz Soares; Pinto, José Renato Ribeiro; Turssi, Cecília Pedroso; Basting, Roberta Tarkany

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sealer application and thermal cycling on the bond strength between tissue conditioners and acrylic resin, and to observe the type of bond failure. Two hundred eighty-eight specimens (10x16x3 mm) were made of an acrylic resin (Lucitone 500, Dentsply) using a metal muffle. Specimens were divided into four groups according to the tissue conditioner (Coe-Comfort, GC or Dentusoft, Densell) used and whether or not a sealer (Eversoft Soft Liner Sealer, Myerson) was applied. Each of the four groups was subdivided into other six subgroups (n=12) to undergo thermocycling for 45, 90, 135, 180 or 210 cycles with a dwell time of 60 s, or to be left non thermocycled (control). Tensile bond strength was measured in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. Sealant application had no effect on the tensile bond strength of the relined acrylic resin, regardless of the tissue conditioner used (Coe-Comfort: p=0.306 and Dentusoft: p=0.1501). The number of thermal cycles had a significant effect on the tensile bond strength of the relined acrylic resin (Coe-Comfort: p=0.002 and Dentusoft: p<0.001). Both tissue conditioners presented similar bond strength to acrylic resin. For both tissue conditioners, sealer coatings had no influence on bond strength, while different numbers of thermal cycles affected that mechanical property.

  13. Performance of a photovoltaically powered air-conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, Jr, E. C.; Millner, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    A vapor-compression air conditioner coupled directly to a photovoltaic array is discussed. Previous analyses of such a system are reviewed, and a development system designed to test the concept is described. Preliminary experiments indicate that the performance of this initial system falls considerably short of analytic expectations.

  14. High efficiency air cycle air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rannenberg, G. C.

    1985-11-19

    An air cycle air conditioning system is provided with regenerative heat exchangers upstream and downstream of an expansion turbine. A closedloop liquid circulatory system serially connects the two regenerative heat exchangers for regeneration without the bulk associated with air-to-air heat exchange. The liquid circulatory system may also provide heat transport to a remote sink heat exchanger and from a remote load as well as heat exchange within the sink heat exchanger and load for enhanced compactness and efficiency.

  15. 40 CFR 1066.845 - AC17 air conditioning efficiency test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... voluntary procedure for measuring the net impact of air conditioner operation on CO2 emissions. See 40 CFR... solar heating is disabled for certain test intervals as described in this section. (d) Interior air... tests according to 40 CFR 86.132-00(a) through (g). If the vehicle has been tested within the last...

  16. Flow conditioner for fuel injector for combustor and method for low-NO.sub.x combustor

    DOEpatents

    Dutta, Partha; Smith, Kenneth O.; Ritz, Frank J.

    2013-09-10

    An injector for a gas turbine combustor including a catalyst coated surface forming a passage for feed gas flow and a channel for oxidant gas flow establishing an axial gas flow through a flow conditioner disposed at least partially within an inner wall of the injector. The flow conditioner includes a length with an interior passage opening into upstream and downstream ends for passage of the axial gas flow. An interior diameter of the interior passage smoothly reduces and then increases from upstream to downstream ends.

  17. Ocular prosthetics: use of a tissue conditioner material to modify a stock ocular prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Ow, R K; Amrith, S

    1997-08-01

    The custom-made ocular prosthesis contributes to enhanced tissue health of the anophthalmic socket. For this purpose, an acrylic resin ocular prosthesis may be modified, by using an appropriate dental impression material and being adapted closely to the anophthalmic socket. The modeling impression material is subsequently replaced by acrylic resin. This article describes the application of a viscoelastic tissue conditioner material, as an impression medium for prosthetic modification of an ocular prosthesis. The tissue conditioner material exhibits favorable tissue compatibility, adhesion to acrylic resin, and detailed surface registration. These advantages facilitate the clinical procedure and evaluation of modifications made to the ocular prosthesis.

  18. PremAir{trademark} catalyst systems: A new approach to clean air

    SciTech Connect

    Poles, T.; Anderson, D.R.; Durilla, M.; Heck, R.; Hoke, J.; Ober, R.; Rudy, W.

    1996-12-01

    PremAir{trademark} catalyst systems represents a new approach to air pollution control--one that focuses on destroying pollutants already in the air. PremAir is the trademark for a family of developmental catalysts capable of reducing ozone, carbon monoxide and potentially other pollutants in ambient air that comes into contact with catalyst-coated surfaces. The more air that comes into contact with the surface the more pollutants that can be destroyed. For this reason, Engelhard has focused its attention on heat-exchange equipment such as automotive radiators and air-conditioner condensers. It is because of advances in catalysis achieved at Engelhard that PremAir catalysts are active at the low temperatures found in these environments. In Los Angeles, which has the country`s worst smog problem, approximately one trillion cubic feet per day of air pass through car radiators and five trillion cubic feet per day pass through air conditioners. Most of the research, development and testing work performed to date has been on ozone catalysts and their application to car radiators. This paper discusses that work and the potential benefits associated with the PremAir technology. In addition, preliminary work on stationary applications of this new technology is discussed.

  19. BEETIT: Building Cooling and Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: The 14 projects that comprise ARPA-E’s BEETIT Project, short for “Building Energy Efficiency Through Innovative Thermodevices,” are developing new approaches and technologies for building cooling equipment and air conditioners. These projects aim to drastically improve building energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2) at a cost comparable to current technologies.

  20. Using a gel/plastic surrogate to study the biomechanical response of the head under air shock loading: a combined experimental and numerical investigation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Wagner, Christina; Dal Cengio Leonardi, Alessandra; Jin, Xin; Vandevord, Pamela; Chou, Clifford; Yang, King H; King, Albert I

    2012-03-01

    A combined experimental and numerical study was conducted to determine a method to elucidate the biomechanical response of a head surrogate physical model under air shock loading. In the physical experiments, a gel-filled egg-shaped skull/brain surrogate was exposed to blast overpressure in a shock tube environment, and static pressures within the shock tube and the surrogate were recorded throughout the event. A numerical model of the shock tube was developed using the Eulerian approach and validated against experimental data. An arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) fluid-structure coupling algorithm was then utilized to simulate the interaction of the shock wave and the head surrogate. After model validation, a comprehensive series of parametric studies was carried out on the egg-shaped surrogate FE model to assess the effect of several key factors, such as the elastic modulus of the shell, bulk modulus of the core, head orientation, and internal sensor location, on pressure and strain responses. Results indicate that increasing the elastic modulus of the shell within the range simulated in this study led to considerable rise of the overpressures. Varying the bulk modulus of the core from 0.5 to 2.0 GPa, the overpressure had an increase of 7.2%. The curvature of the surface facing the shock wave significantly affected both the peak positive and negative pressures. Simulations of the head surrogate with the blunt end facing the advancing shock front had a higher pressure compared to the simulations with the pointed end facing the shock front. The influence of an opening (possibly mimicking anatomical apertures) on the peak pressures was evaluated using a surrogate head with a hole on the shell of the blunt end. It was revealed that the presence of the opening had little influence on the positive pressures but could affect the negative pressure evidently.

  1. A review of polymer-based water conditioners for reduction of handling-related injury

    SciTech Connect

    Harnish, Ryan A.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Brown, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Fish are coated with an external layer of protective mucus. This layer serves as the primary barrier against infection or injury, reduces friction, and plays a role in ionic and osmotic regulation. However, the mucus layer is easily disturbed when fish are netted, handled, transported, stressed, or subjected to adverse water conditions. Water additives containing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or proprietary polymers have been used to prevent the deleterious effects of mucus layer disturbances in the commercial tropical fish industry, aquaculture, and for other fisheries management purposes. This paper reviews research on the effectiveness of water conditioners, and examines the contents and uses of a wide variety of commercially available water conditioners. Water conditioners containing polymers may reduce external damage to fish held in containers during scientific experimentation, including surgical implantation of electronic tags. However, there is a need to empirically test the effectiveness of water conditioners at preventing damage to and promoting healing of the mucus layer. A research agenda is provided to advance the science related to the use of water conditions to improve the condition of fish during handling and tagging.

  2. Heart Rate Conditioning in Newborn Infants: Relationships Among Conditionability, Heart Rate Variability, and Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamps, Leighton E.; Porges, Stephen W.

    1975-01-01

    Trace conditioning was evaluated in newborn infants by measurements of heart rate responses to a conditioned stimulus in anticipation of or in absence of the unconditioned stimulus. Data suggest females have higher levels of heart rate variability than males, which parallels their greater conditionability. (GO)

  3. Investigation of Flow Conditioners for Compact Jet Engine Simulator Rig Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Michael J.; Haskin, Henry H.

    2011-01-01

    The design requirements for two new Compact Jet Engine Simulator (CJES) units for upcoming wind tunnel testing lead to the distinct possibility of rig noise contamination. The acoustic and aerodynamic properties of several flow conditioner devices are investigated over a range of operating conditions relevant to the CJES units to mitigate the risk of rig noise. An impinging jet broadband noise source is placed in the upstream plenum of the test facility permitting measurements of not only flow conditioner self-noise, but also noise attenuation characteristics. Several perforated plate and honeycomb samples of high porosity show minimal self-noise but also minimal attenuation capability. Conversely, low porosity perforated plate and sintered wire mesh conditioners exhibit noticeable attenuation but also unacceptable self-noise. One fine wire mesh sample (DP450661) shows minimal selfnoise and reasonable attenuation, particularly when combined in series with a 15.6 percent open area (POA) perforated plate upstream. This configuration is the preferred flow conditioner system for the CJES, providing up to 20 dB of broadband attenuation capability with minimal self-noise.

  4. 21 CFR 872.3765 - Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner. 872.3765 Section 872.3765 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3765 Pit and fissure sealant...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3765 - Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner. 872.3765 Section 872.3765 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3765 Pit and fissure sealant...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872.3750 Section 872.3750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3750 Bracket adhesive...

  7. Simulation Models of Leaf Area Index and Yield for Cotton Grown with Different Soil Conditioners

    PubMed Central

    Su, Lijun; Wang, Quanjiu; Wang, Chunxia; Shan, Yuyang

    2015-01-01

    Simulation models of leaf area index (LAI) and yield for cotton can provide a theoretical foundation for predicting future variations in yield. This paper analyses the increase in LAI and the relationships between LAI, dry matter, and yield for cotton under three soil conditioners near Korla, Xinjiang, China. Dynamic changes in cotton LAI were evaluated using modified logistic, Gaussian, modified Gaussian, log normal, and cubic polynomial models. Universal models for simulating the relative leaf area index (RLAI) were established in which the application rate of soil conditioner was used to estimate the maximum LAI (LAIm). In addition, the relationships between LAIm and dry matter mass, yield, and the harvest index were investigated, and a simulation model for yield is proposed. A feasibility analysis of the models indicated that the cubic polynomial and Gaussian models were less accurate than the other three models for simulating increases in RLAI. Despite significant differences in LAIs under the type and amount of soil conditioner applied, LAIm could be described by aboveground dry matter using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Moreover, the simulation model for cotton yield based on LAIm and the harvest index presented in this work provided important theoretical insights for improving water use efficiency in cotton cultivation and for identifying optimal application rates of soil conditioners. PMID:26536468

  8. Impact of Air-Filter Condition on HVAC Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, L.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis was performed of changes in energy consumption caused by dirty filters for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems during both heating and cooling cycles. Basic heat-transfer fundamentals and the vapor-compression refrigeration cycle for air conditioners were used. The energy cost savings between a dirty and a clean filter were small and were mainly offset by the filter cost. However, the consequences of deferring filter replacement could be very costly because of early equipment failures.

  9. Keeping cool: use of air conditioning by australians with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Summers, Michael P; Simmons, Rex D; Verikios, George

    2012-01-01

    Despite the known difficulties many people with MS have with high ambient temperatures, there are no reported studies of air conditioning use and MS. This study systematically examined air conditioner use by Australians with MS. A short survey was sent to all participants in the Australian MS Longitudinal Study cohort with a response rate of 76% (n = 2,385). Questions included hours of air-conditioner use, areas cooled, type and age of equipment, and the personal effects of overheating. Air conditioners were used by 81.9% of respondents, with an additional 9.6% who could not afford an air conditioner. Regional and seasonal variation in air conditioning use was reported, with a national annual mean of 1,557 hours running time. 90.7% reported negative effects from overheating including increased fatigue, an increase in other MS symptoms, reduced household and social activities, and reduced work capacity. Households that include people with MS spend between 4 and 12 times more on keeping cool than average Australian households. PMID:22548176

  10. Analysis of Efficiency Standards for Air Conditioners, Heat Pumps, and Other Products

    EIA Publications

    2002-01-01

    A series of analyses showing the impacts of each of the selected provisions of the bills on energy supply, demand, and prices, macroeconomic variables where feasible, import dependence, and emissions.

  11. 10 CFR 431.92 - Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... include electrical resistance, steam, hot water, or gas, but may not include reverse cycle refrigeration..., and functional (or hydraulic) characteristics that affect energy consumption, energy efficiency, water consumption, or water efficiency. Coefficient of Performance, or COP means the ratio of the produced...

  12. 75 FR 7987 - Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and Room Air Conditioners: Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Analysis The NIA estimates the national energy savings (NES) and the net present value (NPV) of total... the real consumer cost of capital and puts the LCC in present-value terms. The PBP represents the... final rule in the Federal Register (FR) establishing the first set of performance standards...

  13. 77 FR 8178 - Test Procedures for Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ..., that are designed to use R-22 refrigerant. 74 FR 66450 (Dec. 15, 2009). EPA's rulemaking included an... instructions in the Web site. Registration information, participant instructions, and information about the capabilities available to webinar participants will be published on the following Web site...

  14. 77 FR 28519 - Test Procedure Guidance for Room Air Conditioners, Residential Dishwashers, and Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    .... A link to the docket web page can be found at www.regulations.gov . The www.regulations.gov web page..., DOE launched a new Web site dedicated to DOE guidance: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/guidance/default... publishes guidance in draft form on the guidance Web site. DOE accepts public comment on the draft...

  15. 75 FR 72739 - Compliance Testing Procedures: Correction Factor for Room Air Conditioners

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... public record evidence justifying this requested action. See, 75 FR 42579, 42581 (July 22, 2010... Rulemaking (SNOPR) to amend the test procedure. See 75 FR 37594, 37635 (June 29, 2010). DOE states: ``Section... final rule and without prior notice. 75 FR 42579 (July 22, 2010) Here, test procedure revocation is...

  16. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... manufacturer. (iii) The manufacturer may include the ENERGY STAR logo on the bottom right corner of the label... may add the ENERGY STAR logo to labels on qualifying covered products; such manufacturers may add the ENERGY STAR logo to labels only on those covered products that are contemplated by the Memorandum...

  17. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... manufacturer. (iii) The manufacturer may include the ENERGY STAR logo on the bottom right corner of the label... may add the ENERGY STAR logo to labels on qualifying covered products; such manufacturers may add the ENERGY STAR logo to labels only on those covered products that are contemplated by the Memorandum...

  18. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... left and top to bottom). Depth is variable but should follow closely the prototype labels appearing at... manufacturer. (iii) The manufacturer may include the ENERGY STAR logo on the bottom right corner of the label... may add the ENERGY STAR logo to labels on qualifying covered products; such manufacturers may add...

  19. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate two miconazole conditioners for the treatment of Malassezia dermatitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Marsella, R; Nicklin, C E; Nerbonne, J

    2000-01-01

    Eighteen dogs with Malassezia dermatitis participated in a clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of miconazole conditioners. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive vehicle only, miconazole 1%, or miconazole 2% conditioner. Conditioners were used three times weekly for 2 weeks and then twice weekly for 2 weeks. Investigators evaluated erythema, pruritus, and yeast counts weekly. Owners scored pruritus daily. Yeast number decreased in all treatment groups. Yeast number in the vehicle group was higher than in both the miconazole treatment groups but was not different between the two miconazole groups. Clinical scores decreased but no difference was detected among groups. PMID:19757576

  20. Method and device for optimizing the air-fuel mixture burn rate of internal combustion engines during low speed, light and heavy load operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Burandt, C.O.

    1990-10-09

    This patent describes a method for optimizing low speed light load and low speed heavy load operating conditions in an internal combustion engine. The engine has a camshaft, a crankshaft, at least one intake valve and at least one piston, and is capable of providing for small valve events, and the engine providing for earlier than normal intake valve closings the method comprises: sensing the load demand on the engine, regulating the phasing of the operation of the camshaft of the engine with the operation of the crankshaft of the engine in response to the sensed load demand by advancing the operation of camshaft relative to the operation of the crankshaft when a heavy load demand is sensed and by retarding the operation of the camshaft relative to the operation of the crankshaft when alight load demand is sensed, and sensing detonation in the engine and regulating the phasing operation of the camshaft relative to the operation of the crankshaft by advancing the operation of the camshaft relative to the crankshaft when detonation is sensed.

  1. Method and apparatus for analog signal conditioner for high speed, digital x-ray spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Warburton, W.K.; Hubbard, B.

    1999-02-09

    A signal processing system which accepts input from an x-ray detector-preamplifier and produces a signal of reduced dynamic range for subsequent analog-to-digital conversion is disclosed. The system conditions the input signal to reduce the number of bits required in the analog-to-digital converter by removing that part of the input signal which varies only slowly in time and retaining the amplitude of the pulses which carry information about the x-rays absorbed by the detector. The parameters controlling the signal conditioner`s operation can be readily supplied in digital form, allowing it to be integrated into a feedback loop as part of a larger digital x-ray spectroscopy system. 13 figs.

  2. Dynamic modeling of brushless dc motor-power conditioner unit for electromechanical actuator application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demerdash, N. A.; Nehl, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive digital model for the analysis of the dynamic-instantaneous performance of a power conditioner fed samarium-cobalt permanent magnet brushless DC motor is presented. The particular power conditioner-machine system at hand, for which this model was developed, is a component of an actual prototype electromechanical actuator built for NASA-JSC as a possible alternative to hydraulic actuators as part of feasibility studies for the shuttle orbiter applications. Excellent correlation between digital simulated and experimentally obtained performance data was achieved for this specific prototype. This is reported on in this paper. Details of one component of the model, its applications and the corresponding results are given in this paper.

  3. METHODOLOGIES FOR ESTIMATING AIR EMISSIONS FROM THREE NON-TRADITIONAL SOURCE CATEGORIES: OIL SPILLS, PETROLEUM VESSEL LOADING & UNLOADING, AND COOLING TOWERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses part of EPA's program to identify and characterize emissions sources not currently accounted for by either the existing Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) or State Implementation Plan (sip) area source methodologies and to develop appropriate emis...

  4. Exposure data for cosmetic products: facial cleanser, hair conditioner, and eye shadow.

    PubMed

    Loretz, L J; Api, A M; Babcock, L; Barraj, L M; Burdick, J; Cater, K C; Jarrett, G; Mann, S; Pan, Y H L; Re, T A; Renskers, K J; Scrafford, C G

    2008-05-01

    Reliable exposure information for cosmetic and other personal care products and ingredients is needed in order to conduct safety assessments. Essential information includes both the amount of product applied, and the frequency of use. To obtain current data, a study to assess consumer use practices was undertaken. Three widely used types of cosmetic products - facial cleanser, hair conditioner, and eye shadow - were included in the study. Three hundred and sixty women, ages 18-69 years, who regularly use the products of interest, were recruited nationwide within the US. Subjects were provided with a new container of the brand of product they normally use and kept diaries and recorded detailed daily usage information over a two week period. Products were weighed at the start and completion of the study in order to determine the total amount of product used. Statistical analyses of the data were conducted to derive summary distributions of use patterns. The mean and median usage per application, respectively, for the three product types were: facial cleanser, 2.57 g and 2.11 g; hair conditioner, 13.13 g and 10.21 g; and eye shadow, 0.03 g and 0.009 g. The mean and median usage per day for the three product types was: facial cleanser, 4.06 g and 3.25 g; hair conditioner, 13.77 g and 10.62 g; and eye shadow, 0.04 g and 0.010 g. The mean number of applications per day for facial cleanser, hair conditioner, and eye shadow was 1.6, 1.1, and 1.2, respectively. This study provides an estimate of current exposure information for commonly used products which will be useful for risk assessment purposes.

  5. Evaluation of a clay-based acidic bedding conditioner for dairy cattle bedding.

    PubMed

    Proietto, R L; Hinckley, L S; Fox, L K; Andrew, S M

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of a clay-based acidic bedding conditioner on sawdust bedding pH, dry matter (DM), environmental pathogen counts, and environmental bacterial counts on teat ends of lactating dairy cows. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows were paired based on parity, days in milk, milk yield, and milk somatic cell count, and were negative for the presence of an intramammary pathogen. Within each pair, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments with 3-wk periods in a crossover design. Treatment groups consisted of 9 freestalls per group bedded with either untreated sawdust or sawdust with a clay-based acidic bedding conditioner, added at 3- to 4-d intervals over each 21-d period. Bedding and teat ends were aseptically sampled on d 0, 1, 2, 7, 14, and 21 for determination of environmental bacterial counts. At the same time points, bedding was sampled for DM and pH determination. The bacteria identified in the bedding material were total gram-negative bacteria, Streptococcus spp., and coliform bacteria. The bacteria identified on the teat ends were Streptococcus spp., coliform bacteria, and Klebsiella spp. Teat end score, milk somatic cell count, and intramammary pathogen presence were measured weekly. Bedding and teat cleanliness, environmental high and low temperatures, and dew point data were collected daily. The bedding conditioner reduced the pH, but not the DM, of the sawdust bedding compared with untreated sawdust. Overall environmental bacterial counts in bedding were lower for treated sawdust. Total bacterial counts in bedding and on teat ends increased with time over both periods. Compared with untreated sawdust, the treated bedding had lower counts of total gram-negative bacteria and streptococci, but not coliform counts. Teat end bacterial counts were lower for cows bedded on treated sawdust for streptococci, coliforms, and Klebsiella spp. compared with cows bedded on untreated sawdust. The clay-based acidic bedding conditioner

  6. 76 FR 30555 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Central Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... proposed rulemaking (SNOPR), 76 FR 18105, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposed amendments to those... released in a June 2010 notice of proposed rulemaking (NOPR). 75 FR 31224. The proposed amendments in the... Procedures for Residential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...

  7. 14 CFR 296.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Joint loading. 296.4 Section 296.4... REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and their delivery to a direct air carrier...

  8. 14 CFR 296.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Joint loading. 296.4 Section 296.4... REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and their delivery to a direct air carrier...

  9. 14 CFR 296.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Joint loading. 296.4 Section 296.4... REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and their delivery to a direct air carrier...

  10. 14 CFR 296.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Joint loading. 296.4 Section 296.4... REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and their delivery to a direct air carrier...

  11. 14 CFR 296.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Joint loading. 296.4 Section 296.4... REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and their delivery to a direct air carrier...

  12. Development and application of a method for predicting rotor free wake positions and resulting rotor blade air loads. Volume 1: Model and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadler, S. G.

    1971-01-01

    Rotor wake geometries are predicted by a process similar to the startup of a rotor in a free stream. An array of discrete trailing and shed vortices is generated with vortex strengths corresponding to stepwise radial and azimuthal blade circulations. The array of shed and trailing vortices is limited to an arbitrary number of azimuthal steps behind each blade. The remainder of the wake model of each blade is an arbitrary number of trailing vortices. Vortex element end points were allowed to be transported by the resultant velocity of the free stream and vortex-induced velocities. Wake geometry, wake flow, and wake-induced velocity influence coefficients are generated by this program for use in the blade loads portion of the calculations. Blade loads computations include the effects of nonuniform inflow due to a free wake, nonlinear airfoil characteristics, and response of flexible blades to the applied loads. Computed wake flows and blade loads are compared with experimentally measured data. Predicted blade loads, response and shears and moments are obtained for a model rotor system having two independent rotors. The effects of advance ratio, vertical separation of rotors, different blade radius ratios, and different azimuthal spacing of the blades of one rotor with respect to the other are investigated.

  13. Investigation of VOCs and PM{sub 2.5} concentrations at two classrooms with or without air conditioning in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, M.; Lee, S.C.

    1999-07-01

    The indoor and outdoor levels of VOCs and PM{sub 2.5} were measured at two classrooms of two schools; one is naturally ventilated, while the other had two window type air-conditioners and four exhaust fans. The ventilation rates at the two classrooms were 0.937 ACH (Classroom A) and 0.217 ACH (Classroom B). Both classrooms had ventilation requirements below the ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 assuming that the outdoor contaminant levels were within the ASHRAE requirements. The abundance and concentration of volatile organic species found indoors and outdoors of Classroom B were higher than Classroom A since Classroom B is located in a heavily trafficked area. The classroom without air-conditioner (A) had higher I/O ratios than Classroom B due to the higher ventilation rates. The air-conditioner, though not providing enough fresh air to the classroom, might act as a barrier for outdoor pollutants. The reduction of PM2.5 levels Classroom A was 30% and at Classroom B was 67%. The air-conditioning system in Classroom B could be removing some of the fine particulate matter from the outdoor supply air before entering the classroom. The use of air-conditioners can keep outdoor pollutants from entering the classroom, but could increase the level of indoor produced pollutant. From this study, air-conditioning systems in classroom somehow prevent pollutants from entering, and besides used to lowering environmental noise should be encouraged at schools located in heavily polluted environments.

  14. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1998-12-15

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

  15. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    2001-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs which can be combined to determine any one of the six general load components.

  16. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    1998-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components.

  17. Reducing indoor air pollution by air conditioning is associated with improvements in cardiovascular health among the general population.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lian-Yu; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Liu, I-Jung; Chen, Hua-Wei; Chuang, Kai-Jen

    2013-10-01

    Indoor air pollution is associated with cardiovascular effects, however, little is known about the effects of improving indoor air quality on cardiovascular health. The aim of this study was to explore whether improving indoor air quality through air conditioning can improve cardiovascular health in human subjects. We recruited a panel of 300 healthy subjects from Taipei, aged 20 and over, to participate in six home visits each, to measure a variety of cardiovascular endpoints, including high sensitivity-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), fibrinogen in plasma and heart rate variability (HRV). Indoor particles and total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured simultaneously at the participant's home during each visit. Three exposure conditions were investigated in this study: participants were requested to keep their windows open during the first two visits, close their windows during the next two visits, and close the windows and turn on their air conditioners during the last two visits. We used linear mixed-effects models to associate the cardiovascular endpoints with individual indoor air pollutants. The results showed that increases in hs-CRP, 8-OHdG and fibrinogen, and decreases in HRV indices were associated with increased levels of indoor particles and total VOCs in single-pollutant and two-pollutant models. The effects of indoor particles and total VOCs on cardiovascular endpoints were greatest during visits with the windows open. During visits with the air conditioners turned on, no significant changes in cardiovascular endpoints were observed. In conclusion, indoor air pollution is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, blood coagulation and autonomic dysfunction. Reductions in indoor air pollution and subsequent improvements in cardiovascular health can be achieved by closing windows and turning on air conditioners at home.

  18. Using Critical Loads to Look at Improvements in Acidic Surface Water Conditions since the 1990 Amendments to the Clear Air Act: Case Study Adirondack, NY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, J. A.; Kolian, M. J.; Haeuber, R.

    2008-12-01

    Acid deposition has affected hundreds of lakes and thousands of miles of headwater streams in the Adirondack region of New York State. The diversity of life in these acidic waters has been greatly reduced. The poor buffering capacity of the thin, acidic soils in the Adirondack Mountains makes the lakes and ponds particularly susceptible to acidification. Since the mid-1990's, lakes in the Adirondack region are finally showing signs of recovery. The good news is that emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides have been reduced and as a result acidic deposition of sulfate and nitrate has decreased in surface waters approximately 26 and 13%, respectively. This has led to improvement in the acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of these water bodies. Although improvement in water quality is a good sign, it does not tell us if a particular lake or a group of lakes have recovered from decades of acidic deposition. However, the critical loads approach does allow for evaluation of whether a water body has reached recovery for acidic deposition. Critical loads and exceedances for lake surface water and acidity were calculated for 187 lakes in the Adirondack region. The Steady-State Water Chemistry (SSWC) model was used to calculate the critical load, relying on water chemistry data from the TIME/LTM network. An ANC threshold of 50 μeq/L was selected for this case study. Exceedances were calculated from deposition for the period before implementation of the Acid Rain program (ARP) (1989-1991) and for the period of 2004-2006 to judge improvements as a result of the ARP. On average, the critical load for lakes in the Adirondack region is 164 meq/m2/yr, while it is 48 meq/m2/yr for the most sensitive lakes (i.e. ANC less than 100 μeq/L). For the period from 2004 to 2006, 65% of the lakes within the TIME/LTM network continued to receive levels of acid deposition that exceeded the lake's critical load down from 72% of lakes before implementation of the Acid Rain Program

  19. Relationship between Fear Conditionability and Aversive Memories: Evidence from a Novel Conditioned-Intrusion Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Wegerer, Melanie; Blechert, Jens; Kerschbaum, Hubert; Wilhelm, Frank H.

    2013-01-01

    Intrusive memories – a hallmark symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) – are often triggered by stimuli possessing similarity with cues that predicted or accompanied the traumatic event. According to learning theories, intrusive memories can be seen as a conditioned response to trauma reminders. However, direct laboratory evidence for the link between fear conditionability and intrusive memories is missing. Furthermore, fear conditioning studies have predominantly relied on standardized aversive stimuli (e.g. electric stimulation) that bear little resemblance to typical traumatic events. To investigate the general relationship between fear conditionability and aversive memories, we tested 66 mentally healthy females in a novel conditioned-intrusion paradigm designed to model real-life traumatic experiences. The paradigm included a differential fear conditioning procedure with neutral sounds as conditioned stimuli and short violent film clips as unconditioned stimuli. Subsequent aversive memories were assessed through a memory triggering task (within 30 minutes, in the laboratory) and ambulatory assessment (involuntary aversive memories in the 2 days following the experiment). Skin conductance responses and subjective ratings demonstrated successful differential conditioning indicating that naturalistic aversive film stimuli can be used in a fear conditioning experiment. Furthermore, aversive memories were elicited in response to the conditioned stimuli during the memory triggering task and also occurred in the 2 days following the experiment. Importantly, participants who displayed higher conditionability showed more aversive memories during the memory triggering task and during ambulatory assessment. This suggests that fear conditioning constitutes an important source of persistent aversive memories. Implications for PTSD and its treatment are discussed. PMID:24244407

  20. Effects of soil conditioners on emergence and growth of tomato-cotton, and lettuce seedlings. [Lycopersicon esculentum; Gossypium hirsutum; Lactuea sativa

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.; Wallace, G.A.

    1986-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the extent to which seedling emergence and plant growth can be improved with use of new soil conditioners. The early findings regarding polymeric soil conditioners are still valid today, with the exception that much lower application rates are needed today, and different application methodology is available.

  1. An experimental investigation of compressor stall using an on-line distortion indicator and signal conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costakis, W. G.; Wenzel, L. M.

    1975-01-01

    The relation of the steady-state and dynamic distortions and the stall margin of a J85-13 turbojet engine was investigated. A distortion indicator capable of computing two distortion indices was used. A special purpose signal conditioner was also used as an interface between transducer signals and distortion indicator. A good correlation of steady-state distortion and stall margin was established. The prediction of stall by using the indices as instantaneous distortion indicators was not successful. A sensitivity factor that related the loss of stall margin to the turbulence level was found.

  2. Investigation into the common mode rejection ratio of the physiological signal conditioner circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Edward M.

    1992-01-01

    The common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) of the single operational amplifier (op amp) differential amplifier and of the three operational amplifier differential amplifier was investigated. The three op amp differential amplifier circuit is used in the signal conditioner circuit which amplifies signals such as the electromyograph or electrocardiogram. The investigation confirmed via SPICE modeling what has been observed by others in the recent literature that the CMRR for the circuit can be maximized without precision resistor values or precisely matched op amps. This can be done if one resistor in the final stage can be adjusted either by a potentiometer or by laser trimming in the case of hybrid circuit fabrication.

  3. Diamond Conditioner Microwear Effect on Pad Surface Height Distribution in Tungsten Chemical Mechanical Polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Yohei; Kawakubo, Masanori; Kadomura, Kazunori

    2011-05-01

    In this study, the surface topographies of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) pad samples for varying levels of diamond microwear of a conditioner have been measured using a confocal microscope and an X-ray computer tomography (CT) scanner. The experimental results showed that the increase in the pad debris on the pad surface reduced the pad height ratio of the asperity called the “top surface area (TSA) ratio”. In addition, the overall removal rate in tungsten CMP was more dependent on the TSA ratio after polishing than on that after conditioning because the pad surface condition became worse with deformed asperities and micropores due to the insufficient conditioning.

  4. Diagnostics of the loss of stability of loaded constructions and the development of the sites of breakdown during the action of seismic explosion and air shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhmudov, Kh. F.; Menzhulin, M. G.; Zakharyan, M. V.; Sultonov, U.; Abdurakhmanov, Z. M.

    2015-11-01

    One of the challenging problems for mining enterprises, namely, predicting the decrease in the strength of the structure elements in guarded buildings and constructions during blasting, is solved in terms of a stress concentration factor, the time of exceeding the long-term tensile strength, and the crack growth rate. It is shown that the existence of stress concentrators in the form of natural heterogeneities or defects in the building materials of the building elements subjected to the action of seismic explosion and air shock waves results in crack growth. The distribution of cracks in samples of some materials and the ultimate tensile strength of these materials are determined to find the surface energy. The size distribution of cracks is used to calculate the effective crack length.

  5. Impact of Natural Conditioners on Water Retention, Infiltration and Evaporation Characteristics of Sandy Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Nasser, G.; Al-Omran, A. M.; Falatah, A. M.; Sheta, A. S.; Al-Harbi, A. R.

    Soil conditioners i.e., natural deposits and organic fertilizer are used for alleviate some of poor physical properties of sandy soils such as low water retention and inefficient water use, especially in arid and semi-arid regions such as in Saudi Arabia conditions. The present study aims to investigate the impact of clay deposits and organic fertilizer on water characteristics, cumulative infiltration and intermittent evaporation of loamy sand soil. Soil sample was collected from surface layer (0-30 cm depth) of the Agricultural Experiment and Research Station at Dierab, 40 km south west of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Two samples of clay deposits (CD#22 and CD#23) collected from Khyleis area, Jeddah-Madina road in addition of commercial Organic Fertilizer (OF) were used in the present study. The experiments were done during August to December 2005 in soil physics laboratory, the soil was mixed with clay deposits and organic fertilizer at rates of 0, 1, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0% (w/w). The transparent PVC columns were packed with soil to depth of 30 cm every 5.0 cm intervals to insure a homogeneity of soil in columns. The clay deposits (CD#22 and CD#23) and Organic Fertilizer (OF) mixed with the soil were packed in the upper 0-5.0 cm of each soil column. The infiltration experiment was done using a flooding apparatus (Marriot device) with constant head of 3.0 cm over the soil surface. The cumulative infiltration and wetting front depth as a function of time were recorded. The evaporation experiment was conducted in 40 cm long transparent sectioned Lucite cylinders (5.0 cm ID). Fifty millimeters of tap water were applied weekly for three wetting/drying cycles. Cumulative evaporation against time was measured daily by weighing each soil column. The soil moisture distribution at the end of the experiment was determined gravimetrically for each 5.0 cm interval. The results indicated that the three conditioners significantly increased the water constants of mixed soil (i.e., SWC, FC

  6. Effect of operating temperature on transient behaviour of a biofilter treating waste-air containing n-butanol vapour during intermittent loading.

    PubMed

    Feizi, Farzaneh; Nasernejad, Bahram; Zamir, Seyed Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Transient-state removal of n-butanol vapour was investigated in a biofilter (BF) packed with compost and lava rock at different operating temperatures in the range of 30-45°C under intermittent loading (8 h per day). Adsorption on the inactive bed and biodegradation in the microbial-active bed were studied separately at an empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 1 min and inlet concentrations of 2.6-3.2 g m(-3), respectively. According to the transient experiments, the highest removal efficiency (RE) around 86% was obtained at 40°C due to a high microbial activity. Comparison of CO2 production and pure adsorption of n-butanol showed that adsorption was the major mechanism in the start-up of BF at each operating condition; although the impact of adsorption declined as temperature increased from 30°C to 45°C. The process was reaction limited at all operating conditions. Based on the determination of stoichiometric coefficients of n-butanol biodegradation, the CO2 production level was significantly lower than that of the chemical oxidation process which resulted in a decrease in environmental pollution.

  7. Comparative estimation of soil and plant pollution in the impact area of air emissions from an aluminium plant after technogenic load reduction.

    PubMed

    Evdokimova, Galina A; Mozgova, Natalya P

    2015-01-01

    The work provides a comparative analysis of changes in soil properties in the last 10-13 years along the pollution gradient of air emissions from Kandalaksha aluminium plant in connection with the reduction of their volume. The content of the priority pollutant fluorine (F) in atmospheric precipitation and in the organic horizon of soil in the plant impact zone significantly decreased in 2011-2013 compared to 2001. The aluminium concentrations reduced only in immediate proximity to the plant (2 km). The fluorine, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) concentrations are higher in liquid phase compared to solid phase thus these elements can migrated to greater distances from the pollution source (up to 15-20 km). Silicon (Si), aluminium (Al), iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P) can be found only in solid phases and in fall-out within the 5 km. The acidity of soil litter reduced by 2 pH units in the proximity to the plot within the 2 km. The zone of maximum soil contamination decreased from 2.5 km to 1.5 km from the emission source, the zones of heavy and moderate pollution reduced by 5 km in connection with the reduction of pollutant emissions in the plant. A high correlation between the fluorine concentrations in vegetables and litter was found. Higher fluorine concentrations in the soil result in its accumulation in plants. Mosses accumulate fluorine most intensively.

  8. Microstructure studies of air-plasma-spray-deposited CoNiCrAlY coatings before and after thermal cyclic loading for high-temperature application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Dipak; Pandey, K. N.; Das, Dipak Kumar

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, bond-coats for thermal barrier coatings were deposited via air plasma spraying (APS) techniques onto Inconel 800 and Hastelloy C-276 alloy substrates. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to investigate the phases and microstructure of the as-sprayed, APS-deposited CoNiCrAlY bond-coatings. The aim of this work was to study the suitability of the bond-coat materials for high temperature applications. Confirmation of nanoscale grains of the γ/γ'-phase was obtained by TEM, high-resolution TEM, and AFM. We concluded that these changes result from the plastic deformation of the bond-coat during the deposition, resulting in CoNiCrAlY bond-coatings with excellent thermal cyclic resistance suitable for use in high-temperature applications. Cyclic oxidative stability was observed to also depend on the underlying metallic alloy substrate.

  9. The application of the analog signal to discrete time interval converter to the signal conditioner power supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenfeld, A. D.; Yu, Y.

    1973-01-01

    The Analog Signal to Discrete Time Interval Converter microminiaturized module was utilized to control the signal conditioner power supplies. The multi-loop control provides outstanding static and dynamic performance characteristics, exceeding those generally associated with single-loop regulators. Eight converter boards, each containing three independent dc to dc converter, were built, tested, and delivered.

  10. Large scale air monitoring: lichen vs. air particulate matter analysis.

    PubMed

    Rossbach, M; Jayasekera, R; Kniewald, G; Thang, N H

    1999-07-15

    Biological indicator organisms have been widely used for monitoring and banking purposes for many years. Although the complexity of the interactions between organisms and their environment is generally not easily comprehensible, environmental quality assessment using the bioindicator approach offers some convincing advantages compared to direct analysis of soil, water, or air. Measurement of air particulates is restricted to experienced laboratories with access to expensive sampling equipment. Additionally, the amount of material collected generally is just enough for one determination per sampling and no multidimensional characterization might be possible. Further, fluctuations in air masses have a pronounced effect on the results from air filter sampling. Combining the integrating property of bioindicators with the world wide availability and particular matrix characteristics of air particulate matter as a prerequisite for global monitoring of air pollution is discussed. A new approach for sampling urban dust using large volume filtering devices installed in air conditioners of large hotel buildings is assessed. A first experiment was initiated to collect air particulates (300-500 g each) from a number of hotels during a period of 3-4 months by successive vacuum cleaning of used inlet filters from high volume air conditioning installations reflecting average concentrations per 3 months in different large cities. This approach is expected to be upgraded and applied for global monitoring. Highly positive correlated elements were found in lichens such as K/S, Zn/P, the rare earth elements (REE) and a significant negative correlation between Hg and Cu was observed in these samples. The ratio of concentrations of elements in dust and Usnea spp. is highest for Cz, Zn and Fe (400-200) and lowest for elements such as Ca, Rb, and Sr (20-10).

  11. Turfgrass Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Using technology developed under contract to NASA for the Space Agricultural Program, a scientist at the Plant-Wise Biostimulant Company invented a product for turfgrass called the 3-D Concentrated Plant Growth Supplement. The supplement is a blend of fortified seaweed extracts, humic acid and plant nutrients that supplies grass with extra insurance to handle adverse conditions. The "3-D" refers to its three dimensions: foliar enhancement, physiological integrity, and foundation fortification. The stimulant is used on lawns and on golf courses.

  12. Water Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A home use water treatment incorporates technology developed to purify water aboard Space Shuttle Orbiters. The General Ionics Model IQ Bacteriostatic Water Softener softens water and inhibits bacteria growth in the filtering unit. Ionics used NASA silver ion technology as a basis for development of a silver carbon dense enough to remain on top of the water softening resin bed.

  13. Water Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Aqualizer is designed to cleanse water with minimal use of chemicals by stabilizing the ions in the water. Its applications are both recreational and industrial. A non-electrical passive device, the Aqualizer operates on the principle of catalytic water conditioning. It consists of a stainless steel pipe length with a helical core and is offered in a variety of sizes depending on the quantity of water to be treated. The device is based on NASA silver ionization technology used to purify drinking water aboard the Apollo spacecraft.

  14. 14 CFR 297.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Joint loading. 297.4 Section 297.4... REGULATIONS FOREIGN AIR FREIGHT FORWARDERS AND FOREIGN COOPERATIVE SHIPPERS ASSOCIATIONS General § 297.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and...

  15. 14 CFR 297.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Joint loading. 297.4 Section 297.4... REGULATIONS FOREIGN AIR FREIGHT FORWARDERS AND FOREIGN COOPERATIVE SHIPPERS ASSOCIATIONS General § 297.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and...

  16. 14 CFR 297.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Joint loading. 297.4 Section 297.4... REGULATIONS FOREIGN AIR FREIGHT FORWARDERS AND FOREIGN COOPERATIVE SHIPPERS ASSOCIATIONS General § 297.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and...

  17. 14 CFR 297.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Joint loading. 297.4 Section 297.4... REGULATIONS FOREIGN AIR FREIGHT FORWARDERS AND FOREIGN COOPERATIVE SHIPPERS ASSOCIATIONS General § 297.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and...

  18. 14 CFR 297.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Joint loading. 297.4 Section 297.4... REGULATIONS FOREIGN AIR FREIGHT FORWARDERS AND FOREIGN COOPERATIVE SHIPPERS ASSOCIATIONS General § 297.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and...

  19. Surface force spectroscopic point load measurements and viscoelastic modelling of the micromechanical properties of air flow sensitive hairs of a spider (Cupiennius salei)

    PubMed Central

    McConney, Michael E.; Schaber, Clemens F.; Julian, Michael D.; Eberhardt, William C.; Humphrey, Joseph A.C.; Barth, Friedrich G.; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.

    2009-01-01

    The micromechanical properties of spider air flow hair sensilla (trichobothria) were characterized with nanometre resolution using surface force spectroscopy (SFS) under conditions of different constant deflection angular velocities (rad s−1) for hairs 900–950 μm long prior to shortening for measurement purposes. In the range of angular velocities examined (4×10−4−2.6×10−1 rad s−1), the torque T (Nm) resisting hair motion and its time rate of change (Nm s−1) were found to vary with deflection velocity according to power functions. In this range of angular velocities, the motion of the hair is most accurately captured by a three-parameter solid model, which numerically describes the properties of the hair suspension. A fit of the three-parameter model (3p) to the experimental data yielded the two torsional restoring parameters, S 3p=2.91×10−11 Nm rad−1 and =2.77×10−11 Nm rad−1 and the damping parameter R 3p=1.46×10−12 Nm s rad−1. For angular velocities larger than 0.05 rad s−1, which are common under natural conditions, a more accurate angular momentum equation was found to be given by a two-parameter Kelvin solid model. For this case, the multiple regression fit yielded S 2p=4.89×10−11 Nm rad−1 and R 2p=2.83×10−14 Nm s rad−1 for the model parameters. While the two-parameter model has been used extensively in earlier work primarily at high hair angular velocities, to correctly capture the motion of the hair at both low and high angular velocities it is necessary to employ the three-parameter model. It is suggested that the viscoelastic mechanical properties of the hair suspension work to promote the phasic response behaviour of the sensilla. PMID:19091682

  20. Characterization of cesium uptake mediated by a potassium transport system of bacteria in a soil conditioner.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengyao; Idota, Yoko; Yano, Kentaro; Negishi, Masayuki; Kawabata, Hideaki; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Morimoto, Kaori; Tsuji, Akira; Ogihara, Takuo

    2014-01-01

    We found that bacteria in a commercial soil conditioner sold in Ishinomaki, Miyagi, exhibited concentrative and saturable cesium ion (Cs(+)) uptake in the natural range of pH and temperature. The concentration of intracellular Cs(+) could be condensed at least a few times higher compared with the outside medium of the cells. This uptake appeared to be mediated by a K(+) transport system, since Cs(+) uptake was dose-dependently inhibited by potassium ion (K(+)). Eadie-Hofstee plot analysis indicated that the Cs(+) uptake involved a single saturable process. The maximum uptake amount (Jmax) was the same in the presence and absence of K(+), suggesting that Cs(+) and K(+) uptakes were competitive with respect to each other. These bacteria might be useful for bioremediation of cesium-contaminated soil.

  1. Method and apparatus for analog signal conditioner for high speed, digital x-ray spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Warburton, William K.; Hubbard, Bradley

    1999-01-01

    A signal processing system which accepts input from an x-ray detector-preamplifier and produces a signal of reduced dynamic range for subsequent analog-to-digital conversion. The system conditions the input signal to reduce the number of bits required in the analog-to-digital converter by removing that part of the input signal which varies only slowly in time and retaining the amplitude of the pulses which carry information about the x-rays absorbed by the detector. The parameters controlling the signal conditioner's operation can be readily supplied in digital form, allowing it to be integrated into a feedback loop as part of a larger digital x-ray spectroscopy system.

  2. The concept of target and critical loads

    SciTech Connect

    Grigal, D.F.

    1991-09-01

    Target and critical loads were initially developed for assessment and control of acidic deposition, but are being considered for other air pollutants such as ozone and air-borne toxic compounds. These loads are based on thresholds, with damage assumed to occur above some defined level of deposition. Many of the historically proposed targets for acidic deposition were based on arbitrary interpretations of data. The concept of critical loads has recently separated from that of target loads. A critical load is the amount of pollutant deposition, determined by technical analysis, above which there is a specific deleterious ecological effect. A target load is the deposition, determined by political agreement, above which unacceptable ecological damage occurs; it may be greater than the critical load because of political or economic considerations, or less to conservatively account for uncertainty in the estimation of the critical load. Recent definitions of critical loads include recognition that each kind of ecosystem and effect may require a different load. Geographic regions contain a mosaic of aquatic and terrestrial resources. If precise knowledge leads to different critical loads for each system, then how is the regional target load established For better or worse, target and critical loads are likely to be used to regulate air pollutants. The philosophy of their establishment as thresholds, their quantitative validity, and their application in regulation all require careful examination. 36 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Cold-air investigation of a 4 1/2 stage turbine with stage-loading factor of 4.66 and high specific work output. 2: Stage group performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, W. J.; Behning, F. P.; Moffitt, T. P.; Hotz, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    The stage group performance of a 4 1/2 stage turbine with an average stage loading factor of 4.66 and high specific work output was determined in cold air at design equivalent speed. The four stage turbine configuration produced design equivalent work output with an efficiency of 0.856; a barely discernible difference from the 0.855 obtained for the complete 4 1/2 stage turbine in a previous investigation. The turbine was designed and the procedure embodied the following design features: (1) controlled vortex flow, (2) tailored radial work distribution, and (3) control of the location of the boundary-layer transition point on the airfoil suction surface. The efficiency forecast for the 4 1/2 stage turbine was 0.886, and the value predicted using a reference method was 0.862. The stage group performance results were used to determine the individual stage efficiencies for the condition at which design 4 1/2 stage work output was obtained. The efficiencies of stages one and four were about 0.020 lower than the predicted value, that of stage two was 0.014 lower, and that of stage three was about equal to the predicted value. Thus all the stages operated reasonably close to their expected performance levels, and the overall (4 1/2 stage) performance was not degraded by any particularly inefficient component.

  4. LOADING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.

    1958-10-01

    A device is presented for loading or charging bodies of fissionable material into a reactor. This device consists of a car, mounted on tracks, into which the fissionable materials may be placed at a remote area, transported to the reactor, and inserted without danger to the operating personnel. The car has mounted on it a heavily shielded magazine for holding a number of the radioactive bodies. The magazine is of a U-shaped configuration and is inclined to the horizontal plane, with a cap covering the elevated open end, and a remotely operated plunger at the lower, closed end. After the fissionable bodies are loaded in the magazine and transported to the reactor, the plunger inserts the body at the lower end of the magazine into the reactor, then is withdrawn, thereby allowing gravity to roll the remaining bodies into position for successive loading in a similar manner.

  5. Chlorhexidine-containing acid conditioner preserves the longevity of resin-dentin bonds.

    PubMed

    Stanislawczuk, R; Amaral, R C; Zander-Grande, C; Gagler, D; Reis, A; Loguercio, A D

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of 2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) on the immediate and six-month resin-dentin bond strength (BS) and nanoleakage pattern (NL) of etch-and-rinse adhesives when applied in aqueous or associated to the phosphoric acid conditioner. The occlusal enamel of 42 caries-free extracted molars was removed in order to expose a flat dentin surface. In groups 1 and 2 (control-C), the surfaces were acid etched with conventional phosphoric acid, and the adhesives Prime&Bond NT (PB) and Adper Single Bond 2 (SB) were applied after rinsing, drying and rewetting with water. In groups 3 and 4 (Ac/CHX), the adhesives were applied in a similar manner, however, a 2% CHX-containing acid was previously applied. In groups 5 and 6 (CHX), the adhesives were applied according to the control group; however, the rewetting procedure was performed with an aqueous solution of 2% CHX for 60 seconds. Composite buildups (Opallis, FGM) were constructed incrementally, and the specimens were longitudinally sectioned in the "x" and "y" directions to obtain bonded sticks (0.8 mm2) to be tested in tension at 0.5 mm/minute immediately or after six months of water storage. For NL, two bonded sticks from each tooth were coated with nail varnish, placed in silver nitrate and polished down with SiC paper. Resin-dentin interfaces were analyzed by EDX-SEM. The BS and NL data from each adhesive was submitted to two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=0.05). After six months of water storage, significant reductions in BS were observed for both adhesives in the control group (p<0.05). When Ac/CHX or CHX was used, no significant reductions in BS were observed for both systems. Nanoleakage was more evident in the control group than in the experimental groups (p<0.05), even after six months. The use of CHX in an aqueous solution or associated with the acid conditioner was effective for reducing degradation of resin-dentin bonds after six months of water storage

  6. Avoiding 100 new power plants by increasing efficiency of room air conditioners in India: opportunities and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, Nikit; Shah, Nihar

    2013-10-15

    Electricity demand for room ACs is growing very rapidly in emerging economies such as India. We estimate the electricity demand from room ACs in 2030 in India considering factors such as weather and income growth using market data on penetration of ACs in different income classes and climatic regions. We discuss the status of the current standards, labels, and incentive programs to improve the efficiency of room ACs in these markets and assess the potential for further large improvements in efficiency and find that efficiency can be improved by over 40% cost effectively. The total potential energy savings from Room AC efficiency improvement in India using the best available technology will reach over 118 TWh in 2030; potential peak demand saving is found to be 60 GW by 2030. This is equivalent to avoiding 120 new coal fired power plants of 500 MW each. We discuss policy options to complement, expand and improve the ongoing programs to capture this large potential.

  7. Avoiding 100 New Power Plants by Increasing Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners in India: Opportunities and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, Nikit; Shah, Nihar

    2014-06-19

    Electricity demand for room ACs is growing very rapidly in emerging economies such as India. We estimate the electricity demand from room ACs in 2030 in India considering factors such as weather and income growth using market data on penetration of ACs in different income classes and climatic regions. We discuss the status of the current standards, labels, and incentive programs to improve the efficiency of room ACs in these markets and assess the potential for further large improvements in efficiency and find that efficiency can be improved by over 40percent cost effectively. The total potential energy savings from Room AC efficiency improvement in India using the best available technology will reach over 118 TWh in 2030; potential peak demand saving is found to be 60 GW by 2030. This is equivalent to avoiding 120 new coal fired power plants of 500 MW each. We discuss policy options to complement, expand and improve the ongoing programs to capture this large potential.

  8. Automatically operable self-leveling load table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, J. L. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A self-leveling load table is described which is automatically maintained level by selectively opening and closing solenoid valves for inserting and removing air from chambers under the table. The table is floated in a fluid by nine air chambers beneath the top of the table. These chambers are open at the bottom and four oppositely located chambers are used for leveling the table by having the air increased or decreased by means of a flexible hose. Air bearing pendulums are used for selectively energizing solenoid valves which either apply pressurized air to the chamber or evacuate air from the chamber by means of a vacuum source.

  9. Carbohydrate Loading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  10. Characteristics of indoor radon and its progeny in a Japanese dwelling while using air appliances.

    PubMed

    Pornnumpa, C; Tokonami, S; Sorimachi, A; Kranrod, C

    2015-11-01

    Characteristics of radon and its progeny were investigated in different air conditions by turning four types of indoor air appliances on and off in a two-story concrete Japanese dwelling. The four appliances were air conditioner, air cleaner, gas heater and cooker hood. The measurements were done using two devices: (1) a Si-based semiconductor detector for continuous measurement of indoor radon concentration and (2) a ZnS(Ag) scintillation counting system for equilibrium-equivalent radon concentration. Throughout the entire experiment, the cooker hood was the most effective in decreasing indoor radon concentration over a long period of time and the less effective was the air conditioner, while the air cleaner and gas heater did not affect the concentration of radon. However, the results measured in each air condition will differ according to the lifestyles and activities of the inhabitants. In this study, indoor radon and its progeny in a Japanese dwelling will be characterised by the different air conditions. PMID:25920794

  11. Characteristics of indoor radon and its progeny in a Japanese dwelling while using air appliances.

    PubMed

    Pornnumpa, C; Tokonami, S; Sorimachi, A; Kranrod, C

    2015-11-01

    Characteristics of radon and its progeny were investigated in different air conditions by turning four types of indoor air appliances on and off in a two-story concrete Japanese dwelling. The four appliances were air conditioner, air cleaner, gas heater and cooker hood. The measurements were done using two devices: (1) a Si-based semiconductor detector for continuous measurement of indoor radon concentration and (2) a ZnS(Ag) scintillation counting system for equilibrium-equivalent radon concentration. Throughout the entire experiment, the cooker hood was the most effective in decreasing indoor radon concentration over a long period of time and the less effective was the air conditioner, while the air cleaner and gas heater did not affect the concentration of radon. However, the results measured in each air condition will differ according to the lifestyles and activities of the inhabitants. In this study, indoor radon and its progeny in a Japanese dwelling will be characterised by the different air conditions.

  12. Assessing and Reducing Miscellaneous Electric Loads (MELs) in Lodging

    SciTech Connect

    Rauch, Emily M.

    2011-09-01

    Miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) are the loads outside of a building's core functions of heating, ventilating, air conditioning, lighting, and water heating. This report reviews methods to reduce MELs in lodging.

  13. Effect of shampoo, conditioner and permanent waving on the molecular structure of human hair

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuchen; Alsop, Richard J.; Soomro, Asfia; Yang, Fei-Chi

    2015-01-01

    The hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting of the cuticle, the cortex and the medulla, all held together by the cell membrane complex. The cortex mostly consists of helical keratin proteins that spiral together to form coiled-coil dimers, intermediate filaments, micro-fibrils and macro-fibrils. We used X-ray diffraction to study hair structure on the molecular level, at length scales between ∼3–90 Å, in hopes of developing a diagnostic method for diseases affecting hair structure allowing for fast and noninvasive screening. However, such an approach can only be successful if common hair treatments do not affect molecular hair structure. We found that a single use of shampoo and conditioner has no effect on packing of keratin molecules, structure of the intermediate filaments or internal lipid composition of the membrane complex. Permanent waving treatments are known to break and reform disulfide linkages in the hair. Single application of a perming product was found to deeply penetrate the hair and reduce the number of keratin coiled-coils and change the structure of the intermediate filaments. Signals related to the coiled-coil structure of the α-keratin molecules at 5 and 9.5 Å were found to be decreased while a signal associated with the organization of the intermediate filaments at 47 Å was significantly elevated in permed hair. Both these observations are related to breaking of the bonds between two coiled-coil keratin dimers. PMID:26557428

  14. Effect of shampoo, conditioner and permanent waving on the molecular structure of human hair.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuchen; Alsop, Richard J; Soomro, Asfia; Yang, Fei-Chi; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2015-01-01

    The hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting of the cuticle, the cortex and the medulla, all held together by the cell membrane complex. The cortex mostly consists of helical keratin proteins that spiral together to form coiled-coil dimers, intermediate filaments, micro-fibrils and macro-fibrils. We used X-ray diffraction to study hair structure on the molecular level, at length scales between ∼3-90 Å, in hopes of developing a diagnostic method for diseases affecting hair structure allowing for fast and noninvasive screening. However, such an approach can only be successful if common hair treatments do not affect molecular hair structure. We found that a single use of shampoo and conditioner has no effect on packing of keratin molecules, structure of the intermediate filaments or internal lipid composition of the membrane complex. Permanent waving treatments are known to break and reform disulfide linkages in the hair. Single application of a perming product was found to deeply penetrate the hair and reduce the number of keratin coiled-coils and change the structure of the intermediate filaments. Signals related to the coiled-coil structure of the α-keratin molecules at 5 and 9.5 Å were found to be decreased while a signal associated with the organization of the intermediate filaments at 47 Å was significantly elevated in permed hair. Both these observations are related to breaking of the bonds between two coiled-coil keratin dimers. PMID:26557428

  15. Effect of shampoo, conditioner and permanent waving on the molecular structure of human hair.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuchen; Alsop, Richard J; Soomro, Asfia; Yang, Fei-Chi; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2015-01-01

    The hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting of the cuticle, the cortex and the medulla, all held together by the cell membrane complex. The cortex mostly consists of helical keratin proteins that spiral together to form coiled-coil dimers, intermediate filaments, micro-fibrils and macro-fibrils. We used X-ray diffraction to study hair structure on the molecular level, at length scales between ∼3-90 Å, in hopes of developing a diagnostic method for diseases affecting hair structure allowing for fast and noninvasive screening. However, such an approach can only be successful if common hair treatments do not affect molecular hair structure. We found that a single use of shampoo and conditioner has no effect on packing of keratin molecules, structure of the intermediate filaments or internal lipid composition of the membrane complex. Permanent waving treatments are known to break and reform disulfide linkages in the hair. Single application of a perming product was found to deeply penetrate the hair and reduce the number of keratin coiled-coils and change the structure of the intermediate filaments. Signals related to the coiled-coil structure of the α-keratin molecules at 5 and 9.5 Å were found to be decreased while a signal associated with the organization of the intermediate filaments at 47 Å was significantly elevated in permed hair. Both these observations are related to breaking of the bonds between two coiled-coil keratin dimers.

  16. SOUTH SIDE OF TANKS. LOADING DOCK, WITH FIRST AID STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH SIDE OF TANKS. LOADING DOCK, WITH FIRST AID STATION IN LEFT FOREGROUND - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Liquid Oxygen & Nitrogen Storage Tank Farm, Intersection of Altair & Jupiter Boulevards, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. LOADED WAVEGUIDES

    DOEpatents

    Mullett, L.B.; Loach, B.G.; Adams, G.L.

    1958-06-24

    >Loaded waveguides are described for the propagation of electromagnetic waves with reduced phase velocities. A rectangular waveguide is dimensioned so as to cut-off the simple H/sub 01/ mode at the operating frequency. The waveguide is capacitance loaded, so as to reduce the phase velocity of the transmitted wave, by connecting an electrical conductor between directly opposite points in the major median plane on the narrower pair of waveguide walls. This conductor may take a corrugated shape or be an aperature member, the important factor being that the electrical length of the conductor is greater than one-half wavelength at the operating frequency. Prepared for the Second U.N. International ConferThe importance of nuclear standards is duscussed. A brief review of the international callaboration in this field is given. The proposal is made to let the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) coordinate the efforts from other groups. (W.D.M.)

  18. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  19. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air-Conditioning (DEVap): Evaluation of a New Concept in Ultra Efficient Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Burch, J.; Boranian, A.; Merrigan, T.

    2011-01-01

    NREL has developed the novel concept of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) with the objective of combining the benefits of liquid desiccant and evaporative cooling technologies into an innovative 'cooling core.' Liquid desiccant technologies have extraordinary dehumidification potential, but require an efficient cooling sink. DEVap's thermodynamic potential overcomes many shortcomings of standard refrigeration-based direct expansion cooling. DEVap decouples cooling and dehumidification performance, which results in independent temperature and humidity control. The energy input is largely switched away from electricity to low-grade thermal energy that can be sourced from fuels such as natural gas, waste heat, solar, or biofuels.

  20. Investigating Effect of Conditioner Aggressiveness on Removal Rate during Interlayer Dielectric Chemical Mechanical Planarization through Confocal Microscopy and Dual Emission Ultraviolet-Enhanced Fluorescence Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ting; Borucki, Len; Zhuang, Yun; Sampurno, Yasa; Sudargho, Fransisca; Wei, Xiaomin; Anjur, Sriram; Philipossian, Ara

    2010-02-01

    The effect of conditioner aggressiveness is investigated in interlayer dielectric polishing on three types of pad. A method using confocal microscopy is used to analyze the effect of conditioner aggressiveness on pad-wafer contact. Results show that a more aggressive conditioner produces a higher interlayer dielectric polishing rate while at the same time a pad surface with fewer contacting summits and less contact area. It is found that the ratio of the contacting summit density to the contact area fraction is more important than either parameter measured separately since the ratio determines the mean real contact pressure. Modeling results based on contact area measurements agree well with experimental results. Moreover, it is found that a more aggressive disc also generates a thicker slurry film at the pad-wafer interface. This is in agreement with our general findings regarding pad asperity height distribution obtained using confocal microscopy.

  1. Adhesive bonding of resin composite to various titanium surfaces using different metal conditioners and a surface modification system

    PubMed Central

    ALMILHATTI, Hercules Jorge; NEPPELENBROEK, Karin Hermana; VERGANI, Carlos Eduardo; MACHADO, Ana Lúcia; PAVARINA, Ana Cláudia; GIAMPAOLO, Eunice Teresinha

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the effect of three metal conditioners on the shear bond strength (SBS) of a prosthetic composite material to cpTi grade I having three surface treatments. Material and Methods One hundred sixty eight rivet-shaped specimens (8.0x2.0 mm) were cast and subjected to polishing (P) or sandblasting with either 50 mm (50SB) or 250 mm (250SB) Al2O3. The metal conditioners Metal Photo Primer (MPP), Cesead II Opaque Primer (OP), Targis Link (TL), and one surface modification system Siloc (S), were applied to the specimen surfaces, which were covered with four 1-mm thick layers of resin composite. The resin layers were exposed to curing light for 90 s separately. Seven specimens from each experimental group were stored in water at 37ºC for 24 h while the other 7 specimens were subjected to 5,000 thermal cycles consisting of water baths at 4ºC and 60ºC (n=7). All specimens were subjected to SBS test (0.5 mm/min) until failure occurred, and further 28 specimens were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Data were analyzed by 3-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc Tukey's test (α=0.05). Results On 50SB surfaces, OP groups showed higher SBS means than MPP (P<0.05), while no significant difference was found among OP, S, and TL groups. On 250SB surfaces, OP and TL groups exhibited higher SBS than MPP and S (P<0.05). No significant difference in SBS was found between OP and TL groups nor between MPP and S groups. The use of conditioners on 250SB surfaces resulted in higher SBS means than the use of the same products on 50SB surfaces (P<0.05). Conclusion Sandblasting associated with the use of metal conditioners improves SBS of resin composites to cpTi. PMID:24473727

  2. Evaluation of rotor-bearing system dynamic response to unbalance. [air conditioning equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, R. E.; Ozimek, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    The vibration environment within air conditioner rotating machinery referred to as an air cycle machine (ACM) was investigated to effectively increase ACM reliability. To assist in the selection of design changes which would result in improved ACM performance, various design modifications were incorporated into a baseline ACM configuration. For each design change, testing was conducted with the best balance achieveable (baseline) and with various degrees of unbalance. Relationships between unbalance (within the context of design changes) and the parameters associated with design goals were established. The results of rotor dynamics tests used to establish these relationships are presented.

  3. 40 CFR 92.106 - Equipment for loading the engine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....106 Section 92.106 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.106...: electrical resistance load bank; fans or other means for cooling of the load bank; wattmeter, including...

  4. 40 CFR 92.106 - Equipment for loading the engine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....106 Section 92.106 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.106...: electrical resistance load bank; fans or other means for cooling of the load bank; wattmeter, including...

  5. 40 CFR 92.106 - Equipment for loading the engine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....106 Section 92.106 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.106...: electrical resistance load bank; fans or other means for cooling of the load bank; wattmeter, including...

  6. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  7. Research on Load Energy Efficiency of DC Power Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Qing; Sun, Yiwei; Li, Ke; Li, Mengyu

    Traditional distribution network based on AC current has severely suffered from low efficiency in actual application, especially when an increasing numbers of home appliances are technically rely on DC current. In this paper, the energy efficiency of DC distribution system was analysed by means of comparison with traditional AC system. Firstly four types of typical appliances were discussed in terms of energy efficiency, which are the server, air conditioner, laptop computer and lighting. And then Models were further built up to perform the case study of three familiar situations in modern life, namely a typical living apartment, an office building and a data center. Finally, the power efficiencies of the three buildings were sorted up for comparison and analysis.

  8. A fundamentally new approach to air-cooled heat exchangers.

    SciTech Connect

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2010-01-01

    We describe breakthrough results obtained in a feasibility study of a fundamentally new architecture for air-cooled heat exchangers. A longstanding but largely unrealized opportunity in energy efficiency concerns the performance of air-cooled heat exchangers used in air conditioners, heat pumps, and refrigeration equipment. In the case of residential air conditioners, for example, the typical performance of the air cooled heat exchangers used for condensers and evaporators is at best marginal from the standpoint the of achieving maximum the possible coefficient of performance (COP). If by some means it were possible to reduce the thermal resistance of these heat exchangers to a negligible level, a typical energy savings of order 30% could be immediately realized. It has long been known that a several-fold increase in heat exchanger size, in conjunction with the use of much higher volumetric flow rates, provides a straight-forward path to this goal but is not practical from the standpoint of real world applications. The tension in the market place between the need for energy efficiency and logistical considerations such as equipment size, cost and operating noise has resulted in a compromise that is far from ideal. This is the reason that a typical residential air conditioner exhibits significant sensitivity to reductions in fan speed and/or fouling of the heat exchanger surface. The prevailing wisdom is that little can be done to improve this situation; the 'fan-plus-finned-heat-sink' heat exchanger architecture used throughout the energy sector represents an extremely mature technology for which there is little opportunity for further optimization. But the fact remains that conventional fan-plus-finned-heat-sink technology simply doesn't work that well. Their primary physical limitation to performance (i.e. low thermal resistance) is the boundary layer of motionless air that adheres to and envelops all surfaces of the heat exchanger. Within this boundary layer

  9. Strategy Guideline. Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, Arlan

    2013-06-01

    This guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  10. Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Boeder, A; Zimm, C

    2006-09-30

    Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate

  11. Validation of a protocol to evaluate maximal expiratory pressure using a pressure transducer and a signal conditioner.

    PubMed

    Soares, Viviane; Rodrigues, Fábio B; Vieira, Marcus F; Silva, Maria Sebastiana

    2011-09-01

    The respiratory muscles can present fatigue and even chronic inability to generate force. So, reliable devices are necessary to their evaluation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the MEP (Maximal Expiratory Pressure) values of individuals between 20 and 25 years old and to validate a protocol using a pressure transducer and a signal conditioner comparing it with the digital manometer. We evaluated the MEP of 10 participants. They remained seated and made six respiratory maneuvers from Total Lung Capacity (TLC) to Residual Volume (RV). The results in the study showed no statistically significant differences when compared to values reported in the literature, and that the pressure transducer provides reliable values for MEP. PMID:21969962

  12. 120 MB/S and 240 MB/S bit synchronizer-signal conditioners for NASA high data rate applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    Two bit synchronizer-signal conditioners (BSSC) developed for NASA high data rate applications such as earth resources monitoring are described. One BSSC is centered at 120 MB/s and the other at 240 Mb/s. These subsystems are featured out of the total hardware developed because the BSSC is such a key subsystem in determining overall system statistical performance. These units represent an evolution of high data rate BSSC's available at low data rates. Numerous inputs/outputs, control functions, indicators, plus the ability to minimize the effects of various signal perturbations are provided. Examples of allowed perturbations are input level variations, bit rate variance static and dynamic, baseline, transition density, bandlimiting, etc., as well as noise. Emphasis in the past has been primarily concerned only with noise.

  13. Power quality improvement by unified power quality conditioner based on CSC topology using synchronous reference frame theory.

    PubMed

    Dharmalingam, Rajasekaran; Dash, Subhransu Sekhar; Senthilnathan, Karthikrajan; Mayilvaganan, Arun Bhaskar; Chinnamuthu, Subramani

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the performance of unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) based on current source converter (CSC) topology. UPQC is used to mitigate the power quality problems like harmonics and sag. The shunt and series active filter performs the simultaneous elimination of current and voltage problems. The power fed is linked through common DC link and maintains constant real power exchange. The DC link is connected through the reactor. The real power supply is given by the photovoltaic system for the compensation of power quality problems. The reference current and voltage generation for shunt and series converter is based on phase locked loop and synchronous reference frame theory. The proposed UPQC-CSC design has superior performance for mitigating the power quality problems.

  14. Field Demonstration of a High-Efficiency Packaged Rooftop Air Conditioning Unit at Fort Gordon, Augusta, GA

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Peter R.; Sullivan, Gregory P.; Parker, Graham B.

    2006-03-31

    As part of a larger program targeting the market transformation of packaged rooftop air conditioning, five high-efficiency rooftop air conditioning products were selected in 2002 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Unitary Air Conditioner (UAC) Technology Procurement (http://www.pnl.gov/uac). In February 2003, Fort Gordon in Augusta, Georgia was chosen as the demonstration site. With the goal of validating the field performance and operation of one of the awarded products, a 10-ton high-efficiency packaged rooftop unit (RTU) manufactured by Global Energy Group (GEG) was installed at Fort Gordon in October 2003. Following equipment installation, power metering, air- and refrigerant-side instrumentation was installed on the GEG RTU and a 4-year old typical-efficiency 20-ton RTU manufactured by AAON . The GEG and AAON units were instrumented identically and operated May through July, 2005, to observe performance under a range of conditions. Based on the data collected as part of this demonstration, the GEG equipment performed at least 8% better in stage-1 (single compressor running) cooling and at least 16% better in stage-2 (both compressors running) than the baseline AAON equipment. Performance comparisons are based on what we call application EER normalized to equivalent specific fan power. The full-load, specific-fan-power-normalized application EERs at ARI design conditions were 10.48 Btu/Wh for the GEG and 9.00 Btu/Wh for the baseline machine. With a cost premium of nearly 50%, and slightly higher maintenance costs, the life-cycle cost analysis shows that the GEG technology pays for itself--a positive net-present value (NPV)--only in climates and buildings with long cooling seasons. Manufacture of this equipment on a larger scale can be expected to reduce costs to the point where it is more broadly cost-effective. The assumed 10-ton baseline and new-technology unit costs are $3824.00 and $5525.00 respectively. If the new technology cost is assumed

  15. DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF AN INLET CONDITIONER TO DRY PARTICLES FOR AN AERODYNAMIC PARTICLE SIZER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospheric particulate matter is one of six pollutants for which the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Particulate matter standards are specified by particle size as PM 2.5 defined as the mass concentration of ′fine...

  16. Air resources

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This section describes the ambient (surrounding) air quality of the TVA region, discusses TVA emission contributions to ambient air quality, and identifies air quality impacts to human health and welfare. Volume 2 Technical Document 2, Environmental Consequences, describes how changes in TVA emissions could affect regional air quality, human health, environmental resources, and materials. The primary region of the affected environment is broadly defined as the state of Tennessee, as well as southern Kentucky, western Virginia, southern West Virginia, western North Carolina, and northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. This area represents the watershed of the Tennessee River and the 201 counties of the greater TVA service area. Emissions from outside the Tennessee Valley region contribute to air quality in the Valley. Also, TVA emissions are transported outside the Valley and have some impact on air quality beyond the primary study area. Although the study area experiences a number of air quality problems, overall air quality is good.

  17. Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, A.

    2013-06-01

    This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  18. An automated system for developing neural network short term load forecasters

    SciTech Connect

    Manry, M.T.; Shoults, R.; Naccarino, J.

    1996-10-01

    An automated system is described for designing neural networks for very short term power load forecasting. The system consists of three parts which are; the signal conditioner, the network sizer, and the trainer. The signal conditioning subsystem averages power over one minute intervals to reduce noise and generates training data for the neural network. This includes past powers and the time of day. The network sizer uses a fast complexity estimation algorithm to estimate the required number of neutral network hidden units. The trainer trains the neutral net. The system is demonstrated on data supplied by an electric utility. Although the training data and testing data sets are disjoint and show significant differences, the neural networks produced by the system successfully predict the load.

  19. An Evaluation of the HVAC Load Potential for Providing Load Balancing Service

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning

    2012-09-30

    This paper investigates the potential of providing aggregated intra-hour load balancing services using heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. A direct-load control algorithm is presented. A temperature-priority-list method is used to dispatch the HVAC loads optimally to maintain consumer-desired indoor temperatures and load diversity. Realistic intra-hour load balancing signals were used to evaluate the operational characteristics of the HVAC load under different outdoor temperature profiles and different indoor temperature settings. The number of HVAC units needed is also investigated. Modeling results suggest that the number of HVACs needed to provide a {+-}1-MW load balancing service 24 hours a day varies significantly with baseline settings, high and low temperature settings, and the outdoor temperatures. The results demonstrate that the intra-hour load balancing service provided by HVAC loads meet the performance requirements and can become a major source of revenue for load-serving entities where the smart grid infrastructure enables direct load control over the HAVC loads.

  20. Pallet loading dust control system

    SciTech Connect

    Cecala, A.B.; Covelli, A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a pallet loading dust control system designed to lower the dust exposure of workers during the bag stacking process at mineral processing facilities. The system makes bag stacking much easier because the pallet height remains constant throughout the entire bag stacking cycle through the use of a hydraulic lift table. The system uses a push-pull ventilation technique to capture the dust generated during bag stacking. A low-volume, high-velocity blower system operating at approximately 150 cfm blows a stream of air over the top layer of bags on the pallet. The blower system is composed of two 3-in air jets (approximately 1,200-ft/min velocity) directed toward an exhaust system on the opposite side of the pallet. As these air jets travel across the pallet, they entrain the dust generated during bag stacking. The exhaust ventilation system pulls approximately 2,500 cfm of air and dust through the exhaust hood. This exhaust air can then be dumped into a bag-house ventilation system, or filtered before being discharged outside the mill.

  1. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  2. Cold-air investigation of a 31/2-stage fan-drive turbine with a stage loading factor of 4 designed for an integral lift engine. 2: Performance of 2-, 3- and 3 1/2-stage configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    The stage work distribution among the three stages was very close to the design value. The specific work output-mass flow characteristics of the three stages were closely matched. The efficiency of the 3 1/2 stage turbine at design specific work output and design speed was within 0.008 of the estimated value, and this agreement was felt to demonstrate the adequacy of the prediction method in the high stage loading factor regime.

  3. AIR COOLED NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

    1958-05-27

    A nuclear reactor of the air-cooled, graphite moderated type is described. The active core consists of a cubicle mass of graphite, approximately 25 feet in each dimension, having horizontal channels of square cross section extending between two of the opposite faces, a plurality of cylindrical uranium slugs disposed in end to end abutting relationship within said channels providing a space in the channels through which air may be circulated, and a cadmium control rod extending within a channel provided in the moderator. Suitable shielding is provlded around the core, as are also provided a fuel element loading and discharge means, and a means to circulate air through the coolant channels through the fuel charels to cool the reactor.

  4. Marine loading vapor control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Babet, F.H.

    1996-09-01

    The EPA and State air quality control boards have mandated the collection and destruction or recovery of vapors generated by the loading of some hydrocarbons and chemicals into marine vessels. This is a brief overview of the main US Coast Guard requirements for marine vapor control systems. As with most regulations, they are open to interpretation. In an attempt to more clearly define the intent of the regulations, the US Coast Guard has issued guidelines to assist the certifying entities in ensuring compliance with intended regulations. If a company is contemplating the installation of a marine loading vapor control system, the authors strongly recommend that one engage the services of a certifying entity, either as the designer, or an advisor and ultimately the certifier of the system. This should be done well up front in the design of the system to avoid costly mistakes which can occur as a result of lack of knowledge or misinterpretation of the regulations and guidelines.

  5. 14 CFR 23.443 - Gust loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Gust loads. (a) Vertical surfaces must be designed to withstand, in unaccelerated flight at speed V C... unaccelerated flight at VB, VC, VD, and VF. The derived gusts and airplane speeds corresponding to these...=Derived gust velocity (f.p.s.); ρ=Air density (slugs/cu.ft.); W=the applicable weight of the airplane...

  6. 14 CFR 23.443 - Gust loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Gust loads. (a) Vertical surfaces must be designed to withstand, in unaccelerated flight at speed V C... unaccelerated flight at VB, VC, VD, and VF. The derived gusts and airplane speeds corresponding to these...=Derived gust velocity (f.p.s.); ρ=Air density (slugs/cu.ft.); W=the applicable weight of the airplane...

  7. Valve for fuel pin loading system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

  8. Hardness Changes of Tissue Conditioners in Various Storage Media: An in Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Ntounis, Athanasios; Kamposiora, Phophi; Papavasiliou, George; Divaris, Kimon; Zinelis, Spiros

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of storage media on the longitudinal hardness changes of tissue conditioning materials. Four tissue-conditioning materials were used for fabrication of 80 disc-shaped specimens and divided in four groups, stored in four storage media. The specimens underwent artificial ageing corresponding to 30 nights of extra-oral storage. Hardness measurements were obtained at nine intervals between 8 and 240 hours after specimen fabrication. To test the effects of storage media on hardness we employed multivariate modelling (Bonferroni correction; α = 0.05). The materials exhibited varying hardness changes, most pronounced when stored in ambient air. PMID:26415333

  9. 14 CFR 398.9 - Load factor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STATEMENTS GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL DETERMINATIONS OF BASIC ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE § 398.9 Load factor... either of the following circumstances: (a) The place is served by the carrier as part of a linear...

  10. 3. BUILDING 0503, NORTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE, WITH LOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BUILDING 0503, NORTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE, WITH LOADING DOCK AND GABLE ROOFED SHED. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Earth Covered Bunker Types, North of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 148. SKID 2 FOR LOADING ROCKET PROPELLANT AT EAST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    148. SKID 2 FOR LOADING ROCKET PROPELLANT AT EAST SIDE OF FUEL CONTROL ROOM (215), LSB (BLDG. 751) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  12. Determination of alkyltrimethylammonium surfactants in hair conditioners and fabric softeners by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron-impact and chemical ionization.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pei-Chuan; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2004-02-20

    The commercial hair conditioners and fabric softeners were analyzed for the content of alkyltrimethylammonium compounds (ATMACs) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with electron impact (EI) and low-pressure positive-ion chemical ionization (PICI) modes. The method involves mixed diluted samples (adjust pH to 10.0) with potassium iodide to enhance the extraction of iodide-ATMA+ ion pairs by direct liquid-liquid extraction. The iodide-ATMA+ pairs were then demethylated to their corresponding nonionic alkyldimethylamines (ADMAs) by thermal decomposition in a GC injection-port. A high abundance of ADMAs was detected at the temperature above 300 degrees C in the GC injection-port. The enhanced selectivity of quasi-molecular ion chromatograms of C12-C18-ADMA, obtained using methanol PICI-MS enables ADMAs to be identified. The accuracy and precision of the method was validated and was successfully applied to determine contents of ATMAC in commercial hair conditioners and fabric softeners. The contents of total measured ATMAC ranged from 0.4 to 6.9% for hair conditioners, and from 3.3 to 4.6% for fabric softeners. PMID:14971489

  13. Load deflection characteristics of inflated structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgarten, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    A single, closed form relationship to relate load to the deformed dimensions of the horizontal torus was developed. Wall elasticity was included in the analysis, and special care was taken to predict the final footprint area of the loaded structure. The test fixture utilized is shown. The tori used for the bulk of the testing were rubber inner tubes for a 32 and 160 pneumatic tire. The inner tube being tested was plumbed, to a mercury-filled manometer, which had a 50 inch measurement capacity, by use of a special adapter. The adapter fit over the valve stem and allowed air to be added from a shop-air source and to be bled through the standard valve mechanism. In this fashion, tests requiring the maintenance of a constant indication of air pressure could be run with little difficulty.

  14. Load-Dependent Friction Hysteresis on Graphene.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhijiang; Egberts, Philip; Han, Gang Hee; Johnson, A T Charlie; Carpick, Robert W; Martini, Ashlie

    2016-05-24

    Nanoscale friction often exhibits hysteresis when load is increased (loading) and then decreased (unloading) and is manifested as larger friction measured during unloading compared to loading for a given load. In this work, the origins of load-dependent friction hysteresis were explored through atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments of a silicon tip sliding on chemical vapor deposited graphene in air, and molecular dynamics simulations of a model AFM tip on graphene, mimicking both vacuum and humid air environmental conditions. It was found that only simulations with water at the tip-graphene contact reproduced the experimentally observed hysteresis. The mechanisms underlying this friction hysteresis were then investigated in the simulations by varying the graphene-water interaction strength. The size of the water-graphene interface exhibited hysteresis trends consistent with the friction, while measures of other previously proposed mechanisms, such as out-of-plane deformation of the graphene film and irreversible reorganization of the water molecules at the shearing interface, were less correlated to the friction hysteresis. The relationship between the size of the sliding interface and friction observed in the simulations was explained in terms of the varying contact angles in front of and behind the sliding tip, which were larger during loading than unloading.

  15. Air Temperature in the Undulator Hall

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-07

    Various analyses have been performed recently to estimate the performance of the air conditioning (HVAC) system planned for the Undulator Hall. This reports summarizes the results and provides an upgrade plan to be used if new requirements are needed in the future. The estimates predict that with the planned loads the tunnel air temperature will be well within the allowed tolerance during normal operation.

  16. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  17. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  18. 14 CFR 25.397 - Control system loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., are assumed to act at the appropriate control grips or pads (in a manner simulating flight conditions... effort effects. In the control surface flight loading condition, the air loads on movable surfaces and the corresponding deflections need not exceed those that would result in flight from the...

  19. 40 CFR 85.2216 - Loaded test-EPA 81.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Loaded test-EPA 81. 85.2216 Section 85...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance Warranty Short Tests § 85.2216 Loaded test—EPA 81. (a)(1) General calendar year applicability. The test procedure described...

  20. 14. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), LOOKING EAST AT SOUTHWEST END OF BUILDING. HVAC EQUIPMENT LOCATED OUTDOORS IN FOREGROUND. DUCTS CONDUCT HOT OR COLD AIR INDOORS. ROUND PIPES ARE INSULATED STEAM LINES. BUILDING NO. 448, ORDNANCE FACILITY, IN BACKGROUND. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  1. 14 CFR 25.397 - Control system loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., are assumed to act at the appropriate control grips or pads (in a manner simulating flight conditions... effort effects. In the control surface flight loading condition, the air loads on movable surfaces and... aileron control system must be designed for a single tangential force with a limit value equal to...

  2. 14 CFR 25.397 - Control system loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., are assumed to act at the appropriate control grips or pads (in a manner simulating flight conditions... effort effects. In the control surface flight loading condition, the air loads on movable surfaces and... aileron control system must be designed for a single tangential force with a limit value equal to...

  3. Air Conditioning Stall Phenomenon Testing, Model Development, and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Irminger, Philip; Rizy, D Tom; Li, Huijuan; Smith, Travis; Rice, C Keith; Li, Fangxing; Adhikari, Sarina

    2012-01-01

    Electric distribution systems are experiencing power quality issues of extended reduced voltage due to fault-induced delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR). FIDVR occurs in part because modern air conditioner (A/C) and heat pump compressor motors are much more susceptible to stalling during a voltage sag or dip such as a sub-transmission fault. They are more susceptible than older A/C compressor motors due to the low inertia of these newer and more energy efficient motors. There is a concern that these local reduced voltage events on the distribution system will become more frequent and prevalent and will combine over larger areas and challenge transmission system voltage and ultimately power grid reliability. The Distributed Energy Communications and Controls (DECC) Laboratory at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been employed to (1) test, (2) characterize and (3) model the A/C stall phenomenon.

  4. Alternate working fluids for solar air conditioning applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, R. D.; Beck, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental investigation of sixteen different refrigerant-absorbent fluid pairs has been carried out in order to determine their suitability as the working fluid in a solar-powered absorption cycle air conditioner. The criteria used in the initial selection of a refrigerant-absorbent pair included: high affinity (large negative deviation from Raoult's Law), high solubility, low specific heat, low viscosity, stability, corrosive properties, safety, and cost. For practical solar considerations of a fluid pair, refrigerants were selected with low boiling points whereas absorbent fluids were selected with a boiling point considerably above that of the refrigerant. Additional restrictions are determined by the operating temperatures of the absorber and the generator; these temperatures were specified as 100 F (39 C) and 170 F (77 C). Data are presented for a few selected pressures at the specified absorber and generator temperatures.

  5. Composition changes in refrigerant blends for automotive air conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Jetter, J.J.; Delafield, F.R.; Ng, A.S.; Ratanaphruks, K.; Tufts, M.W.

    1999-07-01

    Three refrigerant blends used to replace the chlorofluorocarbon R-12 in automotive air conditioners were evaluated for composition changes due to typical servicing and leakage. When recommended service procedures were followed, changes in blend compositions were relatively small. Small changes in blend compositions caused no significant changes in refrigeration capacities. However, when recommended procedures were not followed, changes in compositions were relatively large. The amount of change in composition and the resulting effect on performance varied among the three refrigerant blends that were tested. Of the three blends, a quaternary blend containing hydrochlorofluorocarbon R-22 had the greatest changes in composition, while a binary blend containing hydrofluorocarbon R-134a had the smallest changes in composition.

  6. Load sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Sohns, Carl W.; Nodine, Robert N.; Wallace, Steven Allen

    1999-01-01

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast

  7. Load forecasting by ANN

    SciTech Connect

    Highley, D.D.; Hilmes, T.J. )

    1993-07-01

    This article discusses the use and training of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for load forecasting. The topics of the article include a brief overview of neural networks, interest in ANNs, training of neural networks, a case study in load forecasting, and the potential for using an artificial neural network to perform short-term load forecasting.

  8. Discharge circuits and loads

    SciTech Connect

    Sarjeant, W.J.

    1980-10-15

    This will be an overview in which some of the general properties of loads are examined: their interface with the energy storage and switching devices; general problems encountered with different types of loads; how load behavior and fault modes can impact on the design of a power conditioning system (PCS).

  9. 40 CFR 85.2217 - Loaded test-EPA 91.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Loaded test-EPA 91. 85.2217 Section 85.2217 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance Warranty Short Tests §...

  10. 40 CFR 85.2217 - Loaded test-EPA 91.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Loaded test-EPA 91. 85.2217 Section 85.2217 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance Warranty Short Tests §...

  11. 40 CFR 85.2217 - Loaded test-EPA 91.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loaded test-EPA 91. 85.2217 Section 85.2217 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance Warranty Short Tests §...

  12. Load Model Data Tool

    2013-04-30

    The LMDT software automates the process of the load composite model data preparation in the format supported by the major power system software vendors (GE and Siemens). Proper representation of the load composite model in power system dynamic analysis is very important. Software tools for power system simulation like GE PSLF and Siemens PSSE already include algorithms for the load composite modeling. However, these tools require that the input information on composite load to bemore » provided in custom formats. Preparation of this data is time consuming and requires multiple manual operations. The LMDT software enables to automate this process. Software is designed to generate composite load model data. It uses the default load composition data, motor information, and bus information as an input. Software processes the input information and produces load composition model. Generated model can be stored in .dyd format supported by GE PSLF package or .dyr format supported by Siemens PSSE package.« less

  13. Load Model Data Tool

    SciTech Connect

    David Chassin, Pavel Etingov

    2013-04-30

    The LMDT software automates the process of the load composite model data preparation in the format supported by the major power system software vendors (GE and Siemens). Proper representation of the load composite model in power system dynamic analysis is very important. Software tools for power system simulation like GE PSLF and Siemens PSSE already include algorithms for the load composite modeling. However, these tools require that the input information on composite load to be provided in custom formats. Preparation of this data is time consuming and requires multiple manual operations. The LMDT software enables to automate this process. Software is designed to generate composite load model data. It uses the default load composition data, motor information, and bus information as an input. Software processes the input information and produces load composition model. Generated model can be stored in .dyd format supported by GE PSLF package or .dyr format supported by Siemens PSSE package.

  14. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  15. Air Apparent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbster, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the principle upon which a barometer operates. Describes how to construct two barometric devices for use in the classroom that show air's changing pressure. Cites some conditions for predicting weather. (RT)

  16. Urban air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Air pollution and the risk of potential health effects are not sufficiently convincing reasons for people to stop driving their cars, according to a study by the Population Reference Bureau (PRB) released on November 18.While sufficient levels of suspended particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and lead can present health concerns, the study found that many people surveyed for the study were not convinced of the clear linkage between air pollution and health.

  17. TEWI Evaluation for Household Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobue, Atsushi; Watanabe, Koichi

    In the present study, we have quantitatively evaluated the global warming impact by household refrigerator and air-conditioning systems on the basis of reliable TEWI information. In TEWI evaluation of household refrigerators, the percentage of the impact by refrigerant released to the atmosphere (direct effect) is less than 18.6% in TEWI. In case of room air-conditioners, however, the percentage of direct effect is less than 5.4% in TEWI. Therefore, it was confirmed that impact by CO2 released as a result of the energy consumed to drive the refrigeration or air-conditioning systems throughout their lifetime (indirect effect) is far larger than direct effect by the entire system. A reduction of indirect effect by energy saving is the most effective measure in reducing the global warming impact by refrigeration and air-conditioning systems, For a realization of the energy saving, not only the advanced improvement in energy efficiency by household appliance manufacturers but also the improvement of consumer's mind in selecting the systems and a way of using are concluded important.

  18. Possible Economies in Air-Conditioning by Accepting Temperature Swings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loudon, A. G.; Petherbridge, P.

    Public building air conditioning systems, which use constant and varying heat and cooling loads, are compared and investigated. Experiments indicated that constant temperature controls based on outside air temperature alone were inefficient. Ventilating a building with outside air and the methods of doing so are cited as being the most economical…

  19. Use of Residential Smart Appliances for Peak-Load Shifting and Spinning Reserves Cost/Benefit Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Robert G.; Srivastava, Viraj; Li, Shun

    2010-12-01

    In this report, we present the results of an analytical cost/benefit study of residential smart appliances from a utility/grid perspective in support of a joint stakeholder petition to the ENERGY STAR program within the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of the petition is in part to provide appliance manufacturers incentives to hasten the production of smart appliances. The underlying hypothesis is that smart appliances can play a critical role in addressing some of the societal challenges, such as anthropogenic global warming, associated with increased electricity demand, and facilitate increased penetration of renewable sources of power. The appliances we consider include refrigerator/freezers, clothes washers, clothes dryers, room air-conditioners, and dishwashers. The petition requests the recognition that providing an appliance with smart grid capability, i.e., products that meet the definition of a smart appliance, is at least equivalent to a corresponding five percent in operational machine efficiencies. It is then expected that given sufficient incentives and value propositions, and suitable automation capabilities built into smart appliances, residential consumers will be adopting these smart appliances and will be willing participants in addressing the aforementioned societal challenges by more effectively managing their home electricity consumption. The analytical model we utilize in our cost/benefit analysis consists of a set of user-definable assumptions such as the definition of on-peak (hours of day, days of week, months of year), the expected percentage of normal consumer electricity consumption (also referred to as appliance loads) that can shifted from peak hours to off-peak hours, the average power rating of each appliance, etc. Based on these assumptions, we then formulate what the wholesale grid operating-cost savings, or benefits, would be if the smart capabilities of appliances were invoked, and

  20. Phalange Tactile Load Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Griffith, Bryan Kristian (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A tactile load cell that has particular application for measuring the load on a phalange in a dexterous robot system. The load cell includes a flexible strain element having first and second end portions that can be used to mount the load cell to the phalange and a center portion that can be used to mount a suitable contact surface to the load cell. The strain element also includes a first S-shaped member including at least three sections connected to the first end portion and the center portion and a second S-shaped member including at least three sections coupled to the second end portion and the center portion. The load cell also includes eight strain gauge pairs where each strain gauge pair is mounted to opposing surfaces of one of the sections of the S-shaped members where the strain gauge pairs provide strain measurements in six-degrees of freedom.