Science.gov

Sample records for air conditioners water

  1. Air Conditioner/Dehumidifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An ordinary air conditioner in a very humid environment must overcool the room air, then reheat it. Mr. Dinh, a former STAC associate, devised a heat pipe based humidifier under a NASA Contract. The system used heat pipes to precool the air; the air conditioner's cooling coil removes heat and humidity, then the heat pipes restore the overcooled air to a comfortable temperature. The heat pipes use no energy, and typical savings are from 15-20%. The Dinh Company also manufactures a "Z" coil, a retrofit cooling coil which may be installed on an existing heater/air conditioner. It will also provide free hot water. The company has also developed a photovoltaic air conditioner and solar powered water pump.

  2. Air Conditioner/Dehumidifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-01-01

    An ordinary air conditioner in a very humid environment must overcool the room air, then reheat it. Mr. Dinh, a former STAC associate, devised a heat pipe based humidifier under a NASA Contract. The system used heat pipes to precool the air; the air conditioner's cooling coil removes heat and humidity, then the heat pipes restore the overcooled air to a comfortable temperature. The heat pipes use no energy, and typical savings are from 15-20%. The Dinh Company also manufactures a "Z" coil, a retrofit cooling coil which may be installed on an existing heater/air conditioner. It will also provide free hot water. The company has also developed a photovoltaic air conditioner and solar powered water pump.

  3. Water Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A home use water treatment incorporates technology developed to purify water aboard Space Shuttle Orbiters. The General Ionics Model IQ Bacteriostatic Water Softener softens water and inhibits bacteria growth in the filtering unit. Ionics used NASA silver ion technology as a basis for development of a silver carbon dense enough to remain on top of the water softening resin bed.

  4. Water Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Aqualizer is designed to cleanse water with minimal use of chemicals by stabilizing the ions in the water. Its applications are both recreational and industrial. A non-electrical passive device, the Aqualizer operates on the principle of catalytic water conditioning. It consists of a stainless steel pipe length with a helical core and is offered in a variety of sizes depending on the quantity of water to be treated. The device is based on NASA silver ionization technology used to purify drinking water aboard the Apollo spacecraft.

  5. Ventilating Air-Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinh, Khanh

    1994-01-01

    Air-conditioner provides ventilation designed to be used alone or incorporated into cooling or heating system operates efficiently only by recirculating stale air within building. Energy needed to operate overall ventilating cooling or heating system slightly greater than operating nonventilating cooling or heating system. Helps to preserve energy efficiency while satisfying need for increased forced ventilation to prevent accumulation of undesired gases like radon and formaldehyde. Provides fresh treated air to variety of confined spaces: hospital surgeries, laboratories, clean rooms, and printing shops and other places where solvents used. In mobile homes and portable classrooms, eliminates irritant chemicals exuded by carpets, panels, and other materials, ensuring healthy indoor environment for occupants.

  6. Ventilating Air-Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinh, Khanh

    1994-01-01

    Air-conditioner provides ventilation designed to be used alone or incorporated into cooling or heating system operates efficiently only by recirculating stale air within building. Energy needed to operate overall ventilating cooling or heating system slightly greater than operating nonventilating cooling or heating system. Helps to preserve energy efficiency while satisfying need for increased forced ventilation to prevent accumulation of undesired gases like radon and formaldehyde. Provides fresh treated air to variety of confined spaces: hospital surgeries, laboratories, clean rooms, and printing shops and other places where solvents used. In mobile homes and portable classrooms, eliminates irritant chemicals exuded by carpets, panels, and other materials, ensuring healthy indoor environment for occupants.

  7. Effect of heat recovery water heater system on the performance of residential split air conditioner using hydrocarbon refrigerant (HCR22)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, A.; Thalal; Amri, I.; Herisiswanto; Mainil, A. K.

    2017-09-01

    This This paper presents the performance of residential split air conditioner (RSAC) using hydrocarbon refrigerant (HCR22) as the effect on the use of heat recovery water heater system (HRWHS). In this study, RSAC was modified with addition of dummy condenser (trombone coil type) as heat recovery water heater system (HRWHS). This HRWHS is installed between a compressor and a condenser by absorbing a part of condenser waste heat. The results show that RSAC with HRWHS is adequate to generate hot water with the temperature range about 46.58˚C - 48.81˚C when compared to without HRWHS and the use of dummy condenser does not give significant effect to the split air conditioner performance. When the use of HRWHS, the refrigerant charge has increase about 19.05%, the compressor power consumption has slightly increase about 1.42% where cooling capacity almost the same with slightly different about 0.39%. The condenser heat rejection is lower about 2.68% and the COP has slightly increased about 1.05% when compared to without HRWHS. The use of HRWHS provide free hot water, it means there is energy saving for heating water without negative impact to the system performance of RSAC.

  8. 10 CFR 431.92 - Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., and functional (or hydraulic) characteristics that affect energy consumption, energy efficiency, water..., steam, or electricity. Packaged terminal heat pump means a packaged terminal air conditioner...

  9. Stirling Air Conditioner for Compact Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Infinia is developing a compact air conditioner that uses an unconventional high efficient Stirling cycle system (vs. conventional vapor compression systems) to produce cool air that is energy efficient and does not rely on polluting refrigerants. The Stirling cycle system is a type of air conditioning system that uses a motor with a piston to remove heat to the outside atmosphere using a gas refrigerant. To date, Stirling systems have been expensive and have not had the right kind of heat exchanger to help cool air efficiently. Infinia is using chip cooling technology from the computer industry to make improvements to the heat exchanger and improve system performance. Infinia’s air conditioner uses helium gas as refrigerant, an environmentally benign gas that does not react with other chemicals and does not burn. Infinia’s improvements to the Stirling cycle system will enable the cost-effective mass production of high-efficiency air conditioners that use no polluting refrigerants.

  10. Mold contamination of automobile air conditioner systems.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Lopez, M; Fan, W; Cambre, K; Elston, R C

    1990-02-01

    Eight cars belonging to patients who were found to have exacerbation of allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma after turning on the air conditioner in their cars were examined. Mold concentrations inside the passenger compartment with the a/c turned off and at different climate control settings were lower than concentrations in the outside air. After turning on the air conditioner to "Max", cultures obtained at various intervals revealed that mold concentrations decreased significantly with time. Furthermore, placement of a filter at the portal of entry of outside air significantly reduced the mold concentration in the passenger compartment.

  11. High Efficiency Room Air Conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This project was undertaken as a CRADA project between UT-Battelle and Geberal Electric Company and was funded by Department of Energy to design and develop of a high efficiency room air conditioner. A number of novel elements were investigated to improve the energy efficiency of a state-of-the-art WAC with base capacity of 10,000 BTU/h. One of the major modifications was made by downgrading its capacity from 10,000 BTU/hr to 8,000 BTU/hr by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity (8,000 BTU/hr) but high efficiency compressor having an EER of 9.7 as compared with 9.3 of the original compressor. However, all heat exchangers from the original unit were retained to provide higher EER. The other subsequent major modifications included- (i) the AC fan motor was replaced by a brushless high efficiency ECM motor along with its fan housing, (ii) the capillary tube was replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and (iii) the unit was tested with a drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration)/R125 (10% molar concentration). The WAC was tested in the environmental chambers at ORNL as per the design rating conditions of AHAM/ASHRAE (Outdoor- 95F and 40%RH, Indoor- 80F, 51.5%RH). All these modifications resulted in enhancing the EER of the WAC by up to 25%.

  12. On noise indices for domestic air conditioners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, S. K.; Wong, M. Y.

    2004-07-01

    A survey was carried out in the present study to determine the noise indices which are capable of describing the nuisance caused by exposure to air-conditioner noise inside residential apartments. This survey consisted of a questionnaire, which asked the respondents to rate their feelings of annoyance and loudness on the air-conditioner noise and to give their preference of a change in the noise levels. Physical noise measurements were also carried out. A total of 57 noise spectra and 399 respondents were involved in the survey. Results show that the Zwicker's loudness level and the percentile level of 90% exceedence are the two major indices for air-conditioner noise assessment. Tonality appears not to be a good indicator for such a purpose.

  13. New and Green Multi-component Scaling and Corrosion Inhibitor for the Cooling Water of Central Air Conditioners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Maodong; Dai, Chenlin; Yang, Bo; Qiao, Yue; Zhu, Zhiping

    2017-02-01

    A green multi-component inhibitor was developed in this study to obtain suitable scale and corrosion inhibitor for the cooling water treatment of central air conditioners. The inhibitor formulation consisted of hydrolyzed polymaleic anhydride/Tween-80/sodium N-lauroyl sarcosinate/tolyltriazole (named 4-HTSA). Weight loss test and electrochemical method were used to investigate the corrosion inhibition performance of 4-HTSA on A3 carbon steel and T2 red copper in synthetic cooling water, and the scale inhibition performance of 4-HTSA was studied by the calcium carbonate precipitation method. The influence of parameters, such as pH, temperature, scaling and corrosive ion, on 4-HTSA was researched. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction were used for examination of the scale, and corrosion coupons were analyzed by SEM/energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Results showed that 4-HTSA had excellent scale and corrosion inhibition performance and wide tolerance to pH, temperature and the concentration of scaling and corrosive ion. Polarization curves indicated that 4-HTSA was anodic inhibitor.

  14. New and Green Multi-component Scaling and Corrosion Inhibitor for the Cooling Water of Central Air Conditioners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Maodong; Dai, Chenlin; Yang, Bo; Qiao, Yue; Zhu, Zhiping

    2016-12-01

    A green multi-component inhibitor was developed in this study to obtain suitable scale and corrosion inhibitor for the cooling water treatment of central air conditioners. The inhibitor formulation consisted of hydrolyzed polymaleic anhydride/Tween-80/sodium N-lauroyl sarcosinate/tolyltriazole (named 4-HTSA). Weight loss test and electrochemical method were used to investigate the corrosion inhibition performance of 4-HTSA on A3 carbon steel and T2 red copper in synthetic cooling water, and the scale inhibition performance of 4-HTSA was studied by the calcium carbonate precipitation method. The influence of parameters, such as pH, temperature, scaling and corrosive ion, on 4-HTSA was researched. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction were used for examination of the scale, and corrosion coupons were analyzed by SEM/energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Results showed that 4-HTSA had excellent scale and corrosion inhibition performance and wide tolerance to pH, temperature and the concentration of scaling and corrosive ion. Polarization curves indicated that 4-HTSA was anodic inhibitor.

  15. ENERGY STAR Certified Room Air Conditioners

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Room Air Conditioners that are effective as of October 26, 2015. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=roomac.pr_crit_room_ac

  16. 10 CFR 431.92 - Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... conditioner may be provided with, or have as available options, an integrated humidifier, temperature, and/or... split system air conditioner incorporating a single refrigerant circuit, with one or more outdoor units... resistance, steam, hot water, or gas. The equipment incorporates a single refrigerant circuit, with one...

  17. Switching on the Aire conditioner.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Mitsuru

    2015-12-01

    Aire has been cloned as the gene responsible for a hereditary type of organ-specific autoimmune disease. Aire controls the expression of a wide array of tissue-restricted Ags by medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs), thereby leading to clonal deletion and Treg-cell production, and ultimately to the establishment of self-tolerance. However, relatively little is known about the mechanism responsible for the control of Aire expression itself. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Haljasorg et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2015. 45: 3246-3256] have reported the presence of an enhancer element for Aire that binds with NF-κB components downstream of the TNF receptor family member, RANK (receptor activator of NF-κB). The results suggest that RANK has a dual mode of action in Aire expression: one involving the promotion of mTEC differentiation and the other involving activation of the molecular switch for Aire within mature mTECs. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. 10 CFR 429.15 - Room air conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Room air conditioners. 429.15 Section 429.15 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.15 Room air conditioners. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to room air...

  19. Energy savings potential in air conditioners and chiller systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kaya, Durmus; Alidrisi, Hisham

    2014-01-22

    In the current paper we quantified and evaluated the energy saving potential in air conditioners and chiller systems. Here, we also showed how to reduce the cost of air conditioners and chiller systems in existing facilities on the basis of payback periods. Among the measures investigated were: (1) installing higher efficiency air conditioners, (2) installing higher efficiency chillers, (3) duty cycling air conditioning units, and (4) utilizing existing economizers on air conditioning units. For each method, examples were provided from Arizona, USA. In these examples, the amount of saved energy, the financial evaluation of this energy, and the investment cost and pay back periods were calculated.

  20. Energy savings potential in air conditioners and chiller systems

    DOE PAGES

    Kaya, Durmus; Alidrisi, Hisham

    2014-01-22

    In the current paper we quantified and evaluated the energy saving potential in air conditioners and chiller systems. Here, we also showed how to reduce the cost of air conditioners and chiller systems in existing facilities on the basis of payback periods. Among the measures investigated were: (1) installing higher efficiency air conditioners, (2) installing higher efficiency chillers, (3) duty cycling air conditioning units, and (4) utilizing existing economizers on air conditioning units. For each method, examples were provided from Arizona, USA. In these examples, the amount of saved energy, the financial evaluation of this energy, and the investment costmore » and pay back periods were calculated.« less

  1. Thermal Comfort Study of a Compact Thermoelectric Air Conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maneewan, S.; Tipsaenprom, W.; Lertsatitthanakorn, C.

    2010-09-01

    This paper evaluates the cooling performance and thermal comfort of a compact thermoelectric (TE) air conditioner. The compact TE air conditioner is composed of three TE modules. The cold and hot sides of the TE modules were fixed to rectangular fin heat sinks and fans. Thermal acceptability assessment was performed to find out whether the cooled air met the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard-55’s 80% acceptability criteria. A suitable condition occurred at 1 A current flow with a corresponding cooling capacity of 29.2 W, giving an average cooled air temperature of 28°C and 0.9 m/s cooled air velocity. The coefficient of performance was calculated and found to be ˜0.34. Economic analysis indicates that the payback period is 0.75 years when one compact TE air conditioner unit is used instead of a 1-ton conventional air conditioner.

  2. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner: System optimization preliminary specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseau, J.; Hwang, K. C.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations aimed at the optimization of a baseline Rankine cycle solar powered air conditioner and the development of a preliminary system specification were conducted. Efforts encompassed the following: (1) investigations of the use of recuperators/regenerators to enhance the performance of the baseline system, (2) development of an off-design computer program for system performance prediction, (3) optimization of the turbocompressor design to cover a broad range of conditions and permit operation at low heat source water temperatures, (4) generation of parametric data describing system performance (COP and capacity), (5) development and evaluation of candidate system augmentation concepts and selection of the optimum approach, (6) generation of auxiliary power requirement data, (7) development of a complete solar collector-thermal storage-air conditioner computer program, (8) evaluation of the baseline Rankine air conditioner over a five day period simulating the NASA solar house operation, and (9) evaluation of the air conditioner as a heat pump.

  3. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    DOE PAGES

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the technical development of a high efficiency window air conditioner. In order to achieve higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of the R410A unit was downgraded by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. The other subsequent major modifications included – the AC fan motor being replaced with a brushless high efficiency electronically commuted motor (ECM) motor, the capillary tube being replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, andmore » R410A being replaced with drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (85% molar concentration)/R125 (15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant EER enhancement of the modified unit.« less

  4. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the technical development of a high efficiency window air conditioner. In order to achieve higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of the R410A unit was downgraded by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. The other subsequent major modifications included – the AC fan motor being replaced with a brushless high efficiency electronically commuted motor (ECM) motor, the capillary tube being replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and R410A being replaced with drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (85% molar concentration)/R125 (15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant EER enhancement of the modified unit.

  5. Development of a solar powered residential air conditioner (General optimization)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowen, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    A commercially available 3-ton residential Lithium Bromide (LiBr) absorption air conditioner was modified for use with lower temperature solar heated water. The modification included removal of components such as the generator, concentration control chamber, liquid trap, and separator; and the addition of a Chrysler designed generator, an off-the-shelf LiBr-solution pump. The design goal of the modified unit was to operate with water as the heat-transfer fluid at a target temperature of 85 C (185 F), 29.4 C (85 F) cooling water inlet, producing 10.5 kW (3 tons) of cooling. Tests were performed on the system before and after modification to provide comparative data. At elevated temperatures (96 C, 205 F), the test results show that Lithium Bromide was carried into the condenser due to the extremely violent boiling and degraded the evaporator performance.

  6. Air-conditioner filters enriching dust mites allergen.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Pengfei; Zhu, Haibin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Zhao, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    We detected the concentration of dust mites allergen (Der f1 & Der p1) in the air of different places before and after the starting of air-conditioners in Wuhu City, Anhui, China, and to discuss the relation between the dust mites allergen in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the air-conditioner filters in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households respectively. Concentrations of dust mites major group allergen 1 (Der f 1, Der p1) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentration of Der f1 in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households was 1.52 μg/g, 1.24 μg/g, 1.31 μg/g and 1.46 μg/g respectively, and the concentration of Der p1 in above-mentioned places was 1.23 μg/g, 1.12 μg/g, 1.16 μg/g and 1.18 μg/g respectively. The concentration of Der f1 & Der p1 in air was higher after the air-conditioners starting one hours later, and the difference was significant (P<0.05, respectively). Additionally, dot-ELISA findings revealed that the allergen extracted from the dust was capable of reacting with IgE from the sera of asthma mice allergic to dust mites. The study concludes that air-conditioner filters can enrich dust mites major group allergen, and the allergens can induce asthma. The air-conditioner filters shall be cleaned or replaced regularly to prevent or reduce accumulation of the dust mites and its allergens.

  7. Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, J.; Booten, C.; Christensen, D.; Tomerlin, J.

    2013-03-01

    Window air conditioners are the dominant cooling product for residences, in terms of annual unit sales. They are inexpensive, portable and can be installed by the owner. For this reason, they are an attractive solution for supplemental cooling, for retrofitting air conditioning into a home which lacks ductwork, and for renters. Window air conditioners for sale in the United States are required to meet very modest minimum efficiency standards. Four window air conditioners' performance were tested in the Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory on NREL's campus in Golden, CO. In order to separate and study the refrigerant system's performance, the unit's internal leakage pathways, the unit's fanforced ventilation, and the leakage around the unit resulting from installation in a window, a series of tests were devised that focused on each aspect of the unit's performance. These tests were designed to develop a detailed performance map to determine whole-house performance in different climates. Even though the test regimen deviated thoroughly from the industry-standard ratings test, the results permit simple calculation of an estimated rating for both capacity and efficiency that would result from a standard ratings test. Using this calculation method, it was found that the three new air conditioners' measured performance was consistent with their ratings. This method also permits calculation of equivalent SEER for the test articles. Performance datasets were developed across a broad range of indoor and outdoor operating conditions, and used them to generate performance maps.

  8. Rooftop Unitary Air Conditioner with Integral Dedicated Outdoor Air System

    SciTech Connect

    Tiax Llc

    2006-02-28

    Energy use of rooftop and other unitary air-conditioners in commercial applications accounts for about 1 quad (10{sup 15} Btu) of primary energy use annually in the U.S. [Reference 7]. The realization that this cooling equipment accounts for the majority of commercial building cooled floorspace and the majority also of commercial building energy use has spurred development of improved-efficiency equipment as well as development of stricter standards addressing efficiency levels. Another key market driver affecting design of rooftop air-conditioning equipment has been concern regarding comfort and the control of humidity. Trends for increases in outdoor air ventilation rates in certain applications, and the increasing concern about indoor air quality problems associated with humidity levels and moisture in buildings points to a need for improved dehumidification capability in air-conditioning equipment of all types. In many cases addressing this issue exacerbates energy efficiency, and vice versa. The integrated dedicated outdoor air system configuration developed in this project addresses both energy and comfort/humidity issues.

  9. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An extensive review of the literature was conducted which was concerned with the characterization of systems and equipment that could be applicable to the development of solar-powered air conditioners based on the Rankine cycle approach, and the establishment of baseline data defining the performance, physical characteristics, and cost of systems using the LiBr/H2O absorption cycle.

  10. 10 CFR 429.15 - Room air conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Room air conditioners. 429.15 Section 429.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND... selected and tested to ensure that— (i) Any represented value of estimated annual operating cost, energy...

  11. Domestic Refrigeration, Freezer, and Window Air Conditioner Service. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemons, Mark

    This curriculum guide contains six units of instruction for a course in domestic refrigerator, freezer, and window air conditioner service. The units cover the following topics: (1) service fundamentals; (2) mechanical components and functions; (3) electrical components and control devices; (4) refrigerator and freezer service; (5) domestic ice…

  12. Domestic Refrigeration, Freezer, and Window Air Conditioner Service. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemons, Mark

    This curriculum guide contains six units of instruction for a course in domestic refrigerator, freezer, and window air conditioner service. The units cover the following topics: (1) service fundamentals; (2) mechanical components and functions; (3) electrical components and control devices; (4) refrigerator and freezer service; (5) domestic ice…

  13. Development of vehicle magnetic air conditioner (VMAC) technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gschneidner, Karl A., Jr.; Pecharsky, V.K.; Jiles, David; Zimm, Carl B.

    2001-08-28

    The objective of Phase I was to explore the feasibility of the development of a new solid state refrigeration technology - magnetic refrigeration - in order to reduce power consumption of a vehicle air conditioner by 30%. The feasibility study was performed at Iowa State University (ISU) together with Astronautics Corporation of America Technology Center (ACATC), Madison, WI, through a subcontract with ISU.

  14. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The initial objective of the program was the optimization (in terms of cost and performance) of a Rankine cycle mechanical refrigeration system which utilizes thermal energy from a flat solar collector for air conditioning residential buildings. However, feasibility investigations of the adsorption process revealed that a dessicant-type air conditioner offers many significant advantages. As a result, limited efforts were expended toward the optimization of such a system.

  15. Optimal Design of Automotive Thermoelectric Air Conditioner (TEAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attar, Alaa; Lee, HoSung; Weera, Sean

    2014-06-01

    The present work is an analytical study of the optimal design of an automotive thermoelectric air conditioner (TEAC) using a new optimal design method with dimensional analysis that has been recently developed by our research group. The optimal design gives not only the optimal current but also the optimal geometry (i.e., the number of thermocouples, the geometric factor, or the hot fluid parameters). The optimal design for the TEAC is carried out with two configurations: air-to-liquid and air-to-air heat exchangers.

  16. Analysis of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerant Options for Window Air Conditioners

    DOE PAGES

    Bansal, Pradeep; Shen, Bo

    2015-03-12

    This paper presents a technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants as alternatives to R410A for window air conditioners. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, a mixture of R32/R125 with 90%/10% molar concentration, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and R134a. Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The heat pump design model (HPDM) was modified and calibrated with the baseline data and was used to evaluate the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners. Amongmore » all the refrigerants studied, R32 offers the best efficiency and the lowest Global Warming Potential (GWP), and hence its use will result in the overall environmental friendliness.« less

  17. Analysis of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerant Options for Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Pradeep; Shen, Bo

    2015-03-12

    This paper presents a technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants as alternatives to R410A for window air conditioners. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, a mixture of R32/R125 with 90%/10% molar concentration, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and R134a. Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The heat pump design model (HPDM) was modified and calibrated with the baseline data and was used to evaluate the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners. Among all the refrigerants studied, R32 offers the best efficiency and the lowest Global Warming Potential (GWP), and hence its use will result in the overall environmental friendliness.

  18. Study on the Refrigeration Cycle of Automotive Air-Conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Junichiro; Honda, Itsuro; Kanazawa, Koji; Ohba, Hideki; Uemura, Masakazu

    The steady state characteristics of a refrigeration cycle for automotive air-conditioners using Freon 12 gas is studied numerically. The numerical method for the simulation of a refrigeration cycle executed on a personal computer is presented. The model for a refrigeration cycle consists of a compressor, condenser, expansion valve and evaporator. Non linear equations for pressure, temperature and refrigerant mass are calculated by the Newton-Raphson method. In particular, experimental date are employed for calculation of compressor condition and influence of refrigerator oil is considered. From the comparison with the experiment, it is made c1ear that this simulation is useful for the prediction of the performance of a refrigeration cycle. Therefore, the optimum design and the shortening of the design process for automotive air-conditioners are possible by this simulation.

  19. Development and Analysis of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioner Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Judkoff, R.

    2012-04-01

    This report documents the design of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP AC) prototype and the testing to prove its performance. Previous numerical modeling and building energy simulations indicate a DEVAP AC can save significant energy compared to a conventional vapor compression AC (Kozubal et al. 2011). The purposes of this research were to build DEVAP prototypes, test them to validate the numerical model, and identify potential commercialization barriers.

  20. 10 CFR 429.16 - Central air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Central air conditioners and heat pumps. 429.16 Section... and heat pumps. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The general requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to central air conditioners and heat pumps; and (2)(i) For central air...

  1. 10 CFR 429.16 - Central air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Central air conditioners and heat pumps. 429.16 Section... and heat pumps. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The general requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to central air conditioners and heat pumps; and (2)(i) For central air...

  2. Bacterial community structures in air conditioners installed in Japanese residential buildings.

    PubMed

    Hatayama, Kouta; Oikawa, Yurika; Ito, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-16

    The bacterial community structures in four Japanese split-type air conditioners were analyzed using a next-generation sequencer. A variety of bacteria were detected in the air filter of an air conditioner installed on the first floor. In the evaporator of this air conditioner, bacteria belonging to the genus Methylobacterium, or the family of Sphingomonadaceae, were predominantly detected. On the other hand, the majority of bacteria detected in the air filters and evaporators of air conditioners installed on the fifth and twelfth floors belonged to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The source of bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae may have been aerosols generated by toilet flushing in the buildings. Our results suggested the possibility that the bacterial contamination in the air conditioners was affected by the floor level on which they were installed. The air conditioner installed on the lower floor, near the ground, may have been contaminated by a variety of outdoor bacteria, whereas the air conditioners installed on floors more distant from the ground may have been less contaminated by outdoor bacteria. However, these suppositions may apply only to the specific split-type air conditioners that we analyzed, because our sample size was small.

  3. Building pressurization control with rooftop air conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, S.

    1982-10-01

    The modulated exhaust fan appears to be the most cost effective positive means to maintain close building pressure control with rooftop air conditioning, but because building construction and applications vary, every building's pressure control needs must be analyzed. Requirements will vary from no relief to barometric dampers to return fans to modulated exhaust fans. As heating and cooling costs continue to rise and tighter building codes prevail, proper selection of building pressure control is one area that must be monitored more carefully by the HVAC system designer.

  4. Zero Carryover Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Solar Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Lowenstein, A.; Slayzak, S.; Kozubal, E.

    2006-07-01

    A novel liquid-desiccant air conditioner that dries and cools building supply air will transform the use of direct-contact liquid-desiccant systems in HVAC applications, improving comfort, air quality, and providing energy-efficient humidity control.

  5. 48 CFR 52.223-12 - Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Refrigeration Equipment... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-12 Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners. As prescribed in 23.804(b), insert the following clause: Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners (MAY 1995) The Contractor...

  6. 48 CFR 52.223-12 - Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refrigeration Equipment... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-12 Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners. As prescribed in 23.804(b), insert the following clause: Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners (MAY 1995) The Contractor...

  7. 48 CFR 52.223-12 - Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Refrigeration Equipment... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-12 Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners. As prescribed in 23.804(b), insert the following clause: Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners (MAY 1995) The Contractor...

  8. 48 CFR 52.223-12 - Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Refrigeration Equipment... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-12 Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners. As prescribed in 23.804(b), insert the following clause: Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners (MAY 1995) The Contractor...

  9. 48 CFR 52.223-12 - Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Refrigeration Equipment... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-12 Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners. As prescribed in 23.804(b), insert the following clause: Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners (MAY 1995) The Contractor...

  10. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... for Central Air Conditioners Manufacturer's rated cooling capacities (Btu's/hr.) Range of SEER's Low High Single Package Units Central Air Conditioners (Cooling Only): All capacities 10.6 16.5 Heat Pumps... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooling Performance and Cost for Central...

  11. Huffing air conditioner fluid: a cool way to die?

    PubMed

    Phatak, Darshan R; Walterscheid, Jeffrey

    2012-03-01

    "Huffing," the form of substance abuse involving inhalants, is growing in popularity because of the ease and availability of chemical inhalants in many household products. The purpose in huffing is to achieve euphoria when the chemicals in question interact with the central nervous system in combination with oxygen displacement. The abuser is lulled into a false sense of safety despite the well-documented potential for lethal cardiac arrhythmia and the effects of chronic inhalant abuse, including multisystem organ failure, and brain damage. Huffing air conditioner fluid is a growing problem given the accessibility to outdoor units and their fluid components, such as difluorochloromethane(chlorodifluoromethane, Freon), and we have classified multiple cases of accidental death due to the toxicity of difluorochloromethane. Given the ubiquity of these devices and the vast lack of gating or security devices, they make an inviting target for inhalant abusers. Acute huffing fatalities have distinct findings that are present at the scene, given the position of the decedent and proximity to the air conditioner unit. The purpose of the autopsy in these cases is to exclude other potential causes of death and to procure specimens for toxicological analysis.

  12. Simple Expressions to Predict Actual Performance of Vapor Compression Air-conditioner Concerning Heat Island Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinomiya, Naruaki; Nishimura, Nobuya; Iyota, Hiroyuki

    Simple expressions to predict actual performance of vapor compression air-conditioners such as room air-conditioners and multi-split type air-conditioners are proposed. Coefficient of performance is expressed in these simple expressions as a function of outdoor temperature, indoor temperature, air-conditioning load rate, air flow rate of indoor unit (in case of room air-conditioners) and difference in height between indoor unit and outdoor unit (in case of multi-split type air-conditioners). Those simple expressions are obtained by neural net work analysis (Rule extraction method from facts, RF5). Actual performance of air-conditioners which are used for training data and teaching data of net work are obtained by numerical simulations developed by the authors. Calculation results of these simple expressions usually agree with experimental values of other researchers. Furthermore, amount of exhaust heat from air-conditioners calculated with these expressions are 10% or lower than traditional approach: calculated with constant value of coefficient of performance.

  13. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  14. Dirty air conditioners: Energy implications of coil fouling

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, Jeffrey; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2002-03-01

    Residential air conditioning is responsible for a substantial amount of peak electrical demand and energy consumption throughout most of the United States. Coil fouling, the deposition of indoor dusts and other particulate matter on evaporator heat exchangers, increases system pressure drop and, correspondingly, decreases system air flow and air conditioner performance. In this paper, we apply experimental and simulation results describing particle deposition on evaporator coils as well as research about indoor particle and dust concentrations to determine coil fouling rates. The results suggest that typical coils foul enough to double evaporator pressure drop in about 7.5 years, much sooner than the expected 15-30 year life time for an evaporator coil. The most important parameters in determining coil fouling times are the efficiency of the filter and indoor particle concentrations, although filter bypass and duct and coil design are important as well. The reduced air flows that result from coil fouling cause typical efficiency and capacity degradations of less than 5%, however they can be much greater for marginal systems or extreme conditions. These energy issues, as well as possible indoor air quality issues resulting from fouling by biological aerosols, suggest that regular coil cleaning to ameliorate low flow and the elimination of filter bypass should be an important part of residential air conditioning commissioning and maintenance practices.

  15. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Conditioners (Cooling Only): All capacities 10.6 16.5 Heat Pumps (Cooling Function): All capacities 10.6 16.0 Split System Units Central Air Conditioners (Cooling Only): All capacities 10.9 23.0 Heat Pumps...

  16. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Conditioners (Cooling Only): All capacities 10.6 16.5 Heat Pumps (Cooling Function): All capacities 10.6 16.0 Split System Units Central Air Conditioners (Cooling Only): All capacities 10.9 23.0 Heat Pumps...

  17. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Conditioners (Cooling Only): All capacities 10.6 16.5 Heat Pumps (Cooling Function): All capacities 10.6 16.0 Split System Units Central Air Conditioners (Cooling Only): All capacities 10.9 23.0 Heat Pumps...

  18. Motor current signature analysis: A potential diagnostic for air conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.A.; Haynes, H.D.; Griffin, F.P.; Levins, W.P.; Karnitz, M.A.

    1988-03-01

    Recent advancements in modern electronics have made it possible to collect the various ''transient noise'' signals which are present on electric power lines of motor-driven equipment while using a simple non-intrusive clamp-on inductive pickup. Electronic filters are used to analyze the noise signal with an on-the-spot, real-time analysis. An exploratory study, conducted at ORNL, examined the potential for using the motor current signature on heat pumps and air conditioners as a diagnostic tool. Preliminary results show that there is some correlation between the motor current signature and the performance of a heat pump. However, the tests and associated analysis were limited, and additional research is needed to determine the full potential of motor current signature analysis (MCSA).

  19. High-Efficiency Rooftop Air Conditioners: Innovative Procurement to Achieve Advances in Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hollomon, Brad

    2003-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Defense Logistics Agency, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recently conducted a technology procurement to increase the availability of energy-efficient, packaged unitary ''rooftop'' air conditioners. The procurement encouraged air conditioner manufacturers to produce equipment that exceeded US energy efficiency standards by at least 25% at a lower life-cycle cost. An outgrowth of the project, a web-based cost estimator tool is now available to help consumers determine the cost-effectiveness of purchasing energy-efficient air conditioners based on climate conditions and other factors at their own locations.

  20. Effect of air-conditioner on fungal contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Nobuo; Fujita, Tadao

    Air-conditioners (AC) produce much dew and wet conditions inside their apparatus, when in operation. We studied the fungal contamination in AC and found that the average fungal contamination of AC filters was about 5-fold greater than that of a carpet, and Cladosporium and Penicillium were predominant in AC filters. The fungal contamination inside AC, which were used everyday, increased more markedly than those not used daily, e.g. a few days per week or rarely. Moreover, the airborne fungal contamination in rooms during air-conditioning was about 2-fold greater than one in rooms without AC, and was highest when air-conditioning started and decreased gradually with time. We recognized that the airborne fungal contamination was controlled by the environmental condition of the rooms, in which AC were used. It is suggested that AC might promote mold allergies in users via airborne fungal spores derived from the AC. On the other hand, AC was estimated to remove moisture in the room atmosphere and carpets, and reduce the relative humidity in rooms. It was found that the average fungal contamination in the house dust of carpets with AC was suppressed by two-third of that in rooms without AC. The use of AC for suppressing fungal hazards was discussed.

  1. 77 FR 8178 - Test Procedures for Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ...The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is holding a public meeting to discuss methodologies and gather comments on testing residential central air conditioners and heat pumps designed to use hydrochlorofluorocarbon-22 (R-22) refrigerant.

  2. Transition to Low-GWP Alternatives in Passenger Vehicle Air Conditioners

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet provides current information on low global warming potential (GWP) alternatives in newly manufactured passenger vehicle air conditioners (ACs), in lieu of high-GWP hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).

  3. Understanding Energy Impacts of Oversized Air Conditioners; NREL Highlights, Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This NREL highlight describes a simulation-based study that analyzes the energy impacts of oversized residential air conditioners. Researchers found that, if parasitic power losses are minimal, there is very little increase in energy use for oversizing an air conditioner. The research demonstrates that new residential air conditioners can be sized primarily based on comfort considerations, because capacity typically has minimal impact on energy efficiency. The results of this research can be useful for contractors and homeowners when choosing a new air conditioner or heat pump during retrofits of existing homes. If the selected unit has a crankcase heater, performing proper load calculations to be sure the new unit is not oversized will help avoid excessive energy use.

  4. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile – High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This Top Innovation profile explains how comprehensive performance testing by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory led to simple, affordable methods that homeowners could employ for increasing the energy efficiency of window air conditioners.

  5. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brendemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  6. Liquid Desiccant in Air Conditioners: Nano-Engineered Porous Hollow Fiber Membrane-Based Air Conditioning System

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-02

    BEETIT Project: UTRC is developing an air conditioning system that is optimized for use in warm and humid climates. UTRC’s air conditioning system integrates a liquid drying agent or desiccant and a traditional vapor compression system found in 90% of air conditioners. The drying agent reduces the humidity in the air before it is cooled, using less energy. The technology uses a membrane as a barrier between the air and the liquid salt stream allowing only water vapor to pass through and not the salt molecules. This solves an inherent problem with traditional liquid desiccant systems—carryover of the liquid drying agent into the conditioned air stream—which eliminates corrosion and health issues

  7. Centrifugal compressors for automotive air conditioners -- Component design

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, H.; Smith, J.L. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    The application of a novel, electric motor-driven, variable-speed centrifugal compressor for automotive air conditioners has been investigated. For the feasibility analysis, a configuration design has been performed. It includes refrigerant selection, thermodynamic cycle analysis, compressor aerodynamic design, and mechanical layout of the integrated motor-compressor structure. Both the motor constraints (provided by the Laboratory for Electromagnetic and Electronic Systems at M.I.T.) and the compressor constraints were considered for the configuration design. The result is an inter-cooled two-stage compression system using R123 as the refrigerant. The inter-cooling is achieved by feeding back a small fraction of the condenser liquid into the return channel between the first and the second stage through the electric motor. At the design condition, the pressure ratio is 3.2 for the first stage and 1.9 for the second stage. The design rotational speed is 75,000 rpm, and the maximum cooling capacity is 5,275 Watts. High efficiency is expected by varying the compressor speed to match the required cooling load at each instant.

  8. 76 FR 19913 - Compliance Testing Procedures: Correction Factor for Room Air Conditioners

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... that the cooling capacity of a room air conditioner may actually be higher rather than lower when... cooling capacity of the air supplied to the conditioned room is reduced, by altitude effects because air... this simulation, presented below in Table 1, show that the cooling capacity decreases as...

  9. [Fungus microbiota in air conditioners in intensive care units in Teresina, Piauí].

    PubMed

    Mobin, Mitra; do Amparo Salmito, Maria

    2006-01-01

    With the aim of identifying the fungus microbiota in air conditioners in intensive care units (ICUs) within public and private hospitals in Teresina, Piauí, solid material was collected from ten different ICUs. Thirty-three species of Moniliaceae and Dematiaceae were isolated, which was the first report of these in Piauí. High frequencies of Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem (60%), Aspergillus fumigatus Fres (50%), Trichoderma koningii Oudem (50%) and Aspergillus flavus Link: Fr. (40%) were recorded. The air conditioner cleanliness validity had expired in all the ICUs, and the quantity of colony-forming units exceeded the levels permitted by Law 176/00 from the Ministry of Health. It is important to provide individual protection equipment for professionals, adopt hospital infection control measures, raise the awareness of the presence of fungus infection, improve air circulation around the environment, periodically clean the air conditioners, and make health professionals alert to the importance of these fungi in the hospital environment.

  10. A hybrid air conditioner driven by a hybrid solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Alili, Ali

    The objective of this thesis is to search for an efficient way of utilizing solar energy in air conditioning applications. The current solar Air Conditioners (A/C)s suffer from low Coefficient of Performance (COP) and performance degradation in hot and humid climates. By investigating the possible ways of utilizing solar energy in air conditioning applications, the bottlenecks in these approaches were identified. That resulted in proposing a novel system whose subsystem synergy led to a COP higher than unity. The proposed system was found to maintain indoor comfort at a higher COP compared to the most common solar A/Cs, especially under very hot and humid climate conditions. The novelty of the proposed A/C is to use a concentrating photovoltaic/thermal collector, which outputs thermal and electrical energy simultaneously, to drive a hybrid A/C. The performance of the hybrid A/C, which consists of a desiccant wheel, an enthalpy wheel, and a vapor compression cycle (VCC), was investigated experimentally. This work also explored the use of a new type of desiccant material, which can be regenerated with a low temperature heat source. The experimental results showed that the hybrid A/C is more effective than the standalone VCC in maintaining the indoor conditions within the comfort zone. Using the experimental data, the COP of the hybrid A/C driven by a hybrid solar collector was found to be at least double that of the current solar A/Cs. The innovative integration of its subsystems allows each subsystem to do what it can do best. That leads to lower energy consumption which helps reduce the peak electrical loads on electric utilities and reduces the consumer operating cost since less energy is purchased during the on peak periods and less solar collector area is needed. In order for the proposed A/C to become a real alternative to conventional systems, its performance and total cost were optimized using the experimentally validated model. The results showed that for an

  11. Evaluation of Alternative Refrigerants for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Shrestha, Som S

    2017-01-01

    The phase-out of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC) refrigerants in developing countries is currently underway according to the Montreal Protocol. R-22 is one of the most commonly used HCFCs in the developing nations. It is extremely well suited for air conditioning and refrigeration (AC&R) in high ambient temperature environments. Non-Article 5 countries have already gone through the phase-out of HCFCs and settled on using R-410A as the refrigerant of choice for AC applications. Previous studies have shown that R-410A results in significant capacity and performance degradation at higher ambient temperature conditions. As such, there is a growing concern on finding alternative refrigerants to R-22 that would have zero ODP, lower GWP, and at the same time maintain acceptable performance at higher ambient temperatures. Furthermore, the developed world s transition through higher global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants like HFC and HFC blends resulted in significant direct CO2 equivalent emissions. It is imperative to develop a bridge for developing nations to avoid the transition from HCFC to HFC and then from HFC to alternative lower GWP refrigerants. This paper summarizes data from an experimental campaign on alternative refrigerant evaluation for R-22 and R-410A substitutes for mini-split air conditioners designed for high ambient environments. The experimental evaluation was performed according to ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 37 and the performance was rated at test conditions specified by ANSI/AHRI 210-240 and ISO 5151. Additional tests were conducted at outdoor ambient temperatures of 52 C (125.6 F) and 55 C (131 F) to evaluate their performance at high ambient conditions. Alternative refrigerants, some of which are proprietary, included R-444B, DR-3, N-20b, ARM-20b, R-290, and DR-93 as alternatives to R-22 and R-32, DR-55, L41-2, ARM-71A, and HPR-2A as alternatives to R-410A. The units performances were first verified using the baseline refrigerant and then drop

  12. 16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air... RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. I Appendix I to Part 305—Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners Manufacturer's rated heating capacity (Btu's/hr.) Range of HSPF's Low High Single Package Units Heat...

  13. 16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air... CONSERVATION ACT (âENERGY LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. I Appendix I to Part 305—Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners Manufacturer's rated heating capacity (Btu's/hr.) Range of HSPF's...

  14. 16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air... RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. I Appendix I to Part 305—Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners Manufacturer's rated heating capacity (Btu's/hr.) Range of HSPF's Low High Single Package Units Heat...

  15. 16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air... RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. I Appendix I to Part 305—Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners Manufacturer's rated heating capacity (Btu's/hr.) Range of HSPF's Low High Single Package Units Heat...

  16. 10 CFR 431.96 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial air conditioners and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. 431.96 Section 431.96 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial... energy efficiency of commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. (a) Scope. This section contains...

  17. Swozzle based burner tube premixer including inlet air conditioner for low emissions combustion

    DOEpatents

    Tuthill, Richard Sterling; Bechtel, II, William Theodore; Benoit, Jeffrey Arthur; Black, Stephen Hugh; Bland, Robert James; DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne; Meyer, Stefan Martin; Taura, Joseph Charles; Battaglioli, John Luigi

    2002-01-01

    A burner for use in a combustion system of a heavy-duty industrial gas turbine includes a fuel/air premixer having an air inlet, a fuel inlet, and an annular mixing passage. The fuel/air premixer mixes fuel and air into a uniform mixture for injection into a combustor reaction zone. The burner also includes an inlet flow conditioner disposed at the air inlet of the fuel/air premixer for controlling a radial and circumferential distribution of incoming air. The pattern of perforations in the inlet flow conditioner is designed such that a uniform air flow distribution is produced at the swirler inlet annulus in both the radial and circumference directions. The premixer includes a swozzle assembly having a series of preferably air foil shaped turning vanes that impart swirl to the airflow entering via the inlet flow conditioner. Each air foil contains internal fuel flow passages that introduce natural gas fuel into the air stream via fuel metering holes that pass through the walls of the air foil shaped turning vanes. By injecting fuel in this manner, an aerodynamically clean flow field is maintained throughout the premixer. By injecting fuel via two separate passages, the fuel/air mixture strength distribution can be controlled in the radial direction to obtain optimum radial concentration profiles for control of emissions, lean blow outs, and combustion driven dynamic pressure activity as machine and combustor load are varied.

  18. Development of Small Gas-fired Ammonia Absorption Air Conditioner for Residential Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Takashi; Yamamoto, Yoshiaki; Kobayashi, Hirotake; Shimaoka, Takaharu; Kawahara, Michinori; Uedono, Norio

    Due to the global environmental problems, the usage of natural refrigerants, such as water, ammonia, and hydrocarbons, are examined widely. Especially, absorption heat pump system using ammonia and water is penetrated widely for residential use in the U.S. and Europe, because it is easy to make the air-cooled system and to perform with high COP for heating. Authors have been developing an ammonia/water heat pump system for residential use. This system is driven by natural gas and supplies chilled water for cooling and hot water for heating. The results of performance tests indicated 6.8kW for cooling capacity and 10.3kW for heating capacity. And, some indexes which were related the charge of ammonium and the weight of the out-door unit, were compared with the same item of other equipments, such as, gas-fired LiBr absorption air-conditioners and gas engine driven heat pumps for residential use. The objective of this paper is to introduce the specifications and performance test results of the latest model, and to evaluate the performance of this heat pump system.

  19. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... pumps, and furnaces. 305.12 Section 305.12 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS... pumps, and furnaces. (a) Layout. All energy labels for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces (including boilers) shall use one size, similar colors, and typefaces with consistent...

  20. Product lifetime, energy efficiency and climate change: A case study of air conditioners in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Daisuke

    2016-10-01

    This study proposed a modelling technique for estimating life-cycle CO2 emissions of durable goods by considering changes in product lifetime and energy efficiency. The stock and flow of durable goods was modelled by Weibull lifetime distributions and the trend in annual energy efficiency (i.e., annual electricity consumption) of an "average" durable good was formulated as a reverse logistic curve including a technologically critical value (i.e., limit energy efficiency) with respect to time. I found that when the average product lifetime is reduced, there is a trade-off between the reduction in emissions during product use (use phase), due to the additional purchases of new, more energy-efficient air conditioners, and the increase in emissions arising from the additional production of new air conditioners stimulated by the reduction of the average product lifetime. A scenario analysis focused on residential air conditioners in Japan during 1972-2013 showed that for a reduction of average lifetime of 1 year, if the air conditioner energy efficiency limit can be improved by 1.4% from the estimated current efficiency level, then CO2 emissions can be reduced by approximately the same amount as for an extension of average product lifetime of 1 year.

  1. 75 FR 7987 - Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and Room Air Conditioners: Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... phase electric current and which is an encased assembly designed as a unit for mounting in a window or.... Current Rulemaking Process i. Residential Clothes Dryers ii. Room Air Conditioners iii. Consent Decree III... defines ``electric clothes dryer'' under EPCA as ``a cabinet-like appliance designed to dry fabrics in...

  2. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brandemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost-effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  3. The use of heteroduplex analysis of polymerase chain reaction products to support the possible transmission of Legionella pneumophila from a malfunctioning automobile air conditioner.

    PubMed

    Pinar, Ahmet; Ramirez, Julio A; Schindler, Laura L; Miller, Richard D; Summersgill, James T

    2002-03-01

    Air conditioner condensates have not been previously associated with cases of Legionnaires' disease. We report the possible transmission of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 from a malfunctioning automobile air conditioning system's leaking water onto the floorboard of a car driven for a long distance by the patient. Heteroduplex analysis of polymerase chain reaction products was used to help establish an epidemiologic link between the water specimen and the patient.

  4. ENERGY STAR Certified Non-AHRI Central Air Conditioner Equipment and Air Source Heat Pump

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Air Source Heat Pump and Central Air Conditioner Equipment that are effective as of September 15, 2015. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=airsrc_heat.pr_crit_as_heat_pumps Listed products have been submitted to EPA by ENERGY STAR partners that do not participate in the AHRI certification program. EPA will continue to update this list with products that are certified by EPA-recognized certification bodies other than AHRI. The majority of ENERGY STAR products, certified by AHRI, can be found on the CEE/AHRI Verified Directory at http://www.ceedirectory.org/

  5. Experimental Validation of the Optimum Design of an Automotive Air-to-Air Thermoelectric Air Conditioner (TEAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attar, Alaa; Lee, HoSung; Weera, Sean

    2015-06-01

    The optimization of thermoelectric air conditioners (TEAC) has been a challenging topic due to the multitude of variables that must be considered. The present work discusses an experimental validation of the optimum design for an automotive air-to-air TEAC. The TEAC optimum design was obtained by using a new optimal design method with dimensional analysis that has been recently developed. The design constraints were obtained through a previous analytical study on the same topic. To simplify the problem, a unit cell representing the entire TEAC system was analytically simulated and experimentally tested. Moreover, commercial TEC modules and heat sinks were selected and tested based on the analytical optimum design results.

  6. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner: Screening analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Screening analysis aimed at the definition of an optimum configuration of a Rankine cycle solar-powered air conditioner designed for residential application were conducted. Initial studies revealed that system performance and cost were extremely sensitive to condensing temperature and to the type of condenser used in the system. Consequently, the screening analyses were concerned with the generation of parametric design data for different condenser approaches; i. e., (1) an ambient air condenser, (2) a humidified ambient air condenser (3) an evaporative condenser, and (4) a water condenser (with a cooling tower). All systems feature a high performance turbocompressor and a single refrigerant (R-11) for the power and refrigeration loops. Data were obtained by computerized methods developed to permit system characterization over a broad range of operating and design conditions. The criteria used for comparison of the candidate system approaches were (1) overall system COP (refrigeration effect/solar heat input), (2) auxiliary electric power for fans and pumps, and (3) system installed cost or cost to the user.

  7. Development of solar driven absorption air conditioners and heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao, K.; Wahlig, M.; Wali, E.; Rasson, J.; Molishever, E.

    1980-03-01

    The development of absorption refrigeration systems for solar active heating and cooling applications is discussed. The approaches investigated are those using air-cooled condenser-absorber and those leading to coefficient of performances (COP) that increase continuously with heat source temperature. This is primarily an experimental project, with the emphasis on designing, fabricating and testing absorption chillers in operating regimes that are particularly suited for solar energy applications. Its demonstrated that the conventional single-effect ammonia-water absorption cycle can be used (with minor modifications) for solar cooling.

  8. Low GWP Refrigerants Modelling Study for a Room Air Conditioner Having Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Bhandari, Mahabir S

    2016-01-01

    Microchannel heat exchangers (MHX) have found great successes in residential and commercial air conditioning applications, being compact heat exchangers, to reduce refrigerant charge and material cost. This investigation aims to extend the application of MHXs in split, room air conditioners (RAC), per fundamental heat exchanger and system modelling. For this paper, microchannel condenser and evaporator models were developed, using a segment-to-segment modelling approach. The microchannel heat exchanger models were integrated to a system design model. The system model is able to predict the performance indices, such as cooling capacity, efficiency, sensible heat ratio, etc. Using the calibrated system and heat exchanger models, we evaluated numerous low GWP (global warming potential) refrigerants. The predicted system performance indices, e.g. cooling efficiency, compressor discharge temperature, and required compressor displacement volume etc., are compared. Suitable replacements for R22 and R-410A for the room air conditioner application are recommended.

  9. INTEGRATED ENGINEERING - SERVICE TEST OF AIR CONDITIONERS, COMPACT VERTICAL, 60,000 BTU/HR, 60- AND 400-CYCLE.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A summary is presented of the engineering test of 60,000 Btu/hr compact vertical air conditioners. The purpose of the test was to determine conformance of the test items to required performance characteristics. (Author)

  10. Air conditioner operation behaviour based on students' skin temperature in a classroom.

    PubMed

    Song, Gook-Sup; Lim, Jae-Han; Ahn, Tae-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    A total of 25 college students participated in a study to determine when they would use an air conditioner during a lecture in a university classroom. The ambient temperature and relative humidity were measured 75 cm above the floor every minute. Skin temperatures were measured every minute at seven points, according to the recommendation of Hardy and Dubois. The average clothing insulation value (CLO) of subjects was 0.53 ± 0.07 CLO. The mean air velocity in the classroom was 0.13 ± 0.028 m/s. When the subjects turned the air conditioner both on and off, the average ambient temperatures, relative humidity and mean skin temperatures were 27.4 and 23.7 °C (p = 0.000), 40.9 and 40.0% (p = 0.528) and 32.7 and 32.2 °C (p = 0.024), respectively. When the status of the air conditioner was changed, the differences of skin temperatures in core body parts (head, abdomen and thigh) were not statistically significant. However, in the extremities (mid-lower arm, hand, shin and instep), the differences were statistically significant. Subjects preferred a fluctuating environment to a constant temperature condition. We found that a changing environment does not affect classroom study.

  11. Techno-Economic Analysis of Indian Draft Standard Levels for RoomAir Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

    2007-03-01

    The Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) finalized its first set of efficiency standards and labels for room air conditioners in July of 2006. These regulations followed soon after the publication of levels for frost-free refrigerators in the same year. As in the case of refrigerators, the air conditioner program introduces Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) and comparative labels simultaneously, with levels for one to five stars. Also like the refrigerator program, BEE defined several successive program phases of increasing stringency. In support of BEE's refrigerator program, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) produced an analysis of national impacts of standards in collaboration with the Collaborative Labeling and Standards Program (CLASP). That analysis drew on LBNL's experience with standards programs in the United States, as well as many other countries. Subsequently, as part of the process for setting optimal levels for air conditioner regulations, CLASP commissioned LBNL to provide support to BEE in the form of a techno-economic evaluation of air conditioner efficiency technologies. This report describes the methodology and results of this techno-economic evaluation. The analysis consists of three components: (1) Cost effectiveness to consumers of efficiency technologies relative to current baseline. (2) Impacts on the current market from efficiency regulations. (3) National energy and financial impacts. The analysis relied on detailed and up-to-date technical data made available by BEE and industry representatives. Technical parameters were used in conjunction with knowledge about air conditioner use patterns in the residential and commercial sectors, and prevailing marginal electricity prices, in order to give an estimate of per-unit financial impacts. In addition, the overall impact of the program was evaluated by combining unit savings with market forecasts in order to yield national impacts. LBNL presented preliminary results

  12. Automatic Unit Number Binding with Refrigeration Circuit Identification for Air-Conditioner Control Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninagawa, Chuzo; Mizoguchi, Masanobu; Tsuji, Kohkichi

    This paper proposes an automatic unit number binding method so that a number of logical subsystems are defined in the whole control network for distributed air-conditioners. Each air-conditioner unit starts the proposed algorithm at random timing to allocate its own unit number without any server. Then each outside unit one by one broadcasts the check signal and flows refrigerant gas to the refrigerant circuit between units to make each inside unit discover its piping connection. As a result, a number of logical subsystems are defined in the whole control network. A Petri net model was constructed for verification of our proposed system. For the case of two outside units and three inside units, the reachability to the required states and the deadlock free property were verified. The generalized module-by-module Petri net construction procedure shows applicability to general cases of arbitrary number of units.

  13. The Performance of a Desiccant-Based air Conditioner on a Florida School

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.

    2001-08-22

    Indoor air quality has become a major public health issue in recent years. ASHRAE standard 62-1989-which is an attempt to improve indoor air quality by increasing building ventilation rates-greatly increases the latent loads on many buildings. In more humid climates, the Sensible Heat Ratio (SHR) of a building's air conditioner (which is the fraction of total delivered cooling that is sensible) is too high to meet the existing latent loads. The implementation of ASHRAE 62-1989 will only exacerbate this problem.

  14. Absorption generator for solar-powered air-conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowen, D. J.; Murray, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Device passes solar-heated water through coils. Hot lithium Bromide/Water solution leaves through central stand-pipe, and water vapor leaves through refrigerant outlet at top. Matching generation temperature to collector efficiency helps cut costs.

  15. Deaths Due to Accidental Air Conditioner Compressor Explosion: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Behera, Chittaranjan; Bodwal, Jatin; Sikary, Asit K; Chauhan, Mohit Singh; Bijarnia, Manjul

    2017-01-01

    In an air-conditioning system, the compressor is a large electric pump that pressurizes the refrigerant gas as part of the process of turning it back into a liquid. The explosion of an air conditioner (AC) compressor is an uncommon event, and immediate death resulted from the blast effect is not reported in forensic literature. We report three such cases in which young AC mechanics were killed on the spot due to compressor blast, while repairing the domestic split AC unit. The autopsy findings, the circumstances leading to the explosion of the compressor, are discussed in this study. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. EER, COP, and the Second Law Efficiency for Air Conditioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leff, Harvey S.; Teeters, William D.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the relationship existing between coefficient of performance (COP) and energy efficiency ratio (EER) in air conditioning units and introduces new efficiency parameters measured relative to the energy extracted from the primary energy source. (SL)

  17. Gohieria fusca (Acari: Astigmata) found in the filter dusts of air conditioners in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaopin; Zhan, Xiaodong; Zhao, Jinhong; Wei, Guo

    2014-10-06

    Gohieria fusca(Oudemans, 1902) is recognized to breed in wheat flour, rice, corn, feeds, wheat bran and herbal medicines as well as other stored products, and capable of having mild to moderate cross reactivity with allergens of house dust mites, an important source of indoor allergens associated with asthma and other allergic conditions. Air-conditioning systems are indispensable in public and civil buildings, and the screens of the air conditioners are the most places to accumulate dusts. In order to investigate whether Gohieria fusca can breed in the screens of air-conditioners equipped at either public spaces or civil dwellings in Wuhu city, Anhui province, China. We collected 430 dust samples from the filters of air-conditioning systems at the school cafeteria, marketplaces, hotels and civil buildings between June and September of 2013, and isolated Gohieria fusca from the previous samples. The results suggested that Gohieria fusca was present in 98 of the 430 samples (22.79%), and the breeding rate was significant in the air-conditioning filters from different spaces (c2=18.294, P. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Room Air Conditioners; Appliance Repair--Advanced: 9027.04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This Quinmester course includes installations, electrical and mechanical servicing, reverse cycle air conditioning, malfunctions, troubleshooting and repair, discharge, pump down, and recharging the system. The course may be taught as a two or three Quinmester credit course. In each instance the course consists of six instructional blocks:…

  19. A review of polymer-based water conditioners for reduction of handling-related injury

    SciTech Connect

    Harnish, Ryan A.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Brown, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Fish are coated with an external layer of protective mucus. This layer serves as the primary barrier against infection or injury, reduces friction, and plays a role in ionic and osmotic regulation. However, the mucus layer is easily disturbed when fish are netted, handled, transported, stressed, or subjected to adverse water conditions. Water additives containing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or proprietary polymers have been used to prevent the deleterious effects of mucus layer disturbances in the commercial tropical fish industry, aquaculture, and for other fisheries management purposes. This paper reviews research on the effectiveness of water conditioners, and examines the contents and uses of a wide variety of commercially available water conditioners. Water conditioners containing polymers may reduce external damage to fish held in containers during scientific experimentation, including surgical implantation of electronic tags. However, there is a need to empirically test the effectiveness of water conditioners at preventing damage to and promoting healing of the mucus layer. A research agenda is provided to advance the science related to the use of water conditions to improve the condition of fish during handling and tagging.

  20. Automotive absorption air conditioner utilizing solar and motor waste heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popinski, Z. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    In combination with the ground vehicles powered by a waste heat generating electric motor, a cooling system including a generator for driving off refrigerant vapor from a strong refrigerant absorbant solution is described. A solar collector, an air-cooled condenser connected with the generator for converting the refrigerant vapor to its liquid state, an air cooled evaporator connected with the condenser for returning the liquid refrigerant to its vapor state, and an absorber is connected to the generator and to the evaporator for dissolving the refrigerant vapor in the weak refrigerant absorbant solution, for providing a strong refrigerant solution. A pump is used to establish a pressurized flow of strong refrigerant absorbant solution from the absorber through the electric motor, and to the collector.

  1. Measure Guideline: Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.

    2013-03-01

    This guideline responds to the need for an efficient means of identifying, diagnosing, and repairing faults in air conditioning systems in existing homes that are undergoing energy upgrades. Inadequate airflow due to constricted ducts or undersized filters, improper refrigerant charge, and other system defects can be corrected at a fraction of the cost of equipment replacement and can yield significant savings. The guideline presents a two-step approach to diagnostics and repair.

  2. Measure Guideline. Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, David; Dakin, Bill

    2013-03-01

    This guideline responds to the need for an efficient means of identifying, diagnosing, and repairing faults in air conditioning systems in existing homes that are undergoing energy upgrades. Inadequate airflow due to constricted ducts or undersized filters, improper refrigerant charge, and other system defects can be corrected at a fraction of the cost of equipment replacement and can yield significant savings. The guideline presents a two-step approach to diagnostics and repair.

  3. 16 CFR Appendix E to Part 305 - Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. E...

  4. Using Field-Metered Data to Quantify Annual Energy Use of Portable Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, Thomas; Willem, Henry; Ni, Chun Chun; Stratton, Hannah; Chen, Yuting; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Iyer, Maithili; Price, Sarah; Dunham, Camilla

    2014-12-01

    As many regions of the United States experience rising temperatures, consumers have come to rely increasingly on cooling appliances (including portable air conditioners) to provide a comfortable indoor temperature. Home occupants sometimes use a portable air conditioner (PAC) to maintain a desired indoor temperature in a single room or enclosed space. Although PACs in residential use are few compared to centrally installed and room air conditioning (AC) units, the past few years have witnessed an increase of PACs use throughout the United States. There is, however, little information and few research projects focused on the energy consumption and performance of PACs, particularly studies that collect information from field applications of PACs. The operation and energy consumption of PACs may differ among geographic locations and households, because of variations in cooling load, frequency, duration of use, and other user-selected settings. In addition, the performance of building envelope (thermal mass and air leakage) as well as inter-zonal mixing within the building would substantially influence the ability to control and maintain desirable indoor thermal conditions. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted an initial field-metering study aimed at increasing the knowledge and data related to PAC operation and energy consumption in the United States.

  5. Air Sample Conditioner Helps the Waste Treatment Plant Meet Emissions Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Flaherty, Julia E.; Pekour, Mikhail S.

    2014-12-02

    The air in three of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) melter off-gas discharge stacks will be hot and humid after passing through the train of emission abatement equipment. The off-gas temperature and humidity levels will be incompatible with the airborne emissions monitoring equipment required for this type of stack. To facilitate sampling from these facilities, an air sample conditioner system will be installed to introduce cool, dry air into the sample stream to reduce the temperature and dew point. This will avoid thermal damage to the instrumentation and problematic condensation. The complete sample transport system must also deliver at least 50% of the particles in the sample airstream to the sample collection and on-line analysis equipment. The primary components of the sample conditioning system were tested in a laboratory setting. The sample conditioner itself is based on a commercially-available porous tube filter design. It consists of a porous sintered metal tube inside a coaxial metal jacket. The hot gas sample stream passes axially through the porous tube, and the dry, cool air is injected into the jacket and through the porous wall of the inner tube, creating an effective sample diluter. The dilution and sample air mix along the entire length of the porous tube, thereby simultaneously reducing the dew point and temperature of the mixed sample stream. Furthermore, because the dilution air enters through the porous tube wall, the sample stream does not come in contact with the porous wall and particle deposition is reduced in this part of the sampling system. Tests were performed with an environmental chamber to supply air with the temperature and humidity needed to simulate the off-gas conditions. Air from the chamber was passed through the conditioning system to test its ability to reduce the temperature and dew point of the sample stream. To measure particle deposition, oil droplets in the range of 9 to 11 micrometer

  6. Experimental study on heat transfer performance of aluminium foam parallel-flow condenser in air conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Wan, Z. M.; Chang, H. W.; Wang, Y. D.

    2017-01-01

    Open cell aluminium foam was used in parallel-flow condenser in air conditioner, and two condensers with different pore density were fabricated. The experimental study was conducted on the heat transfer performance and temperature distribution. The experimental results show that both of the heat transfer load and air pressure drop increase with the increase of pore density, air velocity is 2.5m/s, the heat transfer capacities of the condenser with 10PPI and 8PPI are 4.786kw and 3.344kW respectively. Along the flow direction of refrigerant, the outlet temperatures of refrigerant drop with the rise of air velocity when the inlet temperature is constant. The outlet temperature of the refrigerant decreases with the increase of pore density.

  7. Improvement of Dehumidification Performance on Room Air Conditioner Adopting Dehumidification Method Reheated by Refrigeration Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Hiroo; Funakoshi, Sunao; Yokoyama, Hidenori; Morimoto, Motoo; Saito, Kiyoshi

    The ways to increase dehumidification capacity during the dehumidification operation reheated by refrigeration cycle on room air conditioners using R 410A was investigated, keeping electric power consumption lower, noise level lower and outlet air temperature constant. The indoor heat exchanger is divided into a condensing part and an evaporating part by a dehumidification valve which is located between these two heat exchangers. The cooled and dehumidified indoor air is heated by the condensing part. The noise occurred from the two-phase refrigerant flow passing through this valve. So the compressor rotational speed was increased properly to increase dehumidification capacity. Moreover a new dehumidification valve was developed to reduce the refrigerant flow noise. This valve has two expansion processes and each expansion process has plural notch throttles. As the result, 1.5 times dehumidification capacity was gained, keeping lower electric power consumption, lower noise level and constant outlet air temperature.

  8. Performance evaluation of two air conditioners in contemporary research houses. Topical report, July-September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Nagda, N.L.

    1991-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Gas Research Institute, a 2.5RT high-efficiency variable-speed electric heat pump and a 2.0RT constant-speed electric air conditioner were tested during the cooling season in unoccupied contemporary research houses located near Washington, D.C. The research houses were moderately furnished to approximate conditions of occupancy for a family of three. Presence of occupants and use of appliances were simulated. Performance of the units was evaluated on the basis of indoor comfort, dynamic response to changing indoor/outdoor conditions, and energy consumption.

  9. Modeling of a second-generation solar-driven Rankine air conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denius, M. W.; Batton, W. D.

    1984-07-01

    Ten configurations of a second-generation, solar-powered, Rankine-driven air conditioner were simulated and the data presented for use in companion studies. The results of the analysis show that the boiling-in-collector (BIC) configuration generates more power per collector area than the other configurations. The models used to simulate the configuration are presented. The generated data are also presented. Experimental work was done to both improve a novel refrigerant and oil lubrication system for the centrifugal compressor and investigate the aerodynamic unloading characteristics of the centrifugal compressor. The information generated was used to define possible turbo-gearbox configurations for use in the second generation computer simulation.

  10. Optimum dry-cooling sub-systems for a solar air conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. L. S.; Namkoong, D.

    1978-01-01

    Dry-cooling sub-systems for residential solar powered Rankine compression air conditioners were economically optimized and compared with the cost of a wet cooling tower. Results in terms of yearly incremental busbar cost due to the use of dry-cooling were presented for Philadelphia and Miami. With input data corresponding to local weather, energy rate and capital costs, condenser surface designs and performance, the computerized optimization program yields design specifications of the sub-system which has the lowest annual incremental cost.

  11. 16 CFR Appendix E to Part 305 - Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER...'s/yr Range of Estimated Annual Operating Costs (Dollars/Year) LOW HIGH Without Reverse Cycle and... $112 14,000 to 19,999 Btu $105 $176 20,000 and more Btu $166 $338 Without Reverse Cycle and without...

  12. 16 CFR Appendix E to Part 305 - Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER...'s/yr Range of Estimated Annual Operating Costs (Dollars/Year) LOW HIGH Without Reverse Cycle and... $112 14,000 to 19,999 Btu $105 $176 20,000 and more Btu $166 $338 Without Reverse Cycle and without...

  13. 16 CFR Appendix E to Part 305 - Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER...'s/yr Range of Estimated Annual Operating Costs (Dollars/Year) LOW HIGH Without Reverse Cycle and... $112 14,000 to 19,999 Btu $105 $176 20,000 and more Btu $166 $338 Without Reverse Cycle and...

  14. Desiccant-assisted air conditioner improves IAQ and comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Meckler, M. )

    1994-10-01

    This article describes a system which offers the advantage of downsizing the evaporator coil and condensing unit capacities for comparable design loads, which in turn provides numerous benefits. Airborne microorganisms, which are responsible for many acute diseases, infections, and allergies, are well protected indoors by the moisture surrounding them. While the human body is generally the host for various bacteria and viruses, fungi can grow in moist places. It has been concluded that an optimum relative humidity (RH) range of 40 to 60 percent is necessary to minimize or eliminate the bacterial, viral, and fungal growth. In addition, humidity also has an effect on air cleanliness--it reduces the presence of dust particles--and on the deterioration of the building structure and its contents. Therefore, controlling humidity is a very important factor to human comfort in minimizing adverse health effects and maximizing the structural longevity of the building.

  15. 16 CFR Appendix E to Part 305 - Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND WATER USE LABELING FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âENERGY... Without Reverse Cycle and with Louvered Sides: Less than 6,000 Btu $42 $48 6,000 to 7,999 Btu 50 72 8,000 to 13,999 Btu 66 115 14,000 to 19,999 Btu 117 195 20,000 and more Btu 169 382 Without Reverse Cycle...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air... appendix F) until the compliance date of any amended energy conservation standards for room...

  17. Performance evaluation of vapor-compression air conditioners in contemporary research houses. Topical report, June 1987-September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Trehan, A.K.; Fortmann, R.C.; Nagda, N.L.

    1991-06-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Gas Research Institute, a high-efficiency electric air conditioner was tested at two unoccupied contemporary research houses in the Washington, D.C. area during two summer seasons. The research houses were moderately furnished to approximate conditions of occupancy for a family of three. Presence of occupants and use of appliances were simulated. Window openings were also simulated to increase latent load on the air conditioner. Performance of the air conditioner was characterized on the basis of indoor comfort, dynamic response to changing indoor/outdoor conditions, energy consumption, and efficiency. Such characterization will provide a basis for comparison with new or prototypical systems to be tested during subsequent cooling seasons.

  18. Human location and recognition for intelligent air conditioners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bing; Li, Ke; Weng, Fei; Liu, Yuncai

    2010-08-01

    Through analyzing the low resolution video captured by a single camera fixed on the air condition, this paper proposes an approach that can automatically estimate the person's location and recognize the person's identification in real time. Human location can be obtained by smart geometry calculation with the knowledge of the camera intrinsic parameters and living experience. Human recognition has been found to be very difficult in reality, especially when the person is walking at a distance in the complexity indoor conditions. For optimal performance, we use the shape feature gait energy image (GEI) as the basis, since it isn't sensitive the noise. Then we extract more efficient features using the histograms of oriented gradients (HOG) and do the dimensionality reduction by the coupled subspaces analysis and discriminant analysis with tensor representation (CSA+DATER), Finally the classical Bayesian Theory is used for fusion of the result of HOG and the result of CSA+DATER. The proposed approach is tested on our lab database to evaluate the performance of the human location and recognition. To verify the robust of our human recognition approach especially, CMU MoBo gait database is used. Experimental results show that the proposed approach has a high accuracy rate in both human identification recognition and location estimation.

  19. Isolation and characterization of Acanthamoeba spp. from air-conditioners in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Li-Li; Mak, Joon-Wah; Low, Yoon-Tong; Koh, Thuan-Tzen; Ithoi, Init; Mohamed, Shar Mariam

    2011-01-01

    During a study on the quality of the indoor environment, Acanthamoeba spp. were detected in 20 out of 87 dust samples collected from air-conditioners installed in a four-story campus building located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Twenty-one cloned Acanthamoeba isolates designated as IMU1 to IMU21 were established from the positive primary cultures. Five species were identified from the 16 isolates according to the morphological criteria of Pussard and Pons; i.e. A. castellanii, A. culbertsoni, A. griffini, A. hatchetti and A. polyphaga. Species identities for the remaining five isolates (IMU4, IMU5, IMU15, IMU20 and IMU21), however, could not be determined morphologically. At genotypic characterization, these isolates were placed into T3 (IMU14); T5 (IMU16 and IMU17) and T4 (all the remaining isolates). To predict the potential pathogenicity of these Acanthamoeba isolates, thermo- and osmotolerance tests were employed; many isolates were predicted as potential human pathogens based on the outcome of these tests. This is the first time potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba have been isolated from air-conditioners in Malaysia.

  20. Effects of Air Conditioner Use on Real-World Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H; Thomas, John F

    2013-01-01

    Vehicle data were acquired on-road and on a chassis dynamometer to assess fuel consumption under several steady cruise conditions and at idle. Data were gathered for various air conditioner (A/C) settings and with the A/C off and the windows open. Two vehicles were used in the comparisonstudy: a 2009 Ford Explorer and a 2009 Toyota Corolla. At steady speeds between 64.4 and 112.7 kph (40 and 70 mph), both vehicles consumed more fuel with the A/C on at maximum cooling load (compressor at 100% duty cycle) than when driving with the windows down. The Explorer maintained this trend beyond 112.7 kph (70 mph), while the Corolla fuel consumption with the windows down matched that of running the A/C at 120.7 kph (75 mph), and exceeded it at 128.7 kph (80 mph). The largest incremental fuel consumption rate penalty due to air conditioner use occurred was nearly constant with a weakslight trend of increasing consumption with increasing compressor (and vehicle) speed. Lower consumption is seenobserved at idle for both vehicles, likely due to the low compressor speed at this operating point

  1. A Proposal for the Time Domain Modeling of Split Air Conditioners for Consumer Reimbursement Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezende, Paulo Henrique Oliveira; Almeida Junior, Afonso Bernardino; Gondim, Isaque Nogueira; Oliveira, José Carlos

    2015-04-01

    This paper deals with computer application procedures for the evaluation of the causal consistency between anomalous phenomena manifested in electrical networks, along with the physical damage associated with electrical equipment and possible reimbursement requests. The focus is on the development of an air conditioner appliance model of the type known as split founded upon a representation, in the time domain, in accordance with the Alternative Transients Program (ATP) simulator requirements. This approach permits investigations concerning the performance of the product when submitted to ideal and non-ideal supply conditions. Once the equipment model is implemented in the program, a set of investigative studies are carried out to show the device performance under specific energy quality disturbance conditions. In addition, there are still the results for the validation of the process established through the correlation between computational performance of the air conditioner with corresponding studies carried out experimentally, which are presented herein. Moreover, once the effectiveness of the developed model is verified, it is implemented into the Requests for Reimbursement Software. Investigations related to the correlation between disturbances and the levels of thermal and dielectric tolerance are then performed aiming at illustrating the use of the research results for the reimbursement analyzes purposes.

  2. Energy Impacts of Oversized Residential Air Conditioners -- Simulation Study of Retrofit Sequence Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Booten, C.; Christensen, C.; Winkler, J.

    2014-11-01

    This research addresses the question of what are the energy consequences for oversizing of an air conditioner in a home. Conventional wisdom holds that oversizing the AC results in significant energy penalties. However, the reason for this was shown to be due to crankcase heaters and not due to cycling performance of the AC, and is only valid for a particular set of assumptions. Adding or removing individual characteristics, such as ducts or crankcase heaters, can have measurable impacts on energy use. However, with all other home characteristics held constant, oversizing the AC generally has a small effect on cooling energy use, even if the cycling performance of the unit is poor. The relevant aspects of air conditioner modeling are discussed to illustrate the effects of the cycling loss coefficient, Cd, capacity, climate, ducts and parasitic losses such as crankcase heaters. A case study of a typical 1960's vintage home demonstrates results in the context of whole building simulations using EnergyPlus.

  3. Experimental Determination of Demand Response Control Models and Cost of Control for Ensembles of Window-Mount Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, Drew Adam; Backhaus, Scott N.

    2016-09-29

    Control of consumer electrical devices for providing electrical grid services is expanding in both the scope and the diversity of loads that are engaged in control, but there are few experimentally-based models of these devices suitable for control designs and for assessing the cost of control. A laboratory-scale test system is developed to experimentally evaluate the use of a simple window-mount air conditioner for electrical grid regulation services. The experimental test bed is a single, isolated air conditioner embedded in a test system that both emulates the thermodynamics of an air conditioned room and also isolates the air conditioner from the real-world external environmental and human variables that perturb the careful measurements required to capture a model that fully characterizes both the control response functions and the cost of control. The control response functions and cost of control are measured using harmonic perturbation of the temperature set point and a test protocol that further isolates the air conditioner from low frequency environmental variability.

  4. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner: Economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The results of investigations aimed at the development of cost models to be used in the economic assessment of Rankine-powered air conditioning systems for residential application are summarized. The rationale used in the development of the cost model was to: (1) collect cost data on complete systems and on the major equipment used in these systems; (2) reduce these data and establish relationships between cost and other engineering parameters such as weight, size, power level, etc; and (3) derive simple correlations from which cost-to-the-user can be calculated from performance requirements. The equipment considered in the survey included heat exchangers, fans, motors, and turbocompressors. This kind of hardware represents more than 2/3 of the total cost of conventional air conditioners.

  5. Energy savings and economics of advanced control strategies for packaged air conditioners with gas heat

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the potential energy savings from adding advanced control to existing packaged air conditioners. Advanced control options include air-side economizer, multi-speed fan control, demand control ventilation and staged cooling. The energy and cost savings from the different control strategies individually and in combination are estimated using the EnergyPlus detailed energy simulation program for four building types, namely, a small office building, a stand-alone retail building, a strip mall building and a supermarket building. For each of the four building types, the simulation was run for 16 locations covering all 15 climate zones in the U.S. The maximum installed cost of a replacement controller that provides acceptable payback periods to owners is estimated.

  6. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room...

  8. 10 CFR 431.96 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial air conditioners and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section will be used. Energy Efficiency Standards ... efficiency of commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. 431.96 Section 431.96 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. F...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. F...

  11. Effect of central ventilation and air conditioner system on the concentration and health risk from airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jinze; Zhu, Lizhong

    2013-03-01

    Central ventilation and air conditioner systems are widely utilized nowadays in public places for air exchange and temperature control, which significantly influences the transfer of pollutants between indoors and outdoors. To study the effect of central ventilation and air conditioner systems on the concentration and health risk from airborne pollutants, a spatial and temporal survey was carried out using polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as agent pollutants. During the period when the central ventilation system operated without air conditioning (AC-off period), concentrations of 2-4 ring PAHs in the model supermarket were dominated by outdoor levels, due to the good linearity between indoor air and outdoor air (r(p) > 0.769, p < 0.05), and the slopes (1.2-4.54) indicated that ventilating like the model supermarket increased the potential health risks from low molecular weight PAHs. During the period when the central ventilation and air conditioner systems were working simultaneously (AC-on period), although the total levels of PAHs were increased, the concentrations and percentage of the particulate PAHs indoors declined significantly. The BaP equivalency (BaPeq) concentration indicated that utilization of air conditioning reduced the health risks from PAHs in the model supermarket.

  12. Life-cycle cost and payback period analysis for commercial unitary air conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenquist, Greg; Coughlin, Katie; Dale, Larry; McMahon, James; Meyers, Steve

    2004-03-31

    This report describes an analysis of the economic impacts of possible energy efficiency standards for commercial unitary air conditioners and heat pumps on individual customers in terms of two metrics: life-cycle cost (LCC) and payback period (PBP). For each of the two equipment classes considered, the 11.5 EER provides the largest mean LCC savings. The results show how the savings vary among customers facing different electricity prices and other conditions. At 11.5 EER, at least 80% of the users achieve a positive LCC savings. At 12.0 EER, the maximum efficiency analyzed, mean LCC savings are lower but still positive. For the {ge} $65,000 Btu/h to <135,000 Btu/h equipment class, 59% of users achieve a positive LCC savings. For the $135,000 Btu/h to <240,000 Btu/h equipment class, 91% of users achieve a positive LCC savings.

  13. Modeling of a second-generation solar-driven Rankine air conditioner. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Denius, M.W.; Batton, W.D.

    1984-07-01

    Ten configurations of a second-generation (2G), solar-powered, Rankine-driven air conditioner were simulated and the data presented for use in companion studies. The results of the analysis show that the boiling-in-collector (BIC) configuration generates more power per collector area than the other configurations. The models used to simulate the configuration are presented in this report. The generated data are also presented. Experimental work was done under this study to both improve a novel refrigerant and oil lubrication system for the centrifugal compressor and investigate the aerodynamic unloading characteristics of the centrifugal compressor. The information generated was used to define possible turbo-gearbox configurations for use in the second generation computer simulation.

  14. Particulate matter concentrations in residences: an intervention study evaluating stand-alone filters and air conditioners

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, S.; Du, L.; Mentz, G.; Mukherjee, B.; Parker, E.; Godwin, C.; Chin, J.-Y.; O'Toole, A.; Robins, T.; Rowe, Z.; Lewis, T.

    2014-01-01

    This study, a randomized controlled trial, evaluated the effectiveness of free-standing air filters and window air conditioners (ACs) in 126 low-income households of children with asthma. Households were randomized into a control group, a group receiving a free-standing HEPA filter placed in the child's sleeping area, and a group receiving the filter and a window-mounted AC. Indoor air quality (IAQ) was monitored for week-long periods over three to four seasons. High concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and carbon dioxide were frequently seen. When IAQ was monitored, filters reduced PM levels in the child's bedroom by an average of 50%. Filter use varied greatly among households and declined over time, for example, during weeks when pollutants were monitored, filter use was initially high, averaging 84 ± 27%, but dropped to 63 ± 33% in subsequent seasons. In months when households were not visited, use averaged only 34 ± 30%. Filter effectiveness did not vary in homes with central or room ACs. The study shows that measurements over multiple seasons are needed to characterize air quality and filter performance. The effectiveness of interventions using free-standing air filters depends on occupant behavior, and strategies to ensure filter use should be an integral part of interventions. PMID:22145709

  15. Evaluation of malodor for automobile air conditioner evaporator by using laboratory-scale test cooling bench.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Sun Hwa; Jung, Young Rim; Kim, Man Goo

    2008-09-12

    As one of the measures to improve the environment in an automobile, malodor caused by the automobile air-conditioning system evaporator was evaluated and analyzed using laboratory-scale test cooling bench. The odor was simulated with an evaporator test cooling bench equipped with an airflow controller, air temperature and relative humidity controller. To simulate the same odor characteristics that occur from automobiles, one previously used automobile air conditioner evaporator associated with unpleasant odors was selected. The odor was evaluated by trained panels and collected with aluminum polyester bags. Collected samples were analyzed by thermal desorption into a cryotrap and subsequent gas chromatographic separation, followed by simultaneous olfactometry, flame ionization detector and identified by atomic emission detection and mass spectrometry. Compounds such as alcohols, aldehydes, and organic acids were identified as responsible odor-active compounds. Gas chromatography/flame ionization detection/olfactometry combined sensory method with instrumental analysis was very effective as an odor evaluation method in an automobile air-conditioning system evaporator.

  16. Performance analysis of the electric vehicle air conditioner by replacing hydrocarbon refrigerant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoso, Budi; Tjahjana, D. D. D. P.

    2017-01-01

    The thermal comfort in passenger cabins needs an automotive air-conditioning system. The electric vehicle air conditioner system is driven by an electric compressor which includes a compressor and an electric motor. Almost air-conditioning system uses CFC-12, CFC-22 and HFC-134a as refrigerant. However, CFC-12 and CFC-22 will damage the ozone layer. The extreme huge global warming potentials (GWP) values of CFC-12, CFC-22, and HFC-134a represent the serious greenhouse effect of Earth. This article shows new experimental measurements and analysis by using a mixture of HC-134 to replace HFC-134a. The result is a refrigerating effect, the coefficient of performance and energy factor increase along with cooling capacity, both for HFC-134a and HC-134. The refrigerating effect of HC-134 is almost twice higher than HFC-134a. The coefficient of performance value of HC-134 is also 36.42% greater than HFC-134a. Then, the energy factor value of HC-134 is 3.78% greater than HFC-134a.

  17. 10 CFR 431.92 - Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... water, or gas, but may not include reverse cycle refrigeration as a heating means. Single package... measurement. Commercial package air-conditioning and heating equipment means air-cooled, water-cooled, evaporatively-cooled, or water source (not including ground water source) electrically operated, unitary...

  18. Field evaluation of advanced controls for the retrofit of packaged air conditioners and heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2015-09-01

    This paper documents the magnitude of energy savings achievable in the field by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop units (RTUs) with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for RTUs. A total of 66 RTUs on 8 different buildings were retrofitted with a commercially available advanced controller for improving RTU operational efficiency. The controller features enhanced air-side economizer control, multi-speed fan control, and demand controlled ventilation. Of the 66 RTUs, 18 are packaged heat pumps and the rest are packaged air conditioners with gas heat. The eight buildings cover four building types and four climate conditions. Based on the data collected for about a whole year, the advanced controller reduced the normalized annual RTU energy consumption between 22% and 90%, with an average of 57% for all RTUs. The average fractional savings uncertainty was 12% at 95% confidence level. Normalized annual electricity savings were in the range between 0.47 kWh/h (kWh per hour of RTU operation) and 7.21 kWh/h, with an average of 2.39 kWh/h. RTUs greater than 53 kW and runtime greater than 14 hours per day had payback periods less than 3 years even at $0.05/kWh.

  19. Flow control of a centrifugal fan in a commercial air conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jiyu; Bang, Kyeongtae; Choi, Haecheon; Seo, Eung Ryeol; Kang, Yonghun

    2015-11-01

    Air-conditioning fans require a low noise level to provide user comfort and quietness. The aerodynamic noise sources are generated by highly unsteady, turbulent structures near the fan blade. In this study, we investigate the flow characteristics of a centrifugal fan in an air-conditioner indoor unit and suggest control ideas to develop a low noise fan. The experiment is conducted at the operation condition where the Reynolds number is 163000 based on the blade tip velocity and chord length. Intermittent separation occurs at the blade leading edge and thus flow significantly fluctuates there, whereas vortex shedding occurs at the blade trailing edge. Furthermore, the discharge flow observed in the axial plane near the shroud shows low-frequency intermittent behaviors, resulting in high Reynolds stresses. To control these flow structures, we modify the shapes of the blade leading edge and shroud of the centrifugal fan and obtain noise reduction. The flow characteristics of the base and modified fans will be discussed. Supported by 0420-20130051.

  20. Performance Improvement of R 410A Room Air Conditioner by Vapor Injection Refrigeration Cycle Using Scroll Compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Hiroo; Daisaka, Hisashi; Yokoyama, Hidenori; Nonaka, Masayuki; Saito, Kiyoshi

    The vapor injection refrigeration cycle using the scroll compressor driven by inverter was investigated to improve the performance of room air conditioner with R 410A. One injection hole was bored on a fixed scroll plate, and through this hole the vapor refrigeration is injected into two compression rooms of a scroll compressor at different time. Then the pressure change of the compression room and the performance of vapor injection refrigeration cycle are calculated. And the performance of the room air conditioner using vapor injection refrigeration cycle was measured. As the result, the cooling/heating compressor input was decreased to 7.4/3.2 % at capacity 4.0/5.9 kW, and the heating capacity at outdoor temperature -15 °C was increased to 11.9 %.

  1. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Rooftop Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Shrestha, Som S.; Shen, Bo; Linkous, Randall Lee; Goetzler, William; Guernsey, Matt; Bargach, Youssef

    2016-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for Low-Global Warming Potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants relative to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in packaged or Rooftop Unit (RTU) air conditioners under high-ambient-temperature conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerants selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.

  2. Progress towards Managing Residential Electricity Demand: Impacts of Standards and Labeling for Refrigerators and Air Conditioners in India

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

    2009-05-30

    The development of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling (EES&L) began in earnest in India in 2001 with the Energy Conservation Act and the establishment of the Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE). The first main residential appliance to be targeted was refrigerators, soon to be followed by room air conditioners. Both of these appliances are of critical importance to India's residential electricity demand. About 15percent of Indian households own a refrigerator, and sales total about 4 million per year, but are growing. At the same time, the Indian refrigerator market has seen a strong trend towards larger and more consumptive frost-free units. Room air conditioners in India have traditionally been sold to commercial sector customers, but an increasing number are going to the residential sector. Room air conditioner sales growth in India peaked in the last few years at 20percent per year. In this paper, we perform an engineering-based analysis using data specific to Indian appliances. We evaluate costs and benefits to residential and commercial sector consumers from increased equipment costs and utility bill savings. The analysis finds that, while the BEE scheme presents net benefits to consumers, there remain opportunities for efficiency improvement that would optimize consumer benefits, according to Life Cycle Cost analysis. Due to the large and growing market for refrigerators and air conditioners in India, we forecast large impacts from the standards and labeling program as scheduled. By 2030, this program, if fully implemented would reduce Indian residential electricity consumption by 55 TWh. Overall savings through 2030 totals 385 TWh. Finally, while efficiency levels have been set for several years for refrigerators, labels and MEPS for these products remain voluntary. We therefore consider the negative impact of this delay of implementation to energy and financial savings achievable by 2030.

  3. Cooling the Planet: Opportunities for Deployment of Superefficient Room Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Nihar; Waide, Paul; Phadke, Amol

    2013-04-01

    This report presents the results of an analysis, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy, of Air Conditioner (AC) efficiency in support of the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) initiative.1 The International Energy Studies group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in collaboration with Navigant Consulting Inc. performed the analysis. SEAD aims to transform the global market by increasing the penetration of highly efficient equipment and appliances. SEAD partners work together in voluntary activities to: (1) “raise the efficiency ceiling” by pulling superefficient appliances and equipment into the market through cooperation on measures like incentives, procurement, awards, and research and development (R&D) investments; (2) “raise the efficiency floor” by working together to bolster national or regional policies like minimum efficiency standards; and (3) “strengthen the efficiency foundations” of programs by coordinating technical work to support these activities.2 The objective of this analysis is to provide the background technical information necessary to improve the efficiency of ACs and to provide a foundation for the activities of SEAD participating countries. We find that even the best currently available technology offers large efficiency improvement opportunities (35% to 50% reduction in energy consumption from the market average) in most SEAD countries. The cost effective efficiency improvements range from 20% to 30% reduction in energy consumption based on a consumer perspective.

  4. The System Impact of Air-Conditioner Under-voltage Protection Schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning; Yang, Bo; Huang, Zhenyu; Bravo, Richard

    2009-03-31

    This paper presents simulation results of evaluating an under-voltage protection scheme designed to take stalled air-conditioner (a/c) units offline such that the slow voltage recovery phenomena can be solved on areas heavily loaded with a/c motors during summer peak periods. A three feeder test-bed has been first used to quantify the effectiveness of the protection scheme and the sensitivity of the under-voltage relay settings. Then two real system events of the Western US power grid have been studied to evaluate the area impact of the protection scheme proposed by Southern California Edison. The study demonstrates that by taking all or most of the stalled a/c unit offline, the feeder voltage will recover in a few seconds, much quicker than the tens of seconds that the standard thermal relays imbedded in the motors need to trip the units. The drawback of the control scheme is that after the voltage recover, it settled at a higher voltage than before the faults because a large chuck of load has been shed.

  5. Performance characteristics of a turbo expander substituted for expansion valve on air-conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Soo-Yong; Cho, Chong-Hyun; Kim, Chaesil

    2008-09-15

    An experimental study is conducted on a small turbo expander which could be applied to the expansion process in place of expansion valves in refrigerator or air-conditioner to improve the cycle efficiency by recovering energy from the throttling process. The operating gas is HFC134a and the maximum cooling capacity of experiment apparatus is 32.7 kW. Four different turbo expanders are tested to find the performance characteristics of the turbo expander when they operate at a low partial admission rate. The partial admission rate is 1.70% or 2.37, and expanders are operated in the supersonic flow. In the experiment, pressure and temperature are measured at 10 different locations in the experimental apparatus. In addition to these measurements, output power at the turbo expander is measured through a generator installed on a rotor shaft with the rotational speed. Performance data of the turbo expander are obtained at many part load operations by adjusting the output power of the generator. A maximum of 15.8% total-to-static efficiency is obtained when the pressure ratio and the partial admission ratio are 2.37 and 1.70%, respectively. Experimental results show that the optimal velocity ratio decreases when the pressure ratio is decreased, and peak efficiencies, which are obtained at locally maximized efficiency depending on the operating condition, vary linearly against the subcooling temperature or the pressure ratio. (author)

  6. Incidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in central air conditioner filter dust from a new office building.

    PubMed

    Ni, Hong-Gang; Cao, Shan-Ping; Chang, Wen-Jing; Zeng, Hui

    2011-07-01

    This study examined polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in central air conditioner filter (CACF) dust from a new office building in Shenzhen, China. Human exposure to PBDE via dust inhalation and ingestion were also estimated. PBDEs level in CACF dust was lower than those in the other countries and regions. Approximately 0.671 pg/kg bw/day PM(2.5) (Particulate Matter up to 2.5 μm in size) bounded Σ(15)PBDEs can be inhaled deep into the lungs and 4.123 pg/kg bw/day PM(10) (Particulate Matter up to 10 μm in size) bounded Σ(15)PBDEs tend to be deposited in the upper parts of the respiratory system. The average total intake of Σ(15)PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion for adults reached ∼ 141 pg/kg bw/day in this building. This value was far below the reference dose (RfD) recommended by United States Environmental Protection Agency. Human exposure to PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion in the new building is less than the old ones. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions for refrigerant choices in room air conditioner units.

    PubMed

    Galka, Michael D; Lownsbury, James M; Blowers, Paul

    2012-12-04

    In this work, potential replacement refrigerants for window-mounted room air conditioners (RACs) in the U.S. have been evaluated using a greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions analysis. CO(2)-equivalent emissions for several hydrofluoroethers (HFEs) and other potential replacements were compared to the most widely used refrigerants today. Included in this comparison are pure refrigerants that make up a number of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) mixtures, pure hydrocarbons, and historically used refrigerants such as propane and ammonia. GHG emissions from direct and indirect sources were considered in this thermodynamic analysis. Propylene, dimethyl ether, ammonia, R-152a, propane, and HFE-152a all performed effectively in a 1 ton window unit and produced slightly lower emissions than the currently used R-22 and R-134a. The results suggest that regulation of HFCs in this application would have some effect on reducing emissions since end-of-life emissions remain at 55% of total refrigerant charge despite EPA regulations that mandate 80% recovery. Even so, offsite emissions due to energy generation dominate over direct GHG emissions and all the refrigerants perform similarly in totals of indirect GHG emissions.

  8. Using Field-Metered Data to Quantify Annual Energy Use of Portable Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, Thomas; Willem, Henry; Ni, Chun Chun; Stratton, Hannah; Chen, Yuting; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Iyer, Maithili; Price, Sarah; Dunham, Camilla

    2014-12-12

    As many regions of the United States experience rising temperatures, consumers have come to rely increasingly on cooling appliances (including portable air conditioners) to provide a comfortable indoor temperature. Home occupants sometimes use a portable air conditioner (PAC) to maintain a desired indoor temperature in a single room or enclosed space. Although PACs in residential use are few compared to centrally installed and room air conditioning (AC) units, the past few years have witnessed an increase of PACs use throughout the United States. There is, however, little information and few research projects focused on the energy consumption and performance of PACs, particularly studies that collect information from field applications of PACs. The operation and energy consumption of PACs may differ among geographic locations and households, because of variations in cooling load, frequency, duration of use, and other user-selected settings. In addition, the performance of building envelope (thermal mass and air leakage) as well as inter-zonal mixing within the building would substantially influence the ability to control and maintain desirable indoor thermal conditions. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted an initial field-metering study aimed at increasing the knowledge and data related to PAC operation and energy consumption in the United States. LBNL performed its field-metering study from mid-April to late October 2014. The study, which monitored 19 sites in the Northeastern United States (4 in upstate New York and 15 near Philadelphia), collected real-time data on PAC energy consumption along with information regarding housing characteristics, consumer behavior, and environmental conditions that were expected to affect PAC performance. Given the limited number of test sites, this study was not intended to be statistically representative of PAC users in the United States but rather to understand the system response to the cooling demand and to

  9. Performance Optimization of Alternative Lower Global Warming Potential Refrigerants in Mini-Split Room Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Abdelaziz, Omar; Shrestha, Som S

    2017-01-01

    Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) recently conducted extensive laboratory, drop-in investigations for lower Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerants to replace R-22 and R-410A. ORNL studied propane, DR-3, ARM-20B, N-20B and R-444B as lower GWP refrigerant replacement for R-22 in a mini-split room air conditioner (RAC) originally designed for R-22; and, R-32, DR-55, ARM-71A, and L41-2, in a mini-split RAC designed for R-410A. We obtained laboratory testing results with very good energy balance and nominal measurement uncertainty. Drop-in studies are not enough to judge the overall performance of the alternative refrigerants since their thermodynamic and transport properties might favor different heat exchanger configurations, e.g. cross-flow, counter flow, etc. This study compares optimized performances of individual refrigerants using a physics-based system model tools. The DOE/ORNL Heat Pump Design Model (HPDM) was used to model the mini-split RACs by inputting detailed heat exchangers geometries, compressor displacement and efficiencies as well as other relevant system components. The RAC models were calibrated against the lab data for each individual refrigerant. The calibrated models were then used to conduct a design optimization for the cooling performance by varying the compressor displacement to match the required capacity, and changing the number of circuits, refrigerant flow direction, tube diameters, air flow rates in the condenser and evaporator at 100% and 50% cooling capacities. This paper compares the optimized performance results for all alternative refrigerants and highlights best candidates for R-22 and R-410A replacement.

  10. Air Conditioner Charging. Automotive Mechanics. Air Conditioning. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spignesi, B.

    This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on automobile air conditioning, consists of a student guide and an instructor guide dealing with air conditioning charging. Covered in the module are checking the air conditioning system for leaks, checking and adding refrigerant oil as needed, evacuating the system,…

  11. Air Conditioner Charging. Automotive Mechanics. Air Conditioning. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spignesi, B.

    This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on automobile air conditioning, consists of a student guide and an instructor guide dealing with air conditioning charging. Covered in the module are checking the air conditioning system for leaks, checking and adding refrigerant oil as needed, evacuating the system,…

  12. China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Pierrot, Andre

    2010-06-07

    of all countries energy strategies. As we all know, a very large amount of total energy consumption is due to energy consuming products and equipment, which account for about 50% of China's total energy consumption. However, the current average energy utilization efficiency of this sector is only about 60%, 10 percent lower than the international advanced level. Therefore, China's energy consuming products and equipment sector holds great energy-saving potential. On the other hand, the energy supplied to these products is mainly from fossil fuel combustion, a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Therefore, improving the energy efficiency and augmenting the market share of market-dominant energy consuming products is of significant importance to achieving China's energy saving and emission reduction target and is an effective means to deal with energy and environmental constraints and climate change issues. Main energy consuming products generally include widely-used home appliances, industrial equipment, office equipment, transportation vehicles, etc. China is one of the major manufacturers and exporters of energy end-using products such as air-conditioners, refrigerators, televisions, etc. Their overall energy efficiency is comparatively low and the products are poorly designed, leading to great energy-saving potential. For example, electricity consumption of air conditioners accounts for about 20% of China's total electricity consumption and 40% of the summer electricity peak load in large and medium cities. However, less than 5% of units sold in the domestic market in 2009 reached the standard's highly efficient level of grade 2 above. The electricity consumption of electric motors and their related drive systems accounts for about 60% of China's total electricity consumption; however, less than 2% of the domestic market share consists of energy-efficient electric motor products. Promoting the energy efficiency and market shares of main energy

  13. Flow, stock, and impact assessment of refrigerants in the Japanese household air conditioner sector.

    PubMed

    Xue, Mianqiang; Kojima, Naoya; Machimura, Takashi; Tokai, Akihiro

    2017-05-15

    Refrigerants provide society with great benefits while have the potential to cause adverse effects on the environment and human health. The present study estimated time-dependent flows and stocks and assessed the effects of refrigerants (R-22, R-410a, and R-32) in household air conditioners in Japan. It was found that stock of R-22 and R-410a peaked at 49,147t in 2000 and 55,994t in 2017, respectively. The largest flow of R-22 and R-410a to waste phase occurred at 3417t/yr. in 2005 and 4011t/yr. in 2023, respectively. The total global warming potential (GWP) due to refrigerant emissions increased from 3.6kt CO2 eq. in 1952 to 6999kt CO2 eq. in 2019, and then decreased to 5314kt CO2 eq. in 2030. The ozone depletion potential (ODP) peaked at 141t CFC-11 eq. in 2002. When substituting R-410a for R-22, the ODP decreased 50% while the GDP increased 8%. When substituting R-32 for R-410a, there was no effect on the ODP while the GDP decreased 6%. The human health damage due to the global warming effect of refrigerant emission was much higher than that due to the ozone depleting effect. The refrigerant emission in use and waste management phases dominated the human health damage. The dynamic estimation not only allows us to evaluate the performance of past policies but also supports the future sustainable management associated with the health effects of refrigerants.

  14. Future emissions and atmospheric fate of HFC-1234yf from mobile air conditioners in Europe.

    PubMed

    Henne, Stephan; Shallcross, Dudley E; Reimann, Stefan; Xiao, Ping; Brunner, Dominik; O'Doherty, Simon; Buchmann, Brigitte

    2012-02-07

    HFC-1234yf (2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene) is under discussion for replacing HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) as a cooling agent in mobile air conditioners (MACs) in the European vehicle fleet. Some HFC-1234yf will be released into the atmosphere, where it is almost completely transformed to the persistent trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). Future emissions of HFC-1234yf after a complete conversion of the European vehicle fleet were assessed. Taking current day leakage rates and predicted vehicle numbers for the year 2020 into account, European total HFC-1234yf emissions from MACs were predicted to range between 11.0 and 19.2 Gg yr(-1). Resulting TFA deposition rates and rainwater concentrations over Europe were assessed with two Lagrangian chemistry transport models. Mean European summer-time TFA mixing ratios of about 0.15 ppt (high emission scenario) will surpass previously measured levels in background air in Germany and Switzerland by more than a factor of 10. Mean deposition rates (wet + dry) of TFA were estimated to be 0.65-0.76 kg km(-2) yr(-1), with a maxium of ∼2.0 kg km(-2) yr(-1) occurring in Northern Italy. About 30-40% of the European HFC-1234yf emissions were deposited as TFA within Europe, while the remaining fraction was exported toward the Atlantic Ocean, Central Asia, Northern, and Tropical Africa. Largest annual mean TFA concentrations in rainwater were simulated over the Mediterranean and Northern Africa, reaching up to 2500 ng L(-1), while maxima over the continent of about 2000 ng L(-1) occurred in the Czech Republic and Southern Germany. These highest annual mean concentrations are at least 60 times lower than previously determined to be a safe level for the most sensitive aquatic life-forms. Rainwater concentrations during individual rain events would still be 1 order of magnitude lower than the no effect level. To verify these results future occasional sampling of TFA in the atmospheric environment should be considered. If future HFC-1234yf

  15. Experimental analysis of a window air conditioner with a R-22 and R32/R125/R134a mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.; Chen, D.T.; HuangFu, E.P.

    1995-07-01

    Much experimental and theoretical analysis of potential R-22 replacements has been accomplished. However, published information about the experimental analysis of any off-the-shelf air conditioner with a potential R-22 replacement at realistic, operating conditions is still rare. This type of work could be useful because it provides baseline data for comparing the performance of R-22 and its potential replacement at drop-in conditions. In this study, an off-the-shelf window air conditioner was tested at Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI)-rated indoor conditions and at different ambient temperatures, including the ARI-rated outdoor condition, with R-22 and with its potential replacement, a ternary mixture of R-32(30%)/R-125(10%)/R-134a(60%) (the ternary mixture). A test rig was built that provided for baseline operation and for the option of operating the system with a flooded evaporator by means of liquid over-feeding (LOF). The test results indicated the cooling capacity of the ternary mixture was 7.7% less than that of R-22 at 95{degrees}F ambient for baseline operation. The cooling capacity for both refrigerants improved when a flooded evaporator, or LOF, was used. For LOF operation, the cooling capacity of the ternary mixture was only 1.1% less than that of R-22. The ternary mixture had slightly higher compressor discharge pressure, a lower compressor discharge temperature, slightly lower compressor power consumption, and a higher compressor high/low pressure ratio.

  16. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-Conditioning Electricity Savings from Standard Energy Conservation Measures, Radiant Barriers, and High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    A field test involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMs) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The average measured pre-weatherization air-conditioning electricity consumption was 1664 kWh/year ($119/year). Ten percent of the houses used less than 250 kWh/year, while another 10% used more than 3000 kWh/year. An average reduction in air-conditioning electricity consumption of 535 kWh/year ($38/year and 28% of pre-weatherization consumption) was obtained from replacement of one low-efficiency window air conditioner (EER less than 7.0) per house with a high-efficiency unit (EER greater than 9.0). For approximately the same cost, savings tripled to 1503 kWh/year ($107/year and 41% of pre-weatherization consumption) in those houses with initial air-conditioning electricity consumption greater than 2750 kWh/year. For these houses, replacement of a low-efficiency air conditioner with a high-efficiency unit was cost effective using the incremental cost of installing a new unit now rather than later; the average installation cost for these houses under a weatherization program was estimated to be $786. The

  17. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-conditioning electricity savings from standard energy conservation measures, radiant barriers, and high-efficiency window air conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.P.; Levins, W.P.

    1992-08-01

    A field test Involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMS) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) programs directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption should be targeted at clients with high consumption to improve cost effectiveness; (2) replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency units should be considered an option in a weatherization program directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption; (3) ECMs currently being installed under the Oklahoma WAP (chosen based on effectiveness at reducing space-heating energy consumption) should continue to be justified based on their space-heating energy savings potential only; and (4) attic radiant barriers should not be included in the Oklahoma WAP if alternatives with verified savings are available or until further testing demonstrates energy savings or other benefits in this typo of housing.

  18. Study on the complexity pricing game and coordination of the duopoly air conditioner market with disturbance demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Junhai; Xie, Lei

    2016-03-01

    The paper focuses on the dynamic pricing game of the duopoly air conditioner market with disturbance in demand and analyzes the influence of disturbance on the dynamic game system. Considering the demand for products, such as air conditioner, varies with different seasons, we assume three cases based on the condition of disturbance, including growth market (Case 1), declining market (Case 2) and completely random market (Case 3). By analyzing these three cases and making comparison among them, the paper shows that the growth market is more sensitive to the changing parameters such as the adjustment variable and the competitive factor than the declining market. It is more difficult to keep the system stable in a growth market. Although the demand is completely random, the dynamic system can reach a stable state, on condition that the adjustment variable is small enough. The results also indicate that the bullwhip effect between the order quantity and the actual demand is weakened gradually along with the price adjustment.

  19. Technical road testing of the 18,000 BTU air conditioners (vibration profile). Test report, 16-31 May 1990

    SciTech Connect

    McKinnon, R.A.

    1990-06-27

    Two 18,000 BTU (horizontal, compact) air conditioners (A/Cs) were mounted in a standard S-280 shelter in a manner consistent with normal (historical) location and hardware. Upon arrival at U.S. Army Combat Systems Test Activity, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD. (USACSTA), the shelter assembly was loaded on a 2 1/2 ton truck and secured using standard tiedowns and procedures. To produce a worst case (maximum shock and vibration) profile for truck mounted equipment, the shelter was empty except for the installed air conditioners. The truck was not weighted with any additional ballast. The testing was conducted on road courses at the Munson and Perryman test areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground. The vibration and shock environments for the test were derived from discussions between Belvoir R D and E and USACSTA. The various courses represent a wide selection of the severety of possible transport environments that the A/Cs may be subjected to during a normal life cycle. The limited mileage of the conducted testing was not intended to represent the total equivalent wear of life cycle of normal use.

  20. Measurement of Fine Particles From Mobile and Stationary Sources, and Reducing the Air Conditioner Power Consumption in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Eli Henry

    We study the PM2.5and ultrafine exhaust emissions from a new natural gas-fired turbine power facility to better understand air pollution in California. To characterize the emissions from new natural gas turbines, a series of tests were performed on a GE LMS100 gas turbine. These tests included PM2.5 and wet chemical tests for SO2/SO 3 and NH3, as well as ultrafine (less than 100 nm in diameter) particulate matter measurements. The turbine exhaust had an average particle number concentration that was 2.3x103 times higher than ambient air. The majority of these particles were nanoparticles; at the 100 nm size, stack particle concentrations were about 20 times higher than ambient, and increased to 3.9x104 times higher on average in the 2.5 - 3 nm particle size range. This study also found that ammonia emissions were higher than expected, but in compliance with permit conditions. This was possibly due to an ammonia imbalance entering the catalyst, some flue gas bypassing the catalyst, or not enough catalyst volume. SO3 accounted for an average of 23% of the total sulfur oxides emissions measured. Some of the SO3 is formed in the combustion process, it is likely that the majority formed as the SO2 in the combustion products passed across the oxidizing CO catalyst and SCR catalyst. The 100 MW turbine sampled in this study emitted particle loadings similar to those previously measured from turbines in the SCAQMD area, however, the turbine exhaust contained far more particles than ambient air. The power consumed by an air conditioner accounts for a significant fraction of the total power used by hybrid and electric vehicles especially during summer. This study examined the effect of recirculation of cabin air on power consumption of mobile air conditioners both in-lab and on-road. Real time power consumption and vehicle mileage were recorded by an On Board Diagnostic monitor and carbon balance method. Vehicle mileage improved with increased cabin air recirculation. The

  1. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps M Appendix M to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. M Appendix M to Subpart B...

  2. Preliminary design package for residential heating/cooling system: Rankine air conditioner redesign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A summary of the preliminary redesign and development of a marketable single family heating and cooling system is presented. The interim design and schedule status of the residential (3-ton) redesign, problem areas and solutions, and the definition of plans for future design and development activities were discussed. The proposed system for a single-family residential heating and cooling system is a single-loop, solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air heating subsystem with solar-assisted domestic water heating and a Rankine-driven expansion air-conditioning subsystem.

  3. Cardio-Muscular Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In the mid-sixties, Gary Graham, a Boeing designer, developed a cardiovascular conditioner for a planned Air Force orbiting laboratory. After the project was cancelled, Graham participated in space station conditioning studies for the Skylab program. Twenty years later, he used this expertise to develop the Shuttle 2000-1, a physical therapy and athletic development conditioner, available through Contemporary Designs. The machine is used by football teams, sports clinics and medical rehabilitation centers. Cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength development are promoted through both kinetic and plyometric exercises.

  4. Methodology for Automated Detection of Degradation and Faults in Packaged Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Using Only Two Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    2016-02-10

    The software was created in the process of developing a system known as the Smart Monitoring and Diagnostic System (SMDS) for packaged air conditioners and heat pumps used on commercial buildings (known as RTUs). The SMDS provides automated remote monitoring and detection of performance degradation and faults in these RTUs and could increase the awareness by building owners and maintenance providers of the condition of the equipment, the cost of operating it in degraded condition, and the quality of maintenance and repair service when it is performed. The SMDS provides these capabilities and would enable conditioned-based maintenance rather than the reactive and schedule-based preventive maintenance commonly used today, when maintenance of RTUs is done at all. Improved maintenance would help ensure persistent peak operating efficiencies, reducing energy consumption by an estimated 10% to 30%.

  5. Influence of surrounding structures upon the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of the outdoor unit of a split air-conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chengjun; Liu, Jiang; Pan, Jie

    2014-07-01

    DC-inverter split air-conditioner is widely used in Chinese homes as a result of its high-efficiency and energy-saving. Recently, the researches on its outdoor unit have focused on the influence of surrounding structures upon the aerodynamic and acoustic performance, however they are only limited to the influence of a few parameters on the performance, and practical design of the unit requires more detailed parametric analysis. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics(CFD) and computational aerodynamic acoustics(CAA) simulation based on FLUENT solver is used to study the influence of surrounding structures upon the aforementioned properties of the unit. The flow rate and sound pressure level are predicted for different rotating speed, and agree well with the experimental results. The parametric influence of three main surrounding structures(i.e. the heat sink, the bell-mouth type shroud and the outlet grille) upon the aerodynamic performance of the unit is analyzed thoroughly. The results demonstrate that the tip vortex plays a major role in the flow fields near the blade tip and has a great effect on the flow field of the unit. The inlet ring's size and throat's depth of the bell-mouth type shroud, and the through-flow area and configuration of upwind and downwind sections of the outlet grille are the most important factors that affect the aerodynamic performance of the unit. Furthermore, two improved schemes against the existing prototype of the unit are developed, which both can significantly increase the flow rate more than 6 %(i.e. 100 m3·h-1) at given rotating speeds. The inevitable increase of flow noise level when flow rate is increased and the advantage of keeping a lower rotating speed are also discussed. The presented work could be a useful guideline in designing the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of the split air-conditioner in engineering practice.

  6. High-efficiency gas heat pump air-conditioner equipped with absorption refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Ryuichiro; Imai, Kazuya; Nakajima, Hidekazu; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Hihara, Eiji

    To improve rated efficiency and partial load efficiency of gas engine heat pump (GHP), we are developing a new type air-cooled absorption refrigerator which is driven by the engine waste hot water. To shape the compact absorption refrigerator body that was able to be built into the space of a GHP outdoor-unit, an air-cooled sub-cooled adiabatic absorber and flowing liquid film plate type generator were newly developed. Maximum cooling capacity was increased about 20%, rated load COP was increased 40%, and partial load COP was increased 46% or less, as a result of the combination examination of a prototype 8.0kW absorption refrigerator and a 56kW GHP at a laboratory.

  7. Improving Best Air Conditioner Efficiency by 20-30% through a High Efficiency Fan and Diffuser Stage Coupled with an Evaporative Condenser Pre-Cooler

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Danny S; Sherwin, John R; Raustad, Richard

    2014-04-10

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) conducted a research project to improve the best residential air conditioner condenser technology currently available on the market by retrofitting a commercially-available unit with both a high efficiency fan system and an evaporative pre-cooler. The objective was to integrate these two concepts to achieve an ultra-efficient residential air conditioner design. The project produced a working prototype that was 30% more efficient compared to the best currently-available technologies; the peak the energy efficiency ratio (EER) was improved by 41%. Efficiency at the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) standard B-condition which is used to estimate seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER), was raised from a nominal 21 Btu/Wh to 32 Btu/Wh.

  8. Solar Powered Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioner for Low-Electricity Humidity Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    v ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS AAHX air-to-air heat exchanger AC air conditioning AFB Air Force Base AFRL Air Force Research Laboratory...AHU air-handling unit AILR AIL Research ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers Btu British thermal...polyvinyl chloride R&D research and development RH relative humidity W watt yr year Technical material contained in this report has

  9. A cost-effective and fuel-conserving nonelectric air conditioner that combines engine-driven compression and absorption cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, F.

    1988-01-01

    A natural-gas-fueled electricity-producing condensing furnace with the potential of being mass produced at a cost of less than $1000 and providing a cost-effective and highly fuel-conserving alternative to virtually every residential gas furnace in the world has been developed. While this is a new system, it completely consists of existing mass-produced components including single-cylinder air-cooled engines, induction motors/generators, and control devices. Thus, timely commercialization can be expected and an important new energy technology and industry can result. However, all the benefits of this electricity-producing furnace occur during the winter. This has stimulated the search for a new system that can provide comparable benefits in terms of fuel conservation, the environment, and electric utility peak reduction during the summer, along with the prospects of a new and efficient new use for the natural gas surpluses that occur during the summer. The resulting system, which can use existing component equipment, is a commercial-size nonelectric air conditioner that consists of an automobile-type engine converted to natural gas, or possibly a diesel or combustion turbine, driving a Freon compression cycle, with virtually all of the engine reject heat from the exhaust and from the engine cooling system driving a conventional absorption air conditioning cycle.

  10. Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working at high pressures in a compressor for an air conditioner.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul Jin; Choi, Hyo Hyun; Sohn, Chae Hoon

    2011-01-15

    Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working in a compressor for an air conditioner is studied experimentally. The adopted lubricating oil is an unknown mixture with multi-components and known to have flash point temperature of 170 °C. First, its auto-ignition temperature is measured 365 °C at atmospheric pressure. The lubricating oil works under high-pressure condition up to 30 atm and it is heated and cooled down repeatedly. Accordingly, auto-ignition temperatures or flammable limits of lubricating oil are required at high pressures with respect to fire safety. Because there is not a standard test method for the purpose, a new ignition-test method is proposed in this study and thereby, auto-ignition temperatures are measured over the pressure range below 30 atm. The measured temperatures range from 215 °C to 255 °C and they strongly depend on pressure of gas mixture consisting of oil vapor, nitrogen, and oxygen. They are close to flash point temperature and the lubricating oil can be hazardous when it works for high-pressure operating condition and abundant air flows into a compressor.

  11. Experimental Analysis of 3D Flow in Scroll Casing of Multi-Blade Fan for Air-Conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitadume, Michio; Kawahashi, Masaaki; Hirahara, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Tadashi; Yanagawa, Hideki

    The multi-blade fan, which has been widely used as a blower for air-conditioning systems of vehicles, is one of the well-established fluid machinery. However, many factors must be considered in its practical design because the flow generated in the fan is quite complicated with three-dimensionality and unsteadiness. The fundamental fan performance is primarily determined by the impeller of the fan, and is also affected by the scroll casing. However, the theoretical estimation of the effect of the casing on the performance has not been well established. In order to estimate the casing effect on fan performance, detailed three-dimensional (3D) flow analysis in the casing is necessary. Stereoscopic PIV (SPIV) is one of the useful techniques for experimental analysis of 3D flow fields. There are some difficulties in practical application of SPIV for flow analysis in fluid machinery with complicated geometry, but the results obtained provide useful information for understanding the 3D flow field. In this report, experimental investigation of the flow in the scroll casing has been carried out using PIV and SPIV under the premise of downsizing automobile air conditioner fans.

  12. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Shrestha, Som S.; Linkous, Randall Lee; Goetzler, William; Guernsey, Matt; Kassuga, Theo

    2015-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient Temperature Testing Program for Low-GWP Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-Global Warming Potential (low-GWP) alternatives to Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high ambient temperature conditions. This interim working paper describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerants selection process, the test procedures, and the preliminary results.

  13. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Shrestha, Som S.; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Linkous, Randall Lee; Goetzler, William; Guernsey, Matt; Kassuga, Theo

    2015-10-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for low– global warming potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high-ambient-temperature conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerant selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.

  14. Fuel conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, M.L.; Nelson, O.L. Jr.

    1988-06-28

    A fuel conditioner is described comprising 10 to 80% of a polar oxygenated hydrocarbon having an average molecular weight from about 250 to about 500, an acid acid number from about 25 to about 125, and a saponification number from about 30 to about 250; and 5 to 50% of an oxygenated compatibilizing agent having a solubility parameter of from about 8.8 to about 11.5 and moderate to strong hydrogen-bonding capacity.

  15. High-Efficiency Variable Dehumidification for Air Conditioners: ClimaStat

    SciTech Connect

    West, Michael K., Ph.D. P.E.

    2006-04-30

    Advantek has successfully developed the first low-cost technology offering significant improvement in both Seasonal Energy Efficiency (SEER) and comfort & humidity control. A production prototype was constructed based on a commercial roof top package unit. The prototype was operated under a wide range of psychrometric conditions. Test data was analyzed to identify refinements, which were implemented to further improve performance in an iterative procedure that resulted in a fully optimized technology. The latest results show an increase in dehumidification capacity of 56% with ClimaStat™ in full dehumidify mode vs. with ClimaStat™ off. Dehumidification improved by a factor of 1.7 to 1.9 – meaning that the unit can provide nearly twice the water removal per unit of sensible cooling load. Performance testing results have been consistent, verifiable and repeatable. . ClimaStat™ cost-effectively controls humidity on-demand and improves indoor air quality while reducing annual energy costs. Test data clearly shows that ClimaStat™ costs 20% to 60% less to operate. ClimaStat™ is ready for market.

  16. Cost-Benefit of Improving the Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners (Inverter and Fixed Speed) in India

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Nihar; Abhyankar, Nikit; Park, Won Young; Phadke, Amol; Diddi, Saurabh; Ahuja, Deepanshu; Mukherjee, P. K.; Walia, Archana

    2016-06-30

    Improving efficiency of air conditioners (ACs) typically involves improving the efficiency of various components such as compressors, heat exchangers, expansion valves, refrigerant and fans. We estimate the incremental cost of improving the efficiency of room ACs based on the cost of improving the efficiency of its key components. Further, we estimate the retail price increase required to cover the cost of efficiency improvement, compare it with electricity bill savings, and calculate the payback period for consumers to recover the additional price of a more efficient AC. We assess several efficiency levels, two of which are summarized below in the report. The finding that significant efficiency improvement is cost effective from a consumer perspective is robust over a wide range of assumptions. If we assume a 50% higher incremental price compared to our baseline estimate, the payback period for the efficiency level of 3.5 ISEER is 1.1 years. Given the findings of this study, establishing more stringent minimum efficiency performance criteria (one star level) should be evaluated rigorously considering significant benefits to consumers, energy security and environment.

  17. Cost-Benefit of Improving the Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners (Inverter and Fixed Speed) in India

    SciTech Connect

    Phadke, Amol; Shah, Nihar; Abhyankar, Nikit; Park, Won Young; Diddi, Saurabh; Ahuja, Deepanshu; Mukherjee, P. K.; Walia, Archana

    2016-06-01

    Improving efficiency of air conditioners (ACs) typically involves improving the efficiency of various components such as compressors, heat exchangers, expansion valves, refrigerant,and fans. We estimate the incremental cost of improving the efficiency of room ACs based on the cost of improving the efficiency of its key components. Further, we estimate the retail price increase required to cover the cost of efficiency improvement, compare it with electricity bill savings, and calculate the payback period for consumers to recover the additional price of a more efficient AC. The finding that significant efficiency improvement is cost effective from a consumer perspective is robust over a wide range of assumptions. If we assume a 50% higher incremental price compared to our baseline estimate, the payback period for the efficiency level of 3.5 ISEER is 1.1 years. Given the findings of this study, establishing more stringent minimum efficiency performance criteria (one-star level) should be evaluated rigorously considering significant benefits to consumers, energy security, and environment

  18. Resources and Fact Sheets on Servicing Motor Vehicle Air Conditioners (Summary Page)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Page provides links to resources that can assist motor vehicle air-conditioning system technicians in understanding system servicing requirements and best practices, and learn about alternative refrigerants.

  19. 10 CFR 429.16 - Central air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...: ER02MY11.031 (C) For heat pumps, all units of the sample population must be tested in both the cooling and..., the values determined by actual testing must be used to comply with section 323(c) of the Act or to... mover (e.g., furnace, air handler, blower kit), the manufacturer's model number of this ducted air...

  20. Air/Water Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  1. 10 CFR 431.92 - Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... integrated humidifier, temperature, and/or humidity control of the supplied air, and reheating function... refrigerant circuit, with one or more outdoor units, at least one variable-speed compressor or an alternate... refrigerant circuit, with one or more outdoor units, at least one variable-speed compressor or an...

  2. 10 CFR 431.92 - Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... total heating output of a central air-conditioning heat pump during its normal annual usage period for... heat pump (or its produced heating effect, depending on the mode of operation) to its net work input, when both the cooling (or heating) effect and the net work input are expressed in identical units...

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A LINEAR COMPRESSOR FOR AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the design, building, testing, and delivering to the Environmental Protection Agency of a linear compressor for operation in a 3.0- ton (10.5 kW) residential air-conditioning and heat pumping system. The compressor design evolved from a linear resonant piston...

  4. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner. Program review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Progress in the effort to develop a residential solar-powered air conditioning system is reported. The topics covered include the objectives, scope and status of the program. The results of state-of-art, design, and economic studies and component and system data are also presented.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF A LINEAR COMPRESSOR FOR AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the design, building, testing, and delivering to the Environmental Protection Agency of a linear compressor for operation in a 3.0- ton (10.5 kW) residential air-conditioning and heat pumping system. The compressor design evolved from a linear resonant piston...

  6. Micromorphology of pelletized soil conditioners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Florian; Dietrich, Nils; Knoop, Christine; Raab, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Soil conditioners produced by anaerobic digestion and subsequent composting of organic household waste, bear the potential to improve unproductive farmland together with a reduced input risk of unwanted pollutants into the soils. Within the VeNGA project (http://www.biogas-network.de/venga), soil conditioners from anaerobically digested organic household waste are tested for their potential to increase plant growth in glasshouse and field experiments. Because the production techniques of these soil conditioners may influence their physical and chemical behaviour in the soil, two different techniques for pelletizing the soil conditioners where applied. We present findings from a pot experiment with cereal that has been sampled after two months for micromorphological analyses. We visualize the decomposition and the physical behaviour of the soil conditioners. Pellets produced in an agglomeration mixer result in dense balls, that are only slightly decomposed after the trial. But the soil conditioners created under pressure in a screw extruder are rich in voids and have the potential of retaining more soil water.

  7. Cooling efficiency of a spot-type personalized air-conditioner

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Shengwei; Dalgo, Daniel; Srebric, Jelena; ...

    2017-08-01

    Here, this study defined Cooling Efficiency (CE) of a Spot-type Personalized Air-Conditioning (SPAC) device as the ratio of the additional sensible heat removal from human body induced by SPAC and the device's cooling capacity. CE enabled the investigation of SPAC performance on the occupant's sensible heat loss (Qs) and thermal sensation by its quantitative relation with the change of PMV level (ΔPMV). Three round nozzles with the diameter of 0.08 m, 0.105 m, and 0.128 m, respectively, discharged air jets at airflow rates from 11.8 L s–1 to 59.0 L s–1, toward the chest of a seated or standing humanmore » body with a clothing of 0.48 clo. This study developed a validated CFD model coupled with the Fanger's thermoregulation model, to calculate Qs in a room of 26 °C ventilated at a rate of 3 ACH. According to the results, Qs, CE and draft risk (DR) at face had significant positive linear correlation with the SPAC device's supply airflow rates (R2 >0.96), and a negative linear correlation for ΔPMV. With DR = 20% at face, CE was always under 0.3, and ΔPMV was around -1.0–1.1. Interestingly, both CE and ΔPMV had the least favorable values for the air jet produced by the nozzle with the diameter of 0.105 m independent of body posture. In conclusion, although SPAC could lead to additional Qs by sending air at a higher airflow rate from a smaller nozzle, the improvement in cooling efficiency and thermal sensation had a limit due to draft risk.« less

  8. 16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING...

  9. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING...

  10. Properties and Cycle Performance of Refrigerant Blends Operating Near and Above the Refrigerant Critical Point, Task 2: Air Conditioner System Study

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr A. Domanski; W. Vance Payne

    2002-10-31

    The main goal of this project was to investigate and compare the performance of an R410A air conditioner to that of an R22 air conditioner, with specific interest in performance at high ambient temperatures at which the condenser of the R410A system may be operating above the refrigerant's critical point. Part 1 of this project consisted of conducting comprehensive measurements of thermophysical for refrigerant R125 and refrigerant blends R410A and R507A and developing new equation of state formulations and mixture models for predicting thermophysical properties of HFC refrigerant blends. Part 2 of this project conducted performance measurements of split-system, 3-ton R22 and R410A residential air conditioners in the 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C) outdoor temperature range and development of a system performance model. The performance data was used in preparing a beta version of EVAP-COND, a windows-based simulation package for predicting performance of finned-tube evaporators and condensers. The modeling portion of this project also included the formulation of a model for an air-conditioner equipped with a thermal expansion valve (TXV). Capacity and energy efficiency ratio (EER) were measured and compared. The R22 system's performance was measured over the outdoor ambient temperature range of 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C). The same test range was planned for the R410A system. However, the compressor's safety system cut off the compressor at the 135.0 F (57.2 C) test temperature. The highest measurement on this system was at 130.0 F (54.4 C). Subsequently, a custom-manufactured R410A compressor with a disabled safety system and a more powerful motor was installed and performance was measured at outdoor temperatures up to 155.0 F (68.3 C). Both systems had similar capacity and EER performance at 82.0 F (27.8 C). The capacity and EER degradation of both systems were nearly linearly dependent with rising ambient outdoor ambient test temperatures. The performance

  11. High-efficiency gas heat pump air-conditioner equipped with absorption refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Yosuke; Ohashi, Toshinori; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Hihara, Eiji; Kawakami, Ryuichiro

    On conventional gas heat pump(GHP), waste heat from gas engine that uses as driving source is emitted into outside. So from the standpoint of efficient use of waste heat, it is assumed that waste heat from gas engine is used as driving source of absorption chiller, and high temperature condensate refrigerant in GHP is subcooled to middle temperature by cold source from absorption cycle, and as a result, GHP makes more efficiency. However, in equipping GHP with absorption cycle, downsizing and high-efficiency of absorption cycle is required. In this study, air-cooled subcooled adiabatic absorber is focused and physical phenomenon in it is analyzed, and finally one perception of the optimized designing is shown.

  12. Spinning Reserves from Controllable Packaged Through the Wall Air Conditioner (PTAC) Units

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-02

    This report summarizes the feasibility of providing spinning reserves from packaged through the wall air conditioning (PTAC) units. Spinning reserves, together with non-spinning reserves, compose the contingency reserves; the essential resources that the power system operator uses to restore the generation and load balance and maintain bulk power system reliability in the event of a major generation or transmission outage. Spinning reserves are the fastest responding and most expensive reserves. Many responsive load technologies could (and we hope will) be used to provide spinning reserve. It is also easier for many loads (including air conditioning loads) to provide the relatively shorter and less frequent interruptions required to respond to contingencies than it is for them to reduce consumption for an entire peak period. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is conducting research on obtaining spinning reserve from large pumping loads and from residential and small commercial thermostat controlled heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) units. The technology selected for this project, Digi-Log's retrofit PTAC controller, offers significant advantages. To evaluate the availability of spinning reserve capacity from responsive heating and air conditioning loads, ORNL obtained data from a number of units operating over a year at a motel in the TVA service territory. A total of 24 PTAC units in as many rooms were fitted with Digi-Log's supervisory control unit that could be controlled from the motel front desk. Twelve of the rooms formed the group in which the controller was controlled from the hotel front desk only. The remaining twelve rooms were controlled by the occupant and formed the uncontrolled group. This enables us to evaluate the spinning reserve capacity from PTACS that were operating normally and from those under active energy management. A second generation of the Digi-Log controller that will respond quickly enough to provide spinning reserve

  13. Local Voltage Support from Distributed Energy Resources to Prevent Air Conditioner Motor Stalling

    SciTech Connect

    Baone, Chaitanya A; Xu, Yan; Kueck, John D

    2010-01-01

    Microgrid voltage collapse often happens when there is a high percentage of low inertia air-conditioning (AC) motors in the power systems. The stalling of the AC motors results in Fault Induced Delayed Voltage Recovery (FIDVR). A hybrid load model including typical building loads, AC motor loads, and other induction motor loads is built to simulate the motoring stalling phenomena. Furthermore, distributed energy resources (DE) with local voltage support capability are utilized to boost the local bus voltage during a fault, and prevent the motor stalling. The simulation results are presented. The analysis of the simulation results show that local voltage support from multiple DEs can effectively and economically solve the microgrid voltage collapse problem.

  14. A Novel, Low-Cost, Reduced-Sensor Approach for Providing Smart Renote Monitoring and Diagnostics for Packaged Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R.

    2009-09-01

    This report describes conceptually an approach to providing automated remote performance and conditioning monitoring and fault detection for air conditioners and heat pumps that shows great promise to reduce the capital and installation costs of such systems from over $1000 per unit to $200 to $400 per unit. The approach relies on non-intrusive electric load monitoring (NIELM) to enable separation of the power use signals of compressors and fans in the air conditioner or heat pump. Then combining information on the power uses and one or two air temperature measurements, changes in energy efficiency and occurrence of major faults would be detected. By decreasing the number of sensors used from between ten and twenty in current diagnostic monitoring systems to three for the envisaged system, the capital cost of the monitoring system hardware and the cost of labor for installation would be decreased significantly. After describing the problem being addressed and the concept for performance monitoring and fault detection in more detail, the report identifies specific conditions and faults that the proposed method would detect, discusses specific needs for successful use of the NIELM approach, and identifies the major elements in the path from concept to a commercialized monitoring and diagnostic system.

  15. COP improvement of refrigerator/freezers, air-conditioners, and heat pumps using nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westra, Douglas G.

    1993-01-01

    With the February, 1992 announcement by President Bush to move the deadline for outlawing CFC (chloro-fluoro-carbon) refrigerants from the year 2000 to the year 1996, the refrigeration and air-conditioning industries have been accelerating their efforts to find alternative refrigerants. Many of the alternative refrigerants being evaluated require synthetic lubricants, are less efficient, and have toxicity problems. One option to developing new, alternative refrigerants is to combine existing non-CFC refrigerants to form a nonazeotropic mixture, with the concentration optimized for the given application so that system COP (Coefficient Of Performance) may be maintained or even improved. This paper will discuss the dilemma that industry is facing regarding CFC phase-out and the problems associated with CFC alternatives presently under development. A definition of nonazeotropic mixtures will be provided, and the characteristics and COP benefits of nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures will be explained using thermodynamic principles. Limitations and disadvantages of nonazeotropic mixtures will be discussed, and example systems using such mixtures will be reviewed.

  16. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 3, Water heaters, pool heaters, direct heating equipment, and mobile home furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This is Volume 3 in a series of documents on energy efficiency of consumer products. This volume discusses energy efficiency of water heaters. Water heaters are defined by NAECA as products that utilize oil, gas, or electricity to heat potable water for use outside the heater upon demand. These are major appliances, which use a large portion (18% on average) of total energy consumed per household (1). They differ from most other appliances in that they are usually installed in obscure locations as part of the plumbing and are ignored until they fail. Residential water heaters are capable of heating water up to 180{degrees}F, although the setpoints are usually set lower.

  17. Experimental study of a R-407C drop-in test on an off-the-shelf air conditioner with a counter-cross-flow evaporator

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, V.C.; Domitrovic, R.; Chen, F.C.

    1998-03-01

    An off-the-shelf 2-ton window air conditioner having an energy efficiency ratio of 10 was used to perform a drop-in test with R-407C. Laboratory tests were performed using a parallel-cross-flow (PCF) evaporator and a counter-cross-flow (CCF) evaporator. The CCF configuration is designed to take advantage of the temperature glide of R-407C so that the warm evaporator inlet air will be in contact with the higher temperature part of the evaporator coils first. The test results indicated that, at the Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute-rated indoor and outdoor conditions, the cooling capacity was 8% higher and system coefficient of performance about 3.8% higher for the CCF evaporator than for the PCF evaporator. The test results also showed that the latent load for CCF was 30.6% higher than for PCF. The far better dehumidification effect provided by the CCF evaporator design is desirable for areas where the latent load is high. The experimental findings should be useful for future efforts to design a dehumidifier that uses a zeotropic refrigerant that provides a significant temperature glide. R-22 test data from a previous project are included as a reference.

  18. Effect of experimental acid/base conditioner on microtensile bond strength of 4-META/MMA-TBB resin to dentin after long-term water immersion.

    PubMed

    Soeno, Kohyoh; Taira, Yohsuke; Ito, Shuichi

    2012-01-01

    An experimental conditioner (Exp), which was an aqueous solution of 10% ascorbic acid and 5% ferric chloride, was prepared in this study. This study evaluated the effect of Exp on the microtensile bond strength between a self-curing resin and dentin after long-term water immersion. Flat human dentin surfaces were sequentially pretreated with 40% phosphoric acid, 10% sodium hypochlorite, and Exp. Surface pretreatment with an aqueous solution of 10% citric and 3% ferric chloride (10-3) was used as a control. Composite resin rods were bonded to pretreated dentin surfaces using 4-META/MMA-TBB resin. Microtensile bond strengths were evaluated after water immersion at 24 h, 12 months, 24 months, and 36 months. At each immersion period, the bond strength of Exp was significantly higher than that of 10-3. After 36 months, Exp showed no significant decrease in microtensile bond strength, but 10-3 showed significant reductions. Pretreatment with experimental acid/base conditioner markedly improved the bonding durability of 4-META/MMA-TBB resin to human dentin when compared against the conventional 10-3 treatment.

  19. Synergistic effect of water content and composite conditioner of Fenton's reagent combined with red mud on the enhanced hydrogen production from sludge pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiakuan; Song, Jian; Liang, Sha; Guan, Ruonan; Shi, Yafei; Yu, Wenbo; Zhu, Suiyi; Fan, Wei; Hou, Huijie; Hu, Jingping; Deng, Huali; Xiao, Bo

    2017-10-15

    This study investigated the synergistic effect of water content and a composite conditioner of Fenton's reagent combined with red mud (Fenton-RM) on the pyrolytic products (fuel gas, tar, and solid char) of deep-dewatered sludge. The catalytic effect of metal oxides in Fenton-RM could be promoted by the presence of water during sludge pyrolysis, showing higher gas yield with increased water content. Maximum gas outputs of the deep-dewatered sludge conditioned with Fenton-RM (S-Fenton-RM) and the conventional dewatered sludge conditioned with polyacrylamide (S-PAM), both appeared at 900 °C with a water content of 65 wt%, and were 0.257 and 0.189 L/g dry solid (DS), respectively. At the same temperature and with the same water content, the hydrogen (H2) yields of the S-Fenton-RM samples were always higher than those of the S-PAM samples. At 900 °C, the maximum H2 yield of the S-Fenton-RM samples was 0.102 L/g DS, which was 85.5% higher than that of the S-PAM samples. The results indicated that water in the wet sludge provided the steam atmosphere for pyrolysis, and the water vapor then involved in secondary cracking reformation of tar and char gasification reactions, which would be catalyzed by the presence of metal oxides in the Fenton-RM conditioner, thus increasing the yield of fuel gas, especially hydrogen. The H2 production cost from the S-Fenton-RM system is less than that from the S-PAM system. The results suggest that pyrolysis of the wet deep-dewatered sludge conditioned with Fenton-RM is an economical and promising alternative for sewage sludge dewatering and disposal/reuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in central air-conditioner filter dust and relevance of non-dietary exposure in occupational indoor environments in Greece.

    PubMed

    Besis, Athanasios; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Botsaropoulou, Elisavet; Samara, Constantini

    2014-05-01

    Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous in the indoor environment owing to their use in consumer products and various studies around the world have found higher concentrations indoors than outdoors. Central air conditioner (A/C) systems have been widely used in many workplaces, therefore, studying of PBDEs in central A/C filter dust is useful to better understand the occurrences and health implications of PBDEs in indoor environments. The present study examined the occurrence of PBDEs in central A/C filter dust collected from various workplaces (n = 20) in Thessaloniki, Greece. The sum concentrations of 21 target congeners (∑21PBDE) in A/C dust ranged between 84 and 4062 ng g(-1) with a median value of 1092 ng g(-1), while BDE-209 was found to be the most abundant BDE congener. The daily intake via dust ingestion of PBDEs estimated for the employees of the occupational settings ranged from 3 to 45 ng day(-1) (median 12 ng day(-1)). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Solar-Powered, Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Low-Electricity Humidity Control: Report and Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, J.; Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Miller, J.; Lowenstein, A.; Barker, G.; Slayzak, S.

    2012-11-01

    The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the capabilities of a new high-performance, liquid-desiccant dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) to enhance cooling efficiency and comfort in humid climates while substantially reducing electric peak demand at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB), which is 12 miles east of Panama City, Florida.

  2. Cost benefit analysis and energy savings of using compression and absorption chillers for air conditioners in hot and humid climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekarchian, M.; Moghavvemi, M.; Motasemi, F.; Mahlia, T. M. I.

    2012-06-01

    The electricity consumption growth has increased steadily in the recent decade which is a great concern for the environment. Increasing the number of high-rise air-conditioned buildings and the rapid use of electrical appliances in residential and commercial sectors are two important factors for high electricity consumption. This paper investigates the annual energy required for cooling per unit area and the total energy cost per unit area for each type of air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates. The effects of changing the coefficient of performance (COP) of absorption chillers on cost saving was also investigated in this study. The results showed that using absorption chillers for cooling will increase the amount of energy consumption per unit area; however the energy cost per unit area will decrease. In addition this research indicates that for each 0.1 increment in COP of absorption chillers, there is about 500 USD/m2 saved cost.

  3. Physiological Signal Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedericks, C.

    1999-01-01

    Sensors 2000! is developing a Physiological Signal Conditioner (PSC) for monitoring of astronauts in the ISS Human Research Facility. The PSC is battery powered and worn by the crew. The Engineering Development Unit (PSC EDU) and the form-and-fit PSC Tooling Model will be displayed along with associated graphics and text explanations. Results of a recent advanced PSC-2 feasibility study will be presented. The presentation will stimulate discussion of the functional capabilities of a wireless, crew worn Physiological Signal Conditioner. Application of advanced technology to meet the conflicting demands of size, power, and functional capability will be of interest.

  4. Accelerating Improvements in the Energy Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners (RACs) in India: Potential, Cost-Benefit, and Policies (Interim Assessment)

    SciTech Connect

    Abhyankar, Nikit; Shah, Nihar; Park, Won Young; Phadke, Amol

    2016-06-01

    Falling AC prices, increasing incomes, increasing urbanization, and high cooling requirements due to hot climate are all driving increasing uptake of Room Air Conditioners (RACs) in the Indian market. Air conditioning already comprises 40-60% of summer peak load in large metropolitan Indian cities such as Delhi and is likely to contribute 150 GW to the peak demand in 2030. Standards and labeling policies have contributed to improving the efficiency of RACs in India by about 2.5% in the last 10 years (2.5% per year) while inflation adjusted RAC prices have continued to decline. In this paper, we assess the technical feasibility, cost-benefit, and required policy enhancements by further accelerating the efficiency improvement of RACs in India. We find that there are examples of significantly more accelerated improvements such as those in Japan and Korea where AC efficiency improved by more than 7% per year resulting in almost a doubling of energy efficiency in 7 to 10 years while inflation adjusted AC prices continued to decline. We find that the most efficient RAC sold on the Indian market is almost twice as efficient as the typical AC sold on the market and hence see no technology constraints in a similar acceleration of improvement of efficiency. If starting 2018, AC efficiency improves at a rate of 6% instead of 3%, 40-60 GW of peak load (equivalent to connected load of 5-6 billion LED bulbs), and over 75 TWh/yr (equivalent to 60 million consumers consuming 100 kWh/month) will be saved by 2030; total peak load reduction would be as high as 50 GW. The net present value (NPV) of the consumer benefit between 2018-2030 will range from Rs 18,000 Cr in the most conservative case (in which prices don’t continue to decline and increase based estimates of today’s cost of efficiency improvement) to 140,000 Cr in a more realistic case (in which prices are not affected by accelerated efficiency improvement as shown by historical experience). This benefit is achievable by

  5. Formulation of humic-based soil conditioners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amanova, M. A.; Mamytova, G. A.; Mamytova, B. A.; Kydralieva, K. A.; Jorobekova, Sh. J.

    2009-04-01

    The goal of the study is to prepare soil conditioners (SC) able to carry out the following functions: (i) the chemical conditioning of soil mainly comprising the adjustment of pH, (ii) the balancing of inorganic nutrients, (iii) the physical conditioning of soil mainly comprising the improvement of water permeability, air permeability and water retention properties, and (iv) improvement of the ecological system concerning of useful microorganisms activity in the soil. The SC was made of a mixture of inorganic ingredients, a chemical composition and physical and chemical properties of which promoted improvement of physical characteristic of soil and enrichment by its mineral nutritious elements. In addition to aforesaid ingredients, this soil conditioner contains agronomical-valued groups of microorganisms having the function promoting the growth of the crop. As organic component of SC humic acids (HA) was used. HA serve many major functions that result in better soil and plant health. In soil, HA can increase microbial and mycorrhizal activity while enhancing nutrient uptake by plant roots. HA work as a catalyst by stimulating root and plant growth, it may enhance enzymatic activity that in turn accelerates cell division which can lead to increased yields. HA can help to increase crop yields, seed germination, and much more. In short, humic acids helps keep healthy plants health. The first stage goal was to evaluate mineral and organic ingredients for formulation of SC. Soil conditioners assessed included ash and slag. The use of slags has been largelly used in agriculture as a source of lime and phosphoric acid. The silicic acid of slags reduces Al-acitivity thus, promoting a better assimilation of P-fertilizer by plants. Additionally, silicic acid is also known to improve soil moisture capacity, thus enhancing soil water availability to plants. Physico-chemical characteristics of ash and slag were determined, as a total - about 20 samples. Results include

  6. Air-water centrifugal convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrada, Miguel; Shtern, Vladimir

    2014-07-01

    A sealed cylindrical container is filled with air and water. The container rotation and the axial gradient of temperature induce the steady axisymmetric meridional circulation of both fluids due to the thermal buoyancy and surface-tension (Marangoni) effects. If the temperature gradient is small, the water circulation is one-cellular while the air circulation can be one- or two-cellular depending on water fraction Wf. The numerical simulations are performed for the cylinder length-to-radius ratio l = 1 and l = 4. The l = 4 results and the analytical solution for l → ∞ agree in the cylinder's middle part. As the temperature gradient increases, the water circulation becomes one-, two-, or three-cellular depending on Wf. The results are of fundamental interest and can be applied for bioreactors.

  7. Attenuator And Conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Carson, Richard F.; Bryan, Robert P.; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; Kemme, Shanalyn Adair; McCormick, Frederick B.; Peterson, David W.

    2006-04-04

    An apparatus and method of attenuating and/or conditioning optical energy for an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module is disclosed. An apparatus for attenuating the optical output of an optoelectronic connector including: a mounting surface; an array of optoelectronic devices having at least a first end; an array of optical elements having at least a first end; the first end of the array of optical elements optically aligned with the first end of the array of optoelectronic devices; an optical path extending from the first end of the array of optoelectronic devices and ending at a second end of the array of optical elements; and an attenuator in the optical path for attenuating the optical energy emitted from the array of optoelectronic devices. Alternatively, a conditioner may be adapted in the optical path for conditioning the optical energy emitted from the array of optoelectronic devices.

  8. Water gun vs air gun: A comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, D.R.; Detrick, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    The water gun is a relatively new marine seismic sound source that produces an acoustic signal by an implosive rather than explosive mechanism. A comparison of the source characteristics of two different-sized water guns with those of conventional air guns shows the the water gun signature is cleaner and much shorter than that of a comparable-sized air gun: about 60-100 milliseconds (ms) for an 80-in3. (1.31-liter (I)) water gun compared with several hundred ms for an 80-in3. (1.31-1) air gun. The source spectra of water guns are richer in high frequencies (>200 Hz) than are those of air guns, but they also have less energy than those of air guns at low frequencies. A comparison between water gun and air gun reflection profiles in both shallow (Long Island Sound)-and deep (western Bermuda Rise)-water settings suggests that the water gun offers a good compromise between very high resolution, limited penetration systems (e.g. 3.5-kHz profilers and sparkers) and the large volume air guns and tuned air gun arrays generally used where significant penetration is required. ?? 1984 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  9. Environmental Chemistry: Air and Water Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoker, H. Stephen; Seager, Spencer L.

    This is a book about air and water pollution whose chapters cover the topics of air pollution--general considerations, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, sulfur oxides, particulates, temperature inversions and the greenhouse effect; and water pollution--general considerations, mercury, lead, detergents,…

  10. Environmental Chemistry: Air and Water Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoker, H. Stephen; Seager, Spencer L.

    This is a book about air and water pollution whose chapters cover the topics of air pollution--general considerations, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, sulfur oxides, particulates, temperature inversions and the greenhouse effect; and water pollution--general considerations, mercury, lead, detergents,…

  11. Air Conditioning Overflow Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center helped a local inventor develop a prototype of an attachment for central air conditioners and heat pumps that helps monitor water levels to prevent condensation overflow. The sensor will indicate a need for drain line maintenance and prevent possible damage caused by drain pan water spillover. An engineer in the Stennis Space Center prototype Development Laboratory used SSC sensor technology in the development of the sensor.

  12. Air Conditioning Overflow Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center helped a local inventor develop a prototype of an attachment for central air conditioners and heat pumps that helps monitor water levels to prevent condensation overflow. The sensor will indicate a need for drain line maintenance and prevent possible damage caused by drain pan water spillover. An engineer in the Stennis Space Center prototype Development Laboratory used SSC sensor technology in the development of the sensor.

  13. Solar-powered air-conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, D. C.; Rousseau, J.

    1977-01-01

    Report focuses on recent study on development of solar-powered residential air conditioners and is based on selected literature through 1975. Its purposes are to characterize thermal and mechanical systems that might be useful in development of Rankine-cycle approach to solar cooling and assessment of a Lithium Bromide/Water absorption cycle system.

  14. Solar-powered air-conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, D. C.; Rousseau, J.

    1977-01-01

    Report focuses on recent study on development of solar-powered residential air conditioners and is based on selected literature through 1975. Its purposes are to characterize thermal and mechanical systems that might be useful in development of Rankine-cycle approach to solar cooling and assessment of a Lithium Bromide/Water absorption cycle system.

  15. Air-water flow in subsurface systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, A.; Mishra, P.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater traces its roots to tackle challenges of safe and reliable drinking water and food production. When the groundwater level rises, air pressure in the unsaturated Vadose zone increases, forcing air to escape from the ground surface. Abnormally high and low subsurface air pressure can be generated when the groundwater system, rainfall, and sea level fluctuation are favorably combined [Jiao and Li, 2004]. Through this process, contamination in the form of volatile gases may diffuse from the ground surface into residential areas, or possibly move into groundwater from industrial waste sites. It is therefore crucial to understand the combined effects of air-water flow in groundwater system. Here we investigate theoretically and experimentally the effects of air and water flow in groundwater system.

  16. Clean Air Markets - Monitoring Surface Water Chemistry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about how EPA uses Long Term Monitoring (LTM) and Temporily Integrated Monitoring of Ecosystems (TIME) to track the effect of the Clean Air Act Amendments on acidity of surface waters in the eastern U.S.

  17. Cleaning verification by air/water impingement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Lisa L.; Littlefield, Maria D.; Melton, Gregory S.; Caimi, Raoul E. B.; Thaxton, Eric A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper will discuss how the Kennedy Space Center intends to perform precision cleaning verification by Air/Water Impingement in lieu of chlorofluorocarbon-113 gravimetric nonvolatile residue analysis (NVR). Test results will be given that demonstrate the effectiveness of the Air/Water system. A brief discussion of the Total Carbon method via the use of a high temperature combustion analyzer will also be given. The necessary equipment for impingement will be shown along with other possible applications of this technology.

  18. Air bubbles clean produced water for reinjection

    SciTech Connect

    Michnick, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    The reuse of produced water in a waterflood may be hazardous to the health and wealth of the reservoir. Disposal of produced water and finding a new source of water for a waterflood can double your costs. Air flotation is being tested to rehabilitate produced water on a lease in eastern Kansas. The use of air flotation in the oil field is at least forty years old. However, many operators are reluctant to spend the capital for surface equipment to assure a supply of good quality water for their waterflood operation. Before the installation of the air flotation unit only the produced water was filtered through a 75-micron bag and the filter water was then added to the make-up water. Seventy-five micron cartridge filters were used at the wellhead. Both the plant and wellhead filters required frequent replacement. Injection wells averaged more than one cleaning and acidization per year. Since installation of the air flotation unit, the combined produced and makeup water is passed through either a 25-or 10-micron bag filter in the plant and a 10-micron cartridge at the wellhead. The results of the test being conducted by an independent oil operator show a reduction in the cost for the water injection system. This study is part of the Department of Energy Class I PONS with independent oil operators.

  19. Hybrid respiration-signal conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinard, G. A.; Steffen, D. A.; Sturm, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Hybrid impedance-pneumograph and respiration-rate signal conditioner element of hand-held vital signs monitor measures changes in impedance of chest during breathing cycle and generates analog respiration signal as output along with synchronous square wave that can be monitored by breath-rate processor.

  20. Transfer Phenomena of Tritiated Water from Air to Water

    SciTech Connect

    Nishikawa, Masabumi; Takata, Hiroki; Takeishi, Toshiharu; Kamimae, Kozo

    2005-07-15

    Feasibility of the monitoring way of HTO in air to follow the tritium level in water contained in a small shallow beaker with open surface placed still in a room was discussed in this study. It is considered that the isotope exchange reaction between tritiated water in air and water in a beaker, the evaporation or condensation reaction of water at surface and the diffusion of tritium in water played the important roles in the tritium transfer phenomena through the air-water interface. Using the mass transfer coefficients obtained in the previous paper, change of tritium level in water contained in a shallow open beaker was numerically estimated and comparison with the experimental data showed good agreement. The estimated amount of tritium released from the facility with storage pools of spent fuels from a PWR power station using the method of this study showed good agreement with the observed value evaluated from the monitor of the power station.

  1. Surface, Water and Air Biocharacterization (SWAB)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-18

    ISS020-E-031558 (18 Aug. 2009) --- NASA astronaut Michael Barratt, Expedition 20 flight engineer, conducts a Surface, Water and Air Biocharacterization (SWAB) water sampling from the Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. SWAB uses advanced molecular techniques to comprehensively evaluate microbes onboard the space station, including pathogens (organisms that may cause disease). This study will allow an assessment of the risk of microbes to the crew and the spacecraft.

  2. Air and water cooled modulator

    DOEpatents

    Birx, Daniel L.; Arnold, Phillip A.; Ball, Don G.; Cook, Edward G.

    1995-01-01

    A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air.

  3. Air and water cooled modulator

    DOEpatents

    Birx, D.L.; Arnold, P.A.; Ball, D.G.; Cook, E.G.

    1995-09-05

    A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method are disclosed for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air. 9 figs.

  4. Effect of metal conditioners on the adhesive bonding of resin cements to cast titanium.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Sicknan Soares; Adabo, Gelson Luis; Spinola, Sandra Gouve; Fonseca, Renata Garcia; Ferreira, Anelise Rodolfo

    2007-09-01

    To assess the effect of metal conditioners on the bond strength between resin cements and cast titanium. Commercially pure titanium (99.56%) was cast using an arc casting machine. Surfaces were finished with 400-grit silicon carbide paper followed by air abrasion with 50-Microm aluminum oxide. A piece of double-coated tape with a 4-mm circular hole was then positioned on the metal surface to control the area of the bond. The prepared surfaces were then divided into 4 groups (n=10): G1, unprimed Panavia F; G2, Alloy Primer-Panavia F; G3, unprimed Bistite DC; G4, Metaltite-Bistite DC. Forty minutes after insertion of the resin cements, the specimens were detached from the mold and stored in water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. Shear bond strength was performed in a testing machine (MTS 810) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test with a .05 significance level. The fractured surfaces were observed through an optical microscope at 103 magnification. The G1 group demonstrated significantly higher shear bond strength (17.95 MPa) than the other groups. G3 (13.79 MPa) and G4 (12.98 MPa) showed similar mean values to each other and were statistically superior to G2 (9.31 MPa). Debonded surfaces generally presented adhesive failure between metal surfaces and resin cements. While the Metaltite conditioner did not influence the bond strength of the Bistite DC cement, the Alloy Primer conditioner significantly decreased the mean bond strength of the Panavia F cement.

  5. Combined air and water pollution control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  6. Shuttle APS propellant thermal conditioner study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, W. E.

    1971-01-01

    A study program was performed to allow selection of thermal conditioner assemblies for superheating O2 and H2 at supercritical pressures. The application was the auxiliary propulsion system (APS) for the space shuttle vehicle. The O2/H2 APS propellant feed system included propellant conditioners, of which the thermal conditioner assemblies were a part. Cryogens, pumped to pressures above critical, were directed to the thermal conditioner assembly included: (1) a gas generator assembly with ignition system and bipropellant valves, which burned superheated O2 and H2 at rich conditions; (2) a heat exchanger assembly for thermal conditioning of the cryogenic propellant; and (3) a dump nozzle for heat exchanger exhaust.

  7. Quenching using air-water mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Wallis, R.A.; Garwood, R.; Ward, J.; Xia, Q.

    1996-12-31

    With the current trend toward reduced manufacturing cycle time there is considerable interest in minimizing heat treatment related distortion and the residual stresses that are present in components. There is therefore a need to optimize the quenching process for a particular part such that the desired cooling rate, and hence mechanical properties, are obtained while minimizing distortion. This paper describes work aimed at developing a system to provide heat transfer rates between those obtained for oil quenching and fan cooling. Tests are described in which quenching was carried out by spraying water into the stream of air exiting a fan cooling system. Data are also presented for air mist quenching using atomizing nozzles. Comparison of computer predicted cooling rates and residual stress levels in components are presented for oil quenching, fan cooling, fan plus water injection cooling and air-mist cooling.

  8. Integration of air and water quality issues

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The environmental sustainability of dairy farms is dependent upon a number of air and water quality issues. Atmospheric emissions include hazardous compounds such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide along with greenhouse gases and their implications with global climate change. Runoff of sediment, phosph...

  9. Ethylene-air detonation in water spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarsalé, G.; Virot, F.; Chinnayya, A.

    2016-09-01

    Detonation experiments are conducted in a 52 {mm} square channel with an ethylene-air gaseous mixture with dispersed liquid water droplets. The tests were conducted with a fuel-air equivalence ratio ranging from 0.9 to 1.1 at atmospheric pressure. An ultrasonic atomizer generates a polydisperse liquid water spray with droplet diameters of 8.5-12 μm, yielding an effective density of 100-120 g/m3. Pressure signals from seven transducers and cellular structure are recorded for each test. The detonation structure in the two-phase mixture exhibits a gaseous-like behaviour. The pressure profile in the expansion fan is not affected by the addition of water. A small detonation velocity deficit of up to 5 % was measured. However, the investigation highlights a dramatic increase in the cell size (λ ) associated with the increase in the liquid water mass fraction in the two-phase mixture. The detonation structure evolves from a multi-cell to a half-cell mode. The analysis of the decay of the post-shock pressure fluctuations reveals that the ratio of the hydrodynamic thickness over the cell size (x_{{HT}}/{λ }) remains quite constant, between 5 and 7. A slight decrease of this ratio is observed as the liquid water mass fraction is increased, or the ethylene-air mixture is made leaner.

  10. 7 CFR 3201.92 - Fuel conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel conditioners. 3201.92 Section 3201.92... Designated Items § 3201.92 Fuel conditioners. (a) Definition. Products formulated to improve the performance... fuel system. (b) Minimum biobased content. The Federal preferred procurement product must have...

  11. 7 CFR 3201.92 - Fuel conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel conditioners. 3201.92 Section 3201.92... Designated Items § 3201.92 Fuel conditioners. (a) Definition. Products formulated to improve the performance... fuel system. (b) Minimum biobased content. The Federal preferred procurement product must have...

  12. Space shuttle aps propellant thermal conditioner study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical and experimental effort was completed to evaluate a baffle type thermal conditioner for superheating O2 and H2 at supercritical pressures. The thermal conditioner consisted of a heat exchanger and an integral reactor (gas generator) operating on O2/H2 propellants. Primary emphasis was placed on the hydrogen conditioner with some effort on the oxygen conditioner and a study completed of alternate concepts for use in conditioning oxygen. A hydrogen conditioner was hot fire tested under a range of conditions to establish ignition, heat exchange and response parameters. A parallel technology task was completed to further evaluate the integral reactor and heat exchanger with the side mounted electrical spark igniter.

  13. Conditioner for a helically transported electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.

    1992-05-01

    The kinetic theory is developed to investigate a conditioner for a helically imported electron beam. Linear expressions for axial velocity spread are derived. Numerical simulation is used to check the theoretical results and examine nonlinear aspects of the conditioning process. The results show that in the linear regime the action of the beam conditioner on a pulsed beam mainly depends on the phase at which the beam enters the conditioner and depends only slightly on the operating wavelength. In the nonlinear regime, however, the action of the conditioner strongly depends on the operating wavelength and only slightly upon the entrance phase. For a properly chosen operating wavelength, a little less than the electron's relativistic cyclotron wavelength, the conditioner can decrease the axial velocity spread of a pulsed beam down to less than one-third of its initial value.

  14. Conditioner for a helically transported electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.

    1992-05-01

    The kinetic theory is developed to investigate a conditioner for a helically imported electron beam. Linear expressions for axial velocity spread are derived. Numerical simulation is used to check the theoretical results and examine nonlinear aspects of the conditioning process. The results show that in the linear regime the action of the beam conditioner on a pulsed beam mainly depends on the phase at which the beam enters the conditioner and depends only slightly on the operating wavelength. In the nonlinear regime, however, the action of the conditioner strongly depends on the operating wavelength and only slightly upon the entrance phase. For a properly chosen operating wavelength, a little less than the electron`s relativistic cyclotron wavelength, the conditioner can decrease the axial velocity spread of a pulsed beam down to less than one-third of its initial value.

  15. Low-noise pulse conditioner

    DOEpatents

    Bird, David A.

    1983-01-01

    A low-noise pulse conditioner is provided for driving electronic digital processing circuitry directly from differentially induced input pulses. The circuit uses a unique differential-to-peak detector circuit to generate a dynamic reference signal proportional to the input peak voltage. The input pulses are compared with the reference signal in an input network which operates in full differential mode with only a passive input filter. This reduces the introduction of circuit-induced noise, or jitter, generated in ground referenced input elements normally used in pulse conditioning circuits, especially speed transducer processing circuits.

  16. Air-Water Gas Transfer in Coastal Waters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    OBJECTIVES In interdisciplinary field experiments the influence of wind forcing, short wind waves, and surfactants on the air-sea gas transfer in coastal...Physicochemical surface conditions ranged from coastal waters with high surfactant concentrations to very clean, deep blue waters close to the Bermuda islands...research project are only the beginning of a new interdisciplinary research area that merges chemistry , applied optics, fluid mechanics, and image

  17. 76 FR 65616 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Central Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Procedures for Residential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... central air conditioners and heat pumps in a June 2010 notice of proposed rulemaking (June 2010 NOPR) and... to determine off-mode power consumption for residential central air conditioners and heat pumps. DOE...

  18. 76 FR 18105 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Central Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... units tested without an indoor blower installed, and for central air conditioners and heat pumps tested... Residential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... residential central air conditioners and heat pumps released in a June 2010 notice of proposed rulemaking...

  19. Air expansion in a water rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanelli, Alejandro; Bove, Italo; González Madina, Federico

    2013-10-01

    We study the thermodynamics of a water rocket in the thrust phase, taking into account the expansion of the air with water vapor, vapor condensation, and the corresponding latent heat. We set up a simple experimental device with a stationary bottle and verify that the gas expansion in the bottle is well approximated by a polytropic process PVβ = constant, where the parameter β depends on the initial conditions. We find an analytical expression for β that depends only on the thermodynamic initial conditions and is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  20. 14 CFR 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean air and water. 1260.34 Section 1260... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1319...

  1. 14 CFR 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean air and water. 1260.34 Section 1260... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C....

  2. 14 CFR § 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean air and water. § 1260.34 Section Â... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C....

  3. 18 CFR 1316.5 - Clean Air and Water Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clean Air and Water... Conditions and Certifications § 1316.5 Clean Air and Water Acts. When so indicated in TVA contract documents or actions, the following clause is included by reference in such documents or actions: Clean Air and...

  4. 18 CFR 1316.5 - Clean Air and Water Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clean Air and Water... Conditions and Certifications § 1316.5 Clean Air and Water Acts. When so indicated in TVA contract documents or actions, the following clause is included by reference in such documents or actions: Clean Air and...

  5. 14 CFR 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean air and water. 1260.34 Section 1260.34 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable only if the award exceeds $100,000, or a...

  6. Hazardous solid wastes generated in the cleanup of air and water.

    PubMed

    Eisenbud, M

    1978-12-01

    Air and water pollution control programs sometimes result in production of solid wastes that are difficult to manage. The sludges from sewage treatment plants and flue gas scrubbers are two examples. In many coastal communities, there is no alternative to ocean dumpling of sewage sludges for the foreseeable future. The use of sludges as soil conditioners, their conversion to fuels by pyrolysis, and other alternatives are frequently mentioned options, but they have not been demonstrated to be practical on a large scale. The Federal requirement that ocean dumping be terminated by 1981 presents the large seaboard population centers with a dilemma, due to the absence of economically feasible alternative methods of disposal. Another major solid waste problem is arising from the Federal policy that requires flue gas desulfurization on practically all power plants. This policy, designed to reduce sulfur oxide emissions, will require that vast quantities of sludge be stored. Their environmental impact is as yet not fully evaluated. Commercial use of the sulfur or sulfates produced in these processes may be possible, but its practicability on a large scale remains to be demonstrated.

  7. Low-noise pulse conditioner

    DOEpatents

    Bird, D.A.

    1981-06-16

    A low-noise pulse conditioner is provided for driving electronic digital processing circuitry directly from differentially induced input pulses. The circuit uses a unique differential-to-peak detector circuit to generate a dynamic reference signal proportional to the input peak voltage. The input pulses are compared with the reference signal in an input network which operates in full differential mode with only a passive input filter. This reduces the introduction of circuit-induced noise, or jitter, generated in ground referenced input elements normally used in pulse conditioning circuits, especially speed transducer processing circuits. This circuit may be used for conditioning the sensor signal from the Fidler coil in a gas centrifuge for separation of isotopic gaseous mixtures.

  8. High efficiency laser spectrum conditioner

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Norman R.

    1980-01-01

    A high efficiency laser spectrum conditioner for generating a collinear parallel output beam containing a predetermined set of frequencies from a multifrequency laser. A diffraction grating and spherical mirror are used in combination, to disperse the various frequencies of the input laser beam and direct these frequencies along various parallel lines spatially separated from one another to an apertured mask. Selection of the desired frequencies is accomplished by placement of apertures at locations on the mask where the desired frequencies intersect the mask. A recollimated parallel output beam with the desired set of frequencies is subsequently generated utilizing a mirror and grating matched and geometrically aligned in the same manner as the input grating and mirror.

  9. Photodetoxification and purification of water and air

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.; Blake, D.M.

    1996-09-01

    The scope of interest in this section is basic research in photochemistry that can remove barriers to the development of photochemical technologies for the removal of hazardous chemicals from contaminated air or water (photodetoxification). Photochemistry is be broadly interpreted to include direct photochemistry, indirect photochemistry (sensitized and photocatalytic), photochemistry of species adsorbed on inert surfaces, and complementary effects of high energy radiation photons and particles. These may occur in either homogeneous or heterogeneous media. The photon source may span the range from ionizing radiation to the near infrared.

  10. NBC detection in air and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.; Smith, Steven J.; McMurtry, Gary M.

    2003-01-01

    Participating in a Navy STTR project to develop a system capable of the 'real-time' detection and quanitification of nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) warfare agents, and of related industrial chemicals including NBC agent synthesis by-products in water and in air immediately above the water's surface. This project uses JPL's Soft Ionization Membrane (SIM) technology which totally ionizes molecules without fragmentation (a process that can markedly improve the sensitivity and specificity of molecule compostition identification), and JPL's Rotating Field Mass Spectrometer (RFMS) technology which has large enough dynamic mass range to enable detection of nuclear materials as well as biological and chemical agents. This Navy project integrates these JPL Environmental Monitoring UnitS (REMUS) an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). It is anticipated that the REMUS AUV will be capable of 'real-time' detection and quantification of NBC warefare agents.

  11. NBC detection in air and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.; Smith, Steven J.; McMurtry, Gary M.

    2003-01-01

    Participating in a Navy STTR project to develop a system capable of the 'real-time' detection and quanitification of nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) warfare agents, and of related industrial chemicals including NBC agent synthesis by-products in water and in air immediately above the water's surface. This project uses JPL's Soft Ionization Membrane (SIM) technology which totally ionizes molecules without fragmentation (a process that can markedly improve the sensitivity and specificity of molecule compostition identification), and JPL's Rotating Field Mass Spectrometer (RFMS) technology which has large enough dynamic mass range to enable detection of nuclear materials as well as biological and chemical agents. This Navy project integrates these JPL Environmental Monitoring UnitS (REMUS) an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). It is anticipated that the REMUS AUV will be capable of 'real-time' detection and quantification of NBC warefare agents.

  12. 14 CFR 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Clean air and water. 1260.34 Section 1260.34... Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable only if the award... (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1319(c)), and is listed...

  13. 21 CFR 874.1800 - Air or water caloric stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1800 Air or water caloric stimulator. (a) Identification. An air or water caloric stimulator is a device that delivers a stream of air...) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures...

  14. 21 CFR 874.1800 - Air or water caloric stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1800 Air or water caloric stimulator. (a) Identification. An air or water caloric stimulator is a device that delivers a stream of air...) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures...

  15. Enhanced sound transmission from water to air at low frequencies.

    PubMed

    McDonald, B Edward; Calvo, David C

    2007-12-01

    Excitation of acoustic radiation into the air from a low-frequency point source under water is investigated using plane wave expansion of the source spectrum and Rayleigh reflection/transmission coefficients. Expressions are derived for the acoustic power radiated into air and water as a function of source depth and given to lowest order in the air/water density ratio. Near zero source depth, the radiation into the water is quenched by the source's acoustic image, while the power radiated into air reaches about 1% of the power that would be radiated into unbounded water.

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Physical Properties of Four Tissue Conditioners Relined to Modeling Plastic Material

    PubMed Central

    Monzavi, Abbas; Siadat, Hakimeh; Atai, Mohammad; Alikhasi, Marzieh; Nazari, Vahideh; Sheikhzadeh, Sadigheh

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the interaction of tissue conditioners and modeling plastics. This study evaluates the influence of a variety of commercial tissue conditioners on alteration of viscoelastic properties of modeling plastics. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, the dynamic viscoelastic properties of four commercially available tissue conditioners (TC), Visco-gel (VG), GC Soft-Liner (SL), FITT (FT), and Coe Comfort (CC), relined to modeling plastics with a thickness of 2mm were evaluated after 1 and 7 days of water immersion with the use of storage modulus, loss modulus, and tan delta parameters. Values for these three parameters for each tissue conditioner were statistically analyzed by Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney tests with P value sets at<0.05. Results: Complex modulus and loss tangent values of TC were not significantly different among specimens containing 0, 2, 5 and 10 wt.%-SZ, respectively. In FT and TC containing 2 wt.%-SZ, these values were not significantly different between 1 and 28 days in both water- and saliva immersions. Conclusion: The results suggest that relining with modeling plastics does affect TC’s inherent dynamic viscoelastic properties, while the other tissue conditioners investigated may be found to have changed viscoelastic properties as a consequence of vicinity to the modeling plastics. PMID:24910661

  17. Food-Growing, Air- And Water-Cleaning Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, R. L.; Scheld, H. W.; Mafnuson, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    Apparatus produces fresh vegetables and removes pollutants from air. Hydroponic apparatus performs dual function of growing fresh vegetables and purifying air and water. Leafy vegetables rooted in granular growth medium grow in light of fluorescent lamps. Air flowing over leaves supplies carbon dioxide and receives fresh oxygen from them. Adaptable to production of food and cleaning of air and water in closed environments as in underwater research stations and submarines.

  18. Food-Growing, Air- And Water-Cleaning Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, R. L.; Scheld, H. W.; Mafnuson, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    Apparatus produces fresh vegetables and removes pollutants from air. Hydroponic apparatus performs dual function of growing fresh vegetables and purifying air and water. Leafy vegetables rooted in granular growth medium grow in light of fluorescent lamps. Air flowing over leaves supplies carbon dioxide and receives fresh oxygen from them. Adaptable to production of food and cleaning of air and water in closed environments as in underwater research stations and submarines.

  19. VOLATILIZATION RATES FROM WATER TO INDOOR AIR ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Contaminated water can lead to volatilization of chemicals to residential indoor air. Previous research has focused on only one source (shower stalls) and has been limited to chemicals in which gas-phase resistance to mass transfer is of marginal significance. As a result, attempts to extrapolate chemical emissions from high-volatility chemicals to lower volatility chemicals, or to sources other than showers, have been difficult or impossible. This study involved the development of two-phase, dynamic mass balance models for estimating chemical emissions from washing machines, dishwashers, and bathtubs. An existing model was adopted for showers only. Each model required the use of source- and chemical-specific mass transfer coefficients. Air exchange (ventilation) rates were required for dishwashers and washing machines as well. These parameters were estimated based on a series of 113 experiments involving 5 tracer chemicals (acetone, ethyl acetate, toluene, ethylbenzene, and cyclohexane) and 4 sources (showers, bathtubs, washing machines, and dishwashers). Each set of experiments led to the determination of chemical stripping efficiencies and mass transfer coefficients (overall, liquid-phase, gas-phase), and to an assessment of the importance of gas- phase resistance to mass transfer. Stripping efficiencies ranged from 6.3% to 80% for showers, 2.6% to 69% for bathtubs, 18% to 100% for dishwashers, and 3.8% to 100% for washing machines. Acetone and cyclohexane al

  20. Aeroacoustic Characteristics of Model Jet Test Facility Flow Conditioners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinzie, Kevin W.; Henderson, Brenda S.; Haskin, Harry H.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental investigation of flow conditioning devices used to suppress internal rig noise in high speed, high temperature experimental jet facilities is discussed. The aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics of a number of devices including pressure loss and extraneous noise generation are measured. Both aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics are strongly dependent on the porosity of the flow conditioner and the closure ratio of the duct system. For unchoked flow conditioners, the pressure loss follows conventional incompressible flow models. However, for choked flow conditioners, a compressible flow model where the duct and flow conditioner system is modeled as a convergent-divergent nozzle can be used to estimate pressure loss. Choked flow conditioners generate significantly more noise than unchoked conditioners. In addition, flow conditioners with small hole diameters or sintered metal felt material generate less self-noise noise compared to flow conditioners with larger holes.

  1. Methylglyoxal at the Air-Water Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wren, S. N.; Gordon, B. P.; McWilliams, L.; Valley, N. A.; Richmond, G.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that aqueous-phase processing of atmospheric α-dicarbonyl compounds such as methylglyoxal (MG) could constitute an important source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The uptake of MG to aqueous particles is higher than expected due to the fact that its carbonyl moieties can hydrate to form diols, as well as the fact that MG can undergo aldol condensation reactions to form larger oligomers in solution. MG is known to be surface active but an improved description of its surface behaviour is crucial to understanding MG-SOA formation, in addition to understanding its gas-to-particle partitioning and cloud forming potential. Here, we employ a combined experimental and theoretical approach involving vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy (VSFS), surface tensiometry, molecular dynamics simulations, and density functional theory calculations to study MG's surface adsorption, in both the presence and absence of salts. We are particularly interested in determining MG's hydration state at the surface. Our experimental results indicate that MG slowly adsorbs to the air-water interface and strongly perturbs the water structure there. This perturbation is enhanced in the presence of NaCl. Together our experimental and theoretical results suggest that singly-hydrated MG is the dominant form of MG at the surface.

  2. Polysaccharide (guar) as a soil conditioner. [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.

    1986-05-01

    The author tested a polysaccharide (guar) derived from guar bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub.) was tested in soil flocculation tests and found that use of acid solutions to fully dissolve the guar leads to more effective soil conditioning than otherwise would be possible, and that guar does not lead to strong water-stable aggregates. Larger quantities were needed to improve emergence and growth of plants in a glasshouse than for synthetic soil conditioners. The effects of soil conditioning with guar did not last long.

  3. 21 CFR 874.1800 - Air or water caloric stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1800 Air or water caloric... or water to the ear canal at controlled rates of flow and temperature and that is intended...

  4. 21 CFR 874.1800 - Air or water caloric stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1800 Air or water caloric... or water to the ear canal at controlled rates of flow and temperature and that is intended...

  5. 21 CFR 882.1845 - Physiological signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A physiological signal conditioner is a device such as an integrator or differentiator used to modify physiological signals for recording and processing. (b... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Physiological signal conditioner. 882.1845...

  6. 21 CFR 882.1845 - Physiological signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A physiological signal conditioner is a device such as an integrator or differentiator used to modify physiological signals for recording and processing. (b... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Physiological signal conditioner. 882.1845...

  7. 21 CFR 882.1845 - Physiological signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A physiological signal conditioner is a device such as an integrator or differentiator used to modify physiological signals for recording and processing. (b... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Physiological signal conditioner. 882.1845...

  8. 21 CFR 882.1845 - Physiological signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A physiological signal conditioner is a device such as an integrator or differentiator used to modify physiological signals for recording and processing. (b... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Physiological signal conditioner. 882.1845...

  9. 21 CFR 882.1845 - Physiological signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A physiological signal conditioner is a device such as an integrator or differentiator used to modify physiological signals for recording and processing. (b... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Physiological signal conditioner. 882.1845...

  10. Shuttle APS propellant thermal conditioner study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, D. L.

    1971-01-01

    The conditioner design concept selected for evaluation consists of an integral reactor and baffle-type heat exchanger. Heat exchange is accomplished by flowing reactor hot gases past a series of slotted and formed plates, through which the conditioned propellant flows. Heat transfer analysis has resulted in the selection of a reactor hot gas nominal mixture ratio of 1.0, giving a combustion temperature of 1560 F with a hydrogen inlet temperature of 275 R. Worst case conditions result in a combustion gas temperature of 2060 F, satisfying the condition of no damage to the conditioner in case of failure to flow cold fluid. In addition, evaluation of hot gas flow requirements and conditioner weight has resulted in the selection of a reactor hot gas exhaust temperature of 750 R.

  11. Photovoltaic array: Power conditioner interface characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, C. C.; Hill, G. M.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The electrical output (power, current, and voltage) of flat plate solar arrays changes constantly, due primarily to changes in cell temperature and irradiance level. As a result, array loads such as dc-to-ac power conditioners must be capable of accommodating widely varying input levels while maintaining operation at or near the maximum power point of the array. The array operating characteristics and extreme output limits necessary for the systematic design of array load interfaces under a wide variety of climatic conditions are studied. A number of interface parameters are examined, including optimum operating voltage, voltage energy, maximum power and current limits, and maximum open circuit voltage. The effect of array degradation and I-V curve fill factor or the array power conditioner interface is also discussed. Results are presented as normalized ratios of power conditioner parameters to array parameters, making the results universally applicable to a wide variety of system sizes, sites, and operating modes.

  12. Method and apparatus for extracting water from air

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Callow, Diane Schafer; Marron, Lisa C.; Salton, Jonathan R.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for extracting liquid water from moist air using minimal energy input. The method comprises compressing moist air under conditions that foster the condensation of liquid water. The air can be decompressed under conditions that do not foster the vaporization of the condensate. The decompressed, dried air can be exchanged for a fresh charge of moist air and the process repeated. The liquid condensate can be removed for use. The apparatus can comprise a compression chamber having a variable internal volume. An intake port allows moist air into the compression chamber. An exhaust port allows dried air out of the compression chamber. A condensation device fosters condensation at the desired conditions. A condensate removal port allows liquid water to be removed.

  13. Method and apparatus for extracting water from air

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for extracting liquid water from moist air using minimal energy input. The method comprises compressing moist air under conditions that foster the condensation of liquid water (ideally isothermal to a humidity of 1.0, then adiabatic thereafter). The air can be decompressed under conditions that do not foster the vaporization of the condensate. The decompressed, dried air can be exchanged for a fresh charge of moist air and the process repeated. The liquid condensate can be removed for use. The apparatus can comprise a compression chamber having a variable internal volume. An intake port allows moist air into the compression chamber. An exhaust port allows dried air out of the compression chamber. A condensation device fosters condensation at the desired conditions. A condensate removal port allows liquid water to be removed.

  14. Method and apparatus for extracting water from air

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Callow, Diane Schafer; Marron, Lisa C.; Salton, Jonathan R.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for extracting liquid water from moist air using minimal energy input. The method comprises compressing moist air under conditions that foster the condensation of liquid water. The air can be decompressed under conditions that do not foster the vaporization of the condensate. The decompressed, dried air can be exchanged for a fresh charge of moist air and the process repeated. The liquid condensate can be removed for use. The apparatus can comprise a compression chamber having a variable internal volume. An intake port allows moist air into the compression chamber. An exhaust port allows dried air out of the compression chamber. A condensation device fosters condensation at the desired conditions. A condensate removal port allows liquid water to be removed.

  15. Blocking of the water-lunar fines reaction by air and water concentration effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammage, R. B.; Holmes, H. F.

    1975-01-01

    The elements of air, if adsorbed in conjunction with water vapor or liquid water, are able to impede severely the attack of lunar fines. Thus is explained the stability of lunar fines in moisture laden air, and their small solubility in liquid, aerated water. In the absence of air, liquid water is more effective than water vapor in attacking the grains; the channels formed are wider and the expansion of area is greater.

  16. Water-to-air mass transfer of VOCs: Laboratory-scale air sparging system

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, K.P.; Ong, S.K.; Protopapas, A.

    1998-11-01

    Nonequilibrium air-water mass transfer experiments for six volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were conducted using a bench-scale air sparging system. VOCs used were carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chloroform, dichloromethane, and toluene. The average particle size of the porous media used ranged from 0.278 to 1.71 mm. The air-water mass transfer coefficients were estimated by fitting the experimental data to a lumped parameter model. The model assumed that the saturated porous media under air sparging conditions consisted of two zones. In the mass transfer zone, VOCs were directly impacted by the flow of air in the air channels, while in the bulk water zone, VOCs were not directly affected by the air flow in the air channels. The estimated air-water mass transfer coefficients (K{sub G}a) were found to increase for higher injected air flow rates and for larger mean particle sizes of porous media but were inversely proportional to the Henry`s law constant of the VOCs. An empirical correlation was developed by correlating the Sherwood number with the Peclet number, the Henry`s law constant, and the mean particle size of porous media. The estimated fraction (F) of the total volume of the porous media directly affected by air channels was between 5 and 20% for fine sand, indicating that a small fraction of the porous media was affected by the advecting air stream.

  17. Thermodynamic and transport properties of air/water mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fessler, T. E.

    1981-01-01

    Subroutine WETAIR calculates properties at nearly 1,500 K and 4,500 atmospheres. Necessary inputs are assigned values of combinations of density, pressure, temperature, and entropy. Interpolation of property tables obtains dry air and water (steam) properties, and simple mixing laws calculate properties of air/water mixture. WETAIR is used to test gas turbine engines and components operating in relatively humid air. Program is written in SFTRAN and FORTRAN.

  18. Thermodynamic and transport properties of air/water mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fessler, T. E.

    1981-01-01

    Subroutine WETAIR calculates properties at nearly 1,500 K and 4,500 atmospheres. Necessary inputs are assigned values of combinations of density, pressure, temperature, and entropy. Interpolation of property tables obtains dry air and water (steam) properties, and simple mixing laws calculate properties of air/water mixture. WETAIR is used to test gas turbine engines and components operating in relatively humid air. Program is written in SFTRAN and FORTRAN.

  19. 9. Water Purification System and Instrument Air Receiver Tank, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Water Purification System and Instrument Air Receiver Tank, view to the south. The water purification system is visible in the right foreground of the photograph and the instrument air receiver tank is visible in the right background of the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  20. Anomalous Transmission of Infrasound Through Air-Water and Air-Ground Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godin, O. A.

    2009-05-01

    Speed of compressional waves in air is smaller than in water and in the ground, while mass density of air is much smaller than mass densities of water and the ground. This results in a very strong acoustic impedance contrast at air-water and air-ground interfaces. Sound transmission through a boundary with a strong impedance contrast is normally very weak. This paper reports theoretical studies of the power output of localized sound sources and acoustic power fluxes through plane gas-liquid and gas-solid interfaces in a layered medium. It is found that the transparency of the interfaces increases dramatically at low frequencies. For low-frequency sound, a phenomenon of anomalous transparency can occur where most of the acoustic power generated by a source in water is radiated into the atmosphere. Contrary to the conventional wisdom based on ray-theoretical predictions and observations at higher frequencies, infrasonic energy from localized waterborne sources can be effectively transmitted into air. The main physical mechanism responsible for the anomalous transparency of air-water interface is found to be an acoustic power transfer by inhomogeneous (evanescent) waves in the plane-wave decomposition of the acoustic field in water. The effects of ocean and atmosphere stratification and of guided sound propagation in water or in air on the anomalous transparency of the air-water interface are considered. In the case of air-ground interface, the increase of the acoustic power flux into atmosphere, when a compact source approaches the interface from below, proves to be even larger than for an underwater source. The physics behind the increase of the power flux into the atmosphere, when the source depth decreases, is shown to be rather different for the air-ground and air-water interfaces. Depending on attenuation of compressional and shear waves in the ground, a leaky interface wave supported by the air-ground interface can be responsible for the bulk of acoustic power

  1. Forced convection heat transfer to air/water vapor mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, D. R.; Florschuetz, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficients were measured using both dry air and air/water vapor mixtures in the same forced convection cooling test rig (jet array impingement configurations) with mass ratios of water vapor to air up to 0.23. The primary objective was to verify by direct experiment that selected existing methods for evaluation of viscosity and thermal conductivity of air/water vapor mixtures could be used with confidence to predict heat transfer coefficients for such mixtures using as a basis heat transfer data for dry air only. The property evaluation methods deemed most appropriate require as a basis a measured property value at one mixture composition in addition to the property values for the pure components.

  2. Forced convection heat transfer to air/water vapor mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, D. R.; Florschuetz, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficients were measured using both dry air and air/water vapor mixtures in the same forced convection cooling test rig (jet array impingement configurations) with mass ratios of water vapor to air up to 0.23. The primary objective was to verify by direct experiment that selected existing methods for evaluation of viscosity and thermal conductivity of air/water vapor mixtures could be used with confidence to predict heat transfer coefficients for such mixtures using as a basis heat transfer data for dry air only. The property evaluation methods deemed most appropriate require as a basis a measured property value at one mixture composition in addition to the property values for the pure components.

  3. Ferry Engine Repower to Provide Benefits for Air and Water

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s Diesel Emission Reduction Act grant to the Delaware River and Bay Authority is bringing new clean air technology to the Cape May-Lewes Ferry, thereby reducing air pollution emissions and contributing to cleaner water in the Chesapeake Bay.

  4. Specific features of aluminum nanoparticle water and wet air oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozhkomoev, Aleksandr S.; Glazkova, Elena A.; Svarovskaya, Natalia V.; Bakina, Olga V.; Kazantsev, Sergey O.; Lerner, Marat I.

    2015-10-01

    The oxidation processes of the electrically exploded aluminum nanopowders in water and in wet air are examined in the paper. The morphology of the intermediate reaction products of aluminum oxidation has been studied using the transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that the aluminum nanopowder water oxidation causes the formation of the hollow spheres with mesoporous boehmite nanosheets coating. The wedge-like bayerite particles are formed during aluminum nanopowder wet air oxidation.

  5. Specific features of aluminum nanoparticle water and wet air oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Lozhkomoev, Aleksandr S. Glazkova, Elena A. Svarovskaya, Natalia V. Bakina, Olga V. Kazantsev, Sergey O. Lerner, Marat I.

    2015-10-27

    The oxidation processes of the electrically exploded aluminum nanopowders in water and in wet air are examined in the paper. The morphology of the intermediate reaction products of aluminum oxidation has been studied using the transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that the aluminum nanopowder water oxidation causes the formation of the hollow spheres with mesoporous boehmite nanosheets coating. The wedge-like bayerite particles are formed during aluminum nanopowder wet air oxidation.

  6. Absolute and convective instabilities in the air-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogucki, Darek J.

    2002-11-01

    I have carried out the air-water a generalized Holmboe model of the air-water interface. I have analytically investigate the onset of instabilities of both spatial and temporal modes. The model addresses the onset of the primary linear instability in the stratified shear flow at the air-sea interface. It consists of four layers characterized by different density, velocity, and vorticity. I have determined the type of instability: convective or absolute and characterized their evolution in space and time. This effort is directly applicable to short wind over ocean surface ('cat's paw'), which are highly intermittent (duration 200 s) but very efficient in destabilizing air-sea boundary and possibly contribute to air-sea gas exchange.

  7. 2-in-1 shampoo technology: state-of-the-art shampoo and conditioner in one.

    PubMed

    Rushton, H; Gummer, C L; Flasch, H

    1994-01-01

    Consumers have expressed a need for cleaning and conditioning in one step. Conventional shampoo technology using anionic surfactants and cationic conditioners results in charge interaction and complexing of the ingredients. Neither shampoo nor conditioners achieves the desired result. The successful solution was to incorporate charge neutral dimethicone conditioning ingredients, suspended as microfine droplets within complex crystal lattices, into anionic surfactant shampoo technology. The same solution has also been applied to amphoteric surfactant systems. This provides complete cleaning, and hair conditioning fully equal to separate conditioners without the problems of sebum interactions and conditioner build-up. This was achieved by keeping the dimethicone in suspension throughout the shampoo process. During rinsing, excess water breaks the crystalline lattice and allows deposition of the dimethicone droplets onto the hair. Full cleaning and conditioning are, therefore, achieved in one application. Dimethicone build-up is not encountered as subsequent washes first remove soil and previously deposited dimethicone. Neither do neutral dimethicones show any reactions with sebum. The development of effective 2-in-1 technology has had a major impact on shampoo technology and consumer habits and practices. This has significantly changed the way consumers care for their hair.

  8. Simulation Models of Leaf Area Index and Yield for Cotton Grown with Different Soil Conditioners.

    PubMed

    Su, Lijun; Wang, Quanjiu; Wang, Chunxia; Shan, Yuyang

    2015-01-01

    Simulation models of leaf area index (LAI) and yield for cotton can provide a theoretical foundation for predicting future variations in yield. This paper analyses the increase in LAI and the relationships between LAI, dry matter, and yield for cotton under three soil conditioners near Korla, Xinjiang, China. Dynamic changes in cotton LAI were evaluated using modified logistic, Gaussian, modified Gaussian, log normal, and cubic polynomial models. Universal models for simulating the relative leaf area index (RLAI) were established in which the application rate of soil conditioner was used to estimate the maximum LAI (LAIm). In addition, the relationships between LAIm and dry matter mass, yield, and the harvest index were investigated, and a simulation model for yield is proposed. A feasibility analysis of the models indicated that the cubic polynomial and Gaussian models were less accurate than the other three models for simulating increases in RLAI. Despite significant differences in LAIs under the type and amount of soil conditioner applied, LAIm could be described by aboveground dry matter using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Moreover, the simulation model for cotton yield based on LAIm and the harvest index presented in this work provided important theoretical insights for improving water use efficiency in cotton cultivation and for identifying optimal application rates of soil conditioners.

  9. Air-water gas exchange of toxaphene in Lake Superior.

    PubMed

    Jantunen, Liisa M; Bidleman, Terry F

    2003-06-01

    Parallel air and water samples were collected in Lake Superior during August 1996 and May 1997, to determine the levels and air-water exchange direction of toxaphene. Concentration of toxaphene in water did not vary across Lake Superior or between seasons (averaging 918 +/- 218 pg/L) but atmospheric levels were lower in May (12 +/- 4.6 pg/m3) than in August (28 +/- 10 pg/m3). Two recalcitrant congeners, Parlar 26 and 50, also were determined. These congeners were enriched in the air samples, compared to a standard of technical toxaphene, but not in the water. Water-air fugacity ratios varied from 1.4 to 2.6 in August and 1.3 to 4.7 in May, implying volatilization of toxaphene from the lake. Estimated net fluxes ranged from 5.4 to 13 and 1.8 to 6.4 nm/m2d, respectively. The temperature dependence of toxaphene partial pressure (P) in air was log P/Pa = -3.291/T(a) + 1.67, where T(a) is air temperature. By using this relationship, the atmospheric levels of toxaphene, fugacity ratios, and net fluxes were estimated for the entire year. Fugacity ratios were highest in the winter and lowest in the summer; thus toxaphene was predicted to undergo net volatilization from the lake during all months. A net removal of approximately 220 kg/year by gas exchange was estimated.

  10. Minimizing the water and air impacts of unconventional energy extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    Unconventional energy generates income and, done well, can reduce air pollution compared to other fossil fuels and even water use compared to fossil fuels and nuclear energy. Alternatively, it could slow the adoption of renewables and, done poorly, release toxic chemicals into water and air. Based on research to date, some primary threats to water resources come from surface spills, wastewater disposal, and drinking-water contamination through poor well integrity. For air resources, an increase in volatile organic compounds and air toxics locally is a potential health threat, but the switch from coal to natural gas for electricity generation will reduce sulfur, nitrogen, mercury, and particulate pollution regionally. Critical needs for future research include data for 1) estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) of unconventional hydrocarbons; 2) the potential for further reductions of water requirements and chemical toxicity; 3) whether unconventional resource development alters the frequency of well-integrity failures; 4) potential contamination of surface and ground waters from drilling and spills; and 5) the consequences of greenhouse gases and air pollution on ecosystems and human health.

  11. Forced convection heat transfer to air/water vapor mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, D. R.; Florschuetz, L. W.

    1984-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficients were measured using both dry and humid air in the same forced convection cooling scheme and were compared using appropriate nondimensional parameters (Nusselt, Prandtl and Reynolds numbers). A forced convection scheme with a complex flow field, two dimensional arrays of circular jets with crossflow, was utilized with humidity ratios (mass ratio of water vapor to air) up to 0.23. The dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity and specific heat of air, steam and air/steam mixtures are examined. Methods for determining gaseous mixture properties from the properties of their pure components are reviewed as well as methods for determining these properties with good confidence. The need for more experimentally determined property data for humid air is discussed. It is concluded that dimensionless forms of forced convection heat transfer data and empirical correlations based on measurements with dry air may be applied to conditions involving humid air with the same confidence as for the dry air case itself, provided that the thermophysical properties of the humid air mixtures are known with the same confidence as their dry air counterparts.

  12. Forced convection heat transfer to air/water vapor mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, D. R.; Florschuetz, L. W.

    1984-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficients were measured using both dry and humid air in the same forced convection cooling scheme and were compared using appropriate nondimensional parameters (Nusselt, Prandtl and Reynolds numbers). A forced convection scheme with a complex flow field, two dimensional arrays of circular jets with crossflow, was utilized with humidity ratios (mass ratio of water vapor to air) up to 0.23. The dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity and specific heat of air, steam and air/steam mixtures are examined. Methods for determining gaseous mixture properties from the properties of their pure components are reviewed as well as methods for determining these properties with good confidence. The need for more experimentally determined property data for humid air is discussed. It is concluded that dimensionless forms of forced convection heat transfer data and empirical correlations based on measurements with dry air may be applied to conditions involving humid air with the same confidence as for the dry air case itself, provided that the thermophysical properties of the humid air mixtures are known with the same confidence as their dry air counterparts.

  13. Interrelationships of petiolar air canal architecture, water depth, and convective air flow in Nymphaea odorata (Nymphaeaceae).

    PubMed

    Richards, Jennifer H; Kuhn, David N; Bishop, Kristin

    2012-12-01

    Nymphaea odorata grows in water up to 2 m deep, producing fewer larger leaves in deeper water. This species has a convective flow system that moves gases from younger leaves through submerged parts to older leaves, aerating submerged parts. Petiolar air canals are the convective flow pathways. This study describes the structure of these canals, how this structure varies with water depth, and models how convective flow varies with depth. • Nymphaea odorata plants were grown at water depths from 30 to 90 cm. Lamina area, petiolar cross-sectional area, and number and area of air canals were measured. Field-collected leaves and leaves from juvenile plants were analyzed similarly. Using these data and data from the literature, we modeled how convective flow changes with water depth. • Petioles of N. odorata produce two central pairs of air canals; additional pairs are added peripherally, and succeeding pairs are smaller. The first three pairs account for 96% of air canal area. Air canals form 24% of petiolar cross-sectional area. Petiolar and air canal cross-sectional areas increase with water depth. Petiolar area scales with lamina area, but the slope of this relationship is lower in 90 cm water than at shallower depths. In our model, the rate of convective flow varied with depth and with the balance of influx to efflux leaves. • Air canals in N. odorata petioles increase in size and number in deeper water but at a decreasing amount in relation to lamina area. Convective flow also depends on the number of influx to efflux laminae.

  14. Air-to-water heat pumps for the home

    SciTech Connect

    Bodzin, S.

    1997-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters may be on the rise again. Retrofitters have shied away from this form of water heating due to concerns about cost, moise, efficiency, and maintaenance. Recent advances have overcome some of these problems and are helping the technology find a niche in both hot and cold climates. The topics covered in this article include the following: how heat pump water heaters work; air source from where to where, including air conditioning, heat recovery ventilation, hybrid systems; nuisances; maintenance; costs; to install or not to install; performance: a trick to quantify. 2 figs.

  15. Cold water aquifer storage. [air conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddell, D. L.; Davison, R. R.; Harris, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    A working prototype system is described in which water is pumped from an aquifer at 70 F in the winter time, chilled to a temperature of less than 50 F, injected into a ground-water aquifer, stored for a period of several months, pumped back to the surface in the summer time. A total of 8.1 million gallons of chilled water at an average temperature of 48 F were injected. This was followed by a storage period of 100 days. The recovery cycle was completed a year later with a total of 8.1 million gallons recovered. Approximately 20 percent of the chill energy was recovered.

  16. Plants Clean Air and Water for Indoor Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Wolverton Environmental Services Inc., founded by longtime government environmental scientist B.C. "Bill" Wolverton, is an environmental consulting firm that gives customers access to the results of his decades of cutting-edge bioremediation research. Findings about how to use plants to improve indoor air quality have been published in dozens of NASA technical papers and in the book, "How to Grow Fresh Air: 50 Houseplants That Purify Your Home or Office." The book has now been translated into 12 languages and has been on the shelves of bookstores for nearly 10 years. A companion book, "Growing Clean Water: Nature's Solution to Water Pollution," explains how plants can clean waste water. Other discoveries include that the more air that is allowed to circulate through the roots of the plants, the more effective they are at cleaning polluted air; and that plants play a psychological role in welfare in that people recover from illness faster in the presence of plants. Wolverton Environmental is also working in partnership with Syracuse University, to engineer systems consisting of modular wicking filters tied into duct work and water supplies, essentially tying plant-based filters into heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Also, the company has recently begun to assess the ability of the EcoPlanter to remove formaldehyde from interior environments. Wolverton Environmental is also in talks with designers of the new Stennis Visitor's Center, who are interested in using its designs for indoor air-quality filters

  17. Water treatment: Air stripping. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of air stripping techniques for wastewater, groundwater, and soil decontamination. The advantages and disadvantages of air stripping over other water treatment processes are discussed. The cleanup of organic emissions generated by air stripping is also considered. Other water treatment processes are discussed in separate bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 212 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Water treatment: Air stripping. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of air stripping techniques for wastewater, groundwater, and soil decontamination. The advantages and disadvantages of air stripping over other water treatment processes are discussed. The cleanup of organic emissions generated by air stripping is also considered. Other water treatment processes are discussed in separate bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 225 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Cell module and fuel conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, D. Q., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The results of the completed tests on Stack 561 and the on-going tests of 562 (23 cell stacks of the MK-1 and M-2 designs respectively) are reported and their performance is compared. Results of the on-going endurance test of Stack 560 (5 cell, MK-2) are reported. Plans for fabrication of Stacks 563 and 564 (23 cell stacks of the MK-1 and MK-2 design) are summarized. Results of the burner tests are given. Excellent performance was achieved on simulated anode exhaust gas over very wide load and air/fuel ranges.

  20. Interrelationships of petiole air canal architecture, water depth and convective air flow in Nymphaea odorata (Nymphaeaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Premise of the study--Nymphaea odorata grows in water up to 2 m deep, producing fewer, larger leaves in deeper water. This species has a convective flow system that moves gases from younger leaves through submerged parts to older leaves, aerating submerged parts. Petiole air canals are in the conv...

  1. Microencapsulation using an oil-in-water-in-air 'dry water emulsion'.

    PubMed

    Carter, Benjamin O; Weaver, Jonathan V M; Wang, Weixing; Spiller, David G; Adams, Dave J; Cooper, Andrew I

    2011-08-07

    We describe the first example of a tri-phasic oil-in-water-in-air 'dry water emulsion'. The method combines highly stable oil-in-water emulsions prepared using branched copolymer surfactants, with aqueous droplet encapsulation using 'dry water' technology.

  2. Femtosecond-laser-induced shockwaves in water generated at an air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Strycker, B D; Springer, M M; Traverso, A J; Kolomenskii, A A; Kattawar, G W; Sokolov, A V

    2013-10-07

    We report generation of femtosecond-laser-induced shockwaves at an air-water interface by millijoule femtosecond laser pulses. We document and discuss the main processes accompanying this phenomenon, including light emission, development of the ablation plume in the air, formation of an ablation cavity, and, subsequently, a bubble developing in water. We also discuss the possibility of remotely controlling the characteristics of laser-induced sound waves in water through linear acoustic superposition of sound waves that results from millijoule femtosecond laser-pulse interaction with an air-water interface, thus opening up the possibility of remote acoustic applications in oceanic and riverine environments.

  3. 33 CFR 334.490 - Atlantic Ocean off Georgia Coast; air-to-air and air-to-water gunnery and bombing ranges for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zones—(1) For fighter aircraft. An area approximately 30 miles... Officer, 2d Bombardment Wing, Hunter Air Force Base, Savannah, Georgia, and such agencies as he may...; air-to-air and air-to-water gunnery and bombing ranges for fighter and bombardment aircraft, U.S....

  4. 33 CFR 334.490 - Atlantic Ocean off Georgia Coast; air-to-air and air-to-water gunnery and bombing ranges for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zones—(1) For fighter aircraft. An area approximately 30 miles... Officer, 2d Bombardment Wing, Hunter Air Force Base, Savannah, Georgia, and such agencies as he may...; air-to-air and air-to-water gunnery and bombing ranges for fighter and bombardment aircraft, U.S....

  5. 33 CFR 334.490 - Atlantic Ocean off Georgia Coast; air-to-air and air-to-water gunnery and bombing ranges for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zones—(1) For fighter aircraft. An area approximately 30 miles... Officer, 2d Bombardment Wing, Hunter Air Force Base, Savannah, Georgia, and such agencies as he may...; air-to-air and air-to-water gunnery and bombing ranges for fighter and bombardment aircraft, U.S....

  6. A novel membrane device for the removal of water vapor and water droplets from air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Rod; Newbold, David D.; Mccray, Scott B.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Kliss, Mark

    1992-01-01

    One of the key challenges facing NASA engineers is the development of systems for separating liquids and gases in microgravity environments. In this paper, a novel membrane-based phase separator is described. This device, known as a water recovery heat exchanger (WRHEX), overcomes the inherent deficiencies of current phase-separation technology. Specifically, the WRHEX cools and removes water vapor or water droplets from feed-air streams without the use of a vacuum or centrifugal force. As is shown in this paper, only a low-power air blower and a small stream of recirculated cool water is required for WRHEX operation. This paper presents the results of tests using this novel membrane device over a wide range of operating conditions. The data show that the WRHEX produces a dry air stream containing no entrained or liquid water - even when the feed air contains water droplets or mist. An analysis of the operation of the WRHEX is presented.

  7. Numerical modelling of air-water flows in sewer drops.

    PubMed

    Beceiro, Paula; Almeida, Maria do Céu; Matos, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    The presence of dissolved oxygen (DO) in water flows is an important factor to ensure the aerobic conditions recognised as beneficial to preventing the occurrence of detrimental effects. The incorporation of DO in wastewater flowing in sewer systems is a process widely investigated in order to quantify the effect of continuous reaeration through the air-liquid interface or air entrained due to the presence of singularities such as drops or junctions. The location of sewer drops to enhance air entrainment and subsequently reaeration is an effective practice to promote aerobic conditions in sewers. In the present paper, vertical drops, backdrops and stepped drops were modelled using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code FLOW-3D(®) to evaluate the air-water flows due to the turbulence induced by the presence of these types of structures. An assessment of the hydraulic variables and an analysis of the air entrainment based on the available experimental studies were carried out. The results of the CFD models for these structures were validated using measurements of discharge, pressure head and water depth obtained in the corresponding physical models. A very good fit was obtained for the hydraulic behaviour. After validation of numerical models, analysis of the air entrainment was carried out.

  8. Water Resources Investigations at Edwards Air Force Base since 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sneed, Michelle; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB) in southern California (fig. 1) has relied on ground water to meet its water-supply needs. The extraction of ground water has led to two major problems that can directly affect the mission of EAFB: declining water levels (more than 120 ft since the 1920s) and land subsidence, a gradual downward movement of the land surface (more than 4 ft since the late 1920s). As water levels decline, this valuable resource becomes depleted, thus requiring mitigating measures. Land subsidence has caused cracked (fissured) runways and accelerated erosion on Rogers lakebed. In 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, began investigations of the effects of declining water levels and land subsidence at EAFB and possible mitigation measures, such as the injection of imported surface water into the ground-water system. The cooperative investigations included data collection and analyses, numerical simulations of ground-water flow and land subsidence, and development of a preliminary simulation-optimization model. The results of these investigations indicate that the injection of imported water may help to control land subsidence; however, the potential ground-water-quality impacts are unknown.

  9. Cell module and fuel conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, D. Q., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The computer code for the detailed analytical model of the MK-2 stacks is described. An ERC proprietary matrix is incorporated in the stacks. The mechanical behavior of the stack during thermal cycles under compression was determined. A 5 cell stack of the MK-2 design was fabricated and tested. Designs for the next three stacks were selected and component fabrication initiated. A 3 cell stack which verified the use of wet assembly and a new acid fill procedure were fabricated and tested. Components for the 2 kW test facility were received or fabricated and construction of the facility is underway. The definition of fuel and water is used in a study of the fuel conditioning subsystem. Kinetic data on several catalysts, both crushed and pellets, was obtained in the differential reactor. A preliminary definition of the equipment requirements for treating tap and recovered water was developed.

  10. Water Tank with Capillary Air/Liquid Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Smith, Frederick; Edeen, Gregg; Almlie, Jay C.

    2010-01-01

    A bladderless water tank (see figure) has been developed that contains capillary devices that allow it to be filled and emptied, as needed, in microgravity. When filled with water, the tank shields human occupants of a spacecraft against cosmic radiation. A membrane that is permeable by air but is hydrophobic (neither wettable nor permeable by liquid water) covers one inside surface of the tank. Grooves between the surface and the membrane allow air to flow through vent holes in the surface as the tank is filled or drained. A margin of wettable surface surrounds the edges of the membrane, and all the other inside tank surfaces are also wettable. A fill/drain port is located in one corner of the tank and is covered with a hydrophilic membrane. As filling begins, water runs from the hydrophilic membrane into the corner fillets of the tank walls. Continued filling in the absence of gravity will result in a single contiguous air bubble that will be vented through the hydrophobic membrane. The bubble will be reduced in size until it becomes spherical and smaller than the tank thickness. Draining the tank reverses the process. Air is introduced through the hydrophobic membrane, and liquid continuity is maintained with the fill/drain port through the corner fillets. Even after the tank is emptied, as long as the suction pressure on the hydrophilic membrane does not exceed its bubble point, no air will be drawn into the liquid line.

  11. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...

  12. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...

  13. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. 870.2050 Section 870.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A biopotential amplifier and...

  14. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. 870.2050 Section 870.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A biopotential amplifier and...

  15. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. 870.2050 Section 870.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A biopotential amplifier and...

  16. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...

  17. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. 870.2050 Section 870.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A biopotential amplifier and...

  18. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. 870.2050 Section 870.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A biopotential amplifier and...

  19. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...

  20. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...

  1. Economics of water injected air screw compressor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venu Madhav, K.; Kovačević, A.

    2015-08-01

    There is a growing need for compressed air free of entrained oil to be used in industry. In many cases it can be supplied by oil flooded screw compressors with multi stage filtration systems, or by oil free screw compressors. However, if water injected screw compressors can be made to operate reliably, they could be more efficient and therefore cheaper to operate. Unfortunately, to date, such machines have proved to be insufficiently reliable and not cost effective. This paper describes an investigation carried out to determine the current limitations of water injected screw compressor systems and how these could be overcome in the 15-315 kW power range and delivery pressures of 6-10 bar. Modern rotor profiles and approach to sealing and cooling allow reasonably inexpensive air end design. The prototype of the water injected screw compressor air system was built and tested for performance and reliability. The water injected compressor system was compared with the oil injected and oil free compressor systems of the equivalent size including the economic analysis based on the lifecycle costs. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that water injected screw compressor systems could be designed to deliver clean air free of oil contamination with a better user value proposition than the oil injected or oil free screw compressor systems over the considered range of operations.

  2. Antimicrobial and antifungal effects of tissue conditioners containing a photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Uchimaru, Masayuki; Sakai, Takako; Moroi, Ryoji; Shiota, Susumu; Shibata, Yukie; Deguchi, Mikito; Sakai, Hidetaka; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Terada, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the antimicrobial/antifungal ability of a tissue conditioner containing a photocatalyst for Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The photocatalyst was mixed with tissue conditioners powders at concentrations of 0, 10, 15, and 20 wt%. Tissue conditioners powders containing a photocatalyst were mixed with liquid to make test specimens. Test specimens inoculated by each microorganism were irradiated by ultraviolet light for 0-, 2- and 4 hours. The antimicrobial/antifungal effects were evaluated by the CFU technique. The CFU values of each microorganism for tissue conditioners containing a photocatalyst showed significant decrease following UV-irradiation. The improvement in antimicrobial/antifungal effects was concomitant with the increase of the mixing ratio and the irradiation time. Therefore, the results indicated that tissue conditioners containing a photocatalyst might have photocatalytic ability.

  3. An Optimization Approach to Analyzing the Effect of Supply Water and Air Temperatures in Planning an Air Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karino, Naoki; Shiba, Takashi; Yokoyama, Ryohei; Ito, Koichi

    In planning an air conditioning system, supply water and air temperatures are important factors from the viewpoint of cost reduction. For example, lower temperature supply water and air reduce the coefficient of performance of a refrigeration machine, and increase the thickness of heat insulation material. However, they enable larger temperature differences, and reduce equipment sizes and power demand. The purposes of this paper are to propose an optimal planning method for a cold air distribution system, and to analyze the effect of supply water and air temperatures on the long-term economics through a numerical study for an office building. As a result, it is shown that the proposed method effectively determines supply water and air temperatures for a cold air distribution system, and that the influence of supply air temperature is larger than that of supply water temperature on the long-term economics.

  4. Cell module and fuel conditioner development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, D. Q., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The test results of and post test analysis of Stack 559 are reported. The design features and construction status of Stacks 560, 561, 562 and 563 are described. The measurements of cell materials compressibility are rationalized and summarized and an explanation of their uses is given. Preliminary results of a manifold material/coating survey are given. The results of shift converter catalyst performance tests and reforming catalyst aging tests are reported. State points for full load and part load operation of the fuel conditioning subsystem tabulated. Work on the data base for the fuel conditioner ancillary subsystems is summarized.

  5. Cell module and fuel conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, D. Q., Jr.

    1980-04-01

    Stack tests indicate that the discrepancies between calculated and measured temperature profiles are due to reactant cross-over and a lower than expected thermal conductivity of cells. Preliminary results indicate that acceptable contact resistance between cooling plane halves can be achieved without the use of paper. The preliminary design of the enclosure, definition of required labor and equipment for manufacturing repeating components, and the assembly procedures for the benchwork design were developed. Fabrication of components for a second 5-cell stack of the MK-2 design and a second 23-cell stack of the MK-1 design was started. The definition of water and fuel for the reforming subsystem was developed along with a preliminary definition of the control system for the subsystem. The construction and shakedown of the differential catalytic reactor was completed and testing of the first catalyst initiated.

  6. Cell module and fuel conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, D. Q., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Stack tests indicate that the discrepancies between calculated and measured temperature profiles are due to reactant cross-over and a lower than expected thermal conductivity of cells. Preliminary results indicate that acceptable contact resistance between cooling plane halves can be achieved without the use of paper. The preliminary design of the enclosure, definition of required labor and equipment for manufacturing repeating components, and the assembly procedures for the benchwork design were developed. Fabrication of components for a second 5-cell stack of the MK-2 design and a second 23-cell stack of the MK-1 design was started. The definition of water and fuel for the reforming subsystem was developed along with a preliminary definition of the control system for the subsystem. The construction and shakedown of the differential catalytic reactor was completed and testing of the first catalyst initiated.

  7. Correlation of air temperature above water-air sections with the forecasted low level clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huseynov, N. Sh.; Malikov, B. M.

    2009-04-01

    As a case study approach the development of low clouds forecasting methods in correlation with air temperature transformational variations on the sections "water-air" is surveyed. It was evident, that transformational variations of air temperature mainly depend on peculiarities and value of advective variations of temperature. DT is the differences of initial temperature on section water-air in started area, from contrast temperature of water surface along a trajectory of movement of air masses and from the temperature above water surface in a final point of a trajectory. Main values of transformational variations of air temperature at advection of a cold masses is 0.530C•h, and at advection of warm masses is -0.370C•h. There was dimensionless quantity K determined and implemented into practice which was characterized with difference of water temperature in forecasting point and air temperature in an initial point in the ratio of dew-points deficiency at the forecasting area. It follows, that the appropriate increasing or decreasing of K under conditions of cold and warm air masses advection, contributes decreasing of low clouds level. References: Abramovich K.G.: Conditions of development and forecasting of low level clouds. vol. #78, 124 pp., Hydrometcenter USSR 1973. Abramovich K.G.: Variations of low clouds level // Meteorology and Hydrology, vol. # 5, 30-41, Moscow, 1968. Budiko M.I.: Empirical assessment of climatic changes toward the end of XX century // Meteorology and Hydrology, vol. #12, 5-13, Moscow, 1999. Buykov M.V.: Computational modeling of daily evolutions of boundary layer of atmosphere at the presence of clouds and fog // Meteorology and Hydrology, vol. # 4, 35-44, Moscow, 1981. Huseynov N.Sh. Transformational variations of air temperature above Caspian Sea / Proceedings of Conference On Climate And Protection of Environment, 118-120, Baku, 1999. Huseynov N.Sh.: Consideration of advective and transformational variations of air temperature in

  8. Water and Air Measures That Make 'PureSense'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Each day, we read about mounting global concerns regarding the ability to sustain supplies of clean water and to reduce air contamination. With water and air serving as life s most vital elements, it is important to know when these environmental necessities may be contaminated, in order to eliminate exposure immediately. The ability to respond requires an understanding of the conditions impacting safety and quality, from source to tap for water, and from outdoor to indoor environments for air. Unfortunately, the "time-to-know" is not immediate with many current technologies, which is a major problem, given the greater likelihood of risky situations in today s world. Accelerating alert and response times requires new tools, methods, and technologies. New solutions are needed to engage in more rapid detection, analysis, and response. This is the focus of a company called PureSense Environmental, Inc., which evolved out of a unique relationship with NASA. The need for real-time management and operations over the quality of water and air, and the urgency to provide new solutions, were reinforced by the events of September 11, 2001. This, and subsequent events, exposed many of the vulnerabilities facing the multiple agencies tasked with working in tandem to protect communities from harmful disaster. Much has been done since September 11 to accelerate responses to environmental contamination. Partnerships were forged across the public and private sectors to explore, test, and use new tools. Methods and technologies were adopted to move more astutely from proof-of-concept to working solutions.

  9. Propagation of density disturbances in air-water flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nassos, G. P.

    1969-01-01

    Study investigated the behavior of density waves propagating vertically in an atmospheric pressure air-water system using a technique based on the correlation between density change and electric resistivity. This information is of interest to industries working with heat transfer systems and fluid power and control systems.

  10. Earth, Air, Fire and Water in Our Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lievesley, Tara

    2007-01-01

    The idea that everything is made of the four "elements", earth, air, fire and water, goes back to the ancient Greeks. In this article, the author talks about the origins of ideas about the elements. The author provides an account that attempts to summarise thousands of years of theoretical development of the elements in a thousand words or so.

  11. MONITORING CYCLICAL AIR-WATER ELEMENTAL MERCURY EXCHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous experimental work has demonstrated that elemental mercury evasion from natural water displays a diel cycle; evasion rates during the day can be two to three times evasion rates observed at night. A study with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) found that diurnal PCB air/wa...

  12. Earth, Air, Fire and Water in Our Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lievesley, Tara

    2007-01-01

    The idea that everything is made of the four "elements", earth, air, fire and water, goes back to the ancient Greeks. In this article, the author talks about the origins of ideas about the elements. The author provides an account that attempts to summarise thousands of years of theoretical development of the elements in a thousand words or so.

  13. External exposure to radionuclides in air, water, and soil

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.; Ryman, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    Federal Guidance Report No. 12 tabulates dose coefficients for external exposure to photons and electrons emitted by radionuclides distributed in air, water, and soil. The dose coefficients are intended for use by Federal Agencies in calculating the dose equivalent to organs and tissues of the body.

  14. 18 CFR 1316.5 - Clean Air and Water Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Water Acts (a) If performance of this contract would involve the use of facilities which have given rise... which gave rise to said conviction. If no such statement is submitted, submission of an offer... facilities which have given rise to a conviction under section 113(c)(1) of the Clean Air Act or section...

  15. 18 CFR 1316.5 - Clean Air and Water Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Water Acts (a) If performance of this contract would involve the use of facilities which have given rise... which gave rise to said conviction. If no such statement is submitted, submission of an offer... facilities which have given rise to a conviction under section 113(c)(1) of the Clean Air Act or section...

  16. 21 CFR 874.1800 - Air or water caloric stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... vestibular function testing of a patient's body balance system. The vestibular stimulation of the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Air or water caloric stimulator. 874.1800 Section 874.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  17. Water, air, Earth and cosmic radiation.

    PubMed

    Bassez, Marie-Paule

    2015-06-01

    In the context of the origin of life, rocks are considered mainly for catalysis and adsorption-desorption processes. Here it is shown how some rocks evolve in energy and might induce synthesis of molecules of biological interest. Radioactive rocks are a source of thermal energy and water radiolysis producing molecular hydrogen, H2. Mafic and ultramafic rocks evolve in water and dissolved carbon dioxide releasing thermal energy and H2. Peridotites and basalts contain ferromagnesian minerals which transform through exothermic reactions with the generation of heat. These reactions might be triggered by any heating process such as radioactive decay, hydrothermal and subduction zones or post-shock of meteorite impacts. H2 might then be generated from endothermic hydrolyses of the ferromagnesian minerals olivine and pyroxene. In both cases of mafic and radioactive rocks, production of CO might occur through high temperature hydrogenation of CO2. CO, instead of CO2, was proven to be necessary in experiments synthesizing biological-type macromolecules with a gaseous mixture of CO, N2 and H2O. In the geological context, N2 is present in the environment, and the activation source might arise from cosmic radiation and/or radionuclides. Ferromagnesian and radioactive rocks might consequently be a starting point of an hydrothermal chemical evolution towards the abiotic formation of biological molecules. The two usually separate worlds of rocks and life are shown to be connected through molecular and thermodynamic chemical evolution. This concept has been proposed earlier by the author (Bassez J Phys: Condens Matter 15:L353-L361, 2003, 2008a, 2008b; Bassez Orig Life Evol Biosph 39(3-4):223-225, 2009; Bassez et al. 2011; Bassez et al. Orig Life Evol Biosph 42(4):307-316, 2012, Bassez 2013) without thermodynamic details. This concept leads to signatures of prebiotic chemistry such as radionuclides and also iron and magnesium carbonates associated with serpentine and/or talc

  18. Water, Air, Earth and Cosmic Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassez, Marie-Paule

    2015-06-01

    In the context of the origin of life, rocks are considered mainly for catalysis and adsorption-desorption processes. Here it is shown how some rocks evolve in energy and might induce synthesis of molecules of biological interest. Radioactive rocks are a source of thermal energy and water radiolysis producing molecular hydrogen, H2. Mafic and ultramafic rocks evolve in water and dissolved carbon dioxide releasing thermal energy and H2. Peridotites and basalts contain ferromagnesian minerals which transform through exothermic reactions with the generation of heat. These reactions might be triggered by any heating process such as radioactive decay, hydrothermal and subduction zones or post-shock of meteorite impacts. H2 might then be generated from endothermic hydrolyses of the ferromagnesian minerals olivine and pyroxene. In both cases of mafic and radioactive rocks, production of CO might occur through high temperature hydrogenation of CO2. CO, instead of CO2, was proven to be necessary in experiments synthesizing biological-type macromolecules with a gaseous mixture of CO, N2 and H2O. In the geological context, N2 is present in the environment, and the activation source might arise from cosmic radiation and/or radionuclides. Ferromagnesian and radioactive rocks might consequently be a starting point of an hydrothermal chemical evolution towards the abiotic formation of biological molecules. The two usually separate worlds of rocks and life are shown to be connected through molecular and thermodynamic chemical evolution. This concept has been proposed earlier by the author (Bassez J Phys: Condens Matter 15:L353-L361, 2003, 2008a, 2008b; Bassez Orig Life Evol Biosph 39(3-4):223-225, 2009; Bassez et al. 2011; Bassez et al. Orig Life Evol Biosph 42(4):307-316, 2012, Bassez 2013) without thermodynamic details. This concept leads to signatures of prebiotic chemistry such as radionuclides and also iron and magnesium carbonates associated with serpentine and/or talc, which

  19. Air and water quality monitor assessment of life support subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Ken; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Holder, D.; Humphries, R.

    1988-01-01

    Preprotype air revitalization and water reclamation subsystems (Mole Sieve, Sabatier, Static Feed Electrolyzer, Trace Contaminant Control, and Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporative Subsystem) were operated and tested independently and in an integrated arrangement. During each test, water and/or gas samples were taken from each subsystem so that overall subsystem performance could be determined. The overall test design and objectives for both subsystem and integrated subsystem tests were limited, and no effort was made to meet water or gas specifications. The results of chemical analyses for each of the participating subsystems are presented along with other selected samples which were analyzed for physical properties and microbiologicals.

  20. Air and water quality monitor assessment of life support subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Ken; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Holder, D.; Humphries, R.

    1988-01-01

    Preprotype air revitalization and water reclamation subsystems (Mole Sieve, Sabatier, Static Feed Electrolyzer, Trace Contaminant Control, and Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporative Subsystem) were operated and tested independently and in an integrated arrangement. During each test, water and/or gas samples were taken from each subsystem so that overall subsystem performance could be determined. The overall test design and objectives for both subsystem and integrated subsystem tests were limited, and no effort was made to meet water or gas specifications. The results of chemical analyses for each of the participating subsystems are presented along with other selected samples which were analyzed for physical properties and microbiologicals.

  1. Nonlinear Acoustics at the Air-Water Free Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pree, Seth; Naranjo, Brian; Putterman, Seth

    2016-11-01

    According to linear acoustics, airborne sound incident on a water surface transmits only a tenth of a percent of its energy. This difficulty of transmitting energy across the water surface limits the feasibility of standoff ultrasound imaging. We propose to overcome this long standing problem by developing new methods of coupling into the medium at standoff. In particular, we believe that the acoustic nonlinearity of both the air and the medium may yield a range of effects in the vicinity of the surface permitting an efficient transmission of ultrasound from the air into the medium. The recent commercial availability of parametric speakers that deliver modulated 100kHz ultrasound at 135dB to nonlinearly generate music at 95dB provides an interesting platform with which to revisit the transmission of sound across acoustic impedance mismatches. We show results of experimental studies of the behavior of the air-water free surface when subjected to large amplitude acoustic pressures from the air. This work was supported by the ARO STIR program.

  2. Oxidation of fine aluminum powders with water and air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antipina, S. A.; Zmanovskii, S. V.; Gromov, A. A.; Konovalov, A. S.

    2017-01-01

    Fine aluminum powders (RA20-RA60 grades, SUAL-PM) with specific surface area from 0.37 to 0.73 m2/g and high aluminum contents (95-98 wt %) are studied. The powders are found to be waterwettable without additions of surfactants and characterized by high rates of gas liberation in reacting with a calcium hydroxide solution under normal conditions. All RA20-RA60 powders are shown to be highly reactive upon oxidation with air and close to aluminum nanopowders in the parameters of their activity when heated in air. Their stability in water could prevent active (metallic) aluminum losses during their storage.

  3. High Efficiency Integrated Space Conditioning, Water Heating and Air Distribution System for HUD-Code Manufactured Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Henry DeLima; Joe Akin; Joseph Pietsch

    2008-09-14

    Recognizing the need for new space conditioning and water heating systems for manufactured housing, DeLima Associates assembled a team to develop a space conditioning system that would enhance comfort conditions while also reducing energy usage at the systems level. The product, Comboflair® was defined as a result of a needs analysis of project sponsors and industry stakeholders. An integrated system would be developed that would combine a packaged airconditioning system with a small-duct, high-velocity air distribution system. In its basic configuration, the source for space heating would be a gas water heater. The complete system would be installed at the manufactured home factory and would require no site installation work at the homesite as is now required with conventional split-system air conditioners. Several prototypes were fabricated and tested before a field test unit was completed in October 2005. The Comboflair® system, complete with ductwork, was installed in a 1,984 square feet, double-wide manufactured home built by Palm Harbor Homes in Austin, TX. After the home was transported and installed at a Palm Harbor dealer lot in Austin, TX, a data acquisition system was installed for remote data collection. Over 60 parameters were continuously monitored and measurements were transmitted to a remote site every 15 minutes for performance analysis. The Comboflair® system was field tested from February 2006 until April 2007. The cooling system performed in accordance with the design specifications. The heating system initially could not provide the needed capacity at peak heating conditions until the water heater was replaced with a higher capacity standard water heater. All system comfort goals were then met. As a result of field testing, we have identified improvements to be made to specific components for incorporation into production models. The Comboflair® system will be manufactured by Unico, Inc. at their new production facility in St. Louis

  4. Connecting Water Quality With Air Quality Through Microbial Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueker, M. Elias

    Aerosol production from surface waters results in the transfer of aquatic materials (including nutrients and bacteria) to air. These materials can then be transported by onshore winds to land, representing a biogeochemical connection between aquatic and terrestrial systems not normally considered. In urban waterfront environments, this transfer could result in emissions of pathogenic bacteria from contaminated waters. Despite the potential importance of this link, sources, near-shore deposition, identity and viability of microbial aerosols are largely uncharacterized. This dissertation focuses on the environmental and biological mechanisms that define this water-air connection, as a means to build our understanding of the biogeochemical, biogeographical, and public health implications of the transfer of surface water materials to the near-shore environment in both urban and non-urban environments. The effects of tidal height, wind speed and fog on coastal aerosols and microbial content were first quantified on a non-urban coast of Maine, USA. Culture-based, culture-independent, and molecular methods were used to simultaneously sample microbial aerosols while monitoring meteorological parameters. Aerosols at this site displayed clear marine influence and high concentrations of ecologically-relevant nutrients. Coarse aerosol concentrations significantly increased with tidal height, onshore wind speed, and fog presence. Tidal height and fog presence did not significantly influence total microbial aerosol concentrations, but did have a significant effect on culturable microbial aerosol fallout. Molecular analyses of the microbes settling out of near-shore aerosols provided further evidence of local ocean to terrestrial transport of microbes. Aerosol and surface ocean bacterial communities shared species and in general were dominated by organisms previously sampled in marine environments. Fog presence strengthened the microbial connection between water and land through

  5. Biphilic Surfaces for Enhanced Water Collection from Humid Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkoski, Jason; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Luedeman, William

    Surface wettability plays an important role in water recovery, distillation, dehumidification, and heat transfer. The efficiency of each process depends on the rate of droplet nucleation, droplet growth, and mass transfer. Unfortunately, hydrophilic surfaces are good at nucleation but poor at shedding. Hydrophobic surfaces are the reverse. Many plants and animals overcome this tradeoff through biphilic surfaces with patterned wettability. For example, the Stenocara beetle uses hydrophilic patches on a superhydrophobic background to collect fog from air. Cribellate spiders similarly collect fog on their webs through periodic spindle-knot structures. In this study, we investigate the effects of wettability patterns on the rate of water collection from humid air. The steady state rate of water collection per unit area is measured as a function of undercooling, angle of inclination, water contact angle, hydrophilic patch size, patch spacing, area fraction, and patch height relative to the hydrophobic background. We then model each pattern by comparing the potential and kinetic energy of a droplet as it rolls downwards at a fixed angle. The results indicate that the design rules for collecting fog differ from those for condensation from humid air. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Office of Naval Research for financial support through Grant Number N00014-15-1-2107.

  6. Effect of air on water capillary flow in silica nanochannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambrano, Harvey; Walther, Jens; Oyarzua, Elton

    2013-11-01

    Capillarity is a classical topic in fluid dynamics. The fundamental relationship between capillarity and surface tension is solidly established. Nevertheless, capillarity is an active research area especially as the miniaturization of devices is reaching the molecular scale. Currently, with the fabrication of microsystems integrated by nanochannels, a thorough understanding of the transport of fluids in nanoconfinement is required for a successful operation of the functional parts of such devices. In this work, Molecular Dynamics simulations are conducted to study the spontaneous imbibition of water in sub 10 nm silica channels. The capillary filling speed is computed in channels subjected to different air pressures. In order to describe the interactions between the species, an effective force field is developed, which is calibrated by reproducing the water contact angle. The results show that the capillary filling speed qualitatively follows the classical Washburn model, however, quantitatively it is lower than expected. Furthermore, it is observed that the deviations increase as air pressure is higher. We attribute the deviations to amounts of air trapped at the silica-water interface which leads to changes in the dynamics contact angle of the water meniscus.

  7. Use of Surfactants to Decrease Air-Water Interfacial Tension During Sparging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air sparging is a remediation procedure of injecting air into polluted ground water. The primary intention of air sparging is to promote biodegradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the groundwater passing through the treatment sector. Sparging treatment efficiency dep...

  8. Use of Surfactants to Decrease Air-Water Interfacial Tension During Sparging (OKC, OK)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air sparging is a remediation procedure of injecting air into polluted ground water. The primary intention of air sparging is to promote biodegradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the groundwater passing through the treatment sector. Sparging treatment efficiency dep...

  9. Use of Surfactants to Decrease Air-Water Interfacial Tension During Sparging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air sparging is a remediation procedure of injecting air into polluted ground water. The primary intention of air sparging is to promote biodegradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the groundwater passing through the treatment sector. Sparging treatment efficiency dep...

  10. Use of Surfactants to Decrease Air-Water Interfacial Tension During Sparging (OKC, OK)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air sparging is a remediation procedure of injecting air into polluted ground water. The primary intention of air sparging is to promote biodegradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the groundwater passing through the treatment sector. Sparging treatment efficiency dep...

  11. An experimental study of air entrainment and oxygen transfer at a water jet from a nozzle with air holes.

    PubMed

    Baylar, Ahmet; Emiroglu, M Emin

    2004-01-01

    An adequate supply of dissolved oxygen is important in natural rivers and in some water treatment processes. The dissolved oxygen concentration can be enhanced by entraining air bubbles in a receiving pool. When a water jet impinges a receiving pool at rest, air bubbles may be entrained and carried away below the pool free surface. This process is called plunging water jet entrainment and aeration. This paper describes an experimental study of the air entrainment rate and oxygen transfer efficiency of circular nozzles with and without air holes. In particular, the effect of varying the number, positions, and open/close status of the air holes is investigated. A negative pressure occurred depending on the air holes opened on the circular nozzles. This phenomenon affected the water jet expansion, water jet shape, air entrainment, and bubble penetration depth and, hence, the oxygen transfer efficiency. It was demonstrated that the air entrainment rate and the oxygen transfer efficiency of the circular nozzles with air holes were better than those of the circular nozzles without air holes. Therefore, adding air holes to a simple, circular nozzle could lead to a significantly increased air entrainment rate and oxygen transfer efficiency.

  12. Persistent organochlorines in air and water from East Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Iwata, H.; Tanabe, S.; Ouchi, E.; Tatsukawa, R.; Timonin, A.

    1995-12-31

    In order to assess the east Siberia for persistent organochlorine (POC) contaminations such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs, the residue levels in air and water collected from Chaun, Magadan, Khabarovsk and Listvyanka during 1992--1993 have been determined. The levels of atmospheric PCBs and DDTs concentrations in Magadan and Khabarovsk were one to two orders of magnitude higher than the global baseline levels, while the prominent contaminations in water were found in Listvyanka which is in the southwest coast of Lake Baikal. The results suggest that these areas are exposed by different local sources. Chaun, located in the coast of Chaunskaya Guba (Gulf) facing the East Siberian Sea, exhibited the lowest POCs residues. Apart from the concentrations, aerial PCB congener compositions varied with the total concentration levels. Khabarovsk air, where the highest PCB levels (2,860 pg/M{sup 3}) were found, contained mainly tetra and pentachlorobiphenyls. In contrast, samples from Chaun (36--160 pg/M{sup 3}) showed the higher predominance of di and trichlorinated congeners and Magadan air (320--880 pg/M{sup 3}) was a mixed type for both the air. Regarding DDTs composition, high percentages of p,p{prime}-DDT to total DDT compounds in the air from Magadan and Khabarovsk indicate the recent usage. Annual concentrations of aerial POCs in Listvyanka were strongly dependent on air temperature. Hence, heats of vaporization (desorption) for POCs were calculated from the relationships between logarithmic concentrations (partial pressure) and inverse temperatures. The values ranged from 26 kJ/mol to 43 kJ/mol in order of HCB < {alpha}-HCH < {gamma}-HCH < p,p{prime}DDE < total PCBs < p,p{prime}DDT. In addition, highly chlorinated PCBs tended to show higher values than the less chlorinated PCBs. The heats of vaporization estimated from the field survey were lower than those from the laboratory experiments previously reported.

  13. Hydrophobic organic compound partitioning from bulk water to the water/air interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, Örjan; Gschwend, Philip M.

    Partitioning of hydrophobic organic compounds to the interface between water and air may significantly affect the distribution and transfer of many xenobiotic chemicals between vapor and aqueous phases. The fluorescent probe, 1-methylperylene, was used to investigate the affinity of hydrophobic compounds for the water-air interface by varying the ratio of interfacial surface area to water volume in a fused-quartz cuvette. We found that the water-air/water interface partitioning coefficient [ Kw-awi =1.2 mol cm -2awi/(mol ml -1w)] for this polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was quantitatively consistent with partitioning to the same interface but from the airside, recently reported in the literature for less hydrophobic PAHs. Our results demonstrate significant partitioning from bulk water to the water/air interface for a hydrophobicity range relevant to many xenobiotic compounds. Anticipated implications of this process for the environmental chemistry of hydrophobic compounds include retarded gas-phase transport in unsaturated soils, bubble-mediated transport in water, droplet-mediated transport in the atmosphere, and photochemical reactions.

  14. Modeling of membrane processes for air revitalization and water recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, Kevin E.; Foerg, Sandra L.; Dall-Bauman, Liese A.

    1992-01-01

    Gas-separation and reverse-osmosis membrane models are being developed in conjunction with membrane testing at NASA JSC. The completed gas-separation membrane model extracts effective component permeabilities from multicomponent test data, and predicts the effects of flow configuration, operating conditions, and membrane dimensions on module performance. Variable feed- and permeate-side pressures are considered. The model has been applied to test data for hollow-fiber membrane modules with simulated cabin-air feeds. Results are presented for a membrane designed for air drying applications. Extracted permeabilities are used to predict the effect of operating conditions on water enrichment in the permeate. A first-order reverse-osmosis model has been applied to test data for spiral wound membrane modules with a simulated hygiene water feed. The model estimates an effective local component rejection coefficient under pseudosteady-state conditions. Results are used to define requirements for a detailed reverse-osmosis model.

  15. Materials issues in solar detoxification of air and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Daniel M.; Magrini-Bair, Kim; Wolfrum, Edward; May, E. K.

    1997-10-01

    The technical feasibility of photocatalytic oxidation and reduction technology for the removal of hazardous chemicals or micro-organisms from contaminated water and air is well established. The heterogeneous process based on titanium dioxide photocatalysts is the most developed but homogeneous systems are also under development. Treatment equipment using fluorescent lamps as the photon source and supported heterogeneous photocatalysts are commercially available and one-sun and parabolic solar reactor designs have been demonstrated. Cost and performance of the solar processes have not yet reached levels that make them attractive relative to conventional alternatives. Cost reductions and increased performance require improvements in optical materials for reactors, reactor/collector design and materials of construction, durable catalyst materials and support structures, and significant improvement in the utilization of the solar spectrum in the photochemical processes. The current state of the art for solar reactors for treatment of contaminated air and water are presented and the opportunities for improvement are identified.

  16. Modeling of membrane processes for air revitalization and water recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, Kevin E.; Foerg, Sandra L.; Dall-Bauman, Liese A.

    1992-01-01

    Gas-separation and reverse-osmosis membrane models are being developed in conjunction with membrane testing at NASA JSC. The completed gas-separation membrane model extracts effective component permeabilities from multicomponent test data, and predicts the effects of flow configuration, operating conditions, and membrane dimensions on module performance. Variable feed- and permeate-side pressures are considered. The model has been applied to test data for hollow-fiber membrane modules with simulated cabin-air feeds. Results are presented for a membrane designed for air drying applications. Extracted permeabilities are used to predict the effect of operating conditions on water enrichment in the permeate. A first-order reverse-osmosis model has been applied to test data for spiral wound membrane modules with a simulated hygiene water feed. The model estimates an effective local component rejection coefficient under pseudosteady-state conditions. Results are used to define requirements for a detailed reverse-osmosis model.

  17. Estimating the radon concentration in water and indoor air.

    PubMed

    Maged, A F

    2009-05-01

    The paper presents the results of radon concentration measurements in the vicinity of water, indoor air and in contact to building walls. The investigations were carried out using CR-39 track detectors. Samples of ground water flowing out of many springs mostly in Arabian Gulf area except one from Germany have been studied. The results are compared with international recommendations and the values are found to be lower than the recommended value. Measuring the mean indoor radon concentrations in air and in contact to building walls in the dwellings of Kuwait University Campus were found 24.2 +/- 7.7, and 462 +/- 422 Bq m(-3) respectively. These values lead to average effective dose equivalent rates of 1.3 +/- 0.4 and 23 +/- 21 mSv year(-1), respectively.

  18. Air-water analogy and the study of hydraulic models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Supino, Giulio

    1953-01-01

    The author first sets forth some observations about the theory of models. Then he established certain general criteria for the construction of dynamically similar models in water and in air, through reference to the perfect fluid equations and to the ones pertaining to viscous flow. It is, in addition, pointed out that there are more cases in which the analogy is possible than is commonly supposed.

  19. Eenergy Extraction from air or Water by Vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viba, J.; Shtals, L.; Eiduks, M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper considers the possibility to derive energy from air or water in a non-traditional way (without using rotating equipment). For this purpose, the authors studied variations in the additional area of a vibrating object in a definite sequence found as the solution of an optimisation problem. In the work, stably moving mechatronic systems were synthesised and modelled, whose control is very simple (not requiring calibration), being a function of the changing sign of phase coordinates.

  20. Following transient phases at the air/water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meron, M.; Gebhardt, J.; Brewer, H.; Viccaro, J. P.; Lin, B.

    2009-02-01

    A fast pixel array detector, the Pilatus 100 K, has been used in studies of organic monolayers at the air-water interface. The area sensitivity and large dynamic range of the detector, in combination with a “one dimensional pinhole” geometry, make it possible to observe surface processes which were inaccessible to the previous generation of experimental techniques. Especially, time dependent phenomena acting on time scales ranging from seconds to minutes can be observed and analyzed.

  1. Following Transient Phases at the Air/Water Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meron, Mati; Gebhardt, Jeff; Brewer, Harold; Viccaro, P. James; Lin, Binhua

    2009-03-01

    A fast pixel array detector, the Pilatus 100K, has been used in studies of organic monolayers at the air-water interface. The area sensitivity and large dynamic range of the detector, in combination with a ``one dimensional pinhole'' geometry, make it possible to observe surface processes which were inaccessible to the previous generation of experimental techniques. Especially, time dependent phenomena acting on time scales ranging from seconds to minutes can be observed and analyzed.

  2. Following transient phases at the air/water interface

    SciTech Connect

    Meron, M.; Gebhardt, J.; Brewer, H.; Viccaro, J.P.; Lin, B.

    2009-04-08

    A fast pixel array detector, the Pilatus 100 K, has been used in studies of organic monolayers at the air-water interface. The area sensitivity and large dynamic range of the detector, in combination with a 'one dimensional pinhole' geometry, make it possible to observe surface processes which were inaccessible to the previous generation of experimental techniques. Especially, time dependent phenomena acting on time scales ranging from seconds to minutes can be observed and analyzed.

  3. Efficacy of air/water syringe tip sterilization.

    PubMed

    Inger, M; Bennani, V; Farella, M; Bennani, F; Cannon, R D

    2014-03-01

    Dental procedures involve contact between instruments and the patient's tissues, blood or saliva. This study evaluated the efficacy of the standardized sterilization of non-disposable air/water syringe tips and corrosion and contaminant build-up in these tips. The bacterial contamination of single-use and multiple-use non-disposable air/water syringe tips after routine use and sterilization was compared to that of single-use disposable tips by microbial culturing on PCA and blood agar plates. The effect of flushing the syringe tips prior to sterilization was also measured. The amount of corrosion in single-use and multiple-use non-disposable syringes was measured by SEM and EDS analyses. Non-disposable syringe tips had significantly (p < 0.05) greater bacterial contamination than single-use disposable tips. There were no statistically different levels of contamination between flushed and non-flushed non-disposable syringes or between single-use and multiple-use non-disposable syringes. SEM and EDS analyses showed greater evidence of corrosion and contaminant build-up in multiple-use syringes compared to single-use non-disposable syringes. Sterilization of non-disposable air/water syringes is not completely effective and rinsing, or the number of uses, does not affect the effectiveness of sterilization. There may be a lower risk of cross-infection from the use of disposable air/water syringe tips, instead of non-disposable ones. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  4. Coaxial injector spray characterization using water/air as simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaller, Michelle M.; Klem, Mark D.

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative information about the atomization of injector sprays is required to improve the accuracy of computational models that predict the performance and stability of liquid propellant rocket engines. An experimental program is being conducted at NASA-Lewis to measure the drop size and velocity distributions in shear coaxial injector sprays. A phase/Doppler interferometer is used to obtain drop size data in water air shear coaxial injector sprays. Droplet sizes and axial component of droplet velocities are measured at different radii for various combinations of water flow rate, air flow rate, injector liquid jet diameter, injector annular gap, and liquid post recess. Sauter mean diameters measured in the spray center 51 mm downstream of the liquid post tip range from 28 to 68 microns, and mean axial drop velocities at the same location range from 37 to 120 m/s. The shear coaxial injector sprays show a high degree of symmetry; the mean drop size and velocity profiles vary with liquid flow rate, post recess, and distance from the injector face. The drop size data can be used to estimate liquid oxygen/hydrogen spray drop sizes by correcting property differences between water-air and liquid oxygen/hydrogen.

  5. Polydopamine Films from the Forgotten Air/Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Ponzio, Florian; Payamyar, Payam; Schneider, Anne; Winterhalter, Mathias; Bour, Jérôme; Addiego, Frédéric; Krafft, Marie-Pierre; Hemmerle, Joseph; Ball, Vincent

    2014-10-02

    The formation of polydopamine under mild oxidation conditions from dopamine solutions with mechanical agitation leads to the formation of films that can functionalize all kinds of materials. In the absence of stirring of the solution, we report the formation of polydopamine films at the air/water interface (PDA A/W) and suggest that it arises from an homogeneous nucleation process. These films grow two times faster than in solution and can be deposited on hydrophilic or hydrophobic substrates by the Langmuir-Schaeffer technique. Thanks to this new method, porous and hydrophobic materials like polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes can be completely covered with a 35 nm thick PDA A/W film after only 3h of reaction. Finally the oxidation of a monomer followed by a polymerization in water is not exclusive to polydopamine since we also transferred polyaniline functional films from the air/water interface to solid substrates. These findings suggest that self-assembly from a solution containing hydrophilic monomers undergoing a chemical transformation (here oxidation and oligomerization) could be a general method to produce films at the liquid/air interface.

  6. New research on bioregenerative air/water purification systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Anne H.; Ellender, R. D.; Watkins, Paul J.

    1991-01-01

    For the past several years, air and water purification systems have been developed and used. This technology is based on the combined activities of plants and microorganisms as they function in a natural environment. More recently, researchers have begun to address the problems associated with indoor air pollution. Various common houseplants are currently being evaluated for their abilities to reduce concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) such as formaldehyde and benzene. With development of the Space Exploration Initiative, missions will increase in duration, and problems with resupply necessitates implementation of regenerative technology. Aspects of bioregenerative technology have been included in a habitat known as the BioHome. The ultimate goal is to use this technology in conjunction with physicochemical systems for air and water purification within closed systems. This study continued the risk assessment of bioregenerative technology with emphasis on biological hazards. In an effort to evaluate the risk for human infection, analyses were directed at enumeration of fecal streptococci and enteric viruses with the BioHome waste water treatment system.

  7. Energy and air emission effects of water supply.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad

    2009-04-15

    Life-cycle air emission effects of supplying water are explored using a hybrid life-cycle assessment For the typically sized U.S. utility analyzed, recycled water is preferable to desalination and comparable to importation. Seawater desalination has an energy and air emission footprint that is 1.5-2.4 times larger than that of imported water. However, some desalination modes fare better; brackish groundwater is 53-66% as environmentally intensive as seawater desalination. The annual water needs (326 m3) of a typical Californian that is met with imported water requires 5.8 GJ of energy and creates 360 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. With seawater desalination, energy use would increase to 14 GJ and 800 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. Meeting the water demand of California with desalination would consume 52% of the state's electricity. Supply options were reassessed using alternative electricity mixes, including the average mix of the United States and several renewable sources. Desalination using solar thermal energy has lower greenhouse gas emissions than that of imported and recycled water (using California's electricity mix), but using the U.S. mix increases the environmental footprint by 1.5 times. A comparison with a more energy-intensive international scenario shows that CO2 equivalent emissions for desalination in Dubai are 1.6 times larger than in California. The methods, decision support tool (WEST), and results of this study should persuade decision makers to make informed water policy choices by including energy consumption and material use effects in the decision-making process.

  8. Life Cycle Assessment of Residential Heating and Cooling Systems in Minnesota A comprehensive analysis on life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and cost-effectiveness of ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems compared to the conventional gas furnace and air conditioner system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mo

    Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) technologies for residential heating and cooling are often suggested as an effective means to curb energy consumption, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and lower homeowners' heating and cooling costs. As such, numerous federal, state and utility-based incentives, most often in the forms of financial incentives, installation rebates, and loan programs, have been made available for these technologies. While GSHP technology for space heating and cooling is well understood, with widespread implementation across the U.S., research specific to the environmental and economic performance of these systems in cold climates, such as Minnesota, is limited. In this study, a comparative environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted of typical residential HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) systems in Minnesota to investigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for delivering 20 years of residential heating and cooling—maintaining indoor temperatures of 68°F (20°C) and 75°F (24°C) in Minnesota-specific heating and cooling seasons, respectively. Eight residential GSHP design scenarios (i.e. horizontal loop field, vertical loop field, high coefficient of performance, low coefficient of performance, hybrid natural gas heat back-up) and one conventional natural gas furnace and air conditioner system are assessed for GHG and life cycle economic costs. Life cycle GHG emissions were found to range between 1.09 × 105 kg CO2 eq. and 1.86 × 10 5 kg CO2 eq. Six of the eight GSHP technology scenarios had fewer carbon impacts than the conventional system. Only in cases of horizontal low-efficiency GSHP and hybrid, do results suggest increased GHGs. Life cycle costs and present value analyses suggest GSHP technologies can be cost competitive over their 20-year life, but that policy incentives may be required to reduce the high up-front capital costs of GSHPs and relatively long payback periods of more than 20 years. In addition

  9. The water-filled versus air-filled status of vessels cut open in air: the 'Scholander assumption' revisited

    Treesearch

    M.T. Tyree; H. Cochard; P. Cruziat

    2003-01-01

    When petioles of transpiring leaves are cut in the air, according to the 'Scholander assumption', the vessels cut open should fill with air as the water is drained away by continued transpiration, The distribution of air-filled vessels versus distance from the cut surface should match the distribution of lengths of 'open vessels', i.e. vessels cut...

  10. An outbreak of Serratia marcescens infection in a special-care baby unit of a community hospital in United Arab Emirates: the importance of the air conditioner duct as a nosocomial reservoir.

    PubMed

    Uduman, S A; Farrukh, A S; Nath, K N R; Zuhair, M Y H; Ifrah, A; Khawla, A D; Sunita, P

    2002-11-01

    We report an outbreak of Serratia marcescens infection in a special-care baby unit (SCBU) of a university-affiliated community hospital in the United Arab Emirates. The outbreak involved 36 infants and lasted for 20 weeks. Seven of the colonized infants developed invasive illnesses in the form of bacteraemia (four cases), bacteraemic meningitis (two) and clinical sepsis (one). Three other term infants had purulent conjunctivitis. There were five deaths with an overall mortality of 14%. S. marcescens was cultured from airflow samples from the air conditioning (AC) which was the reservoir of infection in this outbreak. Elimination of the nosocomial source and outbreak containment were eventually achieved by specialized robotic cleaning of the entire AC duct system of the SCBU. Strict adherence to the infection control policies was reinforced to prevent transmission of cross-infection.

  11. AirSWOT: An Airborne Platform for Surface Water Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, E.; Moller, D.; Smith, L. C.; Pavelsky, T. M.; Alsdorf, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    The SWOT mission, expected to launch in 2020, will provide global measurements of surface water extent and elevation from which storage change and discharge can be derived. SWOT-like measurements are not routinely used by the hydrology community, and their optimal use and associated errors are areas of active research. The purpose of AirSWOT, a system that has been proposed to NASA’s Instrument Incubator Program, is to provide SWOT-like measurements to the hydrology and ocean community to be used to advance the understanding and use of SWOT data in the pre-launch phase. In the post-launch phase, AirSWOT will be used as the SWOT calibration/validation platform. The AirSWOT payload will consist of Kaspar, a multi-beam Ka-band radar interferometer able to produce elevations over a 5 km swath with centimetric precision. The absolute elevation accuracy of the AirSWOT system will be achieved with a combination of high precision Inertial Motion Units (IMUs), ground calibration points, and advanced calibration techniques utilizing a priori knowledge. It is expected that the accuracy of AirSWOT will exceed or match SWOT’s accuracy requirements. In addition to elevation measurements, the AirSWOT payload will include a near-infrared camera able to provide coincident high-resolution optical imagery of the water bodies imaged by the radar. In its initial hydrology deployments, AirSWOT will investigate four field sites: the Ohio-Mississippi confluence, the lower Atchafalaya River on the Mississippi River Delta, the Yukon River basin near Fairbanks, and the Sacramento River, California. The Ohio-Mississippi confluence is targeted for its large discharge, modest slope, and control structures that modulate Ohio but not Mississippi River slopes and elevations. The lower Atchafalaya River includes low slopes, wetlands with differing vegetation types, and some open lakes. Vegetation includes Cyprus forests, floating macrophytes, and grass marshes, all of which impact radar returns

  12. Project Themis: PIV Measurement of Elbow Flow through a Flow Conditioner

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Project Themis: PIV Measurement of Elbow Flow through a Flow...Project Themis: PIV Measurement of Elbow Flow through a Flow Conditioner Benjamin Miller AFRL/RZSE (Jackson and Tull) Air Force Research...Max power = 20mJ @ 1kHz • Phantom V210 • 2,000 frames per second 45 CFM hose 90 ̊ long curve elbow VORTAB L/D = 30 • VORTAB placed one

  13. Lemongrass-Incorporated Tissue Conditioner Against Candida albicans Culture

    PubMed Central

    Amornvit, Pokpong; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tissue conditioner is applied popularly with dental prosthesis during wound healing process but it becomes a reservoir of oral microbiota, especially Candida species after long-term usage. Several antifungal drugs have been mixed with this material to control fungal level. In this study, lemongrass essential oil was added into COE-COMFORT tissue conditioner before being determined for anti-Candida efficacy. Materials and Methods: Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil was primarily determined for antifungal activity against C. albicans American type culture collection (ATCC) 10231 and MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) value by agar disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods, respectively. COE-COMFORT tissue conditioner was prepared as recommended by the manufacturer after a fixed volume of the oil at its MIC or higher concentrations were mixed thoroughly in its liquid part. Antifungal efficacy of the tissue conditioner with/without herb was finally analyzed. Results: Lemongrass essential oil displayed potent antifungal activity against C. albicans ATCC 10231and its MIC value was 0.06% (v/v). Dissimilarly, the tissue conditioner containing the oil at MIC level did not cease the growth of the tested fungus. Both reference and clinical isolates of C. albicans were completely inhibited after exposed to the tissue conditioner containing at least 0.25% (v/v) of the oil (approximately 4-time MIC). The tissue conditioner without herb or with nystatin was employed as negative or positive control, respectively. Conclusion: COE-COMFORT tissue conditioner supplemented with lemongrass essential oil obviously demonstrated another desirable property as in vitro anti-Candida efficacy to minimize the risk of getting Candidal infection. PMID:25177638

  14. Power Conditioner with Variable Switching Control for Thermoelectric Generator Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagayoshi, Hiroshi; Maiwa, Hiroshi; Kajikawa, Takenobu

    2013-07-01

    A thermoelectric (TE) power conditioner maintaining high efficiency over a wide input power range has been developed. Variable switching frequency operation is shown to give an improvement in efficient operating range. The input range showing more than 90% conversion efficiency is expanded to more than 25% by introducing a low-power controller circuit and variable switching frequency control. The TE power conditioner showed excellent response against a change in thermoelectric generator (TEG) output and load, making it suitable for automotive applications.

  15. 78 FR 37710 - Safety Zone; Milwaukee Air and Water Show; Lake Michigan; Milwaukee, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Milwaukee Air and Water Show; Lake Michigan; Milwaukee... will enforce the safety zone on Lake Michigan in Milwaukee, Wisconsin for the Milwaukee Air and Water... 2013 Milwaukee Air and Water Show. During the aforementioned periods, the Coast Guard will enforce...

  16. 78 FR 37713 - Safety Zone; Chicago Air and Water Show; Lake Michigan; Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Chicago Air and Water Show; Lake Michigan; Chicago, IL... enforce the safety zone on Lake Michigan near Chicago, Illinois for the Chicago Air and Water Show. This... Chicago Air and Water Show. During the aforementioned periods, the Coast Guard will enforce restrictions...

  17. 77 FR 49349 - Safety Zone; Chicago Air and Water Show, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Chicago Air and Water Show, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL AGENCY... deviation to the Chicago Air and Water Show safety zone on Lake Michigan near Lincoln Park. This action is... during the Chicago Air and Water Show. This safety zone is necessary to protect spectators and vessels...

  18. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. 1274... AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.926 Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative agreement or supplement...

  19. The existence of longitudinal vortices in the flow of air above an air/water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, J.; Saylor, J. R.

    2009-11-01

    Many researchers have observed the formation of longitudinal vortices in boundary layers developing over heated solid surfaces. In the present work, such vortices were observed in an air boundary layer developing over a heated water surface. The existence of these vortices was documented via infrared imaging of the water surface, which showed a consistent pattern of hot and cold streaks, coinciding with the vortex position. These vortices were also visualized through smoke injected into the air-side flow. The onset position Xc and lateral vortex spacing λ were investigated for a range of wind speeds (0.1 - 1 m/s) and air/water temperature differences (26 - 42 ^oC). Plots of Xc/λ versus the Reynolds number exhibit power-law behavior similar to that of prior work on boundary layers over heated solid surfaces. However, plots of Xc/λ versus the Grashof number show significant differences from the power-law behavior observed for heated solid plates. A theory explaining the similarity and difference between the present results and those for heated solid plates is discussed which is based on differences in the thermal boundary conditions.

  20. Langmuir films of petroleum at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Vinícius C C; Severino, Divinomar; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Pavinatto, Felippe J; Zaniquelli, Maria E D; Ramos, Ana Paula; Baptista, Maurício S

    2009-11-03

    Understanding the behavior of petroleum films at the air/water interface is crucial for dealing with oil slicks and reducing the damages to the environment, which has normally been attempted with studies of Langmuir films made of fractions of petroleum. However, the properties of films from whole petroleum samples may differ considerably from those of individual fractions. Using surface pressure and surface potential measurements and Brewster angle and fluorescence microscopy, we show that petroleum forms a nonhomogeneous Langmuir film at the air-water interface. The surface pressure isotherms for petroleum Langmuir films exhibit gas (G), liquid-expanded (LE), and liquid-condensed phases, with almost no hysteresis in the compression-decompression cycles. Domains formed upon compression from the G to the LE phase were accompanied by an increase in fluorescence intensity with excitation at 400-440 nm owing to an increase in the surface density of the chromophores in the petroleum film. The surface pressure and the fluorescence microscopy data pointed to self-assembling domains into a pseudophase in thermodynamic equilibrium with other less emitting petroleum components. This hypothesis was supported by Brewster angle microscopy images, whereby the appearance of water domains even at high surface pressures confirms the tendency of petroleum to stabilize emulsion systems. The results presented here suggest that, for understanding the interaction with water, it may be more appropriate to use the whole petroleum samples rather than its fractions.

  1. Ground-water contamination at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stark, J.R.; Cummings, T.R.; Twenter, F.R.

    1983-01-01

    A sand and gravel aquifer of glacial origin underlies Wurtsmith Air Force Base in northeastern lower Michigan. The aquifer overlies a thick clay layer at an average depth of 65 feet. The water table is about 10 feet below land surface in the western part of the Base and about 25 feet below land surface in the eastern part. A ground-water divide cuts diagonally across the Base from northwest to southeast. South of the divide, ground water flows to the Au Sable River; north of the divide, it flows to Van Etten Creek and Van Etten Lake. Mathematical models were used to aid in calculating rates of groundwater flow. Rates range from about 0.8 feet per day in the eastern part of the Base to about 0.3 feet per day in the western part. Models also were used as an aid in making decisions regarding purging of contaminated water from the aquifer. In 1977, trichloroethylene was detected in the Air Force Base water-supply system. It had leaked from a buried storage tank near Building 43 in the southeastern part of the Base and moved northeastward under the influence of the natural ground-water gradient and the pumping of Base water-supply wells. In the most highly contaminated part of the plume, concentrations are greater than 1,000 micrograms per liter. Current purge pumping is removing some of the trichloroethylene, and seems to have arrested its eastward movement. Pumping of additional purge wells could increase the rate of removal. Trichloroethylene has also been detected in ground water in the vicinity of the Base alert apron, where a plume from an unknown source extends northeastward off Base. A smaller, less well-defined area of contamination also occurs just north of the larger plume. Trichloroethylene, identified near the waste-treatment plant, seepage lagoons, and the northern landfill area, is related to activities and operations in these areas. Dichloroethylene and trichloroethylene occur in significant quantities westward of Building 43, upgradient from the major

  2. Single-bubble sonoluminescence in air-saturated water.

    PubMed

    Krefting, Dagmar; Mettin, Robert; Lauterborn, Werner

    2003-10-24

    Single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) is realized in air-saturated water at ambient pressure and room temperature. The behavior is similar to SBSL in degassed water, but with a higher spatial variability of the bubble position. A detailed view on the dynamics of the bubbles shows agreement between calculated shape stability borders but differs slightly in the equilibrium radii predicted by a mass diffusion model. A comparison with results in degassed water is done as well as a time resolved characterization of bubble oscillation, translation, and light emission for synchronous and recycling SBSL. The formation of streamer structures is observed in the same parameter range, when bubble nuclei are present. This may lead to a unified interpretation of SBSL and multibubble sonoluminescence.

  3. Single-Bubble Sonoluminescence in Air-Saturated Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krefting, Dagmar; Mettin, Robert; Lauterborn, Werner

    2003-10-01

    Single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) is realized in air-saturated water at ambient pressure and room temperature. The behavior is similar to SBSL in degassed water, but with a higher spatial variability of the bubble position. A detailed view on the dynamics of the bubbles shows agreement between calculated shape stability borders but differs slightly in the equilibrium radii predicted by a mass diffusion model. A comparison with results in degassed water is done as well as a time resolved characterization of bubble oscillation, translation, and light emission for synchronous and recycling SBSL. The formation of streamer structures is observed in the same parameter range, when bubble nuclei are present. This may lead to a unified interpretation of SBSL and multibubble sonoluminescence.

  4. New Mechanistic Pathways for Criegee-Water Chemistry at the Air/Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chongqin; Kumar, Manoj; Zhong, Jie; Li, Lei; Francisco, Joseph S; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2016-09-07

    Understanding Criegee chemistry has become one of central topics in atmospheric research recently. The reaction of Criegee intermediates with gas-phase water clusters has been widely viewed as a key Criegee reaction in the troposphere. However, the effect of aerosols or clouds on Criegee chemistry has received little attention. In this work, we have investigated the reaction between the smallest Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, and water clusters in the gas phase, as well as at the air/water surface using ab initio quantum chemical calculations and adaptive buffered force quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) dynamics simulations. Our simulation results show that the typical time scale for the reaction of CH2OO with water at the air/water interface is on the order of a few picoseconds, 2-3 orders of magnitude shorter than that in the gas phase. Importantly, the adbf-QM/MM dynamics simulations suggest several reaction pathways for the CH2OO + water reaction at the air/water interface, including the loop-structure-mediated mechanism and the stepwise mechanism. Contrary to the conventional gas-phase CH2OO reaction, the loop-structure is not a prerequisite for the stepwise mechanism. For the latter, a water molecule and the CH2OO at the air/water interface, upon their interaction, can result in the formation of (H3O)(+) and (OH)CH2(OO)(-). Thereafter, a hydrogen bond can be formed between (H3O)(+) and the terminal oxygen atom of (OH)CH2(OO)(-), leading to direct proton transfer and the formation of α-hydroxy methylperoxide, HOCH2OOH. The mechanistic insights obtained from this simulation study should motivate future experimental studies of the effect of water clouds on Criegee chemistry.

  5. Rigid-plug elastic-water model for transient pipe flow with entrapped air pocket

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ling; Liu, Prof. Deyou; Karney, Professor Byran W.; Zhang, Qin Fen; OU, CHANGQI

    2011-01-01

    Pressure transients in a rapidly filling pipe with an entrapped air pocket are investigated analytically. A rigid-plug elastic water model is developed by applying elastic water hammer to the majority of the water column while applying rigid water analysis to a small portion near the air-water interface, which avoids effectively the interpolation error of previous approaches. Moreover, another two simplified models are introduced respectively based on constant water length and by neglecting water elasticity. Verification of the three models is confirmed by experimental results. Calculations show that the simplification of constant water length is feasible for small air pockets. The complete rigid water model is appropriate for cases with large initial air volume. The rigid-plug elastic model can predict all the essential features for the entire range of initial air fraction considered in this study, and it is the effective model for analysis of pressure transients of entrapped air.

  6. Self-propelled ion gel at air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Kazuaki; Teshima, Tetsuhiko; Ueno, Yuko

    2017-08-24

    We report on a self-propelled gel using ionic liquid as a new type of self-propellant that generates a powerful and durable motion at an air-water interface. The gel is composed of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (EMIM-TFSI) and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VDF-co-HFP)). A long rectangular ion gel piece placed on the interface shows rapid rotation motion with maximum frequency close to 10 Hz, corresponding to the velocity over 300 mms(-1) at an outmost end of the piece. The rotation continues for ca. 10(2) s, followed by a reciprocating motion (<~10(3) s) and a nonlinear motion in long-time observations (>~10(3) s). The behaviours can be explained by the model considering elution of EMIM-TFSI to the air-water interface, rapid dissolution into water, and slow diffusion in an inhomogeneous polymer gel network. Because the self-propellants are promptly removed from the interface by dissolution, durable self-propelled motions are observed also at limited interface areas close in size to the gel pieces. A variety of motions are induced in such systems where the degree of freedom in motion is limited. As the ion gel possesses formability and processability, it is also advantageous for practical applications. We demonstrate that the gel does work as an engine.

  7. Hurricane Isabel, Amount of Atmospheric Water Vapor Observed By AIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    These false-color images show the amount of atmospheric water vapor observed by AIRS two weeks prior to the passage of Hurricane Isabel, and then when it was a Category 5 storm. The region shown includes parts of South America and the West Indies. Puerto Rico is the large island below the upper left corner.

    Total water vapor represents the depth of a layer if all the water vapor in the atmosphere were to condense and fall to the surface. The color bar on the right sides of the plots give the thickness of this layer in millimeters (mm). The first image, from August 28, shows typical tropical water vapor amounts over the ocean: between roughly 25 and 50 mm, or 1 to 2 inches. The highest values of roughly 80 mm, seen as a red blob over South America, corresponds to intense thunderstorms. Thunderstorms pull in water vapor from surrounding regions and concentrate it, with much of it then falling as rain.

    Figure 1 shows total water during the passage of Hurricane Isabel on September 13. The storm is apparent: the ring of moderate values surrounding a very strong maximum of 100 mm. Total water of more than 80 mm is unusual, and these values correspond to the intense thunderstorms contained within Isabel. The thunderstorms--and the large values of total water--are fed by evaporation from the ocean in the hurricane's high winds. The water vapor near the center of the storm does not remain there long, since hurricane rain rates as high 50 mm (2 inches) per hour imply rapid cycling of the water we observe. Away from the storm the amount of total water vapor is rather low, associated with fair weather where air that ascended near the storm's eye returns to earth, having dropped its moisture as rain. Also seen in the second images are two small regions of about 70 mm of total water over south America. These are yet more thunderstorms, though likely much more benign than those in Isabel.

    The

  8. Hurricane Isabel, Amount of Atmospheric Water Vapor Observed By AIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    These false-color images show the amount of atmospheric water vapor observed by AIRS two weeks prior to the passage of Hurricane Isabel, and then when it was a Category 5 storm. The region shown includes parts of South America and the West Indies. Puerto Rico is the large island below the upper left corner.

    Total water vapor represents the depth of a layer if all the water vapor in the atmosphere were to condense and fall to the surface. The color bar on the right sides of the plots give the thickness of this layer in millimeters (mm). The first image, from August 28, shows typical tropical water vapor amounts over the ocean: between roughly 25 and 50 mm, or 1 to 2 inches. The highest values of roughly 80 mm, seen as a red blob over South America, corresponds to intense thunderstorms. Thunderstorms pull in water vapor from surrounding regions and concentrate it, with much of it then falling as rain.

    Figure 1 shows total water during the passage of Hurricane Isabel on September 13. The storm is apparent: the ring of moderate values surrounding a very strong maximum of 100 mm. Total water of more than 80 mm is unusual, and these values correspond to the intense thunderstorms contained within Isabel. The thunderstorms--and the large values of total water--are fed by evaporation from the ocean in the hurricane's high winds. The water vapor near the center of the storm does not remain there long, since hurricane rain rates as high 50 mm (2 inches) per hour imply rapid cycling of the water we observe. Away from the storm the amount of total water vapor is rather low, associated with fair weather where air that ascended near the storm's eye returns to earth, having dropped its moisture as rain. Also seen in the second images are two small regions of about 70 mm of total water over south America. These are yet more thunderstorms, though likely much more benign than those in Isabel.

    The

  9. 14 CFR § 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts. Â...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq...

  10. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean Water...

  11. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean Water...

  12. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean Water...

  13. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean Water...

  14. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq...

  15. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq...

  16. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq...

  17. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean Water...

  18. Inactivation of the biofilm by the air plasma containing water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suganuma, Ryota; Yasuoka, Koichi; Yasuoka Takeuchi lab Team

    2014-10-01

    Biofilms are caused by environmental degradation in food factory and medical facilities. Inactivation of biofilm has the method of making it react to chemicals including chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, and ozone. Although inactivation by chemicals has the problem that hazardous property of a residual substance and hydrogen peroxide have slow reaction velocity. We achieved advanced oxidation process (AOP) with air plasma. Hydrogen peroxide and ozone, which were used for the formation of OH radicals in our experiment, were able to be generated selectively by adjusting the amount of water supplied to the plasma. We inactivated Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm in five minutes with OH radicals generated by using hydrogen peroxide and ozone.

  19. Sea/Lake Water Air Conditioning at Naval Facilities.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    r-AO89 262 CIVIL ENGINEERING LAS (NAVY) PONT HUJENEME CA F/6 13/1 SEA/LAKF WATER AIR CONDITIONING AT N4AVAL FACILITIES.u MAY S0 .J B CIAN...AROICC. Brooklyn NY: CO; C’ode (NP (LCDR ATJ Stewart): C’ode 10)28. RDT&ELO. Philadelphia PA: Code III (Castranovo) Philadelphia. PA: Design Div. (R...Governor’s Council On Energy) NEW MEXICO SOLAR ENERGY INST. Dr. Zwibcl Las Cruces NM NY CITY COMMUNITY COLLEGE BROOKLYN , NY (LIBRARY) NYS ENERGY OFFICE

  20. Nano- and microstructure of air/oil/water interfaces.

    PubMed

    McGillivray, Duncan J; Mata, Jitendra P; White, John W; Zank, Johann

    2009-04-07

    We report the creation of air/oil/water interfaces with variable-thickness oil films using polyisobutylene-based (PIB) surfactants cospread with long-chain paraffinic alkanes on clean water surfaces. The resultant stable oil layers are readily measurable with simple surface techniques, exhibit physical densities the same as expected for bulk oils, and are up to approximately 100 A thick above the water surface as determined using X-ray reflectometry. This provides a ready system for studying the competition of surfactants at the oil/water interface. Results from the competition of a nonionic polyamide surfactant or an anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate with the PIB surfactant are reported. However, this smooth oil layer does not account for the total volume of spread oil nor is the increase in thickness proportional to the film compression. Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) reveals surfactant and oil structures on the scale of 1 to 10 microm at the interface. At low surface pressure (pi < 24 mN m(-1)) large, approximately 10 microm inhomogeneities are observed. Beyond a phase transition observed at pi approximately = 24 mN m(-1), a structure with a spongy appearance and a microscale texture develops. These structures have implications for understanding the microstructure at the oil/water interface in emulsions.

  1. Hurricane Isabel, Amount of Atmospheric Water Vapor Observed By AIRS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-20

    This false-color image shows the amount of atmospheric water vapor observed by AIRS two weeks prior to the passage of Hurricane Isabel, and then when it was a Category 5 storm. The region shown includes parts of South America and the West Indies. Puerto Rico is the large island below the upper left corner. Total water vapor represents the depth of a layer if all the water vapor in the atmosphere were to condense and fall to the surface. The color bar on the right sides of the plots give the thickness of this layer in millimeters (mm). The first image, from August 28, shows typical tropical water vapor amounts over the ocean: between roughly 25 and 50 mm, or 1 to 2 inches. The highest values of roughly 80 mm, seen as a red blob over South America, corresponds to intense thunderstorms. Thunderstorms pull in water vapor from surrounding regions and concentrate it, with much of it then falling as rain. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00430

  2. ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA643. CAMERA FACES NORTHEAST. WATER HEAT EXCHANGER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-643. CAMERA FACES NORTHEAST. WATER HEAT EXCHANGER IS IN LEFT FOREGROUND. A PARTIALLY ASSEMBLED PLANT AIR CONDITIONER IS AT CENTER. WORKERS AT RIGHT ASSEMBLE 4000 HORSEPOWER COMPRESSOR DRIVE MOTOR AT RIGHT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3714. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 11/13/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. Embedding quantum into classical: contextualization vs conditionalization.

    PubMed

    Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N; Kujala, Janne V

    2014-01-01

    We compare two approaches to embedding joint distributions of random variables recorded under different conditions (such as spins of entangled particles for different settings) into the framework of classical, Kolmogorovian probability theory. In the contextualization approach each random variable is "automatically" labeled by all conditions under which it is recorded, and the random variables across a set of mutually exclusive conditions are probabilistically coupled (imposed a joint distribution upon). Analysis of all possible probabilistic couplings for a given set of random variables allows one to characterize various relations between their separate distributions (such as Bell-type inequalities or quantum-mechanical constraints). In the conditionalization approach one considers the conditions under which the random variables are recorded as if they were values of another random variable, so that the observed distributions are interpreted as conditional ones. This approach is uninformative with respect to relations between the distributions observed under different conditions because any set of such distributions is compatible with any distribution assigned to the conditions.

  4. B and F Signal Conditioner Checkout Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magleby, Alyssa; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    ATK Thiokol Propulsion, Test Services uses B&F Signal Conditioning units to provide excitation power and shunt calibration information to the data recording systems. Gage measurements such as force, temperature, pressure, strain, etc. are recorded using this equipment. Approximately 2500 reusable instrumentation B&F Signal Conditioning units were purchased over an interval from 1978 to 1988 at a cost of around $1000 each. Through use and over time, the relay contacts on the signal conditioning mode cards have become corroded, resulting in excessive contact resistance. This causes inaccurate and inconsistent calibration data and could jeopardize the test results. These signal conditioning cards are needed for product testing for an estimated five more years, therefore, it is necessary to develop a solution to isolate the malfunctioning units for repair. The current screening method requires Test Area technicians to check cards manually, however the connections and measurements required for this process are inefficient and time consuming. To resolve this problem, funding was approved to design and build two B&F Signal Conditioner Checkout Units. Each unit will allow technicians to test relay contact resistance on signal conditioning mode cards before they are installed for data collection procedures. This tool will allow Test Area to resolve calibration accuracy problems and extend the life of the data acquisition equipment, as well as save troubleshooting time for the technicians.

  5. Powder wettability at a static air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Dupas, Julien; Forny, Laurent; Ramaioli, Marco

    2015-06-15

    The reconstitution of a beverage from a dehydrated powder involves several physical mechanisms that determine the practical difficulty to obtain a homogeneous drink in a convenient way and within an acceptable time for the preparation of a beverage. When pouring powder onto static water, the first hurdle to overcome is the air-water interface. We propose a model to predict the percentage of powder crossing the interface in 45 s, namely the duration relevant for this application. We highlight theoretically the determinant role of the contact angle and of the particle size distribution. We validate experimentally the model for single spheres and use it to predict the wettability performance of commercial food powders for different contact angles and particles sizes. A good agreement is obtained when comparing the predictions and the wettability of the tested powders.

  6. Deformation of a water shell during free fall in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakoryakov, V. E.; Kuznetsov, G. V.; Strizhak, P. A.

    2016-04-01

    The basic regularities of the change in the shape and sizes (the initial volume is 0.05-0.5 L) of a water shell are singled out in its deformation during free fall in air from a height of 3 m. The 3D recording of the basic stages of deformation (flattening of the shell, nucleation, growth, and destruction of bubbles, formation of the droplet cloud) is carried out using high-speed (up to 105 frames per second) Phantom V411 and Phantom Miro M310 video cameras and the program complex Tema Automotive (with the function of continuous tracking). The physical model of destruction of large water bodies is formulated at free fall with the formation of the droplet cloud.

  7. Use of Air2Air Technology to Recover Fresh-Water from the Normal Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Mortensen

    2009-06-30

    This program was undertaken to build and operate the first Air2Air{trademark} Water Conservation Cooling Tower at a power plant, giving a validated basis and capability for water conservation by this method. Air2Air{trademark} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10%-25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate).

  8. Treatment of spent filter backwash water using dissolved air flotation.

    PubMed

    Eades, A; Bates, B J; MacPhee, M J

    2001-01-01

    There is increasing interest in treating recovered spent filter backwash water in the drinking water industry. In the USA the Filter Backwash Recycling Rule will come into effect in the near future. The purpose of the Rule is to prevent the concentrated pathogenic agents, potentially in the filter backwash water, from being returned to the head of the water treatment works without some form of treatment or dilution. By treating this flow both public health and financial liability can be better managed by the operating utility. Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) was investigated as a possible technology alternative to simple or advanced sedimentation techniques. This application is not widespread but sits somewhere in between the two normal applications of DAF as a high solids sludge thickener and a low turbidity clarification system. Given this a pilot plant program, supported by jar testing, was undertaken to determine the process capability and the design parameters for this application. DAF proved to be very suitable for backwash water recovery. DAF effluent turbidities of < 1.0 NTU could be easily obtained, when raw water turbidities were in excess of 50 NTU. Chemical requirements were low with only a single low dose of polymer required to bind the floc particles to form a solids matrix suitable for flotation. Flocculation contact times ranged from 0-10 minutes depending on the nature of the raw water. Recycle rates as low as 5% performed satisfactorily with no significant improvement when increased to 20%. Sludge solids of 3.5-9.6% dry solids were found and very low volumes of sludge, < 0.1% of the incoming flow make the DAF solids handling system very compact.

  9. Proton Transfers at the Air-Water Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Himanshu

    Proton transfer reactions at the interface of water with hydrophobic media, such as air or lipids, are ubiquitous on our planet. These reactions orchestrate a host of vital phenomena in the environment including, for example, acidification of clouds, enzymatic catalysis, chemistries of aerosol and atmospheric gases, and bioenergetic transduction. Despite their importance, however, quantitative details underlying these interactions have remained unclear. Deeper insight into these interfacial reactions is also required in addressing challenges in green chemistry, improved water quality, self-assembly of materials, the next generation of micro-nanofluidics, adhesives, coatings, catalysts, and electrodes. This thesis describes experimental and theoretical investigation of proton transfer reactions at the air-water interface as a function of hydration gradients, electrochemical potential, and electrostatics. Since emerging insights hold at the lipid-water interface as well, this work is also expected to aid understanding of complex biological phenomena associated with proton migration across membranes. Based on our current understanding, it is known that the physicochemical properties of the gas-phase water are drastically different from those of bulk water. For example, the gas-phase hydronium ion, H3O +(g), can protonate most (non-alkane) organic species, whereas H 3O+(aq) can neutralize only relatively strong bases. Thus, to be able to understand and engineer water-hydrophobe interfaces, it is imperative to investigate this fluctuating region of molecular thickness wherein the 'function' of chemical species transitions from one phase to another via steep gradients in hydration, dielectric constant, and density. Aqueous interfaces are difficult to approach by current experimental techniques because designing experiments to specifically sample interfacial layers (< 1 nm thick) is an arduous task. While recent advances in surface-specific spectroscopies have provided

  10. Air humidity and water pressure effects on the performance of air-cathode microbial fuel cell cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Yongtae; Zhang, Fang; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-02-01

    To better understand how air cathode performance is affected by air humidification, microbial fuel cells were operated under different humidity conditions or water pressure conditions. Maximum power density decreased from 1130 ± 30 mW m-2 with dry air to 980 ± 80 mW m-2 with water-saturated air. When the cathode was exposed to higher water pressures by placing the cathode in a horizontal position, with the cathode oriented so it was on the reactor bottom, power was reduced for both with dry (1030 ± 130 mW m-2) and water-saturated (390 ± 190 mW m-2) air. Decreased performance was partly due to water flooding of the catalyst, which would hinder oxygen diffusion to the catalyst. However, drying used cathodes did not improve performance in electrochemical tests. Soaking the cathode in a weak acid solution, but not deionized water, mostly restored performance (960 ± 60 mW m-2), suggesting that there was salt precipitation in the cathode that was enhanced by higher relative humidity or water pressure. These results showed that cathode performance could be adversely affected by both flooding and the subsequent salt precipitation, and therefore control of air humidity and water pressure may need to be considered for long-term MFC operation.

  11. Simulation model finned water-air-coil withoutcondensation

    SciTech Connect

    Wetter, Michael

    1999-01-01

    A simple simulation model of a finned water-to- air coil without condensation is presented. The model belongs to a collection of simulation models that allows eficient computer simulation of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. The main emphasis of the models is short computation time and use of input data that are known in the design process of an HVAC system. The target of the models is to describe the behavior of HVAC components in the part load operation mode, which is becoming increasingly important for energy efficient HVAC systems. The models are intended to be used for yearly energy calculation or load calculation with time steps of about 10 minutes or larger. Short-time dynamic effects, which are of interest for different aspects of control performance, are neglected. The part load behavior of the coil is expressed in terms of the nominal condition and the dimensionless variation of the heat transfer with change of mass flow and temperature on the water side and the air side. The effectiveness- NTU relations are used to parametrize the convective heat transfer at nominal conditions and to compute the part load conditions. Geometrical data for the coil are not required, The calculation of the convective heat transfer coefficients at nominal conditions is based on the ratio of the air side heat transfer coefficients multiplied by the fin eficiency and divided by the water side heat transfer coefficient. In this approach, the only geometrical information required are the cross section areas, which are needed to calculate the~uid velocities. The formulas for estimating this ratio are presented. For simplicity the model ignores condensation. The model is static and uses only explicit equations. The explicit formulation ensures short computation time and numerical stability. This allows using the model with sophisticated engineering methods such as automatic system optimization. The paper fully outlines the algorithm description and its

  12. Patterns and properties of polarized light in air and water.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Thomas W; Marshall, Justin

    2011-03-12

    Natural sources of light are at best weakly polarized, but polarization of light is common in natural scenes in the atmosphere, on the surface of the Earth, and underwater. We review the current state of knowledge concerning how polarization and polarization patterns are formed in nature, emphasizing linearly polarized light. Scattering of sunlight or moonlight in the sky often forms a strongly polarized, stable and predictable pattern used by many animals for orientation and navigation throughout the day, at twilight, and on moonlit nights. By contrast, polarization of light in water, while visible in most directions of view, is generally much weaker. In air, the surfaces of natural objects often reflect partially polarized light, but such reflections are rarer underwater, and multiple-path scattering degrades such polarization within metres. Because polarization in both air and water is produced by scattering, visibility through such media can be enhanced using straightforward polarization-based methods of image recovery, and some living visual systems may use similar methods to improve vision in haze or underwater. Although circularly polarized light is rare in nature, it is produced by the surfaces of some animals, where it may be used in specialized systems of communication.

  13. Patterns and properties of polarized light in air and water

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Thomas W.; Marshall, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Natural sources of light are at best weakly polarized, but polarization of light is common in natural scenes in the atmosphere, on the surface of the Earth, and underwater. We review the current state of knowledge concerning how polarization and polarization patterns are formed in nature, emphasizing linearly polarized light. Scattering of sunlight or moonlight in the sky often forms a strongly polarized, stable and predictable pattern used by many animals for orientation and navigation throughout the day, at twilight, and on moonlit nights. By contrast, polarization of light in water, while visible in most directions of view, is generally much weaker. In air, the surfaces of natural objects often reflect partially polarized light, but such reflections are rarer underwater, and multiple-path scattering degrades such polarization within metres. Because polarization in both air and water is produced by scattering, visibility through such media can be enhanced using straightforward polarization-based methods of image recovery, and some living visual systems may use similar methods to improve vision in haze or underwater. Although circularly polarized light is rare in nature, it is produced by the surfaces of some animals, where it may be used in specialized systems of communication. PMID:21282165

  14. Environmental application of nanotechnology: air, soil, and water.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Rusul Khaleel; Hayyan, Maan; AlSaadi, Mohammed Abdulhakim; Hayyan, Adeeb; Ibrahim, Shaliza

    2016-07-01

    Global deterioration of water, soil, and atmosphere by the release of toxic chemicals from the ongoing anthropogenic activities is becoming a serious problem throughout the world. This poses numerous issues relevant to ecosystem and human health that intensify the application challenges of conventional treatment technologies. Therefore, this review sheds the light on the recent progresses in nanotechnology and its vital role to encompass the imperative demand to monitor and treat the emerging hazardous wastes with lower cost, less energy, as well as higher efficiency. Essentially, the key aspects of this account are to briefly outline the advantages of nanotechnology over conventional treatment technologies and to relevantly highlight the treatment applications of some nanomaterials (e.g., carbon-based nanoparticles, antibacterial nanoparticles, and metal oxide nanoparticles) in the following environments: (1) air (treatment of greenhouse gases, volatile organic compounds, and bioaerosols via adsorption, photocatalytic degradation, thermal decomposition, and air filtration processes), (2) soil (application of nanomaterials as amendment agents for phytoremediation processes and utilization of stabilizers to enhance their performance), and (3) water (removal of organic pollutants, heavy metals, pathogens through adsorption, membrane processes, photocatalysis, and disinfection processes).

  15. Spectra of conditionalization and typicality in the multiverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2016-02-01

    An approach to testing theories describing a multiverse, that has gained interest of late, involves comparing theory-generated probability distributions over observables with their experimentally measured values. It is likely that such distributions, were we indeed able to calculate them unambiguously, will assign low probabilities to any such experimental measurements. An alternative to thereby rejecting these theories, is to conditionalize the distributions involved by restricting attention to domains of the multiverse in which we might arise. In order to elicit a crisp prediction, however, one needs to make a further assumption about how typical we are of the chosen domains. In this paper, we investigate interactions between the spectra of available assumptions regarding both conditionalization and typicality, and draw out the effects of these interactions in a concrete setting; namely, on predictions of the total number of species that contribute significantly to dark matter. In particular, for each conditionalization scheme studied, we analyze how correlations between densities of different dark matter species affect the prediction, and explicate the effects of assumptions regarding typicality. We find that the effects of correlations can depend on the conditionalization scheme, and that in each case atypicality can significantly change the prediction. In doing so, we demonstrate the existence of overlaps in the predictions of different "frameworks" consisting of conjunctions of theory, conditionalization scheme and typicality assumption. This conclusion highlights the acute challenges involved in using such tests to identify a preferred framework that aims to describe our observational situation in a multiverse.

  16. [Virus adsorption from batch experiments as influenced by air-water interface].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Bing-zi; Zhang, Jia-bao; Zhang, Cong-zhi; Wang, Qiu-ying; Chen, Ji

    2007-12-01

    The presence of air-water interface in batch sorption experiments may result in inaccurate estimation of virus adsorption onto various soils. A batch sorption experiment was conducted to compare the adsorption results of MS2 in different soils under presence/absence of air-water interface. Soils with sterilization/nonterilization treatment were used. Virus recovery efficiency in a blank experiment (no soil) was also evaluated as affected by different amount of air-water interface. The presence of air-water interface altered the results of virus adsorption in different soils with different extent, with Sandy fluvo-aquic soil being the most considerably affected, followed by Red loam soil, and the least being Red clay soil, probably because of different soil properties associated with virus adsorption/inactivation. Soil sterilization resulted in more significant difference of virus adsorption onto the Sandy fluvo-aquic soil between the presence and absence of air-water interface, while a reduced difference was observed in the Red loam soil. The presence of air-water interface significantly decreased virus recovery efficiency, with the values being decreased with increase in the amount of air-water interface. Soil particles likely prohibit viruses from reaching the air-water interface or alter the forces at the solid-water-air interface so that the results from the blank experiment did not truly represent results from control blank, which probably resulted in adsorption difference between presence and absence of the air-water interface.

  17. Evaluating the impact of ambient benzene vapor concentrations on product water from Condensation Water From Air technology.

    PubMed

    Kinder, Katherine M; Gellasch, Christopher A; Dusenbury, James S; Timmes, Thomas C; Hughes, Thomas M

    2017-07-15

    Globally, drinking water resources are diminishing in both quantity and quality. This situation has renewed interest in Condensation Water From Air (CWFA) technology, which utilizes water vapor in the air to produce water for both potable and non-potable purposes. However, there are currently insufficient data available to determine the relationship between air contaminants and the rate at which they are transferred from the air into CWFA untreated product water. This study implemented a novel experimental method utilizing an environmental test chamber to evaluate how air quality and temperature affects CWFA untreated product water quality in order to collect data that will inform the type of water treatment required to protect human health. This study found that temperature and benzene air concentration affected the untreated product water from a CWFA system. Benzene vapor concentrations representing a polluted outdoor environment resulted in benzene product water concentrations between 15% and 23% of the USEPA drinking water limit of 5μg/l. In contrast, product water benzene concentrations representing an indoor industrial environment were between 1.4 and 2.4 times higher than the drinking water limit. Lower condenser coil temperatures were correlated with an increased concentration of benzene in the product water. Environmental health professionals and engineers can integrate the results of this assessment to predict benzene concentrations in the product water and take appropriate health protective measures.

  18. 21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872... and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a device... to a tooth surface. (b) Classification. Class II....

  19. 21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872... and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a device... to a tooth surface. (b) Classification. Class II....

  20. 21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872... and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a device... to a tooth surface. (b) Classification. Class II....

  1. 21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872... and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a device... to a tooth surface. (b) Classification. Class II....

  2. 21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872... and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a device... to a tooth surface. (b) Classification. Class II....

  3. 10 CFR 429.15 - Room air conditioners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND... certification report shall include the following public product-specific information: The energy efficiency... consumption or other measure of energy consumption of a basic model for which consumers would favor...

  4. LDDX: A High Efficiency Air Conditioner for DOD Buildings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-01

    embedded DX system. There is a slight loss of total cooling caused by the warm desiccant that flows onto the absorber, but this loss in total...exchanger to minimize the “heat dump” from warm , concentrated desiccant flowing to the process side of the unit; there is no equally effective way...in Figure 3, the LDDX-WF could use an interchange heat exchanger (IHX) to pre-cool the warm , concentrated desiccant flowing from the condenser to the

  5. LDDX: A High Efficiency Air Conditioner for DOD Buildings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-01

    loss of total cooling caused by the warm desiccant that flows onto the absorber, but this loss in total cooling is small, typically on the order of 5...employees are engineers and scientists. Picatinny Arsenal’s northern New Jersey location has warm , humid summers that create the high latent loads...field test. Data was screened daily to insure its validity. A copy of the data was stored daily in a cloud -based DropBox folder as protection

  6. Experimental study of the decrease in the temperature of an air/water-cooled turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhov, A. A.; Sereda, A. V.; Shaiakberov, V. F.; Iskakov, K. M.; Shatalov, Iu. S.

    Results of the full-scale testing of an air/water-cooled deflector-type turbine blade are reported. Data on the decrease in the temperature of the cooling air and of the blade are presented and compared with the calculated values. An analysis of the results indicates that the use of air/water cooling makes it possible to significantly reduce the temperature of the cooling air and of the blade with practically no increase in the engine weight and dimensions.

  7. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water Pollution...

  8. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water Pollution...

  9. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water Pollution...

  10. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water Pollution...

  11. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water Pollution...

  12. Air-water interface equilibrium partitioning coefficients of aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wen-Hsi; Chu, Fu-Sui; Liou, Jia-Jiunn

    The single equilibration technique was used to determine the equilibrium partitioning coefficients ( pc) of an air-water interface for target aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene. The tested liquid concentrations ( CL) of VOC ranged from 0.5 to 20 mg/l, and the temperatures ( Tw) of the solutions were 300, 305, 310 and 315 K, respectively. The pc values were calculated using the gaseous concentrations ( Cg*) of aromatic hydrocarbons in equilibrium with the aqueous phase and the formula pc=( Cg*/ CL). The heats of VOC of liquid and gaseous phase transfer (Δ Htr) in pure water, and the highly linear regression relationship (with squared correlation coefficients, R2, from 0.900 to 0.999) between ( ln C g*) and (1/ Tw) are also evaluated. Experimental results indicated that the pc values of the target VOC components increase with Tw but, in contrast, are not significantly affected by CL in pure water. However, pc of more soluble compounds, like iso-propanol and methyl ethyl ketone, have been evaluated to be significant with CL in the earlier investigation. Finally, the co-solute effect on pc is also evaluated in this work, as determining pc of the aromatic hydrocarbons by using aqueous ethanol (in a volume ration of 1-15%) as solutes.

  13. Dehumidification of Moist Air by Direct Contact Heat and Mass Transfer in Cold Water Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaba, Hideo; Horibe, Akihiko; Haruki, Naoto; Ishioka, Tohru; Takeuchi, Yoshiyuki

    This paper has dealt with the direct contact heat and mass transfer characteristics of dehumidification of flowing moist air bubbles in a cold water solution (propylene glycoI). The saturated water-vapor humidity of propylene glycol water solution was measured under some conditions of temperature and mass concentration of the water solution. Experiments on dehumidification of air bubbles were performed by ascending air bubbles in the water absorbing solution for various parameters of air temperature, humidity and flow rate etc. The experimental data of air bubble diameter, dehumidification rate and apparent heat transfer coefficient were correlated by means of some experimental parameters such as air temperature, humidity, flow rate and height of water solution layer.

  14. Molecular structure and dynamics of water at the water-air interface studied with surface-specific vibrational spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bonn, Mischa; Nagata, Yuki; Backus, Ellen H G

    2015-05-04

    Water interfaces provide the platform for many important biological, chemical, and physical processes. The water-air interface is the most common and simple aqueous interface and serves as a model system for water at a hydrophobic surface. Unveiling the microscopic (<1 nm) structure and dynamics of interfacial water at the water-vapor interface is essential for understanding the processes occurring on the water surface. At the water interface the network of very strong intermolecular interactions, hydrogen-bonds, is interrupted and the density of water is reduced. A central question regarding water at interfaces is the extent to which the structure and dynamics of water molecules are influenced by the interruption of the hydrogen-bonded network and thus differ from those of bulk water. Herein, we discuss recent advances in the study of interfacial water at the water-air interface using laser-based surface-specific vibrational spectroscopy.

  15. Hearing in birds: what changes from air to water.

    PubMed

    Dooling, Robert J; Therrien, Sara C

    2012-01-01

    We reviewed what is known about hearing in birds, including the effects of anthropogenic noise, to speculate on the nature of underwater hearing in diving birds. Taking into consideration changes inhuman hearing underwater, the effects of changes in middle ear pressure on hearing in humans, and the protective effects against acoustic overexposure in birds from changes in middle ear pressure, we suggest that if similar patterns hold for diving birds, they may not hear well underwater. Moreover,the frequency of best hearing sensitivity may shift to frequencies below 2 and 4 kHz. Trapped air may allow the middle ear cavity of birds to function much as the swim bladder functions in fish.Diving birds present important auditory and environmental issues. To resolve these issues properly requires comparative anatomical investigations of the middle and inner ears of diving birds.More importantly, behavioral measures of hearing in diving birds must be conducted both in air and in water. Finally, behavioral studies of these animals in their natural habitats are required to deter-mine whether they use sound underwater for communication, foraging, predator avoidance, or other behaviors.

  16. Reacting chemistry at the air-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Tomoyuki; Morgan, Thomas; Huwel, Lutz; Graham, William

    2016-09-01

    Plasma interaction with gas-liquid interfaces is becoming increasingly important in biological applications, chemical analysis and medicine. It introduces electrons, new ionic species and reactive species and contributes to chemical and electrical self-organization at the interface. To provide insight into the associated physics and chemistry at work in the evolution of the plasma in the air-water interface (AWI), a time-dependent one-dimensional modelling has been developed. The numerical simulation is used to solve the kinetic equations and help identify the important reaction mechanisms and describe the phenomena associated with hundreds of reacting pathways in gas-phase and liquid-phase AWI chemistry. This work was partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 16K04998.

  17. Air and water stable ionic liquids in physical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Endres, Frank; Zein El Abedin, Sherif

    2006-05-14

    Ionic liquids are defined today as liquids which solely consist of cations and anions and which by definition must have a melting point of 100 degrees C or below. Originating from electrochemistry in AlCl(3) based liquids an enormous progress was made during the recent 10 years to synthesize ionic liquids that can be handled under ambient conditions, and today about 300 ionic liquids are already commercially available. Whereas the main interest is still focussed on organic and technical chemistry, various aspects of physical chemistry in ionic liquids are discussed now in literature. In this review article we give a short overview on physicochemical aspects of ionic liquids, such as physical properties of ionic liquids, nanoparticles, nanotubes, batteries, spectroscopy, thermodynamics and catalysis of/in ionic liquids. The focus is set on air and water stable ionic liquids as they will presumably dominate various fields of chemistry in future.

  18. Addressing Water Consumption of Evaporative Coolers with Greywater

    SciTech Connect

    Sahai, Rashmi; Shah, Nihar; Phadke, Amol

    2012-07-01

    Evaporative coolers (ECs) provide significant gains in energy efficiency compared to vapor compression air conditioners, but simultaneously have significant onsite water demand. This can be a major barrier to deployment in areas of the world with hot and arid climates. To address this concern, this study determined where in the world evaporative cooling is suitable, the water consumption of ECs in these cities, and the potential that greywater can be used reduce the consumption of potable water in ECs. ECs covered 69percent of the cities where room air conditioners are may be deployed, based on comfort conditions alone. The average water consumption due to ECs was found to be 400 L/household/day in the United States and Australia, with the potential for greywater to provide 50percent this amount. In the rest of the world, the average water consumption was 250 L/household/day, with the potential for greywater to supply 80percent of this amount. Home size was the main factor that contributed to this difference. In the Mediterranean, the Middle East, Northern India, and the Midwestern and Southwestern United States alkalinity levels are high and water used for bleeding will likely contribute significantly to EC water consumption. Although technically feasible, upfront costs for household GW systems are currently high. In both developed and developing parts of the world, however, a direct EC and GW system is cost competitive with conventional vapor compression air conditioners. Moreover, in regions of the world that face problems of water scarcity the benefits can substantially outweigh the costs.

  19. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  20. Relay cropping for improved air and water quality.

    PubMed

    Schepers, James S; Francis, Dennis D; Shanahan, John F

    2005-01-01

    Using plants to extract excess nitrate from soil is important in protecting against eutrophication of standing water, hypoxic conditions in lakes and oceans, or elevated nitrate concentrations in domestic water supplies Global climate change issues have raised new concerns about nitrogen (N) management as it relates to crop production even though there may not be an immediate threat to water quality. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are frequently considered the primary cause of global climate change, but under anaerobic conditions, animals can contribute by expelling methane (CH4) as do soil microbes. In terms of the potential for global climate change, CH4 is approximately 25 times more harmful than CO2. This differential effect is minuscule compared to when nitrous oxide (N2O) is released into the atmosphere because it is approximately 300 times more harmful than CO2. N2O losses from soil have been positively correlated with residual N (nitrate, NO3-) concentrations in soil. It stands to reason that phytoremediation via nitrate scavenger crops is one approach to help protect air quality, as well as soil and water quality. Winter wheat was inserted into a seed corn/soybean rotation to utilize soil nitrate and thereby reduce the potential for nitrate leaching and N2O emissions. The net effect of the 2001-2003 relay cropping sequence was to produce three crops in two years, scavenge 130 kg N/ha from the root zone, produce an extra 2 Mg residue/ha, and increase producer profitability by approximately 250 dollars/ha.

  1. ISSUES IN SIMULATING ELEMENTAL MERCURY AIR/WATER EXCHANGE AND AQUEOUS MONOMETHYLMERCURY SPECIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation focuses on two areas relevant to assessing the global fate and bioavailability of mercury: elemental mercury air/water exchange and aqueous environmental monomethylmercury speciation.

  2. ISSUES IN SIMULATING ELEMENTAL MERCURY AIR/WATER EXCHANGE AND AQUEOUS MONOMETHYLMERCURY SPECIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation focuses on two areas relevant to assessing the global fate and bioavailability of mercury: elemental mercury air/water exchange and aqueous environmental monomethylmercury speciation.

  3. Effects of air vessel on water hammer in high-head pumping station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Wang, F. J.; Zou, Z. C.; Li, X. N.; Zhang, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Effects of air vessel on water hammer process in a pumping station with high-head were analyzed by using the characteristics method. The results show that the air vessel volume is the key parameter that determines the protective effect on water hammer pressure. The maximum pressure in the system declines with increasing air vessel volume. For a fixed volume of air vessel, the shape of air vessel and mounting style, such as horizontal or vertical mounting, have little effect on the water hammer. In order to obtain good protection effects, the position of air vessel should be close to the outlet of the pump. Generally, once the volume of air vessel is guaranteed, the water hammer of a entire pipeline is effectively controlled.

  4. Adhesive bonding of super-elastic titanium-nickel alloy castings with a phosphate metal conditioner and an acrylic adhesive.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, H; Tanoue, N; Yanagida, H; Atsuta, M; Koike, M; Yoneyama, T

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the bonding characteristics of super-elastic titanium-nickel (Ti-Ni) alloy castings. Disk specimens were cast from a Ti-Ni alloy (Ti-50.85Ni mol%) using an arc centrifugal casting machine. High-purity titanium and nickel specimens were also prepared as experimental references. The specimens were air-abraded with alumina, and bonded with an adhesive resin (Super-Bond C & B). A metal conditioner containing a phosphate monomer (Cesead II Opaque Primer) was also used for priming the specimens. Post-thermocycling average bond strengths (MPa) of the primed groups were 41.5 for Ti-Ni, 30.4 for Ti and 19.5 for Ni, whereas those of the unprimed groups were 21.6 for Ti, 19.3 for Ti-Ni and 9.3 for Ni. Application of the phosphate conditioner elevated the bond strengths of all alloy/metals (P < 0.05). X-ray fluorescence analysis revealed that nickel was attached to the debonded resin surface of the resin-to-nickel bonded specimen, indicating that corrosion of high-purity nickel occurred at the resin-nickel interface. Durable bonding to super-elastic Ti-Ni alloy castings can be achieved with a combination of a phosphate metal conditioner and a tri-n-butylborane-initiated adhesive resin.

  5. Allergies to molds caused by fungal spores in air conditioning equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Schata, M.; Jorde, W. ); Elixmann, J.H.; Linskens, H.F. )

    1989-01-01

    People suffering from various symptoms while in air-conditioned rooms often show sensitizations to fungi that can be isolated when the fungi are removed from air conditioners. By using specific challenge tests it was shown that fungal spores in air conditioners can evoke allergic symptoms. Hyposensitization was the specific therapy prescribed for such allergic reactions. After hyposensitization therapy, more than 70% of the patients so treated could live and work again in air-conditioned rooms without developing specific symptoms.

  6. Impact of artificial monolayer application on stored water quality at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Pittaway, P; Martínez-Alvarez, V; Hancock, N; Gallego-Elvira, B

    2015-01-01

    Evaporation mitigation has the potential to significantly improve water use efficiency, with repeat applications of artificial monolayer formulations the most cost-effective strategy for large water storages. Field investigations of the impact of artificial monolayers on water quality have been limited by wind and wave turbulence, and beaching. Two suspended covers differing in permeability to wind and light were used to attenuate wind turbulence, to favour the maintenance of a condensed monolayer at the air/water interface of a 10 m diameter tank. An octadecanol formulation was applied twice-weekly to one of two covered tanks, while a third clean water tank remained uncovered for the 14-week duration of the trial. Microlayer and subsurface water samples were extracted once a week to distinguish impacts associated with the installation of covers, from the impact of prolonged monolayer application. The monolayer was selectively toxic to some phytoplankton, but the toxicity of hydrocarbons leaching from a replacement liner had a greater impact. Monolayer application did not increase water temperature, humified dissolved organic matter, or the biochemical oxygen demand, and did not reduce dissolved oxygen. The impact of an octadecanol monolayer on water quality and the microlayer may not be as detrimental as previously considered.

  7. The Effect of Rain on Air-Water Gas Exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, David T.; Bliven, Larry F.; Wanninkhof, Rik; Schlosser, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between gas transfer velocity and rain rate was investigated at NASA's Rain-Sea Interaction Facility (RSIF) using several SF, evasion experiments. During each experiment, a water tank below the rain simulator was supersaturated with SF6, a synthetic gas, and the gas transfer velocities were calculated from the measured decrease in SF6 concentration with time. The results from experiments with IS different rain rates (7 to 10 mm/h) and 1 of 2 drop sizes (2.8 or 4.2 mm diameter) confirm a significant and systematic enhancement of air-water gas exchange by rainfall. The gas transfer velocities derived from our experiment were related to the kinetic energy flux calculated from the rain rate and drop size. The relationship obtained for mono-dropsize rain at the RSIF was extrapolated to natural rain using the kinetic energy flux of natural rain calculated from the Marshall-Palmer raindrop size distribution. Results of laboratory experiments at RSIF were compared to field observations made during a tropical rainstorm in Miami, Florida and show good agreement between laboratory and field data.

  8. Non-thermal plasma for air and water remediation.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Siti Aiasah; Samsudin, Farah Nadia Dayana Binti; Wong, Chiow San; Abu Bakar, Khomsaton; Yap, Seong Ling; Mohd Zin, Mohd Faiz

    2016-09-01

    A modular typed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) device is designed and tested for air and water remediation. The module is made of a number of DBD tubes that can be arranged in series or parallel. Each of the DBD tubes comprises inner electrode enclosed with dielectric barrier and arranged as such to provide a gap for the passage of gases. Non-thermal plasma generated in the gap effectively creates gaseous chemical reactions. Its efficacy in the remediation of gas stream containing high NOx, similar to diesel emission and wastewater containing latex, are presented. A six tubes DBD module has successfully removed more than 80% of nitric oxide from the gas stream. In another arrangement, oxygen was fed into a two tubes DBD to generate ozone for treatment of wastewater. Samples of wastewater were collected from a treatment pond of a rubber vulcanization pilot plant. The water pollution load was evaluated by the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD5) values. Preliminary results showed some improvement (about 13%) on the COD after treatment and at the same time had increased the BOD5 by 42%. This results in higher BOD5/COD ratio after ozonation which indicate better biodegradability of the wastewater.

  9. The Effect of Rain on Air-Water Gas Exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, David T.; Bliven, Larry F.; Wanninkhof, Rik; Schlosser, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between gas transfer velocity and rain rate was investigated at NASA's Rain-Sea Interaction Facility (RSIF) using several SF, evasion experiments. During each experiment, a water tank below the rain simulator was supersaturated with SF6, a synthetic gas, and the gas transfer velocities were calculated from the measured decrease in SF6 concentration with time. The results from experiments with IS different rain rates (7 to 10 mm/h) and 1 of 2 drop sizes (2.8 or 4.2 mm diameter) confirm a significant and systematic enhancement of air-water gas exchange by rainfall. The gas transfer velocities derived from our experiment were related to the kinetic energy flux calculated from the rain rate and drop size. The relationship obtained for mono-dropsize rain at the RSIF was extrapolated to natural rain using the kinetic energy flux of natural rain calculated from the Marshall-Palmer raindrop size distribution. Results of laboratory experiments at RSIF were compared to field observations made during a tropical rainstorm in Miami, Florida and show good agreement between laboratory and field data.

  10. COMPOSITION CHANGES IN REFRIGERANT BLENDS FOR AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three refrigerant blends used to replace CFC-12 in automotive air conditioners were evaluated for composition changes due to typical servicing and leakage. When recommended service procedures were followed, changes in blend compositions were relatively small. Small changes in b...

  11. COMPOSITION CHANGES IN REFRIGERANT BLENDS FOR AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three refrigerant blends used to replace CFC-12 in automotive air conditioners were evaluated for composition changes due to typical servicing and leakage. When recommended service procedures were followed, changes in blend compositions were relatively small. Small changes in b...

  12. Research on Annual Energy Consumption of Air Conditioning Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Naho; Tanaka, Kousuke; Hihara, Eiji

    Energy consumption in almost all sectors is constantly increasing. Air conditioner is one of energy-intensive equipments and it is important to evaluate energy consumption with reasonable accuracy. For evaluation of energy conservation of air conditioners, it is necessary to take into account the variations of outdoor temperature, the heating/cooling load throughout a year and all the operating conditions. But according to the current standard, only a few found values and other estimated values are used to calculate annual energy consumption of air conditioner. It is needed to assess the legitimacy of current standard. Seasonal performance of air conditioners was tested, and an appropriate way of evaluation of energy conservation was investigated.

  13. Water-air and soil-air exchange rate of total gaseous mercury measured at background sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poissant, Laurier; Casimir, Alain

    In order to evaluate and understand the processes of water-air and soil-air exchanges involved at background sites, an intensive field measurement campaign has been achieved during the summer of 1995 using high-time resolution techniques (10 min) at two sites (land and water) in southern Québec (Canada). Mercury flux was measured using a dynamic flux chamber technique coupled with an automatic mercury vapour-phase analyser (namely, Tekran®). The flux chamber shows that the rural grassy site acted primarily as a source of atmospheric mercury, its flux mimicked the solar radiation, with a maximum daytime value of ˜ 8.3 ng m -2 h -1 of TGM. The water surface location (St. Lawrence River site located about 3 km from the land site) shows deposition and evasion fluxes almost in the same order of magnitude (-0.5 vs 1.0 ng m -2 h -1).The latter is influenced to some extent by solar radiation but primarily by the formation of a layer of stable air over the water surface in which some redox reactions might promote evasion processes over the water surface. This process does not appear over the soil surface. As a whole, soil-air exchange rate is about 6-8 fold greater than the water-air exchange.

  14. Transforming PC Power Supplies into Smart Car Battery Conditioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Ascariz, J. M.; Boquete-Vazquez, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory project consisting of a PC power supply modification into an intelligent car-battery conditioner with both wireless and wired networking capabilities. Adding a microcontroller to an average PC power supply transforms it into a flexible, intelligent device that can be configured and that is suitable to keep car…

  15. Transforming PC Power Supplies into Smart Car Battery Conditioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Ascariz, J. M.; Boquete-Vazquez, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory project consisting of a PC power supply modification into an intelligent car-battery conditioner with both wireless and wired networking capabilities. Adding a microcontroller to an average PC power supply transforms it into a flexible, intelligent device that can be configured and that is suitable to keep car…

  16. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report contains information related to the sampling and chemical analysis of ground water at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It is part of a field investigation of ground water contamination.

  17. Effect of metal conditioner on bonding of porcelain to cobalt-chromium alloy

    PubMed Central

    Kajihara, Yutaro; Takenouchi, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Takuo; Suzuki, Shiro; Minami, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two different metal conditioners for non-precious metal alloys for the bonding of porcelain to a cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Disk-shaped specimens (2.5×10.0 mm) were cast with Co-Cr alloy and used as adherend materials. The bonding surfaces were polished with a 600-grid silicon carbide paper and airborne-particle abraded using 110 µm alumina particles. Bonding specimens were fabricated by applying and firing either of the metal conditioners on the airborne-particle abraded surface, followed by firing porcelain into 5 mm in diameter and 3 mm in height. Specimens without metal conditioner were also fabricated. Shear bond strength for each group (n=8) were measured and compared (α=.05). Sectional view of bonding interface was observed by SEM. EDS analysis was performed to determine the chemical elements of metal conditioners and to determine the failure modes after shear test. RESULTS There were significant differences among three groups, and two metal conditioner-applied groups showed significantly higher values compared to the non-metal conditioner group. The SEM observation of the sectional view at bonding interface revealed loose contact at porcelain-alloy surface for non-metal conditioner group, however, close contact at both alloy-metal conditioner and metal conditioner-porcelain interfaces for both metal conditioner-applied groups. All the specimens showed mixed failures. EDS analysis showed that one metal conditioner was Si-based material, and another was Ti-based material. Si-based metal conditioner showed higher bond strengths compared to the Ti-based metal conditioner, but exhibited more porous failure surface failure. CONCLUSION Based on the results of this study, it can be stated that the application of metal conditioner is recommended for the bonding of porcelain to cobalt-chromium alloys. PMID:26949481

  18. Amphiphilic derivatives of dextran: adsorption at air/water and oil/water interfaces.

    PubMed

    Rotureau, E; Leonard, M; Dellacherie, E; Durand, A

    2004-11-01

    Ionic amphiphilic dextran derivatives were synthesized by the attachment of sodium sulfopropyl and phenoxy groups on the native polysaccharide. A family of dextran derivatives was thus obtained with varying hydrophobic content and charge density in the polymer chains. The surface-active properties of polymers were studied at the air-water and dodecane-water interfaces using dynamic surface/interfacial tension measurements. The adsorption was shown to begin in a diffusion-limited regime at low polymer concentrations, that is to say, with the diffusion of macromolecules in the bulk solution. In contrast, at long times the interfacial adsorption is limited by interfacial phenomena: adsorption kinetics or transfer into the adsorbed layer. A semiempirical equation developed by Filippov was shown to correctly fit the experimental curves over the whole time range. The presence of ionic groups in the chains strongly lowers the adsorption kinetics. This effect can be interpreted by electrostatic interactions between the free molecules and the already adsorbed ones. The adsorption kinetics at air-water and oil-water interfaces are compared.

  19. Interfacial characterization of Pluronic PE9400 at biocompatible (air-water and limonene-water) interfaces.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Mosqueda, Luis M; Maldonado-Valderrama, Julia; Ramírez, Pablo; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, Miguel A; Muñoz, José

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we provide an accurate characterization of non-ionic triblock copolymer Pluronic PE9400 at the air-water and limonene-water interfaces, comprising a systematic analysis of surface tension isotherms, dynamic curves, dilatational rheology and desorption profiles. The surface pressure isotherms display two different slopes of the Π-c plot suggesting the existence of two adsorption regimes for PE9400 at both interfaces. Application of a theoretical model, which assumes the coexistence of different adsorbed states characterized by their molar areas, allows quantification of the conformational changes occurring at the adsorbed layer, indentifying differences between the conformations adopted at the air-water and the limonene-water interface. The presence of two maxima in the dilatational modulus vs. interfacial pressure importantly corroborates this conformational change from a 2D flat conformation to 3D brush one. Moreover, the dilatational response provides mechanical diferences between the interfacial layers formed at the two interfaces analyzed. Dynamic surface pressure data were transformed into a dimensionless form and fitted to another model which considers the influence of the reorganization process on the adsorption dynamics. Finally, the desorption profiles reveal that Pluronic PE9400 is irreversibly adsorbed at both interfaces regardless of the interfacial conformation and nature of the interface. The systematic characterization presented in this work provides important new findings on the interfacial properties of pluronics which can be applied in the rational development of new products, such as biocompatible limonene-based emulsions and/or microemulsions.

  20. Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Mortensen

    2011-12-31

    This program was undertaken to enhance the manufacturability, constructability, and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation and Plume Abatement Cooling Tower, giving a validated cost basis and capability. Air2Air{TM} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10% - 25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate). This program improved the efficiency and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation Cooling Tower capability, and led to the first commercial sale of the product, as described.

  1. The effect of the partial pressure of water vapor on the surface tension of the liquid water-air interface.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Díaz, José L; Álvarez-Valenzuela, Marco A; García-Prada, Juan C

    2012-09-01

    Precise measurements of the surface tension of water in air vs. humidity at 5, 10, 15, and 20 °C are shown. For constant temperature, surface tension decreases linearly for increasing humidity in air. These experimental data are in good agreement with a simple model based on Newton's laws here proposed. It is assumed that evaporating molecules of water are ejected from liquid to gas with a mean normal component of the speed of "ejection" greater than zero. A high humidity in the air reduces the net flow of evaporating water molecules lowering the effective surface tension on the drop. Therefore, just steam in air acts as an effective surfactant for the water-air interface. It can partially substitute chemical surfactants helping to reduce their environmental impact.

  2. Surface, Water, and Air Biocharacterization (SWAB) Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, V. A.; Ott, C. M.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    The determination of risk from infectious disease during spaceflight missions is composed of several factors including both the concentration and characteristics of the microorganisms to which the crew are exposed. Thus, having a good understanding of the microbial ecology aboard spacecraft provides the necessary information to mitigate health risks to the crew. While preventive measures are taken to minimize the presence of pathogens on spacecraft, medically significant organisms have been isolated from both the Mir and International Space Station (ISS). Historically, the method for isolation and identification of microorganisms from spacecraft environmental samples depended upon their growth on culture media. Unfortunately, only a fraction of the organisms may grow on a specific culture medium, potentially omitting those microorganisms whose nutritional and physical requirements for growth are not met. To address this bias in our understanding of the ISS environment, the Surface, Water, and Air Biocharacterization (SWAB) Flight Experiment was designed to investigate and develop monitoring technology to provide better microbial characterization. For the SWAB flight experiment, we hypothesized that environmental analysis using non-culture-based technologies would reveal microorganisms, allergens, and microbial toxins not previously reported in spacecraft, allowing for a more complete health assessment. Key findings during this experiment included: a) Generally, advanced molecular techniques were able to reveal a few organisms not recovered using culture-based methods; however, there is no indication that current monitoring is "missing" any medically significant bacteria or fungi. b) Molecular techniques have tremendous potential for microbial monitoring, however, sample preparation and data analysis present challenges for spaceflight hardware. c) Analytical results indicate that some molecular techniques, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), can

  3. Interpreting contact angle results under air, water and oil for the same surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozkan, Orkun; Yildirim Erbil, H.

    2017-06-01

    Under-water and under-oil superhydropobicity and superhydrophilicity have gained significant attention over the last few years. In this study, contact angles on five flat surfaces (polypropylene, poly(methyl methacrylate), polycarbonate, TEFLON-FEP and glass slide) were measured in water drop-in-air, air bubble-under-water, oil drop-in-air, air bubble-under-oil, oil drop-under-water and water drop-under-oil conditions. Heptane, octane, nonane, decane, dodecane, and hexadecane hydrocarbons were used as oils. Immiscible water/oil pairs were previously mutually saturated to provide thermodynamical equilibrium conditions and their surface and interfacial tensions were determined experimentally. These pairs were used in the two-liquid contact angle measurements. Surface free energies of the solid surfaces in air were determined independently by using the van Oss-Good method, using the contact angle results of pure water, ethylene glycol, formamide, methylene iodide and α-bromonaphalene. In addition, Zisman’s ‘critical surface tension’ values were also determined for comparison. In theory, the summation of contact angle results in a complementary case would give a total of 180° for ideal surfaces. However, it was determined that there are large deviations from this rule in practical cases and these deviations depend on surface free energies of solids. Three complementary cases of (water-in-air with air bubble-under-water); (oil-in-air with air bubble-under-oil); and (oil-under-water with water-under-oil) were investigated in particular to determine the deviations from ideality. A novel approach, named ‘complementary hysteresis’ [γ WA(cosθ 1  -  cosθ 2) and γ OW(cosθ 6  -  cosθ 5)] was developed where γ WA and γ OW represent the interfacial tensions of water/air and oil/water, and θ 1, θ 2, θ 5, and θ 6 were the contact angles of water/air, air bubble/water, oil/water and water/oil respectively. It was experimentally determined that

  4. Alternatives for reducing hot-water bills

    SciTech Connect

    Bennington, G.E.; Spewak, P.C.

    1981-06-01

    A two stage approach to reducing residential water heating bills is described. In Stage I, simple conservation measures were included to reduce the daily hot water energy consumption and the energy losses from the water tank. Once these savings are achieved, Stage II considers more costly options for further reducing the water heating bill. Four alternatives are considered in Stage II: gas water heaters; solar water heaters (two types); heat pump water heaters; and heat recovery from a heat pump or air conditioner. To account for variations within the MASEC region, information on water heating in Rapid City, Minneapolis, Chicago, Detroit, and Kansas City is presented in detail. Information on geography, major population centers, fuel prices, climate, and state solar incentives is covered. (MCW)

  5. Final Environmental Assessment for San Andres Water Line, Holloman Air Force Base, Otero County, New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-16

    FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT SAN ANDRES PIPELINE REPAIR HOLLOMAN AIR FORCE BASE OTERO COUNTY, NEW MEXICO U.S. Air Force 49th Fighter Wing...Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico April 16, 2007 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection...Final Environmental Assessment for San Andres Water Line, Holloman Air Force Base, Otero County, New Mexico 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  6. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single Family Homes (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, J.; Withers, C.; Martin, E.; Moyer, N.

    2012-10-01

    This document focuses on managing the driving forces which move air and moisture across the building envelope. While other previously published Measure Guidelines focus on elimination of air pathways, the ultimate goal of this Measure Guideline is to manage drivers which cause air flow and water vapor transport across the building envelope (and also within the home), control air infiltration, keep relative humidity (RH) within acceptable limits, avoid combustion safety problems, improve occupant comfort, and reduce house energy use.

  7. Air-water oxygen exchange in a large whitewater river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Robert O.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.

    2012-01-01

    Air-water gas exchange governs fluxes of gas into and out of aquatic ecosystems. Knowing this flux is necessary to calculate gas budgets (i.e., O2) to estimate whole-ecosystem metabolism and basin-scale carbon budgets. Empirical data on rates of gas exchange for streams, estuaries, and oceans are readily available. However, there are few data from large rivers and no data from whitewater rapids. We measured gas transfer velocity in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, as decline in O2 saturation deficit, 7 times in a 28-km segment spanning 7 rapids. The O2 saturation deficit exists because of hypolimnetic discharge from Glen Canyon Dam, located 25 km upriver from Lees Ferry. Gas transfer velocity (k600) increased with slope of the immediate reach. k600 was -1 in flat reaches, while k600 for the steepest rapid ranged 3600-7700 cm h-1, an extremely high value of k600. Using the rate of gas exchange per unit length of water surface elevation (Kdrop, m-1), segment-integrated k600 varied between 74 and 101 cm h-1. Using Kdrop we scaled k600 to the remainder of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. At the scale corresponding to the segment length where 80% of the O2 exchanged with the atmosphere (mean length = 26.1 km), k600 varied 4.5-fold between 56 and 272 cm h-1 with a mean of 113 cm h-1. Gas transfer velocity for the Colorado River was higher than those from other aquatic ecosystems because of large rapids. Our approach of scaling k600 based on Kdrop allows comparing gas transfer velocity across rivers with spatially heterogeneous morphology.

  8. Smart Sensors Enable Smart Air Conditioning Control

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection. PMID:24961213

  9. Smart sensors enable smart air conditioning control.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-06-24

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection.

  10. Isotopic composition of water vapor near the air-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zannoni, Daniele; Bergamasco, Andrea; Peschiutta, Mirco; Rampazzo, Giancarlo; Stenni, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    Evaporation is a key process in water cycle that links liquid water to the atmosphere. In the last fifty years stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen have been intensively used to describe climate processes related to evaporation and precipitation, ranging in different spatial and temporal scales. Evaporation introduces large isotopic effects in the phases involved. The well known Craig-Gordon model (Craig & Gordon, 1965) describes those isotopic effects involving several steps and different processes, moving from the air-water interface to the free atmosphere. However, very few works in literature have tested the vertical behavior of the Craig-Gordon model in natural conditions on both fresh and marine waters. In this work we present the results from four field experiments aimed to describe the vertical variability of δ18O and δD in the first few meters over a large water body (the coastal lagoon of Venice, northern Italy) and to test the Craig-Gordon model in such conditions. Each experiment involved cryotrapping of water vapor at different height over the water surface (0.1m, 2m and 4m) and the sampling of the liquid water at two depth (surface and 0.5m). During the experiments, water vapor was also sampled in the nearest mainland (˜2.5 km from gradient measurements) to determine the isotopic composition of background water vapor. Liquid samples were then analyzed with a Picarro L1102-i and Thermo-Fisher Delta Plus Advantage for water vapor and lagoon water, respectively. The last two experiments have also involved simultaneous measurements of relative humidity using commercially-available humidity probes at each height. This approach was used to determine a reference scale in order to compare observations to modeled estimates. Despite the coarse time resolution due to cryotrapping method (measurements are averaged over 1.5 hours), preliminary results show measurable differences in the isotopic composition of water vapor along the vertical gradient and good

  11. The Importance of Moving Air-Water Interfaces for Colloid Transport in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flury, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the vadose zone, or in unsaturated porous media in general, transport of colloids is usually less pronounced than in groundwater. An important retention mechanism for colloids in unsaturated porous media is attachment to air-water interfaces. However, air-water interfaces can also lead to colloid mobilization and enhanced transport if air-water interfaces are moving, such as during infiltration, imbibition, and drainage. Colloid attachment to air-water interfaces is caused by surface tension forces, and these forces usually exceed other interactions forces; therefore, surface tension forces play a dominant role for colloid transport in unsaturated porous media. In this presentation, experimental and theoretical evidence of surface tension forces acting on colloids will be presented, and the role of moving air-water interfaces will be discussed.

  12. Influence of water depth on the sound generated by air-bubble vibration in the water musical instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohuchi, Yoshito; Nakazono, Yoichi

    2014-06-01

    We have developed a water musical instrument that generates sound by the falling of water drops within resonance tubes. The instrument can give people who hear it the healing effect inherent in the sound of water. The sound produced by falling water drops arises from air- bubble vibrations. To investigate the impact of water depth on the air-bubble vibrations, we conducted experiments at varying values of water pressure and nozzle shape. We found that air-bubble vibration frequency does not change at a water depth of 50 mm or greater. Between 35 and 40 mm, however, the frequency decreases. At water depths of 30 mm or below, the air-bubble vibration frequency increases. In our tests, we varied the nozzle diameter from 2 to 4 mm. In addition, we discovered that the time taken for air-bubble vibration to start after the water drops start falling is constant at water depths of 40 mm or greater, but slower at depths below 40 mm.

  13. Environmental monitoring of chromium in air, soil, and water.

    PubMed

    Vitale, R J; Mussoline, G R; Rinehimer, K A

    1997-08-01

    Historical uses of chromium have resulted in its widespread release into the environment. In recent years, a significant amount of research has evaluated the impact of chromium on human health and the environment. Additionally, numerous analytical methods have been developed to identify and quantitate chromium in environmental media in response to various state and federal mandates such as CERCLA, RCRA, CWA, CAA, and SWDA. Due to the significant toxicity differences between trivalent [Cr(III)] and hexavalent [Cr(VI)] chromium, it is essential that chromium be quantified in these two distinct valence states to assess the potential risks to exposure to each in environmental media. Speciation is equally important because of their marked differences in environmental behavior. As the knowledge of risks associated with each valence state has grown and regulatory requirements have evolved, methods to accurately quantitate these species at ever-decreasing concentrations within environmental media have also evolved. This paper addresses the challenges of chromium species quantitation and some of the most relevant current methods used for environmental monitoring, including ASTM Method D5281 for air, SW-846 Methods 3060A, 7196A and 7199 for soils, sediments, and waste, and U.S. EPA Method 218.6 for water.

  14. Motion of Air Bubbles in Water Subjected to Microgravity Accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard; Kelly, Eric M.; Hrovat, Kenneth; Nelson, Emily S.; Pettit, Donald R.

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) serves as a platform for microgravity research for the foreseeable future. A microgravity environment is one in which the effects of gravity are drastically reduced which then allows physical experiments to be conducted without the over powering effects of gravity. During his 6-month stay on the ISS, astronaut Donald R. Pettit performed many informal/impromptu science experiments with available equipment. One such experiment focused on the motion of air bubbles in a rectangular container nearly filled with de-ionized water. Bubbles were introduced by shaking and then the container was secured in place for several hours while motion of the bubbles was recorded using time-lapse photography. This paper shows correlation between bubble motion and quasi-steady acceleration levels during one such experiment operation. The quasi-steady acceleration vectors were measured by the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System (MAMS). Essentially linear motion was observed in the condition considered here. Dr. Pettit also created other conditions which produced linear and circulating motion, which are the subjects of further study. Initial observations of this bubble motion agree with calculations from many microgravity physical science experiments conducted on shuttle microgravity science missions. Many crystal-growth furnaces involve heavy metals and high temperatures in which undesired acceleration-driven convection during solidification can adversely affect the crystal. Presented in this paper will be results showing correlation between bubble motion and the quasi-steady acceleration vector.

  15. Motion of Air Bubbles in Water Subjected to Microgravity Accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard; Kelly, Eric M.; Hrovar, Kenneth; Nelson, Emily S.; Pettit, Donald R.

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) serves as a platform for microgravity research for the foreseeable future. A microgravity environment is one in which the effects of gravity are drastically reduced which then allows physical experiments to be conducted without the overpowering effects of gravity. During his six month stay on the ISS, astronaut Donald R Pettit performed many informal/impromptu science experiments with available equipment. One such experiment focused on the motion of air bubbles in a rectangular container nearly filled with de-ionized water. Bubbles were introduced by shaking and the container was secured in place for several hours while motion of the bubbles were recorded using time-lapse photography. This paper shows correlation between bubble motion and quasi-steady acceleration levels during one such experiment operation. The quasi-steady acceleration vectors were measured by the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System. Essentially linear motion was observed in the condition considered here. Dr. Pettit also created other conditions which produced linear and circulating motion, which are the subjects of further study. Initial observations of this bubble motion agree with calculations from many microgravity physical science experiments conducted on Shuttle microgravity science missions. Many crystal-growth furnaces involve heavy metals and high temperatures in which undesired acceleration-driven convection during solidification can adversely affect the crystal. Presented in this paper will be results showing correlation between bubble motion and the quasi-steady acceleration vector.

  16. Gas and liquid measurements in air-water bubbly flows

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, X.; Doup, B.; Sun, X.

    2012-07-01

    Local measurements of gas- and liquid-phase flow parameters are conducted in an air-water two-phase flow loop. The test section is a vertical pipe with an inner diameter of 50 mm and a height of 3.2 m. The measurements are performed at z/D = 10. The gas-phase measurements are performed using a four-sensor conductivity probe. The data taken from this probe are processed using a signal processing program to yield radial profiles of the void fraction, bubble velocity, and interfacial area concentration. The velocity measurements of the liquid-phase are performed using a state-of-the-art Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system. The raw PIV images are acquired using fluorescent particles and an optical filtration device. Image processing is used to remove noise in the raw PIV images. The statistical cross correlation is introduced to determine the axial velocity field and turbulence intensity of the liquid-phase. Measurements are currently being performed at z/D = 32 to provide a more complete data set. These data can be used for computational fluid dynamic model development and validation. (authors)

  17. [Experimental research on combined water and air backwashing reactor technology for biological activated carbon].

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhi-Gang; Qiu, Xue-Min; Zhao, Yan-Ling

    2012-01-01

    To proper control the backwashing process of biological activated carbon (BAC) reactor and improve the overall operation performance, the evaluative indexes such as backwashing wastewater turbidity, organic pollutants removal rate of pre and post-backwashing, and the variation of biomass and biological activity in carbon column are used to compare and analyze the effect of three different combined water and air backwashing methods on the operation of BAC reactor. The result shows that intermittent combined water and air backwashing method is most suitable to BAC reactor. The biological activaty obviously increases by 62.5% after intermittent combined water and air backwashing process. While, the biological activaty using the backwashing method of air plus water and the backwashing method of water and air compounded plus water washing increases by 55.6%, 38.5%, respectively. After backwashing 308h, the reactor recovered to its normal function after intermittent combined water and air backwashing process with the removal rate of UV254 reaching to 60.0%. The fulvic-like fluorescence peak of backwashing water are very weak, and are characterized by low-excitation wavelength tryptophan like (peak S) and high excitation wavelength of tryptophan (peak T), which are caused by the microbial debris washed down. The three-dimensional fluorescence spectra also show that microbial fragments are easy to be washed clean with intermittent combined water and air backwashing.

  18. 48 CFR 52.247-52 - Clearance and Documentation Requirements-Shipments to DOD Air or Water Terminal Transshipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Documentation Requirements-Shipments to DOD Air or Water Terminal Transshipment Points. 52.247-52 Section 52.247... and Documentation Requirements—Shipments to DOD Air or Water Terminal Transshipment Points. As... Requirements—Shipments to DOD Air or Water Terminal Transshipment Points (FEB 2006) All shipments to water...

  19. Effects of water-contaminated air on blowoff limits of opposed jet hydrogen-air diffusion flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, Gerald L.; Jentzen, Marilyn E.; Wilson, Lloyd G.; Northam, G. Burton

    1988-01-01

    The effects of water-contaminated air on the extinction and flame restoration of the central portion of N2-diluted H2 versus air counterflow diffusion flames are investigated using a coaxial tubular opposed jet burner. The results show that the replacement of N2 contaminant in air by water on a mole for mole basis decreases the maximum sustainable H2 mass flow, just prior to extinction, of the flame. This result contrasts strongly with the analogous substitution of water for N2 in a relatively hot premixed H2-O2-N2 flame, which was shown by Koroll and Mulpuru (1986) to lead to a significant, kinetically controlled increase in laminar burning velocity.

  20. Laser-induced damage thresholds of gold, silver and their alloys in air and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starinskiy, Sergey V.; Shukhov, Yuri G.; Bulgakov, Alexander V.

    2017-02-01

    The nanosecond-laser-induced damage thresholds of gold, silver and gold-silver alloys of various compositions in air and water have been measured for single-shot irradiation conditions. The experimental results are analyzed theoretically by solving the heat flow equation for the samples irradiated in air and in water taking into account vapor nucleation at the solid-water interface. The damage thresholds of Au-Ag alloys are systematically lower than those for pure metals, both in air and water that is explained by lower thermal conductivities of the alloys. The thresholds measured in air agree well with the calculated melting thresholds for all samples. The damage thresholds in water are found to be considerably higher, by a factor of ∼1.5, than the corresponding thresholds in air. This cannot be explained, in the framework of the used model, neither by the conductive heat transfer to water nor by the vapor pressure effect. Possible reasons for the high damage thresholds in water such as scattering of the incident laser light by the vapor-liquid interface and the critical opalescence in the superheated water are suggested. Optical pump-probe measurements have been performed to study the reflectance dynamics of the surface irradiated in air and water. Comparison of the transient reflectance signal with the calculated nucleation dynamics provides evidence that the both suggested scattering mechanisms are likely to occur during metal ablation in water.

  1. Safe drinking water and clean air: an experimental study evaluating the concept of combining household water treatment and indoor air improvement using the Water Disinfection Stove (WADIS).

    PubMed

    Christen, Andri; Navarro, Carlos Morante; Mäusezahl, Daniel

    2009-09-01

    Indoor air pollution and unsafe water remain two of the most important environmental risk factors for the global burden of infectious diseases. Improved stoves and household water treatment (HWT) methods represent two of the most effective interventions to fight respiratory and diarrhoeal illnesses at household level. Since new improved stoves are highly accepted and HWT methods have their drawbacks regarding sustained use, combining the two interventions in one technical solution could result in notable positive convenience and health benefits. A WAter DIsinfection Stove (WADIS) based on a Lorena-stove design with a simple flow-through boiling water-treatment system was developed and tested by a pilot experimental study in rural Bolivia. The results of a post-implementation evaluation of two WADIS and 27 Lorena-stoves indicate high social acceptance rather due to convenience gains of the stove than to perceived health improvements. The high efficacy of the WADIS-water treatment system, with a reduction of microbiological contamination load in the treated water from 87600 thermotolerant coliform colony forming units per 100mL (CFU/100mL) to zero is indicative. The WADIS concept unifies two interventions addressing two important global burdens of disease. WADIS' simple design, relying on locally available materials and low manufacturing costs (approx. 6 US) indicates potential for spontaneous diffusion and scaling up.

  2. Detachment of deposited colloids by advancing and receding air-water interfaces.

    PubMed

    Aramrak, Surachet; Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B

    2011-08-16

    Moving air-water interfaces can detach colloidal particles from stationary surfaces. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of advancing and receding air-water interfaces on colloid detachment as a function of interface velocity. We deposited fluorescent, negatively charged, carboxylate-modified polystyrene colloids (diameter of 1 μm) into a cylindrical glass channel. The colloids were hydrophilic with an advancing air-water contact angle of 60° and a receding contact angle of 40°. After colloid deposition, two air bubbles were sequentially introduced into the glass channel and passed through the channel at different velocities (0.5, 7.7, 72, 982, and 10,800 cm/h). The passage of the bubbles represented a sequence of receding and advancing air-water interfaces. Colloids remaining in the glass channel after each interface passage were visualized with confocal microscopy and quantified by image analysis. The advancing air-water interface was significantly more effective in detaching colloids from the glass surface than the receding interface. Most of the colloids were detached during the first passage of the advancing air-water interface, while the subsequent interface passages did not remove significant amounts of colloids. Forces acting on the colloids calculated from theory corroborate our experimental results, and confirm that the detachment forces (surface tension forces) during the advancing air-water interface movement were stronger than during the receding movement. Theory indicates that, for hydrophilic colloids, the advancing interface movement generally exerts a stronger detachment force than the receding, except when the hysteresis of the colloid-air-water contact angle is small and that of the channel-air-water contact angle is large.

  3. Air-Water Interface Effects on the Regioselectivity of Singlet Oxygenations of a Trisubstituted Alkene.

    PubMed

    Malek, Belaid; Ghogare, Ashwini A; Choudhury, Rajib; Greer, Alexander

    2015-07-22

    The regioselective synthesis of allylic hydroperoxide sulfonates by singlet oxygenation at the air-water interface has been found to depend on the concentration of the alkene sulfonate and added calcium salt. The regioselectivity is proposed to originate from an orthogonal alkene relative to the water surface for preferential methyl hydrogen abstraction by airborne singlet oxygen in an ene reaction. The findings hint that the air-water interface is a locale for synthetic reactions.

  4. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 2, Fluorescent lamp ballasts, television sets, room air conditioners, and kitchen ranges and ovens

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document is divided into ``volumes`` B through E, dealing with individual classes of consumer products. Chapters in each present engineering analysis, base case forecasts, projected national impacts of standards, life-cycle costs and payback periods, impacts on manufacturers, impacts of standards on electric utilities, and environmental effects. Supporting appendices are included.

  5. Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, E.

    2013-02-01

    This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

  6. Effects of air chemistry and stiffened EOS of air in numerical simulations of bubble collapse in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Jackson, T. L.; Jost, A. M. D.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper we study the effects of a stiffened gas equation of state for air at high pressure and air chemistry with dissociation in numerical simulations of bubble collapse in water. Two types of bubble collapse are studied, with one corresponding to spherically symmetric collapse simulating single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL), and the other a GPa-shock-induced axisymmetric bubble collapse. The numerical method is a finite-volume based solver with diffuse material interface model. Verification and validation of the solver are demonstrated by comparing to analytical solutions and experimental observations. We find that for sonoluminescence, air chemistry and equation of state for air at high pressures can have significant effects on the peak temperature and pressure attained during the evolution, and that the peak temperature is on the order of 1 eV, which is close to that observed in experiments. For shock-induced bubble collapse, the pressure inside the bubble will not be as high as that in sonoluminescence due to the absence of spherical symmetry. However, the air chemistry still has a significant effect on the temperature of the bubble. We also examine the effect of multiple bubble interaction in shock-induced bubble collapse and find several mechanisms that can significantly increase the pressure in the water. These mechanisms include frontal-distal-side-collision, shock focusing, upstream-traveling shocks, and compression of the water near the centerline by the vortex generated by bubble collapse. These have important implications for cavitation erosion.

  7. Advanced Signal Conditioners for Data-Acquisition Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucena, Angel; Perotti, Jose; Eckhoff, Anthony; Medelius, Pedro

    2004-01-01

    Signal conditioners embodying advanced concepts in analog and digital electronic circuitry and software have been developed for use in data-acquisition systems that are required to be compact and lightweight, to utilize electric energy efficiently, and to operate with high reliability, high accuracy, and high power efficiency, without intervention by human technicians. These signal conditioners were originally intended for use aboard spacecraft. There are also numerous potential terrestrial uses - especially in the fields of aeronautics and medicine, wherein it is necessary to monitor critical functions. Going beyond the usual analog and digital signal-processing functions of prior signal conditioners, the new signal conditioner performs the following additional functions: It continuously diagnoses its own electronic circuitry, so that it can detect failures and repair itself (as described below) within seconds. It continuously calibrates itself on the basis of a highly accurate and stable voltage reference, so that it can continue to generate accurate measurement data, even under extreme environmental conditions. It repairs itself in the sense that it contains a micro-controller that reroutes signals among redundant components as needed to maintain the ability to perform accurate and stable measurements. It detects deterioration of components, predicts future failures, and/or detects imminent failures by means of a real-time analysis in which, among other things, data on its present state are continuously compared with locally stored historical data. It minimizes unnecessary consumption of electric energy. The design architecture divides the signal conditioner into three main sections: an analog signal section, a digital module, and a power-management section. The design of the analog signal section does not follow the traditional approach of ensuring reliability through total redundancy of hardware: Instead, following an approach called spare parts tool box, the

  8. Metabolism and thermoregulation during fasting in king penguins, Aptenodytes patagonicus, in air and water.

    PubMed

    Fahlman, A; Schmidt, A; Handrich, Y; Woakes, A J; Butler, P J

    2005-09-01

    We measured oxygen consumption rate (Vo(2)) and body temperatures in 10 king penguins in air and water. Vo(2) was measured during rest and at submaximal and maximal exercise before (fed) and after (fasted) an average fasting duration of 14.4 +/- 2.3 days (mean +/- 1 SD, range 10-19 days) in air and water. Concurrently, we measured subcutaneous temperature and temperature of the upper (heart and liver), middle (stomach) and lower (intestine) abdomen. The mean body mass (M(b)) was 13.8 +/- 1.2 kg in fed and 11.0 +/- 0.6 kg in fasted birds. After fasting, resting Vo(2) was 93% higher in water than in air (air: 86.9 +/- 8.8 ml/min; water: 167.3 +/- 36.7 ml/min, P < 0.01), while there was no difference in resting Vo(2) between air and water in fed animals (air: 117.1 +/- 20.0 ml O(2)/min; water: 114.8 +/- 32.7 ml O(2)/min, P > 0.6). In air, Vo(2) decreased with M(b), while it increased with M(b) in water. Body temperature did not change with fasting in air, whereas in water, there were complex changes in the peripheral body temperatures. These latter changes may, therefore, be indicative of a loss in body insulation and of variations in peripheral perfusion. Four animals were given a single meal after fasting and the temperature changes were partly reversed 24 h after refeeding in all body regions except the subcutaneous, indicating a rapid reversal to a prefasting state where body heat loss is minimal. The data emphasize the importance in considering nutritional status when studying king penguins and that the fasting-related physiological changes diverge in air and water.

  9. 15KW General Purpose Power Conditioner (Frequency Changer).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-26

    RD-0145 523 15KW GENERAL PURPOSE POWER CONDITIONER (FREQUENCY in3 CHRNGER)(U) GENERAL MOTORS CORP GOLETA CA DELCO ELECTRONICS DIY 26 SEP 80 R80-122...Virginia L * Delco Electronics General Motors Corporation - Santa Barbara Operations Santa Barbara, California D=YtTRO? STATEMENT App eovi 1w public...ELECTROtICS OVIION. SANTA IARUARA OPERATIONS 0 GENERAL MOTORS CORPORATION TABLE OF CONTENTS Section Title Page Er. I PURPOSE OF TESTS 1-1 H DESCRIPTION OF

  10. WETAIR: A computer code for calculating thermodynamic and transport properties of air-water mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fessler, T. E.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program subroutine, WETAIR, was developed to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of air water mixtures. It determines the thermodynamic state from assigned values of temperature and density, pressure and density, temperature and pressure, pressure and entropy, or pressure and enthalpy. The WETAIR calculates the properties of dry air and water (steam) by interpolating to obtain values from property tables. Then it uses simple mixing laws to calculate the properties of air water mixtures. Properties of mixtures with water contents below 40 percent (by mass) can be calculated at temperatures from 273.2 to 1497 K and pressures to 450 MN/sq m. Dry air properties can be calculated at temperatures as low as 150 K. Water properties can be calculated at temperatures to 1747 K and pressures to 100 MN/sq m. The WETAIR is available in both SFTRAN and FORTRAN.

  11. Monolayers at air-water interfaces: from origins-of-life to nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Ariga, Katsuhiko; Hill, Jonathan P

    2011-08-01

    The air-water interface presents several interesting features, namely a) a molecularly flat environment, b) a boundary region between two phases with different dielectric constants, c) permits or promotes dynamic interactions within the interface region, and d) a point of interaction between hydrophobic compounds and aqueous molecules. Accordingly, Langmuir monolayers at the air-water interface have several unique characteristics and properties, which require investigation. In this review-type personal account, typical examples of molecular recognition and molecular patterning at air-water interfaces are first introduced, followed by descriptions of specific and unusual properties of monolayers on water. In addition, two examples of our own results concerning Langmuir monolayers are explained. We have selected examples from two apparently unrelated research areas, these being the origin of life and future nanotechnology, in order to emphasize the diverse scientific contribution of research on monolayers at the air-water interface. Copyright © 2011 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. An analysis of water-to-air heat pump systems for use in government facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fretzs, R. G.

    1980-09-01

    Energy consumption is an important issue for government managers. Examined in this thesis is one source of potential energy savings: a method of heating and cooling buildings. Water-to-air heat pumps are analyzed and cost comparisons to conventional heating/cooling systems (gas, fuel oil, electric resistance, and air-to-air heat pumps) are made. The theory of heat pump technology is presented to show how water source heat pumps achieve improved efficiencies over conventional systems. Sources of and disposal of water to support the systems are discussed. Cost comparisons are presented based on computer simulations and fuel cost graphs. Twenty-one percent of U.S. energy consumption is used to heat and cool buildings. Water-to-air heat pumps provide a 30-50 percent savings over other systems. Therefore, a potential 10 percent savings in total energy consumption exists through the use of water source heat pumps.

  13. Influence of Air Humidity and Water Particles on Dust Control Using Ultrasonic Atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okawa, Hirokazu; Nishi, Kentaro; Shindo, Dai; Kawamura, Youhei

    2012-07-01

    The influence of air humidity and water particles on dust control was examined using ultrasonic atomization at 2.4 MHz, an acrylic box (61 L), and four types of ore dust samples: green tuff (4 µm), green tuff (6 µm), kaolin, and silica. It was clearly demonstrated that ultrasonic atomization was effective in raising humidity rapidly. However, at high relative air humidity, the water particles remained stable in the box without changing to water vapor. Ultrasonic atomization was applied to suppress dust dispersion and 40-95% dust reduction was achieved at 83% relative air humidity. Dust dispersion was more effective with ultrasonic atomization than without.

  14. Investigation of Ground Water Pollution at Air Force Plant Number 4, Fort Worth Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    INVESTIGATION L UNWaACTIPEWS OKMOMAM OF WILL U . E FAILING 1500 • , o. i. i8A-96 T, o , - MARKor TOTAL IMPR CORK OEU C Ra.V IL UATtOW GOUND WATER * 13...SSArm op US Army Corps ’ofS Enginee rs of Engineers Fort Worth District Kansas City District INVESTIGATION OF GROUND WATER POLLUTION AT AIR FORCE...Dbtibz~o Ud~mxtm!UCTtq! - INVESTIGATION OF GROUND WATER POLLUTION AT - AIR FORCE PLANT NO. 4 FORT WORTH, TEXAS REPORT TO - UNITED STATES AIR FORCE

  15. Air-water gas exchange of organochlorine compounds in Lake Baikal, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, L.L.; Kucklick, J.R.; Bidleman, T.F.; Ivanov, G.P.; Chernyak, S.M.

    1996-10-01

    Air and surface water samples were collected at Lake Baikal, Russia, during June 1991 to determine concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. These data were combined with Henry`s law constants to estimate the gas flux rate across the air-water interface of each compound class. Air samples were collected at Lake Baikal and from nearby Irkutsk. Water samples were collected from three mid-lake stations and at the mouth of two major tributaries. Average air concentrations of chlorinated bornanes (14 pg m{sup -3}), chlordanes (4.9 pg m{sup -3}), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (194 pg m{sup -3}) were similar to global backgound of Arctic levels. However, air concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs, and PCBs were closer to those observed in the Great Lakes region. Significantly higher levels of these three compound classes in air over Irkutsk suggests that regional atmospheric transport and deposition may be an important source of these persistent compounds to Lake Baikal. Air-water gas exchange calculations resulted in net depositional flux values for {alpha}-HCH, {gamma}-HCH, DDTs, and chlorinated bornanes at 112, 23, 3.6, and 2.4 ng m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, respectively. The total net flux of 22 PCB congeners, chlordanes, and HCB was from water to air (volatilization) at 47, 1.8, and 32 ng m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, respectively. 50 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Cell module and fuel conditioner development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, D. Q., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The phosphoric acid fuel cell module (stack) development which culminated in an 80 cell air-cooled stack with separated gas cooling and treed cooling plates is described. The performance of the 80 cell stack was approx. 100 mV per cell higher than that attained during phase 1. The components and materials performed stably for over 8000 hours in a 5 cell stack. The conceptual design of a fuel conditioning system is described.

  17. Performance Evaluation Method of Chemical Mechanical Polishing Pad Conditioner Using Digital Image Correlation Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uneda, Michio; Omote, Tatsunori; Ishikawa, Ken-ichi; Ichikawa, Koichiro; Doi, Toshiro; Kurokawa, Syuhei; Ohnishi, Osamu

    2012-05-01

    In chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), conditioning is generally used for the regeneration of the pad surface texture. Currently, the performance evaluation of conditioners depends on the user's experience so that it is important to develop a novel quantitative evaluation method for conditioner performance. In this paper, we propose a novel evaluation method for conditioner performance using digital image correlation (DIC) processing. The proposed method can measure the in-plane micro-deformation distribution of the pad surface texture by conditioning. It is found that a pad surface deforms over 40 µm with conditioning and that the in-plane deformation value increases with a decrease in the mesh size of conditioner grains.

  18. Influence of tap water quality and household water use activities on indoor air and internal dose levels of trihalomethanes.

    PubMed

    Nuckols, John R; Ashley, David L; Lyu, Christopher; Gordon, Sydney M; Hinckley, Alison F; Singer, Philip

    2005-07-01

    Individual exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) in tap water can occur through ingestion, inhalation, or dermal exposure. Studies indicate that activities associated with inhaled or dermal exposure routes result in a greater increase in blood THM concentration than does ingestion. We measured blood and exhaled air concentrations of THM as biomarkers of exposure to participants conducting 14 common household water use activities, including ingestion of hot and cold tap water beverages, showering, clothes washing, hand washing, bathing, dish washing, and indirect shower exposure. We conducted our study at a single residence in each of two water utility service areas, one with relatively high and the other low total THM in the residence tap water. To maintain a consistent exposure environment for seven participants, we controlled water use activities, exposure time, air exchange, water flow and temperature, and nonstudy THM sources to the indoor air. We collected reference samples for water supply and air (pre-water use activity), as well as tap water and ambient air samples. We collected blood samples before and after each activity and exhaled breath samples at baseline and post-activity. All hot water use activities yielded a 2-fold increase in blood or breath THM concentrations for at least one individual. The greatest observed increase in blood and exhaled breath THM concentration in any participant was due to showering (direct and indirect), bathing, and hand dishwashing. Average increase in blood THM concentration ranged from 57 to 358 pg/mL due to these activities. More research is needed to determine whether acute and frequent exposures to THM at these concentrations have public health implications. Further research is also needed in designing epidemiologic studies that minimize data collection burden yet maximize accuracy in classification of dermal and inhalation THM exposure during hot water use activities.

  19. Influence of Tap Water Quality and Household Water Use Activities on Indoor Air and Internal Dose Levels of Trihalomethanes

    PubMed Central

    Nuckols, John R.; Ashley, David L.; Lyu, Christopher; Gordon, Sydney M.; Hinckley, Alison F.; Singer, Philip

    2005-01-01

    Individual exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) in tap water can occur through ingestion, inhalation, or dermal exposure. Studies indicate that activities associated with inhaled or dermal exposure routes result in a greater increase in blood THM concentration than does ingestion. We measured blood and exhaled air concentrations of THM as biomarkers of exposure to participants conducting 14 common household water use activities, including ingestion of hot and cold tap water beverages, showering, clothes washing, hand washing, bathing, dish washing, and indirect shower exposure. We conducted our study at a single residence in each of two water utility service areas, one with relatively high and the other low total THM in the residence tap water. To maintain a consistent exposure environment for seven participants, we controlled water use activities, exposure time, air exchange, water flow and temperature, and nonstudy THM sources to the indoor air. We collected reference samples for water supply and air (pre–water use activity), as well as tap water and ambient air samples. We collected blood samples before and after each activity and exhaled breath samples at baseline and postactivity. All hot water use activities yielded a 2-fold increase in blood or breath THM concentrations for at least one individual. The greatest observed increase in blood and exhaled breath THM concentration in any participant was due to showering (direct and indirect), bathing, and hand dishwashing. Average increase in blood THM concentration ranged from 57 to 358 pg/mL due to these activities. More research is needed to determine whether acute and frequent exposures to THM at these concentrations have public health implications. Further research is also needed in designing epidemiologic studies that minimize data collection burden yet maximize accuracy in classification of dermal and inhalation THM exposure during hot water use activities. PMID:16002374

  20. Competing Air Quality and Water Conservation Co-benefits from Power Sector Decarbonization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, W.; Wagner, F.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Ramana, M. V.; Zhai, H.; Small, M.; Zhang, X.; Dalin, C.

    2016-12-01

    Decarbonizing the power sector can reduce fossil-based generation and associated air pollution and water use. However, power sector configurations that prioritize air quality benefits can be different from those that maximize water conservation benefits. Despite extensive work to optimize the generation mix under an air pollution or water constraint, little research has examined electricity transmission networks and the choice of which fossil fuel units to displace in order to achieve both environmental objectives simultaneously. When air pollution and water stress occur in different regions, the optimal transmission and displacement decisions still depend on priorities placed on air quality and water conservation benefits even if low-carbon generation planning is fixed. Here we use China as a test case, and develop a new optimization framework to study transmission and displacement decisions and the resulting air quality and water use impacts for six power sector decarbonization scenarios in 2030 ( 50% of national generation is low carbon). We fix low-carbon generation in each scenario (e.g. type, location, quantity) and vary technology choices and deployment patterns across scenarios. The objective is to minimize the total physical costs (transmission costs and coal power generation costs) and the estimated environmental costs. Environmental costs are estimated by multiplying effective air pollutant emissions (EMeff, emissions weighted by population density) and effective water use (Weff, water use weighted by a local water stress index) by their unit economic values, Vem and Vw. We are hence able to examine the effect of varying policy priorities by imposing different combinations of Vem and Vw. In all six scenarios, we find that increasing the priority on air quality co-benefits (higher Vem) reduces air pollution impacts (lower EMeff) at the expense of lower water conservation (higher Weff); and vice versa. Such results can largely be explained by differences