Science.gov

Sample records for air conduction hearing

  1. 21 CFR 874.3950 - Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system... Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid... occluding the ear canal. The device consists of an air conduction hearing aid attached to a...

  2. 21 CFR 874.3950 - Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system... Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid... occluding the ear canal. The device consists of an air conduction hearing aid attached to a...

  3. 21 CFR 874.3950 - Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system... Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid... occluding the ear canal. The device consists of an air conduction hearing aid attached to a...

  4. 21 CFR 874.3305 - Wireless air-conduction hearing aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wireless air-conduction hearing aid. 874.3305...-conduction hearing aid. (a) Identification. A wireless air-conduction hearing aid is a wearable sound... notification. The wireless air-conduction hearing aid is exempt from the premarket notification procedures...

  5. 21 CFR 874.3305 - Wireless air-conduction hearing aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wireless air-conduction hearing aid. 874.3305 Section 874.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...-amplifying device, intended to compensate for impaired hearing that incorporates wireless technology in...

  6. 21 CFR 874.3305 - Wireless air-conduction hearing aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wireless air-conduction hearing aid. 874.3305 Section 874.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...-amplifying device, intended to compensate for impaired hearing that incorporates wireless technology in...

  7. 21 CFR 874.3950 - Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3950... system is a wearable sound-amplifying device intended to compensate for impaired hearing without occluding the ear canal. The device consists of an air conduction hearing aid attached to a...

  8. 21 CFR 874.3950 - Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3950... system is a wearable sound-amplifying device intended to compensate for impaired hearing without occluding the ear canal. The device consists of an air conduction hearing aid attached to a...

  9. The effect of sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus on speech recognition over air and bone conduction military communications headsets.

    PubMed

    Manning, Candice; Mermagen, Timothy; Scharine, Angelique

    2016-10-27

    Military personnel are at risk for hearing loss due to noise exposure during deployment (USACHPPM, 2008). Despite mandated use of hearing protection, hearing loss and tinnitus are prevalent due to reluctance to use hearing protection. Bone conduction headsets can offer good speech intelligibility for normal hearing (NH) listeners while allowing the ears to remain open in quiet environments and the use of hearing protection when needed. Those who suffer from tinnitus, the experience of perceiving a sound not produced by an external source, often show degraded speech recognition; however, it is unclear whether this is a result of decreased hearing sensitivity or increased distractibility (Moon et al., 2015). It has been suggested that the vibratory stimulation of a bone conduction headset might ameliorate the effects of tinnitus on speech perception; however, there is currently no research to support or refute this claim (Hoare et al., 2014). Speech recognition of words presented over air conduction and bone conduction headsets was measured for three groups of listeners: NH, sensorineural hearing impaired, and/or tinnitus sufferers. Three levels of speech-to-noise (SNR = 0, -6, -12 dB) were created by embedding speech items in pink noise. Better speech recognition performance was observed with the bone conduction headset regardless of hearing profile, and speech intelligibility was a function of SNR. Discussion will include study limitations and the implications of these findings for those serving in the military.

  10. Fluid stimulation elicits hearing in the absence of air and bone conduction--An animal study.

    PubMed

    Perez, Ronen; Adelman, Cahtia; Sohmer, Haim

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion Cochlea can be directly excited by fluid (soft-tissue) stimulation. Objective To determine whether there is no difference in auditory-nerve-brainstem evoked response (ABR) thresholds to fluid stimulation between normal and animal models of post radical-mastoidectomy, as seen in a previous human study. Background It has been shown in humans that hearing can be elicited with stimulation to fluid in the external auditory meatus (EAM), and radical-mastoidectomy cavity. These groups differed in age, initial hearing, and drilling exposure. To overcome this difference, experiments were conducted in sand-rats, first intact, and after inducing a radical-mastoidectomy. Methods The EAM of five sand-rats was filled with 0.3 ml saline. ABR thresholds were determined in response to vibratory stimulation by a clinical bone-vibrator with a plastic rod, applied to the saline in the EAM. Then the tympanic membrane was removed, and malleus dislocated (radical-mastoidectomy model). The cavity was filled with 0.45 ml saline and the ABR threshold was determined in response to vibratory stimulation to the cavity fluid. Results There was no difference in ABR fluid thresholds to EAM and mastoidectomy cavity stimulation. Air-conduction stimulation from the bone-vibrator was not involved (conductive loss due to fluid). Bone-conduction stimulation was not involved (large difference in acoustic impedance between fluid and bone).

  11. Cartilage conduction hearing.

    PubMed

    Shimokura, Ryota; Hosoi, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Tadashi; Yamanaka, Toshiaki; Levitt, Harry

    2014-04-01

    Sound information is known to travel to the cochlea via either air or bone conduction. However, a vibration signal, delivered to the aural cartilage via a transducer, can also produce a clearly audible sound. This type of conduction has been termed "cartilage conduction." The aural cartilage forms the outer ear and is distributed around the exterior half of the external auditory canal. In cartilage conduction, the cartilage and transducer play the roles of a diaphragm and voice coil of a loudspeaker, respectively. There is a large gap between the impedances of cartilage and skull bone, such that cartilage vibrations are not easily transmitted through bone. Thus, these methods of conduction are distinct. In this study, force was used to apply a transducer to aural cartilage, and it was found that the sound in the auditory canal was amplified, especially for frequencies below 2 kHz. This effect was most pronounced at an application force of 1 N, which is low enough to ensure comfort in the design of hearing aids. The possibility of using force adjustments to vary amplification may also have applications for cell phone design.

  12. Air and Bone Conduction Click and Tone-burst Auditory Brainstem Thresholds using Kalman Adaptive Processing in Non-sedated Normal Hearing Infants

    PubMed Central

    Elsayed, Alaaeldin M.; Hunter, Lisa L.; Keefe, Douglas H.; Feeney, M. Patrick; Brown, David K.; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen K.; Baroch, Kelly; Sullivan-Mahoney, Maureen; Francis, Kara; Schaid, Leigh G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study normative thresholds and latencies for click and tone-burst auditory brainstem response (TB-ABR) for air and bone conduction in normal infants and those discharged from neonatal intensive care units (NICU), who passed newborn hearing screening and follow-up DPOAE. An evoked potential system (Vivosonic Integrity™) that incorporates Bluetooth electrical isolation and Kalman-weighted adaptive processing to improve signal to noise ratios was employed for this study. Results were compared with other published data. Research Design One hundred forty-five infants who passed two-stage hearing screening with transient-evoked otoacoustic emission (OAE) or automated ABR were assessed with clicks at 70 dB nHL and threshold TB-ABR. Tone-bursts at frequencies between 500 to 4000 Hz were employed for air and bone conduction ABR testing using a specified staircase threshold search to establish threshold levels and Wave V peak latencies. Results Median air conduction hearing thresholds using TB-ABR ranged from 0-20 dB nHL, depending on stimulus frequency. Median bone conduction thresholds were 10 dB nHL across all frequencies, and median air-bone gaps were 0 dB across all frequencies. There was no significant threshold difference between left and right ears and no significant relationship between thresholds and hearing loss risk factors, ethnicity or gender. Older age was related to decreased latency for air conduction. Compared to previous studies, mean air conduction thresholds were found at slightly lower (better) levels, while bone conduction levels were better at 2000 Hz and higher at 500 Hz. Latency values were longer at 500 Hz than previous studies using other instrumentation. Sleep state did not affect air or bone conduction thresholds. Conclusions This study demonstrated slightly better Wave V thresholds for air conduction than previous infant studies. The differences found in the current study, while statistically significant, were within the test

  13. Loudness functions with air and bone conduction stimulation in normal-hearing subjects using a categorical loudness scaling procedure.

    PubMed

    Stenfelt, Stefan; Zeitooni, Mehrnaz

    2013-07-01

    In a previous study (Stenfelt and Håkansson, 2002) a loudness balance test between bone conducted (BC) sound and air conducted (AC) sound was performed at frequencies between 0.25 and 4 kHz and at levels corresponding to 30-80 dB HL. The main outcome of that study was that for maintaining equal loudness, the level increase of sound with BC stimulation was less than that of AC stimulation with a ratio between 0.8 and 0.93 dB/dB. However, because it was shown that AC and BC tone cancellation was independent of the stimulation level, the loudness level difference did not originate in differences in basilar membrane stimulation. Therefore, it was speculated that the result could be due to the loudness estimation procedure. To investigate this further, another loudness estimation method (adaptive categorical loudness scaling) was here employed in 20 normal-hearing subjects. The loudness of a low-frequency and a high-frequency noise burst was estimated using the adaptive categorical loudness scaling technique when the stimulation was bilaterally by AC or BC. The sounds where rated on an 11-point scale between inaudible and too loud. The total dynamic range for these sounds was over 80 dB when presented by AC (between inaudible and too loud) and the loudness functions were similar for the low and the high-frequency stimulation. When the stimulation was by BC the loudness functions were steeper and the ratios between the slopes of the AC and BC loudness functions were 0.88 for the low-frequency sound and 0.92 for the high-frequency sound. These results were almost equal to the previous published results using the equal loudness estimation procedure, and it was unlikely that the outcome stems from the loudness estimation procedure itself. One possible mechanism for the result was loudness integration of multi-sensory input. However, no conclusive evidence for such a mechanism could be given by the present study. This article is part of a special issue entitled "MEMRO 2012".

  14. 77 FR 1513 - Air Show and Air Races; Public Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Air Show and Air Races; Public Hearing TIME AND DATE: 9 a.m., Tuesday, January 10, 2012... hearing is to examine current regulations and oversight practices for air shows and air races,...

  15. 20 CFR 702.332 - Formal hearings; how conducted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formal hearings; how conducted. 702.332 Section 702.332 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN... Adjudication Procedures Formal Hearings § 702.332 Formal hearings; how conducted. Formal hearings shall...

  16. Hearing Protection for Bone-Conducted Sound

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    RTO-MP-HFM-123 14 - 1 Hearing Protection for Bone-Conducted Sound Anthony J. Dietz, Ph.D. B. Scott May, Ph.D., Darin A. Knaus, Ph.D., Harold P...R.L., Fogler , J. L. and McElhaney, J. H., “Driving Point Impedance Characteristics of the Head,” J. Biomechanics, Vol. 4, 1971, pp. 127–139. [9

  17. 50 CFR 228.16 - Conduct of the hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Conduct of the hearing. (a) The hearing shall be held at the time and place fixed in the notice of the hearing, unless the presiding officer changes the time or place. If a change occurs, the presiding officer... or by mail: Provided, that if that change in time or place of hearing is made less than 5 days...

  18. 50 CFR 18.86 - Conduct of the hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Conduct of the hearing. (a) The hearing shall be held at the time and place fixed in the notice of hearing, unless the presiding officer changes the time or place. If a change occurs, the presiding officer shall... mail. If the change in time or place of hearing is made less than five days before the date...

  19. 50 CFR 18.86 - Conduct of the hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Conduct of the hearing. (a) The hearing shall be held at the time and place fixed in the notice of hearing, unless the presiding officer changes the time or place. If a change occurs, the presiding officer shall... mail. If the change in time or place of hearing is made less than five days before the date...

  20. 7 CFR 900.8 - Conduct of the hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Conduct of the hearing. (a) Time and place. The hearing shall be held at the time and place fixed in the notice of hearing, unless the judge shall have changed the time or place, in which event the judge shall... time or place of hearing is made less than 5 days prior to the date previously fixed for the...

  1. 7 CFR 1200.9 - Conduct of the hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Governing Proceedings To Formulate and Amend an Order § 1200.9 Conduct of the hearing. (a) Time and place. The hearing shall be held at the time and place fixed in the notice of hearing, unless the judge shall have changed the time or place, in which event the judge shall file with the hearing clerk a notice...

  2. 7 CFR 900.8 - Conduct of the hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Conduct of the hearing. (a) Time and place. The hearing shall be held at the time and place fixed in the notice of hearing, unless the judge shall have changed the time or place, in which event the judge shall... time or place of hearing is made less than 5 days prior to the date previously fixed for the...

  3. [Recovery of bone conduction hearing level after stapes surgery in otosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Ohbuchi, Toyoaki; Suzuki, Hideaki; Hohchi, Nobusuke; Ohkubo, Jun-Ichi; Hashida, Koichi

    2012-09-01

    Although otosclerosis is essentially a middle ear disease, patients with this disease often exhibit mixed hearing loss. This discrepancy is thought to be explained by the following mechanism: the resonance of the ossicular chain is disturbed by the fixation of stapes, leading to the attenuation of inertial bone conduction. The bone-conduction hearing level usually recovers after stapes surgery. We herein studied the change in air- and bone-conduction hearing after stapes surgery in patients with otosclerosis. Six consecutive patients with otosclerosis who underwent stapes surgery in our department were enrolled. They were 2 men and 4 women, ranging in age from 16 to 74 with an average of 57.2 years. Stapedotomy was performed in 5 patients, and the other patient underwent partial stapedectomy. Their pure tone hearing levels of air and bone conduction were measured before and after surgery. In the air conduction, the hearing levels at 125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz significantly improved after surgery, but showed no significant change at 8000 Hz. On the other hand, in the bone conduction, the hearing levels at 500 and 1000 Hz significantly improved after surgery, whereas those at 250, 2000, and 4000 Hz showed no significant change. The recovery of the bone conduction hearing at 500 and 1000 Hz is explained by the resonance of the ossicular chain. However, the unimproved bone conduction hearing at 2000 Hz is unexplainable, and remains to be further investigated in future studies.

  4. Vibrant Soundbridge rehabilitation of conductive and mixed hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Lüers, Jan-Christoffer; Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd

    2014-12-01

    The Vibrant Soundbridge is the world's most often implanted active middle ear implant or hearing aid. During the last few years, the device indications have expanded from sensorineural hearing loss to conductive and mixed hearing loss. Titanium couplers have led to improved contact of the floating mass transducer with the middle ear structures. The resulting hearing gain is satisfying for most patients, but so far, there is no clear audiologic advantage over conventional hearing aids. Currently, the indications are mainly related to intolerance of conventional hearing aids (eg, chronic otitis externa), severe mixed hearing loss with a destructed middle ear and certain medical diagnosis (eg, congenital atresia).

  5. 12 CFR 108.7 - Conduct of hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conduct of hearings. 108.7 Section 108.7 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 108.7 Conduct of hearings. (a) Hearings provided by...

  6. 12 CFR 508.7 - Conduct of hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conduct of hearings. 508.7 Section 508.7 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.7 Conduct of hearings. (a) Hearings provided by...

  7. 12 CFR 108.7 - Conduct of hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conduct of hearings. 108.7 Section 108.7 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 108.7 Conduct of hearings. (a) Hearings provided by...

  8. 12 CFR 508.7 - Conduct of hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Conduct of hearings. 508.7 Section 508.7 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.7 Conduct of hearings. (a) Hearings provided by...

  9. 12 CFR 508.7 - Conduct of hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conduct of hearings. 508.7 Section 508.7 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.7 Conduct of hearings. (a) Hearings provided by...

  10. 12 CFR 508.7 - Conduct of hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conduct of hearings. 508.7 Section 508.7 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.7 Conduct of hearings. (a) Hearings provided by...

  11. Historical background of bone conduction hearing devices and bone conduction hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Mudry, Albert; Tjellström, Anders

    2011-01-01

    During the last 20 years, bone-anchored hearing aids (Baha(®)) became a familiar solution in the treatment of some types of hearing loss. The aim of this chapter is to present the different historical steps which have permitted the production of this new bone conduction hearing device. The recognition of bone conduction hearing is old and was known at least in Antiquity. During the Renaissance, Girolamo Cardano demonstrated a method by which sound may be transmitted to the ear by means of a rod or the shaft of a spear held between one's teeth: this was the beginning of teeth stimulators to improve hearing, firstly in connection with a musical instrument and then, in the second part of the 19th century, with the speaker. The development of the carbon microphone at the beginning of the 20th century allowed the construction of the bone conduction vibrator placed on the mastoid area, notably supported by eyeglasses since the 1950s. Confronted by various problems, and notably the loss of part of sound in the soft tissue of the external mastoid, the idea to implant the vibrator into the mastoid bone was developed in Göteborg, and the first Baha was implanted in 1977 by Anders Tjellström. From that date, various improvements allowed the development of the actual Baha. These different steps are presented in this study, supported by original documentation.

  12. 42 CFR 423.1046 - Conduct of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Civil Money Penalties § 423.1046 Conduct of hearing. (a) Participants in the hearing. The hearing is... sufficient to establish the elements of any affirmative argument or defense which it offers. (6) The...

  13. 42 CFR 423.1046 - Conduct of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Civil Money Penalties § 423.1046 Conduct of hearing. (a) Participants in the hearing. The hearing is... sufficient to establish the elements of any affirmative argument or defense which it offers. (6) The...

  14. Educational Implications of Conductive Hearing Loss in School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, David J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The study investigated specific linguistic abilities/disabilities of 15 children with conductive hearing loss and a history of middle ear dysfunction. Results found significant deficits in verbal intelligence, word recognition, and receptive syntactic skills substantiating the finding that conductive hearing loss due to otitis media is deleterious…

  15. 28 CFR 76.32 - Hearing room conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hearing room conduct. 76.32 Section 76.32 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) RULES OF PROCEDURE FOR ASSESSMENT OF CIVIL PENALTIES FOR POSSESSION OF CERTAIN CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 76.32 Hearing room conduct. Proceedings shall...

  16. 20 CFR 30.314 - How is a hearing conducted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Decisions on Claims § 30.314 How is a hearing conducted? (a) The FAB reviewer retains complete discretion to... telephone or teleconference. As part of the hearing process, the FAB reviewer will consider the written... claimant. The reviewer may also conduct whatever investigation is deemed necessary. (1) The FAB...

  17. 34 CFR 34.13 - Conduct of a hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conduct of a hearing. 34.13 Section 34.13 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATIVE WAGE GARNISHMENT § 34.13 Conduct of a..., under § 34.9(e), that a request for an oral hearing has been withdrawn; or (4) Within a period we...

  18. 34 CFR 34.13 - Conduct of a hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conduct of a hearing. 34.13 Section 34.13 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATIVE WAGE GARNISHMENT § 34.13 Conduct of a..., under § 34.9(e), that a request for an oral hearing has been withdrawn; or (4) Within a period we...

  19. 34 CFR 34.13 - Conduct of a hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conduct of a hearing. 34.13 Section 34.13 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATIVE WAGE GARNISHMENT § 34.13 Conduct of a..., under § 34.9(e), that a request for an oral hearing has been withdrawn; or (4) Within a period we...

  20. 34 CFR 34.13 - Conduct of a hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conduct of a hearing. 34.13 Section 34.13 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATIVE WAGE GARNISHMENT § 34.13 Conduct of a..., under § 34.9(e), that a request for an oral hearing has been withdrawn; or (4) Within a period we...

  1. 34 CFR 34.13 - Conduct of a hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conduct of a hearing. 34.13 Section 34.13 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATIVE WAGE GARNISHMENT § 34.13 Conduct of a..., under § 34.9(e), that a request for an oral hearing has been withdrawn; or (4) Within a period we...

  2. 5 CFR 1501.13 - Conduct of hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conduct of hearings. 1501.13 Section 1501.13 Administrative Personnel THE INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS EMPLOYEES LOYALTY BOARD OPERATIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS EMPLOYEES LOYALTY BOARD § 1501.13 Conduct of hearings. (a) Not less than...

  3. 10 CFR 10.28 - Conduct of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conduct of hearing. 10.28 Section 10.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE Procedures § 10.28 Conduct of hearing. (a)...

  4. 10 CFR 10.28 - Conduct of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conduct of hearing. 10.28 Section 10.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE Procedures § 10.28 Conduct of hearing. (a)...

  5. 10 CFR 10.28 - Conduct of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conduct of hearing. 10.28 Section 10.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE Procedures § 10.28 Conduct of hearing. (a)...

  6. 10 CFR 10.28 - Conduct of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conduct of hearing. 10.28 Section 10.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE Procedures § 10.28 Conduct of hearing. (a)...

  7. 10 CFR 10.28 - Conduct of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conduct of hearing. 10.28 Section 10.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE Procedures § 10.28 Conduct of hearing. (a)...

  8. 20 CFR 658.709 - Conduct of hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... GOVERNING THE JOB SERVICE SYSTEM Federal Application of Remedial Action to State Agencies § 658.709 Conduct... record. (c) The general provisions governing discovery as provided in the Rules of Civil Procedure for... advancement of the hearing. (d) When a public officer is a respondent in a hearing in an official capacity...

  9. 18 CFR 401.82 - Authorization to conduct hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Authorization to conduct hearings. 401.82 Section 401.82 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Administrative and Other Hearings §...

  10. 50 CFR 18.86 - Conduct of the hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conduct of the hearing. 18.86 Section 18.86 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Notice and Hearing on Section 103 Regulations §...

  11. Effective Practices in Teaching Indigenous Students with Conductive Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partington, Gary; Galloway, Ann

    2005-01-01

    Hearing impairment due to conductive hearing loss can have a devastating effect on children's language development, and consequently educational outcomes, especially for Indigenous students, for whom there may be the additional issue of being educated in their second or third language. With appropriate interventions, however, Indigenous students…

  12. 18 CFR 401.82 - Authorization to conduct hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Authorization to conduct hearings. 401.82 Section 401.82 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN... Compact or other applicable law or court rule. (b) Commission directed hearings. This subpart shall...

  13. 18 CFR 401.82 - Authorization to conduct hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Authorization to conduct hearings. 401.82 Section 401.82 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... or other applicable law or court rule. (b) Commission directed hearings. This subpart shall...

  14. 18 CFR 401.82 - Authorization to conduct hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Authorization to conduct hearings. 401.82 Section 401.82 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN... Compact or other applicable law or court rule. (b) Commission directed hearings. This subpart shall...

  15. 10 CFR 824.12 - Conduct of the hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF CIVIL PENALTIES FOR CLASSIFIED INFORMATION SECURITY VIOLATIONS § 824.12 Conduct of the hearing. (a) DOE shall make a transcript of the hearing; (b... unauthorized disclosure of classified information or any other information protected from public disclosure...

  16. 10 CFR 824.12 - Conduct of the hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF CIVIL PENALTIES FOR CLASSIFIED INFORMATION SECURITY VIOLATIONS § 824.12 Conduct of the hearing. (a) DOE shall make a transcript of the hearing; (b... unauthorized disclosure of classified information or any other information protected from public disclosure...

  17. 10 CFR 824.12 - Conduct of the hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF CIVIL PENALTIES FOR CLASSIFIED INFORMATION SECURITY VIOLATIONS § 824.12 Conduct of the hearing. (a) DOE shall make a transcript of the hearing; (b... unauthorized disclosure of classified information or any other information protected from public disclosure...

  18. 10 CFR 824.12 - Conduct of the hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF CIVIL PENALTIES FOR CLASSIFIED INFORMATION SECURITY VIOLATIONS § 824.12 Conduct of the hearing. (a) DOE shall make a transcript of the hearing; (b... unauthorized disclosure of classified information or any other information protected from public disclosure...

  19. 18 CFR 1304.5 - Conduct of hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Conduct of hearings. 1304.5 Section 1304.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL OF... issues to which the hearing will pertain, and the manner of becoming a party of record, and shall...

  20. 18 CFR 1304.5 - Conduct of hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Conduct of hearings. 1304.5 Section 1304.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL OF... issues to which the hearing will pertain, and the manner of becoming a party of record, and shall...

  1. 18 CFR 401.82 - Authorization to conduct hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authorization to conduct hearings. 401.82 Section 401.82 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Administrative and Other Hearings §...

  2. 50 CFR 228.16 - Conduct of the hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conduct of the hearing. 228.16 Section 228.16 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS NOTICE AND HEARING ON SECTION 103(d) REGULATIONS §...

  3. A possible third window for bone conducted hearing: Cochlear aqueduct vs. vestibular aqueduct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Namkeun; Stenfelt, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    A third window, which is another cochlear fluid pathway different from the oval window and round window, is considered to be a significant factor in bone-conducted hearing. A three-dimensional finite element model of the human ear consisting of the middle ear and cochlea was used to investigate the effect of the third windows on bone-conducted heraing. This study is aimed to find the third window which causes the consistent cochlear responses with previous studies in air-conducted hearing, and causes the asymmetry of the volume velocity ratio between the oval window and round window in bone-conducted hearing. The preliminary result shows that the cochlear aqueduct and the vestibular aqueduct with high impedance do not affect the basilar membrane velocity in air-conducted hearing. On the contrary, in bone-conducted hearing, the direction of the shaking structure for the bone-conducted stimulation as well as the third window can be a significant factor causing the asymmetry of the volume velocity ratio found by Stenfelt et al.

  4. Air and Bone Conduction Thresholds of Deaf and Normal Hearing Subjects before and during the Elimination of Cutaneous-Tactile Interference with Anesthesia. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nober, E. Harris

    The study investigated whether low frequency air and bone thresholds elicited at high intensity levels from deaf children with a sensory-neural diagnosis reflect valid auditory sensitivity or are mediated through cutaneous-tactile receptors. Subjects were five totally deaf (mean age 17.0) yielding vibrotactile thresholds but with no air and bone…

  5. 30 CFR 1241.72 - How will the Office of Hearings and Appeals conduct the hearing on the record?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Oil and Gas Leases General Provisions § 1241.72 How will the Office of Hearings and Appeals conduct... or 1241.64, the hearing will be conducted by a Departmental Administrative Law Judge from the Office of Hearings and Appeals. After the hearing, the Administrative Law Judge will issue a decision...

  6. Nonlinear explanation for bone-conducted ultrasonic hearing.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Kiyoshi; Nakagawa, Seiji; Tonoike, Mitsuo

    2005-06-01

    Human listeners can perceive speech from a voice-modulated ultrasonic carrier presented via a bone-conduction stimulator. This study explored the psychoacoustic characteristics and underlying mechanisms of ultrasonic hearing by measuring difference limens for frequency (DLF) for pure tones modulated onto ultrasonic carriers. Human subjects were presented with two pulsed tones and asked to judge whether the first or the second had the higher pitch. When amplitude modulation was based on a double side-band transmitted carrier, the DLFs were as small as those from the air-conducted pure tones at 0.25-4 kHz. Ultrasounds yielded larger DLFs for tones with low (0.125 kHz) and high (6-8 kHz) frequencies. Results were essentially identical between the two types of carriers, sine wave (30 kHz) and bandpass noise (30+/-4 kHz), despite the different bandwidths in the ultrasonic range. When amplitude modulation was based on a double side-band suppressed carrier, DLFs corresponded to those from tones with double frequencies. These results suggest nonlinear conduction that demodulates audible signals from ultrasounds and provides inputs to the cochlea.

  7. 30 CFR 1241.72 - How will the Office of Hearings and Appeals conduct the hearing on the record?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal and Indian Oil and Gas Leases General Provisions § 1241.72 How will the Office of Hearings and....56, 1241.62 or 1241.64, the hearing will be conducted by a Departmental Administrative Law Judge from the Office of Hearings and Appeals. After the hearing, the Administrative Law Judge will issue...

  8. 34 CFR 222.111 - What is the authority of the hearing examiner in conducting a hearing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... conducting a hearing? 222.111 Section 222.111 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... Procedures Complaint and Hearing Procedures § 222.111 What is the authority of the hearing examiner in... §§ 222.109-222.113 as follows: (a) The hearing examiner may— (1) Clarify, simplify, or define the...

  9. 29 CFR 18.37 - Hearing room conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General § 18.37 Hearing room conduct. Proceedings shall be conducted in an orderly manner. The consumption of food or beverage, smoking, or rearranging of courtroom furniture, unless specifically authorized by the administrative law judge, are prohibited....

  10. 29 CFR 18.37 - Hearing room conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General § 18.37 Hearing room conduct. Proceedings shall be conducted in an orderly manner. The consumption of food or beverage, smoking, or rearranging of courtroom furniture, unless specifically authorized by the administrative law judge, are prohibited....

  11. 29 CFR 18.37 - Hearing room conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General § 18.37 Hearing room conduct. Proceedings shall be conducted in an orderly manner. The consumption of food or beverage, smoking, or rearranging of courtroom furniture, unless specifically authorized by the administrative law judge, are prohibited....

  12. 29 CFR 18.37 - Hearing room conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General § 18.37 Hearing room conduct. Proceedings shall be conducted in an orderly manner. The consumption of food or beverage, smoking, or rearranging of courtroom furniture, unless specifically authorized by the administrative law judge, are prohibited....

  13. 29 CFR 18.37 - Hearing room conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General § 18.37 Hearing room conduct. Proceedings shall be conducted in an orderly manner. The consumption of food or beverage, smoking, or rearranging of courtroom furniture, unless specifically authorized by the administrative law judge, are prohibited....

  14. 40 CFR 222.7 - Conduct of public hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conduct of public hearing. 222.7 Section 222.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING ACTION ON OCEAN DUMPING PERMIT APPLICATIONS UNDER SECTION 102 OF THE ACT § 222.7 Conduct of public...

  15. 40 CFR 222.11 - Conduct of adjudicatory hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conduct of adjudicatory hearings. 222.11 Section 222.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING ACTION ON OCEAN DUMPING PERMIT APPLICATIONS UNDER SECTION 102 OF THE ACT § 222.11 Conduct of...

  16. 40 CFR 222.7 - Conduct of public hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conduct of public hearing. 222.7 Section 222.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING ACTION ON OCEAN DUMPING PERMIT APPLICATIONS UNDER SECTION 102 OF THE ACT § 222.7 Conduct of public...

  17. 40 CFR 222.11 - Conduct of adjudicatory hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conduct of adjudicatory hearings. 222.11 Section 222.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING ACTION ON OCEAN DUMPING PERMIT APPLICATIONS UNDER SECTION 102 OF THE ACT § 222.11 Conduct of...

  18. 40 CFR 222.7 - Conduct of public hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conduct of public hearing. 222.7 Section 222.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING ACTION ON OCEAN DUMPING PERMIT APPLICATIONS UNDER SECTION 102 OF THE ACT § 222.7 Conduct of public...

  19. 40 CFR 222.11 - Conduct of adjudicatory hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conduct of adjudicatory hearings. 222.11 Section 222.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING ACTION ON OCEAN DUMPING PERMIT APPLICATIONS UNDER SECTION 102 OF THE ACT § 222.11 Conduct of...

  20. 43 CFR 4.476 - Conduct of hearing; reporter's fees; transcript.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURES Special Rules Applicable to Public Land Hearings and Appeals Grazing Procedures (inside and Outside Grazing Districts) § 4.476 Conduct of hearing; reporter's fees; transcript....

  1. 22 CFR 1422.9 - Conduct of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Conduct of hearing. 1422.9 Section 1422.9 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; AND THE FOREIGN SERVICE IMPASSE DISPUTES PANEL...

  2. 22 CFR 401.7 - Conduct of hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Conduct of hearings. 401.7 Section 401.7 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND CANADA RULES OF PROCEDURE General § 401.7... whole Commission or by one or more Commissioners from each section of the Commission, designated...

  3. 22 CFR 401.7 - Conduct of hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Conduct of hearings. 401.7 Section 401.7 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND CANADA RULES OF PROCEDURE General § 401.7... whole Commission or by one or more Commissioners from each section of the Commission, designated...

  4. 22 CFR 401.7 - Conduct of hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Conduct of hearings. 401.7 Section 401.7 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND CANADA RULES OF PROCEDURE General § 401.7... whole Commission or by one or more Commissioners from each section of the Commission, designated...

  5. 22 CFR 401.7 - Conduct of hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Conduct of hearings. 401.7 Section 401.7 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND CANADA RULES OF PROCEDURE General... by the whole Commission or by one or more Commissioners from each section of the...

  6. 22 CFR 401.7 - Conduct of hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Conduct of hearings. 401.7 Section 401.7 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND CANADA RULES OF PROCEDURE General § 401.7... whole Commission or by one or more Commissioners from each section of the Commission, designated...

  7. 18 CFR 1304.5 - Conduct of hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conduct of hearings. 1304.5 Section 1304.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL OF CONSTRUCTION IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER SYSTEM AND REGULATION OF STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS Procedures...

  8. Functional results after Bonebridge implantation in adults and children with conductive and mixed hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Rahne, Torsten; Seiwerth, Ingmar; Götze, Gerrit; Heider, Cornelia; Radetzki, Florian; Herzog, Michael; Plontke, Stefan K

    2015-11-01

    In patients with conductive hearing loss caused by middle ear disorders or atresia of the ear canal, a Bonebridge implantation can improve hearing by providing vibratory input to the temporal bone. The expected results are improved puretone thresholds and speech recognition. In the European Union, approval of the Bonebridge implantation was recently extended to children. We evaluated the functional outcome of a Bonebridge implantation for eight adults and three children. We found significant improvement in the puretone thresholds, with improvement in the air-bone gap. Speech recognition after surgery was significantly higher than in the best-aided situation before surgery. The Bonebridge significantly improved speech recognition in noisy environments and sound localization. In situations relevant to daily life, hearing deficits were nearly completely restored with the Bonebridge implantation in both adults and children.

  9. Developmental Conductive Hearing Loss Reduces Modulation Masking Release

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Wen; Sanes, Dan H.

    2016-01-01

    Hearing-impaired individuals experience difficulties in detecting or understanding speech, especially in background sounds within the same frequency range. However, normally hearing (NH) human listeners experience less difficulty detecting a target tone in background noise when the envelope of that noise is temporally gated (modulated) than when that envelope is flat across time (unmodulated). This perceptual benefit is called modulation masking release (MMR). When flanking masker energy is added well outside the frequency band of the target, and comodulated with the original modulated masker, detection thresholds improve further (MMR+). In contrast, if the flanking masker is antimodulated with the original masker, thresholds worsen (MMR−). These interactions across disparate frequency ranges are thought to require central nervous system (CNS) processing. Therefore, we explored the effect of developmental conductive hearing loss (CHL) in gerbils on MMR characteristics, as a test for putative CNS mechanisms. The detection thresholds of NH gerbils were lower in modulated noise, when compared with unmodulated noise. The addition of a comodulated flanker further improved performance, whereas an antimodulated flanker worsened performance. However, for CHL-reared gerbils, all three forms of masking release were reduced when compared with NH animals. These results suggest that developmental CHL impairs both within- and across-frequency processing and provide behavioral evidence that CNS mechanisms are affected by a peripheral hearing impairment. PMID:28215119

  10. Soft Tissue Conduction as a Possible Contributor to the Limited Attenuation Provided by Hearing Protection Devices

    PubMed Central

    Chordekar, Shai; Adelman, Cahtia; Sohmer, Haim; Kishon-Rabin, Liat

    2016-01-01

    Context: Damage to the auditory system by loud sounds can be avoided by hearing protection devices (HPDs) such as earmuffs, earplugs, or both for maximum attenuation. However, the attenuation can be limited by air conduction (AC) leakage around the earplugs and earmuffs by the occlusion effect (OE) and by skull vibrations initiating bone conduction (BC). Aims: To assess maximum attenuation by HPDs and possible flanking pathways to the inner ear. Subjects and Methods: AC attenuation and resulting thresholds were assessed using the real ear attenuation at threshold (REAT) procedure on 15 normal-hearing participants in four free-field conditions: (a) unprotected ears, (b) ears covered with earmuffs, (c) ears blocked with deeply inserted customized earplugs, and (d) ears blocked with both earplugs and earmuffs. BC thresholds were assessed with and without earplugs to assess the OE. Results: Addition of earmuffs to earplugs did not cause significantly greater attenuation than earplugs alone, confirming minimal AC leakage through the external meatus and the absence of the OE. Maximum REATs ranged between 40 and 46 dB, leading to thresholds of 46–54 dB HL. Furthermore, calculation of the acoustic impedance mismatch between air and bone predicted at least 60 dB attenuation of BC. Conclusion: Results do not support the notion that skull vibrations (BC) contributed to the limited attenuation provided by traditional HPDs. An alternative explanation, supported by experimental evidence, suggests transmission of sound to inner ear via non-osseous pathways such as skin, soft tissues, and fluid. Because the acoustic impedance mismatch between air and soft tissues is smaller than that between air and bone, air-borne sounds would be transmitted to soft tissues more effectively than to bone, and therefore less attenuation is expected through soft tissue sound conduction. This can contribute to the limited attenuation provided by traditional HPDs. The present study has practical

  11. 4 CFR 28.56 - Hearing procedures, conduct and copies of exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hearing procedures, conduct and copies of exhibits. 28.56 Section 28.56 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Procedures Hearings § 28.56 Hearing procedures, conduct and copies...

  12. In-air hearing of the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo).

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Alyssa; Hansen, Kirstin Anderson; Ortiz, Sara Torres; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Siebert, Ursula; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2017-03-13

    Many aquatic birds use sounds extensively for in-air communication. Regardless of this, we know very little about their hearing abilities. The in-air audiogram of a male adult great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) was determined using psychophysical methods (method of constants). Hearing thresholds were derived using pure tones of five different frequencies. The lowest threshold was at 2 kHz: 18 dB re 20 µPa rms. Thresholds derived using signal detection theory were within 2 dB of the ones derived using classical psychophysics. The great cormorant is more sensitive to in-air sounds than previously believed and its hearing abilities are comparable to several other species of birds of similar size. This knowledge is important for our understanding of the hearing abilities of other species of sea birds. It can also be used to develop cormorant deterrent devices for fisheries, as well as to assess the impact of increasing in-air anthropogenic noise levels on cormorants and other aquatic birds.

  13. New developments in bone-conduction hearing implants: a review

    PubMed Central

    Reinfeldt, Sabine; Håkansson, Bo; Taghavi, Hamidreza; Eeg-Olofsson, Måns

    2015-01-01

    The different kinds of bone-conduction devices (BCDs) available for hearing rehabilitation are growing. In this paper, all BCDs currently available or in clinical trials will be described in categories according to their principles. BCDs that vibrate the bone via the skin are referred to as skin-drive devices, and are divided into conventional devices, which are attached with softbands, for example, and passive transcutaneous devices, which have implanted magnets. BCDs that directly stimulate the bone are referred to as direct-drive devices, and are further divided into percutaneous and active transcutaneous devices; the latter have implanted transducers directly stimulating the bone under intact skin. The percutaneous direct-drive device is known as a bone-anchored hearing aid, which is the BCD that has the largest part of the market today. Because of some issues associated with the percutaneous implant, and to some extent because of esthetics, more transcutaneous solutions with intact skin are being developed today, both in the skin-drive and in the direct-drive category. Challenges in developing transcutaneous BCDs are mostly to do with power, attachment, invasiveness, and magnetic resonance imaging compatibility. In the future, the authors assume that the existing percutaneous direct-drive BCD will be retained as an important rehabilitation alternative, while the transcutaneous solutions will increase their part of the market, especially for patients with bone-conduction thresholds better than 35 dB HL (hearing level). Furthermore, the active transcutaneous direct-drive BCDs appear to be the most promising systems, but to establish more detailed inclusion criteria, and potential benefits and drawbacks, more extensive clinical studies are needed. PMID:25653565

  14. 34 CFR 222.111 - What is the authority of the hearing examiner in conducting a hearing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the authority of the hearing examiner in conducting a hearing? 222.111 Section 222.111 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS...

  15. 38 CFR 1.985 - Form, notice of, and conduct of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Form, notice of, and... AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Salary Offset Provisions § 1.985 Form, notice of, and conduct of hearing. (a... employee of the form of the hearing to be provided. If the hearing will be oral, the notice shall set...

  16. [The active middle ear implant for the rehabilitation of sensorineural, mixed and conductive hearing losses].

    PubMed

    Sprinzl, G M; Wolf-Magele, A; Schnabl, J; Koci, V

    2011-09-01

    Active middle ear implants, such as the Vibrant Soundbridge, are used as an important part in the rehabilitation of sensorineural, conductive hearing, or mixed hearing loss. The attachment of the Vibrant Soundbridge at the round window and the usage of the Vibroplasty couplers strongly expanded the application of the Vibrant Soundbridge.The Vibrant Soundbridge is developed for patients who have an intolerance to hearing aids and a moderate to profound sensorineural hearing loss. The VSB also provides an optimal solution for patients with failed middle ear reconstructions or patients with atresia. To capture the improvement with the VSB Implant with different hearing losses a literature analysis was conducted. The functional gain was analyzed for 107 patients with conductive hearing loss and for 214 patients with sensorineural hearing loss out of 14 studies.Patients with conductive and mixed hearing loss resulted in a functional gain from 30 to 58 dB with the VSB. Patients with a pure sensorineural hearing loss showed a functional gain of 23-30 dB. The VSB bone conduction threshold shift was analyzed for all studies conducted in the years between 2000 and 2009. In 11 of the 16 studies there was no significant (p=0.05) change found. In 5 studies, the pre- to post-surgical bone conduction threshold shift was less than 10 dB. None of these studies measured a threshold shift of more than 10 dB.The flexible attachment at either the long process of the incus with sensorineural hearing loss, with an conductive hearing loss at the round window or the use of Vibroplasty couplers at the oval window, head of the stapes or round window makes the VSB an extremely versatile instrument. If patients can't wear conventional hearing aids, had failed middle ear reconstructions or atresia the VSB presents, due to the significant hearing improvement in any type of hearing loss, an ideal solution.

  17. 38 CFR 17.68 - Notice and conduct of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for an oral hearing, the hearing official shall: (1) Notify the community residential care facility operator of the date, time, and location for the hearing; and (2) Notify the community residential care facility operator that written statements and other evidence for the record may be submitted to the...

  18. 19 CFR 201.13 - Conduct of nonadjudicative hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... prescription of time allocated to testimony, argument, and questioning, to regulate the course of hearings and... hearings will, upon order of the Commission, be subject to verification from books, papers, and records of... of hearings, parties intending to use easels, audio visual, and similar equipment in the course...

  19. Development of conductive hearing loss due to posterior semicircular canal dehiscence.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Marie; Kubo, Kazuhiko; Yasui, Tetsuro; Matsumoto, Nozomu; Komune, Shizuo

    2015-06-01

    We herein report a case of posterior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) syndrome who had been audiologically followed up for eight years. The patient originally had sensorineural hearing loss. The audiogram had gradually transformed to pure conductive hearing loss. The posterior SCD was identified in CT scan. The reported case showed the possibility to distinguish the mechanism at play underlying the typical conductive hearing loss in SCD patients by tracing the transition of the hearing loss pattern. This information is of much help to predict the hearing outcomes if surgical intervention were chosen for the treatment.

  20. Sound-conducting mechanisms for echolocation hearing of a dolphin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, Vyacheslav A.

    2005-09-01

    The morphological study of the lower jaw of a dolphin (Tursiops truncatus p.), and the modeling and calculation of its structures from the acoustic point of view have been conducted. It was determined that the cross-sectional area of the mandibular canal (MC) increases exponentially. The MC represents the acoustical horn. The mental foramens (MFs) is positioned in the horn throat, representing the nonequidistant array of waveguide delay lines (NAWDL). The acoustical horn ensures the traveling wave conditions inside the MC and intensifies sonar echoes up to 1514 times. This ``ideal'' traveling wave antenna is created by nature, representing the combination of the NAWDL and the acoustical horn. The dimensions and sequence of morphological structures of the lower jaw are optimal both for reception and forming the beam pattern, and for the amplification and transmission of sonar echoes up to the bulla tympani. Morphological structures of the lower jaw are considered as components of the peripheral section of the dolphin echolocation hearing.

  1. Auditory Brainstem Response Thresholds to Air- and Bone-Conducted CE-Chirps in Neonates and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Kensi M.; Stuart, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds to air- and bone-conducted CE-Chirps in neonates and adults. Method Thirty-two neonates with no physical or neurologic challenges and 20 adults with normal hearing participated. ABRs were acquired with a starting intensity of 30 dB normal hearing level…

  2. 34 CFR 86.409 - What are the procedures for conducting a hearing on the record?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the procedures for conducting a hearing on the record? 86.409 Section 86.409 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION Appeal Procedures § 86.409 What are the procedures for conducting a hearing on...

  3. 40 CFR 750.7 - Conduct of legislative hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the panel may change as different topics arise during the hearing. In general, the panel membership... the topics under discussion. One member of the panel shall be named to chair the proceedings and...

  4. 40 CFR 750.39 - Conduct of informal hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... membership of the panel may change as different topics arise during the hearing. In general, the panel... in the topics under discussion. One member of the panel will be named to chair the proceedings...

  5. 40 CFR 750.39 - Conduct of informal hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... membership of the panel may change as different topics arise during the hearing. In general, the panel... in the topics under discussion. One member of the panel will be named to chair the proceedings...

  6. 40 CFR 750.7 - Conduct of legislative hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the panel may change as different topics arise during the hearing. In general, the panel membership... the topics under discussion. One member of the panel shall be named to chair the proceedings and...

  7. 40 CFR 750.39 - Conduct of informal hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... membership of the panel may change as different topics arise during the hearing. In general, the panel... in the topics under discussion. One member of the panel will be named to chair the proceedings...

  8. 40 CFR 750.7 - Conduct of legislative hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the panel may change as different topics arise during the hearing. In general, the panel membership... the topics under discussion. One member of the panel shall be named to chair the proceedings and...

  9. 42 CFR 405.830 - Conduct of the carrier hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and of such nature as to afford the parties a proper hearing. (b) Evidence. Evidence may be received... other written statements or allegations of facts or law. (e) Consolidated issues. When one or more...

  10. 12 CFR 269b.440 - Conduct of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... as the panel may otherwise assess, or may be examined in the offices of the panel and/or the hearing... outweighed by the risk that its admission will either necessitate undue consumption of time or...

  11. Vibrant Soundbridge and Bone Conduction Hearing Aid in Patients with Bilateral Malformation of External Ear.

    PubMed

    Mondelli, Maria Fernanda Capoani Garcia; Mariano, Thais Cristina Barbosa; Honório, Heitor Marques; Brito, Rubens Vuono de

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hearing loss is the most common clinical finding in patients with malformation of the external ear canal. Among the possibilities of treatment, there is the adaptation of hearing aids by bone conduction and the adaptation of implantable hearing aids. Objective To assess speech perception with the use of Vibrant Soundbridge (VBS - MED-EL, Innsbruck, Austria) associated with additional amplification in patients with bilateral craniofacial malformation. Method We evaluated 11 patients with bilateral malformation over 12 years with mixed hearing loss or bilateral conductive. They were using the Softband (Oticon Medical, Sweden) and bone conduction hearing aid in the ear opposite the one with the VSB. We performed the evaluation of speech perception using the Hearing in Noise Test. Results Participants were eight men and three women with a mean of 19.5 years. The signal / noise ratio presented significant results in patients fitted with VSB and bone conduction hearing aid. Conclusion The results of speech perception were significantly better with use of VBS combined with bone conduction hearing aids.

  12. Vibrant Soundbridge and Bone Conduction Hearing Aid in Patients with Bilateral Malformation of External Ear

    PubMed Central

    Mondelli, Maria Fernanda Capoani Garcia; Mariano, Thais Cristina Barbosa; Honório, Heitor Marques; Brito, Rubens Vuono de

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hearing loss is the most common clinical finding in patients with malformation of the external ear canal. Among the possibilities of treatment, there is the adaptation of hearing aids by bone conduction and the adaptation of implantable hearing aids. Objective To assess speech perception with the use of Vibrant Soundbridge (VBS - MED-EL, Innsbruck, Austria) associated with additional amplification in patients with bilateral craniofacial malformation. Method We evaluated 11 patients with bilateral malformation over 12 years with mixed hearing loss or bilateral conductive. They were using the Softband (Oticon Medical, Sweden) and bone conduction hearing aid in the ear opposite the one with the VSB. We performed the evaluation of speech perception using the Hearing in Noise Test. Results Participants were eight men and three women with a mean of 19.5 years. The signal / noise ratio presented significant results in patients fitted with VSB and bone conduction hearing aid. Conclusion The results of speech perception were significantly better with use of VBS combined with bone conduction hearing aids. PMID:26722343

  13. Effects of Simulated Conductive Hearing Loss on Dichotic Listening Performance for Digits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niccum, Nancy; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Conductive hearing losses were simulated in 12 subjects aged 19-35 and performance was compared with normal hearing performance. Digit dichotic performance was affected when test intensities were within 8 dB of the "knees" (95 percent correct point) of monotic performance intensity functions, but not when test intensities were 12 dB…

  14. 34 CFR 222.118 - How are withholding hearings conducted in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...? 222.118 Section 222.118 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF... Indian Policies and Procedures § 222.118 How are withholding hearings conducted in this subpart? (a... requirements of § 222.117(d), the Assistant Secretary requests the appointment of a hearing examiner. (b)...

  15. 10 CFR 708.28 - What procedures govern a hearing conducted by the Office of Hearings and Appeals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to regulate the conduct of proceedings: (1) The Hearing Officer may order discovery at the request of a party, based on a showing that the requested discovery is designed to produce evidence regarding a... may permit parties to obtain discovery by any appropriate method, including deposition upon...

  16. 10 CFR 708.28 - What procedures govern a hearing conducted by the Office of Hearings and Appeals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to regulate the conduct of proceedings: (1) The Hearing Officer may order discovery at the request of a party, based on a showing that the requested discovery is designed to produce evidence regarding a... may permit parties to obtain discovery by any appropriate method, including deposition upon...

  17. Learning Disabilities and Conductive Hearing Loss Involving Otitis Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichman, Julie; Healey, William C.

    1983-01-01

    A review of research on the relationship of otitis media (ear infection) and learning/language/hearing disorders revealed that incidence of otitis media was twice as common in learning disabled as nonLD students; and that, in general, otitis-prone children scored below controls with frequent evidence of performance deficits. (CL)

  18. Auditory Deprivation and Early Conductive Hearing Loss from Otitis Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarson, Adele D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews auditory deprivation effects on anatomy, physiology, and behavior in animals and discusses the sequelae of otitis media with effusion (OME) in children. Focused on are central auditory processing disorders associated with early fluctuating hearing loss from OME. (DB)

  19. 40 CFR 750.39 - Conduct of informal hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 750.39 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... membership of the panel may change as different topics arise during the hearing. In general, the panel... in the topics under discussion. One member of the panel will be named to chair the proceedings...

  20. 40 CFR 750.7 - Conduct of legislative hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 750.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... the panel may change as different topics arise during the hearing. In general, the panel membership... the topics under discussion. One member of the panel shall be named to chair the proceedings and...

  1. Ectrodactyly, Ectodermal dysplasia, and Cleft Lip-Palate Syndrome; Its Association with Conductive Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Geoffrey C.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Conductive hearing loss associated with the ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip palate syndrome was reported in one sporadic case and in a pedigree with four cases in three generations. (GW)

  2. 20 CFR 667.810 - What rules of procedure apply to hearings conducted under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT... hearings conducted pursuant to this part. However, rules or principles designed to assure production of...

  3. Real-ear measurements in conductive hearing loss: discrepancies between probe-tube microphone measurements and sound field test results.

    PubMed

    Cleaver, V C

    1998-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate earlier observations that probe-tube microphone measurements of insertion gain overestimates the functional gain received from hearing aids by users with significant conductive hearing losses. This was originally thought to be due to artefacts in the probe-tube measurement caused by middle ear pathology, but is now believed to be the result of the bone conduction stimulation of the ear exposed to high intensities of airborne sound during sound field threshold measurements. Since the functional gain must relate to the true aided benefit in such cases, these findings suggest that probe-tube microphone measurements in ears with significant air-bone gaps should be interpreted with caution.

  4. Conductive and Mixed Hearing Losses: A Comparison between Summer and Autumn

    PubMed Central

    Nickbakht, Mansoureh

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Conductive hearing loss is common among children and adults. This study aims at comparing the results of conductive hearing loss in summer and autumn. Subjects and Methods Puretone audiometry and tympanometry tests were done for all patients who referred to the Iranian-based audiology center of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Ahvaz. Data on the patients with conductive or mixed hearing loss were analyzed. The impacts of season, age, and etiology of the disease were analyzed on the patients who visited the audiology clinic due to the conductive hearing loss in summer and autumn. Results One hundred and fifty nine patients in summer and 123 patients in autumn had conductive or mixed hearing loss. Their age ranged from four to 82 years, with the average age of 35. The percentage of the patients, with acute otitis media and chronic otitis media (COM), who visited this clinic, was significantly higher than those with middle ear problems. COM and mastoid surgeries rate was higher in summer than autumn among adults. Conclusions There is no relationship between season and middle ear diseases between children and juveniles, but COM and mastoid problems are more common in summer among adults visiting this clinic. Most of the patients had mild conductive hearing loss and bilateral middle ear impairments. PMID:24782946

  5. A study of mercuric oxide and zinc-air battery life in hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Sparkes, C; Lacey, N K

    1997-09-01

    The requirement to phase out mercuric oxide (mercury) batteries on environmental grounds has led to the widespread introduction of zinc-air technology. The possibility arises that high drain hearing aids may not be adequately catered for by zinc-air cells, leading to poor performance. This study investigated the hearing aid user's ability to perceive differences between zinc-air and mercury cells in normal everyday usage. The data was collected for 100 experienced hearing aid users in field trials. Users report 50 per cent greater life for zinc-air cells in high power aids and 28 per cent in low power aids. The average life of the zinc-air cells range from 15 days in high power to 34 days in low power aids. Users are able to perceive a difference in sound quality in favour of zinc-air cells for low and medium power aids. The hearing aid population is not disadvantaged by phasing out mercury cells.

  6. The Importance of the Hook Region of the Cochlea for Bone-Conduction Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Namkeun; Steele, Charles R.; Puria, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    For the most part, the coiled shape of the cochlea has been shown to have only minor importance for air-conducted hearing. It is hypothesized, however, that this coiled shape may play a more significant role for the bone-conducted (BC) route of hearing, through inertial forces exerted by the middle ear and cochlear fluid, and that this can be tested by comparing the results of applying BC stimuli in a variety of different directions. A three-dimensional finite element model of a human middle ear coupled to the inner ear was formulated. BC excitations were simulated by applying rigid-body vibrations normal to the surface of the basilar membrane (BM) at 0.8 (d1), 5.8 (d2), 15.6 (d3), and 33.1 (d4) mm from the base of the cochlea, such that relative motions of the fluid within the cochlea produced excitations of the BM. The vibrational direction normal to the BM surface at the base of the cochlea (d1) produced the highest BM velocity response across all tested frequencies—higher than an excitation direction normal to the BM surface at the nonbasal locations (d2–d4), even when the stimulus frequency matched the best frequency for each location. The basal part of the human cochlea features a well-developed hook region, colocated with the cochlear vestibule, that features the largest difference in fluid volume between the scala vestibuli (SV) and scala tympani (ST) found in the cochlea. The proximity of the hook region to the oval and round windows, combined with it having the biggest fluid-volume difference between the SV and ST, is thought to result in a maximization of the pressure difference between the SV and ST for BC stimuli normal to the BM in this region, and consequently a maximization of the resulting BM velocity. PMID:24988357

  7. 13 CFR 142.21 - How will the hearing be conducted and who has the burden of proof?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will the hearing be conducted and who has the burden of proof? 142.21 Section 142.21 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Provisions § 142.21 How will the hearing...

  8. Bone Conduction Hearing: Three-Dimensional Finite Element Model of the Human Middle and Inner Ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Namkeun; Homma, Kenji; Puria, Sunil; Steele, Charles R.

    2011-11-01

    A finite-element (FE) simulation model of a human auditory periphery was developed to gain insight into the fundamental mechanisms of bone conduction (BC) hearing. Three dimensional geometry of middle ear and cochlea including semi-circular canal was obtained by μCT images. The simulation effectively focused on the middle ear and then the cochlea fluid-inertial BC component. The FE model was first tuned and validated against various frequency responses available from the literature. The characteristics of various cochlear response quantities such as the basilar membrane (BM) displacement, window volume velocities, and cochlear fluid pressure were examined for both BC and air conduction (AC) excitations. Especially, the decomposition analysis was applied to window volume velocities and cochlear fluid pressures to separate them into anti-symmetric and symmetric components. The preliminary result shows that the BM vibration is driven by the part of the fluid pressure that is anti-symmetric (i.e. differential slow wave) with respect to the BM, which is generated by the anti-symmetric window volume velocity.

  9. Contribution of monaural and binaural cues to sound localization in listeners with acquired unilateral conductive hearing loss: improved directional hearing with a bone-conduction device.

    PubMed

    Agterberg, Martijn J H; Snik, Ad F M; Hol, Myrthe K S; Van Wanrooij, Marc M; Van Opstal, A John

    2012-04-01

    Sound localization in the horizontal (azimuth) plane relies mainly on interaural time differences (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs). Both are distorted in listeners with acquired unilateral conductive hearing loss (UCHL), reducing their ability to localize sound. Several studies demonstrated that UCHL listeners had some ability to localize sound in azimuth. To test whether listeners with acquired UCHL use strongly perturbed binaural difference cues, we measured localization while they listened with a sound-attenuating earmuff over their impaired ear. We also tested the potential use of monaural pinna-induced spectral-shape cues for localization in azimuth and elevation, by filling the cavities of the pinna of their better-hearing ear with a mould. These conditions were tested while a bone-conduction device (BCD), fitted to all UCHL listeners in order to provide hearing from the impaired side, was turned off. We varied stimulus presentation levels to investigate whether UCHL listeners were using sound level as an azimuth cue. Furthermore, we examined whether horizontal sound-localization abilities improved when listeners used their BCD. Ten control listeners without hearing loss demonstrated a significant decrease in their localization abilities when they listened with a monaural plug and muff. In 4/13 UCHL listeners we observed good horizontal localization of 65 dB SPL broadband noises with their BCD turned off. Localization was strongly impaired when the impaired ear was covered with the muff. The mould in the good ear of listeners with UCHL deteriorated the localization of broadband sounds presented at 45 dB SPL. This demonstrates that they used pinna cues to localize sounds presented at low levels. Our data demonstrate that UCHL listeners have learned to adapt their localization strategies under a wide variety of hearing conditions and that sound-localization abilities improved with their BCD turned on.

  10. 34 CFR 86.408 - What are the procedures for conducting a pre-hearing conference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the procedures for conducting a pre-hearing conference? 86.408 Section 86.408 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION Appeal Procedures § 86.408 What are the procedures for conducting a...

  11. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... generic type of device includes the air-conduction hearing aid and the bone-conduction hearing aid, but... subpart E of part 807 of this chapter subject to § 874.9. (2) Class II for the bone-conduction hearing aid....

  12. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... generic type of device includes the air-conduction hearing aid and the bone-conduction hearing aid, but... subpart E of part 807 of this chapter subject to § 874.9. (2) Class II for the bone-conduction hearing aid....

  13. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... generic type of device includes the air-conduction hearing aid and the bone-conduction hearing aid, but... subpart E of part 807 of this chapter subject to § 874.9. (2) Class II for the bone-conduction hearing aid....

  14. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... generic type of device includes the air-conduction hearing aid and the bone-conduction hearing aid, but... subpart E of part 807 of this chapter subject to § 874.9. (2) Class II for the bone-conduction hearing aid....

  15. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... generic type of device includes the air-conduction hearing aid and the bone-conduction hearing aid, but... subpart E of part 807 of this chapter subject to § 874.9. (2) Class II for the bone-conduction hearing aid....

  16. Effects of simulated conductive hearing loss on dichotic listening performance for digits.

    PubMed

    Niccum, N; Speaks, C; Katsuki-Nakamura, J; Van Tasell, D

    1987-11-01

    This experiment assessed conditions under which simulated conductive hearing loss would affect performance on a digit dichotic test. Losses were simulated by insertion of EAR plugs, and each subject served as his/her own control. Performance for left ear plugged and right ear plugged conditions was compared with performance in a normal hearing condition (neither ear plugged). Conductive losses did not affect dichotic performance at test intensities 12 dB above the "knees" of monotic performance-intensity functions for the plugged ears (95% correct points) but did affect dichotic performance for some listeners at intensities that were within 8 dB of the monotic knees.

  17. 38 CFR 20.702 - Rule 702. Scheduling and notice of hearings conducted by the Board of Veterans' Appeals in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... notice of hearings conducted by the Board of Veterans' Appeals in Washington, DC. 20.702 Section 20.702... conducted by the Board of Veterans' Appeals in Washington, DC. (a) General. To the extent that officials... conducted by the Board of Veterans' Appeals in Washington, DC, such requests for a new hearing date must...

  18. 38 CFR 20.702 - Rule 702. Scheduling and notice of hearings conducted by the Board of Veterans' Appeals in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... notice of hearings conducted by the Board of Veterans' Appeals in Washington, DC. 20.702 Section 20.702... conducted by the Board of Veterans' Appeals in Washington, DC. (a) General. To the extent that officials... conducted by the Board of Veterans' Appeals in Washington, DC, such requests for a new hearing date must...

  19. 38 CFR 20.702 - Rule 702. Scheduling and notice of hearings conducted by the Board of Veterans' Appeals in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... notice of hearings conducted by the Board of Veterans' Appeals in Washington, DC. 20.702 Section 20.702... conducted by the Board of Veterans' Appeals in Washington, DC. (a) General. To the extent that officials... conducted by the Board of Veterans' Appeals in Washington, DC, such requests for a new hearing date must...

  20. 38 CFR 20.702 - Rule 702. Scheduling and notice of hearings conducted by the Board of Veterans' Appeals in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... notice of hearings conducted by the Board of Veterans' Appeals in Washington, DC. 20.702 Section 20.702... conducted by the Board of Veterans' Appeals in Washington, DC. (a) General. To the extent that officials... conducted by the Board of Veterans' Appeals in Washington, DC, such requests for a new hearing date must...

  1. 38 CFR 20.702 - Rule 702. Scheduling and notice of hearings conducted by the Board of Veterans' Appeals in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... notice of hearings conducted by the Board of Veterans' Appeals in Washington, DC. 20.702 Section 20.702... conducted by the Board of Veterans' Appeals in Washington, DC. (a) General. To the extent that officials... conducted by the Board of Veterans' Appeals in Washington, DC, such requests for a new hearing date must...

  2. In-Air and Underwater Hearing in the Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis).

    PubMed

    Johansen, Sasia; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Seidelin, Lars; Huulvej, Tina; Jensen, Kristine; Lunneryd, Sven-Gunnar; Boström, Maria; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Hearing thresholds of a great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) were measured in air and under water using psychophysics. The lowest thresholds were at 2 kHz (45 dB re 20 μPa root-mean-square [rms] in air and 79 dB re 1 μPa rms in water). Auditory brainstem response measurements on one anesthetized bird in air indicated an audiogram with a shape that resembled the one achieved by psychophysics. This study suggests that cormorants have rather poor in-air hearing abilities compared with other similar-size birds. The hearing capabilities in water are better than what would have been expected for a purely in-air adapted ear.

  3. 22 CFR 1423.14 - Conduct of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... by the rules of evidence, whether statutory, common law, or adopted by a court. (b) An official... otherwise ordered by the Administrative Law Judge. A substitute Administrative Law Judge may be designated at any time to take the place of the Administrative Law Judge previously designated to conduct...

  4. 34 CFR 99.22 - What minimum requirements exist for the conduct of a hearing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What minimum requirements exist for the conduct of a hearing? 99.22 Section 99.22 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education FAMILY EDUCATIONAL RIGHTS AND PRIVACY What Are the Procedures for Amending Education Records? § 99.22 What...

  5. 34 CFR 222.118 - How are withholding hearings conducted in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are withholding hearings conducted in this subpart? 222.118 Section 222.118 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS Special Provisions for...

  6. 34 CFR 99.22 - What minimum requirements exist for the conduct of a hearing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What minimum requirements exist for the conduct of a hearing? 99.22 Section 99.22 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education FAMILY EDUCATIONAL RIGHTS AND PRIVACY What Are the Procedures for Amending Education Records? § 99.22 What...

  7. 34 CFR 222.156 - How is an administrative hearing conducted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How is an administrative hearing conducted? 222.156 Section 222.156 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS Impact Aid...

  8. Comparison of Ear-Canal Reflectance and Umbo Velocity in Patients with Conductive Hearing Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merchant, Gabrielle R.; Nakajima, Hideko H.; Pisano, Dominic V.; Röösli, Christof; Hamade, Mohamad A.; Mafoud, Lorice; Halpin, Christopher F.; Merchant, Saumil N.; Rosowski, John J.

    2011-11-01

    Patients who present at hearing clinics with a conductive hearing loss (CHL) in the presence of an intact, healthy tympanic membrane create a unique challenge for otologists. While patient counseling, treatment options, and outcome vary with differing middle-ear pathologies, a non-invasive diagnostic that can differentiate between these pathologies does not currently exist. We evaluated the clinical utility and diagnostic accuracy of two non-invasive measures of middle-ear mechanics: ear-canal reflectance (ECR) and umbo velocity (VU).

  9. Prediction of conductive hearing loss based on acoustic ear-canal response using a multivariate clinical decision theory.

    PubMed

    Piskorski, P; Keefe, D H; Simmons, J L; Gorga, M P

    1999-03-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of acoustic response tests in predicting conductive hearing loss in 161 ears of subjects from the age of 2 to 10 yr, using as a "gold standard" the air-bone gap to classify ears as normal or impaired. The acoustic tests included tympanometric peak-compensated static admittance magnitude (SA) and tympanometric gradient at 226 Hz, and admittance-reflectance (YR) measurements from 0.5 to 8 kHz. The performance of individual, frequency-specific, YR test variables as predictors was assessed. By applying logistic regression (LR) and discriminant analysis (DA) techniques to the multivariate YR response, two univariate functions were calculated as the linear combinations of YR variables across frequency that best separated normal and impaired ears. The tympanometric and YR tests were also combined in a multivariate manner to test whether predictive efficacy improved when 226-Hz tympanometry was added to the predictor set. Conductive hearing loss was predicted based on air-bone gap thresholds at 0.5 and 2 kHz, and on a maximum air-bone gap at any octave frequency from 0.5 to 4 kHz. Each air-bone gap threshold ranged from 5 to 30 dB in 5-dB steps. Areas under the relative operating characteristic curve for DA and LR were larger than for reflectance at 2 kHz, SA and Gr. For constant hit rates of 80% and 90%, both DA and LR scores had lower false-alarm rates than tympanometric tests-LR achieved a false-alarm rate of 6% for a sensitivity of 90%. In general, LR outperformed DA as the multivariate technique of choice. In predicting an impairment at 0.5 kHz, the reflectance scores at 0.5 kHz were less accurate predictors than reflectance at 2 and 4 kHz. This supports the hypothesis that the 2-4-kHz range is a particularly sensitive indicator of middle-ear status, in agreement with the spectral composition of the output predictor from the multivariate analyses. When tympanometric and YR tests were combined, the resulting predictor performed

  10. 10 CFR 708.28 - What procedures govern a hearing conducted by the Office of Hearings and Appeals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of Hearings and Appeals? 708.28 Section 708.28 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DOE CONTRACTOR EMPLOYEE... matter, not privileged, that is relevant to the subject matter of the complaint; (2) The Hearing Officer...; grant extensions of time; determine the format of the hearing; direct that written motions,...

  11. Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehlinger, Keegan M.; Van Horne, Amanda J. Owen; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Spoken language skills of 3- and 6-year-old children who are hard of hearing (HH) were compared with those of children with normal hearing (NH). Method: Language skills were measured via mean length of utterance in words (MLUw) and percent correct use of finite verb morphology in obligatory contexts based on spontaneous conversational…

  12. Hearing Loss: Hearing Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Atcherson, Samuel R; Moreland, Christopher; Zazove, Philip; McKee, Michael M

    2015-07-01

    Etiologies of hearing loss vary. When hearing loss is diagnosed, referral to an otology subspecialist, audiology subspecialist, or hearing aid dispenser to discuss treatment options is appropriate. Conventional hearing aids provide increased sound pressure in the ear canal for detection of sounds that might otherwise be soft or inaudible. Hearing aids can be used for sensorineural, conductive, or mixed hearing loss by patients with a wide range of hearing loss severity. The most common type of hearing loss is high-frequency, which affects audibility and perception of speech consonants, but not vowels. As the severity of hearing loss increases, the benefit of hearing aids for speech perception decreases. Implantable devices such as cochlear implants, middle ear implants, and bone-anchored implants can benefit specific patient groups. Hearing assistive technology devices provide auditory, visual, or tactile information to augment hearing and increase environmental awareness of sounds. Hearing assistive devices include wireless assistive listening device systems, closed captioning, hearing aid-compatible telephones, and other devices. For some patients, financial barriers and health insurance issues limit acquisition of hearing aids, implantable devices, and hearing assistive devices. Physicians should be aware that for some patients and families, hearing augmentation may not be desired for cultural reasons.

  13. 34 CFR 222.110 - What are the procedures for conducting a hearing on a local educational agency's Indian policies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the procedures for conducting a hearing on a local educational agency's Indian policies and procedures? 222.110 Section 222.110 Education Regulations... Children Residing on Indian Lands Indian Policies and Procedures Complaint and Hearing Procedures §...

  14. 38 CFR 1.985 - Form, notice of, and conduct of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) After an employee requests a hearing, the hearing official or administrative law judge shall notify the... or administrative law judge by a specified date after which the record shall be closed. This date... hearing shall be provided an oral hearing if the hearing official or administrative law judge...

  15. Explicitly Teaching English through the Air to Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Jessica G.; Gardner, Ralph, III; Leighner, Ross; Clancy, Shannon; Garner, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    The Effects of the Language for Learning curriculum (Engelmann & Osborne, 1999) on through-the-air (i.e., signed and/or spoken) English skills for students who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) were examined by means of a single-subject, concurrent-multiple-probes-across-participants design. Four 11-year-old participants varied in auditory…

  16. 30 CFR 250.1472 - How will the Office of Hearings and Appeals conduct the hearing on the record?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER... Law Judge from the Office of Hearings and Appeals. After the hearing, the Administrative Law Judge will issue a decision in accordance with the evidence presented and applicable law....

  17. 30 CFR 550.1472 - How will the Office of Hearings and Appeals conduct the hearing on the record?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL... Administrative Law Judge from the Office of Hearings and Appeals. After the hearing, the Administrative Law Judge will issue a decision in accordance with the evidence presented and applicable law....

  18. 30 CFR 250.1472 - How will the Office of Hearings and Appeals conduct the hearing on the record?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER... Law Judge from the Office of Hearings and Appeals. After the hearing, the Administrative Law Judge will issue a decision in accordance with the evidence presented and applicable law....

  19. 30 CFR 550.1472 - How will the Office of Hearings and Appeals conduct the hearing on the record?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL... Law Judge from the Office of Hearings and Appeals. After the hearing, the Administrative Law Judge will issue a decision in accordance with the evidence presented and applicable law....

  20. 30 CFR 250.1472 - How will the Office of Hearings and Appeals conduct the hearing on the record?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER... Law Judge from the Office of Hearings and Appeals. After the hearing, the Administrative Law Judge will issue a decision in accordance with the evidence presented and applicable law....

  1. 30 CFR 550.1472 - How will the Office of Hearings and Appeals conduct the hearing on the record?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL... Administrative Law Judge from the Office of Hearings and Appeals. After the hearing, the Administrative Law Judge will issue a decision in accordance with the evidence presented and applicable law....

  2. Development of Bone-Conducted Ultrasonic Hearing Aid for the Profoundly Deaf: Assessments of the Modulation Type with Regard to Intelligibility and Sound Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Seiji; Fujiyuki, Chika; Kagomiya, Takayuki

    2012-07-01

    Bone-conducted ultrasound (BCU) is perceived even by the profoundly sensorineural deaf. A novel hearing aid using the perception of amplitude-modulated BCU (BCU hearing aid: BCUHA) has been developed; however, further improvements are needed, especially in terms of articulation and sound quality. In this study, the intelligibility and sound quality of BCU speech with several types of amplitude modulation [double-sideband with transmitted carrier (DSB-TC), double-sideband with suppressed carrier (DSB-SC), and transposed modulation] were evaluated. The results showed that DSB-TC and transposed speech were more intelligible than DSB-SC speech, and transposed speech was closer than the other types of BCU speech to air-conducted speech in terms of sound quality. These results provide useful information for further development of the BCUHA.

  3. Masked hearing thresholds of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in air.

    PubMed

    Renouf, D

    1980-10-01

    Two wild seals, maintained in captivity in good health, were trained to swim on verbal command to a spot 27 cm above the water, and subsequently to make a L or R turn to a pure tone vs no tone. White noise was present at 80, 70, or 60 db SPL. Masked thresholds were determined by a staircase method in 2-db steps at 2, 4, 8.6, and 15 kc/s (at 15 kc/s only noise at 60 db SPL was presented). Critical bandwidths in db were calculated, all of the order of 25 db (range of to 28 db). These values are close to those reported by Terhune and Ronald (J. Acoust.Soc.Am., 1975, 58, 515-516) for seals' aerial hearing but are unexplainably lower (i.e., worse) than for seals underwater. It was calculated that in their often noisy and visually restricted natural environment, a mother would not be able to hear her pup if separated by more than 8 m. This situation was generally corroborated by field observation on the breeding grounds.

  4. Development of bone-conduction mobile phones: assessment of hearing mechanisms by measuring psychological characteristics and acoustical properties in the outer ear canal.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Seiji; Hotehama, Takuya; Ito, Kazuhito; Inagaki, Tomohiro

    2016-08-01

    We have been developing novel mobile phones using bone conduction, with flat-panel loudspeakers that convey speech sound by vibrating the pinna. In bone conduction via the pinna, i.e., pinna conduction, it is thought that speech sounds are conveyed via both air- and bone-conduction pathways. To obtain useful information for further development of bone-conduction mobile phones, peripheral mechanisms of the pinna conduction need to be clarified. In this study, hearing thresholds, sound field in the outer ear canals, and vibrations of the inner wall of the outer ear canals were measured while normal-hearing participants used pinna-conduction mobile phones. Thresholds decreased linearly as contact pressure increased below 1 kHz, but contact pressure did not affect thresholds above 2 kHz. Additionally, sound fields in the ipsilateral ear canal showed similar results. These results indicate that there is a considerable degree of bone-conduction components from the pinna to the inner ear, which only allow sounds below 1 kHz through. Because similar characteristics were observed in the threshold and the sound field in the outer ear canal, we suggest that osseotympanic emission, sound emission into the ear canal from the inner wall, and air conduction via external auditory foramen are the dominant components of pinna conduction. However, in the vibration measurement, differences between the ipsi- and contra-lateral responses were smaller than the sound field measurement. The smaller inter-lateral differences of the vibration in the outer ear canal suggest the existence of a significant amount of bone-conduction components that directly reach the middle or inner ear. Although the amount of such bone-conduction components does not seem sufficient for pinna.

  5. Allograft stapes surgery for conductive hearing loss in patients with ossicular chain anomalies.

    PubMed

    Minatogawa, T; Iritani, H; Ishida, K; Node, M N

    1996-01-01

    An allograft stapes was used during surgical intervention for conductive hearing loss due to ossicular malformations in 11 ears of seven patients. The external auditory canal and tympanic membrane were normal in all ears. The surgical findings for the ossicles were stapes fixation (7 ears), stapes fixation with discontinuity of the incudostapedial joint (in both ears of one patient), a deformed incus and stapes crura compressed by the facial nerve (one ear in which the stapes was not fixed) and an anomaly of the incus and stapes combined with a dermoid cyst (in one ear in which the stapes was also not fixed). In all ears, the following procedures were performed: stapedectomy followed by sealing the oval window with a vein graft and placing an allograft stapes between the oval window and the lenticular process of the incus or the handle of the malleus. The allograft stapes was placed with its capitulum on the oval window in all cases, and fibrin glue was used for stabilizing the seal and the allograft stapes. The indications for stapedectomy for conductive hearing loss due to ossicular chain anomalies and the utility of allograft stapes are discussed.

  6. Comparison of air- and bone-conducted brain stem auditory evoked responses in young dogs and dogs with bilateral ear canal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Wolschrijn, C F; Venker-van Haagen, A J; van den Brom, W E

    1997-11-01

    Brain stem responses to air- and bone-conducted stimuli were analyzed in 11 young dogs, using an in-the-ear transducer and a vibrator designed for human hearing tests, respectively. The mean thresholds were 0 to 10 dB for air-conducted stimuli and 50 to 60 dB for bone-conducted stimuli. The wave forms and inter-peak latencies of the waves of the auditory evoked responses elicited by air-conducted and bone-conducted stimuli were similar. This indicated that the signals had the same origin and thus both the air-conducted and the bone-conducted responses could be considered to be auditory responses. Measurement of air-conducted and bone-conducted brain stem-evoked responses in five dogs with bilateral chronic obstructive ear disease revealed thresholds of 50 to 60 dB for air-conducted stimuli and 60 to 70 dB for bone-conducted stimuli. By comparison of these results with those in the 11 young dogs, it could be concluded that there was hearing loss other than that caused by obstruction of the ear canals.

  7. Comparing audiological test results obtained from a sound processor attached to a Softband with direct and magnetic passive bone conduction hearing implant systems.

    PubMed

    Kara, Ahmet; Iseri, Mete; Durgut, Merve; Topdag, Murat; Ozturk, Murat

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare audiological test results obtained from a sound processor (SP) attached to a Softband with those obtained from direct (abutment connection) bone conduction implant systems and magnetic passive bone conduction implant systems with different magnet strengths on patients implanted at our clinic. Twenty-four patients who were implanted with either an abutment or magnetic bone conduction implant system between January 2012 and December 2014 were analyzed for hearing results, such as free-field hearing thresholds, direct bone conduction hearing thresholds, and speech discrimination scores with aided and unaided conditions Both magnetic and direct osseointegrated bone conduction implant systems, as well as the Softband system, provide good hearing outcomes when compared with unaided performance; however, the abutment connection system gives better hearing thresholds in the higher frequencies. No significant difference in hearing gain was found between the Softband system, magnet 5, and magnet used by the patient. Magnetic and direct bone conduction hearing implant systems are both effective for rehabilitation of conductive and mixed hearing loss when conventional hearing aids cannot be used. However, patients with high-frequency hearing loss may be better suited to an abutment connection system if they are not satisfied with high-frequency hearing gains provided via the trial Softband system preoperatively and should be counseled accordingly.

  8. Underwater hearing: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Masri, M.; Martin, A.; Nedwell, J.

    1993-05-01

    In view of the prevalence of hearing loss among commercial divers and the absence of widely accepted noise exposure limits for occupational underwater use, a review of studies of underwater hearing thresholds and hearing mechanisms was undertaken with the ultimate aim of developing noise exposure limits. Previous studies of underwater hearing thresholds appear to show that the ear underwater is less sensitive than compared with air. However, a surprisingly wide range of values for underwater hearing thresholds was reported, for example 35-90 dB SPL(re 20 MuPa) at 0.25 kHz and 30-80 dB at 1 kHz. No representative single threshold curve can be extracted with any validity. Possible reasons for such a wide scatter of results include high underwater ambient noise levels which may have masked the subjects underwater hearing thresholds, ill defined stimuli and underwater sound fields, and variable and informal audiometric methodology. Previous authors have proposed three somewhat interlinked theories to explain how sound is transmitted from water to the cochlea. These involve: the 'auricular' conduction pathway, the bone conduction pathway, and the dual conduction pathway. Up to this day, no one pathway has been shown to predominate, and all of them have been poorly evaluated. It is also possible that the presence of air bubbles in the ear canal and increased water depth may have significant effects on underwater hearing thresholds. These effects may be dependent on the underwater hearing mechanism. Again, the studies reviewed give conflicting results and no valid conclusion can be drawn. It is apparent that further experimental studies are required to establish underwater hearing thresholds and to provide an understanding of the mechanisms of hearing underwater. These should be based upon suitable facilities and methodologies for testing hearing thresholds underwater following modern and scientific audio metric practice.

  9. Prevalence of permanent threshold shifts in the United States Air Force hearing conservation program by career field, 2005-2011.

    PubMed

    Lloyd Soderlund, Laurel; McKenna, Elizabeth A; Tastad, Katie; Paul, Marika

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe changes in hearing, using the permanent threshold shift metric, among United States Air Force servicemembers, including active duty, Reserve and Air National Guard components, for demographics, job categories, and career fields. In the United States Air Force, only servicemembers who are occupationally exposed routinely to hazardous noise are monitored. Audiogram records and demographic variables were analyzed for servicemembers from 2005-2011 using data from the Department of Defense system that captures occupational hearing tests worldwide. Results suggest that occupational hearing loss was larger in males than females, in officers than enlisted populations, and in Reserve and Air National Guard than in active duty. Compared to similar civilian career fields, active duty has lower prevalence rates for occupational hearing loss overall, although Reserve and Air National Guard prevalence rates were more similar to the civilian reported rates. The proportion of personnel with permanent threshold shifts varied between 4.6-16.7% within active duty career fields, which includes 76% of the population for study timeframe. Permanent threshold shift was larger in small job categories, and in jobs that are not considered exposed to hazardous noise routinely which is comparative with results from civilian data analysis of occupational hearing loss. Further investigation into testing practices for Air Force specific groups, use of the system for nonoccupational hearing testing, and challenges to follow-up compliance is warranted. Increased surveillance procedures for occupational hearing loss are needed to address concerns on the prevalence of servicemember hearing loss, the role of recreational and lifestyle factors to contribute the high reported hearing loss prevalence of veterans compared to nonveterans.

  10. [The prevalence of hearing impairment in transport workers and peculiarities of management of occupational loss of hearing (as exemplified by the situation in the air and railway transport)].

    PubMed

    Pankova, V B; Skryabina, L Yu; Kas'kov, Yu N

    2016-01-01

    This article presents data on the prevalence of hearing impairment among the workers engaged in the main means of transportation(air and railway transport). They show that the relative frequency of occupational loss of hearing in the cockpit members of commercial aviation amounts to one third of all cases of analogous diseases in this country. The main professional groups of transport works suffering from hearing impairment are constituted by the representatives of the so-called elite specialities, such as flying crew personnel, locomotive engineers, and their assistants. This fact constitutes an important aspect (not only of medical but also of socio-economic significance) of the problem under consideration. The high prevalence of professional hearing impairment among the transport workers is attributable to the high noise level in the cabins of locomotives and aircraft cockpits as well as to the inadequate expert and diagnostic work or imperfection of the regulatory documentation.

  11. Hearing protection: Surpassing the limits to attenuation imposed by the bone-conduction pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Elliott H.; Kieper, Ronald W.; Gauger, Dan

    2003-10-01

    With louder and louder weapon systems being developed and military personnel being exposed to steady noise levels approaching and sometimes exceeding 150 dB, a growing interest in greater amounts of hearing protection is evident. When the need for communications is included in the equation, the situation is even more extreme. New initiatives are underway to design improved hearing protection, including active noise reduction (ANR) earplugs and perhaps even active cancellation of head-borne vibration. With that in mind it may be useful to explore the limits to attenuation, and whether they can be approached with existing technology. Data on the noise reduction achievable with high-attenuation foam earplugs, as a function of insertion depth, will be reported. Previous studies will be reviewed that provide indications of the bone-conduction (BC) limits to attenuation that, in terms of mean values, range from 40 to 60 dB across the frequencies from 125 Hz to 8 kHz. Additionally, new research on the effects of a flight helmet on the BC limits, as well as the potential attenuation from deeply inserted passive foam earplugs, worn with passive earmuffs, or with active-noise reduction (ANR) earmuffs, will be examined. The data demonstrate that gains in attenuation exceeding 10 dB above the head-not-covered limits can be achieved if the head is effectively shielded from acoustical stimulation.

  12. Hearing protection: surpassing the limits to attenuation imposed by the bone-conduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Berger, Elliott H; Kieper, Ronald W; Gauger, Dan

    2003-10-01

    With louder and louder weapon systems being developed and military personnel being exposed to steady noise levels approaching and sometimes exceeding 150 dB, a growing interest in greater amounts of hearing protection is evident. When the need for communications is included in the equation, the situation is even more extreme. New initiatives are underway to design improved hearing protection, including active noise reduction (ANR) earplugs and perhaps even active cancellation of head-borne vibration. With that in mind it may be useful to explore the limits to attenuation, and whether they can be approached with existing technology. Data on the noise reduction achievable with high-attenuation foam earplugs, as a function of insertion depth, will be reported. Previous studies will be reviewed that provide indications of the bone-conduction (BC) limits to attenuation that, in terms of mean values, range from 40 to 60 dB across the frequencies from 125 Hz to 8 kHz. Additionally, new research on the effects of a flight helmet on the BC limits, as well as the potential attenuation from deeply inserted passive foam earplugs, worn with passive earmuffs, or with active-noise reduction (ANR) earmuffs, will be examined. The data demonstrate that gains in attenuation exceeding 10 dB above the head-not-covered limits can be achieved if the head is effectively shielded from acoustical stimulation.

  13. Three-year experience with the Sophono in children with congenital conductive unilateral hearing loss: tolerability, audiometry, and sound localization compared to a bone-anchored hearing aid.

    PubMed

    Nelissen, Rik C; Agterberg, Martijn J H; Hol, Myrthe K S; Snik, Ad F M

    2016-10-01

    Bone conduction devices (BCDs) are advocated as an amplification option for patients with congenital conductive unilateral hearing loss (UHL), while other treatment options could also be considered. The current study compared a transcutaneous BCD (Sophono) with a percutaneous BCD (bone-anchored hearing aid, BAHA) in 12 children with congenital conductive UHL. Tolerability, audiometry, and sound localization abilities with both types of BCD were studied retrospectively. The mean follow-up was 3.6 years for the Sophono users (n = 6) and 4.7 years for the BAHA users (n = 6). In each group, two patients had stopped using their BCD. Tolerability was favorable for the Sophono. Aided thresholds with the Sophono were unsatisfactory, as they did not reach under a mean pure tone average of 30 dB HL. Sound localization generally improved with both the Sophono and the BAHA, although localization abilities did not reach the level of normal hearing children. These findings, together with previously reported outcomes, are important to take into account when counseling patients and their caretakers. The selection of a suitable amplification option should always be made deliberately and on individual basis for each patient in this diverse group of children with congenital conductive UHL.

  14. Hearing Loss in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, John W.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses hearing loss in adults. It begins with an explanation of the anatomy of the ear and then explains the three types of hearing loss: conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss, and mixed conductive-sensorineural hearing loss. Tinnitus, hearing aids, and cochlear implants are also addressed. (CR)

  15. Otitis Media: Implications of Fluctuating, Conductive Hearing Loss on Learning and Behaviour in High School Age Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenton, Jan

    This paper provides an overview of the effects of otitis media on the learning and behavior of children and youth. It begins by describing the conductive hearing loss that is caused by otitis media and the classroom behavior that can result, including poor concentration and attention, disobedience, irritability, and poor social skills. Discussed…

  16. 38 CFR 20.704 - Rule 704. Scheduling and notice of hearings conducted by the Board of Veterans' Appeals at...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rule 704. Scheduling and notice of hearings conducted by the Board of Veterans' Appeals at Department of Veterans Affairs field facilities. 20.704 Section 20.704 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) BOARD OF VETERANS'...

  17. 34 CFR 222.110 - What are the procedures for conducting a hearing on a local educational agency's Indian policies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the procedures for conducting a hearing on a local educational agency's Indian policies and procedures? 222.110 Section 222.110 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY...

  18. Effects of ear-canal pressurization on middle-ear bone- and air-conduction responses

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Kenji; Shimizu, Yoshitaka; Kim, Namkeun; Du, Yu; Puria, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    In extremely loud noise environments, it is important to not only protect one’s hearing against noise transmitted through the air-conduction (AC) pathway, but also through the bone-conduction (BC) pathways. Much of the energy transmitted through the BC pathways is concentrated in the mid-frequency range around 1.5–2 kHz, which is likely due to the structural resonance of the middle ear. One potential approach for mitigating this mid-frequency BC noise transmission is to introduce a positive or negative static pressure in the ear canal, which is known to reduce BC as well as AC hearing sensitivity. In the present study, middle-ear ossicular velocities at the umbo and stapes were measured using human cadaver temporal bones in response to both BC and AC excitations, while static air pressures of ±400 mm H2O were applied in the ear canal. For the maximum negative pressure of −400 mm H2O, mean BC stapes-velocity reductions of about 5–8 dB were observed in the frequency range from 0.8 to 2.5 kHz, with a peak reduction of 8.6(± 4.7) dB at 1.6 kHz. Finite-element analysis indicates that the peak BC-response reduction tends to be in the mid-frequency range because the middle-ear BC resonance, which is typically around 1.5–2 kHz, is suppressed by the pressure-induced stiffening of the middle-ear structure. The measured data also show that the BC responses are reduced more for negative static pressures than for positive static pressures. This may be attributable to a difference in the distribution of the stiffening among the middle-ear components depending on the polarity of the static pressure. The characteristics of the BC-response reductions are found to be largely consistent with the available psychoacoustic data, and are therefore indicative of the relative importance of the middle-ear mechanism in BC hearing. PMID:19944139

  19. Joining Mixed Conducting Oxides Using an Air-Fired Electrically Conductive Braze

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, John S.; Kim, Jin Yong Y.; Weil, K. Scott

    2004-10-01

    Due to their mixed oxygen ion and electron conducting properties, ceramics such as lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrites (LSCF) are attractive materials for use in active electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and oxygen separation membranes. However, to take full advantage of the unique properties of these materials, reliable joining techniques need to be developed. If such a joining technique yields a ceramic-to-metal junction that is also electrically conductive, the hermetic seals in the device could provide the added function of either drawing current from the mixed conducting oxide, in the case of SOFC applications, or carrying it to the oxide to initate ionic conduction, in the case of oxygen separation and electrocatalysis applications. This would greatly reduce the need for complex interconnect design, thereby simplifying one of the major challenges faced in SOFC development. A process referred to as reactive air brazing (RAB) has been developed in which firing a Ag-CuO filler material in air creates a functional ceramic-to-metal junction, in which the silver-based matrix of the braze affords both metallic ductility and conductivity in the joint. Investigating a range of Ag-CuO alloy combinations determined that compositions containing between 1.4 and 16 mol% CuO appear to offer the best combination of wettability, joint strength, and electrical conductivity.

  20. Bone-conduction hearing and seismic sensitivity of the Late Permian anomodont Kawingasaurus fossilis.

    PubMed

    Laaß, Michael

    2015-02-01

    An investigation of the internal cranial anatomy of the anomodont Kawingasaurus from the Upper Permian Usili Formation in Tanzania by means of neutron tomography revealed an unusual inner and middle ear anatomy such as extraordinarily inflated vestibules, lateroventrally orientated stapes with large footplates, and a small angle between the planes of the anterior and lateral semicircular canals. The vestibule has a volume, which is about 25 times larger than the human vestibule, although Kawingasaurus has only a skull length of approximately 40 mm. Vestibule inflation and enlarged stapes footplates are thought to be functionally correlated with bone-conduction hearing; both morphologies have been observed in fossorial vertebrates using seismic signals for communication. The firmly fused triangular head with spatulate snout was probably used for digging and preadapted to seismic signal detection. The quadrate-quadratojugal complex was able to transmit sound from the articular to the stapes by small vibrations of the quadrate process, which formed a ball and socket joint with the squamosal. Mechanical considerations suggest that the ventrolaterally orientated stapes of Kawingasaurus was mechanically better suited to transmit seismic sound from the ground to the fenestra vestibuli than a horizontal orientated stapes. The low sound pressure level transformer ratio of 2-3 in Kawingasaurus points to a seismic sensitivity of the middle ear and a vestigial or reduced sensitivity to airborne sound. Three hypothetical pathways of bone conduction in Kawingasaurus are discussed: 1) sound transmission via the spatulate snout and skull roof to the otic capsules, 2) relative movements resulting from the inertia of the mandible if sound is percepted with the skull, and 3) bone conduction from the substrate via mandible, jaw articulation, and stapes to the inner ear.

  1. Explicitly teaching English through the air to students who are deaf or hard of hearing.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Jessica G; Gardner, Ralph; Leighner, Ross; Clancy, Shannon; Garner, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the Language for Learning curriculum (Engelmann & Osborne, 1999) on through-the-air (i.e., signed and/or spoken) English skills for students who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) were examined by means of a single-subject, concurrent-multiple-probes-across-participants design. Four 11-year-old participants varied in auditory access, IQ, and age at amplification and/or cochlear implantation. All students showed increased accuracy of through-the-air English skills after the intervention (i.e., 15-20 lessons) and maintained these skills when assessed 1 week and 1 month later. The findings yielded some promising results indicating that a Direct Instruction curriculum may be an efficacious way to teach morphology and syntax to DHH students.

  2. Remodelling at the calyx of Held–MNTB synapse in mice developing with unilateral conductive hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Grande, Giovanbattista; Negandhi, Jaina; Harrison, Robert V; Wang, Lu-Yang

    2014-01-01

    Structure and function of central synapses are profoundly influenced by experience during developmental sensitive periods. Sensory synapses, which are the indispensable interface for the developing brain to interact with its environment, are particularly plastic. In the auditory system, moderate forms of unilateral hearing loss during development are prevalent but the pre-and postsynaptic modifications that occur when hearing symmetry is perturbed are not well understood. We investigated this issue by performing experiments at the large calyx of Held synapse. Principal neurons of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) are innervated by calyx of Held terminals that originate from the axons of globular bushy cells located in the contralateral ventral cochlear nucleus. We compared populations of synapses in the same animal that were either sound deprived (SD) or sound experienced (SE) after unilateral conductive hearing loss (CHL). Middle ear ossicles were removed 1 week prior to hearing onset (approx. postnatal day (P) 12) and morphological and electrophysiological approaches were applied to auditory brainstem slices taken from these mice at P17–19. Calyces in the SD and SE MNTB acquired their mature digitated morphology but these were structurally more complex than those in normal hearing mice. This was accompanied by bilateral decreases in initial EPSC amplitude and synaptic conductance despite the CHL being unilateral. During high-frequency stimulation, some SD synapses displayed short-term depression whereas others displayed short-term facilitation followed by slow depression similar to the heterogeneities observed in normal hearing mice. However SE synapses predominantly displayed short-term facilitation followed by slow depression which could be explained in part by the decrease in release probability. Furthermore, the excitability of principal cells in the SD MNTB had increased significantly. Despite these unilateral changes in short

  3. 7 CFR 15f.21 - What rules are applicable to the actual conduct of the hearing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... hearing, the ALJ shall order the verbatim transcription of the recording as requested by the party. (iii) The costs of transcription or verbatim recordings will be paid for by USDA and charged to the...

  4. 21 CFR 1316.51 - Conduct of hearing and parties; ex parte communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... accordance with law and the directions of the presiding officer. (b) Participants in any hearing and their... official who is contacted shall prepare a memorandum setting forth the substance of the conversation...

  5. 21 CFR 1316.51 - Conduct of hearing and parties; ex parte communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accordance with law and the directions of the presiding officer. (b) Participants in any hearing and their... official who is contacted shall prepare a memorandum setting forth the substance of the conversation...

  6. 21 CFR 1316.51 - Conduct of hearing and parties; ex parte communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... accordance with law and the directions of the presiding officer. (b) Participants in any hearing and their... official who is contacted shall prepare a memorandum setting forth the substance of the conversation...

  7. 21 CFR 1316.51 - Conduct of hearing and parties; ex parte communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... accordance with law and the directions of the presiding officer. (b) Participants in any hearing and their... official who is contacted shall prepare a memorandum setting forth the substance of the conversation...

  8. 21 CFR 1316.51 - Conduct of hearing and parties; ex parte communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... accordance with law and the directions of the presiding officer. (b) Participants in any hearing and their... official who is contacted shall prepare a memorandum setting forth the substance of the conversation...

  9. 25 CFR 170.439 - How is a public hearing conducted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) The presiding official solicits public comments from the audience on the merits of IRR projects and activities; and (3) The presiding official informs the hearing audience of the appropriate procedures for...

  10. 37 CFR 251.46 - Conduct of hearings: Role of arbitrators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... a majority vote to grant a motion or sustain an objection. A split vote will result in the denial of...) Announcing the schedule of subsequent hearings. (d) Each arbitrator may examine any witness or call upon...

  11. Development of a Bone-Conducted Ultrasonic Hearing Aid for the Profoundly Deaf: Evaluation of Sound Quality Using a Semantic Differential Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Seiji; Fujiyuki, Chika; Kagomiya, Takayuki

    2013-07-01

    Bone-conducted ultrasound (BCU) is perceived even by the profoundly sensorineural deaf. A novel hearing aid using the perception of amplitude-modulated BCU (BCU hearing aid: BCUHA) has been developed. However, there is room for improvement particularly in terms of sound quality. BCU speech is accompanied by a strong high-pitched tone and contain some distortion. In this study, the sound quality of BCU speech with several types of amplitude modulation [double-sideband with transmitted carrier (DSB-TC), double-sideband with suppressed carrier (DSB-SC), and transposed modulations] and air-conducted (AC) speech was quantitatively evaluated using semantic differential and factor analysis. The results showed that all the types of BCU speech had higher metallic and lower esthetic factor scores than AC speech. On the other hand, transposed speech was closer than the other types of BCU speech to AC speech generally; the transposed speech showed a higher powerfulness factor score than the other types of BCU speech and a higher esthetic factor score than DSB-SC speech. These results provide useful information for further development of the BCUHA.

  12. Proteoglycan and collagen expression during human air conducting system development

    PubMed Central

    Godoy-Guzmán, C.; San Martin, S.; Pereda, J.

    2012-01-01

    The lung is formed from a bud that grows and divides in a dichotomous way. A bud is a new growth center which is determined by epithelial-mesenchymal interactions where proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM) might be involved. To understand this protein participation during human lung development, we examined the expression and distribution of proteoglycans in relation to the different types of collagens during the period in which the air conducting system is installed. Using light microscopy and immunohistochemistry we evaluate the expression of collagens (I, III and VI) and proteoglycans (decorin, biglycan and lumican) between 8 to 10 weeks post fertilization and 11 to 14 weeks of gestational age of human embryo and fetus lungs. We show that decorin, lumican and all the collagen types investigated were expressed at the epithelium-mesenchymal interface, forming a sleeve around the bronchiolar ducts. In addition, biglycan was expressed in both the endothelial cells and the smooth muscle of the blood vessels. Thus, the similar distribution pattern of collagen and proteoglycans in the early developmental stages of the human lung may be closely related to the process of dichotomous division of the bronchial tree. This study provides a new insight concerning the participation of collagens and proteoglycans in the epithelial-mesenchymal interface during the period in which the air conducting system is installed in the human fetal lung. PMID:23027345

  13. Self-demodulation of amplitude-modulated signal components in amplitude-modulated bone-conducted ultrasonic hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Kazuhito; Nakagawa, Seiji

    2015-07-01

    A novel hearing aid system utilizing amplitude-modulated bone-conducted ultrasound (AM-BCU) is being developed for use by profoundly deaf people. However, there is a lack of research on the acoustic aspects of AM-BCU hearing. In this study, acoustic fields in the ear canal under AM-BCU stimulation were examined with respect to the self-demodulation effect of amplitude-modulated signal components generated in the ear canal. We found self-demodulated signals with an audible sound pressure level related to the amplitude-modulated signal components of bone-conducted ultrasonic stimulation. In addition, the increases in the self-demodulated signal levels at low frequencies in the ear canal after occluding the ear canal opening, i.e., the positive occlusion effect, indicate the existence of a pathway by which the self-demodulated signals pass through the aural cartilage and soft tissue, and radiate into the ear canal.

  14. Controlled exploration of the effects of conductive hearing loss on wideband acoustic immittance in human cadaveric preparations.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Gabrielle R; Merchant, Saumil N; Rosowski, John J; Nakajima, Hideko Heidi

    2016-11-01

    Current clinical practice cannot distinguish, with any degree of certainty, the multiple pathologies that produce conductive hearing loss in patients with an intact tympanic membrane and a well-aerated middle ear without exploratory surgery. The lack of an effective non-surgical diagnostic procedure leads to unnecessary surgery and limits the accuracy of information available during pre-surgical consultations with the patient. A non-invasive measurement to determine the pathology responsible for a conductive hearing loss prior to surgery would be of great value. This work investigates the utility of wideband acoustic immittance (WAI), a non-invasive measure of middle-ear mobility, in the differential diagnosis of pathologies responsible for conductive hearing loss. We focus on determining whether power reflectance (PR), a derivative of WAI, is a possible solution to this problem. PR is a measure of the fraction of sound power reflected from the middle ear when a sound stimulus is presented to the ear canal. PR and other metrics of middle-ear performance (such as ossicular motion via laser Doppler vibrometry) were measured in well-controlled human temporal bone preparations with simulated pathologies. We report measurements before and after simulation of stapes fixation (n = 8), malleus fixation (n = 10), ossicular disarticulation (n = 10), and superior canal dehiscence (n = 8). Our results are consistent with the small set of previously published reflectance measurements made in temporal bones and patients. In this present study, these temporal bone experiments with different middle- and inner-ear pathologies were compared to the initial normal state by analyzing both WAI and ossicular motion, demonstrating that WAI can be a valuable tool in the diagnosis of conductive hearing loss.

  15. The Prediction of Speech Recognition in Noise With a Semi-Implantable Bone Conduction Hearing System by External Bone Conduction Stimulation With Headband

    PubMed Central

    Ihler, Friedrich; Blum, Jenny; Berger, Max-Ulrich; Weiss, Bernhard G.; Welz, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Semi-implantable transcutaneous bone conduction devices are treatment options for conductive and mixed hearing loss (CHL/MHL). For counseling of patients, realistic simulation of the functional result is desirable. This study compared speech recognition in noise with a semi-implantable transcutaneous bone conduction device to external stimulation with a bone conduction device fixed by a headband. Eight German-language adult patients were enrolled after a semi-implantable transcutaneous bone conduction device (Bonebridge, Med-El) was implanted and fitted. Patients received a bone conduction device for external stimulation (Baha BP110, Cochlear) fixed by a headband for comparison. The main outcome measure was speech recognition in noise (Oldenburg Sentence Test). Pure-tone audiometry was performed and subjective benefit was assessed using the Glasgow Benefit Inventory and Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit questionnaires. Unaided, patients showed a mean signal-to-noise ratio threshold of 4.6 ± 4.2 dB S/N for speech recognition. The aided results were −3.3 ± 7.2 dB S/N by external bone conduction stimulation and −1.2 ± 4.0 dB S/N by the semi-implantable bone conduction device. The difference between the two devices was not statistically significant, while the difference was significant between unaided and aided situation for both devices. Both questionnaires for subjective benefit favored the semi-implantable device over external stimulation. We conclude that it is possible to simulate the result of speech recognition in noise with a semi-implantable transcutaneous bone conduction device by external stimulation. This should be part of preoperative counseling of patients with CHL/MHL before implantation of a bone conduction device. PMID:27698259

  16. The Prediction of Speech Recognition in Noise With a Semi-Implantable Bone Conduction Hearing System by External Bone Conduction Stimulation With Headband: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Ihler, Friedrich; Blum, Jenny; Berger, Max-Ulrich; Weiss, Bernhard G; Welz, Christian; Canis, Martin

    2016-10-03

    Semi-implantable transcutaneous bone conduction devices are treatment options for conductive and mixed hearing loss (CHL/MHL). For counseling of patients, realistic simulation of the functional result is desirable. This study compared speech recognition in noise with a semi-implantable transcutaneous bone conduction device to external stimulation with a bone conduction device fixed by a headband. Eight German-language adult patients were enrolled after a semi-implantable transcutaneous bone conduction device (Bonebridge, Med-El) was implanted and fitted. Patients received a bone conduction device for external stimulation (Baha BP110, Cochlear) fixed by a headband for comparison. The main outcome measure was speech recognition in noise (Oldenburg Sentence Test). Pure-tone audiometry was performed and subjective benefit was assessed using the Glasgow Benefit Inventory and Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit questionnaires. Unaided, patients showed a mean signal-to-noise ratio threshold of 4.6 ± 4.2 dB S/N for speech recognition. The aided results were -3.3 ± 7.2 dB S/N by external bone conduction stimulation and -1.2 ± 4.0 dB S/N by the semi-implantable bone conduction device. The difference between the two devices was not statistically significant, while the difference was significant between unaided and aided situation for both devices. Both questionnaires for subjective benefit favored the semi-implantable device over external stimulation. We conclude that it is possible to simulate the result of speech recognition in noise with a semi-implantable transcutaneous bone conduction device by external stimulation. This should be part of preoperative counseling of patients with CHL/MHL before implantation of a bone conduction device.

  17. The air Earth conduction current and stratiform cloud edge charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicoll, Keri; Harrison, R. Giles

    2010-05-01

    The air Earth conduction current density, Jc, flows through the fair weather regions of the atmosphere as a result of the atmospheric global electric circuit. In the presence of layer cloud, it has been assumed that the current density flows through the cloud if the cloud is of sufficient horizontal extent, such as a uniform horizon to horizon stratiform cloud. If the current flows through the cloud, electrostatics considerations resulting from the cloud-air conductivity transitions require there to be regions of unipolar charge at the upper and lower boundaries of the cloud. For symmetric upper and lower cloud edges, the charge will also be symmetric. Droplets and aerosol particles in these areas are likely to become charged, and it is known that cloud microphysical processes are sensitive to charge. Because of the radiative importance of clouds and the possibility of widespread small effects of charge on cloud processes, in-situ measurements to evaluate the existence of charge in layer clouds are desirable. A two step approach has been applied to investigate the prevalence of stratiform cloud edge charging in the atmosphere. First, the question of whether Jc flows through layer cloud has been considered by analysing surface measurements of Jc from three UK sites under different cloud conditions. Second, a balloon borne charge sensor has been specially developed to obtain high vertical resolution in-situ measurements of charge inside stratiform cloud. The sensor has frequently detected regions of charge near cloud edges, where net charges of several hundred pC m-3 are common.

  18. 21 CFR 14.29 - Conduct of a hearing before an advisory committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... participation does not last that long, and may last for whatever longer time the committee chairman determines... designate the time specifically reserved for the hearing, which is ordinarily the first portion of the... the approximate time desired. Whenever possible, all written information to be discussed by...

  19. A Three-Dimensional Finite-Element Model of a Human Dry Skull for Bone-Conduction Hearing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite-element (FE) model of a human dry skull was devised for simulation of human bone-conduction (BC) hearing. Although a dry skull is a simplification of the real complex human skull, such model is valuable for understanding basic BC hearing processes. For validation of the model, the mechanical point impedance of the skull as well as the acceleration of the ipsilateral and contralateral cochlear bone was computed and compared to experimental results. Simulation results showed reasonable consistency between the mechanical point impedance and the experimental measurements when Young's modulus for skull and polyurethane was set to be 7.3 GPa and 1 MPa with 0.01 and 0.1 loss factors at 1 kHz, respectively. Moreover, the acceleration in the medial-lateral direction showed the best correspondence with the published experimental data, whereas the acceleration in the inferior-superior direction showed the largest discrepancy. However, the results were reasonable considering that different geometries were used for the 3D FE skull and the skull used in the published experimental study. The dry skull model is a first step for understanding BC hearing mechanism in a human head and simulation results can be used to predict vibration pattern of the bone surrounding the middle and inner ear during BC stimulation. PMID:25243148

  20. A three-dimensional finite-element model of a human dry skull for bone-conduction hearing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Namkeun; Chang, You; Stenfelt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite-element (FE) model of a human dry skull was devised for simulation of human bone-conduction (BC) hearing. Although a dry skull is a simplification of the real complex human skull, such model is valuable for understanding basic BC hearing processes. For validation of the model, the mechanical point impedance of the skull as well as the acceleration of the ipsilateral and contralateral cochlear bone was computed and compared to experimental results. Simulation results showed reasonable consistency between the mechanical point impedance and the experimental measurements when Young's modulus for skull and polyurethane was set to be 7.3 GPa and 1 MPa with 0.01 and 0.1 loss factors at 1 kHz, respectively. Moreover, the acceleration in the medial-lateral direction showed the best correspondence with the published experimental data, whereas the acceleration in the inferior-superior direction showed the largest discrepancy. However, the results were reasonable considering that different geometries were used for the 3D FE skull and the skull used in the published experimental study. The dry skull model is a first step for understanding BC hearing mechanism in a human head and simulation results can be used to predict vibration pattern of the bone surrounding the middle and inner ear during BC stimulation.

  1. [Hearing loss by continuous exposure to high sound pressure among maintenance workers at a Brazilian Air Force helicopters unity].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana Maria Dutra; Câmara, Volney de M

    2006-06-01

    Continuous exposure to high sound pressure in aeronautical workers can be associated with inner ear hearing loss. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of deafness among all maintenance workers from a Brazilian Air Force helicopter unit. The methods included the application of individual questionnaires and audiometric tests. The results showed a high prevalence (32.4%) of hearing loss related to time on the job (p < 0.05; RP = 2.11; 95%CI: 1.03-4.32) and the 41-50-year age bracket (p = 0.00; RP < 3.94; 95%CI: 2.04-7.62). No influence was found from selected variables that might result in bias. Finally, a program to prevent hearing loss was recommended.

  2. Conductive Hearing Loss Has Long-Lasting Structural and Molecular Effects on Presynaptic and Postsynaptic Structures of Auditory Nerve Synapses in the Cochlear Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Clarkson, Cheryl; Antunes, Flora M.

    2016-01-01

    Sound deprivation by conductive hearing loss increases hearing thresholds, but little is known about the response of the auditory brainstem during and after conductive hearing loss. Here, we show in young adult rats that 10 d of monaural conductive hearing loss (i.e., earplugging) leads to hearing deficits that persist after sound levels are restored. Hearing thresholds in response to clicks and frequencies higher than 8 kHz remain increased after a 10 d recovery period. Neural output from the cochlear nucleus measured at 10 dB above threshold is reduced and followed by an overcompensation at the level of the lateral lemniscus. We assessed whether structural and molecular substrates at auditory nerve (endbulb of Held) synapses in the cochlear nucleus could explain these long-lasting changes in hearing processing. During earplugging, vGluT1 expression in the presynaptic terminal decreased and synaptic vesicles were smaller. Together, there was an increase in postsynaptic density (PSD) thickness and an upregulation of GluA3 AMPA receptor subunits on bushy cells. After earplug removal and a 10 d recovery period, the density of synaptic vesicles increased, vesicles were also larger, and the PSD of endbulb synapses was larger and thicker. The upregulation of the GluA3 AMPAR subunit observed during earplugging was maintained after the recovery period. This suggests that GluA3 plays a role in plasticity in the cochlear nucleus. Our study demonstrates that sound deprivation has long-lasting alterations on structural and molecular presynaptic and postsynaptic components at the level of the first auditory nerve synapse in the auditory brainstem. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Despite being the second most prevalent form of hearing loss, conductive hearing loss and its effects on central synapses have received relatively little attention. Here, we show that 10 d of monaural conductive hearing loss leads to an increase in hearing thresholds, to an increased central gain upstream of

  3. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP): Halogenated Solvent Cleaning - 1993 Proposed Rule and Test Method & Notice of Public Hearing (58 FR 62566)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is a copy of the Federal Register publication of the November 29, 1993 Proposed Rule and Test Method & Notice of Public Hearing for the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP): Halogenated Solvent Cleaning.

  4. Public Hearing & Comment Period Document(s) for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    List of public hearing & comment period document(s) for the Cape Wind Associates, LLC, Horseshoe Shoal, Nantucket Sound (Offshore Renewable Energy Project/OCS Air Permit: Massachusetts Plan Approval including nonattainment NSR Appendix A requirements).

  5. Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students' Through-the-Air English Skills: A Review of Formal Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Jessica G.; Gardner, Ralph, III; Rizzi, Gleides Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Strong correlations exist between signed and/or spoken English and the literacy skills of deaf and hard of hearing students. Assessments that are both valid and reliable are key for researchers and practitioners investigating the signed and/or spoken English skills of signing populations. The authors conducted a literature review to explore which…

  6. The Okinawa study: an estimation of noise-induced hearing loss on the basis of the records of aircraft noise exposure around Kadena Air Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiramatsu, K.; Matsui, T.; Ito, A.; Miyakita, T.; Osada, Y.; Yamamoto, T.

    2004-10-01

    Aircraft noise measurements were recorded at the residential areas in the vicinity of Kadena Air Base, Okinawa in 1968 and 1972 at the time of the Vietnam war. The estimated equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level LAeq for 24 h was 85 dB.The time history of sound level during 24 h was estimated from the measurement conducted in 1968, and the sound level was converted into the spectrum level at the centre frequency of the critical band of temporary threshold shift (TTS) using the results of spectrum analysis of aircraft noise operated at the airfield. With the information of spectrum level and its time history, TTS was calculated as a function of time and level change. The permanent threshold shift was also calculated by means of Robinson's method and ISO's method. The results indicate the noise exposure around Kadena Air Base was hazardous to hearing and is likely to have caused hearing loss to people living in its vicinity.

  7. A Conductivity Device for Measuring Sulfur Dioxide in the Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, James C.

    1972-01-01

    Described is a general electroconductivity device enabling students to determine sulfur dioxide concentration in a particular location, hopefully leading to a deeper understanding of the problem of air pollution. (DF)

  8. U.S. Air Force Hearing Conservation Program, Baseline Audiogram Errors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Influence on HCP Reporting .................................. 1 4.0 CONCLUSION...Service, Hearing Conservation Program ( HCP ) section uses the Defense Occupational and Environmental Health Readiness System Hearing Conservation/Data...Influence on HCP Reporting The data used to monitor the USAF HCP should primarily come from the DOEHRS-DR, as it is the system of record for

  9. Thermal separation of soil particles from thermal conductivity measurement under various air pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Sen; Ren, Tusheng; Lu, Yili; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jinsong

    2017-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of dry soils is related closely to air pressure and the contact areas between solid particles. In this study, the thermal conductivity of two-phase soil systems was determined under reduced and increased air pressures. The thermal separation of soil particles, i.e., the characteristic dimension of the pore space (d), was then estimated based on the relationship between soil thermal conductivity and air pressure. Results showed that under both reduced and increased air pressures, d estimations were significantly larger than the geometrical mean separation of solid particles (D), which suggested that conductive heat transfer through solid particles dominated heat transfer in dry soils. The increased air pressure approach gave d values lower than that of the reduced air pressure method. With increasing air pressure, more collisions between gas molecules and solid surface occurred in micro-pores and intra-aggregate pores due to the reduction of mean free path of air molecules. Compared to the reduced air pressure approach, the increased air pressure approach expressed more micro-pore structure attributes in heat transfer. We concluded that measuring thermal conductivity under increased air pressure procedures gave better-quality d values, and improved soil micro-pore structure estimation.

  10. Thermal separation of soil particles from thermal conductivity measurement under various air pressures.

    PubMed

    Lu, Sen; Ren, Tusheng; Lu, Yili; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jinsong

    2017-01-05

    The thermal conductivity of dry soils is related closely to air pressure and the contact areas between solid particles. In this study, the thermal conductivity of two-phase soil systems was determined under reduced and increased air pressures. The thermal separation of soil particles, i.e., the characteristic dimension of the pore space (d), was then estimated based on the relationship between soil thermal conductivity and air pressure. Results showed that under both reduced and increased air pressures, d estimations were significantly larger than the geometrical mean separation of solid particles (D), which suggested that conductive heat transfer through solid particles dominated heat transfer in dry soils. The increased air pressure approach gave d values lower than that of the reduced air pressure method. With increasing air pressure, more collisions between gas molecules and solid surface occurred in micro-pores and intra-aggregate pores due to the reduction of mean free path of air molecules. Compared to the reduced air pressure approach, the increased air pressure approach expressed more micro-pore structure attributes in heat transfer. We concluded that measuring thermal conductivity under increased air pressure procedures gave better-quality d values, and improved soil micro-pore structure estimation.

  11. Thermal separation of soil particles from thermal conductivity measurement under various air pressures

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Sen; Ren, Tusheng; Lu, Yili; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jinsong

    2017-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of dry soils is related closely to air pressure and the contact areas between solid particles. In this study, the thermal conductivity of two-phase soil systems was determined under reduced and increased air pressures. The thermal separation of soil particles, i.e., the characteristic dimension of the pore space (d), was then estimated based on the relationship between soil thermal conductivity and air pressure. Results showed that under both reduced and increased air pressures, d estimations were significantly larger than the geometrical mean separation of solid particles (D), which suggested that conductive heat transfer through solid particles dominated heat transfer in dry soils. The increased air pressure approach gave d values lower than that of the reduced air pressure method. With increasing air pressure, more collisions between gas molecules and solid surface occurred in micro-pores and intra-aggregate pores due to the reduction of mean free path of air molecules. Compared to the reduced air pressure approach, the increased air pressure approach expressed more micro-pore structure attributes in heat transfer. We concluded that measuring thermal conductivity under increased air pressure procedures gave better-quality d values, and improved soil micro-pore structure estimation. PMID:28054663

  12. Ground level measurements of air conductivities under Florida thunderstorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Richard J.; Krider, E. P.

    1992-01-01

    Values of the positive and negative polar conductivities under summer thunderstorms in Florida are highly variable and exhibit a significant electrode effect, but the total conductivity usually remains close to values found in fair weather, 0.4 to 1.8 x 10 exp -14 S/m. With these values a method proposed by Krider and Musser (1982) for estimating the total conductivity from changes in the slope of the electric field recovery following a lightning discharge will be extremely sensitive to small time variations in the local Maxwell current density and must be modified to include these effects.

  13. Fish Hearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaxter, J. H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides related information about hearing in fish, including the sensory stimulus of sound in the underwater environment, mechanoreceptors in fish, pressure perception and the swimbladder, specializations in sound conduction peculiar to certain fish families. Includes numerous figures. (CS)

  14. Understanding an Audiogram. Tipsheet: Serving Students Who Are Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marni

    2009-01-01

    The type, degree, and configuration of hearing loss, if one is present, can be determined by reading an audiogram. The type of hearing loss is determined by comparing auditory thresholds obtained using head-phones or insert earphones (air-conduction thresholds) to those obtained using a bone oscillator (bone-conduction thresholds). By itself, the…

  15. 78 FR 16630 - Clean Air Act Grant: South Coast Air Quality Management District; Opportunity for Pubic Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 35 Clean Air Act Grant: South Coast Air Quality Management District; Opportunity for... Quality Management District (SCAQMD) in support of its continuing air program under section 105 of the... expenditures in the programs of the South Coast Air Quality Management District. The shortfall stems from...

  16. Proposed Expansion of German Air Force Operations at Holloman AFB, New Mexico, Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2: Public Hearing Transcripts and Responses to Comments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    1998 InMMCD 4 ’ U I TABLE OF CONTENTS I 3 * PREFACE 1.0 ALPINE, TEXAS PUBLIC HEARING 1 2.0 DELL CITY, TEXAS PUBLIC HEARING 3.0 TRUTH OR CONSEQUENCES, NEW ...located in southern New Mexico, for air-to-ground training. The target complex would be comprised of a 2-by- 4 -square-mile impact area within a 12-by-15...August 4 . The document analyzes the potential environmental impacts of establishing a German Air Force Replacement Training Unit (RTU) at Holloman AFB, New

  17. Evaluation of Monitoring Audiometry in the United States Air Force Hearing Conservation Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    the True Positive on the y-axis (MacMillian and Creelman , 1991). Issues to consider include the cost of the 40 hour noise-free audiogram vs. the benefit... Creelman , C.D. (1991). Detection theory: a user’s guide. New York: Capbridge University Press. Melnick, W. (1979). Hearing loss from noise exposure. In

  18. Managing Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... a total loss of hearing. It can be hereditary or it can result from disease, trauma, certain ... build-up, fluid, or a punctured eardrum. Medical treatment or surgery can usually restore conductive hearing loss. ...

  19. Armillaria luteobubalina mycelium develops air pores that conduct oxygen to rhizomorph clusters.

    PubMed

    Pareek, Mamta; Allaway, William G; Ashford, Anne E

    2006-01-01

    Armillaria luteobubalina produces air pores in culture. They consist of two parts: a basal region of tissue elevated to form a mound covered with a rind continuous with that of the colony, but perforated; and an apical region of long parallel hyphae, cemented together by scattered patches of extracellular material. This forms a hydrophobic structure that is elevated above the general level of the mycelial crust and does not easily become waterlogged. Air pores develop near the inoculum plug shortly after inoculation, arising directly from the mycelium, and rhizomorphs are initiated from them. The air pore contains a complex system of gas space connecting the atmosphere with the central canal of each rhizomorph. The tissue beneath the melanised colony crust also contains gas space, especially near air pores. This is also connected with the gas space of each rhizomorph and of each air pore. Measurements with oxygen electrodes show that air pores and their associated rhizomorphs conduct oxygen. The average oxygen conductance of a group of air pores with associated rhizomorphs, within agar blocks, but with rhizomorph apices cut off, was about 700 x 10(-12) m3s(-1), equivalent to about 200 x 10(-12) m3s(-1) for each air-pore. We conclude that the air pores conduct oxygen into the gas space below the pigmented mycelium of the colony, where the rhizomorphs - which also conduct oxygen - originate. A. luteobubalina thus has a complex aerating system which allows efficient diffusion of oxygen into rhizomorphs, and this is likely to facilitate extension of inoculum into low-oxygen environments.

  20. Field air permeability and hydraulic conductivity of landfilled municipal solid waste in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huayong; Chen, Tan; Wang, Hongtao; Lu, Wenjing

    2012-05-15

    The successful design and operation of in situ treatment systems using air and water additions for sustainable landfilling are constrained by a lack of knowledge of the key parameters, such as field air permeability and hydraulic conductivity of landfilled municipal solid waste (MSW). This work provides data on the field air permeability k(a) and hydraulic conductivity K(w) of MSW obtained by conducting short-term air and water injection tests at a landfill in Beijing, China. The k(a) and K(w) values are found to in the range of 1.2 × 10(-13)-1.9 × 10(-12) m(2) and 5.9 × 10(-7)-7.2 × 10(-6) m s(-1), respectively. Both k(a) and K(w) decreased significantly with landfill depth due to the increase in overburden pressure and the finer particles of the waste in deeper layers, leading to a lower porosity of waste. The higher moisture saturation in the deeper layers also contributed to the decrease in k(a). To compare the permeability with respect to air and water, the water permeability k(w) was calculated based on the estimated K(w) and was found to be approximately three orders of magnitude smaller than the corresponding k(a) for waste at the same layer. The differences in k(w) and k(a) may be due to the relative air permeability, the potential short-circuiting of air and active production of biogas, which undermine the relationship between k(w) and k(a). Therefore, to successfully design and operate air and water addition systems in a landfill, in situ measurements of the air permeability and hydraulic conductivity are essential.

  1. Hearing Levels of Noise-Exposed U.S. Air Force Personnel Compared to Those in the Total U. S. Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    the U.S. Public Health Service and the U.S. Air K • J Force use TDH -39 earphones with MX-41/AR cushions. In Table 4, the distribution of hearing...Association, 1951. 6. Cox, J. R., Jr., and R. C. Bilger. Suggestion relative to the standardi- zation of loudness-balance data for the telephonics TDH

  2. Ectopic Mineralization and Conductive Hearing Loss in Enpp1asj Mutant Mice, a New Model for Otitis Media and Tympanosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Cong; Harris, Belinda S.; Johnson, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    Otitis media (OM), inflammation of the middle ear, is a common cause of hearing loss in children and in patients with many different syndromic diseases. Studies of the human population and mouse models have revealed that OM is a multifactorial disease with many environmental and genetic contributing factors. Here, we report on otitis media-related hearing loss in asj (ages with stiffened joints) mutant mice, which bear a point mutation in the Enpp1 gene. Auditory-evoked brainstem response (ABR) measurements revealed that around 90% of the mutant mice (Enpp1asj/asj) tested had moderate to severe hearing impairment in at least one ear. The ABR thresholds were variable and generally elevated with age. We found otitis media with effusion (OME) in all of the hearing-impaired Enpp1asj/asj mice by anatomic and histological examinations. The volume and inflammatory cell content of the effusion varied among the asj mutant mice, but all mutants exhibited a thickened middle ear epithelium with fibrous polyps and more mucin-secreting goblet cells than controls. Other abnormalities observed in the Enpp1 mutant mice include over-ossification at the round window ridge, thickened and over-calcified stapedial artery, fusion of malleus and incus, and white patches on the inside of tympanic membrane, some of which are typical symptoms of tympanosclerosis. An excessive yellow discharge was detected in the outer ear canal of older asj mutant mice, with 100% penetrance by 5 months of age, and contributes to the progressive nature of the hearing loss. This is the first report of hearing loss and ear pathology associated with an Enpp1 mutation in mice. The Enpp1asj mutant mouse provides a new animal model for studying tympanosclerotic otitis and otitis media with effusion, and also provides a specific model for the hearing loss recently reported to be associated with human ENPP1 mutations causing generalized arterial calcification of infancy and hypophosphatemic rickets. PMID:27959908

  3. Experimental Analysis of the Mechanism of Hearing under Water

    PubMed Central

    Chordekar, Shai; Kishon-Rabin, Liat; Kriksunov, Leonid; Adelman, Cahtia; Sohmer, Haim

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of human hearing under water is debated. Some suggest it is by air conduction (AC), others by bone conduction (BC), and others by a combination of AC and BC. A clinical bone vibrator applied to soft tissue sites on the head, neck, and thorax also elicits hearing by a mechanism called soft tissue conduction (STC) or nonosseous BC. The present study was designed to test whether underwater hearing at low intensities is by AC or by osseous BC based on bone vibrations or by nonosseous BC (STC). Thresholds of normal hearing participants to bone vibrator stimulation with their forehead in air were recorded and again when forehead and bone vibrator were under water. A vibrometer detected vibrations of a dry human skull in all similar conditions (in air and under water) but not when water was the intermediary between the sound source and the skull forehead. Therefore, the intensities required to induce vibrations of the dry skull in water were significantly higher than the underwater hearing thresholds of the participants, under conditions when hearing by AC and osseous BC is not likely. The results support the hypothesis that hearing under water at low sound intensities may be attributed to nonosseous BC (STC). PMID:26770975

  4. Deafness and Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This brief overview provides information on the definition, incidence, and characteristics of children with hearing impairments and deafness. The federal definitions of hearing impairment and deafness are provided. The different types of hearing loss are noted, including: (1) conductive (caused by diseases or obstructions in the outer or middle…

  5. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Hearing Aids On this page: What is a hearing aid? ... the ear through a speaker. How can hearing aids help? Hearing aids are primarily useful in improving ...

  6. 40 CFR 60.2706 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2706 Section 60.2706 Protection of Environment... Requirements § 60.2706 By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection must be conducted within 60 days after installation of...

  7. 40 CFR 60.4895 - By what date must I conduct annual air pollution control device inspections and make any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Compliance Requirements § 60.4895 By what date must I conduct annual air pollution control device inspections and make any necessary repairs? (a) You must conduct an annual inspection of each air pollution... following the previous annual air pollution control device inspection. (b) Within 10 operating...

  8. 40 CFR 60.4895 - By what date must I conduct annual air pollution control device inspections and make any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Compliance Requirements § 60.4895 By what date must I conduct annual air pollution control device inspections and make any necessary repairs? (a) You must conduct an annual inspection of each air pollution... following the previous annual air pollution control device inspection. (b) Within 10 operating...

  9. 40 CFR 60.4895 - By what date must I conduct annual air pollution control device inspections and make any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Compliance Requirements § 60.4895 By what date must I conduct annual air pollution control device inspections and make any necessary repairs? (a) You must conduct an annual inspection of each air pollution... following the previous annual air pollution control device inspection. (b) Within 10 operating...

  10. 40 CFR 60.2141 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2141 Section 60.2141 Protection of Environment... Compliance Requirements § 60.2141 By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection must be conducted within 60 days...

  11. 40 CFR 60.2141 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2141 Section 60.2141 Protection of Environment... Compliance Requirements § 60.2141 By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection must be conducted within 60 days...

  12. 40 CFR 60.4895 - By what date must I conduct annual air pollution control device inspections and make any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Compliance Requirements § 60.4895 By what date must I conduct annual air pollution control device inspections and make any necessary repairs? (a) You must conduct an annual inspection of each air pollution... following the previous annual air pollution control device inspection. (b) Within 10 operating...

  13. High-resolution saturated hydraulic conductivity logging of borehole cores using air permeability measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogiers, B.; Winters, P.; Huysmans, M.; Beerten, K.; Mallants, D.; Gedeon, M.; Batelaan, O.; Dassargues, A.

    2014-09-01

    Saturated hydraulic conductivity ( K s) is one of the most important parameters determining groundwater flow and contaminant transport in both unsaturated and saturated porous media. The hand-held air permeameter technique was investigated for high-resolution hydraulic conductivity determination on borehole cores using a spatial resolution of ˜0.05 m. The suitability of such air permeameter measurements on friable to poorly indurated sediments was tested to improve the spatial prediction of classical laboratory-based K s measurements obtained at a much lower spatial resolution (˜2 m). In total, 368 K s measurements were made on ˜350 m of borehole cores originating from the Campine basin, northern Belgium, while ˜5,230 air permeability measurements were performed on the same cores, resulting in a K s range of seven orders of magnitude. Cross-validation demonstrated that, using air permeameter data as the secondary variable for laboratory based K s measurements, the performance increased from R 2 = 0.35 for ordinary kriging (laboratory K s only) to R 2 = 0.61 for co-kriging. The separate treatment of horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity revealed considerable anisotropy in certain lithostratigraphical units, while others were clearly isotropic at the sample scale. Air permeameter measurements on borehole cores provide a cost-effective way to improve spatial predictions of traditional laboratory based K s.

  14. Hybrid Air Quality Modeling Approach for use in the Hear-road Exposures to Urban air pollutant Study(NEXUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents a hybrid air quality modeling approach and its application in NEXUS in order to provide spatial and temporally varying exposure estimates and identification of the mobile source contribution to the total pollutant exposure. Model-based exposure metrics, associa...

  15. Responses of atmospheric electric field and air-earth current to variations of conductivity profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, M.; Ogawa, T.

    1984-05-01

    A global circuit model is constructed to study responses of air-earth current and electric field to a variation of atmospheric electrical conductivity profile. The model includes the orography and the global distribution of thunderstorm generators. The conductivity varies with latitude and exponentially with altitude. The thunderstorm cloud is assumed to be a current generator with a positive source at the top and a negative one at the bottom. The UT diurnal variations of the global current and the ionospheric potential are evaluated considering the local-time dependence of thunderstorm activity. The global distribution of the electric field and the air-earth current are affected by the orography and latitudinal effects. Assuming a variation of conductivity profile, responses of atmospheric electrical parameters are investigated. The nonuniform decrement of the conductivity with altitude increases both the electric field and the air-earth current. The result suggests a possibility that the increment of the electric field and the air-earth current after a solar flare may be caused by this scheme, due to Forbush decrease.

  16. 42 CFR 423.1040 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Joint hearings. 423.1040 Section 423.1040 Public... § 423.1040 Joint hearings. When two or more affected parties have requested hearings and the same or... the prehearing conference or hearing and conduct all proceedings jointly. If joint hearings are...

  17. 42 CFR 422.1040 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Joint hearings. 422.1040 Section 422.1040 Public....1040 Joint hearings. When two or more affected parties have requested hearings and the same or... the prehearing conference or hearing and conduct all proceedings jointly. If joint hearings are...

  18. 42 CFR 422.1040 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Joint hearings. 422.1040 Section 422.1040 Public....1040 Joint hearings. When two or more affected parties have requested hearings and the same or... the prehearing conference or hearing and conduct all proceedings jointly. If joint hearings are...

  19. 42 CFR 423.1040 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Joint hearings. 423.1040 Section 423.1040 Public... § 423.1040 Joint hearings. When two or more affected parties have requested hearings and the same or... the prehearing conference or hearing and conduct all proceedings jointly. If joint hearings are...

  20. 42 CFR 422.1040 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Joint hearings. 422.1040 Section 422.1040 Public....1040 Joint hearings. When two or more affected parties have requested hearings and the same or... the prehearing conference or hearing and conduct all proceedings jointly. If joint hearings are...

  1. Smartphone-based hearing test as an aid in the initial evaluation of unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Handzel, Ophir; Ben-Ari, Oded; Damian, Doris; Priel, Maayan M; Cohen, Jacob; Himmelfarb, Mordechai

    2013-01-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) can cause significant morbidity. Treatment with steroids can improve outcome. Delay in initiation of treatment reduces the chance to regain hearing. For this reason SSNHL is considered an emergency. Diagnosis is based on history, physical examination and a standard audiogram, the latter requiring specialized equipment and personnel. Standard audiogram may not be available at the time and place of patient presentation. A smartphone or tablet computer-based hearing test may aid in the decision to prescribe steroids in this setting. In this study the uHear™ hearing test application was utilized. The output of this ear-level air conduction hearing test is reported in hearing grades for 6 frequencies ranging from 250 to 6000 Hz. A total of 32 patients with unilateral SSNHL proven by a standard audiogram were tested. The results of standard and iPod hearing tests were compared. Based on the accepted criterion of SSNHL (at least 30 dB loss - or 2 hearing grades - in 3 consecutive frequencies) the test had a sensitivity of 0.76 and specificity of 0.91. Using a less stringent criterion of a loss of 2 hearing grades over at least 2 frequencies the sensitivity was 0.96 and specificity 0.86. The correlation coefficient for the comparison of the average hearing grade across the 6 measured frequencies of the study and standard audiogram was 0.83. uHear more accurately reflected hearing thresholds at mid and high tones. Similarly to previously published data, low frequency thresholds could be artificially elevated. In conclusion, uHear can be useful in the initial evaluation of patients with single-sided SSNHL by providing important information guiding the decision to initiate treatment before a standard audiogram is available.

  2. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hearing Aids KidsHealth > For Teens > Hearing Aids Print A A ... with certain types of hearing loss. How Hearing Aids Help So you went to audiologist and found ...

  3. Performance and cycle life of carbon- and conductive-based air electrodes for rechargeable Zn-air battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chellapandi Velraj, Samgopiraj

    The development of high-performance, cyclically stable bifunctional air electrodes are critical to the commercial deployment of rechargeable Zn-air batteries. The carbon material predominantly used as support material in the air electrodes due to its higher surface area and good electrical conductivity suffers from corrosion at high oxygen evolution overpotentials. This study addresses the carbon corrosion issues and suggests alternate materials to replace the carbon as support in the air electrode. In this study, Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO3-delta with good electrochemical performance and cyclic lifetime was identified as an alternative catalyst material to the commonly used La0.4Ca 0.6CoO3 catalyst for the carbon-based bifunctional electrodes. Also, a comprehensive study on the effects of catalyst morphology, testing conditions on the cycle life as well as the relevant degradation mechanism for the carbon-based electrode was conducted in this dissertation. The cyclic life of the carbon-based electrodes was strongly dependent on the carbon support material, while the degradation mechanisms were entirely controlled by the catalyst particle size/morphology. Some testing conditions like resting time and electrolyte concentration did not change the cyclic life or degradation mechanism of the carbon-based electrode. The current density used for cyclic testing was found to dictate the degradation mechanism leading to the electrode failure. An alternate way to circumvent the carbon corrosion is to replace the carbon support with a suitable electrically-conductive ceramic material. In this dissertation, LaNi0.9Mn0.1O3, LaNi 0.8Co0.2O3, and NiCo2O4 were synthesized and evaluated as prospective support materials due to their good electrical conductivity and their ability to act as the catalyst needed for the bifunctional electrode. The carbon-free electrodes had remarkably higher catalytic activity for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) when compared to the carbon-based electrode. However

  4. 40 CFR 60.5215 - By what date must I conduct annual air pollution control device inspections and make any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspections and make any necessary repairs? (a) You must conduct an annual inspection of each air pollution control device used to comply with the emission limits, according to § 60.5220(c), no later than 12 months following the previous annual air pollution control...

  5. 40 CFR 60.2151 - By what date must I conduct the annual air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2151 Section 60.2151 Protection of Environment... Compliance Requirements § 60.2151 By what date must I conduct the annual air pollution control device inspection? On an annual basis (no more than 12 months following the previous annual air pollution...

  6. 40 CFR 60.5215 - By what date must I conduct annual air pollution control device inspections and make any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspections and make any necessary repairs? (a) You must conduct an annual inspection of each air pollution control device used to comply with the emission limits, according to § 60.5220(c), no later than 12 months following the previous annual air pollution control...

  7. 40 CFR 60.2151 - By what date must I conduct the annual air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2151 Section 60.2151 Protection of Environment... Compliance Requirements § 60.2151 By what date must I conduct the annual air pollution control device inspection? On an annual basis (no more than 12 months following the previous annual air pollution...

  8. 40 CFR 60.5215 - By what date must I conduct annual air pollution control device inspections and make any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspections and make any necessary repairs? (a) You must conduct an annual inspection of each air pollution control device used to comply with the emission limits, according to § 60.5220(c), no later than 12 months following the previous annual air pollution control...

  9. 40 CFR 60.2716 - By what date must I conduct the annual air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2716 Section 60.2716 Protection of Environment... Requirements § 60.2716 By what date must I conduct the annual air pollution control device inspection? On an annual basis (no more than 12 months following the previous annual air pollution control...

  10. 40 CFR 60.5215 - By what date must I conduct annual air pollution control device inspections and make any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspections and make any necessary repairs? (a) You must conduct an annual inspection of each air pollution control device used to comply with the emission limits, according to § 60.5220(c), no later than 12 months following the previous annual air pollution control...

  11. Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials to air conduction (AC oVEMP): useful in clinical practice?

    PubMed

    Walther, L E; Rogowski, M; Hörmann, K; Schaaf, H; Löhler, J

    2011-01-01

    Cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) and ocular VEMP (oVEMP) stimuli can be used to measure otolith function using air (AC) and bone conducted (BC) stimuli. Cervical VEMPs reflect saccular function and can be recorded using air conduction (AC), whereas oVEMPs reflect probably predominantly utricular function. Air- and bone-conducted vibration can be used, because AC oVEMP methodology seems to be fast and simple in clinical practice to measure otolith function. In this study we discuss the advantages and problems of AC oVEMP stimulation. AC oVEMP can be easily and quickly obtained within a few seconds. N10 (first negative peak) and p15 (first positive peak) latencies may be used as parameters for clinical interpretation but amplitude fluctuations are relatively large. For daily clinical use of VEMP visualization in a normogram seems feasible. Especially the AC oVEMP methodology (100 dB nHL, tone burst 500 Hz) is fast and efficient in clinical practice to measure otolith function, predominantly utricular function.

  12. A study of hear sink performance in air and soil for use in a thermoelectric energy harvesting device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, J.; Lawrence, E. E.

    2002-01-01

    A suggested application of a thermoelectric generator is to exploit the natural temperature difference between the air and the soil to generate small amounts of electrical energy. Since the conversion efficiency of even the best thermoelectric generators available is very low, the performance of the heat sinks providing the heat flow is critical. By providing a constant heat input to various heat sinks, field tests of their thermal conductances in soil and in air were performed. Aprototype device without a thermoelectric generator was constructed, buried, and monitored to experimentally measure the heat flow achievable in such a system. Theoretical considerations for design and selection of improved heat sinks are also presented. In particular, the method of shape factoranalysis is used to give rough estimates and upper bounds for the thermal conductance of a passive heat sink buried in soil.

  13. NanoCapillary Network Proton Conducting Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen/Air Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pintauro, Peter

    2012-07-09

    The objective of this proposal is to fabricate and characterize a new class of NanoCapillary Network (NCN) proton conducting membranes for hydrogen/air fuel cells that operate under high temperature, low humidity conditions. The membranes will be intelligently designed, where a high density interconnecting 3-D network of nm-diameter electrospun proton conducting polymer fibers is embedded in an inert (uncharged) water/gas impermeable polymer matrix. The high density of fibers in the resulting mat and the high ion-exchange capacity of the fiber polymer will ensure high proton conductivity. To further enhance water retention, molecular silica will be added to the sulfonated polymer fibers. The uncharged matrix material will control water swelling of the high ion-exchange capacity proton conducting polymer fibers and will impart toughness to the final nanocapillary composite membrane. Thus, unlike other fuel cell membranes, the role of the polymer support matrix will be decoupled from that of the proton-conducting channels. The expected final outcome of this 5-year project is the fabrication of fuel cell membranes with properties that exceed the DOE’s technical targets, in particular a proton conductivity of 0.1 S/cm at a temperature less than or equal to120°C and 25-50% relative humidity.

  14. Auditory function and hearing loss in children and adults with Williams syndrome: cochlear impairment in individuals with otherwise normal hearing.

    PubMed

    Marler, Jeffrey A; Sitcovsky, Jessica L; Mervis, Carolyn B; Kistler, Doris J; Wightman, Frederic L

    2010-05-15

    Hearing loss is common in school-age individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) and extensive in adults. Prior studies with relatively small sample sizes suggest that hearing loss in WS has an early onset and may be progressive, yet the auditory phenotype and the scope of the hearing loss have not been adequately characterized. We used standard audiometric tools: Otoscopy, tympanometry, air-conduction (bone conduction when available) behavioral testing, and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) to measure hearing sensitivity and outer hair cell function. We tested 81 individuals with WS aged 5.33-59.50 years. Sixty-three percent of the school-age and 92% of the adult participants had mild to moderately-severe hearing loss. The hearing loss in at least 50% was sensorineural. DPOAE testing corroborated behavioral results. Strikingly, 12 of 14 participants with hearing within normal limits bilaterally had 4,000-Hz DPOAE input/output (DPOAE IO) functions indicative of outer hair cell damage and impaired cochlear compression. Our results indicate that hearing loss is very common in WS. Furthermore, individuals with WS who have "normal" hearing as defined by behavioral thresholds may actually have sub-clinical impairments or undetected cochlear pathology. Our findings suggest outer hair cell dysfunction in otherwise normal hearing individuals. The DPOAE IO in this same group revealed growth functions typically seen in groups with noise-induced damage. Given this pattern of findings, individuals with WS may be at increased risk of noise-induced hearing loss. Recommendations regarding audiological testing for individuals with WS and accommodations for these individuals in both academic and nonacademic settings are provided.

  15. An Alternative to Impedance Screening: Unoccluded Frontal Bone Conduction Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Square, Regina; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A bone conduction hearing screening test using frontal bone oscillator placement was compared with pure-tone air-conduction screening and impedance audiometry with 114 preschoolers. Unoccluded frontal bone conduction testing produced screening results not significantly different from results obtained by impedance audiometry. (CL)!

  16. 20 CFR 416.1415 - Disability hearing-disability hearing officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disability hearing-disability hearing... Reopening of Determinations and Decisions Reconsideration § 416.1415 Disability hearing—disability hearing officers. (a) General. Your disability hearing will be conducted by a disability hearing officer who...

  17. 20 CFR 416.1415 - Disability hearing-disability hearing officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disability hearing-disability hearing... Reopening of Determinations and Decisions Reconsideration § 416.1415 Disability hearing—disability hearing officers. (a) General. Your disability hearing will be conducted by a disability hearing officer who...

  18. 20 CFR 416.1415 - Disability hearing-disability hearing officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disability hearing-disability hearing... Reopening of Determinations and Decisions Reconsideration § 416.1415 Disability hearing—disability hearing officers. (a) General. Your disability hearing will be conducted by a disability hearing officer who...

  19. 20 CFR 416.1415 - Disability hearing-disability hearing officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disability hearing-disability hearing... Reopening of Determinations and Decisions Reconsideration § 416.1415 Disability hearing—disability hearing officers. (a) General. Your disability hearing will be conducted by a disability hearing officer who...

  20. 20 CFR 416.1415 - Disability hearing-disability hearing officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disability hearing-disability hearing... Reopening of Determinations and Decisions Reconsideration § 416.1415 Disability hearing—disability hearing officers. (a) General. Your disability hearing will be conducted by a disability hearing officer who...

  1. Mathematical equations for heat conduction in the fins of air-cooled engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, R R; Brown, W B

    1923-01-01

    The problem considered in this report is that of reducing actual geometrical area of fin-cooling surface, which is, of course, not uniform in temperature, to equivalent cooling area at one definite temperature, namely, that prevailing on the cylinder wall at the point of attachment of the fin. This makes it possible to treat all the cooling surface as if it were part of the cylinder wall and 100 per cent effective. The quantities involved in the equations are the geometrical dimensions of the fin, thermal conductivity of the material composing it, and the coefficient of surface heat dissipation between the fin and the air streams.

  2. Curvature effects on axisymmetric instability of conduction regime in a tall air-filled annulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pécheux, J.; Le Quéré, P.; Abcha, F.

    1994-10-01

    This paper numerically studies curvature effects on the instability of the conduction regime of natural convection in a tall air-filled differentially heated annulus of vertical aspect ratio 16 by integrating the two-dimensional axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations in the Boussinesq approximation. The numerical algorithm combines a pseudospectral Chebyshev space discretization with a second-order time-stepping scheme. It is shown that, in contrast with linear stability analysis of the conduction solution, the time-periodic cross-roll instability does not take place in finite aspect ratio cavities for small values of the radius ratio. For all values of the radius ratio transition to unsteadiness occurs through supercritical Hopf bifurcations. Extensive computations show very complex behaviors of the unsteady solutions depending on the radius ratio. The nature of the reverse transition to steady state that occurs for increasing value of the Rayleigh number is also found to depend strongly on the value of the radius ratio.

  3. Electrical conductivity of a methane–air burning plasma under the action of weak electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colonna, G.; Pietanza, L. D.; D’Angola, A.; Laricchiuta, A.; Di Vita, A.

    2017-02-01

    This paper focuses on the calculation of the electrical conductivity of a methane–air flame in the presence of weak electric fields, solving the Boltzmann equation for free electrons self-consistently coupled with chemical kinetics. The chemical model GRI-Mech 3.0 has been completed with chemi-ionization reactions to model ionization in the absence of fields, and a database of cross sections for electron-impact-induced processes to account for reactions and transitions activated in the flame during discharge. The dependence of plasma properties on the frequency of an oscillating field has been studied under different pressure and gas temperature conditions. Fitting expressions of the electrical conductivity as a function of gas temperature and methane consumption are provided for different operational conditions in the Ansaldo Energia burner.

  4. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  5. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Consumer Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... to restrict your daily activities. Properly fitted hearing aids and aural rehabilitation (techniques used to identify and ...

  6. Deep rooting plants influence on soil hydraulic properties and air conductivity over time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uteau, Daniel; Peth, Stephan; Diercks, Charlotte; Pagenkemper, Sebastian; Horn, Rainer

    2014-05-01

    Crop sequences are commonly suggested as an alternative to improve subsoil structure. A well structured soil can be characterized by enhanced transport properties. Our main hypothesis was, that different root systems can modify the soil's macro/mesopore network if enough cultivation time is given. We analyzed the influence of three crops with either shallower roots (Festuca arundinacea, fescue) or taproots (Cichorium intybus, chicory and Medicago sativa, alfalfa). The crops where cultivated on a Haplic Luvisol near Bonn (Germany) for one, two or three years. Undisturbed soil cores were taken for measurement of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and air permeability. The unsaturated conductivity was measured using the evaporation method, monitoring the water content and tension at two depths of each undisturbed soil core. The van Genuchten-Mualem model (1991) was fitted to the measured data. Air permeability was measured in a permeameter with constant flow at low pressure gradient. The measurements were repeated at -1, -3, -6, -15, -30 and -50 kPa matric tension and the model of Ball et al. (1988) was used to describe permeability as function of matric tension. Furthermore, the cores equilibrated at -15 kPa matric tension were scanned with X-Ray computer tomography. By means of 3D image analysis, geometrical features as pore size distribution, tortuosity and connectivity of the pore network was analyzed. The measurements showed an increased unsaturated hydraulic conductivity associated to coarser pores at the taprooted cultivations. A enhanced pore system (related to shrink-swell processes) under alfalfa was observed in both transport measurements and was confirmed by the 3D image analysis. This highly functional pore system (consisting mainly of root paths, earthworm channels and shrinking cracks) was clearly visible below the 75 cm of depth and differentiated significantly from the other two treatments only after three years of cultivation, which shows the time

  7. 18 CFR 808.4 - Optional joint hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional joint hearing... HEARINGS AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS Conduct of Hearings § 808.4 Optional joint hearing. (a) The Commission may... agent pursuant to such additional designation and may conduct joint hearings for the Commission and...

  8. 18 CFR 808.4 - Optional joint hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Optional joint hearing... HEARINGS AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS Conduct of Hearings § 808.4 Optional joint hearing. (a) The Commission may... agent pursuant to such additional designation and may conduct joint hearings for the Commission and...

  9. Hearing and Hearing Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    of Saint-Louis (ISL) 5 rue du Général Cassagnou 68301 Saint-Louis, France Summary We study the origin of the Noise-Induced Hearing Losses ( NIHL ...hair cells in order to be able to prevent Noise-Induced Hearing Loss ( NIHL ) and to treat the acoustic trauma (see below). - Functional consequences...Financial consequences The NIHL are responsible for many expenses. Soldiers suffering large PTS can be definitively withdrawn from front line

  10. Changes in young's modulus and electrical conductivity of nuclear grade graphites oxidized with air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Hisashi; Fujii, Kimio; Kurosawa, Takeshi; Nomura, Shinzo

    1983-10-01

    Five kinds of nuclear grade graphites were oxidized to study thermal oxidation effects on Young's modulus and electrical conductivity. The property changes were measured on specimens which were oxidized uniformly throughout their whole volume in the temperature range 500-600°C in air. The following relations were derived as a function of the bulk density of the graphites: E/ E0 = ( ρ/ ρ0) nE and R0/ R = ( ρ/ ρ0) nR, where E, R and ρ are Young's modulus, specific electrical resistivity and bulk density, respectively, and subscript zero refers to the initial unoxidized condition. The exponents nE and nR were found to be dependent on both the kind of graphite and the oxidation temperature, and the dependences were discussed in connection with selective oxidation in the graphite texture. It was also tried to relate the property changes with oxidation rate.

  11. Conductance of p-n-p graphene structures with "air-bridge" top gates.

    PubMed

    Gorbachev, Roman V; Mayorov, Alexander S; Savchenko, Alexander K; Horsell, David W; Guinea, Francisco

    2008-07-01

    We have fabricated graphene devices with a top gate separated from the graphene layer by an air gap-a design which does not decrease the mobility of charge carriers under the gate. This gate is used to realize p-n-p structures where the conducting properties of chiral carriers are studied. The band profile of the structures is calculated taking into account the specifics of the graphene density of states and is used to find the resistance of the p-n junctions expected for chiral carriers. We show that ballistic p-n junctions have larger resistance than diffusive ones. This is caused by suppressed transmission of chiral carriers at angles away from the normal to the junction.

  12. A fast pulsed power source applied to treatment of conducting liquids and air

    SciTech Connect

    Heesch, E.J.M. van; Pemen, A.J.M.; Huijbrechts, P.A.H.J.; Laan, P.C.T. van der; Ptasinski, K.J.; Zanstra, G.J.; Jong, P. de

    2000-02-01

    Two pilot pulsed power sources were developed for fundamental investigations and industrial demonstrations of treatment of conducting liquids. The developed heavy-duty power sources have an output voltage of 100 kV (rise time 10 ns, pulse duration 150 ns, pulse repetition rate maximum 1,000 pps). A pulse energy of 0.5--3 J/pulse and an average pulse power of 1.5 kW have been achieved with an efficiency of about 80%. In addition, adequate electromagnetic compatibility is achieved between the high-voltage pulse sources and the surrounding equipment. Various applications, such as the use of pulsed electric fields (PEF's) or pulsed corona discharges for inactivation of microorganisms in liquids or air, have been tested in the laboratory. For PEF treatment, homogeneous electric fields in the liquid of up to 70 kV/cm at a pulse repetition rate of 10--400 pps could be achieved. The inactivation is found to be 85 kJ/L per log reduction for Pseudomonas fluorescens and 500 kJ/L per log reduction for spores of Bacillus cereus. Corona directly applied to the liquid is found to be more efficient than PEF. With direct corona they achieve 25 kJ/L per log reduction for both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. For air disinfection using their corona pulse source, the measured efficiencies are excellent: 2 J/L per log reduction.

  13. Study on the Conductance and Photo-Conductance of ZnO Thin Films at Different Temperatures in Air and N2-Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burruel-Ibarra, S. E.; Cruz-Vázquez, C.; Bernal, R.; Aceves, R.; Orante-Barrón, V. R.; Grijalva-Monteverde, H.; Piters, T. M.; Castaño, V. M.

    2016-01-01

    We report the photoconductance of ZnO thin films obtained from thermally treated ZnS films grown by a chemical bath deposition method. The measurements of photo-conductance were performed in an atmosphere of air or nitrogen (N2) at different temperatures between 300 K and 375 K. The augmented conductance after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (330-380 nm) in air fades away slowly to its original value, whereas in a nitrogen atmosphere, a significant part of the augmented conductance remains. Measurements of electrical conductance as a function of temperature in N2 or air, in the dark or the light, seem to indicate that the donor concentration is increased during the UV irradiation, suggesting that oxygen vacancies and interstitials are created. An alternative model for the photoconduction in ZnO is proposed in which the slow increase of conduction during irradiation is explained by an increase of donors instead of photoelectrons. In this model, the photoelectrons would only play a role in the mechanism of the creation of donors.

  14. 45 CFR 160.534 - The hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The hearing. 160.534 Section 160.534 Public... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Hearings § 160.534 The hearing. (a) The ALJ must conduct a hearing on the record in order to determine whether the respondent should be found liable...

  15. 28 CFR 104.33 - Hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hearing. 104.33 Section 104.33 Judicial..., Assistance, and Review Procedures § 104.33 Hearing. (a) Supplemental submissions. The claimant may prepare... Supplemental Submissions. (b) Conduct of hearings. Hearings shall be before the Special Master or his...

  16. 42 CFR 423.1040 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Joint hearings. 423.1040 Section 423.1040 Public... Penalties § 423.1040 Joint hearings. When two or more affected parties have requested hearings and the same... and place for the prehearing conference or hearing and conduct all proceedings jointly. If...

  17. 42 CFR 423.1040 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Joint hearings. 423.1040 Section 423.1040 Public... Penalties § 423.1040 Joint hearings. When two or more affected parties have requested hearings and the same... and place for the prehearing conference or hearing and conduct all proceedings jointly. If...

  18. 42 CFR 423.1040 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Joint hearings. 423.1040 Section 423.1040 Public... Penalties § 423.1040 Joint hearings. When two or more affected parties have requested hearings and the same... and place for the prehearing conference or hearing and conduct all proceedings jointly. If...

  19. 45 CFR 160.534 - The hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The hearing. 160.534 Section 160.534 Public... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Hearings § 160.534 The hearing. (a) The ALJ must conduct a hearing on the record in order to determine whether the respondent should be found liable...

  20. 45 CFR 160.534 - The hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false The hearing. 160.534 Section 160.534 Public... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Hearings § 160.534 The hearing. (a) The ALJ must conduct a hearing on the record in order to determine whether the respondent should be found liable...

  1. 45 CFR 160.534 - The hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The hearing. 160.534 Section 160.534 Public... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Hearings § 160.534 The hearing. (a) The ALJ must conduct a hearing on the record in order to determine whether the respondent should be found liable...

  2. Victory From Above. Air Power Theory and the Conduct of Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    views air power as an extension of the fleet and does not want to surrender control of its air assets to a land-based commander. The US Marine Corps...7 Centralized Command and Control ............... 7 Offensive Action Dominates ................... 8 Air Superiority Is the First Objective...36 Command and Control ...... ....................... 37 Air Command Structure ..................... 37 Communications

  3. Outcome of Vibrant Soundbridge Middle Ear Implant in Cantonese-Speaking Mixed Hearing Loss Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Joannie Ka Yin; Tsang, Willis Sung Shan; Wong, Terence Ka Cheong

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the aided benefits, speech recognition in quiet and in noise, change in hearing and subjective report of satisfaction on mixed hearing loss adults implanted with Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) middle ear implant. Methods Eight Cantonese speaking adult patients with mixed hearing loss were enrolled in a single-subject, repeated measures prospective study design. Audiometric testing, including air and bone conduction and word recognition under sound-field were conducted before surgery. Device activation was arranged 8 weeks after operation. Audiometric testing was taken to evaluate the change in hearing. Patients were asked to wear the device and come back for fine tuning as needed. Outcome measurements were undertaken at 3 and 6 months after device activation. The outcome measures included sound-field thresholds, Cantonese Hearing in Noise Test (CHINT), Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) and International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA). Results The application of the VSB improved the aided thresholds and improved speech intelligibility in quiet and noise without significant changes in hearing thresholds. Conclusion VSB is considered as a safe, effective and reliable auditory rehabilitation option for Cantonese speaking adults with mixed hearing loss. PMID:22701155

  4. Prevalence of hearing loss and ear morbidity among adolescents and young adults in rural southern Nepal.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Jane; Pillion, Joseph P; LeClerq, Steven C; Khatry, Subarna K; Wu, Lee S-F; Prasad, Rakesh; Karna, Sureswor L; Shrestha, Sharada R; West, Keith P

    2010-05-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 3646 persons, 15 to 23 years of age, in the southern plains District of Sarlahi, Nepal, to assess the prevalence and severity of hearing loss and middle-ear dysfunction, and adverse effects of hearing loss on social integration. Between 2006 and 2008, subjects were enumerated and underwent otoscopic, tympanometric, and audiometric evaluations at central sites in villages. Hearing loss was diagnosed in subjects who failed a hearing screening and exhibited an average air conduction threshold value greater than or equal to 30 dBHL in the worse ear. Clinically, 32.8% of subjects exhibited a dull or retracted tympanic membrane, and 18% had abnormal tympanometry. Nearly 12% failed the hearing screening test, among whom more than half, or 6.1% overall, had hearing loss. Hearing-impaired subjects were six- to eight-fold (ORs, with 95% CIs excluding 1.0) more likely to report problems in hearing usual sounds or communicating with other people. Among young adults living in southern Nepal, hearing loss is common, and associated with social disability.

  5. Cumulative Lead Exposure and Age-related Hearing Loss: The VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Kyun; Elmarsafawy, Sahar; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Spiro, Avron; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Nie, Huiling; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Although lead has been associated with hearing loss in occupational settings and in children, little epidemiologic research has been conducted on the impact of cumulative lead exposure on age-related hearing loss in the general population. We determined whether bone lead levels, a marker of cumulative lead exposure, are associated with decreased hearing ability in 448 men from the Normative Aging Study, seen between 1962 and 1996 (2,264 total observations). Air conduction hearing thresholds were measured at 0.25 to 8 kHz and pure tone averages (PTA) (mean of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz) were computed. Tibia and patella lead levels were measured using K x-ray fluorescence between 1991 and 1996. In cross-sectional analyses, after adjusting for potential confounders including occupational noise, patella lead levels were significantly associated with poorer hearing thresholds at 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 kHz and PTA. The odds of hearing loss significantly increased with patella lead levels. We also found significant positive associations between tibia lead and the rate change in hearing thresholds at 1, 2, and 8 kHz and PTA in longitudinal analyses. Our results suggest that chronic low-level lead exposure may be an important risk factor for age-related hearing loss and reduction of lead exposure could help prevent or delay development of age-related hearing loss. PMID:20638461

  6. Ossicular resonance modes of the human middle ear for bone and air conduction

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Kenji; Du, Yu; Shimizu, Yoshitaka; Puria, Sunil

    2009-01-01

    The mean resonance frequency of the human middle ear under air conduction (AC) excitation is known to be around 0.8–1.2 kHz. However, studies suggest that the mean resonance frequency under bone conduction (BC) excitation is at a higher frequency around 1.5–2 kHz. To identify the cause for this difference, middle-ear responses to both AC and BC excitations were measured at the umbo and lateral process of the malleus using five human cadaver temporal bones. The resonance modes identified from these measurements, along with finite element analysis results, indicate the presence of two ossicular modes below 2 kHz. The dominant mode under AC excitation is the first mode, which typically occurs around 1.2 kHz and is characterized by a “hinging” ossicular motion, whereas the dominant mode under BC excitation is the second mode, which typically occurs around 1.7 kHz and is characterized by a “pivoting” ossicular motion. The results indicate that this second mode is responsible for the translational component in the malleus handle motion. The finding is also consistent with the hypothesis that a middle-ear structural resonance is responsible for the prominent peak seen at 1.5–2 kHz in BC limit data. PMID:19206873

  7. Fluid volume displacement at the oval and round windows with air and bone conduction stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenfelt, Stefan; Hato, Naohito; Goode, Richard L.

    2004-02-01

    The fluids in the cochlea are normally considered incompressible, and the fluid volume displacement of the oval window (OW) and the round window (RW) should be equal and of opposite phase. However, other channels, such as the cochlear and vestibular aqueducts, may affect the fluid flow. To test if the OW and RW fluid flows are equal and of opposite phase, the volume displacement was assessed by multiple point measurement at the windows with a laser Doppler vibrometer. This was done during air conduction (AC) stimulation in seven fresh human temporal bones, and with bone conduction (BC) stimulation in eight temporal bones and one human cadaver head. With AC stimulation, the average volume displacement of the two windows is within 3 dB, and the phase difference is close to 180° for the frequency range 0.1 to 10 kHz. With BC stimulation, the average volume displacement difference between the two windows is greater: below 2 kHz, the volume displacement at the RW is 5 to 15 dB greater than at the OW and above 2 kHz more fluid is displaced at the OW. With BC stimulation, lesions at the OW caused only minor changes of the fluid flow at the RW.

  8. Hearing Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.

  9. 39 CFR 962.6 - Notice of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... jurisdiction under which the hearing is to be held; (3) The nature of the hearing; (4) The matters of fact and law to be decided; (5) A description of the procedures governing the conduct of the hearing; and...

  10. 77 FR 39205 - Public Hearings for Proposed Rules-National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Quality Standards for Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... titled, ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter,'' that is scheduled to be... and secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) to...

  11. 7 CFR 47.15 - Oral hearing before the examiner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and when the proceeding has reached the stage of oral hearing, the examiner, giving careful... the proceeding has reached the stage of oral hearing, any party may move that the hearing be conducted... hearing or part of a hearing, the examiner shall order the verbatim transcription of the recording...

  12. 7 CFR 47.15 - Oral hearing before the examiner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and when the proceeding has reached the stage of oral hearing, the examiner, giving careful... the proceeding has reached the stage of oral hearing, any party may move that the hearing be conducted... hearing or part of a hearing, the examiner shall order the verbatim transcription of the recording...

  13. 7 CFR 47.15 - Oral hearing before the examiner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and when the proceeding has reached the stage of oral hearing, the examiner, giving careful... the proceeding has reached the stage of oral hearing, any party may move that the hearing be conducted... hearing or part of a hearing, the examiner shall order the verbatim transcription of the recording...

  14. EPA's Implementation of Laws Regulating Asbestos Hazards in Schools and in the Air. Hearing before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Operations.

    A hearing was held by the Subcommittee on Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources on the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) implementation of laws regulating asbestos hazards in schools and in the air. Presented are testimony as well as letters and statements submitted for the record by leading authorities in the area including: (1) James…

  15. 40 CFR 60.4875 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection and make any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection and make any necessary repairs? 60.4875 Section 60.4875... Initial Compliance Requirements § 60.4875 By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection and make any necessary repairs? (a) You must conduct an air pollution control...

  16. 40 CFR 60.4875 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection and make any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection and make any necessary repairs? 60.4875 Section 60.4875... Initial Compliance Requirements § 60.4875 By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection and make any necessary repairs? (a) You must conduct an air pollution control...

  17. 40 CFR 60.4875 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection and make any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection and make any necessary repairs? 60.4875 Section 60.4875... Initial Compliance Requirements § 60.4875 By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection and make any necessary repairs? (a) You must conduct an air pollution control...

  18. 40 CFR 60.4875 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection and make any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection and make any necessary repairs? 60.4875 Section 60.4875... Initial Compliance Requirements § 60.4875 By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection and make any necessary repairs? (a) You must conduct an air pollution control...

  19. 40 CFR 60.5195 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection and make any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection and make any necessary repairs? 60.5195 Section 60.5195... air pollution control device inspection and make any necessary repairs? (a) You must conduct an air... approved state plan, Federal plan, or delegation, as applicable. For air pollution control...

  20. 40 CFR 60.5195 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection and make any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection and make any necessary repairs? 60.5195 Section 60.5195... air pollution control device inspection and make any necessary repairs? (a) You must conduct an air... approved state plan, Federal plan, or delegation, as applicable. For air pollution control...

  1. 40 CFR 60.5195 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection and make any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection and make any necessary repairs? 60.5195 Section 60.5195... air pollution control device inspection and make any necessary repairs? (a) You must conduct an air... approved state plan, Federal plan, or delegation, as applicable. For air pollution control...

  2. 40 CFR 60.5195 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection and make any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection and make any necessary repairs? 60.5195 Section 60.5195... air pollution control device inspection and make any necessary repairs? (a) You must conduct an air... approved state plan, Federal plan, or delegation, as applicable. For air pollution control...

  3. Temperature and strain rate effects in high strength high conductivity copper alloys tested in air

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, D.J.

    1998-03-01

    The tensile properties of the three candidate alloys GlidCop{trademark} Al25, CuCrZr, and CuNiBe are known to be sensitive to the testing conditions such as strain rate and test temperature. This study was conducted on GlidCop Al25 (2 conditions) and Hycon 3HP (3 conditions) to ascertain the effect of test temperature and strain rate when tested in open air. The results show that the yield strength and elongation of the GlidCop Al25 alloys exhibit a strain rate dependence that increases with temperature. Both the GlidCop and the Hycon 3 HP exhibited an increase in strength as the strain rate increased, but the GlidCop alloys proved to be the most strain rate sensitive. The GlidCop failed in a ductile manner irrespective of the test conditions, however, their strength and uniform elongation decreased with increasing test temperature and the uniform elongation also decreased dramatically at the lower strain rates. The Hycon 3 HP alloys proved to be extremely sensitive to test temperature, rapidly losing their strength and ductility when the temperature increased above 250 C. As the test temperature increased and the strain rate decreased the fracture mode shifted from a ductile transgranular failure to a ductile intergranular failure with very localized ductility. This latter observation is based on the presence of dimples on the grain facets, indicating that some ductile deformation occurred near the grain boundaries. The material failed without any reduction in area at 450 C and 3.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} s{sup {minus}1}, and in several cases failed prematurely.

  4. Hearing and whistling in the deep sea: depth influences whistle spectra but does not attenuate hearing by white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) (Odontoceti, Cetacea).

    PubMed

    Ridgway, S H; Carder, D A; Kamolnick, T; Smith, R R; Schlundt, C E; Elsberry, W R

    2001-11-01

    Hearing is attenuated in the aerial ear of humans and other land mammals tested in pressure chambers as a result of middle ear impedance changes that result from increased air density. We tested the hypothesis, based on recent middle ear models, that increasing the density of middle ear air at depth might attenuate whale hearing. Two white whales Delphinapterus leucas made dives to a platform at a depth of 5, 100, 200 or 300 m in the Pacific Ocean. During dives to station on the platform for up to 12 min, the whales whistled in response to 500 ms tones projected at random intervals to assess their hearing threshold at each depth. Analysis of response whistle spectra, whistle latency in response to tones and hearing thresholds showed that the increased hydrostatic pressure at depth changed each whale's whistle response at depth, but did not attenuate hearing overall. The finding that whale hearing is not attenuated at depth suggests that sound is conducted through the head tissues of the whale to the ear without requiring the usual ear drum/ossicular chain amplification of the aerial middle ear. These first ever hearing tests in the open ocean demonstrate that zones of audibility for human-made sounds are just as great throughout the depths to which these whales dive, or at least down to 300 m.

  5. CitySpace Air Sensor Network Project Conducted to Test New Monitoring Capabilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The CitySpace project is a new research effort by EPA to field test new, lower-cost air pollution sensors in a mid-sized city to understand how this emerging technology can add valuable information on air pollution patterns in neighboorhoods.

  6. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  7. The conductive hearing loss due to an experimentally induced middle ear effusion alters the interaural level and time difference cues to sound location.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Jennifer L; Chevallier, Keely M; Koka, Kanthaiah; Lupo, J Eric; Tollin, Daniel J

    2012-10-01

    Otitis media with effusion (OME) is a pathologic condition of the middle ear that leads to a mild to moderate conductive hearing loss as a result of fluid in the middle ear. Recurring OME in children during the first few years of life has been shown to be associated with poor detection and recognition of sounds in noisy environments, hypothesized to result due to altered sound localization cues. To explore this hypothesis, we simulated a middle ear effusion by filling the middle ear space of chinchillas with different viscosities and volumes of silicone oil to simulate varying degrees of OME. While the effects of middle ear effusions on the interaural level difference (ILD) cue to location are known, little is known about whether and how middle ear effusions affect interaural time differences (ITDs). Cochlear microphonic amplitudes and phases were measured in response to sounds delivered from several locations in azimuth before and after filling the middle ear with fluid. Significant attenuations (20-40 dB) of sound were observed when the middle ear was filled with at least 1.0 ml of fluid with a viscosity of 3.5 Poise (P) or greater. As expected, ILDs were altered by ~30 dB. Additionally, ITDs were shifted by ~600 μs for low frequency stimuli (<4 kHz) due to a delay in the transmission of sound to the inner ear. The data show that in an experimental model of OME, ILDs and ITDs are shifted in the spatial direction of the ear without the experimental effusion.

  8. 75 FR 1566 - Public Hearings for Reconsideration of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... proposed rule, ``Reconsideration of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone,'' which was... the following Web site: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/standards/ozone/s_o3_cr_fr.html for the...

  9. 76 FR 48073 - Public Hearing for Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Announcement... titled ``Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur'' which was... ``Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur'' proposed rule should...

  10. Some Aerodynamic Characteristics of Plosive Consonants Produced by Hearing-Impaired Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Robert; Barefoot, Sidney

    1980-01-01

    The study investigated the rate of oral air flow for plosive consonants produced by 10 normal hearing adult males, 10 hearing impaired adult males who demonstrated intelligible speech, and 10 hearing impaired adult males with semi-intelligible speech. (Author)

  11. Air-Stable, High-Conduction Solid Electrolytes of Arsenic-Substituted Li4SnS4

    SciTech Connect

    Sahu, Gayatri; Lin, Zhan; Li, Juchuan; Liu, Zengcai; Dudney, Nancy J; Liang, Chengdu

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-ion-conducting solid electrolytes show promise for enabling high-energy secondary battery chemistries and solving safety issues associated with conventional lithium batteries. Achieving the combination of high ionic conductivity and outstanding chemical stability in solid electrolytes is a grand challenge for the synthesis of solid electrolytes. Herein we report the design of aliovalent substitution of Li4SnS4 to achieve high conduction and excellent air stability based on the hard and soft acids and bases theory. The composition of Li3.833Sn0.833As 0.166S4 has a high ionic conductivity of 1.39 mS/cm 1 at 25 C. Considering the high Li+ transference number, this phase conducts Li+ as well as carbonate-based liquid electrolytes. This research also addresses the compatibility of the sulfide-based solid electrolytes through chemical passivation.

  12. Underwater Hearing in Turtles.

    PubMed

    Willis, Katie L

    2016-01-01

    The hearing of turtles is poorly understood compared with the other reptiles. Although the mechanism of transduction of sound into a neural signal via hair cells has been described in detail, the rest of the auditory system is largely a black box. What is known is that turtles have higher hearing thresholds than other reptiles, with best frequencies around 500 Hz. They also have lower underwater hearing thresholds than those in air, owing to resonance of the middle ear cavity. Further studies demonstrated that all families of turtles and tortoises share a common middle ear cavity morphology, with scaling best suited to underwater hearing. This supports an aquatic origin of the group. Because turtles hear best under water, it is important to examine their vulnerability to anthropogenic noise. However, the lack of basic data makes such experiments difficult because only a few species of turtles have published audiograms. There are also almost no behavioral data available (understandable due to training difficulties). Finally, few studies show what kinds of sounds are behaviorally relevant. One notable paper revealed that the Australian snake-necked turtle (Chelodina oblonga) has a vocal repertoire in air, at the interface, and under water. Findings like these suggest that there is more to the turtle aquatic auditory scene than previously thought.

  13. Prevalence of Hearing Loss in Black and White Elders: Results of the Cardiovascular Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Sheila R.; Kuller, Lewis; Talbott, Evelyn O.; McHugh-Pemu, Kathleen; Buhari, Alhaji M.; Xu, Xiaohui

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine the impact of age, gender, and race on the prevalence and severity of hearing loss in elder adults, aged 72-96 years, after accounting for income, education, smoking, and clinical and subclinical cardiovascular disease. Methods: Air-conduction thresholds for standard and extended high-frequency…

  14. Mask-Free Patterning of High-Conductivity Metal Nanowires in Open Air by Spatially Modulated Femtosecond Laser Pulses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Andong; Jiang, Lan; Li, Xiaowei; Liu, Yang; Dong, Xianzi; Qu, Liangti; Duan, Xuanming; Lu, Yongfeng

    2015-10-28

    A novel high-resolution nanowire fabrication method is developed by thin-film patterning using a spatially modulated femtosecond laser pulse. Deep subwavelength (≈1/13 of the laser wavelength) and high conductivity (≈1/4 of the bulk gold) nanowires are fabricated in the open air without using masks, which offers a single-step arbitrary direct patterning approach for electronics, plasmonics, and optoelectronics nanodevices.

  15. 49 CFR 232.217 - Train brake tests conducted using yard air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... source, an engineer's brake valve or a suitable test device shall be used to provide any increase or reduction of brake pipe air pressure at the same, or slower, rate as an engineer's brake valve. (b) The yard... calibrated every 92 days. Electronic yard test devices and gauges shall be calibrated annually....

  16. 49 CFR 232.217 - Train brake tests conducted using yard air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... source, an engineer's brake valve or a suitable test device shall be used to provide any increase or reduction of brake pipe air pressure at the same, or slower, rate as an engineer's brake valve. (b) The yard... calibrated every 92 days. Electronic yard test devices and gauges shall be calibrated annually....

  17. 49 CFR 232.217 - Train brake tests conducted using yard air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... source, an engineer's brake valve or a suitable test device shall be used to provide any increase or reduction of brake pipe air pressure at the same, or slower, rate as an engineer's brake valve. (b) The yard... calibrated every 92 days. Electronic yard test devices and gauges shall be calibrated annually....

  18. 49 CFR 232.217 - Train brake tests conducted using yard air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... source, an engineer's brake valve or a suitable test device shall be used to provide any increase or reduction of brake pipe air pressure at the same, or slower, rate as an engineer's brake valve. (b) The yard... calibrated every 92 days. Electronic yard test devices and gauges shall be calibrated annually....

  19. 49 CFR 232.217 - Train brake tests conducted using yard air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... source, an engineer's brake valve or a suitable test device shall be used to provide any increase or reduction of brake pipe air pressure at the same, or slower, rate as an engineer's brake valve. (b) The yard... calibrated every 92 days. Electronic yard test devices and gauges shall be calibrated annually....

  20. Stability, Survival, and Tolerability of an Auditory Osseointegrated Implant for Bone Conduction Hearing: Long-Term Follow-Up of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    den Besten, Christine A.; Stalfors, Joacim; Wigren, Stina; Blechert, Johan Ivarsson; Flynn, Mark; Eeg-Olofsson, Måns; Aggarwal, Rohini; Green, Kevin; Nelissen, Rik C.; Mylanus, Emmanuel A. M.; Hol, Myrthe K. S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare implant stability, survival, and soft tissue reactions for a novel (test) and previous generation (control) percutaneous auditory osseointegrated implant for bone conduction hearing at long-term follow-up of 5 years. Study Design: Single follow-up visit of a previously completed multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. Patients: Fifty-seven of the 77 participants of a completed randomized controlled trial on a new auditory osseointegrated implant underwent a single follow-up visit 5 years after implantation, which comprised implant stability measurements and collection of Holgers scores. Additionally, implant survival was recorded for all 77 patients from the original trial. Results: The test implant showed significantly higher implant stability quotient (ISQ) values compared with the control implant throughout the 5-year follow-up. Mean area under the curve of ISQ high from baseline to 5 years was 71.6 (standard deviation [SD] ±2.0) and 66.7 (SD ±3.4) for the test and control implant, respectively (p < 0.0001). For both implants, the mean ISQ value recorded at 5 years was higher compared with implantation (test group +2.03 [SD ±2.55, within group p < 0.0001] and control group +2.25 [SD ±4.95, within group p = 0.12]). No difference was noticed in increase from baseline between groups (p = 0.64). Furthermore, evaluation of soft tissue reactions continued to show superiority of the test implant. At the 5-year follow-up visit, one patient (2.5%) presented with a Holgers grade 2 in the test group, compared with four patients (23.5%) in the control group (p = 0.048); no patient presented with more severe soft tissue reactions. Excluding explantations, the survival rate was 95.8% for the test group and 95.0% for the control group. The corresponding rates including explantations were 93.9 and 90.0%. Conclusion: The test implant showed superiority in terms of higher mean ISQ values and less adverse soft tissue reactions, both

  1. The Stigma of Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallhagen, Margaret I.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To explore dimensions of stigma experienced by older adults with hearing loss and those with whom they frequently communicate to target interventions promoting engagement and positive aging. Design and Methods: This longitudinal qualitative study conducted interviews over 1 year with dyads where one partner had hearing loss. Participants…

  2. 42 CFR 93.517 - The hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The hearing. 93.517 Section 93.517 Public Health... Process § 93.517 The hearing. (a) The ALJ will conduct an in-person hearing to decide if the respondent committed research misconduct and if the HHS administrative actions, including any debarment or...

  3. 42 CFR 3.534 - The hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The hearing. 3.534 Section 3.534 Public Health... ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Enforcement Program § 3.534 The hearing. (a) The ALJ must conduct a hearing on the record in order to determine whether the respondent should be found liable...

  4. 18 CFR 401.81 - Hearings generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hearings generally. 401.81 Section 401.81 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... of the Commission. (f) Notice of hearing. Notice of any hearing to be conducted pursuant to...

  5. 42 CFR 422.1040 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Joint hearings. 422.1040 Section 422.1040 Public...) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Appeal procedures for Civil Money Penalties § 422.1040 Joint... conference or hearing and conduct all proceedings jointly. If joint hearings are held, a single record of...

  6. 42 CFR 422.1040 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Joint hearings. 422.1040 Section 422.1040 Public...) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Appeal procedures for Civil Money Penalties § 422.1040 Joint... conference or hearing and conduct all proceedings jointly. If joint hearings are held, a single record of...

  7. 42 CFR 3.534 - The hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false The hearing. 3.534 Section 3.534 Public Health... ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Enforcement Program § 3.534 The hearing. (a) The ALJ must conduct a hearing on the record in order to determine whether the respondent should be found liable...

  8. 42 CFR 93.517 - The hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The hearing. 93.517 Section 93.517 Public Health... Process § 93.517 The hearing. (a) The ALJ will conduct an in-person hearing to decide if the respondent committed research misconduct and if the HHS administrative actions, including any debarment or...

  9. 42 CFR 3.534 - The hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The hearing. 3.534 Section 3.534 Public Health... ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Enforcement Program § 3.534 The hearing. (a) The ALJ must conduct a hearing on the record in order to determine whether the respondent should be found liable...

  10. 42 CFR 93.517 - The hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The hearing. 93.517 Section 93.517 Public Health... Process § 93.517 The hearing. (a) The ALJ will conduct an in-person hearing to decide if the respondent committed research misconduct and if the HHS administrative actions, including any debarment or...

  11. 42 CFR 3.534 - The hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The hearing. 3.534 Section 3.534 Public Health... ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Enforcement Program § 3.534 The hearing. (a) The ALJ must conduct a hearing on the record in order to determine whether the respondent should be found liable...

  12. Types of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed to ...

  13. 5 CFR 2423.31 - Powers and duties of the Administrative Law Judge at the hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Law Judge at the hearing. 2423.31 Section 2423.31 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS... LABOR PRACTICE PROCEEDINGS Hearing Procedures § 2423.31 Powers and duties of the Administrative Law Judge at the hearing. (a) Conduct of hearing. The Administrative Law Judge shall conduct the hearing...

  14. Grain Boundary Engineering of Lithium-Ion-Conducting Lithium Lanthanum Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Tojo T, Sakurai Y. Synthesis and lithium - ion conductivity for perovskite-type Li3/8Sr7/16Ta3/4Zr1/4O3 solid electrolyte by powder-bed sintering...battery performance is limited by the electrolytic membrane, which needs high Li-ionic conductivity. Lithium lanthanum titanate (Li3xLa(2/3)-xTiO3, or...of the A-site ions and lithium ion conductivity in the perovskite solid solution La0.67-xLi3xTiO3 (x=0.11). Journal of Solid State Ionics. 1999;121

  15. Guidance for Conducting Risk Management Program Inspections Under Clean Air Act Section 112(r)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guidance is for implementing agencies that conduct inspections of facilities (i.e., stationary sources) subject to 40 CFR Part 68, which requires development and implementation of a Risk Management Plan.

  16. Do Hearing Protectors Protect Hearing?

    PubMed Central

    Groenewold, Matthew R.; Masterson, Elizabeth A.; Themann, Christa L.; Davis, Rickie R.

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined the association between self-reported hearing protection use at work and incidence of hearing shifts over a 5-year period. Methods Audiometric data from 19,911 workers were analyzed. Two hearing shift measures—OSHA standard threshold shift (OSTS) and high-frequency threshold shift (HFTS)—were used to identify incident shifts in hearing between workers’ 2005 and 2009 audiograms. Adjusted odds ratios were generated using multivariable logistic regression with multi-level modeling. Results The odds ratio for hearing shift for workers who reported never versus always wearing hearing protection was nonsignificant for OSTS (OR 1.23, 95% CI 0.92–1.64) and marginally significant for HFTS (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.00–1.59). A significant linear trend towards increased risk of HFTS with decreased use of hearing protection was observed (P = 0.02). Conclusion The study raises concern about the effectiveness of hearing protection as a substitute for noise control to prevent noise-induced hearing loss in the workplace. Am. J. Ind. Med. 57:1001–1010, 2014. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:24700499

  17. Performance of a combined three-hole conductivity probe for void fraction and velocity measurement in air-water flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, João Eduardo; Pereira, Nuno H. C.; Matos, Jorge; Frizell, Kathleen H.

    2010-01-01

    The development of a three-hole pressure probe with back-flushing combined with a conductivity probe, used for measuring simultaneously the magnitude and direction of the velocity vector in complex air-water flows, is described in this paper. The air-water flows envisaged in the current work are typically those occurring around the rotors of impulse hydraulic turbines (like the Pelton and Cross-Flow turbines), where the flow direction is not known prior to the data acquisition. The calibration of both the conductivity and three-hole pressure components of the combined probe in a rig built for the purpose, where the probe was placed in a position similar to that adopted for the flow measurements, will be reported. After concluding the calibration procedure, the probe was utilized in the outside region of a Cross-Flow turbine rotor. The experimental results obtained in the present study illustrate the satisfactory performance of the combined probe, and are encouraging toward its use for characterizing the velocity field of other complex air-water flows.

  18. Indoor-air-quality research. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Energy Development and Applications and the Subcommittee on Natural Resources, Agriculture Research and Environment, US House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, first session, August 2, 3, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Spokesmen for the environmental health sciences, consumer product safety, medical profession, and conservation discussed current research on whether indoor air quality suffers as a result of weatherization to reduce air leakage at a two-day hearing. Critical areas for research were the identification, measurement, characterization, control and health effects of indoor pollutants. Of particular concern to the committee was the administration's phasing out of some research programs despite DOE authorization and Congressional appropriations to continue. The witnesses discussed contaminants from building materials, household products, and other sources as well as the effects of reduced ventilation. Additional material submitted for the record follows their testimony.

  19. A Hearing Conservation Program for Wisconsin Youth Working in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knobloch, Mary Jo; Broste, Steven K.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the effects of a multicomponent, four-year hearing-conservation program for farm youth. Researchers conducted pre- and postintervention hearing tests in control and intervention students. Surveys examined family hearing loss, farm work, noise exposure, and hearing-protection device (HPD) utilization. Significantly more intervention…

  20. 10 CFR 1040.123 - Consolidated or joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Consolidated or joint hearings. 1040.123 Section 1040.123... ACTIVITIES Enforcement Opportunity for Hearing § 1040.123 Consolidated or joint hearings. In cases in which... departments or agencies, where applicable, provide for the conduct of consolidated or joint hearings and...

  1. 10 CFR 1040.123 - Consolidated or joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Consolidated or joint hearings. 1040.123 Section 1040.123... ACTIVITIES Enforcement Opportunity for Hearing § 1040.123 Consolidated or joint hearings. In cases in which... departments or agencies, where applicable, provide for the conduct of consolidated or joint hearings and...

  2. 10 CFR 1040.123 - Consolidated or joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Consolidated or joint hearings. 1040.123 Section 1040.123... ACTIVITIES Enforcement Opportunity for Hearing § 1040.123 Consolidated or joint hearings. In cases in which... departments or agencies, where applicable, provide for the conduct of consolidated or joint hearings and...

  3. Effect of atmospheric pressure on hearing in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, M; Ozawa, H; Kodama, A; Izukura, H; Inoue, S; Uchida, K

    1994-01-01

    Hearing is assumed to be altered during or immediately after a change in atmospheric pressure, although this has not been tested experimentally. We used a soundproof pressure chamber to examine the effect of alterations in atmospheric pressure on hearing in 26 normal healthy subjects. The subjects were placed in the soundproof pressure chamber in a supine position and instructed to actively equilibrate middle ear pressure or to abstain from doing so. When the pressure was changed to +/- 500 mmH2O at 33 mmH2O/s the results were as follows: When subjects did not equilibrate middle ear pressure, air conduction at low frequency tones increased more than bone conduction. The degree of deterioration in hearing was greater when the chamber pressure was increased (descent) than where pressure was decreased (ascent). When the subjects equilibrated middle ear pressure, little change in the levels of air or bone conduction was observed. Most of the deterioration in bone conduction was considered to reflect functional loss due to increased stiffness and damping of the sound transmission mechanism.

  4. A Process to Conduct Needs Assessment at a Community College. AIR Forum 1981 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulage, Karyn

    The process of conducting needs assessment at State Community College of East St. Louis is described. Among the objectives of the needs assessment are: program and service evaluation, marketing, new program development, and strategic planning. The basic purposes of the needs assessment were curricular planning and development, and several target…

  5. Satisfaction with Hearing Aids Based on Technology and Style among Hearing Impaired Persons

    PubMed Central

    Faraji- Khiavi, Farzad; Dashti, Rezvan; Sameni, Seyyed-Jalal; Bayat, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Hearing loss is one of the most disabling impairments. Using a hearing aid as an attempt to improve the hearing problem can positively affect the quality of life for these people. This research was aimed to assess satisfaction of hearing impaired patients with their hearing aids regarding the employed technology and style. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytic cross-sectional research was conducted on 187 subjects with hearing loss who were using a hearing aid. The subjects were over 18 years of age and were using a hearing aid for at least 6 months. The Persian version of Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life (SADL) questionnaire was the instrument which was used for assessing satisfaction with the hearing aid. Cronbach’s alpha was calculated to be 0.80 for instrument reliability. Results: A significant difference was observed among satisfaction subscales’ mean scores with hearing aid technology. Also a significant difference was observed between the total satisfaction score and the hearing aid model. With respect to the analysis of satisfaction with the hearing aid and its style, cost and services was the only subscale which showed a significant difference (P=0.005). Conclusion: Respondents using hearing aids with different technology and style were estimated to be quite satisfied. Training audiologists in using more appropriate and fitting hearing aids in addition to using self-reporting questionnaires like SADL for estimating patients’ social condition and participation in their life can essentially change their disability condition and countervail their hearing loss. PMID:27738608

  6. Response to Follow-up Questions From the Hearing on Air Quality Issues Affecting Our Forests and Public Lands.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  7. Role of conductivity in the electrohydrodynamic patterning of air-liquid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Gambhire, P; Thaokar, R M

    2012-09-01

    The effect of electrical conductivity on the wavelength of an electrohydrodynamic instability of a leaky dielectric-perfect dielectric (LD-PD) fluid interface is investigated. For instabilities induced by dc fields, two models, namely the PD-PD model, which is independent of the conductivity, and the LD-PD model, which shows very weak dependence on the conductivity of the LD fluid, have been previously suggested. In the past, experiments have been compared with either of these two models. In the present work, experiments, analytical theory, and simulations are used to elucidate the dependence of the wavelength obtained under dc fields on the ratio of the instability time (τs=1/smax) and the charge relaxation time (τc=εε0/σ, where ε0 is the permittivity of vacuum, ε is the dielectric constant, and σ is the electrical conductivity). Sensitive dependence of the wavelength on the nondimensional conductivity S2=σ2μ2h0(2)/(ε0(2)φ0(2)δ2) (where σ2 is the electrical conductivity, μ2 is the viscosity, h0 is the thickness of the thin liquid film, φ0 is the rms value of the applied field, and δ is a small parameter) is observed and the PD-PD and the LD-PD cases are observed only as limiting behaviors at very low and very high values of S2, respectively. Under an alternating field, the frequency of the applied voltage can be altered to realize several regimes of relative magnitudes of the three time scales inherent to the system, namely τc, τs, and the time period of the applied field, τf. The wavelength in the various regimes that result from a systematic variation of these three time scales is studied. It is observed that the linear Floquet theory is invalid in most of these regimes and nonlinear analysis is used to complement it. Systematic dependence of the wavelength of the instability on the frequency of the applied field is presented and it is demonstrated that nonlinear simulations are necessary to explain the experimental results.

  8. Thermal Conductivity and Erosion Durability of Composite Two-Phase Air Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Michael P.; Rai, Amarendra K.; Zhu, Dongming; Dorfman, Mitchell R.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2015-01-01

    To enhance efficiency of gas turbines, new thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) must be designed which improve upon the thermal stability limit of 7 wt% yttria stabilized zirconia (7YSZ), approximately 1200 C. This tenant has led to the development of new TBC materials and microstructures capable of improved high temperature performance. This study focused on increasing the erosion durability of cubic zirconia based TBCs, traditionally less durable than the metastable t' zirconia based TBCs. Composite TBC microstructures composed of a low thermal conductivity/high temperature stable cubic Low-k matrix phase and a durable t' Low-k secondary phase were deposited via APS. Monolithic coatings composed of cubic Low-k and t' Low-k were also deposited, in addition to a 7YSZ benchmark. The thermal conductivity and erosion durability were then measured and it was found that both of the Low-k materials have significantly reduced thermal conductivities, with monolithic t' Low-k and cubic Low-k improving upon 7YSZ by approximately 13 and approximately 25%, respectively. The 40 wt% t' Low-k composite (40 wt% t' Low-k - 60 wt% cubic Low-k) showed a approximately 22% reduction in thermal conductivity over 7YSZ, indicating even at high levels, the t' Low-k secondary phase had a minimal impact on thermal in the composite coating. It was observed that a mere 20 wt% t' Low-k phase addition can reduce the erosion of a cubic Low-k matrix phase composite coating by over 37%. Various mixing rules were then investigated to assess this non-linear composite behavior and suggestions were made to further improve erosion durability.

  9. Distribution Characteristics of Air-Bone Gaps – Evidence of Bias in Manual Audiometry

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Robert H.; Wilson, Richard H.; Popelka, Gerald R.; Eikelboom, Robert H.; Swanepoel, De Wet; Saly, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Five databases were mined to examine distributions of air-bone gaps obtained by automated and manual audiometry. Differences in distribution characteristics were examined for evidence of influences unrelated to the audibility of test signals. Design The databases provided air- and bone-conduction thresholds that permitted examination of air-bone gap distributions that were free of ceiling and floor effects. Cases with conductive hearing loss were eliminated based on air-bone gaps, tympanometry, and otoscopy, when available. The analysis is based on 2,378,921 threshold determinations from 721,831 subjects from five databases. Results Automated audiometry produced air-bone gaps that were normally distributed suggesting that air- and bone-conduction thresholds are normally distributed. Manual audiometry produced air-bone gaps that were not normally distributed and show evidence of biasing effects of assumptions of expected results. In one database, the form of the distributions showed evidence of inclusion of conductive hearing losses. Conclusions Thresholds obtained by manual audiometry show tester bias effects from assumptions of the patient’s hearing loss characteristics. Tester bias artificially reduces the variance of bone-conduction thresholds and the resulting air-bone gaps. Because the automated method is free of bias from assumptions of expected results, these distributions are hypothesized to reflect the true variability of air- and bone-conduction thresholds and the resulting air-bone gaps. PMID:26627469

  10. In-air hearing of a diving duck: A comparison of psychoacoustic and auditory brainstem response thresholds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowell, Sara E.; Wells-Berlin, Alicia M.; Therrien, Ronald E; Yannuzzi, Sally E; Carr, Catherine E

    2016-01-01

    Auditory sensitivity was measured in a species of diving duck that is not often kept in captivity, the lesser scaup. Behavioral (psychoacoustics) and electrophysiological [the auditory brainstem response (ABR)] methods were used to measure in-air auditory sensitivity, and the resulting audiograms were compared. Both approaches yielded audiograms with similar U-shapes and regions of greatest sensitivity (2000−3000 Hz). However, ABR thresholds were higher than psychoacoustic thresholds at all frequencies. This difference was least at the highest frequency tested using both methods (5700 Hz) and greatest at 1000 Hz, where the ABR threshold was 26.8 dB higher than the behavioral measure of threshold. This difference is commonly reported in studies involving many different species. These results highlight the usefulness of each method, depending on the testing conditions and availability of the animals.

  11. Conducting thermomechanical fatigue test in air at light water reactor relevant temperature intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, Mageshwaran; Leber, Hans J.; Diener, Markus; Spolenak, Ralph

    2011-08-01

    In Light Water Reactors (LWR), many structural components are made of austenitic stainless steels (SS). These components are subject to extreme conditions, such as large temperature gradients and pressure loads during service. Hence, the fatigue and fracture behavior of austenitic SS under these conditions has evoked consistent interest over the years. Most studies dealing with this problem in the past, investigated the isothermal fatigue (IF) condition, which is not the case in the service, and less attention has been paid to thermomechanical fatigue (TMF). Moreover, the existing codes of practice and standards for TMF testing are mainly derived from the high temperature TMF tests ( T mean > 400 °C). This work presents the development of a facility to perform TMF tests under LWR relevant temperature interval in air. The realized testing parameters and tolerances are compared with the recommendations of existing codes of practice and standards from high temperature tests. The effectiveness of the testing facility was verified with series of TMF and IF tests performed on specimens made out of a commercial austenitic SS TP347 pipe material. The results revealed that the existing tolerances in standards are quite strict for the application of lower temperature ranges TMF tests. It was found that the synchronous, in-phase (IP) TMF tested specimens possess a higher lifetime than those subjected to the asynchronous, out-of-phase (OP) TMF and IF at T max in the investigated strain range for austenitic SS. Nevertheless, the fatigue lifetime of all the test conditions was similar in the engineering scale.

  12. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... hair cells (outer and inner rows). When the vibrations move through this fluid, the tiny outer hair ... ear to the brain. Hearing aids intensify sound vibrations that the damaged outer hair cells have trouble ...

  13. Hearing Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... up of invisible waves of energy, causes these vibrations. Hearing begins when sound waves that travel through ... When the eardrum vibrates, the ossicles amplify these vibrations and carry them to the inner ear. The ...

  14. Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... topic was provided by the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Topic last reviewed: December ... a total loss of hearing. It can be hereditary or it can result from disease, trauma, certain ...

  15. Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... and heart screening. If your baby doesn’t pass his newborn hearing screening, it doesn’t always ... be screened again. If your baby doesn’t pass a second time, it’s very important that he ...

  16. Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn the volume higher when you listen to music, the radio or television Some causes of hearing ... levels include snowmobiling, motorcycling or listening to loud music. Some medications. Drugs, such as the antibiotic gentamicin ...

  17. Hearing Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) . Personal music players are among the chief culprits of NIHL ... exposure to high noise levels (such as loud music) over time can cause permanent damage to the ...

  18. About Hearing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Technology Cochlear Implants Deaf Culture Deaf Education Deaf Students with Disabilities Early Intervention, Early Childhood Education Family ... Technology Cochlear Implants Deaf Culture Deaf Education Deaf Students with Disabilities Early Intervention Family Resources Hearing Aids ...

  19. Prevalence and Nature of Hearing Loss in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Eynde, Charlotte; Swillen, Ann; Lambeens, Elien; Verhaert, Nicolas; Desloovere, Christian; Luts, Heleen; Vander Poorten, Vincent; Devriendt, Koenraad; Hens, Greet

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to clarify the prevalence, type, severity, and age-dependency of hearing loss in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Method: Extensive audiological measurements were conducted in 40 persons with proven 22q11.2 deletion (aged 6-36 years). Besides air and bone conduction thresholds in the frequency range between 0.125…

  20. Risk Factors for Hearing Loss in Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Zuur, Charlotte L.; Dreschler, Wouter A.; Balm, Alfons J.; Rasch, Coen R.

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy (RT) is a common treatment of head-and-neck carcinoma. The objective of this study was to perform a prospective multivariate assessment of the dose-effect relationship between intensity-modulated RT and hearing loss. Methods and Materials: Pure tone audiometry at 0.250-16 kHz was obtained before and after treatment in 101 patients (202 ears). All patients received full-course intensity-modulated RT (range, 56-70 Gy), with a median cochlear dose of 11.4 Gy (range, 0.2-69.7). Results: Audiometry was performed 1 week before and a median of 9 weeks (range, 1-112) after treatment. The mean hearing deterioration at pure tone average air-conduction 1-2-4 kHz was small (from 28.6 dB HL to 30.1 dB HL). However, individual patients showed clinically significant hearing loss, with 10-dB threshold shift incidences of 13% and 18% at pure tone averages air-conduction 1-2-4 kHz and 8-10-12.5 kHz, respectively. Post-treatment hearing capability was unfavorable in the case of greater inner ear radiation doses (p <0.0001), unfavorable baseline hearing capability (p <0.0001), green-eyed patients (p <0.0001), and older age (p <0.0001). Using multivariate analysis, a prediction of individual hearing capabiltity after treatment was made. Conclusion: RT-induced hearing loss in the mean population is modest. However, clinically significant hearing loss was observed in older patients with green eyes and unfavorable pretreatment hearing. In these patients, the intended radiation dose may be adjusted according to the proposed predictive model, aiming to decrease the risk of ototoxicity.

  1. [Hearing disorders in young subjects].

    PubMed

    Kunel'skaia, N L; Skriabina, L Iu

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the state of the hearing function and the prevalence of ear pathologies in the applicants and students of a higher education institution. A total of 44.525 subjects at the age varying from 15 to 30 years were available for the examination of whom 42.829 ones were involved in the routine medical examination programs for the applicants and students; 1696 persons presenting with acute ear diseases and impairment of hearing passed the primary medical examination in the University polyclinic. The hearing function was evaluated with the help of the speech and tuning fork tests; in part of the patients it was evaluated by tonal threshold audiometry in both the standard and the extended frequency ranges, tympanometry, registration of the ipsilateral acoustic reflex, and a questionnaire study. Chronic ear pathology is known to occur in 1.77-2.09% of the young people; it is the third most frequent condition after diseases of throat, nose, and paranasal sinuses in the structure of chronic ENT morbidity. The structure of chronic ear diseases is dominated by Eustachian tube pathology (0.99-1.4%) followed by chronic middle and inner ear diseases (0.35-0.62% and 0.15-0.26% respectively). The commonest chronic disease of the middle ear is adhesive otitis media that is accompanied by the conductive impairment of hearing in 53.5% of the cases. Next in importance is chronic suppurative otitis media associated with the conductive or mixed-type loss of hearing in 91.7% of the patients. The subclinical form of sensorineural hearing loss was found in 11.7-15.1% of the young subjects Including minimal sensorineural hearing loss (enhancement of the hearing threshold by 1-3 frequencies) in 11.7-12.4% of the patients. A frequent cause of impaired hearing in the case of chronic sensorineural hearing loss is a single or repeated acoustic trauma.

  2. 20 CFR 655.1315 - Administrative review and de novo hearing before an administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Administrative review and de novo hearing... Administrative review and de novo hearing before an administrative law judge. (a) Administrative review—(1... decision of the Secretary. (b) De novo hearing. (1) Request for hearing; conduct of hearing. Whenever...

  3. 20 CFR 655.1315 - Administrative review and de novo hearing before an administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Administrative review and de novo hearing... Administrative review and de novo hearing before an administrative law judge. (a) Administrative review—(1... decision of the Secretary. (b) De novo hearing. (1) Request for hearing; conduct of hearing. Whenever...

  4. 20 CFR 655.1315 - Administrative review and de novo hearing before an administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Administrative review and de novo hearing... Administrative review and de novo hearing before an administrative law judge. (a) Administrative review—(1... decision of the Secretary. (b) De novo hearing. (1) Request for hearing; conduct of hearing. Whenever...

  5. 20 CFR 655.1315 - Administrative review and de novo hearing before an administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Administrative review and de novo hearing... Administrative review and de novo hearing before an administrative law judge. (a) Administrative review—(1... decision of the Secretary. (b) De novo hearing. (1) Request for hearing; conduct of hearing. Whenever...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1487 - Public hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Public hearings. 52.1487 Section 52.1487 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1487 Public hearings. (a)...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1487 - Public hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public hearings. 52.1487 Section 52.1487 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1487 Public hearings. (a)...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1487 - Public hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Public hearings. 52.1487 Section 52.1487 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1487 Public hearings. (a)...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1487 - Public hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Public hearings. 52.1487 Section 52.1487 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1487 Public hearings. (a)...

  10. Hearing disorders in cats.

    PubMed

    Strain, George M

    2017-03-01

    Practical relevance: Auditory function is a sense that is central to life for cats - being important in situational awareness of potential predators, pursuit of prey, and for communication with conspecifics, humans and other species. Deafness in cats is most frequently the result of a genetic disorder, strongly associated with white fur and blue eyes, but may also result from acquired causes such as advancing age, ototoxic drugs, infection, environmental noise and physical trauma. Deafness can be sensorineural, where there is loss of cochlear hair cells, or conductive, where sound is muffled on its way to the inner ear. Clinical challenges: Establishing whether a cat is deaf can be difficult as behavioral testing of hearing is subjective and does not reliably detect unilateral deafness. Brainstem auditory evoked response testing is an objective measure but is limited in its availability. Currently, sensorineural deafness is irreversible because no treatments are available to restore lost hair cells. Conductive hearing loss can usually be treated, although full hearing recovery following otitis media may take weeks as the body clears the middle ear of debris. Evidence base: The author draws on the published literature and his extensive research on clinical aspects and molecular genetics of deafness, principally in companion animals, to review types and forms of deafness in cats. He also discusses current diagnostic approaches and provides brief advice for managing cats with hearing loss.

  11. 29 CFR 0.737-7 - Hearing rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Hearing rights. 0.737-7 Section 0.737-7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor ETHICS AND CONDUCT OF DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EMPLOYEES Post Employment Conflict of Interest § 0.737-7 Hearing rights. (a) The following rights shall be afforded at a hearing conducted before...

  12. 40 CFR 85.1807 - Public hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Recall Regulations § 85.1807 Public hearings. (a) Definitions... action shall have an adequate opportunity, once he learns the name of a witness and obtains the...

  13. 40 CFR 27.12 - Notice of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Government. (b) Such notice shall include— (1) The date, time and place, and the nature of the hearing; (2... and law to be asserted; (4) A description of the procedures for the conduct of the hearing; (5)...

  14. 40 CFR 27.12 - Notice of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Government. (b) Such notice shall include— (1) The date, time and place, and the nature of the hearing; (2... and law to be asserted; (4) A description of the procedures for the conduct of the hearing; (5)...

  15. 40 CFR 60.2141 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2141 Section 60.2141 Protection of Environment... initial air pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection... startup. (b) Within 10 operating days following an air pollution control device inspection, all...

  16. 40 CFR 60.2716 - By what date must I conduct the annual air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2716 Section 60.2716 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY... annual air pollution control device inspection), you must complete the air pollution control...

  17. 40 CFR 60.2141 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2141 Section 60.2141 Protection of Environment... initial air pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection... startup. (b) Within 10 operating days following an air pollution control device inspection, all...

  18. 40 CFR 60.2151 - By what date must I conduct the annual air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2151 Section 60.2151 Protection of Environment... annual air pollution control device inspection? On an annual basis (no more than 12 months following the previous annual air pollution control device inspection), you must complete the air pollution...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2716 - By what date must I conduct the annual air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2716 Section 60.2716 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY... annual air pollution control device inspection), you must complete the air pollution control...

  20. 40 CFR 60.2716 - By what date must I conduct the annual air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2716 Section 60.2716 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY... annual air pollution control device inspection), you must complete the air pollution control...

  1. 40 CFR 60.2151 - By what date must I conduct the annual air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2151 Section 60.2151 Protection of Environment... annual air pollution control device inspection? On an annual basis (no more than 12 months following the previous annual air pollution control device inspection), you must complete the air pollution...

  2. Conduction and Utilization of Research: The Relationship Between Air Force Nurses’ Attitudes, Levels of Education, and Rank

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-05-01

    Respondents 22 Table 5. Highest Level of Non- Nursing Education of the Air Force Nurse Respondents 23 Table 6. Overall Highest Level of Education...Force Rank (Good Attitude vs Bad Attitude 41 Table 13. Air Force Nurse Respondents’ Attitudes by Highest Level of Nursing Education 44 Table 14. Air...Figure 2. Research Experience of Air Force Nurse Respondents by Highest Level of Nursing Education (Excellent, Fair or Poor Experience 38 Figure 3. Air

  3. Cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials in vestibular neuritis: comparison between air- and bone-conducted stimulation.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sun-Young; Kim, Ji-Soo; Yang, Tae-Ho; Shin, Byoung-Soo; Jeong, Seul-Ki

    2013-08-01

    To clarify the changes of cervical (cVEMP) and ocular (oVEMP) vestibular evoked myogenic potentials induced by air-conducted sound (ACS) and bone-conducted vibration (BCV) in patients with vestibular neuritis (VN), patients with VN (n = 30) and normal controls (n = 45) underwent recording of cVEMP and oVEMP in response to ACS (1,000 Hz, 5 ms, tone bursts) and BCV (500 Hz, short tone burst). Patients with VN showed a high proportion of oVEMP abnormalities in response to both ACS (80.0 %) and BCV at the forehead (Fz, 73.3 %) or the mastoid (76.7 %). In contrast, cVEMPs were mostly normal with both ACS and BCV in the patients. The dissociations in the abnormalities of cVEMP and oVEMP induced by ACS and BCV at the mastoids and at the forehead in patients with VN suggest that oVEMP reflects functions of the superior vestibular nerve and most likely the utricular function. The results of our study suggest that oVEMP induced by either ACS or BCV appears to depend on integrity of the superior vestibular nerve, possibly due to the utricular afferents travelling in it. In contrast, cVEMP elicited by either ACS or BCV may reflect function of the saccular afferents running in the inferior vestibular nerve.

  4. Differential effects of duration for ocular and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials evoked by air- and bone-conducted stimuli.

    PubMed

    Lim, Louis J Z; Dennis, Danielle L; Govender, Sendhil; Colebatch, James G

    2013-02-01

    We investigated the changes in cervical (cVEMP) and ocular (oVEMP) vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in response to differing stimulus durations. cVEMPs (n = 12 subjects) and oVEMPs (n = 13 subjects) were recorded using air-conducted (AC: 500 Hz) and bone-conducted (BC: 500 Hz) tone burst stimuli with durations varying from 2 to 10 ms. BC stimulation was applied both frontally and to the mastoid. AC cVEMPs showed an increase in amplitude with stimuli up to 6-ms duration associated with a prolonged latency, as previously reported. In contrast, AC oVEMP amplitude decreased with increasing stimulus duration. BC stimuli showed no significant increase in amplitude with increasing stimulus duration for either reflex using either location of stimulation. BC cVEMPS following forehead stimulation showed a significant decrease as duration increased, and BC oVEMPs to mastoid stimulation were largest at 2 ms and decreased thereafter. We conclude that an increase in amplitude with increasing stimulus duration, using 500 Hz stimuli, only occurs for AC cVEMPs. There is no definite benefit in using longer stimuli than 2 ms for BC or oVEMP studies. Shorter stimuli also minimise subject exposure to sound and vibration.

  5. Auditory and Acoustic Research & Development at Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Communication Earpiece System (ACCES), high performance active noise reduction earplugs, helmets specifically designed to reduce bone conducted noise... Earpiece System), high performance active noise reduction earplugs, helmets specifically designed to reduce bone conducted noise, tactical hearing...distribution unlimited. ABBREVIATIONS AAM - Advanced Acoustic Model ACCES - Attenuating Custom Communication Earpiece System AFR - Air Force Regulation

  6. Identifying hearing loss by means of iridology.

    PubMed

    Stearn, Natalie; Swanepoel, De Wet

    2006-11-13

    Isolated reports of hearing loss presenting as markings on the iris exist, but to date the effectiveness of iridology to identify hearing loss has not been investigated. This study therefore aimed to determine the efficacy of iridological analysis in the identification of moderate to profound sensorineural hearing loss in adolescents. A controlled trial was conducted with an iridologist, blind to the actual hearing status of participants, analyzing the irises of participants with and without hearing loss. Fifty hearing impaired and fifty normal hearing subjects, between the ages of 15 and 19 years, controlled for gender, participated in the study. An experienced iridologist analyzed the randomised set of participants' irises. A 70% correct identification of hearing status was obtained by iridological analyses with a false negative rate of 41% compared to a 19% false positive rate. The respective sensitivity and specificity rates therefore came to 59% and 81%. Iridological analysis of hearing status indicated a statistically significant relationship to actual hearing status (P < 0.05). Although statistically significant sensitivity and specificity rates for identifying hearing loss by iridology were not comparable to those of traditional audiological screening procedures.

  7. Hearing Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... guns, driving a truck or listening to loud music for long periods of time?YesNoAre you experiencing ... CareSee your doctor.Start OverDiagnosisYou may have MENIERE'S DISEASE or a more serious TUMOR on the hearing ...

  8. Exposure to music and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) among professional pop/rock/jazz musicians

    PubMed Central

    Halevi-Katz, Dana N.; Yaakobi, Erez; Putter-Katz, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) has been extensively studied in industrial work environments. With the advent of new technologies, loud music has been increasingly affecting listeners outside of the industrial setting. Most research on the effects of music and hearing loss has focused on classical musicians. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between the amount of experience a professional pop/rock/jazz musician has and objective and subjective variables of the musician's hearing loss. This study also examined professional pop/rock/jazz musicians’ use of hearing protection devices in relation to the extent of their exposure to amplified music. Forty-four pop/rock/jazz musicians were interviewed using the Pop/Rock/Jazz Musician's Questionnaire (PRJMQ) in order to obtain self-reported symptoms of tinnitus and hyperacusis. Forty-two of the subjects were also tested for air-conduction hearing thresholds in the frequency range of 1-8 kHz. Results show that the extent of professional pop/rock/jazz musicians’ exposure to amplified music was related to both objective and subjective variables of hearing loss: Greater musical experience was positively linked to higher hearing thresholds in the frequency range of 3-6 kHz and to the subjective symptom of tinnitus. Weekly hours playing were found to have a greater effect on hearing loss in comparison to years playing. Use of hearing protection was not linked to the extent of exposure to amplified music. It is recommended that further research be conducted with a larger sample, in order to gain a greater understanding of the detrimental effects of hours playing versus years playing. PMID:25913555

  9. Exposure to music and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) among professional pop/rock/jazz musicians.

    PubMed

    Halevi-Katz, Dana N; Yaakobi, Erez; Putter-Katz, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) has been extensively studied in industrial work environments. With the advent of new technologies, loud music has been increasingly affecting listeners outside of the industrial setting. Most research on the effects of music and hearing loss has focused on classical musicians. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between the amount of experience a professional pop/rock/jazz musician has and objective and subjective variables of the musician's hearing loss. This study also examined professional pop/rock/jazz musicians' use of hearing protection devices in relation to the extent of their exposure to amplified music. Forty-four pop/rock/jazz musicians were interviewed using the Pop/Rock/Jazz Musician's Questionnaire (PRJMQ) in order to obtain self-reported symptoms of tinnitus and hyperacusis. Forty-two of the subjects were also tested for air-conduction hearing thresholds in the frequency range of 1-8 kHz. Results show that the extent of professional pop/rock/jazz musicians' exposure to amplified music was related to both objective and subjective variables of hearing loss: Greater musical experience was positively linked to higher hearing thresholds in the frequency range of 3-6 kHz and to the subjective symptom of tinnitus. Weekly hours playing were found to have a greater effect on hearing loss in comparison to years playing. Use of hearing protection was not linked to the extent of exposure to amplified music. It is recommended that further research be conducted with a larger sample, in order to gain a greater understanding of the detrimental effects of hours playing versus years playing.

  10. Fully implantable Otologics MET Carina™ device for the treatment of sensorineural hearing loss. Preliminary surgical and clinical results

    PubMed Central

    Bruschini, L; Forli, F; Santoro, A; Bruschini, P; Berrettini, S

    2009-01-01

    Summary Middle ear implants overcome some of the common problems of conventional hearing aid technology, such as feedback, signal distortion, ear canal occlusion and associated issues. The Otologics MET Carina™, Boulder, CO, USA, is a fully implantable hearing prosthesis designed to address the amplification needs of adults (> 18 years of age), with moderate to severe sensorineural hearing loss and normal middle ears, providing a mechanical direct stimulation of middle ear ossicles. Recently, it has been successfully used also in patients with conductive hearing loss. In the present report, personal surgical and clinical experience with the fully implantable Carina™ is described in 5 adults with moderate to severe sensorineural hearing loss, operated upon between November 2007 and May 2008 in the ENT Unit, University of Pisa. Mean follow-up was 10.2 months of device use (range 7-13). Surgery was performed under general anaesthesia, in ~3 hours, with no surgical complications in any of the patients. In these 5 cases, no significant post-operative variation was observed in hearing thresholds, either for air or bone conduction, indicating absence of surgical damage to the cochlea. All patients showed improvements in hearing thresholds, in free field and in speech perception abilities, with the device functioning, moreover, they reported subjective benefits. With regard to post-operative adverse effects, no cases of extrusion of the device, device failure, loss of external communication or increased charging times were observed. Problems of feedback noise occurred, which were resolved with minor fitting adjustments in 4 cases, while a second operation was required to change the microphone position in the other patient. The present results, in agreement with those reported in the literature, confirm that the Otologics MET Carina™ is viable treatment for moderate to severe sensorineural hearing loss and, in selected cases, may represent an alternative to

  11. 40 CFR 60.2706 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2706 Section 60.2706 Protection of Environment... pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection must be... meeting the amended emission limitations. (b) Within 10 operating days following an air pollution...

  12. 40 CFR 60.2706 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2706 Section 60.2706 Protection of Environment... pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection must be... meeting the amended emission limitations. (b) Within 10 operating days following an air pollution...

  13. 40 CFR 60.2706 - By what date must I conduct the initial air pollution control device inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air pollution control device inspection? 60.2706 Section 60.2706 Protection of Environment... pollution control device inspection? (a) The initial air pollution control device inspection must be... meeting the amended emission limitations. (b) Within 10 operating days following an air pollution...

  14. Hearing Instruments for Unilateral Severe-to-Profound Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sandra Nelson; Lucas, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: A systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis was conducted to assess the nature and quality of the evidence for the use of hearing instruments in adults with a unilateral severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss. Design: The PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane, CINAHL, and DARE databases were searched with no restrictions on language. The search included articles from the start of each database until February 11, 2015. Studies were included that (a) assessed the impact of any form of hearing instrument, including devices that reroute signals between the ears or restore aspects of hearing to a deaf ear, in adults with a sensorineural severe to profound loss in one ear and normal or near-normal hearing in the other ear; (b) compared different devices or compared a device with placebo or the unaided condition; (c) measured outcomes in terms of speech perception, spatial listening, or quality of life; (d) were prospective controlled or observational studies. Studies that met prospectively defined criteria were subjected to random effects meta-analyses. Results: Twenty-seven studies reported in 30 articles were included. The evidence was graded as low-to-moderate quality having been obtained primarily from observational before-after comparisons. The meta-analysis identified statistically significant benefits to speech perception in noise for devices that rerouted the speech signals of interest from the worse ear to the better ear using either air or bone conduction (mean benefit, 2.5 dB). However, these devices also degraded speech understanding significantly and to a similar extent (mean deficit, 3.1 dB) when noise was rerouted to the better ear. Data on the effects of cochlear implantation on speech perception could not be pooled as the prospectively defined criteria for meta-analysis were not met. Inconsistency in the assessment of outcomes relating to sound localization also precluded the synthesis of evidence across studies. Evidence for

  15. Effects of a thermal nonequilibrium model and a high-order electrical conductivity on the air ICP simulation under different working pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Minghao; Liu, Kai; Zhao, Tong; Zhang, Yanchao

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we present the numerical results obtained by using simulations of air inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs) that considered the thermal nonequilibrium and the high-order electron transport properties. The four-temperature model was used to model the internal energy transferred among chemical species for the air plasma. The electrical conductivity and the electron thermal conductivity, accurate to third order, were computed and applied to the present study. The magnetic vector-potential equations were tightly coupled with the two-dimensional compressible axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations that took into account 11 species and 49 chemical reactions of air. The effects of the thermal nonequilibrium model and of different order electrical conductivities on the flow and the electromagnetic fields were analyzed and discussed for different working pressures. As the working pressure p is cleanly shown to be higher than 19.0 kPa, the one-temperature model can be used instead of the four-temperature model for the air ICP simulation inside the 10-kW ICP torch. Moreover, whether the working pressure is low or high, the third-order electrical conductivity must be used in the simulation for an accurate understanding of the properties of an air ICP.

  16. Water temperature effect on upward air-water flow in a vertical pipe: Local measurements database using four-sensor conductivity probes and LDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monrós-Andreu, G.; Chiva, S.; Martínez-Cuenca, R.; Torró, S.; Juliá, J. E.; Hernández, L.; Mondragón, R.

    2013-04-01

    Experimental work was carried out to study the effects of temperature variation in bubbly, bubbly to slug transition. Experiments were carried out in an upward air-water flow configuration. Four sensor conductivity probes and LDA techniques was used together for the measurement of bubble parameters. The aim of this paper is to provide a bubble parameter experimental database using four-sensor conductivity probes and LDA technique for upward air-water flow at different temperatures and also show transition effect in different temperatures under the boiling point.

  17. Hearing Function in Patients Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Luque, Amneris E.; Orlando, Mark S.; Leong, U-Cheng; Allen, Paul D.; Guido, Joseph J.; Yang, Hongmei; Wu, Hulin

    2014-01-01

    Background During the earlier years of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, initial reports described sensorineural hearing loss in up to 49% of individuals with HIV/AIDS. During those years, patients commonly progressed to advanced stages of HIV disease, and frequently had neurological complications. However, the abnormalities on pure-tone audiometry and brainstem evoked responses outlined in small studies were not always consistently correlated with advanced stages of HIV/AIDS. Moreover, these studies could not exclude the confounding effect of concurrent opportunistic infections and syphilis. Additional reports also have indicated that some antiretroviral (ARV) medications may be ototoxic, thus it has been difficult to make conclusions regarding the cause of changes in hearing function in HIV-infected patients. More recently, accelerated aging has been suggested as a potential explanation for the disproportionate increase in complications of aging described in many HIV-infected patients, hence accelerated aging associated hearing loss may also be playing a role in these patients. Methods We conducted a large cross-sectional analysis of hearing function in over 300 patients with HIV-1 infection and in 137 HIV-uninfected controls. HIV-infected participants and HIV-uninfected controls underwent a two-hour battery of hearing tests including the Hearing Handicap Inventory, standard audiometric pure-tone air and bone conduction testing, tympanometric testing and speech reception and discrimination testing. Results Three-way ANOVA and logistic regression analysis of 278 eligible HIV-infected subjects stratified by disease stage in early HIV disease (n= 127) and late HIV disease (n=148) and 120 eligible HIV-uninfected controls revealed no statistical significant differences among the three study groups in either overall 4-PTA or hearing loss prevalence in either ear. Three-way ANOVA showed significant differences in word recognition scores (WRS) in the right ear among groups; a

  18. Viral causes of hearing loss: a review for hearing health professionals.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Brandon E; Durstenfeld, Anne; Roehm, Pamela C

    2014-07-29

    A number of viral infections can cause hearing loss. Hearing loss induced by these viruses can be congenital or acquired, unilateral or bilateral. Certain viral infections can directly damage inner ear structures, others can induce inflammatory responses which then cause this damage, and still others can increase susceptibility or bacterial or fungal infection, leading to hearing loss. Typically, virus-induced hearing loss is sensorineural, although conductive and mixed hearing losses can be seen following infection with certain viruses. Occasionally, recovery of hearing after these infections can occur spontaneously. Most importantly, some of these viral infections can be prevented or treated. For many of these viruses, guidelines for their treatment or prevention have recently been revised. In this review, we outline many of the viruses that cause hearing loss, their epidemiology, course, prevention, and treatment.

  19. Viral Causes of Hearing Loss: A Review for Hearing Health Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Brandon E.; Durstenfeld, Anne

    2014-01-01

    A number of viral infections can cause hearing loss. Hearing loss induced by these viruses can be congenital or acquired, unilateral or bilateral. Certain viral infections can directly damage inner ear structures, others can induce inflammatory responses which then cause this damage, and still others can increase susceptibility or bacterial or fungal infection, leading to hearing loss. Typically, virus-induced hearing loss is sensorineural, although conductive and mixed hearing losses can be seen following infection with certain viruses. Occasionally, recovery of hearing after these infections can occur spontaneously. Most importantly, some of these viral infections can be prevented or treated. For many of these viruses, guidelines for their treatment or prevention have recently been revised. In this review, we outline many of the viruses that cause hearing loss, their epidemiology, course, prevention, and treatment. PMID:25080364

  20. 28 CFR 104.33 - Hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hearing. 104.33 Section 104.33 Judicial..., and Review Procedures § 104.33 Hearing. (a) Supplemental submissions. The claimant may prepare and... Special Master shall develop forms appropriate for Supplemental Submissions. (b) Conduct of...

  1. 34 CFR 300.512 - Hearing rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hearing rights. 300.512 Section 300.512 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Due Process Procedures for Parents and Children § 300.512 Hearing rights. (a....534, or an appeal conducted pursuant to § 300.514, has the right to— (1) Be accompanied and advised...

  2. 14 CFR 303.45 - Evidentiary hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... order for a full evidentiary hearing, the Chief Administrative Law Judge shall promptly appoint an Administrative Law Judge to conduct such hearing in accordance with section 7 of the Administrative Procedure Act... notice filed with the Administrative Law Judge. Other persons may intervene as parties as provided...

  3. 41 CFR 105-57.005 - Hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hearing. 105-57.005 Section 105-57.005 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System.... An oral hearing may, at the debtor's option, be conducted either in-person or by telephone...

  4. 45 CFR 1606.8 - Hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... (e) The hearing officer shall preside over and conduct a full and fair hearing, avoid delay, maintain order, and insure that a record sufficient for full disclosure of the facts and issues is maintained. (f... insure full disclosure of the facts, to maintain order, or to avoid delay. Irrelevant,...

  5. Hearing Loss and Quality of Life (QOL) among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected and Uninfected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Duong, N; Torre, P; Springer, G; Cox, C; Plankey, MW

    2017-01-01

    Objective Research has established that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes hearing loss. Studies have yet to evaluate the impact on quality of life (QOL). This project evaluates the effect of hearing loss on QOL by HIV status. Methods The study participants were from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) and the Women's Interagency HIV study (WIHS). A total of 248 men and 127 women participated. Pure-tone air conduction thresholds were collected for each ear at frequencies from 250 through 8000 Hz. Pure-tone averages (PTAs) for each ear were calculated as the mean of air conduction thresholds in low frequencies (i.e., 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz) and high frequencies (i.e., 3000, 4000, 6000 and 8000 Hz). QOL data were gathered with the Short Form 36 Health Survey and Medical Outcome Study (MOS)-HIV instrument in the MACS and WIHS, respectively. A median regression analysis was performed to test the association of PTAs with QOL by HIV status. Results There was no significant association between hearing loss and QOL scores at low and high pure tone averages in HIV positive and negative individuals. HIV status, HIV biomarkers and treatment did not change the lack of association of low and high pure tone averages with poorer QOL. Conclusion Although we did not find a statistically significant association of hearing loss with QOL by HIV status, testing for hearing loss with aging and recommending treatment may offset any presumed later life decline in QOL. PMID:28217403

  6. Buying a Hearing Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... aids typically cannot be custom-fit. What are costs and styles of hearing aids? Hearing aids vary ... and for improvement in hearing tones. Real ear measurements may also be done, which determine how much ...

  7. 28 CFR 2.25 - Hearings by videoconference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hearings by videoconference. 2.25 Section 2.25 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF... Hearings by videoconference. The Commission may conduct a parole determination hearing (including...

  8. 28 CFR 2.25 - Hearings by videoconference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hearings by videoconference. 2.25 Section 2.25 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF... Hearings by videoconference. The Commission may conduct a parole determination hearing (including...

  9. 10 CFR 4.64 - Consolidated or joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Consolidated or joint hearings. 4.64 Section 4.64 Energy... Consolidated or joint hearings. In cases in which the same or related facts are asserted to constitute... or agencies, where applicable, provide for the conduct of consolidated or joint hearings, and for...

  10. 10 CFR 4.64 - Consolidated or joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consolidated or joint hearings. 4.64 Section 4.64 Energy... Consolidated or joint hearings. In cases in which the same or related facts are asserted to constitute... or agencies, where applicable, provide for the conduct of consolidated or joint hearings, and for...

  11. 10 CFR 4.64 - Consolidated or joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Consolidated or joint hearings. 4.64 Section 4.64 Energy... Consolidated or joint hearings. In cases in which the same or related facts are asserted to constitute... or agencies, where applicable, provide for the conduct of consolidated or joint hearings, and for...

  12. How to Get Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Products Hearing Aids How to get Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... my hearing aids? How do I get hearing aids? Before getting a hearing aid, you should consider ...

  13. Hearing Parents' Appraisals of Parenting a Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing Child: Application of a Positive Psychology Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szarkowski, Amy; Brice, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Hearing parents of deaf and hard-of-hearing children face unique challenges and stressors, the understanding of which has been the focus of numerous studies; yet, relatively little is known about their positive experiences. Using a qualitative purposive sampling design, interviews were conducted with 11 hearing parents (8 mothers, 3 fathers)…

  14. Synthesis of an air-working trilayer artificial muscle using a conductive cassava starch biofilm (manihot esculenta, cranz) and polypyrrole (PPy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez D, Y. E.; Arrieta A, Á. A.; Segura B, J. A.; Bertel H, S. D.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a methodology for obtaining a conductive cassava starch biofilm doped with lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) is shown, as well as the electrochemical technique for the synthesis of polypyrrole films, which are used for developing the trilayer artificial muscle PPy/Biopolymer/PPy designed to operate in air. Furthermore, results from the trilayer movement using chronoamperometric techniques are shown.

  15. 40 CFR 92.709 - Public hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR... Hearing Clerk of the Environmental Protection Agency. (2) Intervenor shall mean a person who files a... order directed at that manufacturer or remanufacturer. (4) Party shall include the...

  16. Hearing and hearing loss: Causes, effects, and treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmiedt, Richard A.

    2003-04-01

    Hearing loss can have multiple causes. The outer and middle ears are conductive pathways for acoustic energy to the inner ear (cochlea) and help shape our spectral sensitivity. Conductive hearing loss is mechanical in nature such that the energy transfer to the cochlea is impeded, often from eardrum perforations or middle ear fluid buildup. Beyond the middle ear, the cochlea comprises three interdependent systems necessary for normal hearing. The first is that of basilar-membrane micromechanics including the outer hair cells. This system forms the basis of the cochlear amplifier and is the most vulnerable to noise and drug exposure. The second system comprises the ion pumps in the lateral wall tissues of the cochlea. These highly metabolic cells provide energy to the cochlear amplifier in the form of electrochemical potentials. This second system is particularly vulnerable to the effects of aging. The third system comprises the inner hair cells and their associated sensory nerve fibers. This system is the transduction stage, changing mechanical vibrations to nerve impulses. New treatments for hearing loss are on the horizon; however, at present the best strategy is avoidance of cochlear trauma and the proper use of hearing aids. [Work supported by NIA and MUSC.

  17. Incorporating Mythic and Interpretive Analysis in the Investigation of Hearing Loss on the Family Farm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meister, Mark; Hest, Theresa; Burnett, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Despite knowing about the dangers of hearing loss, farmers typically choose not to protect their hearing. Examining the myth of farm life, this study aims to discern whether rhetorical myths influence farmers' decisions to wear hearing protection. Researchers conducted 40 interviews with farmers regarding farm life and hearing loss. Results…

  18. Report: Clean Air Act Facility Evaluations Are Conducted, but Inaccurate Data Hinder EPA Oversight and Public Awareness

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #16-P-0164, May 3, 2016. Accurate enforcement databases and updated CMS plans promote effective and efficient EPA oversight of compliance programs, and help to protect the public from harmful air pollutants.

  19. Restoration of middle-ear input in fluid-filled middle ears by controlled introduction of air or a novel air-filled implant.

    PubMed

    Ravicz, Michael E; Chien, Wade W; Rosowski, John J

    2015-10-01

    The effect of small amounts of air on sound-induced umbo velocity in an otherwise saline-filled middle ear (ME) was investigated to examine the efficacy of a novel balloon-like air-filled ME implant suitable for patients with chronically non-aerated MEs. In this study, air bubbles or air-filled implants were introduced into saline-filled human cadaveric MEs. Umbo velocity, a convenient measure of ME response, served as an indicator of hearing sensitivity. Filling the ME with saline reduced umbo velocity by 25-30 dB at low frequencies and more at high frequencies, consistent with earlier work (Ravicz et al., Hear. Res. 195: 103-130 (2004)). Small amounts of air (∼30 μl) in the otherwise saline-filled ME increased umbo velocity substantially, to levels only 10-15 dB lower than in the dry ME, in a frequency- and location-dependent manner: air in contact with the tympanic membrane (TM) increased umbo velocity at all frequencies, while air located away from the TM increased umbo velocity only below about 500 Hz. The air-filled implant also affected umbo velocity in a manner similar to an air bubble of equivalent compliance. Inserting additional implants into the ME had the same effect as increasing air volume. These results suggest these middle-ear implants would significantly reduce conductive hearing loss in patients with chronically fluid-filled MEs.

  20. Inner Ear Conductive Hearing Loss and Unilateral Pulsatile Tinnitus Associated with a Dural Arteriovenous Fistula: Case Based Review and Analysis of Relationship between Intracranial Vascular Abnormalities and Inner Ear Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Cassandro, Ettore; Cassandro, Claudia; Sequino, Giuliano; Scarpa, Alfonso; Petrolo, Claudio; Chiarella, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    While pulsatile tinnitus (PT) and dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) are not rarely associated, the finding of a conductive hearing loss (CHL) in this clinical picture is unusual. Starting from a case of CHL and PT, diagnosed to be due to a DAVF, we analyzed relationship between intracranial vascular abnormalities and inner ear fluids. DAVF was treated with endovascular embolization. Following this, there was a dramatic recovery of PT and of CHL, confirming their cause-effect link with DAVF. We critically evaluated the papers reporting this association. This is the first case of CHL associated with PT and DAVF. We describe the most significant experiences and theories reported in literature, with a personal analysis about the possible relationship between vascular intracranial system and labyrinthine fluids. In conclusion, we believe that this association may be a challenge for otolaryngologists. So we suggest to consider the possibility of a DAVF or other AVMs when PT is associated with CHL, without alterations of tympanic membrane and middle ear tests. PMID:26693371

  1. Hearing Loss in HIV-Infected Children in Lilongwe, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Hrapcak, Susan; Kuper, Hannah; Bartlett, Peter; Devendra, Akash; Makawa, Atupele; Kim, Maria; Kazembe, Peter; Ahmed, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction With improved access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV infection is becoming a chronic illness. Preliminary data suggest that HIV-infected children have a higher risk of disabilities, including hearing impairment, although data are sparse. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and types of hearing loss in HIV-infected children in Lilongwe, Malawi. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of 380 HIV-infected children aged 4–14 years attending ART clinic in Lilongwe between December 2013-March 2014. Data was collected through pediatric quality of life and sociodemographic questionnaires, electronic medical record review, and detailed audiologic testing. Hearing loss was defined as >20 decibels hearing level (dBHL) in either ear. Predictors of hearing loss were explored by regression analysis generating age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios. Children with significant hearing loss were fitted with hearing aids. Results Of 380 patients, 24% had hearing loss: 82% conductive, 14% sensorineural, and 4% mixed. Twenty-one patients (23% of those with hearing loss) were referred for hearing aid fitting. There was a higher prevalence of hearing loss in children with history of frequent ear infections (OR 7.4, 4.2–13.0) and ear drainage (OR 6.4, 3.6–11.6). Hearing loss was linked to history of WHO Stage 3 (OR 2.4, 1.2–4.5) or Stage 4 (OR 6.4, 2.7–15.2) and history of malnutrition (OR 2.1, 1.3–3.5), but not to duration of ART or CD4. Only 40% of caregivers accurately perceived their child’s hearing loss. Children with hearing impairment were less likely to attend school and had poorer emotional (p = 0.02) and school functioning (p = 0.04). Conclusions There is an urgent need for improved screening tools, identification and treatment of hearing problems in HIV-infected children, as hearing loss was common in this group and affected school functioning and quality of life. Clear strategies were identified for prevention and treatment, since most

  2. Evidence of noise-induced hearing loss in young people studying popular music.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Christopher

    2011-06-01

    The number of students studying popular music, music technology, and sound engineering courses at both school and university to has increased rapidly in the last few years. These students are generally involved in music-making/recording and listening to a high level, usually in environments with amplified music. Recent studies have shown that these students are potentially exposed to a high risk of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL( and are not covered by the same regulatory framework as employees. This study examined the pure tone air conduction hearing thresholds of 50 undergraduate students, including recent school leavers, on a range of popular music courses, to assess if there was evidence of hearing loss. Forty-four percent of students showed evidence of audiometric notch at 4-6 kHz, and 16% were classified under the UK Occupational Health and Safety guidelines as exhibiting mild hearing loss. Instance of audiometric notch was considerably higher than reported from studies of the general population but was around the same level or lower than that reported from studies of "traditional" music courses and conservatoires, suggesting no higher risk for popular music students than for "classical" music students. No relationship with age was present, suggesting that younger students were as likely to exhibit audiometric notch as mature students. This indicates that these students may be damaging their hearing through leisure activities while still at school, suggesting a need for robust education measures to focus on noise exposure of young people.

  3. Analyses and estimates of hydraulic conductivity from slug tests in alluvial aquifer underlying Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houston, Natalie A.; Braun, Christopher L.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the collection, analyses, and distribution of hydraulic-conductivity data obtained from slug tests completed in the alluvial aquifer underlying Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas, during October 2002 and August 2003 and summarizes previously available hydraulic-conductivity data. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, completed 30 slug tests in October 2002 and August 2003 to obtain estimates of horizontal hydraulic conductivity to use as initial values in a ground-water-flow model for the site. The tests were done by placing a polyvinyl-chloride slug of known volume beneath the water level in selected wells, removing the slug, and measuring the resulting water-level recovery over time. The water levels were measured with a pressure transducer and recorded with a data logger. Hydraulic-conductivity values were estimated from an analytical relation between the instantaneous displacement of water in a well bore and the resulting rate of head change. Although nearly two-thirds of the tested wells recovered 90 percent of their slug-induced head change in less than 2 minutes, 90-percent recovery times ranged from 3 seconds to 35 minutes. The estimates of hydraulic conductivity range from 0.2 to 200 feet per day. Eighty-three percent of the estimates are between 1 and 100 feet per day.

  4. The Master Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  5. Hearing, use of hearing protection, and attitudes towards noise among young American adults.

    PubMed

    Widén, S E; Holmes, A E; Johnson, T; Bohlin, M; Erlandsson, S I

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate possible associations between college students' attitudes, risk-taking behaviour related to noisy activities, and hearing problems such as threshold shifts or self-experienced hearing symptoms. The sample included 258 students aged between 17 and 21 enrolled at the University of Pennsylvania, USA. A questionnaire measuring attitudes towards noise, use of hearing protection, and self-reported hearing symptoms was distributed among the students. After completing the questionnaire a hearing screening, including pure-tone audiometry and tympanometry, was conducted. The result revealed that 26% had thresholds poorer than the screening level of 20 dBHL. Attitudes were significantly related to self-experienced hearing symptoms, but not to threshold shifts. Attitudes and noise sensitivity was, significantly related to use of hearing protection. Hearing protection use was found in activities such as using firearms, mowing lawns, and when using noisy tools but was less reported for concerts and discotheques. It can be concluded that the young adults in this study expose themselves to hearing risks, since the use of hearing protection is in general very low.

  6. Pre-enlistment hearing loss and hearing loss disability among US soldiers and marines.

    PubMed

    Gubata, Marlene E; Packnett, Elizabeth R; Feng, Xiaoshu; Cowan, David N; Niebuhr, David W

    2013-01-01

    Hearing loss is a common condition among US adults, with some evidence of increasing prevalence in young adults. Noise-induced hearing loss attributable to employment is a significant source of preventable morbidity world-wide. The US military population is largely comprised of young adult males serving in a wide variety of occupations, many in high noise-level conditions, at least episodically. To identify accession and service-related risk factors for hearing-related disability, matched case-control study of US military personnel was conducted. Individuals evaluated for hearing loss disability in the US Army and Marine Corps were frequency matched to controls without history of disability evaluation on service and enlistment year. Conditional logistic regression was used to examine the association between accession and service-related factors and hearing-related disability evaluations between October 2002 and September 2010. Individuals with medically disqualifying audiograms or hearing loss diagnoses at application for military service were 8 and 4 times more likely, respectively, to have a disability evaluation related to hearing loss, after controlling for relevant accession, demographic, and service-related factors. Conservative hearing loss thresholds on pre-enlistment audiograms, stricter hearing loss medical waiver policies or qualified baseline audiograms pre-enlistment are needed in the U.S military. Industrial corporations or labor unions may also benefit from identifying individuals with moderate hearing loss at the time of employment to ensure use of personal protective equipment and engineer controls of noise.

  7. (De)stigmatizing the silent epidemic: representations of hearing loss in entertainment television.

    PubMed

    Foss, Katherine A

    2014-01-01

    The number of adolescents, young adults, and senior citizens experiencing hearing loss has significantly increased over the last 30 years. Despite this prevalence, hearing loss receives little attention in popular and political discourse, except in its connection to aging. Thus, hearing loss and the use of hearing aids have been stigmatized, discouraging adults from seeking hearing evaluation and screening, and justifying the lack of insurance coverage for hearing devices. This research explored how and why hearing loss continues to be stigmatized through a study of media messages about hearing loss. A textual analysis was conducted on 276 television episodes that involved d/Deaf characters and/or storylines about hearing loss and deafness from 1987 through 2013 (see Table 1). Only 11 fictional programs addressed the experience of hearing loss through 47 episodes, including Criminal Minds, Switched at Birth, House, M.D., and New Girl. Contrary to the assumption that hearing loss exclusively impacts older people, characters were typically young, attractive, working professionals who held prominent roles in the programs. For most characters, hearing loss developed suddenly and was restored by the end of the episode, with only four characters using hearing aids. Hearing loss was depicted as comical, embarrassing, lonely, and threatening to one's work. The scarcity of hearing loss portrayals, combined with the negative representations of hearing loss, could help explain why hearing loss continues to be stigmatized and overlooked, even though almost half of all Americans will eventually experience difficulty hearing.

  8. Canine hearing loss management.

    PubMed

    Scheifele, Lesa; Clark, John Greer; Scheifele, Peter M

    2012-11-01

    Dog owners and handlers are naturally concerned when suspicion of hearing loss arises for their dogs. Questions frequently asked of the veterinarian center on warning signs of canine hearing loss and what can be done for the dog if hearing loss is confirmed. This article addresses warning signs of canine hearing loss, communication training and safety awareness issues, and the feasibility of hearing aid amplification for dogs.

  9. AIR POLLUTION MEASUREMENTS IN THE VICINITY OF THE WORLD TRADE CENTER - SUMMARY OF MEASUREMENTS CONDUCTED BY EPA-ORD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development (EPA-ORD) was requested by EPA's Region 2 office in New York on 9/12/01 to assist with air quality monitoring in response to the collapse of the World Trade Center. Scientists at the U.S. EPA-ORD's Nati...

  10. 40 CFR 78.15 - Motions in evidentiary hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Motions in evidentiary hearings. 78.15 Section 78.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPEAL PROCEDURES § 78.15 Motions in evidentiary hearings. (a) Any party may make a motion to...

  11. 40 CFR 78.14 - Evidentiary hearing procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evidentiary hearing procedure. 78.14 Section 78.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPEAL PROCEDURES § 78.14 Evidentiary hearing procedure. (a) If a request for an...

  12. 40 CFR 94.514 - Administrative procedures for public hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hearing. 94.514 Section 94.514 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Line Testing Programs § 94.514 Administrative procedures for public hearing. (a) The Presiding Officer...) The Judicial Officer shall be an officer or employee of the Agency appointed as a Judicial Officer...

  13. 40 CFR 94.514 - Administrative procedures for public hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hearing. 94.514 Section 94.514 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Line Testing Programs § 94.514 Administrative procedures for public hearing. (a) The Presiding Officer...) The Judicial Officer shall be an officer or employee of the Agency appointed as a Judicial Officer...

  14. 40 CFR 91.513 - Administrative procedures for public hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hearing. 91.513 Section 91.513 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Testing Program § 91.513 Administrative procedures for public hearing. (a) The Presiding Officer shall be...). (b) The Judicial Officer shall be an officer or employee of the Agency appointed as a...

  15. 40 CFR 91.513 - Administrative procedures for public hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hearing. 91.513 Section 91.513 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Testing Program § 91.513 Administrative procedures for public hearing. (a) The Presiding Officer shall be...). (b) The Judicial Officer shall be an officer or employee of the Agency appointed as a...

  16. 40 CFR 53.12 - Request for hearing on cancellation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Request for hearing on cancellation. 53.12 Section 53.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... issue of fact, a hearing will be granted in accordance with § 53.13 with respect to such issue....

  17. 40 CFR 53.12 - Request for hearing on cancellation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Request for hearing on cancellation. 53.12 Section 53.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... issue of fact, a hearing will be granted in accordance with § 53.13 with respect to such issue....

  18. 40 CFR 60.539 - Hearing and appeal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hearing and appeal procedures. 60.539 Section 60.539 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Wood Heaters § 60.539 Hearing and appeal procedures. (a)(1) In any case where the Administrator—...

  19. 40 CFR 60.539 - Hearing and appeal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hearing and appeal procedures. 60.539 Section 60.539 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Wood Heaters § 60.539 Hearing and appeal procedures. (a)(1) In any case where the Administrator—...

  20. 40 CFR 60.539 - Hearing and appeal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hearing and appeal procedures. 60.539 Section 60.539 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Wood Heaters § 60.539 Hearing and appeal procedures. (a)(1) In any case where the Administrator—...

  1. 40 CFR 60.539 - Hearing and appeal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hearing and appeal procedures. 60.539 Section 60.539 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Wood Heaters § 60.539 Hearing and appeal procedures. (a)(1) In any case where the Administrator—...

  2. 40 CFR 60.539 - Hearing and appeal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hearing and appeal procedures. 60.539 Section 60.539 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Wood Heaters § 60.539 Hearing and appeal procedures. (a)(1) In any case where the Administrator—...

  3. 40 CFR 78.15 - Motions in evidentiary hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motions in evidentiary hearings. 78.15 Section 78.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPEAL PROCEDURES § 78.15 Motions in evidentiary hearings. (a) Any party may make a motion to...

  4. Frequency-specific electric response audiometry (ERA) and its clinical application in the diagnosis of hearing defects in the dog.

    PubMed

    Schacks, S; Rohn, K; Hauschild, G

    2006-03-01

    Reference values were established for frequency-specific electric response audiometry (ERA) in dogs on the basis of the results of ERA examinations of 200 animals with normal hearing. Air-conducting acoustic tubes with foam stoppers were used in the determination of the following: the latencies of waves I, III and V; interpeak latencies (IPL) I-III, III-V and I-V; amplitudes I and V; and the amplitude difference I-V. A frequency-specific stimulus (tone pip) was used for frequency-specific examination (1 to 4 kHz) over the entire frequency range indicated. These reference values were then used for the clinical examination of 50 dogs with hearing defects. A frequency-specific ERA was conducted and the results evaluated. These findings made it possible to draw objective conclusions about the degree, type and site of the hearing defects. Frequency-specific electric response audiometry was shown to be an important diagnostic tool for the detection of partial high- and low-frequency hearing loss and for the characterisation of hearing defects of otological, otoneurological and neurological origin.

  5. A prospective study on radiation-induced changes in hearing function

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, Franziska; Doerr, Wolfgang; Mueller, Rainer; Herrmann, Thomas . E-mail: thomas.herrmann@mailbox.tu-dresden.de

    2006-08-01

    Purpose: To quantitate changes in hearing function after radiotherapy for head-and-neck tumors. Methods and Materials: At the Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, 32 patients were irradiated for head-and-neck tumors. Three-dimensional treatment planning was applied. Total tumor doses were 30.0-77.6 Gy, local doses to the inner ear (n = 64) ranged from 1.7 to 64.3 Gy. Audiometry was performed before the onset of radiotherapy (RT), at a tumor dose of 40 Gy or at the end of palliative treatment, at the end of curative RT, and 2-6 months post-RT. Assays applied were frequency-specific threshold measurements for air and bone conduction, measurements according to Weber and Rinne, tympanometry and assessment of the stapedius reflex. Results: Age and prior disease significantly decreased, whereas previous or concurrent alcohol consumption significantly increased hearing ability. A significant reduction in hearing ability during RT was found for high frequencies (at 40 Gy) and low frequencies (at end of RT), which persisted after RT. No differences were observed for air or bone conduction. None of the other assays displayed time- or dose-dependent changes. Dose-effect analyses revealed an ED50 (dose at which a 50% incidence is expected) for significant changes in hearing thresholds (15 dB) in the range of 20-25 Gy, with large confidence limits. Conclusions: Radiation effects on hearing ability were confined to threshold audiogram values, which started during the treatment without reversibility during 6 months postradiotherapy.

  6. [Hearing loss in adults].

    PubMed

    Eshraghi, Adrien A; Frachet, Bruno; Van De Water, Tom R; Eter, Elias

    2009-05-20

    The management of hearing loss in adults depends of etiology and its severity. It can be as simple as treating an external otitis, removing an impacted cerumen or a more complex one such as a surgery for otosclerosis. The hearing loss is managed mainly by new advances in hearing aids technology and implantable hearing devices which include BAHA, middle ear implant and cochlear implants. The research is focused on developing new molecules for intracochlear drug therapy to treat noise induced hearing loss, drug ototoxicity as well as hearing loss related to cochlear implant insertion trauma. Antioxidant molecules, molecules against apoptosis are at this time the most promising molecules than need further investigations.

  7. Horizontal coring using air as the circulating fluid: Some prototype studies conducted in G Tunnel at the Nevada Test Site for the Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Chornack, M.P.; French, C.A.

    1989-12-31

    Horizontal coring using air as the circulating fluid has been conducted in the G Tunnel Underground Facility (GTUF) at the Nevada Test Site. This work is part of the prototype investigations of hydrogeology for the Yucca Mountain Project. The work is being conducted to develop methods and procedures that will be used at the Department of Energy`s Yucca Mountain Site, a candidate site for the nation`s first high-level nuclear waste repository, during the site characterization phase of the investigations. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting this prototype testing under the guidance of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and in conjunction with Reynolds Electrical & Engineering Company (REECo), the drilling contractor. 7 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Power supplies for hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Knutsen, J E

    1982-08-01

    The design of a hearing-aid system involves three disciplines of applied science--electrochemistry, electrical engineering and audio engineering. This paper is concerned with the interface between the first two. Batteries are essentially non-linear components. Optimum performance is only achievable when the electrical requirements of the hearing aid are closely matched with the voltage, rate capability and impedance of the battery. After years of optimalization, the modern '675' button cell has earned universal acceptability and is now used in most 'behind-the-ear' hearing aids. When more power is required, the larger and less specialized LR6 'penlight' cell is typically specified. Higher voltage might lead to better circuit efficiency, and there is some pressure to introduce a 3 V lithium-based product. Lithium should give superior energy density, but there are problems which remain to be solved. In the end, it is quite possible that the market might settle for an ecologically acceptable long-life lower voltage metal-air cell. If so, the recent zinc-air system may well have a future and could conceivably succeed both the mercury '675' and the alkaline 'penlight' cells.

  9. Leaf conductance decreased under free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) for three perennials in the Nevada desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowak, Robert S.; Defalco, Lesley A.; Wilcox, Carolyn S.; Jordan, Dean N.; Coleman, James S.; Seemann, Jeffrey R.; Smith, Stanley D.

    2001-01-01

    A common response of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (CO2) is decreased leaf conductance. Consequently, leaf temperature is predicted to increase under elevated CO2.Diurnal patterns of leaf conductance and temperature were measured for three desert perennials, the C3 shrub Larrea tridentata, C3 tussock grass Achnatherum hymenoides and C4tussock grass Pleuraphis rigida, at the Nevada Desert FACE facility. Measurements were made on ambient and c. 550 µmol mol−1 CO2 plots through both a wet and dry year.Reductions in conductance were 35%, 20% and 13% for Pleuraphis, Achnatherum and Larrea, respectively. Decreased conductance occurred throughout the day only for Pleuraphis. Both C3species had smaller CO2 effects during dry periods than wet. Leaf temperature did not differ significantly between elevated and ambient CO2 for any species. Comparisons of blower-control and nonring plots indicated that the FACE apparatus did not confound our results.All three species exhibited decreased leaf conductance under elevated CO2, although reductions were not uniform during the day or among years. Nonetheless, leaf energy balance was only minimally changed for these microphyllous desert perennials.

  10. Living with hearing loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000360.htm Living with hearing loss To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. If you are living with hearing loss, you know that it takes extra effort to ...

  11. Genetics of Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Latin America Information For... Media Policy Makers Genetics of Hearing Loss Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... of hearing loss in babies is due to genetic causes. There are also a number of things ...

  12. What's Hearing Loss?

    MedlinePlus

    ... pathologists to help them develop their hearing and speaking skills. Some people with hearing loss may need to use special techniques like these to communicate: speechreading (also ... without speaking. Remember: American Sign Language (ASL) is different from ...

  13. Evaluation of hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Zadeh, M H; Selesnick, S H

    2001-01-01

    Hearing impairment is among the most common medical condition presenting to health care professionals. Ear anatomy, physiology, and pathology resulting in hearing loss are discussed. A systematic approach to evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment is presented.

  14. Hearing Aid Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

  15. Vibrant soundbridge: a new implantable alternative to conventional hearing AIDS in children.

    PubMed

    Sia, K J; Chai, C K; Tang, I P; Prepageran, N

    2012-12-01

    The Vibrant Soundbridge is a new middle ear implantable hearing device. It was first introduced for adult patients with moderate to severe sensorineural hearing loss. With the innovation of the surgical techniques, its usage had been broadened for children and those patients with conductive and mixed hearing loss. We report first two cases of monoaural Vibrant Soundbridge implantation in Malaysia. They were children with bilateral conductive hearing loss who had failed to benefit from previous hearing aids. Floating mass transducers were attached in oval window and long process of incus respectively. Remarkable hearing yield was observed without surgical complication.

  16. 32 CFR 865.109 - Procedures for hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ORGANIZATION AND MISSION-GENERAL PERSONNEL REVIEW BOARDS Air Force Discharge Review Board § 865.109 Procedures for hearings. (a...) Except as otherwise authorized by the Secretary of the Air Force, further opportunity for a...

  17. 32 CFR 865.109 - Procedures for hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ORGANIZATION AND MISSION-GENERAL PERSONNEL REVIEW BOARDS Air Force Discharge Review Board § 865.109 Procedures for hearings. (a...) Except as otherwise authorized by the Secretary of the Air Force, further opportunity for a...

  18. [The application of implantable hearing aids using the Vibrant Soundbridge as an example].

    PubMed

    Strenger, T; Stark, T

    2012-02-01

    Over the last decade, bone conducting hearing aids, cochlear implants and implantable hearing aids have come to represent additional treatment options in clinical routine-alongside conventional hearing aids-for hearing impaired patients. Thanks to experience gained in recent years with implantable hearing aids and the consistent evaluation of functional results, the original spectrum of indications has been progressively extended. Today, implantable hearing aids are available for the hearing (re)habilitation of various forms of middle ear pathology as well as sensorineural hearing loss within the audiological criteria. With CE certification for children, the treatment of younger patients with implantable hearing aids has also become possible. Using the Vibrant Soundbridge as an example, the function, indications and contraindications of implantable hearing aids are described and the surgical procedure and post-operative care discussed.

  19. The Effects of Hearing Aids on Localization of White Noise by Blind Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen, Bruce R.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to observe the effects of hearing aids on the ability of 20 blind veterans to localize white noise. In all cases, Ss performed more poorly on a localization task while wearing a hearing aid. (Author)

  20. Rehabilitation of Hearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

    Rehabilitation of hearing is considered in five conference papers. Two papers come from Poland: "Rehabilitation of Hearing in Children 'Deaf' in First 5 Years of Age" by D. Borkowska-Gaertig and others and "Possibilities of Hearing Improvement in Adults with Conservative Methods" by T. Bystrzanowska. Also included are…

  1. Hearing Conservation Medical Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on hearing impairment is presented including causes and criteria for safe noise levels. The purpose of the Hearing Conservation Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Hearing Impairment at LeRC are discussed.

  2. Hearing loss - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss. Two common tests are used to screen newborn infants for hearing loss: Auditory brain stem response (ABR) ... Over 30 states in the United States require newborn hearing screenings. Treating hearing loss early can allow many infants to develop normal language skills without delay. In ...

  3. Hearing loss in workers exposed to epoxy adhesives and noise: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hsiao-Yu; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Epoxy adhesives contain organic solvents and are widely used in industry. The hazardous effects of epoxy adhesives remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of hearing loss among workers exposed to epoxy adhesives and noise. Design Cross-sectional study. Methods For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 182 stone workers who were exposed to both epoxy adhesives and noise, 89 stone workers who were exposed to noise only, and 43 workers from the administrative staff who had not been exposed to adhesives or noise. We obtained demographic data, occupational history and medical history through face-to-face interviews and arranged physical examinations and pure-tone audiometric tests. We also conducted walk-through surveys in the stone industry. A total of 40 representative noise assessments were conducted in 15 workplaces. Air sampling was conducted at 40 workplaces, and volatile organic compounds were analysed using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) TO-15 method. Results The mean sound pressure level was 87.7 dBA (SD 9.9). The prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss was considerably increased in the stone workers exposed to epoxy adhesives (42%) compared with the stone workers who were not exposed to epoxy adhesives (21%) and the administrative staff group (9.3%). A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that exposure to epoxy adhesives significantly increased the risk of hearing loss between 2 and 6 kHz after adjusting for age. Significant interactions between epoxy adhesives and noise and hearing impairment were observed at 3, 4 and 6 kHz. Conclusions Epoxy adhesives exacerbate hearing impairment in noisy environments, with the main impacts occurring in the middle and high frequencies. PMID:26892792

  4. Hearing testing in the U.S. Department of Defense: Potential impact on Veterans Affairs hearing loss disability awards.

    PubMed

    Nelson, J T; Swan, A A; Swiger, B; Packer, M; Pugh, M J

    2016-10-18

    Hearing loss is the second most common disability awarded by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) to former members of the U.S. uniformed services. Hearing readiness and conservation practices differ among the four largest uniformed military services (Air Force, Army, Marine Corps, and Navy). Utilizing a data set consisting of all hearing loss claims submitted to the VA from fiscal years 2003-2013, we examined characteristics of veterans submitting claims within one year of separation from military service. Our results indicate that having a hearing loss disability claim granted was significantly more likely for men, individuals over the age of 26 years at the time of the claim, individuals most recently serving in the U.S. Army, and those with at least one hearing loss diagnosis. Importantly, individuals with at least one test record in the Defense Occupational and Environmental Health Readiness System-Hearing Conservation (DOEHRS-HC) system were significantly less likely to have a hearing loss disability claim granted by the VA. Within the DOEHRS-HC cohort, those with at least one threshold shift or clinical hearing loss diagnosis while on active duty were more than two and three times more likely to have a hearing loss disability claim granted, respectively. These findings indicate that an established history of reduced hearing ability while on active duty was associated with a significantly increased likelihood of an approved hearing loss disability claim relative to VA claims without such a history. Further, our results show a persistent decreased rate of hearing loss disability awards overall. These findings support increased inclusion of personnel in DoD hearing readiness and conservation programs to reduce VA hearing loss disability awards.

  5. A perovskite oxide with high conductivities in both air and reducing atmosphere for use as electrode for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Rong; Cowin, Peter I.; Sengodan, Sivaprakash; Tao, Shanwen

    2016-08-01

    Electrode materials which exhibit high conductivities in both oxidising and reducing atmospheres are in high demand for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and solid oxide electrolytic cells (SOECs). In this paper, we investigated Cu-doped SrFe0.9Nb0.1O3‑δ finding that the primitive perovskite oxide SrFe0.8Cu0.1Nb0.1O3‑δ (SFCN) exhibits a conductivity of 63 Scm‑1and 60 Scm‑1 at 415 °C in air and 5%H2/Ar respectively. It is believed that the high conductivity in 5%H2/Ar is related to the exsolved Fe (or FeCu alloy) on exposure to a reducing atmosphere. To the best of our knowledge, the conductivity of SrFe0.8Cu0.1Nb0.1O3‑δ in a reducing atmosphere is the highest of all reported oxides which also exhibit a high conductivity in air. Fuel cell performance using SrFe0.8Cu0.1Nb0.1O3‑δ as the anode, (Y2O3)0.08(ZrO2)0.92 as the electrolyte and La0.8Sr0.2FeO3‑δ as the cathode achieved a power density of 423 mWcm‑2 at 700 °C indicating that SFCN is a promising anode for SOFCs.

  6. A perovskite oxide with high conductivities in both air and reducing atmosphere for use as electrode for solid oxide fuel cells

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Rong; Cowin, Peter I.; Sengodan, Sivaprakash; Tao, Shanwen

    2016-01-01

    Electrode materials which exhibit high conductivities in both oxidising and reducing atmospheres are in high demand for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and solid oxide electrolytic cells (SOECs). In this paper, we investigated Cu-doped SrFe0.9Nb0.1O3−δ finding that the primitive perovskite oxide SrFe0.8Cu0.1Nb0.1O3−δ (SFCN) exhibits a conductivity of 63 Scm−1and 60 Scm−1 at 415 °C in air and 5%H2/Ar respectively. It is believed that the high conductivity in 5%H2/Ar is related to the exsolved Fe (or FeCu alloy) on exposure to a reducing atmosphere. To the best of our knowledge, the conductivity of SrFe0.8Cu0.1Nb0.1O3−δ in a reducing atmosphere is the highest of all reported oxides which also exhibit a high conductivity in air. Fuel cell performance using SrFe0.8Cu0.1Nb0.1O3−δ as the anode, (Y2O3)0.08(ZrO2)0.92 as the electrolyte and La0.8Sr0.2FeO3−δ as the cathode achieved a power density of 423 mWcm−2 at 700 °C indicating that SFCN is a promising anode for SOFCs. PMID:27545200

  7. High-frequency hearing in phocid and otariid pinnipeds: an interpretation based on inertial and cochlear constraints (L).

    PubMed

    Hemilä, Simo; Nummela, Sirpa; Berta, Annalisa; Reuter, Tom

    2006-12-01

    Audiograms in air and underwater, determined by previous workers for four pinniped species, two eared seals (Otariidae) and two phocids (Phocidae), are supplemented here by measurements on their middle ear ossicular mass, enabling mechanistic interpretations of high-frequency hearing and audiogram differences. Otariid hearing is not largely affected by the medium (air/water). This indicates that cochlear constraints limit high-frequency hearing in otariids. Phocids, however, have massive middle ear ossicles, and underwater hearing has radically shifted towards higher frequencies. This suggests that the high-frequency hearing of phocids in air is constrained by ossicle inertia.

  8. Electrical conductivity and depth of groundwater at the Pergamino zone (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina) through vertical electrical soundings and geostatistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainato, Claudia; Galindo, Griselda; Pomposiello, Cristina; Malleville, Horacio; de Abelleyra, Diego; Losinno, B.

    2003-06-01

    In the humid Pampean region of Argentina, a rich agricultural zone, the periodic occurrence of droughts of different intensity is one of the most important factors in the variability of crop yield. Because complementary irrigation is a highly efficient resource to increase such yields, an understanding of groundwater resources is important. This knowledge is limited in topographically smooth zones by the absence of outcroppings and observation boreholes. Water conductivity is another limitation factor if the goal is to avoid soil degradation by irrigation and negative effects for animal and human consumption. The aquifers of the northeastern zone of the Buenos Aires province have been studied regionally, but information at the local scale is limited to sparse boreholes. In this work, a survey using vertical electrical soundings was carried out to determine the depth, thickness, and continuity of shallower aquifers. Both a mapping of the water table and the electrical conductivity distribution of free aquifers were achieved from well data and geophysical results using geostatistical techniques. Recharge areas of the aquifer were recognized as those areas with low conductivity and topographic highs. The discharge areas, mainly at the bed of the Pergamino River, have higher values of conductivity; two zones north and south of the city of Pergamino have conductivities greater than 2000 μS cm -1. Isolines of depth to the fresh-salty water interface showed different values over the Pergamino River, with some local maxima at the swamp zone and near Pergamino.

  9. Stem cells and molecular strategies to restore hearing

    PubMed Central

    PAULEY, S.; KOPECKY, B.; BEISEL, K.; SOUKUP, G.; FRITZSCH, B.

    2008-01-01

    Hearing loss is a costly and growing problem for the elderly population worldwide with millions of people being affected. There are currently two prosthetic devices available to minimize problems associated with the two forms of hearing loss: hearing aids that amplify sound to overcome middle ear based conductive hearing loss and cochlear implants that restore some hearing after neurosensory hearing loss. The current presentation provides information on the treatment of neurosensory hearing loss. Although the cochlear implant solution for neurosensory hearing loss is technologically advanced; it still provides only moderate hearing capacity in neurosensory deaf individuals. Inducible stem cells and molecular therapies are appealing alternatives to the cochlear implant and may provide more than a new form of treatment as they hold the promise for a cure. To this end, current insights into inducible stem cells that may provide cells for seeding the cochlea with the hope of new hair cell formation are being reviewed. Alternatively, similar to induction of stem cells, cells of the flat epithelium that remains after hair cell loss could be induced to proliferate and differentiate into hair cells. In either of these strategies, hair cell specific genes known to be essential for hair cell differentiation or maintenance such as ATOH1, POU4F3, GFI1, and miRNA-183 will be utilized with the hope of completely restoring hearing to all patients with hearing loss. PMID:18427387

  10. 40 CFR 89.514 - Hearing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hearing procedures. 89.514 Section 89.514 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective...

  11. 40 CFR 89.514 - Hearing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Hearing procedures. 89.514 Section 89.514 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective...

  12. 40 CFR 94.216 - Hearing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Hearing procedures. 94.216 Section 94.216 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Certification Provisions § 94.216...

  13. 40 CFR 94.216 - Hearing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hearing procedures. 94.216 Section 94.216 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Certification Provisions § 94.216...

  14. 40 CFR 89.514 - Hearing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hearing procedures. 89.514 Section 89.514 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Selective...

  15. 40 CFR 85.1807 - Public hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Recall Regulations § 85.1807 Public hearings. (a) Definitions...) Time. (1) In computing any period of time prescribed or allowed by this section, except as otherwise... included. Saturdays, Sundays, and Federal legal holidays shall be included in computing any such...

  16. 40 CFR 85.1807 - Public hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Recall Regulations § 85.1807 Public hearings. (a) Definitions...) Time. (1) In computing any period of time prescribed or allowed by this section, except as otherwise... included. Saturdays, Sundays, and Federal legal holidays shall be included in computing any such...

  17. 40 CFR 85.1807 - Public hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Recall Regulations § 85.1807 Public hearings. (a) Definitions...) Time. (1) In computing any period of time prescribed or allowed by this section, except as otherwise... included. Saturdays, Sundays, and Federal legal holidays shall be included in computing any such...

  18. 40 CFR 85.1807 - Public hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....1807 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Hearing Clerk of the Environmental Protection Agency. (2) “Intervener” shall mean a person who files a.... (4) “Party” shall include the Environmental Protection Agency, the manufacturer, and any...

  19. 40 CFR 94.515 - Hearing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hearing procedures. 94.515 Section 94.515 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Manufacturer Production Line...

  20. 40 CFR 91.514 - Hearing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hearing procedures. 91.514 Section 91.514 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Manufacturer Production Line Testing Program §...

  1. 40 CFR 94.515 - Hearing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Hearing procedures. 94.515 Section 94.515 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Manufacturer Production Line...

  2. 40 CFR 91.514 - Hearing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hearing procedures. 91.514 Section 91.514 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Manufacturer Production Line Testing Program §...

  3. 40 CFR 91.514 - Hearing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Hearing procedures. 91.514 Section 91.514 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Manufacturer Production Line Testing Program §...

  4. 40 CFR 94.515 - Hearing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hearing procedures. 94.515 Section 94.515 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Manufacturer Production Line...

  5. 40 CFR 94.515 - Hearing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hearing procedures. 94.515 Section 94.515 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Manufacturer Production Line...

  6. 40 CFR 91.514 - Hearing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hearing procedures. 91.514 Section 91.514 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Manufacturer Production Line Testing Program §...

  7. 40 CFR 94.515 - Hearing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hearing procedures. 94.515 Section 94.515 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Manufacturer Production Line...

  8. 40 CFR 91.514 - Hearing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hearing procedures. 91.514 Section 91.514 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Manufacturer Production Line Testing Program §...

  9. AIDS Epidemic. Hearing before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session on Reviewing Federal Efforts Being Conducted toward Combating the AIDS Epidemic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    The text of a Senate hearing called to review federal efforts combating acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is presented in this document. Opening statements reviewing the AIDS crisis are given by Senators Edward Kennedy and Lowell Weicker, Jr. Prepared statements are included by Senators Orrin Hatch and Ted Stevens. David Baltimore and…

  10. Hearing loss in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckey, J. C. Jr; Musiek, F. E.; Kline-Schoder, R.; Clark, J. C.; Hart, S.; Havelka, J.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Temporary and, in some cases, permanent hearing loss has been documented after long-duration spaceflights. METHODS: We examined all existing published data on hearing loss after space missions to characterize the losses. RESULTS: Data from Russian missions suggest that the hearing loss, when it occurs, affects mainly mid to high frequencies and that using hearing protection often might prevent the loss. Several significant questions remain about hearing loss in space. While the hearing loss has been presumed to be noise-induced, no clear link has been established between noise exposure and hearing loss during spaceflight. In one documented case of temporary hearing loss from the Shuttle-Mir program, the pattern of loss was atypical for a noise-induced loss. Continuous noise levels that have been measured on the Mir and previous space stations, while above engineering standards, are not at levels usually associated with hearing loss in ground-based studies (which have usually been limited to 8-10 h exposure periods). Attempts to measure hearing in space using threshold-based audiograms have been unsuccessful in both the American and Russian programs due to noise interference with the measurements. CONCLUSIONS: The existing data highlight the need for reliable monitoring of both hearing and noise in long-duration spaceflight.

  11. Categorical loudness scaling and equal-loudness contours in listeners with normal hearing and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Rasetshwane, Daniel M; Trevino, Andrea C; Gombert, Jessa N; Liebig-Trehearn, Lauren; Kopun, Judy G; Jesteadt, Walt; Neely, Stephen T; Gorga, Michael P

    2015-04-01

    This study describes procedures for constructing equal-loudness contours (ELCs) in units of phons from categorical loudness scaling (CLS) data and characterizes the impact of hearing loss on these estimates of loudness. Additionally, this study developed a metric, level-dependent loudness loss, which uses CLS data to specify the deviation from normal loudness perception at various loudness levels and as function of frequency for an individual listener with hearing loss. CLS measurements were made in 87 participants with hearing loss and 61 participants with normal hearing. An assessment of the reliability of CLS measurements was conducted on a subset of the data. CLS measurements were reliable. There was a systematic increase in the slope of the low-level segment of the CLS functions with increase in the degree of hearing loss. ELCs derived from CLS measurements were similar to standardized ELCs (International Organization for Standardization, ISO 226:2003). The presence of hearing loss decreased the vertical spacing of the ELCs, reflecting loudness recruitment and reduced cochlear compression. Representing CLS data in phons may lead to wider acceptance of CLS measurements. Like the audiogram that specifies hearing loss at threshold, level-dependent loudness loss describes deficit for suprathreshold sounds. Such information may have implications for the fitting of hearing aids.

  12. 7 CFR 15f.16 - Although I request a hearing, may I request the ALJ to issue a decision without a hearing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Although I request a hearing, may I request the ALJ to issue a decision without a hearing? 15f.16 Section 15f.16 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADJUDICATIONS UNDER SECTION 741 If I Request a Hearing, What Will Happen? How Will the Hearing Be Conducted? § 15f.16 Although I request...

  13. Hearing conservation practices in eight noisy industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, William E.; Swan, Susan S.; Camp, Janice; Cohen, Martin; McDaniel, Mary M.; Stebbins, John; Leo, Robert

    2005-04-01

    This study evaluated noise exposures and hearing conservation practices at 76 companies in eight industries with high rates of workers' compensation claims for hearing loss. Nearly all companies had exposures that required a hearing conservation program, and more than half had exposures that required consideration of noise controls. The use of noise measurements and consideration of controls was low in all industries. The completeness of hearing conservation programs was strongly associated with the extent of exposure in an industry, although practices varied widely within industries. Most companies had substantial deficiencies. More than one-third did not conduct annual training, and training had shortcomings at many others. One-third had not conducted audiometry. Hearing protection was commonly underused. Reported use was highest at companies with relatively complete programs, and in industries where exposure was most prevalent and least intermittent. Many employees had difficulty estimating how often, and presumably when, their exposure was excessive. There is a need for new strategies to promote and maintain hearing conservation efforts in noisy industries. The industries with greatest margin for improvement are not the noisiest industries but those where exposure is moderate or intermittent. [Work supported by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

  14. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-10-31

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems.

  15. Music and Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brian C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  16. Congenital hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Korver, Anna M H; Smith, Richard J H; Van Camp, Guy; Schleiss, Mark R; Bitner-Glindzicz, Maria A K; Lustig, Lawrence R; Usami, Shin-Ichi; Boudewyns, An N

    2017-01-12

    Congenital hearing loss (hearing loss that is present at birth) is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions in children. In the majority of developed countries, neonatal hearing screening programmes enable early detection; early intervention will prevent delays in speech and language development and has long-lasting beneficial effects on social and emotional development and quality of life. A diagnosis of hearing loss is usually followed by a search for an underlying aetiology. Congenital hearing loss might be attributed to environmental and prenatal factors, which prevail in low-income settings; congenital infections, particularly cytomegalovirus infection, are also a common risk factor for hearing loss. Genetic causes probably account for the majority of cases in developed countries; mutations can affect any component of the hearing pathway, in particular, inner ear homeostasis (endolymph production and maintenance) and mechano-electrical transduction (the conversion of a mechanical stimulus into electrochemical activity). Once the underlying cause of hearing loss is established, it might direct therapeutic decision making and guide prevention and (genetic) counselling. Management options include specific antimicrobial therapies, surgical treatment of craniofacial abnormalities and implantable or non-implantable hearing devices. An improved understanding of the pathophysiology and molecular mechanisms that underlie hearing loss and increased awareness of recent advances in genetic testing will promote the development of new treatment and screening strategies.

  17. Hearing: Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... a cochlear implant. A cochlear implant is an electronic hearing device that replaces the damaged inner ear ... by listening to parents, teachers, television, and radio. Music, the sounds of nature, and the voices of ...

  18. Use of Hearing Aids by Adults with Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Info » Statistics and Epidemiology Use of Hearing Aids by Adults with Hearing Loss [text version] Note: ... displays time trends in the use of hearing aids for adults (20–69 years) and older adults ( ...

  19. Comparing model predictions and experimental data for the response of stomatal conductance and guard cell turgor to manipulations of cuticular conductance, leaf-to-air vapour pressure difference and temperature: feedback mechanisms are able to account for all observations.

    PubMed

    Eamus, Derek; Taylor, Daniel T; Macinnis-Ng, Catriona M O; Shanahan, Steve; De Silva, Lionel

    2008-03-01

    Stomata respond to increasing leaf-to-air vapour pressure difference (LAVPD) (D) by closing. The mechanism by which this occurs is debated. A role for feedback and peristomatal transpiration has been proposed. In this paper, we apply a recent mechanistic model of stomatal behaviour, and compare model and experimental data for the influence of increasing D on stomatal conductance. We manipulated cuticular conductance (g(c)) by three independent methods. First, we increased g(c) by using a solvent mixture applied to both leaf surfaces prior to determining stomatal responses to D; second, we increased g(c) by increasing leaf temperature at constant D; and third, we coated a small area of leaf with a light oil to decrease g(c). In all three experiments, experimental data and model outputs showed very close agreement. We conclude, from the close agreement between model and experimental data and the fact that manipulations of g(c), and hence cuticular transpiration, influenced g(s) in ways consistent with a feedback mechanism, that feedback is central in determining stomatal responses to D.

  20. Hearing Lost, Hearing Gained. Hearing Aids Make a Difference. Tune in to Sound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandal, Ronda

    This illustrated booklet is intended to assist special education consultants, teachers, and parents to monitor hearing aid use by children with hearing impairments in the Northwest Territories (Canada). The first section presents basic information on what hearing aids are, types of personal hearing aids, and FM (frequency modulation) hearing aid…