Science.gov

Sample records for air cooled turbine

  1. Closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    North, William Edward

    2000-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for providing a closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine. The method and apparatus provide for bleeding pressurized air from a gas turbine engine compressor for use in cooling the turbine components. The compressed air is cascaded through the various stages of the turbine. At each stage a portion of the compressed air is returned to the compressor where useful work is recovered.

  2. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOEpatents

    Huber, David John; Briesch, Michael Scot

    1998-01-01

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts.

  3. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOEpatents

    Huber, D.J.; Briesch, M.S.

    1998-07-21

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts. 1 fig.

  4. Effect of Chord Size on Weight and Cooling Characteristics of Air-Cooled Turbine Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esgar, Jack B; Schum, Eugene F; Curren, Arthur N

    1958-01-01

    An analysis has been made to determine the effect of chord size on the weight and cooling characteristics of shell-supported, air-cooled gas-turbine blades. In uncooled turbines with solid blades, the general practice has been to design turbines with high aspect ratio (small blade chord) to achieve substantial turbine weight reduction. With air-cooled blades, this study shows that turbine blade weight is affected to a much smaller degree by the size of the blade chord.

  5. Air cooled turbine component having an internal filtration system

    DOEpatents

    Beeck, Alexander R [Orlando, FL

    2012-05-15

    A centrifugal particle separator is provided for removing particles such as microscopic dirt or dust particles from the compressed cooling air prior to reaching and cooling the turbine blades or turbine vanes of a turbine engine. The centrifugal particle separator structure has a substantially cylindrical body with an inlet arranged on a periphery of the substantially cylindrical body. Cooling air enters centrifugal particle separator through the separator inlet port having a linear velocity. When the cooling air impinges the substantially cylindrical body, the linear velocity is transformed into a rotational velocity, separating microscopic particles from the cooling air. Microscopic dust particles exit the centrifugal particle separator through a conical outlet and returned to a working medium.

  6. Turbine inter-disk cavity cooling air compressor

    DOEpatents

    Chupp, R.E.; Little, D.A.

    1998-01-06

    The inter-disk cavity between turbine rotor disks is used to pressurize cooling air. A plurality of ridges extend radially outwardly over the face of the rotor disks. When the rotor disks are rotated, the ridges cause the inter-disk cavity to compress air coolant flowing through the inter-disk cavity en route to the rotor blades. The ridges eliminate the need for an external compressor to pressurize the air coolant. 5 figs.

  7. Turbine inter-disk cavity cooling air compressor

    DOEpatents

    Chupp, Raymond E.; Little, David A.

    1998-01-01

    The inter-disk cavity between turbine rotor disks is used to pressurize cooling air. A plurality of ridges extend radially outwardly over the face of the rotor disks. When the rotor disks are rotated, the ridges cause the inter-disk cavity to compress air coolant flowing through the inter-disk cavity en route to the rotor blades. The ridges eliminate the need for an external compressor to pressurize the air coolant.

  8. Ambient air cooling arrangement having a pre-swirler for gas turbine engine blade cooling

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Tham, Kok-Mun; Schroeder, Eric; Meeroff, Jamie; Miller, Jr., Samuel R; Marra, John J

    2015-01-06

    A gas turbine engine including: an ambient-air cooling circuit (10) having a cooling channel (26) disposed in a turbine blade (22) and in fluid communication with a source (12) of ambient air: and an pre-swirler (18), the pre-swirler having: an inner shroud (38); an outer shroud (56); and a plurality of guide vanes (42), each spanning from the inner shroud to the outer shroud. Circumferentially adjacent guide vanes (46, 48) define respective nozzles (44) there between. Forces created by a rotation of the turbine blade motivate ambient air through the cooling circuit. The pre-swirler is configured to impart swirl to ambient air drawn through the nozzles and to direct the swirled ambient air toward a base of the turbine blade. The end walls (50, 54) of the pre-swirler may be contoured.

  9. Turbine inter-disk cavity cooling air compressor

    DOEpatents

    Little, David Allen

    2001-01-01

    A combustion turbine may have a cooling circuit for directing a cooling medium through the combustion turbine to cool various components of the combustion turbine. This cooling circuit may include a compressor, a combustor shell and a component of the combustion turbine to be cooled. This component may be a rotating blade of the combustion turbine. A pressure changing mechanism is disposed in the combustion turbine between the component to be cooled and the combustor shell. The cooling medium preferably flows from the compressor to the combustor shell, through a cooler, the component to the cooled and the pressure changing mechanism. After flowing through the pressure changing mechanism, the cooling medium is returned to the combustor shell. The pressure changing mechanism preferably changes the pressure of the cooling medium from a pressure at which it is exhausted from the component to be cooled to approximately that of the combustor shell.

  10. Cooling air recycling for gas turbine transition duct end frame and related method

    DOEpatents

    Cromer, Robert Harold; Bechtel, William Theodore; Sutcu, Maz

    2002-01-01

    A method of cooling a transition duct end frame in a gas turbine includes the steps of a) directing cooling air into the end frame from a region external of the transition duct and the impingement cooling sleeve; and b) redirecting the cooling air from the end frame into the annulus between the transition duct and the impingement cooling sleeve.

  11. Cooling circuit for steam and air-cooled turbine nozzle stage

    DOEpatents

    Itzel, Gary Michael; Yu, Yufeng

    2002-01-01

    The turbine vane segment includes inner and outer walls with a vane extending therebetween. The vane includes leading and trailing edge cavities and intermediate cavities. An impingement plate is spaced from the outer wall to impingement-cool the outer wall. Post-impingement cooling air flows through holes in the outer wall to form a thin air-cooling film along the outer wall. Cooling air is supplied an insert sleeve with openings in the leading edge cavity for impingement-cooling the leading edge. Holes through the leading edge afford thin-film cooling about the leading edge. Cooling air is provided the trailing edge cavity and passes through holes in the side walls of the vane for thin-film cooling of the trailing edge. Steam flows through a pair of intermediate cavities for impingement-cooling of the side walls. Post-impingement steam flows to the inner wall for impingement-cooling of the inner wall and returns the post-impingement cooling steam through inserts in other intermediate cavities for impingement-cooling the side walls of the vane.

  12. Cooled snubber structure for turbine blades

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Clinton A; Campbell, Christian X; Whalley, Andrew; Marra, John J

    2014-04-01

    A turbine blade assembly in a turbine engine. The turbine blade assembly includes a turbine blade and a first snubber structure. The turbine blade includes an internal cooling passage containing cooling air. The first snubber structure extends outwardly from a sidewall of the turbine blade and includes a hollow interior portion that receives cooling air from the internal cooling passage of the turbine blade.

  13. Experimental study of the decrease in the temperature of an air/water-cooled turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhov, A. A.; Sereda, A. V.; Shaiakberov, V. F.; Iskakov, K. M.; Shatalov, Iu. S.

    Results of the full-scale testing of an air/water-cooled deflector-type turbine blade are reported. Data on the decrease in the temperature of the cooling air and of the blade are presented and compared with the calculated values. An analysis of the results indicates that the use of air/water cooling makes it possible to significantly reduce the temperature of the cooling air and of the blade with practically no increase in the engine weight and dimensions.

  14. Internally coated air-cooled gas turbine blading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, L.; Stevens, W. G.; Stetson, A. R.

    1979-01-01

    Ten candidate modified nickel-aluminide coatings were developed using the slip pack process. These coatings contain additives such as silicon, chromium and columbium in a nickel-aluminum coating matrix with directionally solidified MAR-M200 + Hf as the substrate alloy. Following a series of screening tests which included strain tolerance, dynamic oxidation and hot corrosion testing, the Ni-19A1-1Cb (nominal composition) coating was selected for application to the internal passages of four first-stage turbine blades. Process development results indicate that a dry pack process is suitable for internal coating application resulting in 18 percent or less reduction in air flow. Coating uniformity, based on coated air-cooled blades, was within + or - 20 percent. Test results show that the presence of additives (silicon, chromium or columbium) appeared to improve significantly the ductility of the NiA1 matrix. However, the environmental resistance of these modified nickel-aluminides were generally inferior to the simple aluminides.

  15. Development of Repair and Reprocess Coatings for Air-Cooled Nickel Alloy Turbine Blades.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    NICKEL ALLOYS , METAL COATINGS, GAS TURBINE BLADES, MAINTENANCE, PROCESSING, ABRASIVE BLASTING, MATERIALS, REMOVAL, SUBSTRATES, SLURRY COATING...NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING, OXIDATION, CORROSION, AIR COOLED, RUPTURE, CREEP, STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES, EROSION, SPALLATION, LIFE EXPECTANCY(SERVICE LIFE), COBALT ALLOYS , DIFFUSION.

  16. The design of an air-cooled metallic high temperature radial turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Philip H.; Roelke, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    Recent trends in small advanced gas turbine engines call for higher turbine inlet temperatures. Advances in radial turbine technology have opened the way for a cooled metallic radial turbine capable of withstanding turbine inlet temperatures of 2500 F while meeting the challenge of high efficiency in this small flow size range. In response to this need, a small air-cooled radial turbine has been designed utilizing internal blade coolant passages. The coolant flow passage design is uniquely tailored to simultaneously meet rotor cooling needs and rotor fabrication constraints. The rotor flow-path design seeks to realize improved aerodynamic blade loading characteristics and high efficiency while satisfying rotor life requirements. An up-scaled version of the final engine rotor is currently under fabrication and, after instrumentation, will be tested in the warm turbine test facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center.

  17. Cold air performance of a 12.766-centimeter-tip-diameter axial-flow cooled turbine. 2: Effect of air ejection on turbine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, J. E.; Kofskey, M. G.

    1977-01-01

    An air cooled version of a single-stage, axial-flow turbine was investigated to determine aerodynamic performance with and without air ejection from the stator and rotor blades surfaces to simulate the effect of cooling air discharge. Air ejection rate was varied from 0 to 10 percent of turbine mass flow for both the stator and the rotor. A primary-to-air ejection temperature ratio of about 1 was maintained.

  18. An Investigation of Convection Cooling of Small Gas Turbine Blades Using Intermittent Cooling Air

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    coefficient. The application to convection cooling of gas turbine blades and vanes is demonstrated in a test facility designed to simulate the first-stage...turbine blade of the AGT 1500 gas turbine engine which powers the Army’s M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank. A cylindrical test section is convectively...89 Selected Bibliography ............................................ 93 Appendix A. Test Specification

  19. Gas turbine cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Bancalari, Eduardo E.

    2001-01-01

    A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

  20. Performance and economic enhancement of cogeneration gas turbines through compressor inlet air cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delucia, M.; Bronconi, R.; Carnevale, E.

    1994-04-01

    Gas turbine air cooling systems serve to raise performance to peak power levels during the hot months when high atmospheric temperatures cause reductions in net power output. This work describes the technical and economic advantages of providing a compressor inlet air cooling system to increase the gas turbine's power rating and reduce its heat rate. The pros and cons of state-of-the-art cooling technologies, i.e., absorption and compression refrigeration, with and without thermal energy storage, were examined in order to select the most suitable cooling solution. Heavy-duty gas turbine cogeneration systems with and without absorption units were modeled, as well as various industrial sectors, i.e., paper and pulp, pharmaceuticals, food processing, textiles, tanning, and building materials. The ambient temperature variations were modeled so the effects of climate could be accounted for in the simulation. The results validated the advantages of gas turbine cogeneration with absorption air cooling as compared to other systems without air cooling.

  1. A comparative assessment of alternative combustion turbine inlet air cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.R.; Katipamula, S.; Konynenbelt, J.H.

    1996-02-01

    Interest in combustion turbine inlet air cooling (CTAC) has increased during the last few years as electric utilities face increasing demand for peak power. Inlet air cooling increases the generating capacity and decreases the heat rate of a combustion turbine during hot weather when the demand for electricity is generally the greatest. Several CTAC systems have been installed, but the general applicability of the concept and the preference for specific concepts is still being debated. Concurrently, Rocky Research of Boulder City, Nevada has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy to conduct research on complex compound (ammoniated salt) chiller systems for low-temperature refrigeration applications.

  2. Effect of Air Cooling of Turbine Disk on Power and Efficiency of Turbine from Turbo Engineering Corporation TT13-18 Turbosupercharger.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkey, William E.

    1949-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of turbine-disk cooling with air on the efficiency and the power output of the radial-flow turbine from the Turbo Engineering Corporation TT13-18 turbosupercharger. The turbine was operated at a constant range of ratios of turbine-inlet total pressure to turbine-outlet static pressure of 1,5 and 2.0, turbine-inlet total pressure of 30 inches mercury absolute, turbine-inlet total temperature of 12000 to 20000 R, and rotor speeds of 6000 to 22,000 rpm, Over the normal operating range of the turbine, varying the corrected cooling-air weight flow from approximately 0,30 to 0.75 pound per second produced no measurable effect on the corrected turbine shaft horsepower or the turbine shaft adiabatic efficiency. Varying the turbine-inlet total temperature from 12000 to 20000 R caused no measurable change in the corrected cooling-air weight flow. Calculations indicated that the cooling-air pumping power in the disk passages was small and was within the limits of the accuracy of the power measurements. For high turbine power output, the power loss to the compressor for compressing the cooling air was approximately 3 percent of the total turbine shaft horsepower.

  3. Effect of Gas/Steam Turbine Inlet Temperatures on Combined Cycle Having Air Transpiration Cooled Gas Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Singh, O.

    2012-10-01

    Worldwide efforts are being made for further improving the gas/steam combined cycle performance by having better blade cooling technology in topping cycle and enhanced heat recovery in bottoming cycle. The scope of improvement is possible through turbines having higher turbine inlet temperatures (TITs) of both gas turbine and steam turbine. Literature review shows that a combined cycle with transpiration cooled gas turbine has not been analyzed with varying gas/steam TITs. In view of above the present study has been undertaken for thermodynamic study of gas/steam combined cycle with respect to variation in TIT in both topping and bottoming cycles, for air transpiration cooled gas turbine. The performance of combined cycle with dual pressure heat recovery steam generator has been evaluated for different cycle pressure ratios (CPRs) varying from 11 to 23 and the selection diagrams presented for TIT varying from 1,600 to 1,900 K. Both the cycle efficiency and specific work increase with TIT for each pressure ratio. For each TIT there exists an optimum pressure ratio for cycle efficiency and specific work. For the CPR of 23 the best cycle performance is seen at a TIT of 1,900 K for maximum steam temperature of 570 °C, which gives the cycle efficiency of 60.9 % with net specific work of 909 kJ/kg.

  4. Contingency power for small turboshaft engines using water injection into turbine cooling air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.; Berger, Brett

    1987-01-01

    Because of one engine inoperative requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot day, high altitude takeoff situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stresses is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

  5. Contingency power for a small turboshaft engine by using water injection into turbine cooling air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Klann, Gary A.

    1992-01-01

    Because of one-engine-inoperative (OEI) requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot-day, high-altitude take-off situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation by using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stress is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

  6. Internal coating of air cooled gas turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, P. L.

    1979-01-01

    Six coating systems were evaluated for internal coating of decent stage (DS) eutectic high pressure turbine blades. Sequential deposition of electroless Ni by the hydrazine process, slurry Cr, and slurry Al, followed by heat treatment provided the coating composition and thickness for internal coating of DS eutectic turbine blades. Both NiCr and NiCrAl coating compositions were evaluated for strain capability and ductile to brittle transition temperature.

  7. Internal coating of air-cooled gas turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, L. L.; Stetson, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    Four modified aluminide coatings were developed for IN-792 + Hf alloy using a powder pack method applicable to internal surfaces of air-cooled blades. The coating compositions are Ni-19Al-1Cb, Ni-19Al-3Cb, Ni-17Al-20Cr, and Ni-12Al-20Cr. Cyclic burner rig hot corrosion (900 C) and oxidation (1050 C) tests indicated that Ni-Al-Cb coatings provided better overall resistance than Ni-Al-Cr coatings. Tensile properties of Ni-19Al-1Cb and Ni-12Al-20Cr coated test bars were fully retained at room temperature and 649 C. Stress rupture results exhibited wide scatter around uncoated IN-792 baseline, especially at high stress levels. High cycle fatigue lives of Ni-19Al-1Cb and Ni-12Al-20Cr coated bars (as well as RT-22B coated IN-792) suffered approximately 30 percent decrease at 649 C. Since all test bars were fully heat treated after coating, the effects of coating/processing on IN-792 alloy were not recoverable. Internally coated Ni-19Al-1Cb, Ni-19Al-3Cb, and Ni-12Al-20Cr blades were included in 500-hour endurance engine test and the results were similar to those obtained in burner rig oxidation testing.

  8. Engine investigation of an air-cooled turbine rotor blade incorporating impingement-cooled leading edge, chordwise passages, and a slotted trailing edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dengler, R. P.; Yeh, F. C.; Gauntner, J. W.; Fallon, G. E.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental temperatures are presented for an air-cooled turbine rotor blade tested in an engine. The data were obtained for turbine stator inlet temperatures from 2000 to 2500 F and for turbine-inlet gas pressures from 32 to 46 psia. Average and local blade heat-transfer data are correlated. Potential allowable increases in gas temperature are also discussed.

  9. Study of Ram-air Heat Exchangers for Reducing Turbine Cooling-air Temperature of a Supersonic Aircraft Turbojet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaguila, Anthony J; Livingood, John N B; Eckert, Ernst R G

    1956-01-01

    The sizes and weights of the cores of heat exchangers were determined analytically for possible application for reducing turbine cooling-air temperatures of an engine designed for a Mach number of 2.5 and an altitude The sizes and weights of the cores of heat exchangers were determined analytically for possible application for reducing turbine cooling-air temperatures of an engine designed for a Mach number of 2.5 and an altitude of 70,000 feet. A compressor-bleed-air weight flow of 2.7 pounds per second was assumed for the coolant; ram air was considered as the other fluid. Pressure drops and inlet states of both fluids were prescribed, and ranges of compressor-bleed-air temperature reductions and of the ratio of compressor-bleed to ram-air weight flows were considered.

  10. Benefits of compressor inlet air cooling for gas turbine cogeneration plants

    SciTech Connect

    De Lucia, M.; Lanfranchi, C.; Boggio, V.

    1996-07-01

    Compressor inlet air cooling is an effective method for enhancing the performance of gas turbine plants. This paper presents a comparative analysis of different solutions for cooling the compressor inlet air for the LM6000 gas turbine in a cogeneration plant operated in base load. Absorption and evaporative cooling systems are considered and their performance and economic benefits compared for the dry low-NO{sub x} LM6000 version. Reference is made to two sites in Northern and Southern Italy, whose climate data series for modeling the variations in ambient temperature during the single day were used to account for the effects of climate in the simulation. The results confirmed the advantages of inlet air cooling systems. In particular, evaporative cooling proved to be cost effective, though capable of supplying only moderate cooling, while absorption systems have a higher cost but are also more versatile and powerful in base-load operation. An integration of the two systems proved to be able to give both maximum performance enhancement and net economic benefit.

  11. JT8D revised high-pressure turbine cooling and other outer air seal program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffin, W. O.

    1979-01-01

    The JT8D high pressure turbine was revised to reduce leakage between the blade tip shrouds and the outer air seal, and engine testing was performed to determine the effect on performance. The addition of a second knife-edge on the blade tip shroud, the extension of the honeycomb seal land to cover the added knife-edge and an existing spoiler on the shroud, and a material substitution in the seal support ring to improve thermal growth characteristics are included. A relocation of the blade cooling air discharge to insure adequate cooling flow is required. Significant specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature improvements were demonstrated with the revised turbine in sea level and simulated altitude engine tests. Inspection of the revised seal hardware after these tests showed no unusual wear or degradation.

  12. Flow measurement in base cooling air passages of a rotating turbine blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, C. H.; Pollack, F. G.

    1974-01-01

    The operational performance is decribed of a shaft-mounted system for measuring the air mass flow rate in the base cooling passages of a rotating turbine blade. Shaft speeds of 0 to 9000 rpm, air mass flow rates of 0.0035 to 0.039 kg/sec (0.0077 to 0.085 lbm/sec), and blade air temperatures of 300 to 385 K (80 to 233 F) were measured. Comparisons of individual rotating blade flows and corresponding stationary supply orifice flows agreed to within 10 percent.

  13. Review and status of heat-transfer technology for internal passages of air-cooled turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, F. C.; Stepka, F. S.

    1984-01-01

    Selected literature on heat-transfer and pressure losses for airflow through passages for several cooling methods generally applicable to gas turbine blades is reviewed. Some useful correlating equations are highlighted. The status of turbine-blade internal air-cooling technology for both nonrotating and rotating blades is discussed and the areas where further research is needed are indicated. The cooling methods considered include convection cooling in passages, impingement cooling at the leading edge and at the midchord, and convection cooling in passages, augmented by pin fins and the use of roughened internal walls.

  14. Thermal and flow analysis of a convection air-cooled ceramic coated porous metal concept for turbine vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepka, F. S.

    1981-01-01

    The heat transfer and pressure drop through turbine vanes made of a sintered, porous metal coated with a thin layer of ceramic and convection cooled by spanwise flow of cooling air were analyzed. The analysis was made to determine the feasibility of using this concept for cooling very small turbines, primarily for short duration applications such as in missile engines. The analysis was made for gas conditions of approximately 10 and 40 atm and 1644 K and with turbine vanes made of felt type porous metals with relative densities from 0.2 to 0.6 and ceramic coating thicknesses of 0.076 to 0.254 mm.

  15. Effects of a ceramic coating on metal temperatures of an air-cooled turbine vane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladden, H. J.; Liebert, C. H.

    1980-02-01

    The metal temperatures of air cooled turbine vanes both uncoated and coated with the NASA thermal barrier system were studied experimentally. Current and advanced gas turbine engine conditions were simulated at reduced temperatures and pressures. Airfoil metal temperatures were significantly reduced, both locally and on the average, by use of the the coating. However, at low gas Reynolds number, the ceramic coating tripped a laminar boundary layer on the suction surface, and the resulting higher heat flux increased the metal temperatures. Simulated coating loss was also investigated and shown to increase local metal temperatures. However, the metal temperatures in the leading edge region remained below those of the uncoated vane tested at similar conditions. Metal temperatures in the trailing edge region exceeded those of the uncoated vane.

  16. Effects of a ceramic coating on metal temperatures of an air-cooled turbine vane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, H. J.; Liebert, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    The metal temperatures of air cooled turbine vanes both uncoated and coated with the NASA thermal barrier system were studied experimentally. Current and advanced gas turbine engine conditions were simulated at reduced temperatures and pressures. Airfoil metal temperatures were significantly reduced, both locally and on the average, by use of the the coating. However, at low gas Reynolds number, the ceramic coating tripped a laminar boundary layer on the suction surface, and the resulting higher heat flux increased the metal temperatures. Simulated coating loss was also investigated and shown to increase local metal temperatures. However, the metal temperatures in the leading edge region remained below those of the uncoated vane tested at similar conditions. Metal temperatures in the trailing edge region exceeded those of the uncoated vane.

  17. Heat transfer technology for internal passages of air-cooled blades for heavy-duty gas turbines.

    PubMed

    Weigand, B; Semmler, K; von Wolfersdorf, J

    2001-05-01

    The present review paper, although far from being complete, aims to give an overview about the present state of the art in the field of heat transfer technology for internal cooling of gas turbine blades. After showing some typical modern cooled blades, the different methods to enhance heat transfer in the internal passages of air-cooled blades are discussed. The complicated flows occurring in bends are described in detail, because of their increasing importance for modern cooling designs. A short review about testing of cooling design elements is given, showing the interaction of the different cooling features as well. The special focus of the present review has been put on the cooling of blades for heavy-duty gas turbines, which show several differences compared to aero-engine blades.

  18. Pressure-loss and flow coefficients inside a chordwise-finned, impingement, convection, and film air-cooled turbine vane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hippensteele, S. A.

    1974-01-01

    Total-pressure-loss coefficients, flow discharge coefficients, and friction factors were determined experimentally for the various area and geometry changes and flow passages within an air-cooled turbine vane. The results are compared with those of others obtained on similar configurations, both actual and large models, of vane passages. The supply and exit air pressures were controlled and varied. The investigation was conducted with essentially ambient-temperature air and without external flow of air over the vane.

  19. Experimental Investigation of an Air-Cooled Turbine Operating in a Turbojet Engine at Turbine Inlet Temperatures up to 2500 F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, Reeves P.; Dengler, Robert P.

    1961-01-01

    An experimental investigation was made of an air-cooled turbine at average turbine inlet temperatures up to 2500 F. A modified production-model 12-stage axial-flow-compressor turbojet engine operating in a static sea-level stand was used as the test vehicle. The modifications to the engine consisted of the substitution of special combustor and turbine assemblies and double-walled exhaust ducting for the standard parts of the engine. All of these special parts were air-cooled to withstand the high operating temperatures of the investigation. The air-cooled turbine stator and rotor blades were of the corrugated-insert type. Leading-edge tip caps were installed on the rotor blades to improve leading-edge cooling by diverting the discharge of coolant to regions of lower gas pressure toward the trailing edge of the blade tip. Caps varying in length from 0.15- to 0.55-chord length were used in an attempt to determine the optimum cap length for this blade. The engine was operated over a range of average turbine inlet temperatures from about 1600 to about 2500 F, and a range of average coolant-flow ratios of 0.012 to 0.065. Temperatures of the air-cooled turbine rotor blades were measured at all test conditions by the use of thermocouples and temperature-indicating paints. The results of the investigation indicated that this type of blade is feasible for operation in turbojet engines at the average turbine inlet temperatures and stress levels tested(maximums of 2500 F and 24,000 psi, respectively). An average one-third-span blade temperature of 1300 F could be maintained on 0.35-chord tip cap blades with an average coolant-flow ratio of about 0.022 when the average turbine inlet temperature was 2500 F and cooling-air temperature was about 260 F. All of the leading-edge tip cap lengths improved the cooling of the leading-edge region of the blades, particularly at low average coolant-flow ratios. At high gas temperatures, such parts as the turbine stator and the combustor

  20. Durability of zirconia thermal-barrier ceramic coatings on air-cooled turbine blades in cyclic jet engine operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, C. H.; Jacobs, R. E.; Stecura, S.; Morse, C. R.

    1976-01-01

    Thermal barrier ceramic coatings of stabilized zirconia over a bond coat of Ni Cr Al Y were tested for durability on air cooled turbine rotor blades in a research turbojet engine. Zirconia stabilized with either yttria, magnesia, or calcia was investigated. On the basis of durability and processing cost, the yttria stabilized zirconia was considered the best of the three coatings investigated.

  1. Preliminary analysis of problem of determining experimental performance of air-cooled turbine III : methods for determining power and efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr; Ziemer, Robert R

    1950-01-01

    Suggested formula are given for determining air-cooled turbine-performance characteristics, such as power and efficiency, as functions of certain parameters. These functions, generally being unknown, are determined from experimental data obtained from specific investigations. Special plotting methods for isolating the effect of each parameter are outlined.

  2. Nonlinear, three-dimensional finite-element analysis of air-cooled gas turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A.; Gaugler, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Cyclic stress-strain states in cooled turbine blades were calculated for a simulated mission of an advanced-technology commercial aircraft engine. The MARC, nonlinear, finite-element computer program was used for the analysis of impingement-cooled airfoils, with and without leading-edge film cooling. Creep was the predominant damage mode (ignoring hot corrosion), particularly artund film-cooling holes. Radially angled holes exhibited less creep than holes with axes normal to the surface. Beam-theory analyses of all-impingement-cooled airfoils gave fair agreement with MARC results for initial creep.

  3. Radial turbine cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelke, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    Radial turbines have been used extensively in many applications including small ground based electrical power generators, automotive engine turbochargers and aircraft auxiliary power units. In all of these applications the turbine inlet temperature is limited to a value commensurate with the material strength limitations and life requirements of uncooled metal rotors. To take advantage of all the benefits that higher temperatures offer, such as increased turbine specific power output or higher cycle thermal efficiency, requires improved high temperature materials and/or blade cooling. Extensive research is on-going to advance the material properties of high temperature superalloys as well as composite materials including ceramics. The use of ceramics with their high temperature potential and low cost is particularly appealing for radial turbines. However until these programs reach fruition the only way to make significant step increases beyond the present material temperature barriers is to cool the radial blading.

  4. Turbine airfoil with ambient cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Jr, Christian X.; Marra, John J.; Marsh, Jan H.

    2016-06-07

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one ambient air cooling system is disclosed. At least a portion of the cooling system may include one or more cooling channels configured to receive ambient air at about atmospheric pressure. The ambient air cooling system may have a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of at least 0.5, and in at least one embodiment, may include a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of between about 0.5 and about 3.0. The cooling system may also be configured such that an under root slot chamber in the root is large to minimize supply air velocity. One or more cooling channels of the ambient air cooling system may terminate at an outlet at the tip such that the outlet is aligned with inner surfaces forming the at least one cooling channel in the airfoil to facilitate high mass flow.

  5. Experimental Investigation of Air-Cooled Turbine Blades in Turbojet Engine. 7: Rotor-Blade Fabrication Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Roger A.; Esgar, Jack B.

    1951-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the cooling effectiveness of a wide variety of air-cooled turbine-blade configurations. The blades, which were tested in the turbine of a - commercial turbojet engine that was modified for this investigation by replacing two of the original blades with air-cooled blades located diametrically opposite each other, are untwisted, have no aerodynamic taper, and have essentially the same external profile. The cooling-passage configuration is different for each blade, however. The fabrication procedures were varied and often unique. The blades were fabricated using methods most suitable for obtaining a small number of blades for use in the cooling investigations and therefore not all the fabrication procedures would be directly applicable to production processes, although some of the ideas and steps might be useful. Blade shells were obtained by both casting and forming. The cast shells were either welded to the blade base or cast integrally with the base. The formed shells were attached to the base by a brazing and two welding methods. Additional surface area was supplied in the coolant passages by the addition of fins or tubes that were S-brazed. to the shell. A number of blades with special leading- and trailing-edge designs that provided added cooling to these areas were fabricated. The cooling effectiveness and purposes of the various blade configurations are discussed briefly.

  6. A method for measuring cooling air flow in base coolant passages of rotating turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, C. H.; Pollack, F. G.

    1975-01-01

    Method accurately determines actual coolant mass flow rate in cooling passages of rotating turbine blades. Total and static pressures are measured in blade base coolant passages. Mass flow rates are calculated from these measurements of pressure, measured temperature and known area.

  7. Turbine blade cooling

    DOEpatents

    Staub, Fred Wolf; Willett, Fred Thomas

    1999-07-20

    A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

  8. Turbine blade cooling

    DOEpatents

    Staub, F.W.; Willett, F.T.

    1999-07-20

    A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number. 13 figs.

  9. Turbine blade cooling

    DOEpatents

    Staub, Fred Wolf; Willett, Fred Thomas

    2000-01-01

    A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

  10. Conjugate heat transfer investigation on the cooling performance of air cooled turbine blade with thermal barrier coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yongbin; Ma, Chao; Ge, Bing; Zang, Shusheng

    2016-08-01

    A hot wind tunnel of annular cascade test rig is established for measuring temperature distribution on a real gas turbine blade surface with infrared camera. Besides, conjugate heat transfer numerical simulation is performed to obtain cooling efficiency distribution on both blade substrate surface and coating surface for comparison. The effect of thermal barrier coating on the overall cooling performance for blades is compared under varied mass flow rate of coolant, and spatial difference is also discussed. Results indicate that the cooling efficiency in the leading edge and trailing edge areas of the blade is the lowest. The cooling performance is not only influenced by the internal cooling structures layout inside the blade but also by the flow condition of the mainstream in the external cascade path. Thermal barrier effects of the coating vary at different regions of the blade surface, where higher internal cooling performance exists, more effective the thermal barrier will be, which means the thermal protection effect of coatings is remarkable in these regions. At the designed mass flow ratio condition, the cooling efficiency on the pressure side varies by 0.13 for the coating surface and substrate surface, while this value is 0.09 on the suction side.

  11. The Cooling of Turbine Blades,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-11

    aviation gas turbine engine , everyone has ceaselessly come up with ways of raising the temperature of gases in a turbine before combustion. The reason for...temperature of the blade concerned by approximately 200 degrees. Jet -type cooling. When the surface of a turbine blade is at a temperature which is...the blade and multiplying the drop in the temperature of the blade . Figure 3 is a cross-section diagram of a turbine blade cooled by the jet

  12. Cooling of Gas Turbines I - Effects of Addition of Fins to Blade Tips and Rotor, Admission of Cooling Air Through Part of Nozzles, and Change in Thermal Conductivity of Turbine Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Byron

    1947-01-01

    An analysis was developed for calculating the radial temperature distribution in a gas turbine with only the temperatures of the gas and the cooling air and the surface heat-transfer coefficient known. This analysis was applied to determine the temperatures of a complete wheel of a conventional single-stage impulse exhaust-gas turbine. The temperatures were first calculated for the case of the turbine operating at design conditions of speed, gas flow, etc. and with only the customary cooling arising from exposure of the outer blade flange and one face of the rotor to the air. Calculations were next made for the case of fins applied to the outer blade flange and the rotor. Finally the effects of using part of the nozzles (from 0 to 40 percent) for supplying cooling air and the effects of varying the metal thermal conductivity from 12 to 260 Btu per hour per foot per degree Farenheit on the wheel temperatures were determined. The gas temperatures at the nozzle box used in the calculations ranged from 1600F to 2000F. The results showed that if more than a few hundred degrees of cooling of turbine blades are required other means than indirect cooling with fins on the rotor and outer blade flange would be necessary. The amount of cooling indicated for the type of finning used could produce some improvement in efficiency and a large increase in durability of the wheel. The results also showed that if a large difference is to exist between the effective temperature of the exhaust gas and that of the blade material, as must be the case with present turbine materials and the high exhaust-gas temperatures desired (2000F and above), two alternatives are suggested: (a) If metal with a thermal conductivity comparable with copper is used, then the blade temperature can be reduced by strong cooling at both the blade tip and root. The center of the blade will be less than 2000F hotter than the ends; (b) With low conductivity materials some method of direct cooling other than

  13. Turbine airfoil film cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hylton, Larry D.

    1986-01-01

    Emphasis is placed on developing more accurate analytical models for predicting turbine airfoil external heat transfer rates. Performance goals of new engines require highly refined, accurate design tools to meet durability requirements. In order to obtain improvements in analytical capabilities, programs are required which focus on enhancing analytical techniques through verification of new models by comparison with relevant experimental data. The objectives of the current program are to develop an analytical approach, based on boundary layer theory, for predicting the effects of airfoil film cooling on downstream heat transfer rates and to verify the resulting analytical method by comparison of predictions with hot cascade data obtained under this program.

  14. Development of gas-pressure bonding process for air-cooled turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meiners, K. E.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on the application of gas-pressure bonding to the joining of components for convectively cooled turbine blades and vanes. A processing procedure was established for joining the fins of Udimet 700 and TD NiCr sheet metal airfoil shells to cast B1900 struts without the use of internal support tooling. Alternative methods employing support tooling were investigated. Testing procedures were developed and employed to determine shear strengths and internal burst pressures of flat and cylindrical bonded finned shell configurations at room temperature and 1750 F. Strength values were determined parallel and transverse to the cooling fin direction. The effect of thermal cycles from 1750 F to room temperature on strength was also investigated.

  15. Passively cooled direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Costin, Daniel P.

    2008-03-18

    A wind turbine is provided that passively cools an electrical generator. The wind turbine includes a plurality of fins arranged peripherally around a generator house. Each of the fins being oriented at an angle greater than zero degrees to allow parallel flow of air over the fin. The fin is further tapered to allow a constant portion of the fin to extend beyond the air stream boundary layer. Turbulence initiators on the nose cone further enhance heat transfer at the fins.

  16. Heat pipe turbine vane cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Langston, L.; Faghri, A.

    1995-10-01

    The applicability of using heat pipe principles to cool gas turbine vanes is addressed in this beginning program. This innovative concept involves fitting out the vane interior as a heat pipe and extending the vane into an adjacent heat sink, thus transferring the vane incident heat transfer through the heat pipe to heat sink. This design provides an extremely high heat transfer rate and an uniform temperature along the vane due to the internal change of phase of the heat pipe working fluid. Furthermore, this technology can also eliminate hot spots at the vane leading and trailing edges and increase the vane life by preventing thermal fatigue cracking. There is also the possibility of requiring no bleed air from the compressor, and therefore eliminating engine performance losses resulting from the diversion of compressor discharge air. Significant improvement in gas turbine performance can be achieved by using heat pipe technology in place of conventional air cooled vanes. A detailed numerical analysis of a heat pipe vane will be made and an experimental model will be designed in the first year of this new program.

  17. Heat pipe turbine vane cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Langston, L.; Faghri, A.

    1995-12-31

    The applicability of using heat pipe principles to cool gas turbine vanes is addressed in this beginning program. This innovative concept involves fitting out the vane interior as a heat pipe and extending the vane into an adjacent heat sink, thus transferring the vane incident heat transfer through the heat pipe to heat sink. This design provides an extremely high heat transfer rate and a uniform temperature along the vane due to the internal change of phase of the heat pipe working fluid. Furthermore, this technology can also eliminate hot spots at the vane leading and trailing edges and increase the vane life by preventing thermal fatigue cracking. There is also the possibility of requiring no bleed air from the compressor, and therefore eliminating engine performance losses resulting from the diversion of compressor discharge air. Significant improvement in gas turbine performance can be achieved by using heat pipe technology in place of conventional air cooled vanes. A detailed numerical analysis of a heat pipe vane will be made and an experimental model will be designed in the first year of this new program.

  18. The Impact of Heat Release in Turbine Film Cooling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    AFIT/GAE/ENY/08-J02 Abstract The Ultra Compact Combustor is a design that integrates a turbine vane into the combustor flow path. Because...of the high fuel-to-air ratio and short combustor flow path, a significant potential exists for unburned fuel to enter the turbine. Using...contemporary turbine cooling vane designs, the injection of oxygen-rich turbine cooling air into a combustor flow containing unburned fuel could result in heat

  19. Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Russell B; Krueger, Judson J; Plank, William L

    2014-04-01

    A sequential impingement cooling insert for a turbine stator vane that forms a double impingement for the pressure and suction sides of the vane or a triple impingement. The insert is formed from a sheet metal formed in a zigzag shape that forms a series of alternating impingement cooling channels with return air channels, where pressure side and suction side impingement cooling plates are secured over the zigzag shaped main piece. Another embodiment includes the insert formed from one or two blocks of material in which the impingement channels and return air channels are machined into each block.

  20. Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Russel B; Krueger, Judson J; Plank, William L

    2014-11-04

    A sequential impingement cooling insert for a turbine stator vane that forms a double impingement for the pressure and suction sides of the vane or a triple impingement. The insert is formed from a sheet metal formed in a zigzag shape that forms a series of alternating impingement cooling channels with return air channels, where pressure side and suction side impingement cooling plates are secured over the zigzag shaped main piece. Another embodiment includes the insert formed from one or two blocks of material in which the impingement channels and return air channels are machined into each block.

  1. Serial cooling of a combustor for a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Abreu, Mario E.; Kielczyk, Janusz J.

    2001-01-01

    A combustor for a gas turbine engine uses compressed air to cool a combustor liner and uses at least a portion of the same compressed air for combustion air. A flow diverting mechanism regulates compressed air flow entering a combustion air plenum feeding combustion air to a plurality of fuel nozzles. The flow diverting mechanism adjusts combustion air according to engine loading.

  2. Analytical investigation of chord size and cooling methods on turbine blade cooling requirements. Book 1: Sections 1 through 8 and appendixes A through I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faulkner, F. E.

    1971-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of chord size on air cooled turbine blades. In the preliminary design phase, eight turbine blade cooling configurations in 0.75-in., 1.0-in., and 1.5-in. chord sizes were analyzed to determine the maximum turbine inlet temperature capabilities. A pin fin convection cooled configuration and a film-impingement cooled configuration were selected for a final design analysis in which the maximum turbine inlet temperature was determined as a function of the cooling air inlet temperature and the turbine inlet total pressure for each of the three chord sizes. The cooling air flow requirements were also determined for a varying cooling air inlet temperature with a constant turbine inlet temperature. It was determined that allowable turbine inlet temperature increases with increasing chord for the convection cooled and transpiration cooled designs, however, the film-convection cooled designs did not have a significant change in turbine inlet temperature with chord.

  3. Structural cooling fluid tube for supporting a turbine component and supplying cooling fluid to transition section

    DOEpatents

    Charron, Richard; Pierce, Daniel

    2015-08-11

    A shaft cover support for a gas turbine engine is disclosed. The shaft cover support not only provides enhanced support to a shaft cover of the gas turbine engine, but also includes a cooling fluid chamber for passing fluids from a rotor air cooling supply conduit to an inner ring cooling manifold. Furthermore, the shaft cover support may include a cooling shield supply extending from the cooling fluid chamber between the radially outward inlet and the radially inward outlet on the radially extending region and in fluid communication with the cooling fluid chamber for providing cooling fluids to a transition section. The shaft cover support may also provide additional stiffness and reduce interference of the flow from the compressor. In addition, the shaft cover support accommodates a transition section extending between compressor and turbine sections of the gas turbine engine.

  4. Comparison of Calculated and Experimental Temperatures and Coolant Pressure Losses for a Cascade of Small Air-Cooled Turbine Rotor Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepka, Francis S

    1958-01-01

    Average spanwise blade temperatures and cooling-air pressure losses through a small (1.4-in, span, 0.7-in, chord) air-cooled turbine blade were calculated and are compared with experimental nonrotating cascade data. Two methods of calculating the blade spanwise metal temperature distributions are presented. The method which considered the effect of the length-to-diameter ratio of the coolant passage on the blade-to-coolant heat-transfer coefficient and assumed constant coolant properties based on the coolant bulk temperature gave the best agreement with experimental data. The agreement obtained was within 3 percent at the midspan and tip regions of the blade. At the root region of the blade, the agreement was within 3 percent for coolant flows within the turbulent flow regime and within 10 percent for coolant flows in the laminar regime. The calculated and measured cooling-air pressure losses through the blade agreed within 5 percent. Calculated spanwise blade temperatures for assumed turboprop engine operating conditions of 2000 F turbine-inlet gas temperature and flight conditions of 300 knots at a 30,000-foot altitude agreed well with those obtained by the extrapolation of correlated experimental data of a static cascade investigation of these blades.

  5. Recent developments in turbine blade internal cooling.

    PubMed

    Han, J C; Dutta, S

    2001-05-01

    This paper focuses on turbine blade internal cooling. Internal cooling is achieved by passing the coolant through several rib-enhanced serpentine passages inside the blade and extracting the heat from the outside of the blades. Both jet impingement and pin-fin-cooling are also used as a method of internal cooling. In the past number of years there has been considerable progress in turbine blade internal cooling research and this paper is limited to reviewing a few selected publications to reflect recent developments in turbine blade internal cooling.

  6. Microtextured Surfaces for Turbine Blade Impingement Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Gas turbine engine technology is constantly challenged to operate at higher combustor outlet temperatures. In a modern gas turbine engine, these temperatures can exceed the blade and disk material limits by 600 F or more, necessitating both internal and film cooling schemes in addition to the use of thermal barrier coatings. Internal convective cooling is inadequate in many blade locations, and both internal and film cooling approaches can lead to significant performance penalties in the engine. Micro Cooling Concepts, Inc., has developed a turbine blade cooling concept that provides enhanced internal impingement cooling effectiveness via the use of microstructured impingement surfaces. These surfaces significantly increase the cooling capability of the impinging flow, as compared to a conventional untextured surface. This approach can be combined with microchannel cooling and external film cooling to tailor the cooling capability per the external heating profile. The cooling system then can be optimized to minimize impact on engine performance.

  7. Turbine stator vane segment having internal cooling circuits

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Raymond Joseph; Burns, James Lee; Bojappa, Parvangada Ganapathy; Jones, Schotsch Margaret

    2003-01-01

    A turbine stator vane includes outer and inner walls each having outer and inner chambers and a vane extending between the outer and inner walls. The vane includes first, second, third, fourth and fifth cavities for flowing a cooling medium. The cooling medium enters the outer chamber of the outer wall, flows through an impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer band wall defining in part the hot gas path and through openings in the first, second and fourth cavities for flow radially inwardly, cooling the vane. The spent cooling medium flows into the inner wall and inner chamber for flow through an impingement plate radially outwardly to cool the inner wall. The spent cooling medium flows through the third cavity for egress from the turbine vane segment from the outer wall. The first, second or third cavities contain inserts having impingement openings for impingement cooling of the vane walls. The fifth cavity provides air cooling for the trailing edge.

  8. Cooling system for a bearing of a turbine rotor

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Mark Christopher

    2002-01-01

    In a gas turbine, a bore tube assembly radially inwardly of an aft bearing conveys cooling steam to the buckets of the turbine and returns the cooling steam to a return. To cool the bearing and thermally insulate the bearing from the cooling steam paths, a radiation shield is spaced from the bore tube assembly by a dead air gap. Additionally, an air passageway is provided between the radiation shield and the inner surface of an aft shaft forming part of the rotor. Air is supplied from an inlet for flow along the passage and radially outwardly through bores in the aft shaft disk to cool the bearing and insulate it from transfer of heat from the cooling steam.

  9. Cooling scheme for turbine hot parts

    DOEpatents

    Hultgren, Kent Goran; Owen, Brian Charles; Dowman, Steven Wayne; Nordlund, Raymond Scott; Smith, Ricky Lee

    2000-01-01

    A closed-loop cooling scheme for cooling stationary combustion turbine components, such as vanes, ring segments and transitions, is provided. The cooling scheme comprises: (1) an annular coolant inlet chamber, situated between the cylinder and blade ring of a turbine, for housing coolant before being distributed to the turbine components; (2) an annular coolant exhaust chamber, situated between the cylinder and the blade ring and proximate the annular coolant inlet chamber, for collecting coolant exhaust from the turbine components; (3) a coolant inlet conduit for supplying the coolant to said coolant inlet chamber; (4) a coolant exhaust conduit for directing coolant from said coolant exhaust chamber; and (5) a piping arrangement for distributing the coolant to and directing coolant exhaust from the turbine components. In preferred embodiments of the invention, the cooling scheme further comprises static seals for sealing the blade ring to the cylinder and flexible joints for attaching the blade ring to the turbine components.

  10. Compatibility of gas turbine materials with steam cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, V.; Tamboli, D.; Patel, Y.

    1995-10-01

    Gas turbines had been traditionally used for peak load plants and remote locations as they offer advantage of low installation costs and quick start up time. Their use as a base load generator had not been feasible owing to their poor efficiency. However, with the advent of gas turbines based combined cycle plants (CCPs), continued advances in efficiency are being made. Coupled with ultra low NO{sub x} emissions, coal compatibility and higher unit output, gas turbines are now competing with conventional power plants for base load power generation. Currently, the turbines are designed with TIT of 2300{degrees}F and metal temperatures are maintained around 1700{degrees}F by using air cooling. New higher efficiency ATS turbines will have TIT as high as 2700{degrees}F. To withstand this high temperature improved materials, coatings, and advances in cooling system and design are warranted. Development of advanced materials with better capabilities specifically for land base applications are time consuming and may not be available by ATS time frame or may prove costly for the first generation ATS gas turbines. Therefore improvement in the cooling system of hot components, which can take place in a relatively shorter time frame, is important. One way to improve cooling efficiency is to use better cooling agent. Steam as an alternate cooling agent offers attractive advantages because of its higher specific heat (almost twice that of air) and lower viscosity.

  11. Cooling arrangement for a tapered turbine blade

    DOEpatents

    Liang, George

    2010-07-27

    A cooling arrangement (11) for a highly tapered gas turbine blade (10). The cooling arrangement (11) includes a pair of parallel triple-pass serpentine cooling circuits (80,82) formed in an inner radial portion (50) of the blade, and a respective pair of single radial channel cooling circuits (84,86) formed in an outer radial portion (52) of the blade (10), with each single radial channel receiving the cooling fluid discharged from a respective one of the triple-pass serpentine cooling circuit. The cooling arrangement advantageously provides a higher degree of cooling to the most highly stressed radially inner portion of the blade, while providing a lower degree of cooling to the less highly stressed radially outer portion of the blade. The cooling arrangement can be implemented with known casting techniques, thereby facilitating its use on highly tapered, highly twisted Row 4 industrial gas turbine blades that could not be cooled with prior art cooling arrangements.

  12. Multi-pass cooling for turbine airfoils

    DOEpatents

    Liang, George

    2011-06-28

    An airfoil for a turbine vane of a gas turbine engine. The airfoil includes an outer wall having pressure and suction sides, and a radially extending cooling cavity located between the pressure and suction sides. A plurality of partitions extend radially through the cooling cavity to define a plurality of interconnected cooling channels located at successive chordal locations through the cooling cavity. The cooling channels define a serpentine flow path extending in the chordal direction. Further, the cooling channels include a plurality of interconnected chambers and the chambers define a serpentine path extending in the radial direction within the serpentine path extending in the chordal direction.

  13. STUDY PROGRAM FOR TURBO-COOLER FOR PRODUCING ENGINE COOLING AIR.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    VANES , STAGNATION POINT, DECELERATION, ACCELERATION, SUPERSONIC DIFFUSERS, TURBINE BLADES , EVAPOTRANSPIRATION, LIQUID COOLED, HEAT TRANSFER, GAS BEARINGS, SEALS...HYPERSONIC AIRCRAFT , COOLING + VENTILATING EQUIPMENT), (*GAS TURBINES , COOLING + VENTILATING EQUIPMENT), HYPERSONIC FLOW, AIR COOLED, AIRCRAFT ... ENGINES , FEASIBILITY STUDIES, PRESSURE, SUPERSONIC CHARACTERISTICS, DESIGN, HEAT EXCHANGERS, COOLING (U) AXIAL FLOW TURBINES , DUCT INLETS, INLET GUIDE

  14. Cooled turbine vane with endcaps

    DOEpatents

    Cunha, Frank J.; Schiavo, Jr., Anthony L.; Nordlund, Raymond Scott; Malow, Thomas; McKinley, Barry L.

    2002-01-01

    A turbine vane assembly which includes an outer endcap having a plurality of generally straight passages and passage segments therethrough, an inner endcap having a plurality of passages and passage segments therethrough, and a vane assembly having an outer shroud, an airfoil body, and an inner shroud. The outer shroud, airfoil body and inner shroud each have a plurality of generally straight passages and passage segments therethrough as well. The outer endcap is coupled to the outer shroud so that outer endcap passages and said outer shroud passages form a fluid circuit. The inner endcap is coupled to the inner shroud so that the inner end cap passages and the inner shroud passages from a fluid circuit. Passages in the vane casting are in fluid communication with both the outer shroud passages and the inner shroud passages. Passages in the outer endcap may be coupled to a cooling system that supplies a coolant and takes away the heated exhaust.

  15. Heat transfer performance comparison of steam and air in gas turbine cooling channels with different rib angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaojun; Gao, Jianmin; Xu, Liang; Li, Fajin

    2013-11-01

    Using steam as working fluid to replace compressed air is a promising cooling technology for internal cooling passages of blades and vanes. The local heat transfer characteristics and the thermal performance of steam flow in wide aspect ratio channels ( W/ H = 2) with different angled ribs on two opposite walls have been experimentally investigated in this paper. The averaged Nusselt number ratios and the friction factor ratios of steam and air in four ribbed channels were also measured under the same test conditions for comparison. The Reynolds number range is 6,000-70,000. The rib angles are 90°, 60°, 45°, and 30°, respectively. The rib height to hydraulic diameter ratio is 0.047. The pitch-to-rib height ratio is 10. The results show that the Nusselt number ratios of steam are 1.19-1.32 times greater than those of air over the range of Reynolds numbers studied. For wide aspect ratio channels using steam as the coolant, the 60° angled ribs has the best heat transfer performance and is recommended for cooling design.

  16. Cold-air annular-cascade investigation of aerodynamic performance of cooled turbine vanes. 2: Trailing-edge ejection, film cooling, and transpiration cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, L. J.; Mclallin, K. L.

    1975-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of four different cooled vane configurations was experimentally determined in a full-annular cascade at a primary- to coolant-total-temperature ratio of 1.0. The vanes were tested over a range of coolant flow rates and pressure ratios. Overall vane efficiencies were obtained and compared, where possible, with the results obtained in a four-vane, annular-sector cascade. The vane efficiency and exit flow conditions as functions of radial position were also determined and compared with solid (uncooled) vane results.

  17. Calculated effects of turbine rotor-blade cooling-air flow, altitude, and compressor bleed point on performance of a turbojet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arne, Vernon L; Nachtigall, Alfred J

    1951-01-01

    Effects of air-cooling turbine rotor blades on performance of a turbojet engine were calculated for a range of altitudes from sea level to 40,000 feet and a range of coolant flows up to 3 percent of compressor air flow, for two conditions of coolant bleed from the compressor. Bleeding at required coolant pressure resulted in a sea-level thrust reduction approximately twice the percentage coolant flow and in an increase in specific fuel consumption approximately equal to percentage coolant flow. For any fixed value of coolant flow ratio the percentage thrust reduction and percentage increase in specific fuel consumption decreased with altitude. Bleeding coolant at the compressor discharge resulted in an additional 1 percent loss in performance at sea level and in smaller increase in loss of performance at higher altitudes.

  18. Swirl nozzle for a cooling system in gas turbine engines

    SciTech Connect

    Hook, R.B. Jr.; Montanye, R.D.

    1987-05-19

    This patent describes an improved gas turbine engine of the type comprising an outer casing, axially spaced apart turbine wheels rotatably mounted within the casing and having radially outwardly extending blades mounted thereon. A stationary annular member includes air foil vanes positioned between each of the turbine wheels. The bladed turbine wheels and the stationary annular members define a hot gas path. An annular plenum is defined between the hot gas path and an outer wall of the stationary member and a diaphragm is depending from an inner wall of the stationary member. Air passageways through at least some of the air foil vanes for conducting cooling air from the annular plenum to the diaphragm.

  19. Flow Integrating Section for a Gas Turbine Engine in Which Turbine Blades are Cooled by Full Compressor Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, W. Gene

    1999-11-14

    Routing of full compressor flow through hollow turbine blades achieves unusually effective blade cooling and allows a significant increase in turbine inlet gas temperature and, hence, engine efficiency. The invention, ''flow integrating section'' alleviates the turbine dissipation of kinetic energy of air jets leaving the hollow blades as they enter the compressor diffuser.

  20. Floating air riding seal for a turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, Todd A

    2016-08-16

    A floating air riding seal for a gas turbine engine with a rotor and a stator, an annular piston chamber with an axial moveable annular piston assembly within the annular piston chamber formed in the stator, an annular cavity formed on the annular piston assembly that faces a seal surface on the rotor, where the axial moveable annular piston includes an inlet scoop on a side opposite to the annular cavity that scoops up the swirling cooling air and directs the cooling air to the annular cavity to form an air cushion with the seal surface of the rotor.

  1. Cooling of Gas Turbines. 6 - Computed Temperature Distribution through Cross Section of Water-Cooled Turbine Blade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1947-05-01

    AERONAUTICS Figure 7. - Cross section of water-cooleä turbine blade showing location and size of seven coolant...Power Plants.~ Jet and~ Turbine ($) [SECTION. Turbines (I3) [CROSS DEFERENCES. Turbine blades - Thermal measurements (95350); Turbine blades ...section of water-cooled turbine blade FORG’N. TITLE: v.. ’V, ORIGINATING AGENCY. TRANSLATION. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics

  2. Porous Ceramic Coating for Transpiration Cooling of Gas Turbine Blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, M.; Suidzu, T.

    2013-06-01

    A transpiration cooling system for gas turbine applications has significant benefit for reducing the amount of cooling air and increasing cooling efficiency. In this paper, the porous ceramic coating, which can infiltrate cooling gas, is developed with plasma spraying process, and the properties of the porous coating material such as permeability of cooling gas, thermal conductivity, and adhesion strength are examined. The mixture of 8 wt.% yttria-stabilized zirconia and polyester powders was employed as the coating material, in order to deposit the porous ceramic coating onto Ni-based super alloy substrate. It was shown that the porous ceramic coating has superior permeability for cooling gas. The adhesion strength of the porous coating was low only 20% compared with the thermal barrier coating utilized in current gas turbine blades. Simulation test of hot gas flow around the gas turbine blade verified remarkable reduction of the coating surface temperature by the transpiration cooling mechanism. It was concluded that the transpiration cooling system for the gas turbine could be achieved using the porous ceramic coating developed in this study.

  3. Turbine cooling configuration selection and design optimization for the high-reliability gas turbine. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M J; Suo, M

    1981-04-01

    The potential of advanced turbine convectively air-cooled concepts for application to the Department of Energy/Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Advanced Liquid/Gas-Fueled Engine Program was investigated. Cooling of turbine airfoils is critical technology and significant advances in cooling technology will permit higher efficiency coal-base-fuel gas turbine energy systems. Two new airfoil construction techniques, bonded and wafer, were the principal designs considered. In the bonded construction, two airfoil sections having intricate internal cooling configurations are bonded together to form a complete blade or vane. In the wafer construction, a larger number (50 or more) of wafers having intricate cooling flow passages are bonded together to form a complete blade or vane. Of these two construction techniques, the bonded airfoil is considered to be lower in risk and closer to production readiness. Bonded airfoils are being used in aircraft engines. A variety of industrial materials were evaluated for the turbine airfoils. A columnar grain nickel alloy was selected on the basis of strength and corrosion resistance. Also, cost of electricity and reliability were considered in the final concept evaluation. The bonded airfoil design yielded a 3.5% reduction in cost-of-electricity relative to a baseline Reliable Engine design. A significant conclusion of this study was that the bonded airfoil convectively air-cooled design offers potential for growth to turbine inlet temperatures above 2600/sup 0/F with reasonable development risk.

  4. Investigation of two-stage air-cooled turbine suitable for flight at Mach number of 2.5 II : blade design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miser, James W; Stewart, Warner L

    1957-01-01

    A blade design study is presented for a two-stage air-cooled turbine suitable for flight at a Mach number of 2.5 for which velocity diagrams have been previously obtained. The detailed procedure used in the design of the blades is given. In addition, the design blade shapes, surface velocity distributions, inner and outer wall contours, and other design data are presented. Of all the blade rows, the first-stage rotor has the highest solidity, with a value of 2.289 at the mean section. The second-stage stator also had a high mean-section solidity of 1.927, mainly because of its high inlet whirl. The second-stage rotor has the highest value of the suction-surface diffusion parameter, with a value of 0.151. All other blade rows have values for this parameter under 0.100.

  5. Liquid cooled counter flow turbine bucket

    DOEpatents

    Dakin, James T.

    1982-09-21

    Means and a method are provided whereby liquid coolant flows radially outward through coolant passages in a liquid cooled turbine bucket under the influence of centrifugal force while in contact with countercurrently flowing coolant vapor such that liquid is entrained in the flow of vapor resulting in an increase in the wetted cooling area of the individual passages.

  6. A Comparison of Film Cooling Techniques in a High Speed, True Scale, Fully Cooled Turbine Vane Ring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    configurations in a true scale turbine vane for three proprietary airfoil designs. The measurements for this study were taken at the United States Air...and Background Gas Turbine Film Cooling Gas turbine engines have become an integral part of our society as we use them to propel our aircraft ...and naval vessels as well as generate electricity. Ever since Frank Whittle first applied for a patent on his turbojet engine in 1929, turbine

  7. Cooling arrangement for a gas turbine component

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Heneveld, Benjamin E

    2015-02-10

    A cooling arrangement (82) for a gas turbine engine component, the cooling arrangement (82) having a plurality of rows (92, 94, 96) of airfoils (98), wherein adjacent airfoils (98) within a row (92, 94, 96) define segments (110, 130, 140) of cooling channels (90), and wherein outlets (114, 134) of the segments (110, 130) in one row (92, 94) align aerodynamically with inlets (132, 142) of segments (130, 140) in an adjacent row (94, 96) to define continuous cooling channels (90) with non continuous walls (116, 120), each cooling channel (90) comprising a serpentine shape.

  8. Real-Time Closed Loop Modulated Turbine Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyam, Vikram; Culley, Dennis E.; Eldridge, Jeffrey; Jones, Scott; Woike, Mark; Cuy, Michael

    2014-01-01

    It has been noted by industry that in addition to dramatic variations of temperature over a given blade surface, blade-to-blade variations also exist despite identical design. These variations result from manufacturing variations, uneven wear and deposition over the life of the part as well as limitations in the uniformity of coolant distribution in the baseline cooling design. It is proposed to combine recent advances in optical sensing, actuation, and film cooling concepts to develop a workable active, closed-loop modulated turbine cooling system to improve by 10 to 20 the turbine thermal state over the flight mission, to improve engine life and to dramatically reduce turbine cooling air usage and aircraft fuel burn. A reduction in oxides of nitrogen (NOx) can also be achieved by using the excess coolant to improve mixing in the combustor especially for rotorcraft engines. Recent patents filed by industry and universities relate to modulating endwall cooling using valves. These schemes are complex, add weight and are limited to the endwalls. The novelty of the proposed approach is twofold 1) Fluidic diverters that have no moving parts are used to modulate cooling and can operate under a wide range of conditions and environments. 2) Real-time optical sensing to map the thermal state of the turbine has never been attempted in realistic engine conditions.

  9. Film cooling air pocket in a closed loop cooled airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Yufeng Phillip; Itzel, Gary Michael; Osgood, Sarah Jane; Bagepalli, Radhakrishna; Webbon, Waylon Willard; Burdgick, Steven Sebastian

    2002-01-01

    Turbine stator vane segments have radially inner and outer walls with vanes extending between them. The inner and outer walls are compartmentalized and have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall plenum passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall upper surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. To provide for air film cooing of select portions of the airfoil outer surface, at least one air pocket is defined on a wall of at least one of the cavities. Each air pocket is substantially closed with respect to the cooling medium in the cavity and cooling air pumped to the air pocket flows through outlet apertures in the wall of the airfoil to cool the same.

  10. AIR COOLED NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

    1958-05-27

    A nuclear reactor of the air-cooled, graphite moderated type is described. The active core consists of a cubicle mass of graphite, approximately 25 feet in each dimension, having horizontal channels of square cross section extending between two of the opposite faces, a plurality of cylindrical uranium slugs disposed in end to end abutting relationship within said channels providing a space in the channels through which air may be circulated, and a cadmium control rod extending within a channel provided in the moderator. Suitable shielding is provlded around the core, as are also provided a fuel element loading and discharge means, and a means to circulate air through the coolant channels through the fuel charels to cool the reactor.

  11. Cold-air performance of a 12.766-centimeter-tip-diameter axial-flow cooled turbine. 1: Design and performance of a solid blade configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, J. E.; Kofskey, M. G.

    1975-01-01

    A solid blade version of a single-stage, axial-flow turbine was investigated to determine its performance over a range of speeds from 0 to 105 percent of equivalent design speed and over a range of total to static pressure ratios from 1.62 to 5.07. The results of this investigation will be used as a baseline for comparison with those obtained from a cooled version of this turbine.

  12. Gas turbine premixer with internal cooling

    DOEpatents

    York, William David; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-12-18

    A system that includes a turbine fuel nozzle comprising an air-fuel premixer. The air-fuel premixed includes a swirl vane configured to swirl fuel and air in a downstream direction, wherein the swirl vane comprises an internal coolant path from a downstream end portion in an upstream direction through a substantial length of the swirl vane.

  13. Closed circuit steam cooled turbine shroud and method for steam cooling turbine shroud

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian; Sexton, Brendan Francis; Kellock, Iain Robertson

    2002-01-01

    A turbine shroud cooling cavity is partitioned to define a plurality of cooling chambers for sequentially receiving cooling steam and impingement cooling of the radially inner wall of the shoud. An impingement baffle is provided in each cooling chamber for receiving the cooling media from a cooling media inlet in the case of the first chamber or from the immediately upstream chamber in the case of the second through fourth chambers and includes a plurality of impingement holes for effecting the impingement cooling of the shroud inner wall.

  14. Structural cooling fluid tube for supporting a turbine component and supplying cooling fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Charron, Richard; Pierce, Daniel

    2015-02-24

    A shaft cover support for a gas turbine engine is disclosed. The shaft cover support not only provides enhanced support to a shaft cover of the gas turbine engine, but also includes a cooling fluid chamber for passing fluids from a rotor air cooling supply conduit to an inner ring cooling manifold. As such, the shaft cover support accomplishes in a single component what was only partially accomplished in two components in conventional configurations. The shaft cover support may also provide additional stiffness and reduce interference of the flow from the compressor. In addition, the shaft cover support accommodates a transition section extending between compressor and turbine sections of the engine. The shaft cover support has a radially extending region that is offset from the inlet and outlet that enables the shaft cover support to surround the transition, thereby reducing the overall length of this section of the engine.

  15. Gas turbine bucket with impingement cooled platform

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Raphael Durand

    2002-01-01

    In a turbine bucket having an airfoil portion and a root portion, with a substantially planar platform at an interface between the airfoil portion and root portion, a platform cooling arrangement including at least one bore in the root portion and at least one impingement cooling tube seated in the bore, the tube extending beyond the bore with an outlet in close proximity to a targeted area on an underside of the platform.

  16. Near-wall serpentine cooled turbine airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ching-Pang

    2014-10-28

    A serpentine coolant flow path is formed by inner walls in a cavity between pressure and suction side walls of a turbine airfoil, the cavity partitioned by one or more transverse partitions into a plurality of continuous serpentine cooling flow streams each having a respective coolant inlet.

  17. Cooled High-temperature Radial Turbine Program 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Philip H.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this program was the design and fabrication of a air-cooled high-temperature radial turbine (HTRT) intended for experimental evaluation in a warm turbine test facility at the LeRC. The rotor and vane were designed to be tested as a scaled version (rotor diameter of 14.4 inches diameter) of a 8.021 inch diameter rotor designed to be capable of operating with a rotor inlet temperature (RIT) of 2300 F, a nominal mass flow of 4.56 lbm/sec, a work level of equal or greater than 187 Btu/lbm, and efficiency of 86 percent or greater. The rotor was also evaluated to determine it's feasibility to operate at 2500 F RIT. The rotor design conformed to the rotor blade flow path specified by NASA for compatibility with their test equipment. Fabrication was accomplished on three rotors, a bladeless rotor, a solid rotor, and an air-cooled rotor.

  18. Debris trap in a turbine cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Ian David

    2002-01-01

    In a turbine having a rotor and a plurality of stages, each stage comprising a row of buckets mounted on the rotor for rotation therewith; and wherein the buckets of at least one of the stages are cooled by steam, the improvement comprising at least one axially extending cooling steam supply conduit communicating with an at least partially annular steam supply manifold; one or more axially extending cooling steam feed tubes connected to the manifold at a location radially outwardly of the cooling steam supply conduit, the feed tubes arranged to supply cooling steam to the buckets of at least one of the plurality of stages; the manifold extending radially beyond the feed tubes to thereby create a debris trap region for collecting debris under centrifugal loading caused by rotation of the rotor.

  19. Effects of Pulsing on Film Cooling of Gas Turbine Airfoils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-09

    turbine engine . 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 70 14. SUBJECT TERMS: Turbine blade ; Film cooling ; Pulsed jet 16. PRICE CODE 17...with additional research, ultimately allowing for an increased efficiency in a gas turbine engine . 2 Keywords Turbine blade Film cooling Pulsed jet ... engine for aircraft propulsion…………………. 11 Figure 2: Thermodynamic cycle of a general turbine engine . ………………………..…… 11

  20. Internal cooling circuit for gas turbine bucket

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, Susan Marie; Davis, Richard Mallory

    2005-10-25

    In a gas turbine bucket having a shank portion and an airfoil portion having leading and trailing edges and pressure and suction sides, an internal cooling circuit, the internal cooling circuit having a serpentine configuration including plural radial outflow passages and plural radial inflow passages, and wherein a coolant inlet passage communicates with a first of the radial outflow passages along the trailing edge, the first radial outflow passage having a plurality of radially extending and radially spaced elongated rib segments extending between and connecting the pressure and suction sides in a middle region of the first passage to prevent ballooning of the pressure and suction sides at the first radial outflow passage.

  1. Liquid-cooling technology for gas turbines review and status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanfossen, G. J., Jr.; Stepka, F. S.

    1978-01-01

    A review of research related to liquid cooling of gas turbines was conducted and an assessment of the state of the art was made. Various methods of liquid cooling turbines were reviewed. Examples and results with test and demonstrator turbines utilizing these methods along with the advantages and disadvantages of the various methods are discussed.

  2. Partially turbulated trailing edge cooling passages for gas turbine nozzles

    DOEpatents

    Thatcher, Jonathan Carl; Burdgick, Steven Sebastian

    2001-01-01

    A plurality of passages are spaced one from the other along the length of a trailing edge of a nozzle vane in a gas turbine. The passages lie in communication with a cavity in the vane for flowing cooling air from the cavity through the passages through the tip of the trailing edge into the hot gas path. Each passage is partially turbulated and includes ribs in an aft portion thereof to provide enhanced cooling effects adjacent the tip of the trailing edge. The major portions of the passages are smooth bore. By this arrangement, reduced temperature gradients across the trailing edge metal are provided. Additionally, the inlets to each of the passages have a restriction whereby a reduced magnitude of compressor bleed discharge air is utilized for trailing edge cooling purposes.

  3. Low pressure cooling seal system for a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Marra, John J

    2014-04-01

    A low pressure cooling system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids at low pressure, such as at ambient pressure, through at least one cooling fluid supply channel and into a cooling fluid mixing chamber positioned immediately downstream from a row of turbine blades extending radially outward from a rotor assembly to prevent ingestion of hot gases into internal aspects of the rotor assembly. The low pressure cooling system may also include at least one bleed channel that may extend through the rotor assembly and exhaust cooling fluids into the cooling fluid mixing chamber to seal a gap between rotational turbine blades and a downstream, stationary turbine component. Use of ambient pressure cooling fluids by the low pressure cooling system results in tremendous efficiencies by eliminating the need for pressurized cooling fluids for sealing this gap.

  4. Cooled airfoil in a turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Vitt, Paul H; Kemp, David A; Lee, Ching-Pang; Marra, John J

    2015-04-21

    An airfoil in a gas turbine engine includes an outer wall and an inner wall. The outer wall includes a leading edge, a trailing edge opposed from the leading edge in a chordal direction, a pressure side, and a suction side. The inner wall is coupled to the outer wall at a single chordal location and includes portions spaced from the pressure and suction sides of the outer wall so as to form first and second gaps between the inner wall and the respective pressure and suction sides. The inner wall defines a chamber therein and includes openings that provide fluid communication between the respective gaps and the chamber. The gaps receive cooling fluid that provides cooling to the outer wall as it flows through the gaps. The cooling fluid, after traversing at least substantial portions of the gaps, passes into the chamber through the openings in the inner wall.

  5. Turbine airfoil with laterally extending snubber having internal cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Scribner, Carmen Andrew; Messmann, Stephen John; Marsh, Jan H.

    2016-09-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one snubber with a snubber cooling system positioned therein and in communication with an airfoil cooling system is disclosed. The snubber may extend from the outer housing of the airfoil toward an adjacent turbine airfoil positioned within a row of airfoils. The snubber cooling system may include an inner cooling channel separated from an outer cooling channel by an inner wall. The inner wall may include a plurality of impingement cooling orifices that direct impingement fluid against an outer wall defining the outer cooling channel. In one embodiment, the cooling fluids may be exhausted from the snubber, and in another embodiment, the cooling fluids may be returned to the airfoil cooling system. Flow guides may be positioned in the outer cooling channel, which may reduce cross-flow by the impingement orifices, thereby increasing effectiveness.

  6. Turbine engine component with cooling passages

    DOEpatents

    Arrell, Douglas J [Oviedo, FL; James, Allister W [Orlando, FL

    2012-01-17

    A component for use in a turbine engine including a first member and a second member associated with the first member. The second member includes a plurality of connecting elements extending therefrom. The connecting elements include securing portions at ends thereof that are received in corresponding cavities formed in the first member to attach the second member to the first member. The connecting elements are constructed to space apart a first surface of the second member from a first surface of the first member such that at least one cooling passage is formed between adjacent connecting elements and the first surface of the second member and the first surface of the first member.

  7. Metal temperatures and coolant flow in a wire cloth transpiration cooled turbine vane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental heat transfer investigation was conducted on an air-cooled turbine vane made from wire-wound cloth material and supported by a central strut. Vane temperature data obtained are compared with temperature data from two full-coverage film-cooled vanes made of different laminated construction. Measured porous-airfoil temperatures are compared with predicted temperatures.

  8. Liquid-cooling technology for gas turbines - Review and status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Fossen, G. J., Jr.; Stepka, F. S.

    1978-01-01

    After a brief review of past efforts involving the forced-convection cooling of gas turbines, the paper surveys the state of the art of the liquid cooling of gas turbines. Emphasis is placed on thermosyphon methods of cooling, including those utilizing closed, open, and closed-loop thermosyphons; other methods, including sweat, spray and stator cooling, are also discussed. The more significant research efforts, design data, correlations, and analytical methods are mentioned and voids in technology are summarized.

  9. Investigations of Air-cooled Turbine Rotors for Turbojet Engines II : Mechanical Design, Stress Analysis, and Burst Test of Modified J33 Split-disk Rotor / Richard H. Kemp and Merland L. Moseson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, Richard H; Moseson, Merland L

    1952-01-01

    A full-scale J33 air-cooled split turbine rotor was designed and spin-pit tested to destruction. Stress analysis and spin-pit results indicated that the rotor in a J33 turbojet engine, however, showed that the rear disk of the rotor operated at temperatures substantially higher than the forward disk. An extension of the stress analysis to include the temperature difference between the two disks indicated that engine modifications are required to permit operation of the two disks at more nearly the same temperature level.

  10. Cooling circuit for a gas turbine bucket and tip shroud

    DOEpatents

    Willett, Fred Thomas; Itzel, Gary Michael; Stathopoulos, Dimitrios; Plemmons, Larry Wayne; Plemmons, Helen M.; Lewis, Doyle C.

    2002-01-01

    An open cooling circuit for a gas turbine bucket wherein the bucket has an airfoil portion, and a tip shroud, the cooling circuit including a plurality of radial cooling holes extending through the airfoil portion and communicating with an enlarged internal area within the tip shroud before exiting the tip shroud such that a cooling medium used to cool the airfoil portion is subsequently used to cool the tip shroud.

  11. Thermodynamic study of air-cycle and mercury-vapor-cycle systems for refrigerating cooling air for turbines or other components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nachtigall, Alfred J; Freche, John C; Esgar, Jack B

    1956-01-01

    An analysis of air refrigeration systems indicated that air cycles are generally less satisfactory than simple heat exchangers unless high component efficiencies and high values of heat-exchanger effectiveness can be obtained. A system employing a mercury-vapor cycle appears to be feasible for refrigerating air that must enter the system at temperature levels of approximately 1500 degrees R, and this cycle is more efficient than the air cycle. Weight of the systems was not considered. The analysis of the systems is presented in a generalized dimensionless form.

  12. Effects of Thermal Barrier Coatings on Approaches to Turbine Blade Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Reliance on Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) to reduce the amount of air used for turbine vane cooling is beneficial both from the standpoint of reduced NOx production, and as a means of improving cycle efficiency through improved component efficiency. It is shown that reducing vane cooling from 10 to 5 percent of mainstream air can lead to NOx reductions of nearly 25 percent while maintaining the same rotor inlet temperature. An analysis is given which shows that, when a TBC is relied upon in the vane thermal design process, significantly less coolant is required using internal cooling alone compared to film cooling. This is especially true for small turbines where internal cooling without film cooling permits the surface boundary layer to remain laminar over a significant fraction of the vane surface.

  13. Fabrication of cooled radial turbine rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, A. N.; Aigret, G. G.; Psichogios, T. P.; Rodgers, C.

    1986-01-01

    A design and fabrication program was conducted to evaluate a unique concept for constructing a cooled, high temperature radial turbine rotor. This concept, called split blade fabrication was developed as an alternative to internal ceramic coring. In this technique, the internal cooling cavity is created without flow dividers or any other detail by a solid (and therefore stronger) ceramic plate which can be more firmly anchored within the casting shell mold than can conventional detailed ceramic cores. Casting is conducted in the conventional manner, except that the finished product, instead of having finished internal cooling passages, is now a split blade. The internal details of the blade are created separately together with a carrier sheet. The inserts are superalloy. Both are produced by essentially the same software such that they are a net fit. The carrier assemblies are loaded into the split blade and the edges sealed by welding. The entire wheel is Hot Isostatic Pressed (HIPed), braze bonding the internal details to the inside of the blades. During this program, two wheels were successfully produced by the split blade fabrication technique.

  14. Turbine airfoil with controlled area cooling arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, George

    2010-04-27

    A gas turbine airfoil (10) includes a serpentine cooling path (32) with a plurality of channels (34,42,44) fluidly interconnected by a plurality of turns (38,40) for cooling the airfoil wall material. A splitter component (50) is positioned within at least one of the channels to bifurcate the channel into a pressure-side channel (46) passing in between the outer wall (28) and the inner wall (30) of the pressure side (24) and a suction-side channel (48) passing in between the outer wall (28) and the inner wall (30) of the suction side (26) longitudinally downstream of an intermediate height (52). The cross-sectional area of the pressure-side channel (46) and suction-side channel (48) are thereby controlled in spite of an increasing cross-sectional area of the airfoil along its longitudinal length, ensuring a sufficiently high mach number to provide a desired degree of cooling throughout the entire length of the airfoil.

  15. Laminated turbine vane design and fabrication. [utilizing film cooling as a cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, W. G.

    1979-01-01

    A turbine vane and associated endwalls designed for advanced gas turbine engine conditions are described. The vane design combines the methods of convection cooling and selective areas of full coverage film cooling. The film cooling technique is utilized on the leading edge, pressure side, and endwall regions. The turbine vane involves the fabrication of airfoils from a stack of laminates with cooling passages photoetched on the surface. Cold flow calibration tests, a thermal analysis, and a stress analysis were performed on the turbine vanes.

  16. Near-wall serpentine cooled turbine airfoil

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ching-Pang

    2013-09-17

    A serpentine coolant flow path (54A-54G) formed by inner walls (50, 52) in a cavity (49) between pressure and suction side walls (22, 24) of a turbine airfoil (20A). A coolant flow (58) enters (56) an end of the airfoil, flows into a span-wise channel (54A), then flows forward (54B) over the inner surface of the pressure side wall, then turns behind the leading edge (26), and flows back along a forward part of the suction side wall, then follows a loop (54E) forward and back around an inner wall (52), then flows along an intermediate part of the suction side wall, then flows into an aft channel (54G) between the pressure and suction side walls, then exits the trailing edge (28). This provides cooling matched to the heating topography of the airfoil, minimizes differential thermal expansion, revives the coolant, and minimizes the flow volume needed.

  17. Coal fired air turbine cogeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster-Pegg, R. W.

    Fuel options and generator configurations for installation of cogenerator equipment are reviewed, noting that the use of oil or gas may be precluded by cost or legislation within the lifetime of any cogeneration equipment yet to be installed. A coal fueled air turbine cogenerator plant is described, which uses external combustion in a limestone bed at atmospheric pressure and in which air tubes are sunk to gain heat for a gas turbine. The limestone in the 26 MW unit absorbs sulfur from the coal, and can be replaced by other sorbents depending on types of coal available and stringency of local environmental regulations. Low temperature combustion reduces NOx formation and release of alkali salts and corrosion. The air heat is exhausted through a heat recovery boiler to produce process steam, then can be refed into the combustion chamber to satisfy preheat requirements. All parts of the cogenerator are designed to withstand full combustion temperature (1500 F) in the event of air flow stoppage. Costs are compared with those of a coal fired boiler and purchased power, and it is shown that the increased capital requirements for cogenerator apparatus will yield a 2.8 year payback. Detailed flow charts, diagrams and costs schedules are included.

  18. Wind turbine generators having wind assisted cooling systems and cooling methods

    DOEpatents

    Bagepalli, Bharat; Barnes, Gary R.; Gadre, Aniruddha D.; Jansen, Patrick L.; Bouchard, Jr., Charles G.; Jarczynski, Emil D.; Garg, Jivtesh

    2008-09-23

    A wind generator includes: a nacelle; a hub carried by the nacelle and including at least a pair of wind turbine blades; and an electricity producing generator including a stator and a rotor carried by the nacelle. The rotor is connected to the hub and rotatable in response to wind acting on the blades to rotate the rotor relative to the stator to generate electricity. A cooling system is carried by the nacelle and includes at least one ambient air inlet port opening through a surface of the nacelle downstream of the hub and blades, and a duct for flowing air from the inlet port in a generally upstream direction toward the hub and in cooling relation to the stator.

  19. Advanced liner-cooling techniques for gas turbine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, C. T.; Riddlebaugh, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    Component research for advanced small gas turbine engines is currently underway at the NASA Lewis Research Center. As part of this program, a basic reverse-flow combustor geometry was being maintained while different advanced liner wall cooling techniques were investigated. Performance and liner cooling effectiveness of the experimental combustor configuration featuring counter-flow film-cooled panels is presented and compared with two previously reported combustors featuring: splash film-cooled liner walls; and transpiration cooled liner walls (Lamilloy).

  20. Steam cooling system for a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Ian David; Barb, Kevin Joseph; Li, Ming Cheng; Hyde, Susan Marie; Mashey, Thomas Charles; Wesorick, Ronald Richard; Glynn, Christopher Charles; Hemsworth, Martin C.

    2002-01-01

    The steam cooling circuit for a gas turbine includes a bore tube assembly supplying steam to circumferentially spaced radial tubes coupled to supply elbows for transitioning the radial steam flow in an axial direction along steam supply tubes adjacent the rim of the rotor. The supply tubes supply steam to circumferentially spaced manifold segments located on the aft side of the 1-2 spacer for supplying steam to the buckets of the first and second stages. Spent return steam from these buckets flows to a plurality of circumferentially spaced return manifold segments disposed on the forward face of the 1-2 spacer. Crossover tubes couple the steam supply from the steam supply manifold segments through the 1-2 spacer to the buckets of the first stage. Crossover tubes through the 1-2 spacer also return steam from the buckets of the second stage to the return manifold segments. Axially extending return tubes convey spent cooling steam from the return manifold segments to radial tubes via return elbows.

  1. Cooled High-Temperature Radial Turbine Program. Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    proposed for advanced engines with high power-to-weight and inproved SFC requirements. The addition of cooling to the blades of a metal radial turbine ...4 secl/2 ) 62.2 Blade - jet Speed Ratio 0.66 Adiabatic Efficiency (T-to-T, %) 87.0 Cooling flows for the gasifier turbine section are set at 5.7%. The...Way Cincinnati, OH 45215-6301 85 COOLED HIGH-TEMPERATURE RADIAL TURBINE PROGRAM DISTRIBUTION LIST Number Qf Copies General Electric Aircraft Engines

  2. Thermosyphon Method for Cooling the Rotor Blades of High-Temperature Steam Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomolov, Alexander R.; Temnikova, Elena Yu.

    2016-02-01

    The design scheme of closed two-phase thermosyphon were suggested that can provide standard thermal operation of blades of high-temperature steam turbine. The method for thermosyphon calculation is developed. The example of thermal calculation was implemented, it showed that to cool the steam turbine blades at their heating by high-temperature steam, the heat can be removed in the rear part of the blades by air with the temperature of about 440°C.

  3. Rotational effects on turbine blade cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Govatzidakis, G.J.; Guenette, G.R.; Kerrebrock, J.L.

    1995-10-01

    An experimental investigation of the influence of rotation on the heat transfer in a smooth, rectangular passage rotating in the orthogonal mode is presented. The passage simulates one of the cooling channels found in gas turbine blades. A constant heat flux is imposed on the model with either inward or outward flow. The effects of rotation and buoyancy on the Nusselt number were quantified by systematically varying the Rotation number, Density Ratio, Reynolds number, and Buoyancy parameter. The experiment utilizes a high resolution infrared temperature measurement technique in order to measure the wall temperature distribution. The experimental results show that the rotational effects on the Nusselt number are significant and proper turbine blade design must take into account the effects of rotation, buoyancy, and flow direction. The behavior of the Nusselt number distribution depends strongly on the particular side, axial position, flow direction, and the specific range of the scaling parameters. The results show a strong coupling between buoyancy and Corollas effects throughout the passage. For outward flow, the trailing side Nusselt numbers increase with Rotation number relative to stationary values. On the leading side, the Nusselt numbers tended to decrease with rotation near the inlet and subsequently increased farther downstream in the passage. The Nusselt numbers on the side walls generally increased with rotation. For inward flow, the Nusselt numbers generally improved relative to stationary results, but increases in the Nusselt number were relatively smaller than in the case of outward flow. For outward and inward flows, increasing the density ratio generally tended to decrease Nusselt numbers on the leading and trailing sides, but the exact behavior and magnitude depended on the local axial position and specific range of Buoyancy parameters.

  4. Cooling of gas turbines IX : cooling effects from use of ceramic coatings on water-cooled turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W Byron; Livingood, John N B

    1948-01-01

    The hottest part of a turbine blade is likely to be the trailing portion. When the blades are cooled and when water is used as the coolant, the cooling passages are placed as close as possible to the trailing edge in order to cool this portion. In some cases, however, the trailing portion of the blade is so narrow, for aerodynamic reasons, that water passages cannot be located very near the trailing edge. Because ceramic coatings offer the possibility of protection for the trailing part of such narrow blades, a theoretical study has been made of the cooling effect of a ceramic coating on: (1) the blade-metal temperature when the gas temperature is unchanged, and (2) the gas temperature when the metal temperature is unchanged. Comparison is also made between the changes in the blade or gas temperatures produced by ceramic coatings and the changes produced by moving the cooling passages nearer the trailing edge. This comparison was made to provide a standard for evaluating the gains obtainable with ceramic coatings as compared to those obtainable by constructing the turbine blade in such a manner that water passages could be located very near the trailing edge.

  5. Natural Flow Air Cooled Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanagnostopoulos, Y.; Themelis, P.

    2010-01-01

    Our experimental study aims to investigate the improvement in the electrical performance of a photovoltaic installation on buildings through cooling of the photovoltaic panels with natural air flow. Our experimental study aims to investigate the improvement in the electrical performance of a photovoltaic installation on buildings through cooling of the photovoltaic panels with natural air flow. We performed experiments using a prototype based on three silicon photovoltaic modules placed in series to simulate a typical sloping building roof with photovoltaic installation. In this system the air flows through a channel on the rear side of PV panels. The potential for increasing the heat exchange from the photovoltaic panel to the circulating air by the addition of a thin metal sheet (TMS) in the middle of air channel or metal fins (FIN) along the air duct was examined. The operation of the device was studied with the air duct closed tightly to avoid air circulation (CLOSED) and the air duct open (REF), with the thin metal sheet (TMS) and with metal fins (FIN). In each case the experiments were performed under sunlight and the operating parameters of the experimental device determining the electrical and thermal performance of the system were observed and recorded during a whole day and for several days. We collected the data and form PV panels from the comparative diagrams of the experimental results regarding the temperature of solar cells, the electrical efficiency of the installation, the temperature of the back wall of the air duct and the temperature difference in the entrance and exit of the air duct. The comparative results from the measurements determine the improvement in electrical performance of the photovoltaic cells because of the reduction of their temperature, which is achieved by the naturally circulating air.

  6. Turbine component cooling channel mesh with intersection chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Marra, John J

    2014-05-06

    A mesh (35) of cooling channels (35A, 35B) with an array of cooling channel intersections (42) in a wall (21, 22) of a turbine component. A mixing chamber (42A-C) at each intersection is wider (W1, W2)) than a width (W) of each of the cooling channels connected to the mixing chamber. The mixing chamber promotes swirl, and slows the coolant for more efficient and uniform cooling. A series of cooling meshes (M1, M2) may be separated by mixing manifolds (44), which may have film cooling holes (46) and/or coolant refresher holes (48).

  7. Analysis of Turbine Blade Relative Cooling Flow Factor Used in the Subroutine Coolit Based on Film Cooling Correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Heat transfer correlations of data on flat plates are used to explore the parameters in the Coolit program used for calculating the quantity of cooling air for controlling turbine blade temperature. Correlations for both convection and film cooling are explored for their relevance to predicting blade temperature as a function of a total cooling flow which is split between external film and internal convection flows. Similar trends to those in Coolit are predicted as a function of the percent of the total cooling flow that is in the film. The exceptions are that no film or 100 percent convection is predicted to not be able to control blade temperature, while leaving less than 25 percent of the cooling flow in the convection path results in nearing a limit on convection cooling as predicted by a thermal effectiveness parameter not presently used in Coolit.

  8. Cooled variable nozzle radial turbine for rotor craft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogo, C.

    1981-01-01

    An advanced, small 2.27 kb/sec (5 lbs/sec), high temperature, variable area radial turbine was studied for a rotor craft application. Variable capacity cycles including single-shaft and free-turbine engine configurations were analyzed to define an optimum engine design configuration. Parametric optimizations were made on cooled and uncooled rotor configurations. A detailed structural and heat transfer analysis was conducted to provide a 4000-hour life HP turbine with material properties of the 1988 time frame. A pivoted vane and a moveable sidewall geometry were analyzed. Cooling and variable geometry penalties were included in the cycle analysis. A variable geometry free-turbine engine configuration with a design 1477K (2200 F) inlet temperature and a compressor pressure ratio of 16:1 was selected. An uncooled HP radial turbine rotor with a moveable sidewall nozzle showed the highest performance potential for a time weighted duty cycle.

  9. Experimental simulation of impingement cooling in midchord region of turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liguo; Jiang, Jun; Chang, Haiping; Zhang, Donglia

    1989-10-01

    Simulation experiments have been completed to research the characteristics of impingement cooling in the midchord region of a turbine blade for a given geometric parameter of jet array, initial crossflow, and pressure ratios of the film-cooling exhaust. Comparative experiments have been made on curvilinear and flat plate impinged surfaces, and impinged surfaces with and without a chordwise fin. Moreover, the thermal patterns from a liquid crystal show that the jet hole arrangement and distance between cooled surface and jet plate affect the heat transfer distributions for jet array impingement. Finally, the effects of the cooling air axially injected into guide tube on radial jet flow have also been determined.

  10. Effect of thermal barrier coatings on the performance of steam and water-cooled gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nainiger, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical study was made of the performance of air, steam, and water-cooled gas-turbine/steam turbine combined-cycle systems with and without thermal-barrier coatings. For steam cooling, thermal barrier coatings permit an increase in the turbine inlet temperature from 1205 C (2200 F), resulting in an efficiency improvement of 1.9 percentage points. The maximum specific power improvement with thermal barriers is 32.4 percent, when the turbine inlet temperature is increased from 1425 C (2600 F) to 1675 C (3050 F) and the airfoil temperature is kept the same. For water cooling, the maximum efficiency improvement is 2.2 percentage points at a turbine inlet temperature of 1683 C (3062 F) and the maximum specific power improvement is 36.6 percent by increasing the turbine inlet temperature from 1425 C (2600 F) to 1730 C (3150 F) and keeping the airfoil temperatures the same. These improvements are greater than that obtained with combined cycles using air cooling at a turbine inlet temperature of 1205 C (2200 F). The large temperature differences across the thermal barriers at these high temperatures, however, indicate that thermal stresses may present obstacles to the use of coatings at high turbine inlet temperatures.

  11. Analysis of temperature distribution in liquid-cooled turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingood, John N B; Brown, W Byron

    1952-01-01

    The temperature distribution in liquid-cooled turbine blades determines the amount of cooling required to reduce the blade temperature to permissible values at specified locations. This report presents analytical methods for computing temperature distributions in liquid-cooled turbine blades, or in simplified shapes used to approximate sections of the blade. The individual analyses are first presented in terms of their mathematical development. By means of numerical examples, comparisons are made between simplified and more complete solutions and the effects of several variables are examined. Nondimensional charts to simplify some temperature-distribution calculations are also given.

  12. Cold-air annular-cascade investigation of aerodynamic performance of core-engine-cooled turbine vanes. 2: Pressure surface trailing edge ejection and split trailing edge ejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclallin, K. L.; Goldman, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of two trailing edge ejection cooling configurations of a core-engine stator vane were experimentally determined in an ambient inlet-air full-annular cascade where three-dimensional effects could be obtained. The tests were conducted at the design mean-radius ideal aftermixed critical velocity ratio of 0.778. Overall vane aftermixed thermodynamic and primary efficiencies were obtained over a range of coolant flows to about 10 percent of the primary flow at a primary to coolant total temperature ratio of 1.0. The radial variation in efficiency and the circumferential and radial variations in vane-exit total pressure were determined. Comparisons are made with the solid (uncooled) vane.

  13. Cooling systems for ultra-high temperature turbines.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, T

    2001-05-01

    This paper describes an introduction of research and development activities on steam cooling in gas turbines at elevated temperature of 1500 C and 1700 C level, partially including those on water cooling. Descriptions of a new cooling system that employs heat pipes are also made. From the view point of heat transfer, its promising applicability is shown with experimental data and engine performance numerical evaluation.

  14. Air and water cooled modulator

    DOEpatents

    Birx, D.L.; Arnold, P.A.; Ball, D.G.; Cook, E.G.

    1995-09-05

    A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method are disclosed for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air. 9 figs.

  15. Air and water cooled modulator

    DOEpatents

    Birx, Daniel L.; Arnold, Phillip A.; Ball, Don G.; Cook, Edward G.

    1995-01-01

    A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air.

  16. Numerical evaluation of single central jet for turbine disk cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbaraman, M. R.; Hadid, A. H.; Mcconnaughey, P. K.

    1992-01-01

    The cooling arrangement of the Space Shuttle Main Engine High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump (HPOTP) incorporates two jet rings, each of which produces 19 high-velocity coolant jets. At some operating conditions, the frequency of excitation associated with the 19 jets coincides with the natural frequency of the turbine blades, contributing to fatigue cracking of blade shanks. In this paper, an alternate turbine disk cooling arrangement, applicable to disk faces of zero hub radius, is evaluated, which consists of a single coolant jet impinging at the center of the turbine disk. Results of the CFD analysis show that replacing the jet ring with a single central coolant jet in the HPOTP leads to an acceptable thermal environment at the disk rim. Based on the predictions of flow and temperature fields for operating conditions, the single central jet cooling system was recommended for implementation into the development program of the Technology Test Bed Engine at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center.

  17. Trap seal for open circuit liquid cooled turbines

    DOEpatents

    Grondahl, Clayton M.; Germain, Malcolm R.

    1980-01-01

    An improved trap seal for open circuit liquid cooled turbines is disclosed. The trap seal of the present invention includes an annular recess formed in the supply conduit of cooling channels formed in the airfoil of the turbine buckets. A cylindrical insert is located in the annular recesses and has a plurality of axial grooves formed along the outer periphery thereof and a central recess formed in one end thereof. The axial grooves and central recess formed in the cylindrical insert cooperate with the annular recess to define a plurality of S-shaped trap seals which permit the passage of liquid coolant but prohibit passage of gaseous coolant.

  18. Effects of turbine cooling assumptions on performance and sizing of high-speed civil transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senick, Paul F.

    1992-01-01

    The analytical study presented examines the effects of varying turbine cooling assumptions on the performance of a high speed civil transport propulsion system as well as the sizing sensitivity of this aircraft to these performance variations. The propulsion concept employed in this study was a two spool, variable cycle engine with a sea level thrust of 55,000 lbf. The aircraft used for this study was a 250 passenger vehicle with a cruise Mach number of 2.4 and 5000 nautical mile range. The differences in turbine cooling assumptions were represented by varying the amount of high pressure compressor bleed air used to cool the turbines. It was found that as this cooling amount increased, engine size and weight increased, but specific fuel consumption (SFC) decreased at takeoff and climb only. Because most time is spent at cruise, the SFC advantage of the higher bleed engines seen during subsonic flight was minimized and the lower bleed, lighter engines led to the lowest takeoff gross weight vehicles. Finally, the change in aircraft takeoff gross weight versus turbine cooling level is presented.

  19. Air-cooled, hydrogen-air fuel cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelekhin, Alexander B. (Inventor); Bushnell, Calvin L. (Inventor); Pien, Michael S. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An air-cooled, hydrogen-air solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell with a membrane electrode assembly operatively associated with a fluid flow plate having at least one plate cooling channel extending through the plate and at least one air distribution hole extending from a surface of the cathode flow field into the plate cooling channel.

  20. Gas turbine combustion chamber with air scoops

    SciTech Connect

    Mumford, S.E.; Smed, J.P.

    1989-12-19

    This patent describes a gas turbine combustion chamber. It comprises: means for admission of fuel to the upstream end thereof and discharge of hot gases from the downstream end thereof, and a combustion chamber wall, having an outer surface, with apertures therethrough, and air scoops provided through the apertures to direct air into the combustion chamber.

  1. ASME 1986 International Gas Turbine Conference - Transpiration cooling: Contribution of film cooling to the overall cooling effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, G. E.; Asere, A. A.; Mkpadi, M. C.; Tirmahi, A.

    1986-06-01

    A comprehensive evaluation is made of the state-of-the-art and prospective development trends in the field of film cooling techniques for gas turbine combustion chambers and blades. The full coverage discrete hole film or effusion cooling techniques encompassed by the presently assessed researches have as their goal the achievement of performance levels comparable to those of transpiration cooling. It is recommended that attempts to improve on the current cooling effectiveness of full coverage discrete hole designs should concentrate on increasing the degree of internal wall cooling, while retaining good film-cooling characteristics.

  2. Mid-section of a can-annular gas turbine engine with a cooling system for the transition

    SciTech Connect

    Wiebe, David J.; Rodriguez, Jose L.

    2015-12-08

    A cooling system is provided for a transition (420) of a gas turbine engine (410). The cooling system includes a cowling (460) configured to receive an air flow (111) from an outlet of a compressor section of the gas turbine engine (410). The cowling (460) is positioned adjacent to a region of the transition (420) to cool the transition region upon circulation of the air flow within the cowling (460). The cooling system further includes a manifold (121) to directly couple the air flow (111) from the compressor section outlet to an inlet (462) of the cowling (460). The cowling (460) is configured to circulate the air flow (111) within an interior space (426) of the cowling (460) that extends radially outward from an inner diameter (423) of the cowling to an outer diameter (424) of the cowling at an outer surface.

  3. Performance of Air-cooled Engine Cylinders Using Blower Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr

    1936-01-01

    An investigation was made to obtain information on the minimum quantity of air and power required to cool conventional air cooled cylinders at various operating conditions when using a blower. The results of these tests show that the minimum power required for satisfactory cooling with an overall blower efficiency of 100 percent varied from 2 to 6 percent of the engine power depending on the operating conditions. The shape of the jacket had a large effect on the cylinder temperatures. Increasing the air speed over the front of the cylinder by keeping the greater part of the circumference of the cylinder covered by the jacket reduced the temperatures over the entire cylinder.

  4. Cooling supply system for stage 3 bucket of a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Eldrid, Sacheverel Quentin; Burns, James Lee; Palmer, Gene David; Leone, Sal Albert; Drlik, Gary Joseph; Gibler, Edward Eugene

    2002-01-01

    In a land based gas turbine including a compressor, a combustor and turbine section including at least three stages, an improvement comprising an inlet into a third stage nozzle from the compressor for feeding cooling air from the compressor to the third stage nozzle; at least one passageway running substantially radially through each airfoil of the third stage nozzle and an associated diaphragm, into an annular space between the rotor and the diaphragm; and passageways communicating between the annular space and individual buckets of the third stage.

  5. Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system

    DOEpatents

    Viscovich, P.W.; Bannister, R.L.

    1995-07-11

    A gas turbine system is described in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas. 4 figs.

  6. Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system

    DOEpatents

    Viscovich, Paul W.; Bannister, Ronald L.

    1995-01-01

    A gas turbine system in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas.

  7. Hot streaks and phantom cooling in a turbine rotor passage. II - Combined effects and analytical modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roback, Richard J.; Dring, Robert P.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental documentation and analytical correlations demonstrating the effects of hot streak accumulation and phantom cooling on turbine rotor airfoil surface temperature are presented. Results are shown which quantify the impact of a nonuniform temperature profile at the entrance of a turbine due to combustor-generated hot and cold streaks, and cooling air discharged from the trailing edge of the upstream stator. Experimental results are shown for a range of controlling variables to identify where streak accumulation and phantom cooling were most likely to be strongest. These variables include streak-to-free stream density ratio, streak injection location, and coolant-to-free stream density and velocity ratios. Experimental results are shown for the combined effects of hot streak and stator coolant on the adiabatic recovery temperature of the rotor.

  8. Aerodynamic investigation of an air-cooled axial-flow turbine. Part 2: Rotor blade tip-clearance effects on overall turbine performance and internal gas flow conditions: Experimental results and prediction methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, A.; Takahara, K.; Nouse, H.; Mimura, F.; Inoue, S.; Usui, H.

    1977-01-01

    Total turbine blade performance was investigated while changing the blade tip clearance in three ways. The internal flow at the moving blade outlet point was measured. Experimental results were compared with various theoretical methods. Increased blade clearance leads to decreased turbine efficiency.

  9. Contribution of heat transfer to turbine blades and vanes for high temperature industrial gas turbines. Part 1: Film cooling.

    PubMed

    Takeishi, K; Aoki, S

    2001-05-01

    This paper deals with the contribution of heat transfer to increase the turbine inlet temperature of industrial gas turbines in order to attain efficient and environmentally benign engines. High efficiency film cooling, in the form of shaped film cooling and full coverage film cooling, is one of the most important cooling technologies. Corresponding heat transfer tests to optimize the film cooling effectiveness are shown and discussed in this first part of the contribution.

  10. Thermotechnical performance of an air-cooled tuyere with air cooling channels in series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yuansheng; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Tao; Duan, Guangbin

    2017-01-01

    To reduce the cooling air consumption for an air-cooled tuyere, an air-cooled tuyere with air cooling channels in series is developed based on several hypotheses, i.e., a transparent medium in the blast furnace, among others, and the related mathematical models are introduced and developed. Referring to the data from a BF site, the thermotechnical computation for the air-cooled tuyere was performed, and the results show that when the temperature of the inlet cooling air increases, the temperatures for the outlet cooling air, the outer surface of the tuyere, the walls of the air cooling channels and the center channel as well as the heat going into the center channel increase, but the heat absorbed by the cooling air flowing through the air cooling channels decreases. When the cooling air flow rate under the standard state increases, the physical parameters mentioned above change in an opposite directions. Compared to a water-cooled tuyere, the energy savings for an air-cooled tuyere are more than 0.23 kg/min standard coal.

  11. Dental air turbine handpiece performance testing.

    PubMed

    Dyson, J E; Darvell, B W

    1995-10-01

    Air turbine handpieces are expected to continue to be widely used as the main means of carrying out dental cutting work and scope exists for further design improvements. An understanding of the theoretical principles governing the performance of these devices seems essential for the systematic development of better handpiece designs and methods of specification. Furthermore, for experimental work on cutting behaviour with air turbine equipment, this knowledge is required for appropriate characterization of the performance of the particular handpiece used with respect to actual rates of energy disposition. The literature relating to air turbine handpiece performance is critically reviewed to assess currently available methods of measuring important variables such as speed, torque, and power. In this, consideration is given to the current state of knowledge of the influence on these variables of air pressure, flow and turbine design features. It is apparent that, although various measurement methods have been described and data for individual handpieces published, no attempt has yet been made to explore the functional relationships that exist between the variables. It is concluded that there is a need to identify the factors influencing turbine performance, to develop measurement systems which would provide adequate accuracy and precision and then to investigate the functional relationships between these relevant variables.

  12. Design Concepts for Cooled Ceramic Matrix Composite Turbine Vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This project demonstrated that higher temperature capabilities of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) can be used to reduce emissions and improve fuel consumption in gas turbine engines. The work involved closely coupling aerothermal and structural analyses for the first-stage vane of a high-pressure turbine (HPT). These vanes are actively cooled, typically using film cooling. Ceramic materials have structural and thermal properties different from conventional metals used for the first-stage HPT vane. This project identified vane configurations that satisfy CMC structural strength and life constraints while maintaining vane aerodynamic efficiency and reducing vane cooling to improve engine performance and reduce emissions. The project examined modifications to vane internal configurations to achieve the desired objectives. Thermal and pressure stresses are equally important, and both were analyzed using an ANSYS® structural analysis. Three-dimensional fluid and heat transfer analyses were used to determine vane aerodynamic performance and heat load distributions.

  13. Ducting arrangement for cooling a gas turbine structure

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Morrison, Jay A.

    2015-07-21

    A ducting arrangement (10) for a can annular gas turbine engine, including: a duct (12, 14) disposed between a combustor (16) and a first row of turbine blades and defining a hot gas path (30) therein, the duct (12, 14) having raised geometric features (54) incorporated into an outer surface (80); and a flow sleeve (72) defining a cooling flow path (84) between an inner surface (78) of the flow sleeve (72) and the duct outer surface (80). After a cooling fluid (86) traverses a relatively upstream raised geometric feature (90), the inner surface (78) of the flow sleeve (72) is effective to direct the cooling fluid (86) toward a landing (94) separating the relatively upstream raised geometric feature (90) from a relatively downstream raised geometric feature (94).

  14. Heat Transfer and Cooling in Gas Turbines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    ftre remplie grace A lenregistrement sur le magnutique d’un top par tour delivre par un capteur magnetique dont l’un des ergots eat our le rotor et...fluid so that the injection-to-freestream density ratio was close to unity. The question remained as to how to utilise this data in a gas turbine...oblige A refroidir louts plates-foroes en utilisant los techniques jusqu ’ ici r~servles aux aubages (convection, films.. ). Des 6tudes

  15. Design Concepts for Cooled Ceramic Composite Turbine Vane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Robert J.; Parikh, Ankur H.; Nagpal, VInod K.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop design concepts for a cooled ceramic vane to be used in the first stage of the High Pressure Turbine(HPT). To insure that the design concepts were relevant to the gas turbine industry needs, Honeywell International Inc. was subcontracted to provide technical guidance for this work. The work performed under this contract can be divided into three broad categories. The first was an analysis of the cycle benefits arising from the higher temperature capability of Ceramic Matrix Composite(CMC) compared with conventional metallic vane materials. The second category was a series of structural analyses for variations in the internal configuration of first stage vane for the High Pressure Turbine(HPT) of a CF6 class commercial airline engine. The third category was analysis for a radial cooled turbine vanes for use in turboshaft engine applications. The size, shape and internal configuration of the turboshaft engine vanes were selected to investigate a cooling concept appropriate to small CMC vanes.

  16. Wavy flow cooling concept for turbine airfoils

    DOEpatents

    Liang, George

    2010-08-31

    An airfoil including an outer wall and a cooling cavity formed therein. The cooling cavity includes a leading edge flow channel located adjacent a leading edge of the airfoil and a trailing edge flow channel located adjacent a trailing edge of the airfoil. Each of the leading edge and trailing edge flow channels define respective first and second flow axes located between pressure and suction sides of the airfoil. A plurality of rib members are located within each of the flow channels, spaced along the flow axes, and alternately extending from opposing sides of the flow channels to define undulating flow paths through the flow channels.

  17. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  19. Experimental modeling of jet-ring turbine disk cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, D. E.; Kim, Y. W.

    1991-01-01

    The experimental facility and some early results are described from a current research program modeling turbine disk cooling with multiple impinging jets, such as employed on the Space Shuttle Main Engine oxygen turbopump. The study is designed to obtain detailed local convection heat transfer rates on specially constructed turbine disk models that employ either multiple cooling jet impingement near the disk outer radius from a jet ring, or alternatively, single entrance coolant supply into the center of the disk cavity. Jet impingement is an effective scheme for cooling of turbine disks at or near the blade attachment region, but the heat transfer mechanisms and merits relative to other schemes are not well understood. The present study employs two specially constructed full scale plastic model disks, contoured and plane, together with the corresponding stators. Local heat transfer rates are determined by a computer vision system from the response of thin liquid crystal coatings applied to the disk test faces. The present results indicate that multiple jet impingement directed at the blade attachment region results in higher cooling rates in that region than does the same flow supplied to the disk center, but this conclusion must be regarded as tentative.

  20. Turbine airfoil with an internal cooling system having vortex forming turbulators

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ching-Pang

    2014-12-30

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one cooling system is disclosed. At least a portion of the cooling system may include one or more cooling channels having a plurality of turbulators protruding from an inner surface and positioned generally nonorthogonal and nonparallel to a longitudinal axis of the airfoil cooling channel. The configuration of turbulators may create a higher internal convective cooling potential for the blade cooling passage, thereby generating a high rate of internal convective heat transfer and attendant improvement in overall cooling performance. This translates into a reduction in cooling fluid demand and better turbine performance.

  1. Air riding seal for a turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Jacob A; Brown, Wesley D; Sexton, Thomas D; Jones, Russell B

    2016-07-19

    An air riding seal between a rotor and a stator in a turbine of a gas turbine engine, where an annular piston is movable in an axial direction within a housing that extends from the stator, and a bellows is secured to the annular piston to form a flexible air passageway from a compressed air inlet through the annular piston and into a cushion cavity that forms an air riding seal between the annular piston and the rotor sealing surface. In another embodiment, a flexible seal secured to and extending from the annular piston forms a sealing surface between the annular piston chamber and the annular piston to provide a seal and allow for axial movement.

  2. Compound cooling flow turbulator for turbine component

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Marra, John J; Rudolph, Ronald J

    2014-11-25

    Multi-scale turbulation features, including first turbulators (46, 48) on a cooling surface (44), and smaller turbulators (52, 54, 58, 62) on the first turbulators. The first turbulators may be formed between larger turbulators (50). The first turbulators may be alternating ridges (46) and valleys (48). The smaller turbulators may be concave surface features such as dimples (62) and grooves (54), and/or convex surface features such as bumps (58) and smaller ridges (52). An embodiment with convex turbulators (52, 58) in the valleys (48) and concave turbulators (54, 62) on the ridges (46) increases the cooling surface area, reduces boundary layer separation, avoids coolant shadowing and stagnation, and reduces component mass.

  3. Turbine Blade Tip Film Cooling Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    thermochromic liquid crystals (TLC). TLC have the property of displaying specific colors at unique temperatures. With these temperatures known, the test...Thermometer Employing Encapsulated Thermochromic Liquid Crystals ," Journal of Physics E, 20, pp.1 195-1199. Kim, Y.W., Yu Y., and Metzger, D.E., " Liquid ...111, 284-292 Vedula, R.P., 1989, "Film Cooling Effectiveness and Heat Transfer Measurements Using Thermochromic Liquid Crystals ," Ph.D. Dissertation

  4. Cooled, Laminated Radial Turbine Demonstration Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    growth, and burst tests, a stresscoat test, and a 6000-cycle test at overspeed conditions (119- percent design speed) to establish the low -cycle...and a low -cycle-fatigue life of 6000 cycles versus a predicted life of 7600 cycles. Also, the maximum metal temperature at the blade tip was held at... low manu- facturing cost was considered by AiResearch to be well below that of any cast or machined configuration with comparably high cooling and

  5. Gas turbine row #1 steam cooled vane

    DOEpatents

    Cunha, Frank J.

    2000-01-01

    A design for a vane segment having a closed-loop steam cooling system is provided. The vane segment comprises an outer shroud, an inner shroud and an airfoil, each component having a target surface on the inside surface of its walls. A plurality of rectangular waffle structures are provided on the target surface to enhance heat transfer between each component and cooling steam. Channel systems are provided in the shrouds to improve the flow of steam through the shrouds. Insert legs located in cavities in the airfoil are also provided. Each insert leg comprises outer channels located on a perimeter of the leg, each outer channel having an outer wall and impingement holes on the outer wall for producing impingement jets of cooling steam to contact the airfoil's target surface. Each insert leg further comprises a plurality of substantially rectangular-shaped ribs located on the outer wall and a plurality of openings located between outer channels of the leg to minimize cross flow degradation.

  6. Cold-air annular-cascade investigation of aerodynamic performance of core-engine-cooled turbine vanes. 1: Solid-vane performance and facility description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, L. J.; Mclallin, K. L.

    1975-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of a solid (uncooled) version of a core engine cooled stator vane was experimentally determined in a full-annular cascade, where three-dimensional effects could be obtained. The solid vane, which serves as a basis for comparison with subsequent cooled tests, was tested over a range of aftermixed critical velocity ratios of 0.57 to 0.90. Overall vane aftermixed efficiencies were obtained over this critical velocity ratio range and compared with results from a two-dimensional cascade. The variation in vane efficiency and aftermixed flow conditions with circumferential and radial position were obtained and compared with design values. Vane surface static-pressure distributions were also measured and compared with theoretical results.

  7. Cooling of Gas Turbines. 6; Computed Temperature Distribution Through Cross Section of Water-Cooled Turbine Blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingood, John N. B.; Sams, Eldon W.

    1947-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the cross-sectional temperature distribution of a water-cooled turbine blade was made using the relaxation method to solve the differential equation derived from the analysis. The analysis was applied to specific turbine blade and the studies icluded investigations of the accuracy of simple methods to determine the temperature distribution along the mean line of the rear part of the blade, of the possible effect of varying the perimetric distribution of the hot gas-to -metal heat transfer coefficient, and of the effect of changing the thermal conductivity of the blade metal for a constant cross sectional area blade with two quarter inch diameter coolant passages.

  8. Compatibility of gas turbine materials with steam cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, V.; Tamboli, D.; Patel, Y.

    1995-12-31

    Objective is to investigate performance of gas turbine materials in steam environment and evaluate remedial measures for alleviating the severity of the problem. Three superalloys commonly used in gas turbines were exposed to 3 steam environments containing different impurity levels for 2 to 6 months. Results: Cr2O3-forming alloys containing 1-4% Al such as IN 738 are susceptible to heavy internal oxidation of Al. High Al (>5%) alloys in which continuous Al2O3 scale can be formed, may not be susceptible to such attack. Deposition of salts from steam will accentuate hot corrosion problems. Alloys with higher Cr content such as X-45 are generally less prone to hot corrosion. The greater damage observed in IN 617 make this alloy less attractive for gas turbines with steam cooling. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is a good nondestructive method to evaluate microstructural damage.

  9. Development of a cooling system for superconducting wind turbine generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuse, Mitsuho; Fuchino, Shuichiro; Okano, Makoto; Natori, Naotake; Yamasaki, Hirofumi

    2016-12-01

    This paper deals with the cooling system for high-Tc superconducting (HTS) generators for large capacity wind turbines. We have proposed a cooling system with a heat exchanger and circulation pumps to cool HTS field windings designed for 10 MW-class superconducting generators. In the cooling system, the refrigerants in the stationary and rotational systems are completely separated; heat between the two systems exchanges using a rotational-stationary heat exchanger. The refrigerant in rotational system is circulated by highly reliable pumps. We designed the rotational-stationary heat exchanger based on a conventional shell-and tube type heat exchanger. We also demonstrated that heat exchange in cryogenic temperature is possible with a commercially available heat exchanger. We devised a novel and highly reliable cryogenic helium circulation pump with magnetic reciprocating rotation system and verified its underlying principle with a small-scale model.

  10. Heat Transfer Measurements for a Film Cooled Turbine Vane Cascade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    experimental results. We used a transient thermochromic liquid crystal technique to obtain steady state heat transfer data on the mid-span geometry of an... liquid crystal , film cooling, turbine vane 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Douglas R. Thurman a. REPORT U b...used a transient liquid crystal technique to obtain the heat transfer data. Mach number and Reynolds 2 number nearly match real engine

  11. Advanced turbine cooling, heat transfer, and aerodynamic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Je-Chin Han; Schobeiri, M.T.

    1995-10-01

    The contractual work is in three parts: Part I - Effect of rotation on enhanced cooling passage heat transfer, Part II - Effect on Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) spallation on surface heat transfer, and Part III - Effect of surface roughness and trailing edge ejection on turbine efficiency under unsteady flow conditions. Each section of this paper has been divided into three parts to individually accommodate each part. Part III is further divided into Parts IIIa and IIIb.

  12. Advanced turbine cooling, heat transfer, and aerodynamic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Je-Chin; Schobeiri, M.T.

    1995-12-31

    The contractual work is in three parts: Part I - Effect of rotation on enhanced cooling passage heat transfer, Part II - Effect of Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) spallation on surface heat transfer, and Part III - Effect of surface roughness and trailing edge ejection on turbine efficiency under unsteady flow conditions. Each section of this paper has been divided into three parts to individually accommodate each part. Part III is further divided into Parts IIIa and IIIb.

  13. Modernization of experimental air turbine VT-400

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimko, Marek; Okresa, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    This article briefly describes a modernization of the experimental device - air turbine (VT-400), which is a part of the research activities at the Department of Power System Engineering, University of West Bohemia (KKE-UWB). This device serves for the research of steam turbine blades within the framework of a long-term cooperation between the Department and Doosan Skoda Power (DSPW). Due to the age of the device, some necessary changes had to be performed and some obsolete components had to be replaced or new ones added. A part of this article is also a comparison with the previous state and an evaluation of the contribution after the reconstruction.

  14. Cooling circuit for and method of cooling a gas turbine bucket

    SciTech Connect

    Jacala, Ariel C. P.

    2002-01-01

    A closed internal cooling circuit for a gas turbine bucket includes axial supply and return passages in the dovetail of the bucket. A first radial outward supply passage provides cooling medium to and along a passageway adjacent the leading edge and then through serpentine arranged passageways within the airfoil to a chamber adjacent the airfoil tip. A second radial passage crosses over the radial return passage for supplying cooling medium to and along a pair of passageways along the trailing edge of the airfoil section. The last passageway of the serpentine passageways and the pair of passageways communicate one with the other in the chamber for returning spent cooling medium radially inwardly along divided return passageways to the return passage. In this manner, both the leading and trailing edges are cooled using the highest pressure, lowest temperature cooling medium.

  15. Cold-air annular-cascade investigation of aerodynamic performance of cooled turbine vanes. 1: Facility description and base (solid) vane performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, L. J.; Mclallin, K. L.

    1974-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of a solid vane was experimentally determined in a full-annular cascade, where three-dimensional effects could be obtained. This vane was of the same size and profile as the cooled vanes to be subsequently tested. The vanes were tested over a pressure ratio range that corresponded to mean-radius ideal aftermixed critical velocity ratios of 0.71 to 0.89. Overall vane aftermixed efficiencies were obtained over this range of critical velocity ratios and compared with results from a four-vane annular-sector cascade. The variation in vane aftermixed conditions and vane aftermixed efficiency with radius were also obtained and compared with design values. Vane surface static-pressure distributions were measured and compared with theory and with the results obtained in the four-vane cascade.

  16. Stirling Air Conditioner for Compact Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Infinia is developing a compact air conditioner that uses an unconventional high efficient Stirling cycle system (vs. conventional vapor compression systems) to produce cool air that is energy efficient and does not rely on polluting refrigerants. The Stirling cycle system is a type of air conditioning system that uses a motor with a piston to remove heat to the outside atmosphere using a gas refrigerant. To date, Stirling systems have been expensive and have not had the right kind of heat exchanger to help cool air efficiently. Infinia is using chip cooling technology from the computer industry to make improvements to the heat exchanger and improve system performance. Infinia’s air conditioner uses helium gas as refrigerant, an environmentally benign gas that does not react with other chemicals and does not burn. Infinia’s improvements to the Stirling cycle system will enable the cost-effective mass production of high-efficiency air conditioners that use no polluting refrigerants.

  17. Bore tube assembly for steam cooling a turbine rotor

    DOEpatents

    DeStefano, Thomas Daniel; Wilson, Ian David

    2002-01-01

    An axial bore tube assembly for a turbine is provided to supply cooling steam to hot gas components of the turbine wheels and return the spent cooling steam. A pair of inner and outer tubes define a steam supply passage concentric about an inner return passage. The forward ends of the tubes communicate with an end cap assembly having sets of peripheral holes communicating with first and second sets of radial tubes whereby cooling steam from the concentric passage is supplied through the end cap holes to radial tubes for cooling the buckets and return steam from the buckets is provided through the second set of radial tubes through a second set of openings of the end cap into the coaxial return passage. A radial-to-axial flow transitioning device, including anti-swirling vanes is provided in the end cap. A strut ring adjacent the aft end of the bore tube assembly permits axial and radial thermal expansion of the inner tube relative to the outer tube.

  18. Comparison of Air Shower and Vest Auxiliary Cooling during Simulated Tank Operations in the Heat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    would suggest that the crews’ thermal comfort was greater during vest auxiliary cooling. Despite the fact that the environmental conditions were...effective use of the turbine bleed air than is provided by an air shower. The vest approach seems to improve the thermal comfort of these tank crew members...in an environment which normally would be thermally stressful. This improved thermal comfort from vest cooling is probably associated with the reduced

  19. 14 CFR 23.1045 - Cooling test procedures for turbine engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooling test procedures for turbine engine powered airplanes. 23.1045 Section 23.1045 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Cooling § 23.1045 Cooling test procedures for turbine engine...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1045 - Cooling test procedures for turbine engine powered airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooling test procedures for turbine engine powered airplanes. 23.1045 Section 23.1045 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Cooling § 23.1045 Cooling test procedures for turbine engine...

  1. Offshore Floating Wind Turbine-driven Deep Sea Water Pumping for Combined Electrical Power and District Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sant, T.; Buhagiar, D.; Farrugia, R. N.

    2014-06-01

    A new concept utilising floating wind turbines to exploit the low temperatures of deep sea water for space cooling in buildings is presented. The approach is based on offshore hydraulic wind turbines pumping pressurised deep sea water to a centralised plant consisting of a hydro-electric power system coupled to a large-scale sea water-cooled air conditioning (AC) unit of an urban district cooling network. In order to investigate the potential advantages of this new concept over conventional technologies, a simplified model for performance simulation of a vapour compression AC unit was applied independently to three different systems, with the AC unit operating with (1) a constant flow of sea surface water, (2) a constant flow of sea water consisting of a mixture of surface sea water and deep sea water delivered by a single offshore hydraulic wind turbine and (3) an intermittent flow of deep sea water pumped by a single offshore hydraulic wind turbine. The analysis was based on one year of wind and ambient temperature data for the Central Mediterranean that is known for its deep waters, warm climate and relatively low wind speeds. The study confirmed that while the present concept is less efficient than conventional turbines utilising grid-connected electrical generators, a significant portion of the losses associated with the hydraulic transmission through the pipeline are offset by the extraction of cool deep sea water which reduces the electricity consumption of urban air-conditioning units.

  2. Near wall cooling for a highly tapered turbine blade

    DOEpatents

    Liang, George

    2011-03-08

    A turbine blade having a pressure sidewall and a suction sidewall connected at chordally spaced leading and trailing edges to define a cooling cavity. Pressure and suction side inner walls extend radially within the cooling cavity and define pressure and suction side near wall chambers. A plurality of mid-chord channels extend radially from a radially intermediate location on the blade to a tip passage at the blade tip for connecting the pressure side and suction side near wall chambers in fluid communication with the tip passage. In addition, radially extending leading edge and trailing edge flow channels are located adjacent to the leading and trailing edges, respectively, and cooling fluid flows in a triple-pass serpentine path as it flows through the leading edge flow channel, the near wall chambers and the trailing edge flow channel.

  3. Cooled variable-area radial turbine technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Large, G. D.; Meyer, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this study was a conceptual evaluation and design analyses of a cooled variable-area radial turbine capable of maintaining nearly constant high efficiency when operated at a constant speed and pressure ratio over a range of flows corresponding to 50- to 100-percent maximum engine power. The results showed that a 1589K (2400 F) turbine was feasible that would satisfy a 4000-hour duty cycle life goal. The final design feasibility is based on 1988 material technology goals. A peak aerodynamic stage total efficiency of 0.88 was predicted at 100 percent power. Two candidate stators were identified: an articulated trailing-edge and a locally movable sidewall. Both concepts must be experimentally evaluated to determine the optimum configuration. A follow-on test program is proposed for this evaluation.

  4. Rotating diffuser for pressure recovery in a steam cooling circuit of a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Eldrid, Sacheverel Q.; Salamah, Samir A.; DeStefano, Thomas Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The buckets of a gas turbine are steam-cooled via a bore tube assembly having concentric supply and spent cooling steam return passages rotating with the rotor. A diffuser is provided in the return passage to reduce the pressure drop. In a combined cycle system, the spent return cooling steam with reduced pressure drop is combined with reheat steam from a heat recovery steam generator for flow to the intermediate pressure turbine. The exhaust steam from the high pressure turbine of the combined cycle unit supplies cooling steam to the supply conduit of the gas turbine.

  5. Heat Transfer Measurements for a Film Cooled Turbine Vane Cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poinsatte, Philip E.; Heidmann, James D.; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental heat transfer and pressure measurements were obtained on a large scale film cooled turbine vane cascade. The objective was to investigate heat transfer on a commercial high pressure first stage turbine vane at near engine Mach and Reynolds number conditions. Additionally blowing ratios and coolant density were also matched. Numerical computations were made with the Glenn-HT code of the same geometry and compared with the experimental results. A transient thermochromic liquid crystal technique was used to obtain steady state heat transfer data on the mid-span geometry of an instrumented vane with 12 rows of circular and shaped film cooling holes. A mixture of SF6 and Argon gases was used for film coolant to match the coolant-to-gas density ratio of a real engine. The exit Mach number and Reynolds number were 0.725 and 2.7 million respectively. Trends from the experimental heat transfer data matched well with the computational prediction, particularly for the film cooled case.

  6. An air quality sensing system for cool air storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngoy, T. J.; Joubert, T.-H.

    2016-02-01

    Cooling and ventilation systems play an important role in human occupied spaces. However, cooling using reversible air conditioners systems pollutes the environment and consumes a significant amount of energy. With global warming that experiences our environment, the large consumption of electrical energy and the operating instructions for reversible air conditioners, there is a need to find alternatives to those cooling systems. Hence this research project aims to investigate an air storage system, a microsystem reversible ventilation system using natural atmospheric air (renewable energy) for cooling at low consumption of energy. For the variation of the temperature range of comfort due to thermal heat produces by occupants, equipment and environment, an optimal transient automatic regulation of air flow as to be design in order to maintain the temperature of comfort in occupied spaces during peak hours.

  7. Prediction of Film Cooling on Gas Turbine Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Vijay K.; Gaugler, Raymond E.

    1994-01-01

    A three-dimensional Navier-Stokes analysis tool has been developed in order to study the effect of film cooling on the flow and heat transfer characteristics of actual turbine airfoils. An existing code (Arnone et al., 1991) has been modified for the purpose. The code is an explicit, multigrid, cell-centered, finite volume code with an algebraic turbulence model. Eigenvalue scaled artificial dissipation and variable-coefficient implicit residual smoothing are used with a full-multigrid technique. Moreover, Mayle's transition criterion (Mayle, 1991) is used. The effects of film cooling have been incorporated into the code in the form of appropriate boundary conditions at the hole locations on the airfoil surface. Each hole exit is represented by several control volumes, thus providing an ability to study the effect of hole shape on the film-cooling characteristics. Comparison is fair with near mid-span experimental data for four and nine rows of cooling holes, five on the shower head, and two rows each on the pressure and suction surfaces. The computations, however, show a strong spanwise variation of the heat transfer coefficient on the airfoil surface, specially with shower-head cooling.

  8. Improved Turbine Blade Cooling Using Endwall Flow Modifications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    ANEMOMETER AND PROBE 21 3.3 PRESSURE TRANSDUCER 22 3.4 PITOT TUBE 23 3.5 KIEL PROBE 23 3.6 LASER DOPPLER ANEMOMETRY 24 4 FLOW VISUALIZATION 26 4.1 OIL AND...blades and nozzle vanes ) and the endwalls (Ito, 1978). One common cooling method is "film cooling" in which cool air is bled from the compressor and...demodulator outputs to a voltage which is proportional to the pressure difference across the diaphragm. A pitot tube was placed in the wind tunnel and

  9. Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system

    DOEpatents

    Tomlinson, Leroy Omar; Smith, Raub Warfield

    2002-01-01

    In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

  10. Features of steam turbine cooling by the example of an SKR-100 turbine for supercritical steam parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkadyev, B. A.

    2015-10-01

    Basic principles of cooling of high-temperature steam turbines and constructive solutions used for development of the world's first cooled steam turbine SKR-100 (R-100-300) are described. Principal differences between the thermodynamic properties of cooling medium in the steam and gas turbines and the preference of making flow passes of cooled cylinders of steam turbines as reactive are shown. Some of its operation results and their conclusions are given. This turbine with a power of 100 MW, initial steam parameters approximately 30 MPa and 650°C, and back pressure 3 MPa was made by a Kharkov turbine plant in 1961 and ran successfully at a Kashira GRES (state district power plant) up to 1979, when it was taken out of use in a still fully operating condition. For comparison, some data on construction features and operation results of the super-high pressure cylinder of steam turbines of American Philo 6 (made by General Electric Co.) and Eddystone 1 (made by Westinghouse Co.) power generating units, which are close to the SKR-100 turbine by design initial steam parameters and the implementation time, are given. The high operational reliability and effectiveness of the cooling system that was used in the super-high pressure cylinder of the SKR-100 turbine of the power-generating unit, which were demonstrated in operation, confirms rightfulness and expediency of principles and constructive solutions laid at its development. As process steam temperatures are increased, the realization of the proposed approach to cooling of multistage turbines makes it possible to limit for large turbine parts the application of new, more expensive high-temperature materials, which are required for making steam boilers, and, in some cases, to do completely away with their utilization.

  11. Pneumomediastinum secondary to use of a high speed air turbine drill during a dental extraction.

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Melero, J.; Arias-Diaz, J.; Balibrea, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    Pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema of the neck and thorax can occur exceptionally following a dental procedure. A case is described of acute subcutaneous emphysema of the lateral region of the neck and thorax associated with pneumomediastinum during a dental extraction with an air and water cooled turbine burn drill. PMID:8779147

  12. Pneumomediastinum secondary to use of a high speed air turbine drill during a dental extraction.

    PubMed

    Torres-Melero, J; Arias-Diaz, J; Balibrea, J L

    1996-03-01

    Pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema of the neck and thorax can occur exceptionally following a dental procedure. A case is described of acute subcutaneous emphysema of the lateral region of the neck and thorax associated with pneumomediastinum during a dental extraction with an air and water cooled turbine burn drill.

  13. Review and status of liquid-cooling technology for gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanfossen, G. J., Jr.; Stepka, F. S.

    1979-01-01

    A review was conducted of liquid-cooled turbine technology. Selected liquid-cooled systems and methods are presented along with an assessment of the current technology status and requirements. A comprehensive bibliography is presented.

  14. Feasibility of Actively Cooled Silicon Nitride Airfoil for Turbine Applications Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    2001-01-01

    Nickel-base superalloys currently limit gas turbine engine performance. Active cooling has extended the temperature range of service of nickel-base superalloys in current gas turbine engines, but the margin for further improvement appears modest. Therefore, significant advancements in materials technology are needed to raise turbine inlet temperatures above 2400 F to increase engine specific thrust and operating efficiency. Because of their low density and high-temperature strength and thermal conductivity, in situ toughened silicon nitride ceramics have received a great deal of attention for cooled structures. However, the high processing costs and low impact resistance of silicon nitride ceramics have proven to be major obstacles for widespread applications. Advanced rapid prototyping technology in combination with conventional gel casting and sintering can reduce high processing costs and may offer an affordable manufacturing approach. Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center, in cooperation with a local university and an aerospace company, are developing actively cooled and functionally graded ceramic structures. The objective of this program is to develop cost-effective manufacturing technology and experimental and analytical capabilities for environmentally stable, aerodynamically efficient, foreign-object-damage-resistant, in situ toughened silicon nitride turbine nozzle vanes, and to test these vanes under simulated engine conditions. Starting with computer aided design (CAD) files of an airfoil and a flat plate with internal cooling passages, the permanent and removable mold components for gel casting ceramic slips were made by stereolithography and Sanders machines, respectively. The gel-cast part was dried and sintered to final shape. Several in situ toughened silicon nitride generic airfoils with internal cooling passages have been fabricated. The uncoated and thermal barrier coated airfoils and flat plates were burner rig tested for 30 min without

  15. Oil cooling system for a gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffinberry, G. A.; Kast, H. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A gas turbine engine fuel delivery and control system is provided with means to recirculate all fuel in excess of fuel control requirements back to aircraft fuel tank, thereby increasing the fuel pump heat sink and decreasing the pump temperature rise without the addition of valving other than that normally employed. A fuel/oil heat exchanger and associated circuitry is provided to maintain the hot engine oil in heat exchange relationship with the cool engine fuel. Where anti-icing of the fuel filter is required, means are provided to maintain the fuel temperature entering the filter at or above a minimum level to prevent freezing thereof. Fluid circuitry is provided to route hot engine oil through a plurality of heat exchangers disposed within the system to provide for selective cooling of the oil.

  16. Method and system for providing cooling for turbine components

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Victor John; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2016-08-16

    A system for providing cooling for a turbine component that includes an outer surface exposed to combustion gases is provided. A component base includes at least one fluid supply passage coupleable to a source of cooling fluid. At least one feed passage communicates with the at least one fluid supply passage. At least one delivery channel communicates with the at least one feed passage. At least one cover layer covers the at least one feed passage and the at least one delivery channel, defining at least in part the component outer surface. At least one discharge passage extends to the outer surface. A diffuser section is defined in at least one of the at least one delivery channel and the at least one discharge passage, such that a fluid channeled through the system is diffused prior to discharge adjacent the outer surface.

  17. Application of local indentations for film cooling of gas turbine blade leading edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelchyts, V. Yu.; Khalatov, A. A.; Pysmennyi, D. N.; Dashevskyy, Yu. Ya.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents results of computer simulation of the film cooling on the turbine blade leading edge model where the air coolant is supplied through radial holes and row of cylindrical inclined holes placed inside hemispherical dimples or trench. The blowing factor was varied from 0.5 to 2.0. The model size and key initial parameters for simulation were taken as for a real blade of a high-pressure high-performance gas turbine. Simulation was performed using commercial software code ANSYS CFX. The simulation results were compared with reference variant (no dimples or trench) both for the leading edge area and for the flat plate downstream of the leading edge.

  18. Development of Air-cooled Engines with Blower Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohner, Kurt

    1933-01-01

    With the aid of a heating device, the heat transfer to cylinders with conical fins of various forms is determined both for shrouded and exposed cylinders. Simultaneously the pressure drop for overcoming the resistance to the motion of air between the fins of the enclosed cylinder is measured. Thus the relations between the heat transfer and the energy required for cooling are discovered. The investigations show that the heat transfer in a conducted air flow is much greater than in a free current and that further improvement, as compared with free exposure, is possible through narrower spaces between the fins.

  19. Liquid metal reactor air cooling baffle

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein

    1994-01-01

    A baffle is provided between a relatively hot containment vessel and a relatively cold silo for enhancing air cooling performance. The baffle includes a perforate inner wall positionable outside the containment vessel to define an inner flow riser therebetween, and an imperforate outer wall positionable outside the inner wall to define an outer flow riser therebetween. Apertures in the inner wall allow thermal radiation to pass laterally therethrough to the outer wall, with cooling air flowing upwardly through the inner and outer risers for removing heat.

  20. Liquid metal reactor air cooling baffle

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, A.

    1994-08-16

    A baffle is provided between a relatively hot containment vessel and a relatively cold silo for enhancing air cooling performance. The baffle includes a perforate inner wall positionable outside the containment vessel to define an inner flow riser therebetween, and an imperforate outer wall positionable outside the inner wall to define an outer flow riser therebetween. Apertures in the inner wall allow thermal radiation to pass laterally therethrough to the outer wall, with cooling air flowing upwardly through the inner and outer risers for removing heat. 3 figs.

  1. Effect of endwall cooling on secondary flows in turbine stator vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, L. J.; Mclallin, K. L.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of endwall cooling on the secondary flow behavior and the aerodynamic performance of a core turbine stator vane was determined. The investigation was conducted in a cold-air, full-annular cascade, where three-dimensional effects were obtained. Two endwall cooling configurations were tested. In the first configuration, the cooling holes were oriented so that the coolant was injected in line with the inviscid streamline direction. In the second configuration, the coolant was injected at an angle of 15 deg to the inviscid streamline direction and oriented towards the vane pressure stator. In both cases the stator vanes were solid and uncooled so that the effect of endwall cooling was obtained directly. Total-pressure surveys were taken downstream of the stator vanes over a range of cooling flows at the design, mean-radius, critical velocity ratio of 0.778. Changes in the total-pressure contours downstream of the vanes were used to obtain the effect of endwall cooling on the secondary flows in the stator.

  2. A Blast of Cool Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Unable to solve their engineering problem with a rotor in their Orbital Vane product, DynEco Corporation turned to Kennedy Space Center for help. KSC engineers determined that the compressor rotor was causing a large concentration of stress, which led to cracking and instant rotor failure. NASA redesigned the lubrication system, which allowed the company to move forward with its compressor that has no rubbing parts. The Orbital Vane is a refrigerant compressor suitable for mobile air conditioning and refrigeration.

  3. United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) Vertical Axis Wind Turbine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    from the Savonius starting turbine alone. -63- SECTION VII CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMIENDATIONS 1. CONCLUSIONS One objective of the USAF Academy Wind ...Rotors, SAND76-0131. Albuquerque: July 1977. 10. Oliver, R.C. and P.R. Nixon. "Design Procedure for Coupling Savonius and Darrieus Wind Turbines ", Air...CHART -4 ESL-TR-8048 UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY (USAFAI VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE THOMAS E. KULLGREN DENNIS W. WIEDEMEIER DEPARTMENT OF ENGINEERING

  4. Turbine endwall film cooling with combustor-turbine interface gap leakage flow: Effect of incidence angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Yuan, Xin

    2013-04-01

    This paper is focused on the film cooling performance of combustor-turbine leakage flow at off-design condition. The influence of incidence angle on film cooling effectiveness on first-stage vane endwall with combustor-turbine interface slot is studied. A baseline slot configuration is tested in a low speed four-blade cascade comprising a large-scale model of the GE-E3Nozzle Guide Vane (NGV). The slot has a forward expansion angle of 30 deg. to the endwall surface. The Reynolds number based on the axial chord and inlet velocity of the free-stream flow is 3.5 × 105 and the testing is done in a four-blade cascade with low Mach number condition (0.1 at the inlet). The blowing ratio of the coolant through the interface gap varies from M = 0.1 to M = 0.3, while the blowing ratio varies from M = 0.7 to M = 1.3 for the endwall film cooling holes. The film-cooling effectiveness distributions are obtained using the pressure sensitive paint (PSP) technique. The results show that with an increasing blowing ratio the film-cooling effectiveness increases on the endwall. As the incidence angle varies from i = +10 deg. to i = -10 deg., at low blowing ratio, the averaged film-cooling effectiveness changes slightly near the leading edge suction side area. The case of i = +10 deg. has better film-cooling performance at the downstream part of this region where the axial chord is between 0.15 and 0.25. However, the disadvantage of positive incidence appears when the blowing ratio increases, especially at the upstream part of near suction side region where the axial chord is between 0 and 0.15. On the main passage endwall surface, as the incidence angle changes from i = +10 deg. to i = -10 deg., the averaged film-cooling effectiveness changes slightly and the negative incidence appears to be more effective for the downstream part film cooling of the endwall surface where the axial chord is between 0.6 and 0.8.

  5. Heat Transfer Experiments in the Internal Cooling Passages of a Cooled Radial Turbine Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. V.; Wagner, J. H.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted (1) to experimentally measure, assess and analyze the heat transfer within the internal cooling configuration of a radial turbine rotor blade and (2) to obtain heat transfer data to evaluate and improve computational fluid dynamics (CFD) procedures and turbulent transport models of internal coolant flows. A 1.15 times scale model of the coolant passages within the NASA LERC High Temperature Radial Turbine was designed, fabricated of Lucite and instrumented for transient beat transfer tests using thin film surface thermocouples and liquid crystals to indicate temperatures. Transient heat transfer tests were conducted for Reynolds numbers of one-fourth, one-half, and equal to the operating Reynolds number for the NASA Turbine. Tests were conducted for stationary and rotating conditions with rotation numbers in the range occurring in the NASA Turbine. Results from the experiments showed the heat transfer characteristics within the coolant passage were affected by rotation. In general, the heat transfer increased and decreased on the sides of the straight radial passages with rotation as previously reported from NASA-HOST-sponsored experiments. The heat transfer in the tri-passage axial flow region adjacent to the blade exit was relatively unaffected by rotation. However, the heat transfer on one surface, in the transitional region between the radial inflow passage and axial, constant radius passages, decreased to approximately 20 percent of the values without rotation. Comparisons with previous 3-D numerical studies indicated regions where the heat transfer characteristics agreed and disagreed with the present experiment.

  6. The effect of wake passing on turbine blade film cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidmann, James David

    The effect of upstream blade row wake passing on the showerhead film cooling performance of a downstream turbine blade has been investigated through a combination of experimental and computational studies. The experiments were performed in a steady-flow annular turbine cascade facility equipped with an upstream rotating row of cylindrical rods to produce a periodic wake field similar to that found in an actual turbine. Spanwise, chordwise, and temporal resolution of the blade surface temperature were achieved through the use of an array of nickel thin-film surface gauges covering one unit cell of showerhead film hole pattern. Film effectiveness and Nusselt number values were determined for a test matrix of various injectants, injectant blowing ratios, and wake Strouhal numbers. Results indicated a demonstrable reduction in film effectiveness with increasing Strouhal number, as well as the expected increase in film effectiveness with blowing ratio. An equation was developed to correlate the span-average film effectiveness data. The primary effect of wake unsteadiness was found to be correlated well by a chordwise-constant decrement of 0.094*St. Measurable spanwise film effectiveness variations were found near the showerhead region, but meaningful unsteady variations and downstream spanwise variations were not found. Nusselt numbers were less sensitive to wake and injection changes. Computations were performed using a three-dimensional turbulent Navier-Stokes code which was modified to model wake passing and film cooling. Unsteady computations were found to agree well with steady computations provided the proper time-average blowing ratio and pressure/suction surface flow split are matched. The remaining differences were isolated to be due to the enhanced mixing in the unsteady solution caused by the wake sweeping normally on the pressure surface. Steady computations were found to be in excellent agreement with experimental Nusselt numbers, but to overpredict

  7. The Effect of Wake Passing on Turbine Blade Film Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidmann, James David

    1996-01-01

    The effect of upstream blade row wake passing on the showerhead film cooling performance of a downstream turbine blade has been investigated through a combination of experimental and computational studies. The experiments were performed in a steady-flow annular turbine cascade facility equipped with an upstream rotating row of cylindrical rods to produce a periodic wake field similar to that found in an actual turbine. Spanwise, chordwise, and temporal resolution of the blade surface temperature were achieved through the use of an array of nickel thin-film surface gauges covering one unit cell of showerhead film hole pattern. Film effectiveness and Nusselt number values were determined for a test matrix of various injectants, injectant blowing ratios, and wake Strouhal numbers. Results indicated a demonstratable reduction in film effectiveness with increasing Strouhal number, as well as the expected increase in film effectiveness with blowing ratio. An equation was developed to correlate the span-average film effectiveness data. The primary effect of wake unsteadiness was found to be correlated well by a chordwise-constant decrement of 0.094-St. Measurable spanwise film effectiveness variations were found near the showerhead region, but meaningful unsteady variations and downstream spanwise variations were not found. Nusselt numbers were less sensitive to wake and injection changes. Computations were performed using a three-dimensional turbulent Navier-Stokes code which was modified to model wake passing and film cooling. Unsteady computations were found to agree well with steady computations provided the proper time-average blowing ratio and pressure/suction surface flow split are matched. The remaining differences were isolated to be due to the enhanced mixing in the unsteady solution caused by the wake sweeping normally on the pressure surface. Steady computations were found to be in excellent agreement with experimental Nusselt numbers, but to overpredict

  8. Flow visualization of discrete hole film cooling for gas turbine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colladay, R. S.; Russell, L. M.

    1975-01-01

    Film injection from discrete holes in a three row staggered array with 5-diameter spacing is studied. The boundary layer thickness-to-hole diameter ratio and Reynolds number are typical of gas turbine film cooling applications. Two different injection locations are studied to evaluate the effect of boundary layer thickness on film penetration and mixing. Detailed streaklines showing the turbulent motion of the injected air are obtained by photographing neutrally buoyant helium filled soap bubbles which follow the flow field. The bubble streaklines passing downstream injection locations are clearly identifiable and can be traced back to their origin. Visualization of surface temperature patterns obtained from infrared photographs of a similar film cooled surface are also included.

  9. Oil cooling system for a gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffinberry, G. A.; Kast, H. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A gas turbine engine fuel delivery and control system is provided with means to recirculate all fuel in excess fuel control requirements back to the aircraft fuel tank. This increases the fuel pump heat sink and decreases the pump temperature rise without the addition of valving other than normally employed. A fuel/oil heat exchanger and associated circuitry is provided to maintain the hot engine oil in heat exchange relationship with the cool engine fuel. Where anti-icing of the fuel filter is required, means are provided to maintain the fuel temperature entering the filter at or above a minimum level to prevent freezing thereof. In one embodiment, a divider valve is provided to take all excess fuel from either upstream or downstream of the fuel filter and route it back to the tanks, the ratio of upstream to downstream extraction being a function of fuel pump discharge pressure.

  10. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOEpatents

    Coslow, Billy Joe; Whidden, Graydon Lane

    1999-01-01

    A method of converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit.

  11. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOEpatents

    Coslow, B.J.; Whidden, G.L.

    1999-05-25

    A method is described for converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit. 7 figs.

  12. Leading edge film cooling effects on turbine blade heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Vijay K.; Gaugler, Raymond E.

    1995-01-01

    An existing three dimensional Navier-Stokes code, modified to include film cooling considerations, has been used to study the effect of spanwise pitch of shower-head holes and coolant to mainstream mass flow ratio on the adiabatic effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient on a film-cooled turbine vane. The mainstream is akin to that under real engine conditions with stagnation temperature = 1900 K and stagnation pressure = 3 MPa. It is found that with the coolant to mainstream mass flow ratio fixed, reducing P, the spanwise pitch for shower-head holes, from 7.5 d to 3.0 d, where d is the hole diameter, increases the average effectiveness considerably over the blade surface. However, when P/d= 7.5, increasing the coolant mass flow increases the effectiveness on the pressure surface but reduces it on the suction surface due to coolant jet lift-off. For P/d = 4.5 or 3.0, such an anomaly does not occur within the range of coolant to mainstream mass flow ratios analyzed. In all cases, adiabatic effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient are highly three-dimensional.

  13. Experimental study of condensate subcooling with the use of a model of an air-cooled condenser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhanov, V. A.; Bezukhov, A. P.; Bogov, I. A.; Dontsov, N. Y.; Volkovitsky, I. D.; Tolmachev, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    Water-supply deficit is now felt in many regions of the world. This hampers the construction of new steam-turbine and combined steam-and-gas thermal power plants. The use of dry cooling systems and, specifically, steam-turbine air-cooled condensers (ACCs) expands the choice of sites for the construction of such power plants. The significance of condensate subcooling Δ t as a parameter that negatively affects the engineering and economic performance of steam-turbine plants is thereby increased. The operation and design factors that influence the condensate subcooling in ACCs are revealed, and the research objective is, thus, formulated properly. The indicated research was conducted through physical modeling with the use of the Steam-Turbine Air-Cooled Condenser Unit specialized, multipurpose, laboratory bench. The design and the combined schematic and measurement diagram of this test bench are discussed. The experimental results are presented in the form of graphic dependences of the condensate subcooling value on cooling ratio m and relative weight content ɛ' of air in steam at the ACC inlet at different temperatures of cooling air t ca ' . The typical ranges of condensate subcooling variation (4 ≤ Δ t ≤ 6°C, 2 ≤ Δ t ≤ 4°C, and 0 ≤ Δ t ≤ 2°C) are identified based on the results of analysis of the attained Δ t levels in the ACC and numerous Δ t reduction estimates. The corresponding ranges of cooling ratio variation at different temperatures of cooling air at the ACC inlet are specified. The guidelines for choosing the adjusted ranges of cooling ratio variation with account of the results of experimental studies of the dependences of the absolute pressure of the steam-air mixture in the top header of the ACC and the heat flux density on the cooling ratio at different temperatures of cooling air at the ACC inlet are given.

  14. Experimental study on the evaporative cooling of an air-cooled condenser with humidifying air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Mao-Yu; Ho, Ching-Yen; Jang, Kuang-Jang; Yeh, Cheng-Hsiung

    2014-02-01

    Using six different materials to construct a water curtain, this study aims to determine the most effective spray cooling of an air cooled heat exchanger under wet conditions. The experiments were carried out at a mass flow rate of 0.005-0.01 kg/s (spraying water), an airspeed of 0.6-2.4 m/s and a run time of 0-72 h for the material degradation tests. The experimental results indicate that the cooling efficiency, the heat rejection, and the sprinkling density increase as the amount of spraying water increases, but, the air-flow of the condenser is reduced at the same time. In addition, the cooling efficiency of the pads decreases with an increase of the inlet air velocity. In terms of experimental range, the natural wood pulp fiberscan can reach 42.7-66 % for cooling efficiency and 17.17-24.48 % for increases of heat rejection. This means that the natural wood pulp fiberscan pad most effectively enhances cooling performance, followed in terms of cooling effectiveness by the special non-woven rayon pad, the woollen blanket, biochemistry cotton and kapok, non-woven cloth of rayon cotton and kapok, and white cotton pad, respectively. However, the natural wood pulp fiberscan and special non-woven rayon display a relatively greater degradation of the cooling efficiency than the other test pads used in the material degradation tests.

  15. Transpiration cooling using air as a coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Kikkawa, Shinzo; Senda, Mamoru; Sakagushi, Katsuji; Shibutani, Hideki )

    1993-02-01

    Transpiration cooling is one of the most effective techniques for protecting a surface exposed to a high-temperature gas stream. In the present paper, the transpiration cooling effectiveness was measured under steady state. Air as a coolant was transpired from the surface of a porous plate exposed to hot gas stream, and the transpiration rate was varied in the range of 0.001 [approximately] 0.006. The transpiration cooling effectiveness was evaluated by measuring the temperature of the upper surface of the plate. Also, a theoretical study was performed and it was clarified that the effectiveness increases with increasing transpiration rate and heat-transfer coefficient of the upper surface. Further, the effectiveness was expressed as a function of the blowing parameter only. The agreement between the experimental results and theoretical ones was satisfactory.

  16. Advantages of air conditioning and supercharging an LM6000 gas turbine inlet

    SciTech Connect

    Kolp, D.A.; Flye, W.M.; Guidotti, H.A.

    1995-07-01

    Of all the external factors affecting a gas turbine, inlet pressure and temperature have the greatest impact on performance. The effect of inlet temperature variations is especially pronounced in the new generation of high-efficiency gas turbines typified by the 40 MW GE LM6000. A reduction of 50 F (28 C) in inlet temperature can result in a 30 percent increase in power and a 4.5 percent improvement in heat rate. An elevation increase to 5,000 ft (1,524 m) above sea level decreases turbine output 17 percent; conversely supercharging can increase output more than 20 percent. This paper addresses various means of heating, cooling and supercharging LM6000 inlet air. An economic model is developed and sample cases are cited to illustrate the optimization of gas turbine inlet systems, taking into account site conditions, incremental equipment cost and subsequent performance enhancement.

  17. Facial Cooling During Cold Air Exposure.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikuisis, Peter; Osczevski, Randall J.

    2003-07-01

    A dynamic model of facial cooling was developed in conjunction with the release of the new wind chill temperature (WCT) index, whereby the WCT provides wind chill estimates based on steady-state considerations and the dynamic model can be used to predict the rate of facial cooling and particularly the onset of freezing. In the present study, the dynamic model is applied to various combinations of air temperature and wind speed, and predictions of the resultant steady-state cheek skin temperatures are tabulated. Superimposed on these tables are times to a cheek skin temperature of 10°C, which has been reported as painful, and times to freezing. For combinations of air temperature and wind speed that result in the same final steady-state cheek temperature or the same WCT, the initial rate of change of skin temperature is higher for those combinations having higher wind speeds. This suggests that during short exposures, high winds combined with low temperatures might be perceived as more stressful than light winds with lower temperatures that result in the same "wind chill." This paper also discloses the paradox that individuals having a low cheek thermal resistance are predicted to experience a more severe WCT, but be at less risk of cooling injury than individuals with higher thermal resistances. The advantages of cooling-time predictions using the dynamic model are discussed with the recommendation/conclusion that safe exposure limits are more meaningful and less ambiguous than the reporting of the WCT.

  18. BEETIT: Building Cooling and Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: The 14 projects that comprise ARPA-E’s BEETIT Project, short for “Building Energy Efficiency Through Innovative Thermodevices,” are developing new approaches and technologies for building cooling equipment and air conditioners. These projects aim to drastically improve building energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2) at a cost comparable to current technologies.

  19. Simulation of the Effects of Cooling Techniques on Turbine Blade Heat Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Vince; Fatuzzo, Marco

    Increases in the performance demands of turbo machinery has stimulated the development many new technologies over the last half century. With applications that spread beyond marine, aviation, and power generation, improvements in gas turbine technologies provide a vast impact. High temperatures within the combustion chamber of the gas turbine engine are known to cause an increase in thermal efficiency and power produced by the engine. However, since operating temperatures of these engines reach above 1000 K within the turbine section, the need for advances in material science and cooling techniques to produce functioning engines under these high thermal and dynamic stresses is crucial. As with all research and development, costs related to the production of prototypes can be reduced through the use of computational simulations. By making use of Ansys Simulation Software, the effects of turbine cooling techniques were analyzed. Simulation of the Effects of Cooling Techniques on Turbine Blade Heat Transfer.

  20. HUMID AIR TURBINE CYCLE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Tuthill

    2002-07-18

    The Humid Air Turbine (HAT) Cycle Technology Development Program focused on obtaining HAT cycle combustor technology that will be the foundation of future products. The work carried out under the auspices of the HAT Program built on the extensive low emissions stationary gas turbine work performed in the past by Pratt & Whitney (P&W). This Program is an integral part of technology base development within the Advanced Turbine Systems Program at the Department of Energy (DOE) and its experiments stretched over 5 years. The goal of the project was to fill in technological data gaps in the development of the HAT cycle and identify a combustor configuration that would efficiently burn high moisture, high-pressure gaseous fuels with low emissions. The major emphasis will be on the development of kinetic data, computer modeling, and evaluations of combustor configurations. The Program commenced during the 4th Quarter of 1996 and closed in the 4th Quarter of 2001. It teamed the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) with P&W, the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), and a subcontractor on-site at UTRC, kraftWork Systems Inc. The execution of the program started with bench-top experiments that were conducted at UTRC for extending kinetic mechanisms to HAT cycle temperature, pressure, and moisture conditions. The fundamental data generated in the bench-top experiments was incorporated into the analytical tools available at P&W to design the fuel injectors and combustors. The NETL then used the hardware to conduct combustion rig experiments to evaluate the performance of the combustion systems at elevated pressure and temperature conditions representative of the HAT cycle. The results were integrated into systems analysis done by kraftWork to verify that sufficient understanding of the technology had been achieved and that large-scale technological application and demonstration could be undertaken as follow-on activity. An optional program extended the

  1. Experimental-Calculation Investigations of the Cooled Blades of the GTE-65 Gas-Turbine Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomenok, L. A.; Zolotogorov, M. S.; Nikolaev, A. G.; Egorov, I. N.; Lebedev, A. S.; Krivonosova, V. V.; Sundukov, Yu. M.

    2008-01-01

    Results obtained from experimental investigations of the cooled blades of a high-temperature turbine on the Central Boiler-Turbine Institute Research and Production Association's hot-test rig are presented. A comparison between calculated and experimental data is given.

  2. Development of High Performance Film Cooling of 1700 Degree C Class Gas Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hada, Satoshi; Matsuura, Masaaki; Tsukagoshi, Keizo; Takeishi, Kenichiro

    : In the development of 1700 degree gas turbines, the innovation of turbine cooling technology is important. Film cooling is widely used in order to reduce the metal temperature and thermal stress. In this paper, the novel film hole configurations are proposed. The adiabatic effectiveness of those configurations is measured using PSP (pressure sensitive paint). The adiabatic effectiveness of those configurations is higher than cylindrical film hole. The shaped hole was applied to the vane/blade of low speed rotating test facility. It is found that the rotating blade platform is difficult to cool by film cooling technique compared to stationary vane shroud.

  3. Cooling system having reduced mass pin fins for components in a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Marra, John J

    2014-03-11

    A cooling system having one or more pin fins with reduced mass for a gas turbine engine is disclosed. The cooling system may include one or more first surfaces defining at least a portion of the cooling system. The pin fin may extend from the surface defining the cooling system and may have a noncircular cross-section taken generally parallel to the surface and at least part of an outer surface of the cross-section forms at least a quartercircle. A downstream side of the pin fin may have a cavity to reduce mass, thereby creating a more efficient turbine airfoil.

  4. Finger Cooling During Cold Air Exposure.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikuisis, Peter

    2004-05-01

    This paper presents a method for predicting the onset of finger freezing. It is an extension of a tissue-cooling model originally developed to predict the onset of cheek freezing. The extension to the finger is presented as a more conservative warning of wind chill. Indeed, guidance on the risk of finger freezing is important not only to safeguard the finger, but also because it pertains more closely to susceptible facial features, such as the nose, than if only the risk of cheek freezing was provided. The importance of blood flow to the finger and the modeling of vaso-constriction are demonstrated through cooling predictions that agree reasonably well with several reported observations. Differences in the prediction between the present physiologic-based model and the engineering model used to develop the wind chill index are also discussed. New wind chill charts are presented that tabulate the mean cooling rates and corresponding onset times to freezing of the finger for various combinations of air temperature and wind speed. Results indicate that the surface of the finger cools to its freezing point in approximately one-eighth of the time predicted for the cheek. For combinations that result in the same wind chill temperature (WCT), the rate of finger cooling is faster at the higher wind speed. This asymmetry was previously disclosed through the application of the model to cheek cooling, and it reiterates the ambiguity associated with the reporting of WCT. It is further emphasized that the reporting of onset times to freezing, or safe exposure limits, is a more logical and meaningful alternative to the WCT.

  5. Endwall shape modification using vortex generators and fences to improve gas turbine cooling and effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokce, Zeki Ozgur

    The gas turbine is one of the most important parts of the air-breathing jet engine. Hence, improving its efficiency and rendering it operable under high temperatures are constant goals for the aerospace industry. Two types of flow within the gas turbine are of critical relevance: The flow around the first row of stator blades (also known as the nozzle guide vane blade - NGV) and the cooling flow inside the turbine blade cooling channel. The subject of this thesis work was to search for methods that could improve the characteristics of these two types of flows, thus enabling superior engine performance. The innovative aspect of our work was to apply an endwall shape modification previously employed by non-aerospace industries for cooling applications, to the gas turbine cooling flow which is vital to aerospace propulsion. Since the costs of investigating the possible benefits of any idea via extensive experiments could be quite high, we decided to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) followed by experimentation as our methodology. We decided to analyze the potential benefits of using vortex generators (VGs) as well as the rectangular endwall fence. Since the pin-fins used in cooling flow are circular cylinders, and since the boundary layer flow is mainly characterized by the leading edge diameter of the NGV blade, we modeled both the pin-fins and the NGV blade as vertical circular cylinders. The baseline case consisted of the cylinder(s) being subjected to cross flow and a certain amount of freestream turbulence. The modifications we made on the endwall consisted of rectangular fences. In the case of the cooling flow, we used triangular shaped, common flow up oriented, delta winglet type vortex generators as well as rectangular endwall fences. The channel contained singular cylinders as well as staggered rows of multiple cylinders. For the NGV flow, a rectangular endwall fence and a singular cylinder were utilized. Using extensive CFD modeling and analysis, we

  6. 40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....108 Intake and cooling air measurements. (a) Intake air flow measurement. Measurement of the flow rate..., the measurement technique shall conform to the following: (1) The air flow measurement method used... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intake and cooling air......

  7. 40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....108 Intake and cooling air measurements. (a) Intake air flow measurement. Measurement of the flow rate..., the measurement technique shall conform to the following: (1) The air flow measurement method used... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intake and cooling air......

  8. 40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and cooling air measurements. (a) Intake air flow measurement. Measurement of the flow rate of intake... measurement technique shall conform to the following: (1) The air flow measurement method used must have a... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Intake and cooling air......

  9. 40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....108 Intake and cooling air measurements. (a) Intake air flow measurement. Measurement of the flow rate..., the measurement technique shall conform to the following: (1) The air flow measurement method used... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intake and cooling air......

  10. 40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....108 Intake and cooling air measurements. (a) Intake air flow measurement. Measurement of the flow rate..., the measurement technique shall conform to the following: (1) The air flow measurement method used... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intake and cooling air......

  11. High temperature gas-cooled reactor: gas turbine application study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The high-temperature capability of the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) is a distinguishing characteristic which has long been recognized as significant both within the US and within foreign nuclear energy programs. This high-temperature capability of the HTGR concept leads to increased efficiency in conventional applications and, in addition, makes possible a number of unique applications in both electrical generation and industrial process heat. In particular, coupling the HTGR nuclear heat source to the Brayton (gas turbine) Cycle offers significant potential benefits to operating utilities. This HTGR-GT Application Study documents the effort to evaluate the appropriateness of the HTGR-GT as an HTGR Lead Project. The scope of this effort included evaluation of the HTGR-GT technology, evaluation of potential HTGR-GT markets, assessment of the economics of commercial HTGR-GT plants, and evaluation of the program and expenditures necessary to establish HTGR-GT technology through the completion of the Lead Project.

  12. Heat transfer and material temperature conditions in the leading edge area of impingement-cooled turbine vanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, H. P.; Pfaff, K.; Hennecke, D. K.

    The resultant effects on the cooling effectiveness at the leading edge area of an impingement-cooled turbine vane by varying certain geometrical parameters is described with reference to local internal heat transfer coefficients determined from experiment and temperature calculations. The local heat transfer on the cooling-air side is determined experimentally with the aid of the analogy between heat- and mass transfer. The impingement cooling is provided from an inserted sheet-metal containing a single row of holes. The Reynolds Number and several of the cooling geometry parameters were varied. The results demonstrate the high local resolution of the method of measurement, which allows improved analytical treatment of the leading-edge cooling configuration. These experiments also point to the necessity of not always performing model tests under idealized conditions. This becomes very clear in the case of the tests performed on an application-oriented impingement-cooling configuration like that often encountered in engine manufacture. In conclusion, as an example, temperature calculations are employed to demonstrate the effect on the cooling effectiveness of varying the distances between insert and inner surface of the leading edge. It shows how the effectiveness of the leading edge cooling can be increased by simple geometrical measures, which results in a considerable improvement in service life.

  13. Ram air turbine driving a variable displacement hydraulic pump

    SciTech Connect

    Dickes, G.E.; Brekhus, R.D.; Seidel, W.E.

    1992-09-08

    This patent describes a ram air turbine for use in generating power for an aircraft by driving a load with an airstream intercepting blades of the turbine as the aircraft moves through the air with the turbine applying power to the load during rotation of the blades in a first rotational velocity range and during rotation of the blades in a second rotational velocity range which is lower than the first rotational velocity. It comprises a variable displacement hydraulic pump; and a reduced power output.

  14. Selection of the air heat exchanger operating in a gas turbine air bottoming cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielniak, Tadeusz; Czaja, Daniel; Lepszy, Sebastian

    2013-12-01

    A gas turbine air bottoming cycle consists of a gas turbine unit and the air turbine part. The air part includes a compressor, air expander and air heat exchanger. The air heat exchanger couples the gas turbine to the air cycle. Due to the low specific heat of air and of the gas turbine exhaust gases, the air heat exchanger features a considerable size. The bigger the air heat exchanger, the higher its effectiveness, which results in the improvement of the efficiency of the gas turbine air bottoming cycle. On the other hand, a device with large dimensions weighs more, which may limit its use in specific locations, such as oil platforms. The thermodynamic calculations of the air heat exchanger and a preliminary selection of the device are presented. The installation used in the calculation process is a plate heat exchanger, which is characterized by a smaller size and lower values of the pressure drop compared to the shell and tube heat exchanger. Structurally, this type of the heat exchanger is quite similar to the gas turbine regenerator. The method on which the calculation procedure may be based for real installations is also presented, which have to satisfy the economic criteria of financial profitability and cost-effectiveness apart from the thermodynamic criteria.

  15. Influence of cooling intensity on shock wave boundary layer interaction region in turbine cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczyński, P.; Szwaba, R.

    2016-10-01

    The shock wave boundary layer interaction on the suction side of a transonic turbine blade was one of the main objectives of the TFAST project. For this purpose a model of a turbine passage was designed, manufactured and assembled in a transonic wind tunnel. The paper presents the experimental investigations concerning the flow structure on the transonic turbine blade. A clean case (without a cooling system) with a normal shock wave interacting with a laminar boundary layer and also the influence of the blade cooling system with three different coolant blowing intensities on the laminar interaction region were investigated.

  16. Cooling of Air-cooled Engines by Forced Circulation of Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    This report presents the results of experiments on aerodynamic fuselages in which an air current is forced into the nose of the fuselage by the action of several fans revolving with the propeller. The air is then guided by special deflectors which cause it to flow along the exhaust pipes and cylinders and then, after having been utilized, pass out through annular ports. This system of cooling worked perfectly at all speeds.

  17. Aero-Thermo-Structural Design Optimization of Internally Cooled Turbine Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulikravich, G. S.; Martin, T. J.; Dennis, B. H.; Lee, E.; Han, Z.-X.

    1999-01-01

    A set of robust and computationally affordable inverse shape design and automatic constrained optimization tools have been developed for the improved performance of internally cooled gas turbine blades. The design methods are applicable to the aerodynamics, heat transfer, and thermoelasticity aspects of the turbine blade. Maximum use of the existing proven disciplinary analysis codes is possible with this design approach. Preliminary computational results demonstrate possibilities to design blades with minimized total pressure loss and maximized aerodynamic loading. At the same time, these blades are capable of sustaining significantly higher inlet hot gas temperatures while requiring remarkably lower coolant mass flow rates. These results suggest that it is possible to design internally cooled turbine blades that will cost less to manufacture, will have longer life span, and will perform as good, if not better than, film cooled turbine blades.

  18. Cooled-turbine aerodynamic performance prediction from reduced primary to coolant total-temperature-ratio results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    The prediction of the cooled aerodynamic performance, for both stators and turbines, at actual primary to coolant inlet total temperature ratios from the results obtained at a reduced total temperature ratio is described. Theoretical and available experimental results were compared for convection film and transpiration cooled stator vanes and for a film cooled, single stage core turbine. For these tests the total temperature ratio varied from near 1.0 to about 2.7. The agreement between the theoretical and the experimental results was, in general, reasonable.

  19. A Computational Study for the Utilization of Jet Pulsations in Gas Turbine Film Cooling and Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kartuzova, Olga V.

    2012-01-01

    This report is the second part of a three-part final report of research performed under an NRA cooperative Agreement contract. The first part is NASA/CR-2012-217415. The third part is NASA/CR-2012-217417. Jets have been utilized in various turbomachinery applications in order to improve gas turbines performance. Jet pulsation is a promising technique because of the reduction in the amount of air removed from compressor. In this work two areas of pulsed jets applications were computationally investigated using the commercial code Fluent (ANSYS, Inc.); the first one is film cooling of High Pressure Turbine (HPT) blades and second one is flow separation control over Low Pressure Turbine (LPT) airfoil using Vortex Generator Jets (VGJ). Using pulsed jets for film cooling purposes can help to improve the effectiveness and thus allow higher turbine inlet temperature. Effects of the film hole geometry, blowing ratio and density ratio of the jet, pulsation frequency and duty cycle of blowing on the film cooling effectiveness were investigated. As for the low-pressure turbine (LPT) stages, the boundary layer separation on the suction side of airfoils can occur due to strong adverse pressure gradients. The problem is exacerbated as airfoil loading is increased. Active flow control could provide a means for minimizing separation under conditions where it is most severe (low Reynolds number), without causing additional losses under other conditions (high Reynolds number). The effects of the jet geometry, blowing ratio, density ratio, pulsation frequency and duty cycle on the size of the separated region were examined in this work. The results from Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes and Large Eddy Simulation computational approaches were compared with the experimental data.

  20. Advanced multistage turbine blade aerodynamics, performance, cooling, and heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Fleeter, S.; Lawless, P.B.

    1995-10-01

    The gas turbine has the potential for power production at the highest possible efficiency. The challenge is to ensure that gas turbines operate at the optimum efficiency so as to use the least fuel and produce minimum emissions. A key component to meeting this challenge is the turbine. Turbine performance, both aerodynamics and heat transfer, is one of the barrier advanced gas turbine development technologies. This is a result of the complex, highly three-dimensional and unsteady flow phenomena in the turbine. Improved turbine aerodynamic performance has been achieved with three-dimensional highly-loaded airfoil designs, accomplished utilizing Euler or Navier-Stokes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. These design codes consider steady flow through isolated blade rows. Thus they do not account for unsteady flow effects. However, unsteady flow effects have a significant impact on performance. Also, CFD codes predict the complete flow field. The experimental verification of these codes has traditionally been accomplished with point data - not corresponding plane field measurements. Thus, although advanced CFD predictions of the highly complex and three-dimensional turbine flow fields are available, corresponding data are not. To improve the design capability for high temperature turbines, a detailed understanding of the highly unsteady and three-dimensional flow through multi-stage turbines is necessary. Thus, unique data are required which quantify the unsteady three-dimensional flow through multi-stage turbine blade rows, including the effect of the film coolant flow. This requires experiments in appropriate research facilities in which complete flow field data, not only point measurements, are obtained and analyzed. Also, as design CFD codes do not account for unsteady flow effects, the next logical challenge and the current thrust in CFD code development is multiple-stage analyses that account for the interactions between neighboring blade rows.

  1. Startup of air-cooled condensers and dry cooling towers at low temperatures of the cooling air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milman, O. O.; Ptakhin, A. V.; Kondratev, A. V.; Shifrin, B. A.; Yankov, G. G.

    2016-05-01

    The problems of startup and performance of air-cooled condensers (ACC) and dry cooling towers (DCT) at low cooling air temperatures are considered. Effects of the startup of the ACC at sub-zero temperatures are described. Different options of the ACC heating up are analyzed, and examples of existing technologies are presented (electric heating, heating up with hot air or steam, and internal and external heating). The use of additional heat exchanging sections, steam tracers, in the DCT design is described. The need for high power in cases of electric heating and heating up with hot air is noted. An experimental stand for research and testing of the ACC startup at low temperatures is described. The design of the three-pass ACC unit is given, and its advantages over classical single-pass design at low temperatures are listed. The formation of ice plugs inside the heat exchanging tubes during the start-up of ACC and DCT at low cooling air temperatures is analyzed. Experimental data on the effect of the steam flow rate, steam nozzle distance from the heat-exchange surface, and their orientation in space on the metal temperature were collected, and test results are analyzed. It is noted that the surface temperature at the end of the heat up is almost independent from its initial temperature. Recommendations for the safe start-up of ACCs and DCTs are given. The heating flow necessary to sufficiently heat up heat-exchange surfaces of ACCs and DCTs for the safe startup is estimated. The technology and the process of the heat up of the ACC with the heating steam external supply are described by the example of the startup of the full-scale section of the ACC at sub-zero temperatures of the cooling air, and the advantages of the proposed start-up technology are confirmed.

  2. High-Altitude Flight Cooling Investigation of a Radial Air-Cooled Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manganiello, Eugene J; Valerino, Michael F; Bell, E Barton

    1947-01-01

    An investigation of the cooling of an 18-cylinder, twin-row, radial, air-cooled engine in a high-performance pursuit airplane has been conducted for variable engine and flight conditions at altitudes ranging from 5000 to 35,000 feet in order to provide a basis for predicting high-altitude cooling performance from sea-level or low altitude experimental results. The engine cooling data obtained were analyzed by the usual NACA cooling-correlation method wherein cylinder-head and cylinder-barrel temperatures are related to the pertinent engine and cooling-air variables. A theoretical analysis was made of the effect on engine cooling of the change of density of the cooling air across the engine (the compressibility effect), which becomes of increasing importance as altitude is increased. Good agreement was obtained between the results of the theoretical analysis and the experimental data.

  3. Turbine Internal and Film Cooling Modeling For 3D Navier-Stokes Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, Kenneth; Garg Vijay; Ameri, Ali

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this research project is to make use of NASA Glenn on-site computational facilities in order to develop, validate and apply aerodynamic, heat transfer, and turbine cooling models for use in advanced 3D Navier-Stokes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes such as the Glenn-" code. Specific areas of effort include: Application of the Glenn-HT code to specific configurations made available under Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC), and Ultra Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) projects. Validating the use of a multi-block code for the time accurate computation of the detailed flow and heat transfer of cooled turbine airfoils. The goal of the current research is to improve the predictive ability of the Glenn-HT code. This will enable one to design more efficient turbine components for both aviation and power generation. The models will be tested against specific configurations provided by NASA Glenn.

  4. The effects of leading edge and downstream film cooling on turbine vane heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hylton, L. D.; Nirmalan, V.; Sultanian, B. K.; Kaufman, R. M.

    1988-01-01

    The progress under contract NAS3-24619 toward the goal of establishing a relevant data base for use in improving the predictive design capabilities for external heat transfer to turbine vanes, including the effect of downstream film cooling with and without leading edge showerhead film cooling. Experimental measurements were made in a two-dimensional cascade previously used to obtain vane surface heat transfer distributions on nonfilm cooled airfoils under contract NAS3-22761 and leading edge showerhead film cooled airfoils under contract NAS3-23695. The principal independent parameters (Mach number, Reynolds number, turbulence, wall-to-gas temperature ratio, coolant-to-gas temperature ratio, and coolant-to-gas pressure ratio) were maintained over ranges consistent with actual engine conditions and the test matrix was structured to provide an assessment of the independent influence of parameters of interest, namely, exit Mach number, exit Reynolds number, coolant-to-gas temperature ratio, and coolant-to-gas pressure ratio. Data provide a data base for downstream film cooled turbine vanes and extends the data bases generated in the two previous studies. The vane external heat transfer obtained indicate that considerable cooling benefits can be achieved by utilizing downstream film cooling. The data obtained and presented illustrate the interaction of the variables and should provide the airfoil designer and computational analyst the information required to improve heat transfer design capabilities for film cooled turbine airfoils.

  5. The effects of leading edge and downstream film cooling on turbine vane heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hylton, L. D.; Nirmalan, V.; Sultanian, B. K.; Kaufman, R. M.

    1988-11-01

    The progress under contract NAS3-24619 toward the goal of establishing a relevant data base for use in improving the predictive design capabilities for external heat transfer to turbine vanes, including the effect of downstream film cooling with and without leading edge showerhead film cooling. Experimental measurements were made in a two-dimensional cascade previously used to obtain vane surface heat transfer distributions on nonfilm cooled airfoils under contract NAS3-22761 and leading edge showerhead film cooled airfoils under contract NAS3-23695. The principal independent parameters (Mach number, Reynolds number, turbulence, wall-to-gas temperature ratio, coolant-to-gas temperature ratio, and coolant-to-gas pressure ratio) were maintained over ranges consistent with actual engine conditions and the test matrix was structured to provide an assessment of the independent influence of parameters of interest, namely, exit Mach number, exit Reynolds number, coolant-to-gas temperature ratio, and coolant-to-gas pressure ratio. Data provide a data base for downstream film cooled turbine vanes and extends the data bases generated in the two previous studies. The vane external heat transfer obtained indicate that considerable cooling benefits can be achieved by utilizing downstream film cooling. The data obtained and presented illustrate the interaction of the variables and should provide the airfoil designer and computational analyst the information required to improve heat transfer design capabilities for film cooled turbine airfoils.

  6. Effect of Coolant Temperature and Mass Flow on Film Cooling of Turbine Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Vijay K.; Gaugler, Raymond E.

    1997-01-01

    A three-dimensional Navier Stokes code has been used to study the effect of coolant temperature, and coolant to mainstream mass flow ratio on the adiabatic effectiveness of a film-cooled turbine blade. The blade chosen is the VKI rotor with six rows of cooling holes including three rows on the shower head. The mainstream is akin to that under real engine conditions with stagnation temperature = 1900 K and stagnation pressure = 3 MPa. Generally, the adiabatic effectiveness is lower for a higher coolant temperature due to nonlinear effects via the compressibility of air. However, over the suction side of shower-head holes, the effectiveness is higher for a higher coolant temperature than that for a lower coolant temperature when the coolant to mainstream mass flow ratio is 5% or more. For a fixed coolant temperature, the effectiveness passes through a minima on the suction side of shower-head holes as the coolant to mainstream mass flow, ratio increases, while on the pressure side of shower-head holes, the effectiveness decreases with increase in coolant mass flow due to coolant jet lift-off. In all cases, the adiabatic effectiveness is highly three-dimensional.

  7. Selection of a turbine cooling system applying multi-disciplinary design considerations.

    PubMed

    Glezer, B

    2001-05-01

    The presented paper describes a multi-disciplinary cooling selection approach applied to major gas turbine engine hot section components, including turbine nozzles, blades, discs, combustors and support structures, which maintain blade tip clearances. The paper demonstrates benefits of close interaction between participating disciplines starting from early phases of the hot section development. The approach targets advancements in engine performance and cost by optimizing the design process, often requiring compromises within individual disciplines.

  8. Demonstration of Enabling Spar-Shell Cooling Technology in Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, James

    2014-12-29

    In this Advanced Turbine Program-funded Phase III project, Florida Turbine Technologies, Inc. (FTT) has developed and tested, at a pre-commercial prototypescale, spar-shell turbine airfoils in a commercial gas turbine. The airfoil development is based upon FTT’s research and development to date in Phases I and II of Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) grants. During this program, FTT has partnered with an Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM), Siemens Energy, to produce sparshell turbine components for the first pre-commercial prototype test in an F-Class industrial gas turbine engine and has successfully completed validation testing. This project will further the commercialization of this new technology in F-frame and other highly cooled turbine airfoil applications. FTT, in cooperation with Siemens, intends to offer the spar-shell vane as a first-tier supplier for retrofit applications and new large frame industrial gas turbines. The market for the spar-shell vane for these machines is huge. According to Forecast International, 3,211 new gas turbines units (in the >50MW capacity size range) will be ordered in ten years from 2007 to 2016. FTT intends to enter the market in a low rate initial production. After one year of successful extended use, FTT will quickly ramp up production and sales, with a target to capture 1% of the market within the first year and 10% within 5 years (2020).

  9. Scale effects on Wells air turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Raghunathan, S.; Mitchell, D.; Gillan, M.; Tease, K.

    1996-12-31

    The main difference in aerodynamic forces between a small and a large scale is due to the lack of dynamic similarity of viscous fluid motion, which is a ratio of inertia forces to viscous forces on a body in a moving fluid. In recent years there has been considerable interest in this area, particularly to aerodynamicists. There have been methodologies developed for simulation of flow over large scale bodies with small scale tests. An objective of this paper is to highlight these methodologies for Wells turbine researchers. A comparison of tests on the Wells turbine at several scales and using some of the simulation methodologies are also discussed. The paper shows the need for considerable research effort in this area considering the prediction of the performance of large scale Wells turbines for wave energy conversion is a key issue at present.

  10. Improving Durability of Turbine Components Through Trenched Film Cooling and Contoured Endwalls

    SciTech Connect

    Bogard, David G.; Thole, Karen A.

    2014-09-30

    The experimental and computational studies of the turbine endwall and vane models completed in this research program have provided a comprehensive understanding of turbine cooling with combined film cooling and TBC. To correctly simulate the cooling effects of TBC requires the use of matched Biot number models, a technique developed in our laboratories. This technique allows for the measurement of the overall cooling effectiveness which is a measure of the combined internal and external cooling for a turbine component. The overall cooling effectiveness provides an indication of the actual metal temperature that would occur at engine conditions, and is hence a more powerful performance indicator than the film effectiveness parameter that is commonly used for film cooling studies. Furthermore these studies include the effects of contaminant depositions which are expected to occur when gas turbines are operated with syngas fuels. Results from the endwall studies performed at Penn State University and the vane model studies performed at the University of Texas are the first direct measurements of the combined effects of film cooling and TBC. These results show that TBC has a dominating effect on the overall cooling effectiveness, which enhances the importance of the internal cooling mechanisms, and downplays the importance of the film cooling of the external surface. The TBC was found to increase overall cooling effectiveness by a factor of two to four. When combined with TBC, the primary cooling from film cooling holes was found to be due to the convective cooling within the holes, not from the film effectiveness on the surface of the TBC. Simulations of the deposition of contaminants on the endwall and vane surfaces showed that these depositions caused a large increase in surface roughness and significant degradation of film effectiveness. However, despite these negative factors, the depositions caused only a slight decrease in the overall cooling effectiveness on

  11. Alternative Liquid Fuel Effects on Cooled Silicon Nitride Marine Gas Turbine Airfoils

    SciTech Connect

    Holowczak, J.

    2002-03-01

    With prior support from the Office of Naval Research, DARPA, and U.S. Department of Energy, United Technologies is developing and engine environment testing what we believe to be the first internally cooled silicon nitride ceramic turbine vane in the United States. The vanes are being developed for the FT8, an aeroderivative stationary/marine gas turbine. The current effort resulted in further manufacturing and development and prototyping by two U.S. based gas turbine grade silicon nitride component manufacturers, preliminary development of both alumina, and YTRIA based environmental barrier coatings (EBC's) and testing or ceramic vanes with an EBC coating.

  12. Unsteady High Turbulence Effects on Turbine Blade Film Cooling Heat Transfer Performance Using a Transient Liquid Crystal Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, J. C.; Ekkad, S. V.; Du, H.; Teng, S.

    2000-01-01

    Unsteady wake effect, with and without trailing edge ejection, on detailed heat transfer coefficient and film cooling effectiveness distributions is presented for a downstream film-cooled gas turbine blade. Tests were performed on a five-blade linear cascade at an exit Reynolds number of 5.3 x 10(exp 5). Upstream unsteady wakes were simulated using a spoke-wheel type wake generator. Coolant blowing ratio was varied from 0.4 to 1.2; air and CO2 were used as coolants to simulate different density ratios. Surface heat transfer and film effectiveness distributions were obtained using a transient liquid crystal technique; coolant temperature profiles were determined with a cold wire technique. Results show that Nusselt numbers for a film cooled blade are much higher compared to a blade without film injection. Unsteady wake slightly enhances Nusselt numbers but significantly reduces film effectiveness versus no wake cases. Nusselt numbers increase only slic,htly but film cooling, effectiveness increases significantly with increasing, blowing ratio. Higher density coolant (CO2) provides higher effectiveness at higher blowing ratios (M = 1.2) whereas lower density coolant (Air) provides higher 0 effectiveness at lower blowing ratios (M = 0.8). Trailing edge ejection generally has more effect on film effectiveness than on the heat transfer, typically reducing film effectiveness and enhancing heat transfer. Similar data is also presented for a film cooled cylindrical leading edge model.

  13. Development of cooling strategy for an air cooled lithium-ion battery pack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongguang; Dixon, Regan

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes a cooling strategy development method for an air cooled battery pack with lithium-ion pouch cells used in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). The challenges associated with the temperature uniformity across the battery pack, the temperature uniformity within each individual lithium-ion pouch cell, and the cooling efficiency of the battery pack are addressed. Initially, a three-dimensional battery pack thermal model developed based on simplified electrode theory is correlated to physical test data. An analytical design of experiments (DOE) approach using Optimal Latin-hypercube technique is then developed by incorporating a DOE design model, the correlated battery pack thermal model, and a morphing model. Analytical DOE studies are performed to examine the effects of cooling strategies including geometries of the cooling duct, cooling channel, cooling plate, and corrugation on battery pack thermal behavior and to identify the design concept of an air cooled battery pack to maximize its durability and its driving range.

  14. Side wall cooling for nozzle segments for a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian

    2002-01-01

    A nozzle vane segment includes outer and inner band portions with a vane extending therebetween and defining first and second cavities separated by an impingement plate for flowing cooling medium for impingement cooling of nozzle side walls. The side wall of each nozzle segment has an undercut region. The impingement plate has an inturned flange with a plurality of openings. Cooling inserts or receptacles having an open end are received in the openings and the base and side walls of the receptacles have apertures for receiving cooling medium from the first cavity and directing the cooling medium for impingement cooling of the side wall of the nozzle segment and a portion of the nozzle wall.

  15. Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling

    DOEpatents

    Hultgren, Kent Goran; McLaurin, Leroy Dixon; Bertsch, Oran Leroy; Lowe, Perry Eugene

    1998-01-01

    A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn.

  16. Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling

    DOEpatents

    Hultgren, K.G.; McLaurin, L.D.; Bertsch, O.L.; Lowe, P.E.

    1998-05-26

    A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn. 5 figs.

  17. 21 CFR 211.46 - Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling. 211.46 Section 211.46 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Buildings and Facilities § 211.46 Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling. (a)...

  18. 21 CFR 211.46 - Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling. 211.46 Section 211.46 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Buildings and Facilities § 211.46 Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling. (a)...

  19. 21 CFR 211.46 - Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling. 211.46 Section 211.46 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Buildings and Facilities § 211.46 Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling. (a)...

  20. 21 CFR 211.46 - Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling. 211.46 Section 211.46 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Buildings and Facilities § 211.46 Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling. (a)...

  1. Hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtsev, A. I.; Nazarova, O. V.

    2016-02-01

    A hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine unit is considered that can be used in both nuclear and centralized power industries. However, it is the most promising when used for power-generating plants based on renewable energy sources (RES). The basic feature of the energy storage system in question is combination of storing the energy in compressed air and hydrogen and oxygen produced by the water electrolysis. Such a process makes the energy storage more flexible, in particular, when applied to RES-based power-generating plants whose generation of power may considerably vary during the course of a day, and also reduces the specific cost of the system by decreasing the required volume of the reservoir. This will allow construction of such systems in any areas independent of the local topography in contrast to the compressed-air energy storage gas-turbine plants, which require large-sized underground reservoirs. It should be noted that, during the energy recovery, the air that arrives from the reservoir is heated by combustion of hydrogen in oxygen, which results in the gas-turbine exhaust gases practically free of substances hazardous to the health and the environment. The results of analysis of a hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are presented. Its layout and the principle of its operation are described and the basic parameters are computed. The units of the system are analyzed and their costs are assessed; the recovery factor is estimated at more than 60%. According to the obtained results, almost all main components of the hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are well known at present; therefore, no considerable R&D costs are required. A new component of the system is the H2-O2 combustion chamber; a difficulty in manufacturing it is the necessity of ensuring the combustion of hydrogen in oxygen as complete as possible and preventing formation of nitric oxides.

  2. Hot streaks and phantom cooling in a turbine rotor passage. I - Separate effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roback, Richard J.; Dring, Robert P.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental documentation and analytical correlations demonstrating the effects of hot streak accumulation and phantom cooling on turbine rotor airfoil surface temperature. Test results are shown for a range of controlling variables to identify where streak accumulation and phantom cooling are most likely to be strongest. These variables include streak injection location, streak-to-free stream density ratio and coolant-to-free stream density and velocity ratios.

  3. A numerical study of the temperature field in a cooled radial turbine rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamed, A.; Baskharone, E.; Tabakoff, W.

    1977-01-01

    The three dimensional temperature distribution in the cooled rotor of a radial inflow turbine is determined numerically using the finite element method. Through this approach, the complicated geometries of the hot rotor and coolant passage surfaces are handled easily, and the temperatures are determined without loss of accuracy at these convective boundaries. Different cooling techniques with given coolant to primary flow ratios are investigated, and the corresponding rotor temperature fields are presented for comparison.

  4. Correction of Temperatures of Air-Cooled Engine Cylinders for Variation in Engine and Cooling Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Pinkel, Benjamin; Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr

    1939-01-01

    Factors are obtained from semiempirical equations for correcting engine-cylinder temperatures for variation in important engine and cooling conditions. The variation of engine temperatures with atmospheric temperature is treated in detail, and correction factors are obtained for various flight and test conditions, such as climb at constant indicated air speed, level flight, ground running, take-off, constant speed of cooling air, and constant mass flow of cooling air. Seven conventional air-cooled engine cylinders enclosed in jackets and cooled by a blower were tested to determine the effect of cooling-air temperature and carburetor-air temperature on cylinder temperatures. The cooling air temperature was varied from approximately 80 degrees F. to 230 degrees F. and the carburetor-air temperature from approximately 40 degrees F. to 160 degrees F. Tests were made over a large range of engine speeds, brake mean effective pressures, and pressure drops across the cylinder. The correction factors obtained experimentally are compared with those obtained from the semiempirical equations and a fair agreement is noted.

  5. An experimental study of heat transfer around turbine airfoils with closed-loop cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Chih-Hung (Erik)

    Closed-Loop cooling has been identified as one of the promising cooling schemes for the next generation gas turbine systems. The closed-loop cooling design collects the spent coolants and directs them to be recovered to do useful work in engine cycle. Due to the requirement of the closed-loop cooling and adoption of innovative cooling methods, the geometric configuration of a closed-loop cooling design is usually complicated. The complexity induces the heat transfer and flow uncertainties and necessitates the detailed heat transfer study for the cooling design. The present research was designed to examine heat transfer of innovative closed-loop cooling designs of an advanced gas turbine system. A heat transfer measurement system employing the Thermochromic Liquid Crystal (TLC) has been developed in order to study detailed heat transfer of the complicated cooling designs. A hybrid technique has been proposed to combine two models: lumped heat capacity model and one-dimension model. The technique has been successfully demonstrated to be a reliable means by studying heat transfer phenomenon on pin fin arrays. Pin fin arrays, sometimes termed pedestals, are widely used in modern gas turbines to provide heat transfer enhancement. In addition, the study on pin fins array revealed effects of heat transfer by two increasingly important, yet not much being explored geometric parameters: shape of pin fin element and gap atop pin fin array. Heat transfer study using the measurement system has revealed detailed heat transfer distribution and eliminated heat transfer uncertainties for five scaled Perplex models of the most crucial designs in the closed-loop cooling system. This study has also demonstrated the improvement in design practice with assistance of the developed system. For a design that relies on the unverified data sets and correlation, the system provides a means to eliminate the uncertainties and provide prompt feedback to designers for modification of the design.

  6. Jet Impingement and Forced Convection Cooling Experimental Study in Rotating Turbine Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hsin-Lung; Chiang, Hsiao-Wei D.; Hsu, Chih-Neng

    2011-06-01

    Both jet impingement and forced convection are attractive cooling mechanisms widely used in cooling gas turbine blades. Convective heat transfer from impinging jets is known to yield high local and area averaged heat transfer coefficients. Impingement jets are of particular interest in the cooling of gas turbine components where advancement relies on the ability to dissipate extremely large heat loads. Current research is concerned with the measurement and comparison of both jet impingement and forced convection heat transfer in the Reynolds number range of 10,000 to 30,000. This study is aimed at experimentally testing two different setups with forced convection and jet impingement in rotating turbine blades up to 700 RPM. This research also observes Coriolis force and impingement cooling inside the passage during rotating conditions within a cooling passage. Local heat transfer coefficients are obtained for each test section using thermocouple technique with slip rings. The cross section of the passage is 10 mm × 10 mm without ribs and the surface heating condition has enforced uniform heat flux. The forced convection cooling effects were studied using serpentine passages with three corner turns under different rotating speeds and different inlet Reynolds numbers. The impingement cooling study uses a straight passage with a single jet hole under different Reynolds numbers of the impingement flow and the cross flow. In summary, the main purpose is to study the rotation effects on both the jet impingement and the serpentine convection cooling types. Our study shows that rotation effects increase serpentine cooling and reduce jet impingement cooling.

  7. Flow Coefficients for Orifices in Base of Transpiration-Cooled Turbine Rotor Blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donoughe, Patrick L.; Prasse, Ernst I.

    1953-01-01

    Static tests on a segment of a transpiration-cooled turbine rotor blade with a wire-cloth shell were conducted to determine the flow coefficients associated with some representative metering orifices. Average flow coefficients from 0.96 to 0.79 were obtained for orifices of 0.031 to 0.102 inch diameter.

  8. Passive radiative cooling below ambient air temperature under direct sunlight.

    PubMed

    Raman, Aaswath P; Anoma, Marc Abou; Zhu, Linxiao; Rephaeli, Eden; Fan, Shanhui

    2014-11-27

    Cooling is a significant end-use of energy globally and a major driver of peak electricity demand. Air conditioning, for example, accounts for nearly fifteen per cent of the primary energy used by buildings in the United States. A passive cooling strategy that cools without any electricity input could therefore have a significant impact on global energy consumption. To achieve cooling one needs to be able to reach and maintain a temperature below that of the ambient air. At night, passive cooling below ambient air temperature has been demonstrated using a technique known as radiative cooling, in which a device exposed to the sky is used to radiate heat to outer space through a transparency window in the atmosphere between 8 and 13 micrometres. Peak cooling demand, however, occurs during the daytime. Daytime radiative cooling to a temperature below ambient of a surface under direct sunlight has not been achieved because sky access during the day results in heating of the radiative cooler by the Sun. Here, we experimentally demonstrate radiative cooling to nearly 5 degrees Celsius below the ambient air temperature under direct sunlight. Using a thermal photonic approach, we introduce an integrated photonic solar reflector and thermal emitter consisting of seven layers of HfO2 and SiO2 that reflects 97 per cent of incident sunlight while emitting strongly and selectively in the atmospheric transparency window. When exposed to direct sunlight exceeding 850 watts per square metre on a rooftop, the photonic radiative cooler cools to 4.9 degrees Celsius below ambient air temperature, and has a cooling power of 40.1 watts per square metre at ambient air temperature. These results demonstrate that a tailored, photonic approach can fundamentally enable new technological possibilities for energy efficiency. Further, the cold darkness of the Universe can be used as a renewable thermodynamic resource, even during the hottest hours of the day.

  9. [Studies on the performance of the dental air turbine handpieces. (Part 2) Classification and rotational performance of the dental air turbine handpieces (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Miyairi, H; Nagai, M; Muramatsu, A

    1980-01-01

    For the purpose of the clinical and technical uses, air turbine handpieces are widely used for the high speed cutting instruments. And then, there are the many kinds of air turbine handpieces which are classified with the standard, minutia and torque types etc. So, in this paper, we examined the rotational properties of air turbine handpieces in the consideration of these classifications. And the relations between the reduction of the rotational speed and the rotational loads on the handpieces are fundamentally investigated. As the results of these investigations, it was revealed that rotational forces of the toque type air turbine are very excellent and the rotational speed of the air bearing type air turbine is higher than that of other type handpieces. And we obtained the practical properties of the rotational ability of air hand pieces.

  10. Glenn-HT Code Validated for Complex Turbine Blade Cooling Passage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, David L.

    2003-01-01

    This work is motivated by the need to accurately predict heat transfer in turbomachinery. For efficient gas turbine operation, flow temperatures in the hot gas path exceed acceptable metal temperatures in many regions of the engine. So that the integrity of the parts can be maintained for an acceptable engine life, the parts must be cooled. Efficient cooling schemes require accurate heat transfer prediction to minimize regions that are overcooled and, even more importantly, to ensure adequate cooling in high-heat-flux regions.

  11. Unsteady, Cooled Turbine Simulation Using a PC-Linux Analysis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    List, Michael G.; Turner, Mark G.; Chen, Jen-Pimg; Remotigue, Michael G.; Veres, Joseph P.

    2004-01-01

    The fist stage of the high-pressure turbine (HPT) of the GE90 engine was simulated with a three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Sokes solver, MSU Turbo, which uses source terms to simulate the cooling flows. In addition to the solver, its pre-processor, GUMBO, and a post-processing and visualization tool, Turbomachinery Visual3 (TV3) were run in a Linux environment to carry out the simulation and analysis. The solver was run both with and without cooling. The introduction of cooling flow on the blade surfaces, case, and hub and its effects on both rotor-vane interaction as well the effects on the blades themselves were the principle motivations for this study. The studies of the cooling flow show the large amount of unsteadiness in the turbine and the corresponding hot streak migration phenomenon. This research on the GE90 turbomachinery has also led to a procedure for running unsteady, cooled turbine analysis on commodity PC's running the Linux operating system.

  12. Heat-transfer processes in air-cooled engine cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, Benjamin

    1938-01-01

    From a consideration of heat-transfer theory, semi-empirical expressions are set up for the transfer of heat from the combustion gases to the cylinder of an air-cooled engine and from the cylinder to the cooling air. Simple equations for the average head and barrel temperatures as functions of the important engine and cooling variables are obtained from these expressions. The expressions involve a few empirical constants, which may be readily determined from engine tests. Numerical values for these constants were obtained from single-cylinder engine tests for cylinders of the Pratt & Whitney 1535 and 1340-h engines. The equations provide a means of calculating the effect of the various engine and cooling variables on the cylinder temperatures and also of correlating the results of engine cooling tests. An example is given of the application of the equations to the correlation of cooling-test data obtained in flight.

  13. Airfoil, platform, and cooling passage measurements on a rotating transonic high-pressure turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickol, Jeremy B.

    An experiment was performed at The Ohio State University Gas Turbine Laboratory for a film-cooled high-pressure turbine stage operating at design-corrected conditions, with variable rotor and aft purge cooling flow rates. Several distinct experimental programs are combined into one experiment and their results are presented. Pressure and temperature measurements in the internal cooling passages that feed the airfoil film cooling are used as boundary conditions in a model that calculates cooling flow rates and blowing ratio out of each individual film cooling hole. The cooling holes on the suction side choke at even the lowest levels of film cooling, ejecting more than twice the coolant as the holes on the pressure side. However, the blowing ratios are very close due to the freestream massflux on the suction side also being almost twice as great. The highest local blowing ratios actually occur close to the airfoil stagnation point as a result of the low freestream massflux conditions. The choking of suction side cooling holes also results in the majority of any additional coolant added to the blade flowing out through the leading edge and pressure side rows. A second focus of this dissertation is the heat transfer on the rotor airfoil, which features uncooled blades and blades with three different shapes of film cooling hole: cylindrical, diffusing fan shape, and a new advanced shape. Shaped cooling holes have previously shown immense promise on simpler geometries, but experimental results for a rotating turbine have not previously been published in the open literature. Significant improvement from the uncooled case is observed for all shapes of cooling holes, but the improvement from the round to more advanced shapes is seen to be relatively minor. The reduction in relative effectiveness is likely due to the engine-representative secondary flow field interfering with the cooling flow mechanics in the freestream, and may also be caused by shocks and other

  14. Numerical solution for the temperature distribution in a cooled guide vane blade of a radial gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosny, W. M.; Tabakoff, W.

    1977-01-01

    A two dimensional finite difference numerical technique is presented to determine the temperature distribution of an internal cooled blade of radial turbine guide vanes. A simple convection cooling is assumed inside the guide vane blade. Such cooling has relatively small cooling effectiveness at the leading edge and at the trailing edge. Heat transfer augmentation in these critical areas may be achieved by using impingement jets and film cooling. A computer program is written in FORTRAN IV for IBM 370/165 computer.

  15. Coal air turbine {open_quotes}CAT{close_quotes} program invention 604. Fourth quarter project report, July 1995--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Foster-Pegg, R.W.

    1995-10-31

    A coal air turbine `CAT` generates electric power and heat from coal combustion. The purpose of this project is the conceptual design of a `CAT` plant, and to make a comparison of the capital cost and and cost of power and steam from the `CAT` plant with power produced by alternate plants at the same site. Three configurations investigated include: condensing plant utilizing coal fuel and a condenser tower, or river, for cooling; a cogeneration plant utilizing coal and a steam turbine; and a cogeneration plant utilizing steam export and injection with waste coal fuel.

  16. Methods and apparatus for cooling wind turbine generators

    DOEpatents

    Salamah, Samir A.; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya; Garg, Jivtesh; Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Jansen, Patrick Lee; Carl, Jr., Ralph James

    2008-10-28

    A wind turbine generator includes a stator having a core and a plurality of stator windings circumferentially spaced about a generator longitudinal axis. A rotor is rotatable about the generator longitudinal axis, and the rotor includes a plurality of magnetic elements coupled to the rotor and cooperating with the stator windings. The magnetic elements are configured to generate a magnetic field and the stator windings are configured to interact with the magnetic field to generate a voltage in the stator windings. A heat pipe assembly thermally engaging one of the stator and the rotor to dissipate heat generated in the stator or rotor.

  17. Direct digital control of air washer cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Elben, T.; Roseblock, R.; Lawler, R.; McCord, J.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to make a practical evaluation of using new technology to extend the life of obsolete HVAC mechanical equipment. The specific exercises in this project involved the application of software driven control algorithms to operate and manage open loop air washer cooling systems in the air handling units located in the Municipal Auditorium in Kansas City, Missouri. The specific opportunity evaluated in this project involved eight air handling units at the Municipal Auditorium. The air handling systems utilize outdated air washer cooling systems that provide air conditioning and dehumidification to the areas they serve. We utilized direct digital control to assume total control of the operation of the air handling units. We also found it necessary to upgrade some components of the air handling units in order to allow the new control applications to execute their functions. This report describes the plan used to execute the project and the results. 20 tabs.

  18. An experimental study of turbine vane heat transfer with leading edge and downstream film cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirmalan, V.; Hylton, L. D.

    1989-06-01

    This paper presents the effects of downstream film cooling, with and without leading edge showerhead film cooling, on turbine-vane external heat transfer. Steady-state experimental measurements were made in a three-vane linear two-dimensional cascade. The principal independent parameters were maintained over ranges consistent with actual engine conditions. The test matrix was structured to provide an assessment of the independent influence of parameters of interest, namely, exit Mach number, exit Reynolds number, coolant-to-gas temperature ratio, and coolant-to-gas pressure ratio. The data obtained indicate that considerable cooling benefits can be achieved by utilizing downstream film cooling. The downstream film cooling process was shown to be a complex interaction of two competing mechanisms. The thermal dilution effect, associated with the injection of relatively cold fluid, results in a decrease in the heat transfer to the airfoil. Conversely, the turbulence augmentation, produced by the injection process, results in increased heat transfer to the airfoil.

  19. Cooling/heating augmentation during turbine startup/shutdown using a seal positioned by thermal response of turbine parts and consequent relative movement thereof

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Mark Christopher

    2000-01-01

    In a turbine rotor, a thermal mismatch between various component parts of the rotor occurs particularly during transient operations such as shutdown and startup. A thermal medium flows past and heats or cools one part of the turbine which may have a deleterious thermal mismatch with another part. By passively controlling the flow of cooling medium past the one part in response to relative movement of thermally responsive parts of the turbine, the flow of thermal medium along the flow path can be regulated to increase or reduce the flow, thereby to regulate the temperature of the one part to maintain the thermal mismatch within predetermined limits.

  20. Cooling system for a gas turbine using a cylindrical insert having V-shaped notch weirs

    DOEpatents

    Grondahl, Clayton M.; Germain, Malcolm R.

    1981-01-01

    An improved cooling system for a gas turbine is disclosed. A plurality of V-shaped notch weirs are utilized to meter a coolant liquid from a pool of coolant into a plurality of platform and airfoil coolant channels formed in the buckets of the turbine. The V-shaped notch weirs are formed in a separately machined cylindrical insert and serve to desensitize the flow of coolant into the individual platform and airfoil coolant channels to design tolerances and non-uniform flow distribution.

  1. Cooling Air Inlet and Exit Geometries on Aircraft Engine Installations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Joseph; Corsiglia, Victor R.; Barlow, Philip R.

    1982-01-01

    A semispan wing and nacelle of a typical general aviation twin-engine aircraft was tested to evaluate the cooling capability and drag or several nacelle shapes; the nacelle shapes included cooling air inlet and exit variations. The tests were conducted in the Ames Research Center 40 x 80-ft Wind Tunnel. It was found that the cooling air inlet geometry of opposed piston engine installations has a major effect on inlet pressure recovery, but only a minor effect on drag. Exit location showed large effect on drag, especially for those locations on the sides of the nacelle where the suction characteristics were based on interaction with the wing surface pressures.

  2. Aspects of the design of modern dental air turbine handpieces.

    PubMed

    Dyson, J E; Darvell, B W

    1993-12-01

    Air turbine handpieces are manufactured with a wide range of alternative design features which may influence their suitability for particular clinical procedures. In this article a general account of these features is presented and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Some deficiencies in current methods of stating equipment specifications are reported and suggested improvements are given. Where appropriate, general recommendations are made regarding handpiece selection for clinical practice.

  3. Curved centerline air intake for a gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruehr, W. C.; Younghans, J. L.; Smith, E. B. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An inlet for a gas turbine engine was disposed about a curved centerline for the purpose of accepting intake air that is flowing at an angle to engine centerline and progressively turning that intake airflow along a curved path into alignment with the engine. This curved inlet is intended for use in under the wing locations and similar regions where airflow direction is altered by aerodynamic characteristics of the airplane. By curving the inlet, aerodynamic loss and acoustic generation and emission are decreased.

  4. Cool Colored Roofs to Save Energy and Improve Air Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Miller, William; Berdahl, Paul

    2005-08-23

    Urban areas tend to have higher air temperatures than their rural surroundings as a result of gradual surface modifications that include replacing the natural vegetation with buildings and roads. The term ''Urban Heat Island'' describes this phenomenon. The surfaces of buildings and pavements absorb solar radiation and become extremely hot, which in turn warm the surrounding air. Cities that have been ''paved over'' do not receive the benefit of the natural cooling effect of vegetation. As the air temperature rises, so does the demand for air-conditioning (a/c). This leads to higher emissions from power plants, as well as increased smog formation as a result of warmer temperatures. In the United States, we have found that this increase in air temperature is responsible for 5-10% of urban peak electric demand for a/c use, and as much as 20% of population-weighted smog concentrations in urban areas. Simple ways to cool the cities are the use of reflective surfaces (rooftops and pavements) and planting of urban vegetation. On a large scale, the evapotranspiration from vegetation and increased reflection of incoming solar radiation by reflective surfaces will cool a community a few degrees in the summer. As an example, computer simulations for Los Angeles, CA show that resurfacing about two-third of the pavements and rooftops with reflective surfaces and planting three trees per house can cool down LA by an average of 2-3K. This reduction in air temperature will reduce urban smog exposure in the LA basin by roughly the same amount as removing the basin entire onroad vehicle exhaust. Heat island mitigation is an effective air pollution control strategy, more than paying for itself in cooling energy cost savings. We estimate that the cooling energy savings in U.S. from cool surfaces and shade trees, when fully implemented, is about $5 billion per year (about $100 per air-conditioned house).

  5. Optimization of engines for a commercial Mach 0.98 transport using advanced turbine cooling methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, G. A.; Whitlow, J. B., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of an advanced technology airplane using supercritical aerodynamics. Cruise Mach number was 0.98 at 40,000 feet altitude with a payload of 60,000 pounds and a range of 3000 nautical miles. Separate-flow turbofans were examined parametrically to determine the effect of sea-level-static design turbine-inlet-temperature and noise on takeoff gross weight (TOGW) assuming full-film turbine cooling. The optimum turbine inlet temperature was 2650 F. Two-stage-fan engines, with cruise fan pressure ratio of 2.25, achieved a noise goal of 103.5 EPNdB with todays noise technology while one-stage-fan engines, achieved a noise goal of 98 EPNdB. The take-off gross weight penalty to use the one-stage fan was 6.2 percent.

  6. Split ring floating air riding seal for a turbine

    DOEpatents

    Mills, Jacob A

    2015-11-03

    A floating air riding seal for a gas turbine engine with a rotor and a stator, an annular piston chamber with an axial moveable annular piston assembly within the annular piston chamber, an annular cavity formed on the annular piston assembly that faces a seal surface on the rotor, and a central passage connecting the annular cavity to the annular piston chamber to supply compressed air to the seal face, where the annular piston assembly is a split piston assembly to maintain a tight seal as coning of the rotor disk occurs.

  7. Cold-air performance of compressor-drive turbine of department of energy upgraded automobile gas turbine engine. 3: Performance of redesigned turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelke, R. J.; Haas, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of a redesigned compressor drive turbine of the gas turbine engine is determined in air at nominal inlet conditions of 325 K and 0.8 bar absolute. The turbine is designed with a lower flow factor, higher rotor reaction and a redesigned inlet volute compared to the first turbine. Comparisons between this turbine and the originally designed turbine show about 2.3 percentage points improvement in efficiency at the same rotor tip clearance. Two versions of the same rotor are tested: (1) an as cast rotor, and (2) the same rotor with reduced surface roughness. The effect of reducing surface roughness is about one half percentage point improvement in efficiency. Tests made to determine the effect of Reynolds number on the turbine performance show no effect for the range from 100,000 to 500,000.

  8. The heat transfer of cooling fins on moving air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doetsch, Hans

    1935-01-01

    The present report is a comparison of the experimentally defined temperature and heat output of cooling fins in the air stream with theory. The agreement is close on the basis of a mean coefficient of heat transfer with respect to the total surface. A relationship is established between the mean coefficient of heat transfer, the dimensions of the fin arrangement, and the air velocity.

  9. TACT1- TRANSIENT THERMAL ANALYSIS OF A COOLED TURBINE BLADE OR VANE EQUIPPED WITH A COOLANT INSERT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaugler, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    As turbine-engine core operating conditions become more severe, designers must develop more effective means of cooling blades and vanes. In order to design reliable, cooled turbine blades, advanced transient thermal calculation techniques are required. The TACT1 computer program was developed to perform transient and steady-state heat-transfer and coolant-flow analyses for cooled blades, given the outside hot-gas boundary condition, the coolant inlet conditions, the geometry of the blade shell, and the cooling configuration. TACT1 can analyze turbine blades, or vanes, equipped with a central coolant-plenum insert from which coolant-air impinges on the inner surface of the blade shell. Coolant-side heat-transfer coefficients are calculated with the heat transfer mode at each station being user specified as either impingement with crossflow, forced convection channel flow, or forced convection over pin fins. A limited capability to handle film cooling is also available in the program. The TACT1 program solves for the blade temperature distribution using a transient energy equation for each node. The nodal energy balances are linearized, one-dimensional, heat-conduction equations which are applied at the wall-outer-surface node, at the junction of the cladding and the metal node, and at the wall-inner-surface node. At the mid-metal node a linear, three-dimensional, heat-conduction equation is used. Similarly, the coolant pressure distribution is determined by solving the set of transfer momentum equations for the one-dimensional flow between adjacent fluid nodes. In the coolant channel, energy and momentum equations for one-dimensional compressible flow, including friction and heat transfer, are used for the elemental channel length between two coolant nodes. The TACT1 program first obtains a steady-state solution using iterative calculations to obtain convergence of stable temperatures, pressures, coolant-flow split, and overall coolant mass balance. Transient

  10. Varying duty operation of air-cooled condenser units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milman, O. O.; Kondratev, A. V.; Ptakhin, A. V.; Dunaev, S. N.; Kirjukhin, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    Results of experimental investigations of operation modes of air-cooled condensers (ACC) under design and varying duty conditions are presented. ACCs with varying cooling airflow rates under constant heat load and with constant cooling airflow under varying heat load are examined. Diagrams of heat transfer coefficients and condensation pressures on the heat load and cooling airflow are obtained. It is found that, if the relative heat load is in the range from 0.6 to 1.0 of the nominal value, the ACC heat transfer coefficient varies insignificantly, unlike that of the water-cooled surface condensers. The results of the determination of "zero points" are given, i.e., the attainable pressure in air-cooled condensing units (ACCU), if there is no heat load for several values of working water temperature at the input of water-jet ejectors and liquid ring vacuum pump. The results of the experimental determination of atmospheric air suction into the ACC vacuum system. The effect of additional air suctions in the steam pipe on ACCU characteristics is analyzed. The thermal mapping of ACC heat exchange surfaces from the cooling air inlet is carried out. The dependence of the inefficient heat exchange zone on the additional air suction into the ACC vacuum system is given. It is shown that, if there is no additional air suction into the ACC vacuum system, the inefficient heat exchange zone is not located at the bottom of the first pass tubes, and their portion adjacent to the bottom steam pipe works efficiently. Design procedures for the ACC varying duty of capacitors are presented, and their adequacy for the ACCU varying duty estimation is analyzed.

  11. Air injection test on a Kaplan turbine: prototype - model comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo, M.; Rivetti, A.; Díaz, L.; Liscia, S.

    2016-11-01

    Air injection is a very well-known resource to reduce pressure pulsation magnitude in turbines, especially on Francis type. In the case of large Kaplan designs, even when not so usual, it could be a solution to mitigate vibrations arising when tip vortex cavitation phenomenon becomes erosive and induces structural vibrations. In order to study this alternative, aeration tests were performed on a Kaplan turbine at model and prototype scales. The research was focused on efficiency of different air flow rates injected in reducing vibrations, especially at the draft tube and the discharge ring and also in the efficiency drop magnitude. It was found that results on both scales presents the same trend in particular for vibration levels at the discharge ring. The efficiency drop was overestimated on model tests while on prototype were less than 0.2 % for all power output. On prototype, air has a beneficial effect in reducing pressure fluctuations up to 0.2 ‰ of air flow rate. On model high speed image computing helped to quantify the volume of tip vortex cavitation that is strongly correlated with the vibration level. The hydrophone measurements did not capture the cavitation intensity when air is injected, however on prototype, it was detected by a sonometer installed at the draft tube access gallery.

  12. An Experimental Study of the Effect of Wake Passing on Turbine Blade Film Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidmann, James D.; Lucci, Barbara L.; Reshotko, Eli

    1997-01-01

    The effect of wake passing on the showerhead film cooling performance of a turbine blade has been investigated experimentally. The experiments were performed in an annular turbine cascade with an upstream rotating row of cylindrical rods. Nickel thin-film gauges were used to determine local film effectiveness and Nusselt number values for various injectants, blowing ratios, and Strouhal numbers. Results indicated a reduction in film effectiveness with increasing Strouhal number, as well as the expected increase in film effectiveness with blowing ratio. An equation was developed to correlate the span-average film effectiveness data. The primary effect of wake unsteadiness was found to be correlated by a streamwise-constant decrement of 0.094.St. Steady computations were found to be in excellent agreement with experimental Nusselt numbers, but to overpredict experimental film effectiveness values. This is likely due to the inability to match actual hole exit velocity profiles and the absence of a credible turbulence model for film cooling.

  13. Apparatus for impingement cooling a side wall adjacent an undercut region of a turbine nozzle segment

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner bands and vanes therebetween. Each band includes a side wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. The side wall of the band and inturned flange define with the nozzle wall an undercut region. Slots are formed through the inturned flange along the nozzle side wall. A plate having through-apertures extending between opposite edges thereof is disposed in each slot, the slots and plates being angled such that the cooling medium exiting the apertures in the second cavity lie close to the side wall for focusing and targeting cooling medium onto the side wall.

  14. Numerical and Experimental Study of a Cooling for Vanes in a Small Turbine Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimák, Jan; Michálek, Jan

    2016-03-01

    This paper is concerned with a cooling system for inlet guide vanes of a small turbine engine which are exposed to a high temperature gas leaving a combustion chamber. Because of small dimensions of the vanes, only a simple internal cavity and cooling holes can be realized. The idea was to utilize a film cooling technique. The proposed solution was simulated by means of a numerical method based on a coupling of CFD and heat transfer solvers. The numerical results of various scenarios (different coolant temperature, heat transfer to surroundings) showed a desired decrease of the temperature, especially on the most critical part - the trailing edge. The numerical data are compared to results obtained by experimental measurements performed in a test facility in our institute. A quarter segment model of the inlet guide vanes wheel was equipped with thermocouples in order to verify an effect of cooling. Despite some uncertainty in the results, a verifiable decrease of the vane temperature was observed.

  15. Analytical determination of local surface heat-transfer coefficients for cooled turbine blades from measured metal temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W Byron; Esgar, Jack B

    1950-01-01

    Analytical methods are presented for the determination of local values of outside and inside heat-transfer coefficients and effective gas temperatures by use of turbine-blade-temperature measurements. The methods are derived for a number of configurations that can be applied to typical cooled-turbine-blade shapes as well as to other types of heat-transfer apparatus.

  16. Thermodynamic analysis and optimization of air-cooled heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salimpour, Mohammad Reza; Bahrami, Zabihollah

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, a thermodynamic second-law analysis was performed to investigate the effects of different geometry and flow parameters on the air-cooled heat exchanger performance. For this purpose, the entropy generation due to heat transfer and pressure loss of internal and external flows of the air-cooled heat exchanger was calculated; and it was observed that the total entropy generation has a minimum at special tube-side Reynolds number. Also, it was seen that the increasing of the tube-side Reynolds number resulted in the rise of the irreversibility of the air-cooled heat exchanger. The results also showed when air-side Reynolds number decreased, the entropy generation rate of the external flow reduced. Finally, based on the computed results, a new correlation was developed to predict the optimum Reynolds number of the tube-side fluid flow.

  17. The Unsteady Temperature Field in a Turbine Blade Cooling Channel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    correlation could not be applied anymore for larger rib heights. Similar data were provided by Taslim et al (1994) for e/Dh = 0.167, by Taslim and...2nd edition, Mc Graw Hill Korotky, G.J. & Taslim , M.E. (1996): Rib Heat Transfer Coefficient Measurements in a Rib- Roughened Square Passage. ASME Paper...Straight Cooling Channel. J. of Turbomachinery, ASME, Vol. 120, pp 368-375 Taslim , M.E. & Wadsworth, C.M. (1997): An experimental Investigation of the Rib

  18. Verifying heat transfer analysis of high pressure cooled turbine blades and disk.

    PubMed

    Yamawaki, S

    2001-05-01

    To demonstrate cooling and heat transfer technology, a core engine test was conducted with a turbine inlet temperature 1700 degrees C. Measurement data were compared with predictions for a vane, a blade, and a disk. Measured cooling effectiveness of the blade and the vane agreed well with predictions. CFD analysis was carried out for verification of the heat transfer coefficient which was adopted from a heat conduction analysis over the disk. The CFD model including bolt heads showed better results than an axisymmetric model.

  19. Turbine systems and methods for using internal leakage flow for cooling

    DOEpatents

    Hernandez, Nestor; Gazzillo, Clement; Boss, Michael J.; Parry, William; Tyler, Karen J.

    2010-02-09

    A cooling system for a turbine with a first section and a second section. The first section may include a first line for diverting a first flow with a first temperature from the first section, a second line for diverting a second flow with a second temperature less than the first temperature from the first section, and a merged line for directing a merged flow of the first flow and the second flow to the second section.

  20. Synthetic optimization of air turbine for dental handpieces.

    PubMed

    Shi, Z Y; Dong, T

    2014-01-01

    A synthetic optimization of Pelton air turbine in dental handpieces concerning the power output, compressed air consumption and rotation speed in the mean time is implemented by employing a standard design procedure and variable limitation from practical dentistry. The Pareto optimal solution sets acquired by using the Normalized Normal Constraint method are mainly comprised of two piecewise continuous parts. On the Pareto frontier, the supply air stagnation pressure stalls at the lower boundary of the design space, the rotation speed is a constant value within the recommended range from literature, the blade tip clearance insensitive to while the nozzle radius increases with power output and mass flow rate of compressed air to which the residual geometric dimensions are showing an opposite trend within their respective "pieces" compared to the nozzle radius.

  1. Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity

    DOEpatents

    Weng, Kuo-Lianq; Weng, Kuo-Liang

    1998-01-01

    The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby the time of supplying cooled air can be effectively extended with the merit that the operation cycle of the on and off of the compressor can be prolonged, extending the operation lifespan of the compressor in one aspect. In another aspect, ice production and storage in great amount can be performed in an off-peak period of the electrical power consumption and the stored ice can be utilized in the peak period of the power consumption so as to provide supplemental cooling capacity for the compressor of the air conditioning system whereby the shift of peak and off-peak power consumption can be effected with ease. The present air conditioning system can lower the installation expense for an ice-storing air conditioning system and can also be applied to an old conventional air conditioning system.

  2. Effect of Velocity and Temperature Distribution at the Hole Exit on Film Cooling of Turbine Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, V. K.; Gaugler, R. E.

    1997-01-01

    An existing three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code (Arnone et al, 1991), modified Turbine Branch, to include film cooling considerations (Garg and Gaugler, 1994), has been used to study the effect of coolant velocity and temperature distribution at the hole exit on the heat transfer coefficient on three film-cooled turbine blades, namely, the C3X vane, the VKI rotor, and the ACE rotor. Results are also compared with the experimental data for all the blades. Moreover, Mayle's transition criterion (1991), Forest's model for augmentation of leading edge heat transfer due to free-stream turbulence (1977), and Crawford's model for augmentation of eddy viscosity due to film cooling (Crawford et al, 1980) are used. Use of Mayle's and Forest's models is relevant only for the ACE rotor due to the absence of showerhead cooling on this rotor. It is found that, in some cases, the effect of distribution of coolant velocity and temperature at the hole exit can be as much as 60 percent on the heat transfer coefficient at the blade suction surface, and 50 percent at the pressure surface. Also, different effects are observed on the pressure and suction surface depending upon the blade as well as upon the hole shape, conical or cylindrical.

  3. Design Evaluation Using Finite Element Analysis of Cooled Silicon Nitride Plates for a Turbine Blade Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    2001-01-01

    Two- and three-dimensional finite element analyses were performed on uncoated and thermal barrier coated (TBC) silicon nitride plates with and without internal cooling by air. Steady-state heat-transfer analyses were done to optimize the size and the geometry of the cooling channels to reduce thermal stresses, and to evaluate the thermal environment experienced by the plate during burner rig testing. The limited experimental data available were used to model the thermal profile exerted by the flame on the plate. Thermal stress analyses were performed to assess the stress response due to thermal loading. Contours for the temperature and the representative stresses for the plates were generated and presented for different cooling hole sizes and shapes. Analysis indicates that the TBC experienced higher stresses, and the temperature gradient was much reduced when the plate was internally cooled by air. The advantages and disadvantages of several cooling channel layouts were evaluated.

  4. [Development of new type plastics air turbine handpiece for dental use].

    PubMed

    Kusano, M

    1989-06-01

    The noise generated by the metal air turbine handpiece employed in dental practice is considerable and attended with predominant high frequency components. Therefore, investigation of the noise generation mechanism and development of a silent air turbine handpiece was only a matter of course. In addition, the metal air turbine hardpiece is comparatively heavy and its production cost is high. From this point of view as well, production of a light air turbine handpiece at low cost is also desirable. In order to overcome the objections to the metal air turbine handpiece, appropriate plastics materials were employed wherever possible. In this study, the number of revolutions, noise level, frequency analysis, start pressure and weight of newly produced plastics handpieces and metal handpieces were examined and compared. The following results were obtained: 1. The number of revolutions of single-nozzle type air turbine handpieces encased in plastics housings and fitted with metal turbine rotors was higher than that of all-metal air turbine handpieces. The noise level of the former tended to be lower. 2. The number of revolutions of multi-nozzle type air turbine handpieces encased in plastics housings and fitted with turbine rotors with plastics turbine blades was almost equal to that of similar metal handpieces, with the noise level tending to be lower. 3. In the case of handpieces fitted with turbine rotors with dynamic balance, the number of revolutions was high and the noise level was low. This indicated that dynamic balance was a factor affecting the number of revolutions and noise level. 4. Narrow band sound frequency analysis of single-nozzle type air turbine handpieces showed a sharp peak at the fundamental frequency which was the same as the number of revolutions multiplied by the number of rotor turbine blades. It is thought that the noise from air turbine handpieces was aerodynamic in origin, being generated by the periodical interruption of steady air flow by

  5. Requirements for high-temperature air-cooled central receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, J. D.; Copeland, R. J.

    1983-12-01

    The design of solar thermal central receivers will be shaped by the end user's need for energy. This paper identifies the requirements for receivers supplying heat for industrial processes or electric power generation in the temperature range 540 to 1000(0)C and evaluates the effects of the requirements on air cooled central receivers. Potential IPH applications are identified as large baseload users that are located some distance from the receiver. In the electric power application, the receiver must supply heat to a pressurized gas power cycle. The difficulty in providing cost effective thermal transport and thermal storage for air cooled receivers is a critical problem.

  6. Numerical investigation of heat transfer on film-cooled turbine blades.

    PubMed

    Ginibre, P; Lefebvre, M; Liamis, N

    2001-05-01

    The accurate heat transfer prediction of film-cooled blades is a key issue for the aerothermal turbine design. For this purpose, advanced numerical methods have been developed at Snecma Moteurs. The goal of this paper is the assessment of a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver, based on the ONERA CANARI-COMET code, devoted to the steady aerothermal computations of film-cooled blades. The code uses a multidomain approach to discretize the blade to blade channel with overlapping structured meshes for the injection holes. The turbulence closure is done by means of either Michel mixing length model or Spalart-Allmaras one transport equation model. Computations of thin 3D slices of three film-cooled nozzle guide vane blades with multiple injections are performed. Aerothermal predictions are compared to experiments carried out by the von Karman Institute. The behavior of the turbulence models is discussed, and velocity and temperature injection profiles are investigated.

  7. Apparatus and methods for impingement cooling of a side wall of a turbine nozzle segment

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner bands and a vane therebetween. Each band includes a nozzle wall, a side wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and the nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. The side wall of the band and inturned flange define with the nozzle wall an undercut region. The impingement plate has a turned flange welded to the inturned flange. A backing plate overlies the turned flange and aligned apertures are formed through the backing plate and turned flange to direct and focus cooling flow onto the side wall of the nozzle segment.

  8. Flow structure and heat exchange analysis in internal cooling channel of gas turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwaba, Ryszard; Kaczynski, Piotr; Doerffer, Piotr; Telega, Janusz

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the study of the flow structure and heat transfer, and also their correlations on the four walls of a radial cooling passage model of a gas turbine blade. The investigations focus on heat transfer and aerodynamic measurements in the channel, which is an accurate representation of the configuration used in aeroengines. Correlations for the heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop used in the design of radial cooling passages are often developed from simplified models. It is important to note that real engine passages do not have perfect rectangular cross sections, but include corner fillet, ribs with fillet radii and special orientation. Therefore, this work provides detailed fluid flow and heat transfer data for a model of radial cooling geometry which possesses very realistic features.

  9. Effects of Hot Streak and Phantom Cooling on Heat Transfer in a Cooled Turbine Stage Including Particulate Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Bons, Jeffrey; Ameri, Ali

    2016-01-08

    The objective of this research effort was to develop a validated computational modeling capability for the characterization of the effects of hot streaks and particulate deposition on the heat load of modern gas turbines. This was accomplished with a multi-faceted approach including analytical, experimental, and computational components. A 1-year no cost extension request was approved for this effort, so the total duration was 4 years. The research effort succeeded in its ultimate objective by leveraging extensive experimental deposition studies complemented by computational modeling. Experiments were conducted with hot streaks, vane cooling, and combinations of hot streaks with vane cooling. These studies contributed to a significant body of corporate knowledge of deposition, in combination with particle rebound and deposition studies funded by other agencies, to provide suitable conditions for the development of a new model. The model includes the following physical phenomena: elastic deformation, plastic deformation, adhesion, and shear removal. It also incorporates material property sensitivity to temperature and tangential-normal velocity rebound cross-dependencies observed in experiments. The model is well-suited for incorporation in CFD simulations of complex gas turbine flows due to its algebraic (explicit) formulation. This report contains model predictions compared to coefficient of restitution data available in the open literature as well as deposition results from two different high temperature turbine deposition facilities. While the model comparisons with experiments are in many cases promising, several key aspects of particle deposition remain elusive. The simple phenomenological nature of the model allows for parametric dependencies to be evaluated in a straightforward manner. This effort also included the first-ever full turbine stage deposition model published in the open literature. The simulations included hot streaks and simulated vane cooling

  10. Evaluation of Transpiration-Cooled Turbine Blades with Shells of "Poroloy" Wire Cloth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Hadley T.

    1959-01-01

    An experimental investigation was made to evaluate the durability and permeability of a group of transpiration-cooled, strut-supported turbine blades. The porous shells were formed from a woven-wire material. The blades were fabricated by a contractor for the Bureau of Aeronautics. The results of permeability tests indicated that the shell material exhibited large random variations in local permeability, which result in excessive coolant flows and very nonuniform cooling. For this reason no heat-transfer evaluations were made because any results would have been inconclusive. Four blades were investigated for structural soundness in a turbo-jet engine operating at a turbine-inlet temperature of approximately 1670 deg F and a turbine tip speed of approximately 1305 feet per second. The maximum temperature of the porous-shell material was approximately 1050 deg F. Inspection of the first two blades after 10 minutes of engine operation revealed that the tips of both of the blades had failed. For the second pair of blades, an improved tip cap was provided by the use of built-up weld extending from strut tip to shell. One of these blades was then operated for 33 hours without failure, and was found to be in good condition at the end of this time. The second blade of this second pair failed within the first 10 minutes of operation because of a poor bond between shell and strut lands.

  11. Cervicofacial subcutaneous and mediastinal emphysema caused by air cooling spray of dental laser.

    PubMed

    Mitsunaga, Sachiyo; Iwai, Toshinori; Aoki, Noriaki; Yamashita, Yosuke; Omura, Susumu; Matsui, Yoshiro; Maegawa, Jiro; Hirota, Makoto; Mitsudo, Kenji; Tohnai, Iwai

    2013-06-01

    Cervicofacial subcutaneous emphysema is a rare complication of dental procedures with an air turbine or syringe, and dentists and oral surgeons sometimes encounter mediastinal emphysema following the presentation of extensive subcutaneous emphysema. Most emphysema occurs incidentally during tooth extraction, restorative treatment, or endodontic treatment, with only a few cases reported of cervicofacial subcutaneous emphysema associated with dental laser treatment. We report a case of cervicofacial subcutaneous and mediastinal emphysema caused by the air cooling spray of dental laser during dental treatment in a 76-year-old woman. After she underwent dental laser treatment, cervicofacial swelling was noted and she was referred to our department. Computed tomography showed both cervicofacial subcutaneous emphysema and mediastinal emphysema. Antibiotics were administered prophylactically and the emphysema disappeared 5 days after the dental laser treatment, without any complications.

  12. Heat Transfer Due to Unsteady Effects as Investigated in a High-Speed, Full-Scale, Fully-Cooled Turbine Vane and Rotor Stage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    the turbine stages of these engines have been established. The predominant method of cooling vane and rotor airfoils , having been used for over...INVESTIGATED IN A HIGH-SPEED, FULL-SCALE, FULLY-COOLED TURBINE VANE AND ROTOR STAGE THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Aeronautics and...reduce the effectiveness of film cooling in the vane and rotor stages of turbine engines . Even today, fairly little experimentation has been

  13. Bioaerosol deposition on an air-conditioning cooling coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yan; Chen, Ailu; Luhung, Irvan; Gall, Elliott T.; Cao, Qingliang; Chang, Victor Wei-Chung; Nazaroff, William W.

    2016-11-01

    This study is concerned with the role of a fin-and-tube heat exchanger in modifying microbial indoor air quality. Specifically, depositional losses of ambient bioaerosols and particles onto dry (not cooled) and wet (cool) coil surfaces were measured for different airspeeds passing through the test coil. Total, bacterial and fungal DNA concentrations in condensate water produced by a wet coil were also quantified by means of fluorescent dsDNA-binding dye and qPCR assays. Results revealed that the deposition of bioaerosols and total particles is substantial on coil surfaces, especially when wet and cool. The average deposition fraction was 0.14 for total DNA, 0.18 for bacterial DNA and 0.22 for fungal DNA on the dry coil, increasing to 0.51 for total DNA, 0.50 for bacterial DNA and 0.68 for fungal DNA on the wet coil. Overall, as expected, deposition fractions increased with increasing particle size and increasing airspeed. Deposited DNA was removed from the cooling coil surfaces through the flow of condensing water at a rate comparable to the rate of direct deposition from air. A downward trend of bacterial and fungal DNA measured in condensate water over time provides suggestive evidence of biological growth on heat exchangers during nonoperational times of a ventilation system. This investigation provides new information about bioaerosol deposition onto a conventional fin-and-tube cooling coil, a potentially important factor influencing indoor exposure to microbial aerosols in air-conditioned buildings.

  14. The effect of rotation on heat transfer to transpiration-cooled turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epifanov, V. M.; Kurakin, A. A.; Rusetskii, Iu. A.

    1986-08-01

    The effect of rotation on heat transfer to transpiration-cooled turbine blades was studied theoretically, considering a 'channel'-type blade design with permeable profiled skin. The turbined design included radial internal channels for the supply of a coolant from a manifold to different sections of the blade surface. The algorithm developed for calculating the heat-transfer coefficients was applied to four test regimes. The following subroutines were used in the calculation program (in Fortran-IV): (1) for calculating the loss of pressure of the flow of coolant in the metering orifices, (2) for calculating the parameters of the coolant in the flow core, (3) for calculating the accompanying thermal problem, and (4) for calculating the parameters of the dynamic boundary layers. With the number of blade channels not exceeding 12-15, full calculation of heat transfer at the outer and inner surfaces of the permeable skin takes 10-15 min.

  15. 14 CFR 29.1109 - Carburetor air cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor air cooling. 29.1109 Section 29.1109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1109 Carburetor...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1109 - Carburetor air cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carburetor air cooling. 29.1109 Section 29.1109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1109 Carburetor...

  17. Experimental Heat Transfer and Bulk Air Temperature Measurements for a Multipass Internal Cooling Model with Ribs and Bleed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurman, Douglas; Poinsatte, Philip

    2001-01-01

    An experimental study was made to obtain heat transfer and air temperature data for a simple three-leg serpentine test section that simulates a turbine blade internal cooling passage with trip strips and bleed holes. The objectives were to investigate the interaction of ribs and various bleed conditions on internal cooling and to gain a better understanding of bulk air temperature in an internal passage. Steady-state heat transfer measurements were obtained using a transient technique with thermochromic liquid crystals. Trip strips were attached to one wall of the test section and were located either between or near the bleed holes. The bleed holes, used for film cooling, were metered to simulate the effect of external pressure on the turbine blade. Heat transfer enhancement was found to be greater for ribs near bleed holes compared to ribs between holes, and both configurations were affected slightly by bleed rates upstream. Air temperature measurements were taken at discrete locations along one leg of the model. Average bulk air temperatures were found to remain fairly constant along one leg of the model.

  18. Experimental Heat Transfer and Bulk Air Temperature Measurements for a Multipass Internal Cooling Model with Ribs and Bleed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurman, Douglas; Poinsatte, Philip

    2000-01-01

    An experimental study was made to obtain heat transfer and air temperature data for a simple 3-leg serpentine test section that simulates a turbine blade internal cooling passage with trip strips and bleed holes. The objectives were to investigate the interaction of ribs and various bleed conditions on internal cooling and to gain a better understanding of bulk air temperature in an internal passage. Steady state heat transfer measurements were obtained using a transient technique with thermochromic liquid crystals. Trip strips were attached to one wall of the test section and were located either between or near the bleed holes. The bleed holes, used for film cooling, were metered to simulate the effect of external pressure on the turbine blade. Heat transfer enhancement was found to be greater for ribs near bleed holes compared to ribs between holes, and both configurations were affected slightly by bleed rates upstream. Air temperature measurements were taken at discreet locations along one leg of the model. Average bulk air temperatures were found to remain fairly constant along one leg of the model.

  19. Coarse Grid Modeling of Turbine Film Cooling Flows Using Volumetric Source Terms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidmann, James D.; Hunter, Scott D.

    2001-01-01

    The recent trend in numerical modeling of turbine film cooling flows has been toward higher fidelity grids and more complex geometries. This trend has been enabled by the rapid increase in computing power available to researchers. However, the turbine design community requires fast turnaround time in its design computations, rendering these comprehensive simulations ineffective in the design cycle. The present study describes a methodology for implementing a volumetric source term distribution in a coarse grid calculation that can model the small-scale and three-dimensional effects present in turbine film cooling flows. This model could be implemented in turbine design codes or in multistage turbomachinery codes such as APNASA, where the computational grid size may be larger than the film hole size. Detailed computations of a single row of 35 deg round holes on a flat plate have been obtained for blowing ratios of 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0, and density ratios of 1.0 and 2.0 using a multiblock grid system to resolve the flows on both sides of the plate as well as inside the hole itself. These detailed flow fields were spatially averaged to generate a field of volumetric source terms for each conservative flow variable. Solutions were also obtained using three coarse grids having streamwise and spanwise grid spacings of 3d, 1d, and d/3. These coarse grid solutions used the integrated hole exit mass, momentum, energy, and turbulence quantities from the detailed solutions as volumetric source terms. It is shown that a uniform source term addition over a distance from the wall on the order of the hole diameter is able to predict adiabatic film effectiveness better than a near-wall source term model, while strictly enforcing correct values of integrated boundary layer quantities.

  20. TACT 1: A computer program for the transient thermal analysis of a cooled turbine blade or vane equipped with a coolant insert. 2. Programmers manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaugler, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program to calculate transient and steady state temperatures, pressures, and coolant flows in a cooled axial flow turbine blade or vane with an impingement insert is described. Coolant-side heat transfer coefficients are calculated internally in the program, with the user specifying either impingement or convection heat transfer at each internal flow station. Spent impingement air flows in a chordwise direction and is discharged through the trailing edge and through film cooling holes. The ability of the program to handle film cooling is limited by the internal flow model. Input to the program includes a description of the blade geometry, coolant-supply conditions, outside thermal boundary conditions, and wheel speed. The blade wall can have two layers of different materials, such as a ceramic thermal barrier coating over a metallic substrate. Program output includes the temperature at each node, the coolant pressures and flow rates, and the coolant-side heat transfer coefficients.

  1. Thermohydraulic analysis of the cooling air flow in a rack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natusch, Andreas; Huchler, Markus

    Manned space laboratories like the US Space Station Freedom or the European COLUMBUS APM are equipped with so-called racks for subsystem and payload accommodation. An important resource is air for cooling the unit internal heat sources, the avionics air. Each unit inside the rack must be supplied with sufficient amount of air to cool down the unit to the allowable maximum temperature. In the course of the COLUMBUS Environmental Control and Life Support Subsystem (ECLSS) project, a thermohydraulic mathematical model (THMM) of a representative COLUMBUS rack was developed to analyze and optimize the distribution of avionic air inside this rack. A sensitivity and accuracy study was performed to determine the accuracy range of the calculated avionics flow rate distribution to the units. These calculations were then compared to measurement results gained in a rack airflow distribution test, which was performed with an equipped COLUMBUS subsystem rack to show the pressure distribution inside the rack. In addition to that cold flow study, the influence of the avionics air heating due to the unit dissipations on the airflow distribution and the cooling tenmperature was investigated in a detailed warm flow analysis.

  2. Bushing retention system for thermal medium cooling delivery tubes in a gas turbine rotor

    DOEpatents

    Mashey, Thomas Charles

    2002-01-01

    Bushings are provided in counterbores for wheels and spacers for supporting thermal medium cooling tubes extending axially adjacent the rim of the gas turbine rotor. The retention system includes a retaining ring disposed in a groove adjacent an end face of the bushing and which retaining ring projects radially inwardly to prevent axial movement of the bushing in one direction. The retention ring has a plurality of circumferentially spaced tabs along its inner diameter whereby the ring is supported by the lands of the tube maintaining its bushing retention function, notwithstanding operation in high centrifugal fields and rotation of the ring in the groove into other circular orientations.

  3. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study of a Dental Handpiece Air Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chih-Neng; Chiang, Hsiao-Wei D.; Chang, Ya-Yi

    2011-06-01

    Dental air turbine handpieces have been widely used in clinical dentistry for over 30 years, however, little work has been reported on their performance. In dental air turbine handpieces, the types of flow channel and turbine blade shape can have very different designs. These different designs can have major influence on the torque, rotating speed, and power performance. This research is focused on the turbine blade and the flow channel designs. Using numerical simulation and experiments, the key design parameters which influence the performance of dental hand pieces can be studied. Three types of dental air turbine designs with different turbine blades, nozzle angles, nozzle flow channels, and shroud clearances were tested and analyzed. Very good agreement was demonstrated between the numerical simulation analyses and the experiments. Using the analytical model, parametric studies were performed to identify key design parameters.

  4. Compressor discharge bleed air circuit in gas turbine plants and related method

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Berrahou, Philip Fadhel; Jandrisevits, Michael

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine system that includes a compressor, a turbine component and a load, wherein fuel and compressor discharge bleed air are supplied to a combustor and gaseous products of combustion are introduced into the turbine component and subsequently exhausted to atmosphere. A compressor discharge bleed air circuit removes bleed air from the compressor and supplies one portion of the bleed air to the combustor and another portion of the compressor discharge bleed air to an exhaust stack of the turbine component in a single cycle system, or to a heat recovery steam generator in a combined cycle system. In both systems, the bleed air diverted from the combustor may be expanded in an air expander to reduce pressure upstream of the exhaust stack or heat recovery steam generator.

  5. Compressor discharge bleed air circuit in gas turbine plants and related method

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Berrahou, Philip Fadhel; Jandrisevits, Michael

    2003-04-08

    A gas turbine system that includes a compressor, a turbine component and a load, wherein fuel and compressor discharge bleed air are supplied to a combustor and gaseous products of combustion are introduced into the turbine component and subsequently exhausted to atmosphere. A compressor discharge bleed air circuit removes bleed air from the compressor and supplies one portion of the bleed air to the combustor and another portion of the compressor discharge bleed air to an exhaust stack of the turbine component in a single cycle system, or to a heat recovery steam generator in a combined cycle system. In both systems, the bleed air diverted from the combustor may be expanded in an air expander to reduce pressure upstream of the exhaust stack or heat recovery steam generator.

  6. A pilot study of measurement of the frequency of sounds emitted by high-speed dental air turbines.

    PubMed

    Altinöz, H C; Gökbudak, R; Bayraktar, A; Belli, S

    2001-09-01

    Since the development and use of the high-speed dental air turbine some 45 years ago, concern has been expressed in the literature about a possible cause and effect relationship between use of the drill and hearing loss in dentists. The hearing threshold in humans varies with the frequency of sound. It is well known that dentists experience gradual hearing loss during their working life. The aim of this study was to measure the frequency of sounds emitted by high-speed dental air turbines under different working conditions. Five high-speed dental air turbines were used (2 x Trend TC-80 BC W&H Dentalwerk, Austria, 2 x Black Pearl Eco Bien-air, Switzerland, 1 x Trend TC-80 BC W&H Dentalwerk, Austria. Each turbine was tested under 8 different working conditions: under free working conditions the turbines were tested without burs, with fissure burs, with flare burs, with round burs and with inverted cone burs; under operation they were tested with fissure burs by application to a 3 x 3 x 10 mm amalgam block surface, a 3 x 3 x 10 mm composite block surface, and the occlusal surface of an extracted molar tooth. Forty sound recordings were made in total using a computer with a microphone (Shure 16 LC) located 30 cm away from the samples, at 10-s intervals using a mixer. Frequency analysis was done by a Cool Edit Pro 1.2 computer program. Data were analyzed by multi-variate analysis with the S.P.S.S 9.05 software program. The average measurement was 6860 Hz. According to the statistical analysis there was no significant difference in the frequencies recorded under different working conditions. There was also no significant difference among the different high-speed dental air turbines at alpha = 0,05, P > alpha /2 levels. These results indicate that under any working conditions, high-speed dental air turbines emit frequencies which can cause hearing loss.

  7. Pyrometer mount for a closed-circuit thermal medium cooled gas turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Raymond Joseph; Kirkpatrick, Francis Lawrence; Burns, James Lee; Fulton, John Robert

    2002-01-01

    A steam-cooled second-stage nozzle segment has an outer band and an outer cover defining a plenum therebetween for receiving cooling steam for flow through the nozzles to the inner band and cover therefor and return flow through the nozzles. To measure the temperature of the buckets of the stage forwardly of the nozzle stage, a pyrometer boss is electron beam-welded in an opening through the outer band and TIG-welded to the outer cover plate. By machining a hole through the boss and seating a linearly extending tube in the boss, a line of sight between a pyrometer mounted on the turbine frame and the buckets is provided whereby the temperature of the buckets can be ascertained. The welding of the boss to the outer band and outer cover enables steam flow through the plenum without leakage, while providing a line of sight through the outer cover and outer band to measure bucket temperature.

  8. Method of controlling the side wall thickness of a turbine nozzle segment for improved cooling

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner bands and a vane extending therebetween. Each band has a side wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. The side wall of the band has an inturned flange defining with the nozzle wall an undercut region. The outer surface of the side wall is provided with a step prior to welding the cover to the side wall. A thermal barrier coating is applied in the step and, after the cover is welded to the side wall, the side wall is finally machined to a controlled thickness removing all, some or none of the coating.

  9. Integrated axial and tangential serpentine cooling circuit in a turbine airfoil

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Marra, John J; Rudolph, Ronald J; Dalton, John P

    2015-05-05

    A continuous serpentine cooling circuit forming a progression of radial passages (44, 45, 46, 47A, 48A) between pressure and suction side walls (52, 54) in a MID region of a turbine airfoil (24). The circuit progresses first axially, then tangentially, ending in a last radial passage (48A) adjacent to the suction side (54) and not adjacent to the pressure side (52). The passages of the axial progression (44, 45, 46) may be adjacent to both the pressure and suction side walls of the airfoil. The next to last radial passage (47A) may be adjacent to the pressure side wall and not adjacent to the suction side wall. The last two radial passages (47A, 48A) may be longer along the pressure and suction side walls respectively than they are in a width direction, providing increased direct cooling surface area on the interiors of these hot walls.

  10. Single rotor turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Platts, David A.

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented a turbine engine with a single rotor which cools the engine, functions as a radial compressor, pushes air through the engine to the ignition point, and acts as an axial turbine for powering the compressor. The invention engine is designed to use a simple scheme of conventional passage shapes to provide both a radial and axial flow pattern through the single rotor, thereby allowing the radial intake air flow to cool the turbine blades and turbine exhaust gases in an axial flow to be used for energy transfer. In an alternative embodiment, an electric generator is incorporated in the engine to specifically adapt the invention for power generation. Magnets are embedded in the exhaust face of the single rotor proximate to a ring of stationary magnetic cores with windings to provide for the generation of electricity. In this alternative embodiment, the turbine is a radial inflow turbine rather than an axial turbine as used in the first embodiment. Radial inflow passages of conventional design are interleaved with radial compressor passages to allow the intake air to cool the turbine blades.

  11. Component testing of a ground based gas turbine steam cooled rich-burn primary zone combustor for emissions control of nitrogeneous fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, D. F.

    1986-01-01

    This effort summarizes the work performed on a steam cooled, rich-burn primary zone, variable geometry combustor designed for combustion of nitrogeneous fuels such as heavy oils or synthetic crude oils. The steam cooling was employed to determine its feasibility and assess its usefulness as part of a ground based gas turbine bottoming cycle. Variable combustor geometry was employed to demonstrate its ability to control primary and secondary zone equivalence ratios and overall pressure drop. Both concepts proved to be highly successful in achieving their desired objectives. The steam cooling reduced peak liner temperatures to less than 800 K. This low temperature offers the potential of both long life and reduced use of strategic materials for liner fabrication. These degrees of variable geometry were successfully employed to control air flow distribution within the combustor. A variable blade angle axial flow air swirler was used to control primary zone air flow, while the secondary and tertiary zone air flows were controlled by rotating bands which regulated air flow to the secondary zone quench holes and the dilutions holes respectively.

  12. Component testing of a ground based gas turbine steam cooled rich-burn primary zone combustor for emissions control of nitrogeneous fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, D. F.

    This effort summarizes the work performed on a steam cooled, rich-burn primary zone, variable geometry combustor designed for combustion of nitrogeneous fuels such as heavy oils or synthetic crude oils. The steam cooling was employed to determine its feasibility and assess its usefulness as part of a ground based gas turbine bottoming cycle. Variable combustor geometry was employed to demonstrate its ability to control primary and secondary zone equivalence ratios and overall pressure drop. Both concepts proved to be highly successful in achieving their desired objectives. The steam cooling reduced peak liner temperatures to less than 800 K. This low temperature offers the potential of both long life and reduced use of strategic materials for liner fabrication. These degrees of variable geometry were successfully employed to control air flow distribution within the combustor. A variable blade angle axial flow air swirler was used to control primary zone air flow, while the secondary and tertiary zone air flows were controlled by rotating bands which regulated air flow to the secondary zone quench holes and the dilutions holes respectively.

  13. Air Cooling for High Temperature Power Electronics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Waye, S.; Musselman, M.; King, C.

    2014-09-01

    Current emphasis on developing high-temperature power electronics, including wide-bandgap materials such as silicon carbide and gallium nitride, increases the opportunity for a completely air-cooled inverter at higher powers. This removes the liquid cooling system for the inverter, saving weight and volume on the liquid-to-air heat exchanger, coolant lines, pumps, and coolant, replacing them with just a fan and air supply ducting. We investigate the potential for an air-cooled heat exchanger from a component and systems-level approach to meet specific power and power density targets. A proposed baseline air-cooled heat exchanger design that does not meet those targets was optimized using a parametric computational fluid dynamics analysis, examining the effects of heat exchanger geometry and device location, fixing the device heat dissipation and maximum junction temperature. The CFD results were extrapolated to a full inverter, including casing, capacitor, bus bar, gate driver, and control board component weights and volumes. Surrogate ducting was tested to understand the pressure drop and subsequent system parasitic load. Geometries that met targets with acceptable loads on the system were down-selected for experimentation. Nine baseline configuration modules dissipated the target heat dissipation, but fell below specific power and power density targets. Six optimized configuration modules dissipated the target heat load, exceeding the specific power and power density targets. By maintaining the same 175 degrees C maximum junction temperature, an optimized heat exchanger design and higher device heat fluxes allowed a reduction in the number of modules required, increasing specific power and power density while still maintaining the inverter power.

  14. Characterization of an inline row impingement channel for turbine blade cooling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricklick, Mark A.

    Gas turbines have become an intricate part of today's society. Besides powering practically all 200,000+ passenger aircraft in use today, they are also a predominate form of power generation when coupled with a generator. The fact that they are highly efficient, and capable of large power to weight ratios, makes gas turbines an ideal solution for many power requirement issues faced today. Designers have even been able to develop small, 'micro' turbines capable of producing efficient portable power. Part of the turbine's success is the fact that their efficiency levels have continuously risen since their introduction in the early 1800's. Along with improvements in our understanding and designs of the aerodynamic components of the turbine, as well as improvements in the areas of material design and combustion control, advances in component cooling techniques have predominantly contributed to this success. This is the result of a simple thermodynamic concept; as the turbine inlet temperature is increased, the overall efficiency of the machine increases as well. Designers have exploited this fact to the extent that modern gas turbines produce rotor inlet temperatures beyond the melting point of the sophisticated materials used within them. This has only been possible through the use of sophisticated cooling techniques, particularly in the 1st stage vanes and blades. Some of the cooling techniques employed today have been internal cooling channels enhanced with various features, film and showerhead cooling, as well as internal impingement cooling scenarios. Impingement cooling has proven to be one of the most capable heat removal processes, and the combination of this cooling feature with that of channel flow, as is done in impingement channel cooling, creates a scenario that has understandably received a great deal of attention in recent years. This study has investigated several of the unpublished characteristics of these impingement channels, including the channel

  15. Experimental and Analytical Investigation of the Coolant Flow Characteristics in Cooled Turbine Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damerow, W. P.; Murtaugh, J. P.; Burggraf, F.

    1972-01-01

    The flow characteristics of turbine airfoil cooling system components were experimentally investigated. Flow models representative of leading edge impingement, impingement with crossflow (midchord cooling), pin fins, feeder supply tube, and a composite model of a complete airfoil flow system were tested. Test conditions were set by varying pressure level to cover the Mach number and Reynolds number range of interest in advanced turbine applications. Selected geometrical variations were studied on each component model to determine these effects. Results of these tests were correlated and compared with data available in the literature. Orifice flow was correlated in terms of discharge coefficients. For the leading edge model this was found to be a weak function of hole Mach number and orifice-to-impinged wall spacing. In the impingement with crossflow tests, the discharge coefficient was found to be constant and thus independent of orifice Mach number, Reynolds number, crossflow rate, and impingement geometry. Crossflow channel pressure drop showed reasonable agreement with a simple one-dimensional momentum balance. Feeder tube orifice discharge coefficients correlated as a function of orifice Mach number and the ratio of the orifice-to-approach velocity heads. Pin fin data was correlated in terms of equivalent friction factor, which was found to be a function of Reynolds number and pin spacing but independent of pin height in the range tested.

  16. Methods for disassembling, replacing and assembling parts of a steam cooling system for a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Ian D.; Wesorick, Ronald R.

    2002-01-01

    The steam cooling circuit for a gas turbine includes a bore tube assembly supplying steam to circumferentially spaced radial tubes coupled to supply elbows for transitioning the radial steam flow in an axial direction along steam supply tubes adjacent the rim of the rotor. The supply tubes supply steam to circumferentially spaced manifold segments located on the aft side of the 1-2 spacer for supplying steam to the buckets of the first and second stages. Spent return steam from these buckets flows to a plurality of circumferentially spaced return manifold segments disposed on the forward face of the 1-2 spacer. Crossover tubes couple the steam supply from the steam supply manifold segments through the 1-2 spacer to the buckets of the first stage. Crossover tubes through the 1-2 spacer also return steam from the buckets of the second stage to the return manifold segments. Axially extending return tubes convey spent cooling steam from the return manifold segments to radial tubes via return elbows. The bore tube assembly, radial tubes, elbows, manifold segments and crossover tubes are removable from the turbine rotor and replaceable.

  17. Effect of velocity and temperature distribution at the hole exit on film cooling of turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Vijay K.; Gaugler, Raymond E.

    1995-01-01

    An existing three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code, modified to include film cooling considerations, has been used to study the effect of coolant velocity and temperature distribution at the hole exit on the heat transfer coefficient on three-film-cooled turbine blades, namely, the C3X vane, the VKI rotor, and the ACE rotor. Results are also compared with the experimental data for all the blades. Moreover, Mayle's transition criterion, Forest's model for augmentation of leading edge heat transfer due to freestream turbulence, and Crawford's model for augmentation of eddy viscosity due to film cooling are used. Use of Mayle's and Forest's models is relevant only for the ACE rotor due to the absence of showerhead cooling on this rotor. It is found that, in some cases, the effect of distribution of coolant velocity and temperature at the hole exit can be as much as 60% on the heat transfer coefficient at the blade suction surface, and 50% at the pressure surface. Also, different effects are observed on the pressure and suction surface depending upon the blade as well as upon the hole shape, conical or cylindrical.

  18. Experimental and numerical study of open-air active cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Fifi, Salman Amsari

    The topic of my thesis is Experimental and Numerical Study of Open Air Active Cooling. The present research is intended to investigate experimentally and Numerically the effectiveness of cooling large open areas like stadiums, shopping malls, national gardens, amusement parks, zoos, transportation facilities and government facilities or even in buildings outdoor gardens and patios. Our cooling systems are simple cooling fans with different diameters and a mist system. This type of cooling systems has been chosen among the others to guarantee less energy consumption, which will make it the most favorable and applicable for cooling such places mentioned above. In the experiments, the main focus is to study the temperature domain as a function of different fan diameters aerodynamically similar in different heights till we come up with an empirical relationship that can determine the temperature domain for different fan diameters and for different heights of these fans. The experimental part has two stages. The first stage is devoted to investigate the maximum range of airspeed and profile for three different fan diameters and for different heights without mist, while the second stage is devoted to investigate the maximum range of temperature and profile for the three different diameter fans and for different heights with mist. The computational study is devoted to built an experimentally verified mathematical model to be used in the design and optimization of water mist cooling systems, and to compare the mathematical results to the experimental results and to get an insight of how to apply such evaporative mist cooling for different places for different conditions. In this study, numerical solution is presented based on experimental conditions, such dry bulb temperature, wet bulb temperature, relative humidity, operating pressure and fan airspeed. In the computational study, all experimental conditions are kept the same for the three fans except the fan airspeed

  19. Apparatus and methods for impingement cooling of an undercut region adjacent a side wall of a turbine nozzle segment

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian; Itzel, Gary Michael

    2001-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner bands. Each band includes a side wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. The side wall of the band and inturned flange define with the nozzle wall an undercut region. The inturned flange has a plurality of apertures for directing cooling steam to cool the side wall between adjacent nozzle segments.

  20. 21 CFR 211.46 - Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling. 211.46 Section 211.46 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED...

  1. Emperor penguin body surfaces cool below air temperature

    PubMed Central

    McCafferty, D. J.; Gilbert, C.; Thierry, A.-M.; Currie, J.; Le Maho, Y.; Ancel, A.

    2013-01-01

    Emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri are able to survive the harsh Antarctic climate because of specialized anatomical, physiological and behavioural adaptations for minimizing heat loss. Heat transfer theory predicts that metabolic heat loss in this species will mostly depend on radiative and convective cooling. To examine this, thermal imaging of emperor penguins was undertaken at the breeding colony of Pointe Géologie in Terre Adélie (66°40′ S 140° 01′ E), Antarctica in June 2008. During clear sky conditions, most outer surfaces of the body were colder than surrounding sub-zero air owing to radiative cooling. In these conditions, the feather surface will paradoxically gain heat by convection from surrounding air. However, owing to the low thermal conductivity of plumage any heat transfer to the skin surface will be negligible. Future thermal imaging studies are likely to yield further insights into the adaptations of this species to the Antarctic climate. PMID:23466479

  2. Adriamycin alopecia prevented by cold air scalp cooling.

    PubMed

    Symonds, R P; McCormick, C V; Maxted, K J

    1986-10-01

    Preliminary studies are reported on the effectiveness of cold air scalp cooling to prevent alopecia in patients receiving Adriamycin. Cold air produced in a novel way using a vortex refrigeration tube was applied to the scalp for 15 min before and 30 min after the administration of Adriamycin and other cytotoxic agents. Sixteen of 26 patients had no hair loss, four had slight hair loss, and six required a wig. Two subgroups fared particularly well. Four of four patients treated with ABVD for Hodgkin's disease and nine of 13 treated with Adriamycin (40 mg/m2) and vincristine (2 mg) for breast cancer had no hair loss.

  3. Passive air cooling of liquid metal-cooled reactor with double vessel leak accommodation capability

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Boardman, Charles E.

    1995-01-01

    A passive and inherent shutdown heat removal method with a backup air flow path which allows decay heat removal following a postulated double vessel leak event in a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor. The improved reactor design incorporates the following features: (1) isolation capability of the reactor cavity environment in the event that simultaneous leaks develop in both the reactor and containment vessels; (2) a reactor silo liner tank which insulates the concrete silo from the leaked sodium, thereby preserving the silo's structural integrity; and (3) a second, independent air cooling flow path via tubes submerged in the leaked sodium which will maintain shutdown heat removal after the normal flow path has been isolated.

  4. Passive air cooling of liquid metal-cooled reactor with double vessel leak accommodation capability

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, A.; Boardman, C.E.

    1995-04-11

    A passive and inherent shutdown heat removal method with a backup air flow path which allows decay heat removal following a postulated double vessel leak event in a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed. The improved reactor design incorporates the following features: (1) isolation capability of the reactor cavity environment in the event that simultaneous leaks develop in both the reactor and containment vessels; (2) a reactor silo liner tank which insulates the concrete silo from the leaked sodium, thereby preserving the silo`s structural integrity; and (3) a second, independent air cooling flow path via tubes submerged in the leaked sodium which will maintain shutdown heat removal after the normal flow path has been isolated. 5 figures.

  5. Intercooler flow path for gas turbines: CFD design and experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, A.K.; Gollahalli, S.R.; Carter, F.L.

    1995-12-31

    The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program was created by the U.S. Department of Energy to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems for generating electricity. Intercooling or cooling of air between compressor stages is a feature under consideration in advanced cycles for the ATS. Intercooling entails cooling of air between the low pressure (LP) and high pressure (HP) compressor sections of the gas turbine. Lower air temperature entering the HP compressor decreases the air volume flow rate and hence, the compression work. Intercooling also lowers temperature at the HP discharge, thus allowing for more effective use of cooling air in the hot gas flow path.

  6. An air-cooled pulse tube cryocooler with 50 W cooling capacity at 77 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jianying; Wang, Xiaotao; Zhu, Jian; Chen, Shuai; Luo, Ercang; Li, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    A pulse tube cryocooler with 50 W cooling capacity at 77 K is developed to cool superconducting devices mounted on automobiles. The envisioned cryocooler weight is less than 40 kg, and the input electric power is less than 1 kW. To achieve these requirements, the working frequency is increased to 75 Hz, and the dual-opposed pistons use gas bearings to reduce compressor weight and volume. The heat from the main heat exchanger is rejected by forced convective air instead of water. The compressor and the cold finger are carefully matched to improve the efficiency. The details of these will be presented in this paper. After some adjustment, a no load temperature for the pulse tube cryocooler of 40 K was achieved with 1 kW input electric power in surroundings at 298 K. At 77 K, the cooling capacity is 50 W. If the main heat exchanger is cooled by water at 293 K, the cooling capacity increases to 64 W, corresponding to a relative Carnot efficiency of 18%.

  7. Design, fabrication and characterization of an air-driven micro turbine device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, X. C.; Zhang, Qide; Sun, Yaofeng; Wang, Zhenfeng

    2006-04-01

    Micro turbine is one of the important components in a micro gas turbine engine. This paper reports on the development and investigations of a micro turbine device driven by compressed air, which consists of three layers of silicon wafers and two layers of acrylic plates. The rotor has an outer diameter of 8.4 mm with a thickness of 0.76 mm. The key challenges to develop a successful high-speed turbine device are geometry design and fabrication of micro blade profiles as well as air-bearings. The micro air bearings have been designed, and a deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) process has been used for fabricating micro journal bearings with high aspect ratio. The micro turbine has reached a rotating speed of 9,000 rpm during test.

  8. Importance of combining convection with film cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colladay, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    The interaction of film and convection cooling and its effect on wall cooling efficiency is investigated analytically for two cooling schemes for advanced gas turbine applications. The two schemes are full coverage- and counterflow-film cooling. In full coverage film cooling, the cooling air issues from a large number of small discrete holes in the surface. Counterflow film cooling is a film-convection scheme with film injection from a slot geometry. The results indicate that it is beneficial to utilize as much of the cooling air heat sink as possible for convection cooling prior to ejecting it as a film.

  9. Importance of combining convection with film cooling.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colladay, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    The interaction of film and convection cooling and its effect on wall cooling efficiency is investigated analytically for two cooling schemes for advanced gas turbine applications. The two schemes are full coverage- and counterflow-film cooling. In full coverage film cooling, the cooling air issues from a large number of small discrete holes in the surface. Counterflow film cooling is a film-convection scheme with film injection from a slot geometry. The results indicate that it is beneficial to utilize as much of the cooling air heat sink as possible for convection cooling prior to ejecting it as a film.

  10. Investigation of vessel exterior air cooling for a HLMC reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sienicki, J. J.; Spencer, B. W.

    2000-01-13

    The Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor (STAR) concept under development at Argonne National Laboratory provides a small (300 MWt) reactor module for steam supply that incorporates design features to attain proliferation resistance, heightened passive safety, and improved cost competitiveness through extreme simplification. Examples are the achievement of 100%+ natural circulation heat removal from the low power density/low pressure drop ultra-long lifetime core and utilization of lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) coolant enabling elimination of main coolant pumps as well as the need for an intermediate heat transport circuit. It is required to provide a passive means of removing decay heat and effecting reactor cooldown in the event that the normal steam generator heat sink, including its normal shutdown heat removal mode, is postulated to be unavailable. In the present approach, denoted as the Reactor Exterior Cooling System (RECS), passive decay heat removal is provided by cooling the outside of the containment/guard vessel with air. RECS is similar to the Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) incorporated into the PRISM design. However, to enhance the heat removal, RECS incorporates fins on the containment vessel exterior to enhance heat transfer to air as well as removable steel venetian conductors that provide a conduction heat transfer path across the reactor vessel-containment vessel gap to enhance heat transfer between the vessels. The objective of the present work is to investigate the effectiveness of air cooling in removing heat from the vessel and limiting the coolant temperature increase following a sudden complete loss of the steam generator heat sink.

  11. Extension of boundary-layer heat-transfer theory to cooled turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W Byron; Donoughe, Patrick L

    1950-01-01

    An equation for average heat transfer of a surface was derived when the boundary layer changed from laminar to turbulent. Influences on the heat transfer through a laminar boundary layer of Mach number, temperature ratio (gas temperature divided by wall temperature), and exponents of gas-property temperature relations were shown to be relatively small for air with Mach numbers less than 2 and temperature ratios between 1 and 4. Good agreement was obtained with experimental results from cylinders, an airfoil, and turbine blades.

  12. Fabrication of gas turbine water-cooled composite nozzle and bucket hardware employing plasma spray process

    DOEpatents

    Schilke, Peter W.; Muth, Myron C.; Schilling, William F.; Rairden, III, John R.

    1983-01-01

    In the method for fabrication of water-cooled composite nozzle and bucket hardware for high temperature gas turbines, a high thermal conductivity copper alloy is applied, employing a high velocity/low pressure (HV/LP) plasma arc spraying process, to an assembly comprising a structural framework of copper alloy or a nickel-based super alloy, or combination of the two, and overlying cooling tubes. The copper alloy is plamsa sprayed to a coating thickness sufficient to completely cover the cooling tubes, and to allow for machining back of the copper alloy to create a smooth surface having a thickness of from 0.010 inch (0.254 mm) to 0.150 inch (3.18 mm) or more. The layer of copper applied by the plasma spraying has no continuous porosity, and advantageously may readily be employed to sustain a pressure differential during hot isostatic pressing (HIP) bonding of the overall structure to enhance bonding by solid state diffusion between the component parts of the structure.

  13. Thoracic complications associated with utilization of the air turbine dental drill.

    PubMed

    Kost, M

    1996-06-01

    Thoracic complications associated with the use of the high-speed air turbine dental drill have been reported sporadically in the anesthesia literature. This case report documents the potential sequelae associated with air entrainment from utilization of the high-speed air turbine dental drill in general dentistry. Signs and symptoms of air entrainment include chest fullness, periorbital and facial edema, and crepitus. Prompt recognition of this phenomena is essential because of potential airway obstruction and additional complications, as the infused air dissects through the fascial planes. Cardiovascular collapse, associated with the development of venous air embolism, has also been reported as a life-threatening complication associated with the high-speed air turbine dental drill. This is a case report of a patient who developed pneumomediastinum while receiving dental preparatory treatment for multiple crowns, veneers, and impressions.

  14. Spot cooling. Part 1: Human responses to cooling with air jets

    SciTech Connect

    Melikov, A.K.; Halkjaer, L.; Arakelian, R.S.; Fanger, P.O.

    1994-12-31

    Eight standing male subjects and a thermal manikin were studied for thermal, physiological, and subjective responses to cooling with an air jet at room temperatures of 28 C, 33 C, and 38 C and a constant relative humidity of 50%. The subjects wore a standard uniform and performed light work. A vertical jet and a horizontal jet were employed The target area of the jet, i.e., the cross section of the jet where it first met the subject, had a diameter of 0.4 m and was located 0.5 m from the outlet. Experiments were performed at average temperatures at the jet target area of 20 C, 24 C, and 28 C. Each experiment lasted 190 minutes and was performed with three average velocities at the target area: 1 and 2 m/s and the preferred velocity selected by the subjects. The impact of the relative humidity of the room air, the jet`s turbulence intensity, and the use of a helmet on the physiological and subjective responses of the eight subjects was also studied The responses of the eight subjects were compared with the responses of a group of 29 subjects. The spot cooling improved the thermal conditions of the occupants. The average general thermal sensation for the eight subjects was linearly correlated to the average mean skin temperature and the average sweat rate. An average mean skin temperature of 33 C and an average sweat rate of 33 g{center_dot}h{sup {minus}1} m{sup {minus}2} were found to correspond to a neutral thermal sensation. The local thermal sensation at the neck and at the arm exposed to the cooling jet was found to be a function of the room air temperature and the local air velocity and temperature of the jet. The turbulence intensity of the cooling jet and the humidity of the room air had no impact on the subjects` physiological and subjective responses. Large individual differences were observed in the evaluation of the environment and in the air velocity preferred by the subjects.

  15. Final Rule to Reduce Hazardous Air Emissions from Newly Built Stationary Combustion Turbines: Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains an August 2003 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Stationary Combustion Turbines. This document provides a summary of the information for this NESHAP.

  16. Comparison of the cutting efficiencies of electric motor and air turbine dental handpieces.

    PubMed

    Eikenberg, S L

    2001-01-01

    As part of a larger comprehensive performance evaluation to determine whether electric motor handpieces are a suitable substitute for air turbine handpieces in a portable field dental treatment and operating system, the cutting efficiencies of electric motor and air turbine handpieces were compared. A device was made that applies an identical cutting force to a glass ceramic material for each handpiece tested. The laboratory results show that with equal amounts of applied force, the electric motor handpiece cuts a glass ceramic material significantly more efficiently (volume of material removed per second) than does the air turbine. In clinical trials, after minimal experience utilizing the electric motor, the majority of dentists felt that the electric motor cut tooth and amalgam more efficiently than did the air turbine.

  17. Method for forming a liquid cooled airfoil for a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Grondahl, Clayton M.; Willmott, Leo C.; Muth, Myron C.

    1981-01-01

    A method for forming a liquid cooled airfoil for a gas turbine is disclosed. A plurality of holes are formed at spaced locations in an oversized airfoil blank. A pre-formed composite liquid coolant tube is bonded into each of the holes. The composite tube includes an inner member formed of an anti-corrosive material and an outer member formed of a material exhibiting a high degree of thermal conductivity. After the coolant tubes have been bonded to the airfoil blank, the airfoil blank is machined to a desired shape, such that a portion of the outer member of each of the composite tubes is contiguous with the outer surface of the machined airfoil blank. Finally, an external skin is bonded to the exposed outer surface of both the machined airfoil blank and the composite tubes.

  18. A fundamentally new approach to air-cooled heat exchangers.

    SciTech Connect

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2010-01-01

    We describe breakthrough results obtained in a feasibility study of a fundamentally new architecture for air-cooled heat exchangers. A longstanding but largely unrealized opportunity in energy efficiency concerns the performance of air-cooled heat exchangers used in air conditioners, heat pumps, and refrigeration equipment. In the case of residential air conditioners, for example, the typical performance of the air cooled heat exchangers used for condensers and evaporators is at best marginal from the standpoint the of achieving maximum the possible coefficient of performance (COP). If by some means it were possible to reduce the thermal resistance of these heat exchangers to a negligible level, a typical energy savings of order 30% could be immediately realized. It has long been known that a several-fold increase in heat exchanger size, in conjunction with the use of much higher volumetric flow rates, provides a straight-forward path to this goal but is not practical from the standpoint of real world applications. The tension in the market place between the need for energy efficiency and logistical considerations such as equipment size, cost and operating noise has resulted in a compromise that is far from ideal. This is the reason that a typical residential air conditioner exhibits significant sensitivity to reductions in fan speed and/or fouling of the heat exchanger surface. The prevailing wisdom is that little can be done to improve this situation; the 'fan-plus-finned-heat-sink' heat exchanger architecture used throughout the energy sector represents an extremely mature technology for which there is little opportunity for further optimization. But the fact remains that conventional fan-plus-finned-heat-sink technology simply doesn't work that well. Their primary physical limitation to performance (i.e. low thermal resistance) is the boundary layer of motionless air that adheres to and envelops all surfaces of the heat exchanger. Within this boundary layer

  19. Air-cooled trim dipoles for the Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, D. J.; Chester, N. S.; Garvey, J. D.; Krafczyk, G. E.; Makarov, A. I.; Terechkine, I.; Yarba, V. A.

    1997-05-01

    New horizontal and vertical trim dipoles have been designed for the Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) and are being assembled in the Fermilab Technical Division. Magnets are 42.6 cm in length (30.5 cm steel length) and have similar cross-section dimensions. The horizontal (vertical) magnet gap is 50.8 mm (127 mm) and the target integrated strength is 0.072 T*m (0.029 T*m). The major design effort lay in making air cooling possible for these magnets. This report presents the magnets` thermal and magnetic properties and discusses the limitation on excitation current.

  20. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... for Central Air Conditioners Manufacturer's rated cooling capacities (Btu's/hr.) Range of SEER's Low High Single Package Units Central Air Conditioners (Cooling Only): All capacities 10.6 16.5 Heat Pumps... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooling Performance and Cost for Central...

  1. Air heating system

    DOEpatents

    Primeau, John J.

    1983-03-01

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  2. Measurements of Heat Transfer, Flow, and Pressures in a Simulated Turbine Blade Internal Cooling Passage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Louis M.; Thurman, Douglas R.; Poinsatte, Philip E.; Hippensteele, Steven A.

    1998-01-01

    An experimental study was made to obtain quantitative information on heat transfer, flow, and pressure distribution in a branched duct test section that had several significant features of an internal cooling passage of a turbine blade. The objective of this study was to generate a set of experimental data that could be used for validation of computer codes that would be used to model internal cooling. Surface heat transfer coefficients and entrance flow conditions were measured at nominal entrance Reynolds numbers of 45,000, 335,000, and 726,000. Heat transfer data were obtained by using a steady-state technique in which an Inconel heater sheet is attached to the surface and coated with liquid crystals. Visual and quantitative flow-field data from particle image velocimetry measurements for a plane at midchannel height for a Reynolds number of 45,000 were also obtained. The flow was seeded with polystyrene particles and illuminated by a laser light sheet. Pressure distribution measurements were made both on the surface with discrete holes and in the flow field with a total pressure probe. The flow-field measurements yielded flow-field velocities at selected locations. A relatively new method, pressure sensitive paint, was also used to measure surface pressure distribution. The pressure paint data obtained at Reynolds numbers of 335,000 and 726,000 compared well with the more standard method of measuring pressures by using discrete holes.

  3. Effect of Film-Hole Shape on Turbine Blade Film Cooling Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, J. C.; Teng, S.

    2000-01-01

    The detailed heat transfer coefficient and film cooling effectiveness distributions as well as tile detailed coolant jet temperature profiles on the suction side of a gas turbine blade A,ere measured using a transient liquid crystal image method and a traversing cold wire and a traversing thermocouple probe, respectively. The blade has only one row of film holes near the gill hole portion on the suction side of the blade. The hole geometries studied include standard cylindrical holes and holes with diffuser shaped exit portion (i.e. fanshaped holes and laidback fanshaped holes). Tests were performed on a five-blade linear cascade in a low-speed wind tunnel. The mainstream Reynolds number based on cascade exit velocity was 5.3 x 10(exp 5). Upstream unsteady wakes were simulated using a spoke-wheel type wake generator. The wake Strouhal number was kept at 0 or 0.1. Coolant blowing ratio was varied from 0.4 to 1.2. Results show that both expanded holes have significantly improved thermal protection over the surface downstream of the ejection location, particularly at high blowing ratios. However, the expanded hole injections induce earlier boundary layer transition to turbulence and enhance heat transfer coefficients at the latter part of the blade suction surface. In general, the unsteady wake tends to reduce film cooling effectiveness.

  4. Numerical investigations of cooling holes system role in the protection of the walls of a gas turbine combustion chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Sik Ali, Ahlem; Kriaa, Wassim; Mhiri, Hatem; Bournot, Philippe

    2012-05-01

    Numerical simulations in a gas turbine Swirl stabilized combustor were conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a cooling system in the protection of combustor walls. The studied combustion chamber has a high degree of geometrical complexity related to the injection system as well as the cooling system based on a big distribution of small holes (about 3,390 holes) bored on the flame tube walls. Two cases were considered respectively the flame tube without and with its cooling system. The calculations were carried out using the industrial CFD code FLUENT 6.2. The various simulations made it possible to highlight the role of cooling holes in the protection of the flame tube walls against the high temperatures of the combustion products. In fact, the comparison between the results of the two studied cases demonstrated that the walls temperature can be reduced by about 800°C by the mean of cooling holes technique.

  5. Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Coplin, J.F.; Hadaway, E.S.

    1984-01-31

    A turbine suitable for a gas turbine engine is provided with a bearing support member which is interconnected with the turbine casing by means of an annular array of aerofoil guide vanes. The whole assembly of support member and aerofoil guide vanes is maintained in a state of tension. The degree of tension in the assembly is controlled so as to be substantially constant throughout the normal operating cycle of the turbine.

  6. Cooling Effectiveness Measurements for Air Film Cooling of Thermal Barrier Coated Surfaces in a Burner Rig Environment Using Phosphor Thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Shyam, Vikram; Wroblewski, Adam C.; Zhu, Dongming; Cuy, Michael D.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    While the effects of thermal barrier coating (TBC) thermal protection and air film cooling effectiveness are usually studied separately, their contributions to combined cooling effectiveness are interdependent and are not simply additive. Therefore, combined cooling effectiveness must be measured to achieve an optimum balance between TBC thermal protection and air film cooling. In this investigation, surface temperature mapping was performed using recently developed Cr-doped GdAlO3 phosphor thermometry. Measurements were performed in the NASA GRC Mach 0.3 burner rig on a TBC-coated plate using a scaled up cooling hole geometry where both the mainstream hot gas temperature and the blowing ratio were varied. Procedures for surface temperature and cooling effectiveness mapping of the air film-cooled TBC-coated surface are described. Applications are also shown for an engine component in both the burner rig test environment as well as an engine afterburner environment. The effects of thermal background radiation and flame chemiluminescence on the measurements are investigated, and advantages of this method over infrared thermography as well as the limitations of this method for studying air film cooling are discussed.

  7. A lightweight ambient air-cooling unit for use in hazardous environments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y T; Constable, S H; Bomalaski, S H

    1997-01-01

    Recent research demonstrated (a) the effectiveness of intermittent conditioned air cooling during rest breaks to significantly reduce cumulative heat storage and (b) that longer work sessions were possible for individuals wearing chemical defense ensembles. To further advance this concept, a strategy for implementing continuous air cooling was conceived; ambient air cooling was added during work cycles and conditioned air cooling was delivered during rest periods. A compact battery-powered beltpack cooling unit (3.9 kg) designed and made at the U.S. Air Force Armstrong Laboratory was used to deliver 5.7 L/sec filtered ambient air during work cycles: 4.7 L/sec to the body and 1 L/sec to the face. Five experimental cycles were conducted in a thermally controlled chamber under warm conditions (32 degrees C, 40% relative humidity) with (1) no cooling-intermittent work, (2) intermittent cooling, (3) continuous cooling during intermittent exercise, and (4) no cooling-continuous work and (5) ambient air cooling during continuous exercise. Intermittent, conditioned, and continuous air cooling resulted in significant reductions in rectal temperature, mean skin temperature, and heart rate as compared with the no-cooling trials. The continuous air-cooling trial significantly improved thermal comfort and sweat evaporation. Results suggest that ambient air delivered during work cycles by a lightweight portable unit (in conjunction with conditioned air delivered during rest periods), can definitely improve personal comfort, reduce skin temperature, and decrease the cumulative fatigue common to repeated work/rest cycles in selected military and industrial applications in which individuals work in chemical defense ensembles.

  8. Simulations of Turbine Cooling Flows Using a Multiblock-Multigrid Scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinthorsson, Erlendur; Ameri, Ali A.; Rigby, David L.

    1996-01-01

    Results from numerical simulations of air flow and heat transfer in a 'branched duct' geometry are presented. The geometry contains features, including pins and a partition, as are found in coolant passages of turbine blades. The simulations were performed using a multi-block structured grid system and a finite volume discretization of the governing equations (the compressible Navier-Stokes equations). The effects of turbulence on the mean flow and heat transfer were modeled using the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model. The computed results are compared to experimental data. It was found that the extent of some regions of high heat transfer was somewhat under predicted. It is conjectured that the underlying reason is the local nature of the turbulence model which cannot account for upstream influence on the turbulence field. In general, however, the comparison with the experimental data is favorable.

  9. Effectiveness of an air-cooled vest using selected air temperature and humidity combinations.

    PubMed

    Pimental, N A; Cosimini, H M; Sawka, M N; Wenger, C B

    1987-02-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of an air-cooled vest in reducing thermal strain of subjects exercising in the heat (49 degrees C dry bulb (db), 20 degrees C dew point (dp] in chemical protective clothing. Four male subjects attempted 300-min heat exposures at two metabolic rates (175 and 315 W) with six cooling combinations--control (no vest) and five different db and dp combinations. Air supplied to the vest at 15 scfm ranged from 20-27 degrees C db, 7-18 degrees C dp; theoretical cooling capacities were 498-687 W. Without the vest, endurance times were 118 min (175 W) and 73 min (315 W). Endurance times with the vest were 300 min (175 W) and 242-300 min (315 W). The five cooling combinations were similarly effective in reducing thermal strain and extending endurance time, although there was a trend for the vest to be more effective when supplied with air at the lower dry bulb temperature. At 175 W, subjects maintained a constant body temperature; at 315 W, the vest's ability to extend endurance is limited to about 5 hours.

  10. Bacteriological evaluation of a new air turbine handpiece for preventing cross-contamination in dental procedures.

    PubMed

    Masuda, K; Ohta, M; Ohsuka, S; Matsuyama, M; Ashoori, M; Usami, T; Ito, M; Ueda, M; Kaneda, T

    1994-03-01

    An autoclavable air turbine handpiece, Air Flushing Clean System (AFCS) (Osada Electric Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was developed for use in dentistry with the objective of reducing cross-contamination. Its potential for bacterial contamination was investigated in vitro using two bacterial strains (Streptococcus mutants ATCC 25175 and Staphylococcus aureus FDA 209 P). In theory, this device should prevent cross-contamination of the internal water and air lines of the handpiece, by maintaining an internal positive pressure even after the turbine is stopped. In the present study, this AFCS device was found to reduce the bacterial contamination within the air turbine handpiece more effectively than the conventional handpiece used according to accepted protocol. The reduction of such contamination by the AFCS is in keeping with the recent objective of the American Dental Association to reduce cross-contamination during dental procedures.

  11. Contamination of the turbine air chamber: a risk of cross infection.

    PubMed

    Checchi, L; Montebugnoli, L; Samaritani, S

    1998-08-01

    In the present work, we evaluated (a) the influx of contaminating fluid into the air chamber when a high-speed turbine stops rotating, (b) the significance of a series of variables (type of handpiece and dental unit, shape of the bur, number of stops set on the turbine) which condition it, and (c) the time required to expel the contaminating fluid from the turbine head. Results showed that contamination takes place every time the turbine stops rotating with the bur in contact with an external fluid. The main variable affecting the influx of contaminating fluid into the air chamber of the turbine head was represented by the shape of the bur (F=54.9; p<0.01). Another significant variable was the type of handpiece and dental unit (F=7.3; p<0.01). The number of stops set on the turbine was irrelevant (F=0.03; p=n.s.). The expulsion of the contaminant from the turbine head showed 2 different exponential rates: a very rapid-elimination phase within 30 s and a slow-elimination phase between 60 and 300 s. In order to remove over 99% of the contaminant from the air chamber, a turbine had to run for more than 4-7 min depending on the type of the handpiece. In conclusion, data from the present study suggest that a significant cross-infection potential exists with high-speed handpieces whenever they are only externally scrubbed and disinfected so the internal cleaning and sterilization between patients is mandatory. The practice of flushing by running the turbines between patients should be discouraged.

  12. Experimental Heat Transfer Coefficients and Friction Factors in a Rib-Roughened Leading-Edge Cooling Cavity of a Gas Turbine Airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagan, Peter

    A gas turbine airfoil contains multiple coolant passageways. These passages usually have rib roughened wall surfaces in order to increase the heat transfer from the blade to the cooling air. Auxiliary power and compressed air is very valuable in a gas turbine, therefore low pumping power requirements are crucial. The thermal performance of three different coolant channel geometries with three different rib sizes was investigated. Heat transfer calculations were performed for Reynolds numbers ranging from 6,000 to 40,000. The performance characteristics were calculated through the use of the convective heat transfer coefficient and the friction factor. In this study, the most desirable characteristics are a high heat transfer coefficient and minimal pumping power requirements. The thermal performance of each case was determined by comparing the average Nusselt numbers to the friction factor ratio. The resulting value was then plotted against the Reynolds number for each case. The trending data indicated thermal efficiency decreases with an increasing Reynolds number for all cases. The picture data shows increased thermal efficiency at larger distances from the nose portion of the cavity. In addition, thermal efficiency was higher at the half distance of the rib pitch while areas close to the ribs saw a lower thermal efficiency. The following experimental data will show that Rig 2 and 3 are the most thermally efficient geometries, with Rig 2 requiring lower pumping power and Rig 3 having a higher average Nusselt number.

  13. Detection of hidden shot balls in a gas-cooled turbine blade with an NRT gadolinium tagging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Cheul Muu; Kim, Yi Kyung; Kim, TaeJoo; Lee, Kye Hong; Kim, Jeong Uk

    2009-06-01

    This report provides a preliminary insight into the benefits and effectiveness of neutron radiography in identifying alien materials, namely shot balls hidden in a turbine blade that are otherwise undetected using other methods. The detection of 0.2-mm-diameter shot balls in gas-cooled turbine blades is possible for thermal neutron radiography. A tagging processing is more useful for a distinctive image of newer turbine blades. Areas of concern for the tagging process include the solution concentration and the possibility of a slight washing of the blades. The location of the shot balls within the turbine blades tagged with Gd((2%, 5%)+water) was shown. Shot balls were placed externally on a turbine blade (F100-700, F100-200) surface in order to check for a dead zone from a surface examination. The image is produced from neutron radiography after a 5 min exposure time. When the blade is tagged with 2% and 5% Gd with slight washing, the shot can also be effectively seen on the SR-45 film. Shot balls are more obvious on a neutron image SR-45 film than an image plate or a DR film.

  14. A Combined Experimental/Computational Study of Flow in Turbine Blade Cooling Passage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tse, D. G. N.; Kreskovsky, J. P.; Shamroth, S. J.; Mcgrath, D. B.

    1994-01-01

    Laser velocimetry was utilized to map the velocity field in a serpentine turbine blade cooling passage at Reynolds and Rotation numbers of up to 25.000 and 0.48. These results were used to assess the combined influence of passage curvature and Coriolis force on the secondary velocity field generated. A Navier-Stokes code (NASTAR) was validated against incompressible test data and then used to simulate the effect of buoyancy. The measurements show a net convection from the low pressure surface to high pressure surface. The interaction of the secondary flows induced by the turns and rotation produces swirl at the turns, which persisted beyond 2 hydraulic diameters downstream of the turns. The incompressible flow field predictions agree well with the measured velocities. With radially outward flow, the buoyancy force causes a further increase in velocity on the high pressure surface and a reduction on the low pressure surface. The results were analyzed in relation to the heat transfer measurements of Wagner et al. (1991). Predicted heat transfer is enhanced on the high pressure surfaces and in turns. The incompressible flow simulation underpredicts heat transfer in these locations. Improvements observed in compressible flow simulation indicate that the buoyancy force may be important.

  15. Evaluation of an Integrated Gas-Cooled Reactor Simulator and Brayton Turbine-Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hissam, David Andy; Stewart, Eric T.

    2006-01-01

    A closed-loop brayton cycle, powered by a fission reactor, offers an attractive option for generating both planetary and in-space electric power. Non-nuclear testing of this type of system provides the opportunity to safely work out integration and system control challenges for a modest investment. Recognizing this potential, a team at Marshall Space Flight Center has evaluated the viability of integrating and testing an existing gas-cooled reactor simulator and a modified commercially available, off-the-shelf, brayton turbine-generator. Since these two systems were developed independently of one another, this evaluation had to determine if they could operate together at acceptable power levels, temperatures, and pressures. Thermal, fluid, and structural analyses show that this combined system can operate at acceptable power levels and temperatures. In addition, pressure drops across the reactor simulator, although higher than desired, are also viewed as acceptable. Three potential working fluids for the system were evaluated: N2, He/Ar, and He/Xe. Other potential issues, such as electrical breakdown in the generator and the operation of the brayton foil bearings using various gas mixtures, were also investigated.

  16. Multiple piece turbine airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Kimmel, Keith D; Wilson, Jr., Jack W.

    2010-11-02

    A turbine airfoil, such as a rotor blade or a stator vane, for a gas turbine engine, the airfoil formed as a shell and spar construction with a plurality of dog bone struts each mounted within openings formed within the shell and spar to allow for relative motion between the spar and shell in the airfoil chordwise direction while also forming a seal between adjacent cooling channels. The struts provide the seal as well as prevent bulging of the shell from the spar due to the cooling air pressure.

  17. Flow Field in a Single-Stage Model Air Turbine With Seal Rings and Pre-Swirled Purge Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Dennis M.

    Modern gas turbines operate at high mainstream gas temperatures and pressures, which requires high durability materials. A method of preventing these hot gases from leaking into the turbine cavities is essential for improved reliability and cost reduction. Utilizing bleed-off air from the compressor to cool internal components has been a common solution, but at the cost of decreasing turbine performance. The present work thoroughly describes the complex flow field between the mainstream gas and a single rotor-stator disk cavity, and mechanisms of mainstream gas ingestion. A combined approach of experimental measurement and numerical simulation are performed on the flow in a single-stage model gas turbine. Mainstream gas ingestion into the cavity is further reduced by utilizing two axially overlapping seal rings, one on the rotor disk and the other on the stator wall. Secondary purge air is injected into the rotor-stator cavity pre-swirled through the stator radially inboard of the two seal rings. Flow field predictions from the simulations are compared against experimental measurements of static pressure, velocity, and tracer gas concentration acquired in a nearly identical model configuration. Operational conditions were performed with a main airflow Reynolds number of 7.86e4 and a rotor disk speed of 3000rpm. Additionally the rotational Reynolds number was 8.74 e5 with a purge air nondimensional flow rate cw=4806. The simulation models a 1/14 rotationally periodic sector of the turbine rig, consisting of four rotor blades and four stator vanes. Gambit was used to generate the three-dimensional unstructured grids ranging from 10 to 20 million cells. Effects of turbulence were modeled using the single-equation Spalart-Allmaras as well as the realizable k-epsilon models. Computations were performed using FLUENT for both a simplified steady-state and subsequent time-dependent formulation. Simulation results show larger scale structures across the entire sector angle

  18. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Conditioners (Cooling Only): All capacities 10.6 16.5 Heat Pumps (Cooling Function): All capacities 10.6 16.0 Split System Units Central Air Conditioners (Cooling Only): All capacities 10.9 23.0 Heat Pumps...

  19. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Conditioners (Cooling Only): All capacities 10.6 16.5 Heat Pumps (Cooling Function): All capacities 10.6 16.0 Split System Units Central Air Conditioners (Cooling Only): All capacities 10.9 23.0 Heat Pumps...

  20. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Conditioners (Cooling Only): All capacities 10.6 16.5 Heat Pumps (Cooling Function): All capacities 10.6 16.0 Split System Units Central Air Conditioners (Cooling Only): All capacities 10.9 23.0 Heat Pumps...

  1. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Conditioners (Cooling Only): All capacities 10.6 16.5 Heat Pumps (Cooling Function): All capacities 10.6 16.0 Split System Units Central Air Conditioners (Cooling Only): All capacities 10.9 23.0 Heat Pumps...

  2. Air Force fuel mainburner/turbine effects programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    A program for the determination of fuel property effects on aircraft gas turbine engine mainburners and turbines is discussed. The six engines selected as test candidates are the J79, J85, J57, TF30, TF39, and F100. Fuels election is the responsibility of the contractors with two fuels as exceptions. The petroleum JP-4 is to be used as a baseline in all tests. The shale JP-4 is to be used in nearly all tests. Fuel properties are to be correlated with combustion system performance paramters. In addition, life predictions are to be made for combustor and turbine hardware. These predictions are to be based on a typical mission for each system, measured metal temperatures and temperature gradients, and oxidation/corrosion effects.

  3. Method and apparatus for wind turbine air gap control

    DOEpatents

    Grant, James Jonathan; Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Jansen, Patrick Lee; DiMascio, Paul Stephen; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya; Qu, Ronghai

    2007-02-20

    Methods and apparatus for assembling a wind turbine generator are provided. The wind turbine generator includes a core and a plurality of stator windings circumferentially spaced about a generator longitudinal axis, a rotor rotatable about the generator longitudinal axis wherein the rotor includes a plurality of magnetic elements coupled to a radially outer periphery of the rotor such that an airgap is defined between the stator windings and the magnetic elements and the plurality of magnetic elements including a radially inner periphery having a first diameter. The wind turbine generator also includes a bearing including a first member in rotatable engagement with a radially inner second member, the first member including a radially outer periphery, a diameter of the radially outer periphery of the first member being substantially equal to the first diameter, the rotor coupled to the stator through the bearing such that a substantially uniform airgap is maintained.

  4. Cold-air performance of compressor-drive turbine of Department of Energy upgraded automobile gas turbine engine. 2: Stage performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelke, R. J.; Haas, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of the compressor-drive turbine of the DOE upgraded gas turbine engine was determined in low temperature air. The as-received cast rotor blading had a significantly thicker profile than design and a fairly rough surface finish. Because of these blading imperfections a series of stage tests with modified rotors were made. These included the as-cast rotor, a reduced-roughness rotor, and a rotor with blades thinned to near design. Significant performance changes were measured. Tests were also made to determine the effect of Reynolds number on the turbine performance. Comparisons are made between this turbine and the compressor-drive turbine of the DOE baseline gas turbine engine.

  5. U.S. Air Force Turbine Engine Emission Survey. Volume II. Individual Engine Test Reports.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    1» I MI HU III.I11M1,|IHIIPH|I»^^—»^ II 111.11 l|. I I | mi | . I I. I.,.L ENGINE J85 -5 17 ^ ^_._. rr •Wl...AD-AÜbl 665 UNCLASSIFIED SCOTT ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY INC PLUMSTEAOVILLE PA F/G 21/5 U.S. AIR FORCE TURBINE ENGINE EMISSION SURVEY...i run’ LEVEL CEEDOTR-7834 U.S. AIR FORCE TURBINE ENGINE EMISSION SURVEY VOL II INDIVIDUAL ENGINE TEST REPORTS v o-< 3 „ fi-^\\^92 ANTHONY F

  6. TACT1, a computer program for the transient thermal analysis of a cooled turbine blade or vane equipped with a coolant insert. 1. Users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaugler, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program to calculate transient and steady state temperatures, pressures, and coolant flows in a cooled, axial flow turbine blade or vane with an impingement insert is described. Coolant side heat transfer coefficients are calculated internally in the program, with the user specifying either impingement or convection heat transfer at each internal flow station. Spent impingement air flows in a chordwise direction and is discharged through the trailing edge and through film cooling holes. The ability of the program to handle film cooling is limited by the internal flow model. Sample problems, with tables of input and output, are included in the report. Input to the program includes a description of the blade geometry, coolant supply conditions, outside thermal boundary conditions, and wheel speed. The blade wall can have two layers of different materials, such as a ceramic thermal barrier coating over a metallic substrate. Program output includes the temperature at each node, the coolant pressures and flow rates, and the inside heat-transfer coefficients.

  7. Self Adaptive Air Turbine for Wave Energy Conversion Using Shutter Valve and OWC Heoght Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Di Bella, Francis A

    2014-09-29

    An oscillating water column (OWC) is one of the most technically viable options for converting wave energy into useful electric power. The OWC system uses the wave energy to “push or pull” air through a high-speed turbine, as illustrated in Figure 1. The turbine is typically a bi-directional turbine, such as a Wells turbine or an advanced Dennis-Auld turbine, as developed by Oceanlinx Ltd. (Oceanlinx), a major developer of OWC systems and a major collaborator with Concepts NREC (CN) in Phase II of this STTR effort. Prior to awarding the STTR to CN, work was underway by CN and Oceanlinx to produce a mechanical linkage mechanism that can be cost-effectively manufactured, and can articulate turbine blades to improve wave energy capture. The articulation is controlled by monitoring the chamber pressure. Funding has been made available from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to CN (DOE DE-FG-08GO18171) to co-share the development of a blade articulation mechanism for the purpose of increasing energy recovery. However, articulating the blades is only one of the many effective design improvements that can be made to the composite subsystems that constitute the turbine generator system.

  8. [Studies on the performance of the dental air turbine handpieces. (Part 3) Torque measurements of the air turbine handpieces (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Miyairi, H; Nagai, M; Fukuda, H; Muramatsu, A

    1980-01-01

    Air turbine handpieces, electro-micro motors and electric engines are widely used as the dental cutting instruments for the clinical use. So, this paper examined the measurement of rotational torque of the high speed dental instruments used for cutting works. For the measurement of torque of the dental instrument, we have measured the pushing load of the test but as used for cutting tools. But, in this paper, we attempted the new trials which are the measuring the tangential force of test bur rotated with the high speed velocity. And then, the kinetic energy values of rotational bur are obtained with using the value of the test bur's rotational torque. Besides we examined the interrelations of the rotational torque and pushing as the results, and both measurement value show the good relations for air turbine handpieces.

  9. Experimental feasibility study of radial injection cooling of three-pad radial air foil bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Suman K.

    Air foil bearings use ambient air as a lubricant allowing environment-friendly operation. When they are designed, installed, and operated properly, air foil bearings are very cost effective and reliable solution to oil-free turbomachinery. Because air is used as a lubricant, there are no mechanical contacts between the rotor and bearings and when the rotor is lifted off the bearing, near frictionless quiet operation is possible. However, due to the high speed operation, thermal management is one of the very important design factors to consider. Most widely accepted practice of the cooling method is axial cooling, which uses cooling air passing through heat exchange channels formed underneath the bearing pad. Advantage is no hardware modification to implement the axial cooling because elastic foundation structure of foil bearing serves as a heat exchange channels. Disadvantage is axial temperature gradient on the journal shaft and bearing. This work presents the experimental feasibility study of alternative cooling method using radial injection of cooling air directly on the rotor shaft. The injection speeds, number of nozzles, location of nozzles, total air flow rate are important factors determining the effectiveness of the radial injection cooling method. Effectiveness of the radial injection cooling was compared with traditional axial cooling method. A previously constructed test rig was modified to accommodate a new motor with higher torque and radial injection cooling. The radial injection cooling utilizes the direct air injection to the inlet region of air film from three locations at 120° from one another with each location having three axially separated holes. In axial cooling, a certain axial pressure gradient is applied across the bearing to induce axial cooling air through bump foil channels. For the comparison of the two methods, the same amount of cooling air flow rate was used for both axial cooling and radial injection. Cooling air flow rate was

  10. Fuel-air mixing apparatus for reducing gas turbine combustor exhaust emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zupanc, Frank J. (Inventor); Yankowich, Paul R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A fuel-air mixer for use in a combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine is provided. The fuel air mixing apparatus comprises an annular fuel injector having a plurality of discrete plain jet orifices, a first swirler wherein the first swirler is located upstream from the fuel injector and a second swirler wherein the second swirler is located downstream from the fuel injector. The plurality of discrete plain jet orifices are situated between the highly swirling airstreams generated by the two radial swirlers. The distributed injection of the fuel between two highly swirling airstreams results in rapid and effective mixing to the desired fuel-air ratio and prevents the formation of local hot spots in the combustor primary zone. A combustor and a gas turbine engine comprising the fuel-air mixer of the present invention are also provided as well as a method using the fuel-air mixer of the present invention.

  11. Experimental investigation of heat transfer and flow using V and broken V ribs within gas turbine blade cooling passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sourabh; Amano, R. S.

    2015-05-01

    Gas turbines are extensively used for aircraft propulsion, land-based power generation, and various industrial applications. With an increase in turbine rotor inlet temperatures, developments in innovative gas turbine cooling technology enhance the efficiency and power output; these advancements of turbine cooling have allowed engine designs to exceed normal material temperature limits. For internal cooling design, techniques for heat extraction from the surfaces exposed to hot stream of gas are based on an increase in the heat transfer areas and on the promotion of turbulence of the cooling flow. In this study, an improvement in performance is obtained by casting repeated continuous V- and broken V-shaped ribs on one side of the two pass square channels into the core of the blade. A detailed experimental investigation is done for two pass square channels with a 180° turn. Detailed heat transfer distribution occurring in the ribbed passage is reported for a steady state experiment. Four different combinations of 60° V- and broken 60° V-ribs in a channel are considered. A series of thermocouples are used to obtain the temperature on the channel surface and local heat transfer coefficients are obtained for Reynolds numbers 16,000, 56,000 and 85,000 within the turbulent flow regime. Area averaged data are calculated in order to compare the overall performance of the tested ribbed surface and to evaluate the degree of heat transfer enhancement induced by the rib. Flow within the channels is characterized by heat transfer enhancing ribs, bends, rotation and buoyancy effects. A series of experimental measurements is performed to predict the overall performance of the channel. This paper presents an attempt to collect information about the Nusselt number, the pressure drop and the overall performance of the eight different ribbed ducts at the specified Reynolds number. The main contribution of this study is to evaluate the best combination of rib arrangements

  12. Turbine vane gas film cooling with injection in the leading edge region from a single row of spanwise angled holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecuyer, M. R.; Hanus, G. J.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental study of gas film cooling was conducted on a 3X size model turbine vane. Injection in the leading edge region was from a single row of holes angled in a spanwise direction. Measurements of the local heat flux downstream from the row of coolant holes, both with and without film coolant flow, were used to determine the film cooling performance presented in terms of the Stanton number ratio. Results for a range of coolant blowing ratio, M = 0 to 2.0, indicate a reduction in heat flux of up to 15 to 30 percent at a point 10 to 11 hole diameters downstream from injection. An optimum coolant blowing ratio corresponds to a coolant-to-freestream velocity ratio in the range of 0.5. The shallow injection angle resulted in superior cooling performance for injection closest to stagnation, while the effect of injection angle was insignificant for injection further from stagnation.

  13. Calculations of Laminar Heat Transfer Around Cylinders of Arbitrary Cross Section and Transpiration-Cooled Walls with Application to Turbine Blade Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, E.R.G.; Livingood, John N.B.

    1951-01-01

    An approximate method for development of flow and thermal boundary layers in laminar regime on cylinders with arbitrary cross section and transpiration-cooled walls is obtained by use of Karman's integrated momentum equation and an analogous heat-flow equation. Incompressible flow with constant property values throughout boundary layer is assumed. Shape parameters for approximated velocity and temperature profiles and functions necessary for solution of boundary-layer equations are presented as charts, reducing calculations to a minimum. The method is applied to determine local heat-transfer coefficients and surface temperature-cooled turbine blades for a given flow rate. Coolant flow distributions necessary for maintaining uniform blade temperatures are also determined.

  14. Citywide Impacts of Cool Roof and Rooftop Solar Photovoltaic Deployment on Near-Surface Air Temperature and Cooling Energy Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamanca, F.; Georgescu, M.; Mahalov, A.; Moustaoui, M.; Martilli, A.

    2016-10-01

    Assessment of mitigation strategies that combat global warming, urban heat islands (UHIs), and urban energy demand can be crucial for urban planners and energy providers, especially for hot, semi-arid urban environments where summertime cooling demands are excessive. Within this context, summertime regional impacts of cool roof and rooftop solar photovoltaic deployment on near-surface air temperature and cooling energy demand are examined for the two major USA cities of Arizona: Phoenix and Tucson. A detailed physics-based parametrization of solar photovoltaic panels is developed and implemented in a multilayer building energy model that is fully coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting mesoscale numerical model. We conduct a suite of sensitivity experiments (with different coverage rates of cool roof and rooftop solar photovoltaic deployment) for a 10-day clear-sky extreme heat period over the Phoenix and Tucson metropolitan areas at high spatial resolution (1-km horizontal grid spacing). Results show that deployment of cool roofs and rooftop solar photovoltaic panels reduce near-surface air temperature across the diurnal cycle and decrease daily citywide cooling energy demand. During the day, cool roofs are more effective at cooling than rooftop solar photovoltaic systems, but during the night, solar panels are more efficient at reducing the UHI effect. For the maximum coverage rate deployment, cool roofs reduced daily citywide cooling energy demand by 13-14 %, while rooftop solar photovoltaic panels by 8-11 % (without considering the additional savings derived from their electricity production). The results presented here demonstrate that deployment of both roofing technologies have multiple benefits for the urban environment, while solar photovoltaic panels add additional value because they reduce the dependence on fossil fuel consumption for electricity generation.

  15. Flame holding tolerant fuel and air premixer for a gas turbine combustor

    DOEpatents

    York, William David; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ziminsky, Willy Steve

    2012-11-20

    A fuel nozzle with active cooling is provided. It includes an outer peripheral wall, a nozzle center body concentrically disposed within the outer wall in a fuel and air pre-mixture. The fuel and air pre-mixture includes an air inlet, a fuel inlet and a premixing passage defined between the outer wall in the center body. A gas fuel flow passage is provided. A first cooling passage is included within the center body in a second cooling passage is defined between the center body and the outer wall.

  16. Air/fuel supply system for use in a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Timothy A; Schilp, Reinhard; Gambacorta, Domenico

    2014-06-17

    A fuel injector for use in a gas turbine engine combustor assembly. The fuel injector includes a main body and a fuel supply structure. The main body has an inlet end and an outlet end and defines a longitudinal axis extending between the outlet and inlet ends. The main body comprises a plurality of air/fuel passages extending therethrough, each air/fuel passage including an inlet that receives air from a source of air and an outlet. The fuel supply structure communicates with and supplies fuel to the air/fuel passages for providing an air/fuel mixture within each air/fuel passage. The air/fuel mixtures exit the main body through respective air/fuel passage outlets.

  17. Air modulation apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenahan, D. T.; Corsmeier, R. J.; Sterman, A. P. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An air modulation apparatus, such as for use in modulating cooling air to the turbine section of a gas turbine engine is described. The apparatus includes valve means disposed around an annular conduit, such as a nozzle, in the engine cooling air circuit. The valve means, when in a closed position, blocks a portion of the conduit, and thus reduces the amount and increases the velocity of cooling air flowing through the nozzle. The apparatus also includes actuation means, which can operate in response to predetermined engine conditions, for enabling opening and closing of the valve means.

  18. Reverse Brayton Cycle with Bladeless Turbo Compressor for Automotive Environmental Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cepeda-Rizo, Juan (Inventor); Ganapathi, Gani B. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An automotive cabin cooling system uses a bladeless turbocompressor driven by automobile engine exhaust to compress incoming ambient air. The compressed air is directed to an intercooler where it is cooled and then to another bladeless turbine used as an expander where the air cools as it expands and is directed to the cabin interior. Excess energy may be captured by an alternator couple to the expander turbine. The system employs no chemical refrigerant and may be further modified to include another intercooler on the output of the expander turbine to isolate the cooled cabin environment.

  19. Turbine design review text

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Three-volume publication covers theoretical, design, and performance aspects of turbines. Volumes cover thermodynamic and fluid-dynamic concepts, velocity diagram design, turbine blade aerodynamic design, turbine energy losses, supersonic turbines, radial-inflow turbines, turbine cooling, and aerodynamic performance testing.

  20. [Analysing noise levels in dental environment. Air turbine sound response to various physical factors].

    PubMed

    Oka, S

    1989-10-01

    Dental Air Turbine sound depends on the mechanical performance such as rotation and it is impossible to neglect connections of the sound with fluid mechanics and acoustics. Turbine sound must be considered from the standpoint of the sound pressure level and frequency component. In this study, the sound samples was measured and analysed in octave band spectrum. Turbine sound has three resonance bands of the frequency with the range from 0 to 1,600 Hz and the resonance band increased as air pressure increased. The frequency of the second resonance band decreased as the cutting load and cutting point diameter increased. Damping of the second resonance band frequency shifted downward by polishing point.

  1. Mechanical Design of a Performance Test Rig for the Turbine Air-Flow Task (TAFT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, John C.; Xenofos, George D.; Farrow, John L.; Tyler, Tom; Williams, Robert; Sargent, Scott; Moharos, Jozsef

    2004-01-01

    To support development of the Boeing-Rocketdyne RS84 rocket engine, a full-flow, reaction turbine geometry was integrated into the NASA-MSFC turbine air-flow test facility. A mechanical design was generated which minimized the amount of new hardware while incorporating all test and instrumentation requirements. This paper provides details of the mechanical design for this Turbine Air-Flow Task (TAFT) test rig. The mechanical design process utilized for this task included the following basic stages: Conceptual Design. Preliminary Design. Detailed Design. Baseline of Design (including Configuration Control and Drawing Revision). Fabrication. Assembly. During the design process, many lessons were learned that should benefit future test rig design projects. Of primary importance are well-defined requirements early in the design process, a thorough detailed design package, and effective communication with both the customer and the fabrication contractors.

  2. Workshop 4 Converter cooling & recuperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iles, Peter; Hindman, Don

    1995-01-01

    Cooling the PV converter increases the overall TPV system efficiency, and more than offsets the losses incurred in providing cooling systems. Convective air flow methods may be sufficient, and several standard water cooling systems, including thermo-syphon radiators, capillary pumps or microchannel plates, are available. Recuperation is used to increase system efficiency, rather than to increase the emitter temperature. Recuperators operating at comparable high temperatures, such as in high temperature turbines have worked effectively.

  3. Mid-section of a can-annular gas turbine engine with an improved rotation of air flow from the compressor to the turbine

    DOEpatents

    Little, David A.; Schilp, Reinhard; Ross, Christopher W.

    2016-03-22

    A midframe portion (313) of a gas turbine engine (310) is presented and includes a compressor section with a last stage blade to orient an air flow (311) at a first angle (372). The midframe portion (313) further includes a turbine section with a first stage blade to receive the air flow (311) oriented at a second angle (374). The midframe portion (313) further includes a manifold (314) to directly couple the air flow (311) from the compressor section to a combustor head (318) upstream of the turbine section. The combustor head (318) introduces an offset angle in the air flow (311) from the first angle (372) to the second angle (374) to discharge the air flow (311) from the combustor head (318) at the second angle (374). While introducing the offset angle, the combustor head (318) at least maintains or augments the first angle (372).

  4. Comparison of rotational speeds and torque properties between air-bearing and ball-bearing air-turbine handpieces.

    PubMed

    Taira, M; Wakasa, K; Yamaki, M; Matsui, A

    1989-06-01

    We examined the effects of air pressure on the free-running speed of air-bearing and torque-type ball-bearing air-turbine handpieces. The air pressure for the former should be kept at a certain high level to maintain the stable super-thin air-bearing film and to provide the quasi-constant speed of around 420,000 to 480,000 rpm. On the other hand, the air pressure for the latter could be adjusted to provide some varieties of speeds, ranging from about 150,000 to 320,000 rpm. Subsequently, to compare torque properties and cutting effectiveness between these two handpieces, weight-load cutting tests were conducted, using a glass-ceramic workpiece and a commercial diamond point. It was confirmed that the air-bearing handpiece had the lower torque power but exhibited better cutting effectiveness, compared with its counterpart.

  5. Microbiological evaluation of a newly designed dental air-turbine handpiece for anti-cross contaminations.

    PubMed

    Ohsuka, S; Ohta, M; Masuda, K; Kaneda, T; Ueda, M

    1994-01-01

    The effectiveness of a newly developed anti-cross contamination device for a dental air-turbine handpiece was tested. The handpiece with or without the anti-cross contamination device was contaminated with two bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans, as well as two bacteriophage strains, T2 and MS2. After contamination with these microorganisms, the handpieces were disinfected with glutaraldehyde or replaced with newly autoclaved ones. Residual microorganisms inside the handpiece or an air/water supply hose line were collected and counted after overnight cultivation. The anti-cross contamination device effectively reduced the contamination level of an air-turbine handpiece to that of the negative control. No microbial contamination in the air/water supply hose line was detected with this device.

  6. Numerical simulation and analysis of the internal flow in a Francis turbine with air admission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, A.; Luo, X. W.; Ji, B.

    2015-01-01

    In case of hydro turbines operated at part-load condition, vortex ropes usually occur in the draft tube, and consequently generate violent pressure fluctuation. This unsteady flow phenomenon is believed harmful to hydropower stations. This paper mainly treats the internal flow simulation in the draft tube of a Francis turbine. In order to alleviate the pressure fluctuation induced by the vortex rope, air admission from the main shaft center is applied, and the water-air two phase flow in the entire flow passage of a model turbine is simulated based on a homogeneous flow assumption and SST k-ω turbulence model. It is noted that the numerical simulation reasonably predicts the pressure fluctuations in the draft tube, which agrees fairly well with experimental data. The analysis based on the vorticity transport equation shows that the vortex dilation plays a major role in the vortex evolution with air admission in the turbine draft tube, and there is large value of vortex dilation along the vortex rope. The results show that the aeration with suitable air volume fraction can depress the vortical flow, and alleviate the pressure fluctuation in the draft tube.

  7. Turbine Air-Flow Test Rig CFD Results for Test Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Josh

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the Turbine Air-Flow Test (TAFT) rig computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results for test matrix. The topics include: 1) TAFT Background; 2) Design Point CFD; 3) TAFT Test Plan and Test Matrix; and 4) CFD of Test Points. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  8. Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That in Conventional Data Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, Henry C.; Han, Taewon; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Tschudi, William F.

    2011-07-17

    There is a concern that environmental-contamination caused corrosion may negatively affect Information Technology (IT) equipment reliability. Nineteen data centers in the United States and two in India were evaluated using Corrosion Classification Coupons (CCC) to assess environmental air quality as it may relate IT equipment reliability. The data centers were of two basic types: closed and outside-air cooled. A closed data center provides cool air to the IT equipment using air conditioning in which only a small percent age of the recirculation air is make-up air continuously supplied from outside to meet human health requirements. An outside-air cooled data center uses outside air directly as the primary source for IT equipment cooling. Corrosion measuring coupons containing copper and silver metal strips were placed in both closed and outside-air cooled data centers. The coupons were placed at each data center (closed and outside-air cooled types) with the location categorized into three groups: (1) Outside - coupons sheltered, located near or at the supply air inlet, but located before any filtering, (2) Supply - starting just after initial air filtering continuing inside the plenums and ducts feeding the data center rooms, and (3) Inside located inside the data center rooms near the IT equipment. Each coupon was exposed for thirty days and then sent to a laboratory for a corrosion rate measurement analysis. The goal of this research was to investigate whether gaseous contamination is a concern for U.S. data center operators as it relates to the reliability of IT equipment. More specifically, should there be an increased concern if outside air for IT equipment cooling is used To begin to answer this question limited exploratory measurements of corrosion rates in operating data centers in various locations were undertaken. This study sought to answer the following questions: (1) What is the precision of the measurements (2) What are the approximate statistical

  9. CACD (Complex Air Cleaning Devices) of the GTE (Gas turbine electrostation)-110: Problems and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budakov, I. V.; Neuimin, V. M.

    2015-12-01

    The paper considers CACD of the compressor of the GTE-110 gas turbine. The CACD efficiency has been tested under different conditions of the GTE-325 of the Ivanovo combined cycle plant (CCP) JSC INTER RAO-Electrogeneration Exploitation. It sets out the requirements for the dust collector, de-icing system, and air intake tract CACD. De-icing and air preparation methods are shown.

  10. Combined air-oil cooling on a supercharged TC IC TAM diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Trenc, F. ); Pavletic, R. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1993-10-01

    In order to reduce the maximum cylinder wall temperatures of an air-cooled TC IC diesel engine with large longitudinal and circumferential temperature gradients, a curved, squared cross-sectional channel supplied with engine lubrication oil was introduced into the upper part of the cylinder wall. Numerical analyses of the heat transfer within the baseline air-cooled cylinder and intensive experimental work helped to understand the temperature situation in the cylinder at diverse engine running conditions. The results of the combined cooling were greatly affected by the design, dimensions, position of the channel, and the distribution of the cooling oil flow, and are presented in the paper.

  11. Coaxial fuel and air premixer for a gas turbine combustor

    DOEpatents

    York, William D; Ziminsky, Willy S; Lacy, Benjamin P

    2013-05-21

    An air/fuel premixer comprising a peripheral wall defining a mixing chamber, a nozzle disposed at least partially within the peripheral wall comprising an outer annular wall spaced from the peripheral wall so as to define an outer air passage between the peripheral wall and the outer annular wall, an inner annular wall disposed at least partially within and spaced from the outer annular wall, so as to define an inner air passage, and at least one fuel gas annulus between the outer annular wall and the inner annular wall, the at least one fuel gas annulus defining at least one fuel gas passage, at least one air inlet for introducing air through the inner air passage and the outer air passage to the mixing chamber, and at least one fuel inlet for injecting fuel through the fuel gas passage to the mixing chamber to form an air/fuel mixture.

  12. Effect of Ambient Design Temperature on Air-Cooled Binary Plant Output

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Wendt; Greg Mines

    2011-10-01

    Air-cooled binary plants are designed to provide a specified level of power production at a particular air temperature. Nominally this air temperature is the annual mean or average air temperature for the plant location. This study investigates the effect that changing the design air temperature has on power generation for an air-cooled binary plant producing power from a resource with a declining production fluid temperature and fluctuating ambient temperatures. This analysis was performed for plants operating both with and without a geothermal fluid outlet temperature limit. Aspen Plus process simulation software was used to develop optimal air-cooled binary plant designs for specific ambient temperatures as well as to rate the performance of the plant designs at off-design operating conditions. Results include calculation of annual and plant lifetime power generation as well as evaluation of plant operating characteristics, such as improved power generation capabilities during summer months when electric power prices are at peak levels.

  13. Injected Water Augments Cooling In Turboshaft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Berger, Brett; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes experiments in which water injected into compressor-bleed cooling air of aircraft turboshaft engine. Injection of water previously suggested as way to provide additional cooling needed to sustain operation at power levels higher than usual. Involves turbine-inlet temperatures high enough to shorten lives of first-stage high-pressure turbine blades. Latent heat of vaporization of injected water serves as additional heat sink to maintain blades at design operating temperatures during high-power operation.

  14. Intelligent Engine Systems: Thermal Management and Advanced Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergholz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced Turbine Cooling and Thermal Management program is to develop intelligent control and distribution methods for turbine cooling, while achieving a reduction in total cooling flow and assuring acceptable turbine component safety and reliability. The program also will develop embedded sensor technologies and cooling system models for real-time engine diagnostics and health management. Both active and passive control strategies will be investigated that include the capability of intelligent modulation of flow quantities, pressures, and temperatures both within the supply system and at the turbine component level. Thermal management system concepts were studied, with a goal of reducing HPT blade cooling air supply temperature. An assessment will be made of the use of this air by the active clearance control system as well. Turbine component cooling designs incorporating advanced, high-effectiveness cooling features, will be evaluated. Turbine cooling flow control concepts will be studied at the cooling system level and the component level. Specific cooling features or sub-elements of an advanced HPT blade cooling design will be downselected for core fabrication and casting demonstrations.

  15. Optimal integration condition between the gas turbine air compressor and the air separation unit of IGCC power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.; Kim, H.T.; Yun, Y.

    1997-12-31

    Parametric studies are conducted for optimizing the integration design between gas turbine compressor and air separation unit (ASU) of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant. The ASU is assumed as low pressure double-distillation column process which is integrated at the interstage location of the compressor, and integration design criteria of air extraction and reversing heat exchanger are defined and mathematically formulated. With the performance prediction of compressor by through-flow analysis, the effects of pinch-point temperature difference (PTD) in the reversing heat exchanger, the amount and the pressure of extracted air are quantitatively examined. As the extraction air amount or the PTD is increased, the power consumption is increased. The compressor efficiency deteriorates as the increase of the flow rate of air extracted at higher pressure while improving at lower pressure air extraction. Furthermore, optimal integration condition for compressor efficiency maximization is found by generating the compressor characteristic curve.

  16. The development of the dental high-speed air turbine handpiece. Part 1.

    PubMed

    Dyson, J E; Darvell, B W

    1993-02-01

    The high-speed air turbine handpiece is currently used for most dental cutting procedures and has been in widespread use for more than thirty years. Although reports of its historical background have been previously published these have not dealt with all relevant developments and some inconsistencies exist. The history of the development of turbines and their application in dental cutting systems from the late 19th century to the present day is now reviewed. An historical account of the recognition of benefits that may accrue from rotary cutting at increased speeds is given and the various attempts that have been made to design equipment capable of high speeds are discussed. Consideration is given to the development of non-rotary cutting devices, as is the failure of these adequately to replace the air turbine handpiece for routine work. It is concluded that the air turbine handpiece will continue to hold a leading position in the field for some years to come but that future improvements would be facilitated by the development of an understanding of the theoretical aspects of its behaviour.

  17. Reducing secondary losses by blowing cold air in a turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koschel, W.

    1977-01-01

    Local blowing on the profile suction side of the turbine guide wheel blades can be effective in preventing the propagation of secondary flows that is, the transport of casing and hub boundary layers by pressure gradients. Some preliminary results on how the blowing should be accomplished in order to influence the secondary flows in the desired manner are given. The effectiveness of blowing is demonstrated. Blowing is also seen to be more effective than using boundary layer slots as far as diminishing losses in the rim zones is concerned.

  18. Dimensional approach on hot air turbine power plant in opened cycle for straw recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bălănescu, D. T.; Homutescu, V. M.; Atanasiu, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    Currently, disposal of straw is one of the biggest problems that crop plant producers are facing. The ideal case implies not only to get rid of straw but also to recover its energetic potential. In this context, the performance of a hot air turbine power plant operating in open cycle, with straw as fuel, was analyzed in a previous study and proved to be a very interesting solution for straw disposal. As consequence, dimensional analysis of the hot air turbine power plant is required into the next step and this makes the subject of the present study. The dimensional analysis is focused on the compressed air heater - the largest component of the Power Plant, with crucial role in what concerns its entire size and mass. Once both performance and dimensional analysis performed, the final conclusions are drawn in an overall approach, by taking also into consideration the economic aspects.

  19. Interim Report: Air-Cooled Condensers for Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants Improved Binary Cycle Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel S. Wendt; Greg L. Mines

    2010-09-01

    As geothermal resources that are more expensive to develop are utilized for power generation, there will be increased incentive to use more efficient power plants. This is expected to be the case with Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) resources. These resources will likely require wells drilled to depths greater than encountered with hydrothermal resources, and will have the added costs for stimulation to create the subsurface reservoir. It is postulated that plants generating power from these resources will likely utilize the binary cycle technology where heat is rejected sensibly to the ambient. The consumptive use of a portion of the produced geothermal fluid for evaporative heat rejection in the conventional flash-steam conversion cycle is likely to preclude its use with EGS resources. This will be especially true in those areas where there is a high demand for finite supplies of water. Though they have no consumptive use of water, using air-cooling systems for heat rejection has disadvantages. These systems have higher capital costs, reduced power output (heat is rejected at the higher dry-bulb temperature), increased parasitics (fan power), and greater variability in power generation on both a diurnal and annual basis (larger variation in the dry-bulb temperature). This is an interim report for the task ‘Air-Cooled Condensers in Next- Generation Conversion Systems’. The work performed was specifically aimed at a plant that uses commercially available binary cycle technologies with an EGS resource. Concepts were evaluated that have the potential to increase performance, lower cost, or mitigate the adverse effects of off-design operation. The impact on both cost and performance were determined for the concepts considered, and the scenarios identified where a particular concept is best suited. Most, but not all, of the concepts evaluated are associated with the rejection of heat. This report specifically addresses three of the concepts evaluated: the use of

  20. Use of Air2Air Technology to Recover Fresh-Water from the Normal Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Mortensen

    2009-06-30

    This program was undertaken to build and operate the first Air2Air{trademark} Water Conservation Cooling Tower at a power plant, giving a validated basis and capability for water conservation by this method. Air2Air{trademark} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10%-25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate).

  1. The start-up of a gas turbine engine using compressed air tangentially fed onto the blades of the basic turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slobodyanyuk, L. K.; Dayneko, V. I.

    1983-01-01

    The use of compressed air was suggested to increase the reliability and motor lifetime of a gas turbine engine. Experiments were carried out and the results are shown in the form of the variation in circumferential force as a function of the entry angle of the working jet onto the turbine blade. The described start-up method is recommended for use with massive rotors.

  2. Gas turbine engine adapted for use in combination with an apparatus for separating a portion of oxygen from compressed air

    DOEpatents

    Bland, Robert J [Oviedo, FL; Horazak, Dennis A [Orlando, FL

    2012-03-06

    A gas turbine engine is provided comprising an outer shell, a compressor assembly, at least one combustor assembly, a turbine assembly and duct structure. The outer shell includes a compressor section, a combustor section, an intermediate section and a turbine section. The intermediate section includes at least one first opening and at least one second opening. The compressor assembly is located in the compressor section to define with the compressor section a compressor apparatus to compress air. The at least one combustor assembly is coupled to the combustor section to define with the combustor section a combustor apparatus. The turbine assembly is located in the turbine section to define with the turbine section a turbine apparatus. The duct structure is coupled to the intermediate section to receive at least a portion of the compressed air from the compressor apparatus through the at least one first opening in the intermediate section, pass the compressed air to an apparatus for separating a portion of oxygen from the compressed air to produced vitiated compressed air and return the vitiated compressed air to the intermediate section via the at least one second opening in the intermediate section.

  3. Effect of RANS-Type Turbulence Models on Adiabatic Film Cooling Effectiveness over a Scaled Up Gas Turbine Blade Leading Edge Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yepuri, Giridhara Babu; Talanki Puttarangasetty, Ashok Babu; Kolke, Deepak Kumar; Jesuraj, Felix

    2016-06-01

    Increasing the gas turbine inlet temperature is one of the key technologies in raising gas turbine engine power output. Film cooling is one of the efficient cooling techniques to cool the hot section components of a gas turbine engines in turn the turbine inlet temperature can be increased. This study aims at investigating the effect of RANS-type turbulence models on adiabatic film cooling effectiveness over a scaled up gas turbine blade leading edge surfaces. For the evaluation, five different two equation RANS-type turbulent models have been taken in consideration, which are available in the ANSYS-Fluent. For this analysis, the gas turbine blade leading edge configuration is generated using Solid Works. The meshing is done using ANSYS-Workbench Mesh and ANSYS-Fluent is used as a solver to solve the flow field. The considered gas turbine blade leading edge model is having five rows of film cooling circular holes, one at stagnation line and the two each on either side of stagnation line at 30° and 60° respectively. Each row has the five holes with the hole diameter of 4 mm, pitch of 21 mm arranged in staggered manner and has the hole injection angle of 30° in span wise direction. The experiments are carried in a subsonic cascade tunnel facility at heat transfer lab of CSIR-National Aerospace Laboratory with a Reynolds number of 1,00,000 based on leading edge diameter. From the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) evaluation it is found that K-ɛ Realizable model gives more acceptable results with the experimental values, compared to the other considered turbulence models for this type of geometries. Further the CFD evaluated results, using K-ɛ Realizable model at different blowing ratios are compared with the experimental results.

  4. Cooling Rates of Humans in Air and in Water: An Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2012-12-01

    In a previous article I analyzed in detail the physical factors resulting in greater cooling rates of objects in still water than in still air, emphasizing cooling of the human body. By cooling rate I mean the rate of decrease of core temperature uncompensated by metabolism. I concluded that the "correct ratio for humans is closer to 2 than to 10." To support this assertion I subsequently did experiments, which I report following a digression on hypothermia.

  5. Using Firn Air for Facility Cooling at the WAIS Divide Site

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-17

    65% in conver- sion of electrical power into the theoretical fan power calculated as de- scribed above. The gross cooling effect delivered is simply...ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 4- 19 Engineering for Polar Operations, Logistics, and Research (EPOLAR) Using Firn Air for Facility Cooling at...Facility Cooling at the WAIS Divide Site Jason Weale, Mary Albert, Gary Phetteplace Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) U.S. Army

  6. [Studies on the performance of the dental air turbine handpieces. (Part 4) Analysis of the rotational performance of air turbine handpieces (N = N0 - CvFv gamma (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Miyairi, H; Nagai, M; Fukuda, H; Muramatsu, A

    1981-04-01

    By the introduction of the diamond instruments and carbide burs measurably improved the quality and ease of cavity preparation, the several kinds of the air turbine handpieces, that is, standard type, torque type and miniature type air handpieces have been recently developed. In this paper, the performance tests of these air turbine handpieces have been carried out, and obtained the relations are indicated speeds and the vertical and horizontal loads or torque using the test bur. These relations are indicated by the logarithmic expressions, N = N0 - CvFv gamma, where N is the rotational speed of the air turbine handpieces during rotation, N0 is the free rotational speed of the air turbine handpieces, Fv is the vertical loads on the tests burs and Cv and gamma is the experimental constants. And then, the maximum performed work or the air turbine handpieces is presented by the expression as follows. W max = pimicrod/60(1/Cv)1/ gamma gamma (N0/gamma + 1)(1 + gamma)/gamma And we proposed the formula to be calculated for the performance ability of the air turbine handpieces.

  7. Preliminary investigation of cooling-air ejector performance at pressure ratios from 1 to 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, C W; Hollister, D P; Sargent, A F , Jr

    1951-01-01

    Preliminary investigation was made of conical cooling air ejector at primary pressure ratios from 1 to 10. The cooling-air flow was maintained at zero and the resulting pressure variation in the shroud indicated pumping ability. The cooling-air flow was maintained at zero and the resulting pressure variation in the shroud indicated pumping ability. The gross thrust of the ejector and nozzle were compared. Several ratios of the spacing between the nozzle and shroud exit to the nozzle exit diameter were investigated for several shroud to nozzle exit diameter ratios. Maximum gross thrust loss occurred under conditions of zero cooling-air flow and was as much as 35 percent below nozzle jet thrust. For minimum thrust loss, ejector should be designed with as low diameter and spacing ratio as possible.

  8. Exit chimney joint and method of forming the joint for closed circuit steam cooled gas turbine nozzles

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian; Burns, James Lee

    2002-01-01

    A nozzle segment for a gas turbine includes inner and outer band portions and a vane extending between the band portions. The inner and outer band portions are each divided into first and second plenums separated by an impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to the first cavity for flow through the apertures to cool the outer nozzle wall. The steam flows through a leading edge cavity in the vane into the first cavity of the inner band portion for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the inner nozzle wall. Spent cooling steam flows through a plurality of cavities in the vane, exiting through an exit chimney in the outer band. The exit chimney is secured at its inner end directly to the nozzle vane wall surrounding the exit cavities, to the margin of the impingement plate at a location intermediate the ends of the exit chimney and to margins of an opening through the cover whereby each joint is externally accessible for joint formation and for subsequent inspection.

  9. Industrial stator vane with sequential impingement cooling inserts

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Russell B; Fedock, John A; Goebel, Gloria E; Krueger, Judson J; Rawlings, Christopher K; Memmen, Robert L

    2013-08-06

    A turbine stator vane for an industrial engine, the vane having two impingement cooling inserts that produce a series of impingement cooling from the pressure side to the suction side of the vane walls. Each insert includes a spar with a row of alternating impingement cooling channels and return air channels extending in a radial direction. Impingement cooling plates cover the two sides of the insert and having rows of impingement cooling holes aligned with the impingement cooling channels and return air openings aligned with the return air channel.

  10. Thermo-economic comparative analysis of gas turbine GT10 integrated with air and steam bottoming cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaja, Daniel; Chmielnak, Tadeusz; Lepszy, Sebastian

    2014-12-01

    A thermodynamic and economic analysis of a GT10 gas turbine integrated with the air bottoming cycle is presented. The results are compared to commercially available combined cycle power plants based on the same gas turbine. The systems under analysis have a better chance of competing with steam bottoming cycle configurations in a small range of the power output capacity. The aim of the calculations is to determine the final cost of electricity generated by the gas turbine air bottoming cycle based on a 25 MW GT10 gas turbine with the exhaust gas mass flow rate of about 80 kg/s. The article shows the results of thermodynamic optimization of the selection of the technological structure of gas turbine air bottoming cycle and of a comparative economic analysis. Quantities are determined that have a decisive impact on the considered units profitability and competitiveness compared to the popular technology based on the steam bottoming cycle. The ultimate quantity that can be compared in the calculations is the cost of 1 MWh of electricity. It should be noted that the systems analyzed herein are power plants where electricity is the only generated product. The performed calculations do not take account of any other (potential) revenues from the sale of energy origin certificates. Keywords: Gas turbine air bottoming cycle, Air bottoming cycle, Gas turbine, GT10

  11. Mechanical Design of a Performance Test Rig for the Turbine Air-Flow Task (TAFT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xenofos, George; Forbes, John; Farrow, John; Williams, Robert; Tyler, Tom; Sargent, Scott; Moharos, Jozsef

    2003-01-01

    To support development of the Boeing-Rocketdyne RS84 rocket engine, a fill-flow, reaction turbine geometry was integrated into the NASA-MSFC turbine air-flow test facility. A mechanical design was generated which minimized the amount of new hardware while incorporating all test and instrUmentation requirements. This paper provides details of the mechanical design for this Turbine Air-Flow Task (TAFT) test rig. The mechanical design process utilized for this task included the following basic stages: Conceptual Design. Preliminary Design. Detailed Design. Baseline of Design (including Configuration Control and Drawing Revision). Fabrication. Assembly. During the design process, many lessons were learned that should benefit future test rig design projects. Of primary importance are well-defined requirements early in the design process, a thorough detailed design package, and effective communication with both the customer and the fabrication contractors. The test rig provided steady and unsteady pressure data necessary to validate the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The rig also helped characterize the turbine blade loading conditions. Test and CFD analysis results are to be presented in another JANNAF paper.

  12. Water cooling system for an air-breathing hypersonic test vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petley, Dennis H.; Dziedzic, William M.

    1993-01-01

    This study provides concepts for hypersonic experimental scramjet test vehicles which have low cost and low risk. Cryogenic hydrogen is used as the fuel and coolant. Secondary water cooling systems were designed. Three concepts are shown: an all hydrogen cooling system, a secondary open loop water cooled system, and a secondary closed loop water cooled system. The open loop concept uses high pressure helium (15,000 psi) to drive water through the cooling system while maintaining the pressure in the water tank. The water flows through the turbine side of the turbopump to pump hydrogen fuel. The water is then allowed to vent. In the closed loop concept high pressure, room temperature, compressed liquid water is circulated. In flight water pressure is limited to 6000 psi by venting some of the water. Water is circulated through cooling channels via an ejector which uses high pressure gas to drive a water jet. The cooling systems are presented along with finite difference steady-state and transient analysis results. The results from this study indicate that water used as a secondary coolant can be designed to increase experimental test time, produce minimum venting of fluid and reduce overall development cost.

  13. Turbine blade tip durability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.; Laflen, J. H.; Spamer, G. T.

    1981-01-01

    An air-cooled turbine blade from an aircraft gas turbine engine chosen for its history of cracking was subjected to advanced analytical and life-prediction techniques. The utility of advanced structural analysis techniques and advanced life-prediction techniques in the life assessment of hot section components are verified. Three dimensional heat transfer and stress analyses were applied to the turbine blade mission cycle and the results were input into advanced life-prediction theories. Shortcut analytical techniques were developed. The proposed life-prediction theories are evaluated.

  14. Research on cooling effectiveness in stepped slot film cooling vane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yulong; Wu, Hong; Zhou, Feng; Rong, Chengjun

    2016-06-01

    As one of the most important developments in air cooling technology for hot parts of the aero-engine, film cooling technology has been widely used. Film cooling hole structure exists mainly in areas that have high temperature, uneven cooling effectiveness issues when in actual use. The first stage turbine vanes of the aero-engine consume the largest portion of cooling air, thereby the research on reducing the amount of cooling air has the greatest potential. A new stepped slot film cooling vane with a high cooling effectiveness and a high cooling uniformity was researched initially. Through numerical methods, the affecting factors of the cooling effectiveness of a vane with the stepped slot film cooling structure were researched. This paper focuses on the cooling effectiveness and the pressure loss in different blowing ratio conditions, then the most reasonable and scientific structure parameter can be obtained by analyzing the results. The results show that 1.0 mm is the optimum slot width and 10.0 is the most reasonable blowing ratio. Under this condition, the vane achieved the best cooling result and the highest cooling effectiveness, and also retained a low pressure loss.

  15. Analysis of nocturnal air temperature in districts using mobile measurements and a cooling indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leconte, François; Bouyer, Julien; Claverie, Rémy; Pétrissans, Mathieu

    2016-08-01

    The urban heat island phenomenon is generally defined as an air temperature difference between a city center and the non-urbanized rural areas nearby. However, this description does not encompass the intra-urban temperature differences that exist between neighborhoods in a city. This study investigates the air temperature dynamics of neighborhoods for meteorological conditions that lead to important urban heat island amplitude. Local climate zones (LCZs) have been determined in Nancy, France, and mobile screen-height air temperature measurements are performed using an instrumented vehicle. Initially, hourly measurements are performed within four different LCZs. These results show that air temperature within LCZ demonstrates a nocturnal cooling in two phases, i.e., a first phase between 1 to 3 h before sunset and 3 to 5 h after sunset, and a second phase from 3 to 5 h after sunset to sunrise. During phase 1, neighborhoods exhibit different cooling rate values and air temperature gaps develop between districts, while during phase 2, cooling rates tend to be analogous. Then, a larger meteorological data set is used to investigate these two phases for a selection of 13 LCZs. Normalized cooling rates are calculated between daytime measures and nighttime measures in order to quantify the air temperature dynamics of the studied areas during phase 1. Considering this indicator, three groups are emerging: LCZ compact midrise and open midrise with mean normalized cooling rate values of 0.09 h -1 LCZ large lowrise and open lowrise/sparsely built with mean normalized cooling rate values of 0.011 h -1 LCZ low plants with mean normalized cooling rate values of 0.014 h -1 Results indicate that the relative position of LCZ within the conurbation does not drive air temperature dynamics during phase 1. In addition, measures performed during phase 2 tend to illustrate that cooling rates are similar to all LCZ during this period.

  16. Perceiving nasal patency through mucosal cooling rather than air temperature or nasal resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kai; Blacker, Kara; Luo, Yuehao; Bryant, Bruce; Jiang, Jianbo

    2011-01-01

    Adequate perception of nasal airflow (i.e., nasal patency) is an important consideration for patients with nasal sinus diseases. The perception of a lack of nasal patency becomes the primary symptom that drives these patients to seek medical treatment. However, clinical assessment of nasal patency remains a challenge because we lack objective measurements that correlate well with what patients perceive. The current study examined factors that may influence perceived patency, including air temperature, humidity, mucosal cooling, nasal resistance, and trigeminal sensitivity. Forty-four healthy subjects rated nasal patency while sampling air from three facial exposure boxes that were ventilated with untreated room air, cold air, and dry air, respectively. In all conditions, air temperature and relative humidity inside each box were recorded with sensors connected to a computer. Nasal resistance and minimum airway cross-sectional area (MCA) were measured using rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry, respectively. General trigeminal sensitivity was assessed through lateralization thresholds to butanol. No significant correlation was found between perceived patency and nasal resistance or MCA. In contrast, air temperature, humidity, and butanol threshold combined significantly contributed to the ratings of patency, with mucosal cooling (heat loss) being the most heavily weighted predictor. Air humidity significantly influences perceived patency, suggesting that mucosal cooling rather than air temperature alone provides the trigeminal sensation that results in perception of patency. The dynamic cooling between the airstream and the mucosal wall may be quantified experimentally or computationally and could potentially lead to a new clinical evaluation tool.

  17. Design considerations and experimental observations for the TAMU air-cooled reactor cavity cooling system for the VHTR

    SciTech Connect

    Sulaiman, S. A. Dominguez-Ontiveros, E. E. Alhashimi, T. Budd, J. L. Matos, M. D. Hassan, Y. A.

    2015-04-29

    The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) is a promising passive decay heat removal system for the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) to ensure reliability of the transfer of the core residual and decay heat to the environment under all off-normal circumstances. A small scale experimental test facility was constructed at Texas A and M University (TAMU) to study pertinent multifaceted thermal hydraulic phenomena in the air-cooled reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) design based on the General Atomics (GA) concept for the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR). The TAMU Air-Cooled Experimental Test Facility is ⅛ scale from the proposed GA-MHTGR design. Groundwork for experimental investigations focusing into the complex turbulence mixing flow behavior inside the upper plenum is currently underway. The following paper illustrates some of the chief design considerations used in construction of the experimental test facility, complete with an outline of the planned instrumentation and data acquisition methods. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were carried out to furnish some insights on the overall behavior of the air flow in the system. CFD simulations assisted the placement of the flow measurement sensors location. Preliminary experimental observations of experiments at 120oC inlet temperature suggested the presence of flow reversal for cases involving single active riser at both 5 m/s and 2.25 m/s, respectively and four active risers at 2.25 m/s. Flow reversal may lead to thermal stratification inside the upper plenum by means of steady state temperature measurements. A Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experiment was carried out to furnish some insight on flow patterns and directions.

  18. A Feasibility Study of Life-Extending Controls for Aircraft Turbine Engines Using a Generic Air Force Model (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    engine model is a detailed, physics-based engine model of a two-spool, non-augmented, low bypass ratio engine developed using MATLAB/ Simulink ® [9]. The...AFRL-PR-WP-TP-2007-218 A FEASIBILITY STUDY OF LIFE- EXTENDING CONTROLS FOR AIRCRAFT TURBINE ENGINES USING A GENERIC AIR FORCE MODEL (PREPRINT...SUBTITLE A FEASIBILITY STUDY OF LIFE-EXTENDING CONTROLS FOR AIRCRAFT TURBINE ENGINES USING A GENERIC AIR FORCE MODEL (PREPRINT) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  19. Dehumidifying Air for Cooling & Refrigeration: Nanotechnology Membrane-based Dehumidifier

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Dais is developing a product called NanoAir which dehumidifies the air entering a building to make air conditioning more energy efficient. The system uses a polymer membrane that allows moisture but not air to pass through it. A vacuum behind the membrane pulls water vapor from the air, and a second set of membranes releases the water vapor outside. The membrane’s high selectivity translates into reduced energy consumption for dehumidification. Dais’ design goals for NanoAir are the use of proprietary materials and processes and industry-standard installation techniques. NanoAir is also complementary to many other energy saving strategies, including energy recovery.

  20. Turbo test rig with hydroinertia air bearings for a palmtop gas turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Shuji; Isomura, Kousuke; Togo, Shin-ichi; Esashi, Masayoshi

    2004-11-01

    This paper describes a turbo test rig to test the compressor of a palmtop gas turbine generator at low temperature (<100 °C). Impellers are 10 mm in diameter and have three-dimensional blades machined using a five-axis NC milling machine. Hydroinertia bearings are employed in both radial and axial directions. The performance of the compressor was measured at 50% (435 000 rpm) and 60% (530 000 rpm) of the rated rotational speed (870 000 rpm) by driving a turbine using compressed air at room temperature. The measured pressure ratio is lower than the predicted value. This could be mainly because impeller tip clearance was larger than the designed value. The measured adiabatic efficiency is unrealistically high due to heat dissipation from compressed air. During acceleration toward the rated rotational speed, a shaft crashed to the bearing at 566 000 rpm due to whirl. At that time, the whirl ratio was 8.

  1. Cold-air investigation of a 3 1/2-stage fan-drive turbine with a stage loading factor of 4 designed for an integral lift engine. 1: Turbine design and performance of first stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, W. J.; Schum, H. J.; Behning, F. P.

    1975-01-01

    The design of the 3 1/2-stage turbine is described, and the cold-air performance of the first stage, modified for axial inlet conditions, is presented. The performance of the modified single-stage turbine and of two comtemporary high-stage-loading-factor turbines is compared with that estimated with a reference prediction method.

  2. Experimental study on corrugated cross-flow air-cooled plate heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Minsung; Baik, Young-Jin; Park, Seong-Ryong; Ra, Ho-Sang; Lim, Hyug

    2010-11-15

    Experimental study on cross-flow air-cooled plate heat exchangers (PHEs) was performed. The two prototype PHEs were manufactured in a stack of single-wave plates and double-wave plates in parallel. Cooling air flows through the PHEs in a crosswise direction against internal cooling water. The heat exchanger aims to substitute open-loop cooling towers with closed-loop water circulation, which guarantees cleanliness and compactness. In this study, the prototype PHEs were tested in a laboratory scale experiments. From the tests, double-wave PHE shows approximately 50% enhanced heat transfer performance compared to single-wave PHE. However, double-wave PHE costs 30% additional pressure drop. For commercialization, a wide channel design for air flow would be essential for reliable performance. (author)

  3. Calculations of Laminar Heat Transfer Around Cylinders of Arbitrary Cross Section and Transpiration-Cooled Walls with Application to Turbine Blade Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, E R G; Livingood, J N B

    1955-01-01

    An approximate method for the development of flow and thermal boundary layers in the laminar region on cylinders with arbitrary cross section and transpiration-cooled walls is obtained by the use of Karman's integrated momentum equation and an analogous heat-flow equation. Incompressible flow with constant property values throughout the boundary layer is assumed. The velocity and temperature profiles within the boundary layer are approximated by expressions composed of trigonometric functions. Shape parameters for these profiles and functions necessary for the solution of the boundary-layer equations are presented as graphs so that the calculation for any specific case is reduced to the solution of two first-order differential equations. This method is applied to determine local heat-transfer coefficients and surface temperatures in the laminar flow region of the transpiration-cooled turbine blades for a given coolant flow rate, or to calculate the coolant flow distribution which is necessary in order to keep the blade temperature uniform along the surface.

  4. Correlation of Cooling Data from an Air-Cooled Cylinder and Several Multicylinder Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, Benjamin; Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr

    1940-01-01

    The theory of engine-cylinder cooling developed in a previous report was further substantiated by data obtained on a cylinder from a Wright r-1820-g engine. Equations are presented for the average head and barrel temperatures of this cylinder as functions of the engine and the cooling conditions. These equations are utilized to calculate the variation in cylinder temperature with altitude for level flight and climb. A method is presented for correlating average head and barrel temperatures and temperatures at individual points on the head and the barrel obtained on the test stand and in flight. The method is applied to the correlation and the comparison of data obtained on a number of service engines. Data are presented showing the variation of cylinder temperature with time when the power and the cooling pressure drop are suddenly changed.

  5. Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Mortensen

    2011-12-31

    This program was undertaken to enhance the manufacturability, constructability, and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation and Plume Abatement Cooling Tower, giving a validated cost basis and capability. Air2Air{TM} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10% - 25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate). This program improved the efficiency and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation Cooling Tower capability, and led to the first commercial sale of the product, as described.

  6. Comparison of central axis and jet ring coolant supply for turbine disk cooling on a SSME-HPOTP model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Y. W.; Metzger, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    The test facility, test methods and results are presented for an experimental study modeling the cooling of turbine disks in the blade attachment regions with multiple impinging jets, in a configuration simulating the disk cooling method employed on the Space Shuttle Main Engine oxygen turbopump. The study's objective was to provide a comparison of detailed local convection heat transfer rates obtained for a single center-supply of disk coolant with those obtained with the present flight configuration where disk coolant is supplied through an array of 19 jets located near the disk outer radius. Specially constructed disk models were used in a program designed to evaluate possible benefits and identify any possible detrimental effects involved in employing an alternate disk cooling scheme. The study involved the design, construction and testing of two full scale rotating model disks, one plane and smooth for baseline testing and the second contoured to the present flight configuration, together with the corresponding plane and contoured stator disks. Local heat transfer rates are determined from the color display of encapsulated liquid crystals coated on the disk in conjunction with use of a computer vision system. The test program was composed of a wide variety of disk speeds, flowrates, and geometrical configurations, including testing for the effects of disk boltheads and gas ingestion from the gas path region radially outboard of the disk-cavity.

  7. Effects of wake and shock passing on the heat transfer to a film cooled transonic turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigby, M. J.

    An attempt is made to further the understanding of film cooling process in an engine environment. The environment in a gas turbine is unsteady. A source of unsteadiness, the cutting of nozzle guide vane (NGV) wakes and shock waves by the rotor, was modeled experimentally. The influence of the unsteady wakes and shock waves on the heat transfer to a film cooled rotor blade was studied for five film cooling configurations using a rotating bar apparatus in front of a 2-D cascade. Heat transfer measurements were made using thin film gauges placed at the mid-span of the test blade. Schlieren photography was used to study the behavior of the coolant film and the movement of the unsteady shock waves and wakes. The effect of simulated NGV wake passing observed on the uncooled airfoil is to promote an intermittent transition of the suction surface. The effect of the wake on the turbulent pressure surface is small. With injection on the suction surface, the film acts as a boundary layer trip which offsets the rise in heat transfer due to the wake. The simulated NGV trailing edge shock wave had a dramatic effect on the suction surface heat transfer.

  8. Blade-to-coolant heat-transfer results and operating data from a natural-convection water-cooled single-stage turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaguila, Anthony J; Freche, John C

    1951-01-01

    Blade-to-coolant heat-transfer data and operating data were obtained with a natural-convection water-cooled turbine over range of turbine speeds and inlet-gas temperatures. The convective coefficients were correlated by the general relation for natural-convection heat transfer. The turbine data were displaced from a theoretical equation for natural convection heat transfer in the turbulent region and from natural-convection data obtained with vertical cylinders and plates; possible disruption of natural convection circulation within the blade coolant passages was thus indicated. Comparison of non dimensional temperature-ratio parameters for the blade leading edge, midchord, and trailing edge indicated that the blade cooling effectiveness is greatest at the midchord and least at the trailing edge.

  9. A miniaturized piezoelectric turbine with self-regulation for increased air speed range

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Hailing Yeatman, Eric M.

    2015-12-14

    This paper presents the design and demonstration of a piezoelectric turbine with self-regulation for increased air speed range. The turbine's transduction is achieved by magnetic “plucking” of a piezoelectric beam by the passing rotor. The increased speed range is achieved by the self-regulating mechanism which can dynamically adjust the magnetic coupling between the magnets on the turbine rotor and the piezoelectric beam using a micro-spring. The spring is controlled passively by the centrifugal force of the magnet on the rotor. This mechanism automatically changes the relative position of the magnets at different rotational speeds, making the coupling weak at low airflow speeds and strong at high speeds. Hence, the device can start up with a low airflow speed, and the output power can be ensured when the airflow speed is high. A theoretical model was established to analyse the turbine's performance, advantages, and to optimize its design parameters. A prototype was fabricated and tested in a wind tunnel. The start-up airflow speed was 2.34 m/s, showing a 30% improvement against a harvester without the mechanism.

  10. A miniaturized piezoelectric turbine with self-regulation for increased air speed range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Hailing; Yeatman, Eric M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the design and demonstration of a piezoelectric turbine with self-regulation for increased air speed range. The turbine's transduction is achieved by magnetic "plucking" of a piezoelectric beam by the passing rotor. The increased speed range is achieved by the self-regulating mechanism which can dynamically adjust the magnetic coupling between the magnets on the turbine rotor and the piezoelectric beam using a micro-spring. The spring is controlled passively by the centrifugal force of the magnet on the rotor. This mechanism automatically changes the relative position of the magnets at different rotational speeds, making the coupling weak at low airflow speeds and strong at high speeds. Hence, the device can start up with a low airflow speed, and the output power can be ensured when the airflow speed is high. A theoretical model was established to analyse the turbine's performance, advantages, and to optimize its design parameters. A prototype was fabricated and tested in a wind tunnel. The start-up airflow speed was 2.34 m/s, showing a 30% improvement against a harvester without the mechanism.

  11. Local heat transfer in turbine disk-cavities. I - Rotor and stator cooling with hub injection of coolant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunker, R. S.; Metzger, D. E.; Wittig, S.

    1990-06-01

    Detailed radial heat-transfer coefficient distributions applicable to the cooling of disk-cavity regions of gas turbines are obtained experimentally from local heat-transfer data on both the rotating and stationary surfaces of a parallel-geometry disk-cavity system. Attention is focused on the hub injection of a coolant over a wide range of parameters including disk rotational Reynolds numbers of 200,000 to 50,000, rotor/stator spacing-to-disk ratios of 0.025 to 0.15, and jet mass flow rates between 0.10 and 0.40 times the turbulent pumped flow rate of a free disk. It is shown that rotor heat transfer exhibits regions of impingement and rotational domination with a transition region between, while stator heat transfer displays flow reattachment and convection regions with an inner recirculation zone.

  12. Nano-textured copper oxide nanofibers for efficient air cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Seongpil; Jo, Hong Seok; Al-Deyab, Salem S.; Yarin, Alexander L.; Yoon, Sam S.

    2016-02-01

    Ever decreasing of microelectronics devices is challenged by overheating and demands an increase in heat removal rate. Herein, we fabricated highly efficient heat-removal coatings comprised of copper oxide-plated polymer nanofiber layers (thorny devil nanofibers) with high surface-to-volume ratio, which facilitate heat removal from the underlying hot surfaces. The electroplating time and voltage were optimized to form fiber layers with maximal heat removal rate. The copper oxide nanofibers with the thorny devil morphology yielded a superior cooling rate compared to the pure copper nanofibers with the smooth surface morphology. This superior cooling performance is attributed to the enhanced surface area of the thorny devil nanofibers. These nanofibers were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and a thermographic camera.

  13. Effects of ambient room temperature on cold air cooling during laser hair removal.

    PubMed

    Ram, Ramin; Rosenbach, Alan

    2007-09-01

    Forced air cooling is a well-established technique that protects the epidermis during laser heating of deeper structures, thereby allowing for increased laser fluences. The goal of this prospective study was to identify whether an elevation in ambient room temperature influences the efficacy of forced air cooling. Skin surface temperatures were measured on 24 sites (12 subjects) during cold air exposure in examination rooms with ambient temperatures of 72 degrees F (22.2 degrees C) and 82 degrees F (27.8 degrees C), respectively. Before cooling, mean skin surface temperature was 9 degrees F (5 degrees C) higher in the warmer room (P < 0.01). Immediately after exposure to forced air cooling (within 1 s), the skin surface temperature remained considerably higher (10.75 degrees F, or 5.8 degrees C, P < 0.01) in the warmer room. We conclude that forced air cooling in a room with an ambient temperature of 82 degrees F (27.8 degrees C) is not as effective as in a room that is at 72 degrees F (22.2 degrees C).

  14. Performance of Introducing Outdoor Cold Air for Cooling a Plant Production System with Artificial Light.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Tong, Yuxin; Yang, Qichang; Xin, Min

    2016-01-01

    The commercial use of a plant production system with artificial light (PPAL) is limited by its high initial construction and operation costs. The electric-energy consumed by heat pumps, applied mainly for cooling, accounts for 15-35% of the total electric-energy used in a PPAL. To reduce the electric-energy consumption, an air exchanger with low capacity (180 W) was used for cooling by introducing outdoor cold air. In this experiment, the indoor air temperature in two PPALs (floor area: 6.2 m(2) each) was maintained at 25 and 20°C during photoperiod and dark period, respectively, for lettuce production. A null CO2 balance enrichment method was used in both PPALs. In one PPAL (PPALe), an air exchanger (air flow rate: 250 m(3)·h(-1)) was used along with a heat pump (cooling capacity: 3.2 kW) to maintain the indoor air temperature at the set-point. The other PPAL (PPALc) with only a heat pump (cooling capacity: 3.2 kW) was used for reference. Effects of introducing outdoor cold air on energy use efficiency, coefficient of performance (COP), electric-energy consumption for cooling and growth of lettuce were investigated. The results show that: when the air temperature difference between indoor and outdoor ranged from 20.2 to 30.0°C: (1) the average energy use efficiency of the air exchanger was 2.8 and 3.4 times greater than the COP of the heat pumps in the PPALe and PPALc, respectively; (2) hourly electric-energy consumption for cooling in the PPALe reduced by 15.8-73.7% compared with that in the PPALc; (3) daily supply of CO2 in the PPALe reduced from 0.15 to 0.04 kg compared with that in the PPALc with the outdoor air temperature ranging from -5.6 to 2.7°C; (4) no significant difference in lettuce growth was observed in both PPALs. The results indicate that using air exchanger to introduce outdoor cold air should be considered as an effective way to reduce electric-energy consumption for cooling with little effects on plant growth in a PPAL.

  15. Performance of Introducing Outdoor Cold Air for Cooling a Plant Production System with Artificial Light

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Tong, Yuxin; Yang, Qichang; Xin, Min

    2016-01-01

    The commercial use of a plant production system with artificial light (PPAL) is limited by its high initial construction and operation costs. The electric-energy consumed by heat pumps, applied mainly for cooling, accounts for 15–35% of the total electric-energy used in a PPAL. To reduce the electric-energy consumption, an air exchanger with low capacity (180 W) was used for cooling by introducing outdoor cold air. In this experiment, the indoor air temperature in two PPALs (floor area: 6.2 m2 each) was maintained at 25 and 20°C during photoperiod and dark period, respectively, for lettuce production. A null CO2 balance enrichment method was used in both PPALs. In one PPAL (PPALe), an air exchanger (air flow rate: 250 m3·h−1) was used along with a heat pump (cooling capacity: 3.2 kW) to maintain the indoor air temperature at the set-point. The other PPAL (PPALc) with only a heat pump (cooling capacity: 3.2 kW) was used for reference. Effects of introducing outdoor cold air on energy use efficiency, coefficient of performance (COP), electric-energy consumption for cooling and growth of lettuce were investigated. The results show that: when the air temperature difference between indoor and outdoor ranged from 20.2 to 30.0°C: (1) the average energy use efficiency of the air exchanger was 2.8 and 3.4 times greater than the COP of the heat pumps in the PPALe and PPALc, respectively; (2) hourly electric-energy consumption for cooling in the PPALe reduced by 15.8–73.7% compared with that in the PPALc; (3) daily supply of CO2 in the PPALe reduced from 0.15 to 0.04 kg compared with that in the PPALc with the outdoor air temperature ranging from −5.6 to 2.7°C; (4) no significant difference in lettuce growth was observed in both PPALs. The results indicate that using air exchanger to introduce outdoor cold air should be considered as an effective way to reduce electric-energy consumption for cooling with little effects on plant growth in a PPAL. PMID:27066012

  16. Multiple piece turbine blade

    DOEpatents

    Kimmel, Keith D [Jupiter, FL

    2012-05-29

    A turbine rotor blade with a spar and shell construction, the spar including an internal cooling supply channel extending from an inlet end on a root section and ending near the tip end, and a plurality of external cooling channels formed on both side of the spar, where a middle external cooling channel is connected to the internal cooling supply channels through a row of holes located at a middle section of the channels. The spar and the shell are held together by hooks that define serpentine flow passages for the cooling air and include an upper serpentine flow circuit and a lower serpentine flow circuit. the serpentine flow circuits all discharge into a leading edge passage or a trailing edge passage.

  17. A Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer and Effectiveness on Film Cooled Turbine Blade Tip Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ameri, A. A.; Rigby, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    A computational study has been performed to predict the distribution of convective heat transfer coefficient on a simulated blade tip with cooling holes. The purpose of the examination was to assess the ability of a three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solver to predict the rate of tip heat transfer and the distribution of cooling effectiveness. To this end, the simulation of tip clearance flow with blowing of Kim and Metzger was used. The agreement of the computed effectiveness with the data was quite good. The agreement with the heat transfer coefficient was not as good but improved away from the cooling holes. Numerical flow visualization showed that the uniformity of wetting of the surface by the film cooling jet is helped by the reverse flow due to edge separation of the main flow.

  18. Cooling Tests of an Air-Cooled Engine Cylinder with Copper Fins on the Barrel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1942-07-01

    of the piston thermo- couples aro shown in figures 3 and 4. The locations of the cylinder-surface tiernocc-~ples are shown In figure 5. The crankshaft ...the =esult of improvsd fin design shows that the outside barrel temperature may be a poor crite- rion for barrel cooling. ~or example, at 0.7...dimensions in the L . aluminum-muff design Is reetrieted by limits imposed In maohiriing the fins. With aluminum fins, ae with copper fins, the fin

  19. Turbine Vane External Heat Transfer. Volume 1: Analytical and Experimental Evaluation of Surface Heat Transfer Distributions with Leading Edge Showerhead Film Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, E. R.; Wilson, M. D.; Hylton, L. D.; Kaufman, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    Progress in predictive design capabilities for external heat transfer to turbine vanes was summarized. A two dimensional linear cascade (previously used to obtain vane surface heat transfer distributions on nonfilm cooled airfoils) was used to examine the effect of leading edge shower head film cooling on downstream heat transfer. The data were used to develop and evaluate analytical models. Modifications to the two dimensional boundary layer model are described. The results were used to formulate and test an effective viscosity model capable of predicting heat transfer phenomena downstream of the leading edge film cooling array on both the suction and pressure surfaces, with and without mass injection.

  20. Cascade heat transfer tests of the air cooled W501D first stage vane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobery, E. W.; Bunce, R. H.

    1984-06-01

    A full scale (three-vane, four-passage) first stage stator segment from a W501D engine has been studied in a cascade test facility that operates on air preheated to engine compressor discharge conditions and fired with a standard combustor and nozzle assembly. The vanes are internally cooled by means of impingement inserts over most of the surface, with pin fins being used in the trailing edge region. External film cooling is introduced by discrete jets over most of the suction surface, as well as over the aft portion of the pressure surface. The tests were run over a range of cascade pressures, temperatures and Reynolds numbers, with the vanes instrumented to yield metal temperatures, internal cooling air temperatures and pressures, and gas path static pressure near the film cooling holes.

  1. Ecological succession of the microbial communities of an air-conditioning cooling coil in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Acerbi, E; Chénard, C; Miller, D; Gaultier, N E; Heinle, C E; Chang, V W-C; Uchida, A; Drautz-Moses, D I; Schuster, S C; Lauro, F M

    2017-03-01

    Air-conditioning systems harbor microorganisms, potentially spreading them to indoor environments. While air and surfaces in air-conditioning systems are periodically sampled as potential sources of indoor microbes, little is known about the dynamics of cooling coil-associated communities and their effect on the downstream airflow. Here, we conducted a 4-week time series sampling to characterize the succession of an air-conditioning duct and cooling coil after cleaning. Using an universal primer pair targeting hypervariable regions of the 16S/18S ribosomal RNA, we observed a community succession for the condensed water, with the most abundant airborne taxon Agaricomycetes fungi dominating the initial phase and Sphingomonas bacteria becoming the most prevalent taxa toward the end of the experiment. Duplicate air samples collected upstream and downstream of the coil suggest that the system does not act as ecological filter or source/sink for specific microbial taxa during the duration of the experiment.

  2. Air Conditioning with Magnetic Refrigeration : An Efficient, Green Compact Cooling System Using Magnetic Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Astronautics is developing an air conditioning system that relies on magnetic fields. Typical air conditioners use vapor compression to cool air. Vapor compression uses a liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb the heat, and pump the heat out into the external environment. Astronautics’ design uses a novel property of certain materials, called “magnetocaloric materials”, to achieve the same result as liquid refrigerants. These magnetocaloric materials essentially heat up when placed within a magnetic field and cool down when removed, effectively pumping heat out from a cooler to warmer environment. In addition, magnetic refrigeration uses no ozone-depleting gases and is safer to use than conventional air conditioners which are prone to leaks.

  3. The energy saving potential of precooling incoming outdoor air by indirect evaporative cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.; Qin, H.; Huang, Y.J.; Wu, H.; Blumstein, C.

    1992-09-01

    This paper investigates the energy saving potentials of using indirect evaporative coolers to precool incoming outdoor air as the first stage of a standard cooling system. For dry and moderately humid locations, either exhaust room air or outdoor air can be used as the secondary air to the indirect evaporative precooler with similar energy savings. Under these conditions, the use of outdoor air is recommended due to the simplicity in installing the duct system. For humid locations, the use of exhaust room air is recommended because the precooling capacity and energy savings will be greatly increased. For locations with short cooling seasons, the use of indirect evaporative coolers for precooling may not be worthwhile. The paper also gives some simplified indices for easily predicting the precooling capacity, energy savings and water consumption of an indirect evaporative precooler. These indices can be used for cooling systems with continuous operation, but further work is needed to determine whether the same indices are also suitable for cooling systems with intermittent operations.

  4. Numerical analyses of a rocket engine turbine and comparison with air test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Ken; Chan, Daniel C.; Hudson, Susan T.; Gaddis, Stephen W.

    1992-01-01

    The study presents cold air test data on the Space Shuttle Main Engine High Pressure Fuel Turbopump turbine recently collected at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Overall performance data, static pressures on the first- and second-stage nozzles, and static pressures along with the gas path at the hub and tip are gathered and compared with various (1D, quasi-3D, and 3D viscous) analysis procedures. The results of each level of analysis are compared to test data to demonstrate the range of applicability for each step in the design process of a turbine. One-dimensional performance prediction, quasi-3D loading prediction, 3D wall pressure distribution prediction, and 3D viscous wall pressure distribution prediction are illustrated.

  5. Jet array impingement flow distributions and heat transfer characteristics. Effects of initial crossflow and nonuniform array geometry. [gas turbine engine component cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florschuetz, L. W.; Metzger, D. E.; Su, C. C.; Isoda, Y.; Tseng, H. H.

    1982-01-01

    Two-dimensional arrays of circular air jets impinging on a heat transfer surface parallel to the jet orifice plate are considered. The jet flow, after impingement, is constrained to exit in a single direction along the channel formed by the jet orifice plate and the heat transfer surface. The configurations considered are intended to model those of interest in current and contemplated gas turbine airfoil midchord cooling applications. The effects of an initial crossflow which approaches the array through an upstream extension of the channel are considered. Flow distributions as well as heat transfer coefficients and adiabatic wall temperatures resolved to one streamwise hole spacing were measured as a function of the initial crossflow rate and temperature relative to the jet flow rate and temperature. Both Nusselt number profiles and dimensionless adiabatic wall temperature (effectiveness) profiles are presented and discussed. Special test results which show a significant reduction of jet orifice discharge coefficients owing to the effect of a confined crossflow are also presented, along with a flow distribution model which incorporates those effects. A nonuniform array flow distribution model is developed and validated.

  6. Safe and Ecological Refluxing with a Closed-Loop Air Cooling System.

    PubMed

    Böhmdorfer, Stefan; Eilenberger, Gottfried; Zweckmair, Thomas; Sumerskii, Ivan; Potthast, Antje; Rosenau, Thomas

    2017-01-20

    Off-the-shelf computer cooling hardware was used to construct a closed-loop air cooling system (CLACS) that is distinguished by scalability, low energy, and no tap water consumption. Constructed to be generally used with laboratory condensers, the system was tested with several common low and high boiling solvents and showed a condensation performance equivalent to conventional tap water cooling. Reaction yields were therefore unaffected. Also, long-lasting Soxhlet extractions showed no performance loss relative to conventional cooling. Optionally, the device can be assembled from low-voltage components and be powered from a battery, rendering it independent of the main power. Both investment and running costs are minimal, allowing a lab-wide adoption and elimination of the two major drawbacks of commonly employed tap water cooling: waste of drinking water and the risk of flooding.

  7. Two major volcanic cooling episodes derived from global marine air temperature, AD 1807-1827

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenoweth, Michael

    A new data set of global marine air temperature data for the years 1807-1827 is used to show the impact of volcanic eruptions in ˜ 1809 (unlocated) and 1815 (Tambora, Indonesia). Both eruptions produced cooling exceeding that after Krakatoa, Indonesia (1883) and Pinatubo, Philippines (1991). The ˜1809 eruption is dated to March-June 1808 based on a sudden cooling in Malaysian temperature data and maximum cooling of marine air temperature in 1809. Two large-scale calibrated proxy temperature records, one from tree-ring-density data, the other using multi-proxy sources are compared to the marine air temperature data. Correlation is highest with maximum latewood density data and lowest with the multi-proxy data.

  8. Operating characteristics of an air-cooling PEMFC for portable applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Young-Jun; Park, Gu-Gon; Yang, Tae-Hyun; Yoon, Young-Gi; Lee, Won-Yong; Yim, Sung-Dae; Kim, Chang-Soo

    Optimal design and proper operation is important to get designed output power of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack. The air-cooling fuel cell stack is widely used in sub kW PEMFC systems. The purpose of this study is to analyze the operating conditions affecting the performance of an air-cooling PEMFC which is designed for portable applications. It is difficult to maintain well balanced operating conditions. These parameters are the relative humidity, the temperature of the stack, the utility ratio of the reactant gas and so on. In this study a 500 W rate air-cooling PEMFC was fabricated and tested to evaluate the design performance and to determine optimal operating conditions. Moreover, basic modeling also is carried out. These results can be used as design criteria and optimal operating conditions for portable PEMFCs.

  9. Mathematical equations for heat conduction in the fins of air-cooled engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, R R; Brown, W B

    1923-01-01

    The problem considered in this report is that of reducing actual geometrical area of fin-cooling surface, which is, of course, not uniform in temperature, to equivalent cooling area at one definite temperature, namely, that prevailing on the cylinder wall at the point of attachment of the fin. This makes it possible to treat all the cooling surface as if it were part of the cylinder wall and 100 per cent effective. The quantities involved in the equations are the geometrical dimensions of the fin, thermal conductivity of the material composing it, and the coefficient of surface heat dissipation between the fin and the air streams.

  10. High-power air-cooled SiC-clad Nd:YVO4 slab lasers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Niu, Jinfu; Xu, Jianqiu; Xu, Jingzhong

    2011-05-15

    We demonstrate a diode-pumped, air-cooled, 100 W class SiC-clad Nd:YVO(4) active slab laser based on diffusion bonding of two SiC plates to a thin Nd:YVO(4) slab. We obtained 83 W of cw output power with a slope efficiency of 27% without water cooling. This demonstration initiates a novel (to the best of our knowledge) cooling design for efficient removal of waste heat generated from the diode edge-pumped high-power slab laser at room temperature.

  11. Optimum dry-cooling sub-systems for a solar air conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. L. S.; Namkoong, D.

    1978-01-01

    Dry-cooling sub-systems for residential solar powered Rankine compression air conditioners were economically optimized and compared with the cost of a wet cooling tower. Results in terms of yearly incremental busbar cost due to the use of dry-cooling were presented for Philadelphia and Miami. With input data corresponding to local weather, energy rate and capital costs, condenser surface designs and performance, the computerized optimization program yields design specifications of the sub-system which has the lowest annual incremental cost.

  12. Real-Time Optical Fuel-to-Air Ratio Sensor for Gas Turbine Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Mongia, Rajiv K.; Dibble, Robert W.

    1999-01-01

    The measurement of the temporal distribution of fuel in gas turbine combustors is important in considering pollution, combustion efficiency and combustor dynamics and acoustics. Much of the previous work in measuring fuel distributions in gas turbine combustors has focused on the spatial aspect of the distribution. The temporal aspect however, has often been overlooked, even though it is just as important. In part, this is due to the challenges of applying real-time diagnostic techniques in a high pressure and high temperature environment. A simple and low-cost instrument that non-intrusively measures the real-time fuel-to-air ratio (FAR) in a gas turbine combustor has been developed. The device uses a dual wavelength laser absorption technique to measure the concentration of most hydrocarbon fuels such as jet fuel, methane, propane, etc. The device can be configured to use fiber optics to measure the local FAR inside a high pressure test rig without the need for windows. Alternatively, the device can readily be used in test rigs that have existing windows without modifications. An initial application of this instrument was to obtain time-resolved measurements of the FAR in the premixer of a lean premixed prevaporized (LPP) combustor at inlet air pressures and temperatures as high as 17 atm at 800 K, with liquid JP-8 as the fuel. Results will be presented that quantitatively show the transient nature of the local FAR inside a LPP gas turbine combustor at actual operating conditions. The high speed (kHz) time resolution of this device, combined with a rugged fiber optic delivery system, should enable the realization of a flight capable active-feedback and control system for the abatement of noise and pollutant emissions in the future. Other applications that require an in-situ and time-resolved measurement of fuel vapor concentrations should also find this device to be of use.

  13. Scalp cooling by cold air for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    Hillen, H F; Breed, W P; Botman, C J

    1990-12-01

    A new system is described for cooling the scalp with cold air in order to prevent chemotherapy-induced alopecia. Compressed air was cooled by means of a vortex tube built into a hair-drier cap. This system reduced the blood flow in the scalp to 35%, the surface temperature to 14.2 degrees C and the intradermal temperature at hair follicle level to 29.2 degrees C. The low temperature could be kept constant for at least one hour of cooling. By means of comparison, with cryogel packs the lowest epidermal temperature attained was 17.9 degrees C; moreover, once this was reached after 10 min, it rapidly rose again to 20.6 degrees C after 40 min. Forty-eight patients receiving cytostatic treatment for breast cancer were subjected to scalp cooling with the cold air system, starting 15 min before chemotherapy and lasting for 90 min. With the system set at an air temperature of -12 degrees C, the treatment was well tolerated. Of the 13 patients treated with 40 mg/m2 doxorubicin in combination with other cytostatics, 6 had hair loss less than WHO grade 3, in contrast to 1 of 4 patients given cryogel packs. However, patients treated with epirubicin at 75 mg/m2 all showed grade 3 hair loss in spite of air cooling. In view of the possibility of achieving and maintaining low scalp temperatures, the cold air system is to be preferred to cryogel packs. Whether better clinical results may be obtained with cooling for longer periods and/or to lower temperatures remains to be determined.

  14. An experimental investigation of an air cooling scheme for the multichip modules of the multiplicity and vertex detector

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardin, J.D.; Bosze, E.; Boissevain, J.; Simon-Gillo, J.

    1997-07-01

    This report presents a summary of an experimental investigation of an electronics air cooling system for the multiplicity and vertex detector (MVD), a device used to determine and characterize the collision location of two accelerated heavy ions. Measurements of the flow rates of the cooling air and the temperatures of the air and electronic components were used to assess and optimize the performance of the proposed air cooling system, identify potential assembly problems and system limitations, and provide the necessary information for designing and sizing the final MVD cooling system components.

  15. Investigation of Water-spray Cooling of Turbine Blades in a Turbojet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, John C; Stelpflug, William J

    1953-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation was made with a J33-A-9 engine to determine the effectiveness of spray cooling as a means of increasing thrust by permitting engine operation at inlet-gas temperatures and speeds above rated. With the assumption of adequate spray cooling at a coolant-to-gas flow ratio of 3 percent, calculations for the sea-level static condition indicated a thrust may be achieved by engine operation at an inlet-gas temperature of 2000 degrees F and an overspeed of 10 percent. Of the water-injection configurations investigated experimentally, those located in the inner ring of the stator diaphragm provided the best cooling at rated engine speed.

  16. An experimental study of heat transfer and film cooling on low aspect ratio turbine nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeishi, K.; Matsuura, M.; Aoki, S.; Sato, T.

    1989-06-01

    The effects of the three-dimensional flow field on the heat transfer and the film cooling on the endwall, suction and pressure surface of an airfoil were studied using a low speed, fully annular, low aspect h/c = 0.5 vane cascade. The predominant effects that the horseshoe vortex, secondary flow, and nozzle wake increases in the heat transfer and decreases in the film cooling on the suction vane surface and the endwall were clearly demonstrated. In addition, it was demonstrated that secondary flow has little effect on the pressure surface. Pertinent flow visualization of the flow passage was also carried out for better understanding of these complex phenomena. Heat transfer and film cooling on the fully annular vane passage surface is discussed.

  17. Measurements and computational analysis of heat transfer and flow in a simulated turbine blade internal cooling passage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Louis M.; Thurman, Douglas R.; Simonyi, Patricia S.; Hippensteele, Steven A.; Poinsatte, Philip E.

    1993-01-01

    Visual and quantitative information was obtained on heat transfer and flow in a branched-duct test section that had several significant features of an internal cooling passage of a turbine blade. The objective of this study was to generate a set of experimental data that could be used to validate computer codes for internal cooling systems. Surface heat transfer coefficients and entrance flow conditions were measured at entrance Reynolds numbers of 45,000, 335,000, and 726,000. The heat transfer data were obtained using an Inconel heater sheet attached to the surface and coated with liquid crystals. Visual and quantitative flow field results using particle image velocimetry were also obtained for a plane at mid channel height for a Reynolds number of 45,000. The flow was seeded with polystyrene particles and illuminated by a laser light sheet. Computational results were determined for the same configurations and at matching Reynolds numbers; these surface heat transfer coefficients and flow velocities were computed with a commercially available code. The experimental and computational results were compared. Although some general trends did agree, there were inconsistencies in the temperature patterns as well as in the numerical results. These inconsistencies strongly suggest the need for further computational studies on complicated geometries such as the one studied.

  18. Integration of Wind Turbines with Compressed Air Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsie, I.; Marano, V.; Rizzo, G.; Moran, M.

    2009-08-01

    Some of the major limitations of renewable energy sources are represented by their low power density and intermittent nature, largely depending upon local site and unpredictable weather conditions. These problems concur to increase the unit costs of wind power, so limiting their diffusion. By coupling storage systems with a wind farm, some of the major limitations of wind power, such as a low power density and an unpredictable nature, can be overcome. After an overview on storage systems, the Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is analyzed, and the state of art on such systems is discussed. A Matlab/Simulink model of a hybrid power plant consisting of a wind farm coupled with CAES is then presented. The model has been successfully validated starting from the operating data of the McIntosh CAES Plant in Alabama. Time-series neural network-based wind speed forecasting are employed to determine the optimal daily operation strategy for the storage system. A detailed economic analysis has been carried out: investment and maintenance costs are estimated based on literature data, while operational costs and revenues are calculated according to energy market prices. As shown in the paper, the knowledge of the expected available energy is a key factor to optimize the management strategies of the proposed hybrid power plant, allowing to obtain environmental and economic benefits.

  19. Preliminary design package for residential heating/cooling system: Rankine air conditioner redesign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A summary of the preliminary redesign and development of a marketable single family heating and cooling system is presented. The interim design and schedule status of the residential (3-ton) redesign, problem areas and solutions, and the definition of plans for future design and development activities were discussed. The proposed system for a single-family residential heating and cooling system is a single-loop, solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air heating subsystem with solar-assisted domestic water heating and a Rankine-driven expansion air-conditioning subsystem.

  20. Prediction of Air Mixing From High Sidewall Diffusers in Cooling Mode: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ridouane, E. H.; Gawlik, K.

    2011-02-01

    Computational fluid dynamics modeling was used to evaluate the performance of high sidewall air supply in cooling mode. The research focused on the design, placement, and operation of air supply diffusers located high on a sidewall and return grilles located near the floor on the same sidewall. Parameters of the study are the supply velocity, supply temperature, diffuser dimensions and room dimensions. Thermal loads characteristic of high performance homes were applied at the walls and room temperature was controlled via a thermostat. The results are intended to provide information to guide the selection of high sidewall supply diffusers to provide proper room mixing for cooling of high performance homes.

  1. Fluidized bed heat exchanger with water cooled air distributor and dust hopper

    DOEpatents

    Jukkola, Walfred W.; Leon, Albert M.; Van Dyk, Jr., Garritt C.; McCoy, Daniel E.; Fisher, Barry L.; Saiers, Timothy L.; Karstetter, Marlin E.

    1981-11-24

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger is provided in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel. A steam-water natural circulation system is provided for heat exchange and the housing of the heat exchanger has a water-wall type construction. Vertical in-bed heat exchange tubes are provided and the air distributor is water-cooled. A water-cooled dust hopper is provided in the housing to collect particulates from the combustion gases and separate the combustion zone from a volume within said housing in which convection heat exchange tubes are provided to extract heat from the exiting combustion gases.

  2. Gas turbine ceramic-coated-vane concept with convection-cooled porous metal core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, A. F.; Liebert, C. H.; Handschuh, R. F.; Ludwig, L. P.

    1981-01-01

    Analysis and flow experiments on a ceramic-coated-porous-metal vane concept indicated the feasibility, from a heat transfer standpoint, of operating in a high-temperature (2500 F) gas turbine cascade facility. The heat transfer and pressure drop calculations provided a basis for selecting the ceramic layer thickness (to 0.08 in.), which was found to be the dominant factor in the overall heat transfer coefficient. Also an approximate analysis of the heat transfer in the vane trailing edge revealed that with trailing-edge ejection the ceramic thickness could be reduced to (0.01 in.) in this portion of the vane.

  3. Genetic Algorithm Optimization of a Film Cooling Array on a Modern Turbine Inlet Vane

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    cooling and main flows and b ) top looking down. .... 104 Figure 20 – RTV a ) fine solid mesh and b ) surface mesh close-up at the LE near the OD...vane design temperature for Pt,c/Pt,∞ = a ) 1.008, b ) 1.017, c) 1.027, d) 1.072, and e) 1.144. ............. 223 Figure 109 - Cooled flat plate...decreasing radius, as the flowpath is really part of a whole wheel. These images emphasize the 3-D nature of the flowfield. a ) b ) Figure 19 – CHT CFD

  4. Problems in creation of modern air inlet filters of power gas turbine plants in Russia and methods of their solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhaylov, V. E.; Khomenok, L. A.; Sherapov, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    The main problems in creation and operation of modern air inlet paths of gas turbine plants installed as part of combined-cycle plants in Russia are presented. It is noted that design features of air inlet filters shall be formed at the stage of the technical assignment not only considering the requirements of gas turbine plant manufacturer but also climatic conditions, local atmospheric air dustiness, and a number of other factors. The recommendations on completing of filtration system for air inlet filter of power gas turbine plants depending on the facility location are given, specific defects in design and experience in operation of imported air inlet paths are analyzed, and influence of cycle air preparation quality for gas turbine plant on value of operating expenses and cost of repair works is noted. Air treatment equipment of various manufacturers, influence of aerodynamic characteristics on operation of air inlet filters, features of filtration system operation, anti-icing system, weather canopies, and other elements of air inlet paths are considered. It is shown that nonuniformity of air flow velocity fields in clean air chamber has a negative effect on capacity and aerodynamic resistance of air inlet filter. Besides, the necessity in installation of a sufficient number of differential pressure transmitters allowing controlling state of each treatment stage not being limited to one measurement of total differential pressure in the filtration system is noted in the article. According to the results of the analysis trends and methods for modernization of available equipment for air inlet path, the importance of creation and implementation of new technologies for manufacturing of filtering elements on sites of Russia within the limits of import substitution are given, and measures on reliability improvement and energy efficiency for air inlet filter are considered.

  5. High-Altitude Flight Cooling Investigation of a Radial Air-Cooled Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1946-08-01

    The charge-air weight flow was measured during flight by venturi meters installed in the two parallel lines between tileintercooler and car?nmetor...pressure was measured by a shrouded total-head tubo installed on a streamline loom on the right wi~ tip. A swiveling static tube, which was calibrated in a

  6. Development of New Air-Cooled Heat Pump Chiller 'Compact Cube'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ookoshi, Yasushi; Ito, Takuya; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Kato, Yohei; Ochiai, Yasutaka; Tanaka, Kosuke; Uji, Yoshihiro; Nakayama, Hiroshi

    Further improvement of the performance is requested to air-cooled heat pump chiller from the viewpoint of the global warming prevention. Smaller unit is needed to facilitate the renewal from absorption chiller to air-cooled heat pump chiller. To meet such needs, we developed compact new air-cooled heat pump chiller with high efficiency, 'Compact cube'. The developed machine is side-flow type with U-shaped fin and tube heat exchangers. With this structure, the uniform air velocity, high packed density of the heat exchangers, and the unit miniaturization have been implemented. The refrigeration cycle with two-evaporating temperature has also been implemented. The cooling COP of this cycle is 2% higher compared with conventional one-evaporating temperature cycle because of the rise of average evaporating temperature. In a new model, a new control system, which controls both capacity of compressors and air flow rate corresponding to heat load, has been implemented. As a result, the developed machine achieved IPLV(Integrated Part load Value) to 6.2(MCHV-P1800AE) which is 29% better than the conventional unit.

  7. Air-Cooled Design of a Temperature-Swing Adsorption Compressor for Closed-Loop Air Revitalization Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulloth, Lila M.; Affleck, Dave L.; Rosen, Micha; LeVan, M. Douglas; Wang, Yuan; Cavalcante, Celio L.

    2004-01-01

    The air revitalization system of the International Space Station (ISS) operates in an open loop mode and relies on the resupply of oxygen and other consumables from earth for the life support of astronauts. A compressor is required for delivering the carbon dioxide from a removal assembly to a reduction unit to recover oxygen and thereby closing the air-loop. We have a developed a temperature-swing adsorption compressor (TSAC) for performing these tasks that is energy efficient, quiet, and has no rapidly moving parts. This paper discusses the mechanical design and the results of thermal model validation tests of a TSAC that uses air as the cooling medium.

  8. Influence of number of dental autoclave treatment cycles on rotational performance of commercially available air-turbine handpieces.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Masahiro; Takakuda, Kazuo

    2006-06-01

    The influence of number of autoclave treatment cycles (N) on rotational speed and total indicated run-out of commercially available air-turbine handpieces from five manufacturers was investigated at N=0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 cycles, and the significance in the test results was assessed by Dunnett's multiple comparison test. Some air-turbine handpieces showed the significant differences in rotational speed at N=300 cycles, however, the decreases of the rotational speeds were only 1 to 3.5 percent. Some air-turbine handpieces showed the significant differences in total indicated run-out, however, the respective values were smaller than that at N=0 cycle. Accordingly, it can be considered that the ball bearing in the air-turbine handpieces is not affected significantly by autoclave. To further evaluate rotational performance, this study focused on the rotational vibration of the ball bearing components of the air-turbine, as measured by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis; the power spectra of frequency of the ball's revolution, frequency of the cage's rotation and frequency of the ball's rotation were comparatively investigated at N=0, 150 and 300 cycles, and the influence of autoclave was evaluated qualitatively. No abnormalities in the ball bearings were recognized.

  9. Design of evaporative-cooling roof for decreasing air temperatures in buildings in the humid tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindangen, Jefrey I.; Umboh, Markus K.

    2017-03-01

    This subject points to assess the benefits of the evaporative-cooling roof, particularly for buildings with corrugated zinc roofs. In Manado, many buildings have roofed with corrugated zinc sheets; because this material is truly practical, easy and economical application. In general, to achieve thermal comfort in buildings in a humid tropical climate, people applying cross ventilation to cool the air in the room and avoid overheating. Cross ventilation is a very popular path to achieve thermal comfort; yet, at that place are other techniques that allow reducing the problem of excessive high temperature in the room in the constructions. This study emphasizes applications of the evaporative-cooling roof. Spraying water on the surface of the ceiling has been executed on the test cell and the reuse of water after being sprayed and cooled once more by applying a heat exchanger. Initial results indicate a reliable design and successfully meet the target as an effective evaporative-cooling roof technique. Application of water spraying automatic and cooling water installations can work optimally and can be an optimal model for the cooling roof as one of the green technologies. The role of heat exchangers can lower the temperature of the water from spraying the surface of the ceiling, which has become a hot, down an average of 0.77° C. The mass flow rate of the cooling water is approximately 1.106 kg/h and the rate of heat flow is around 515 Watt, depend on the site.

  10. Comparison of Two-Equation Turbulence Models for Prediction of Heat Transfer on Film-Cooled Turbine Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Vijay K.; Ameri, Ali A.

    1997-01-01

    A three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code has been used to compute the heat transfer coefficient on two film-cooled turbine blades, namely, the VKI rotor with six rows of cooling holes, including three rows on the shower head and the C3X vane with nine rows of holes, including five rows on the shower head. Predictions of heat transfer coefficient at the blade surface using three two-equation turbulence model specifically, Coakley's q-omega model, Chien's k-epsilon model and Wilcox's k-omega model with Menter's modifications, have been compared with the experimental data of Camci and Arts for the VKI rotor, and of Hylton et al. for the C3X vane along with predictions using the Baldwin-Lomar (B-L) model taken from Garg and Gaugler. It is found that for the cases considered here the two equation models predict the blade heat transfer somewhat better than the B-L model except immediately downstream of the film-cooled holes on the suction surface of the VKI rotor, and over most of the suction surface of the C3X vane. However, all two-equation models require 40% more computer core than the B-L model for solution, and while the q-omega and k-epsilon models need 40% more computer time than the B-L model the k-omega model requires at least 65% more time because of the slower rate of convergence. It is found that the heat transfer coefficient exhibit a strong spanwise as well as streamwise variation for both blades and all turbulence models.

  11. Calculation of gas temperature at the outlet of the combustion chamber and in the air-gas channel of a gas-turbine unit by data of acceptance tests in accordance with ISO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyuk, A. G.; Karpunin, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a high accuracy method enabling performance of the calculation of real values of the initial temperature of a gas turbine unit (GTU), i.e., the gas temperature at the outlet of the combustion chamber, in a situation where manufacturers do not disclose this information. The features of the definition of the initial temperature of the GTU according to ISO standards were analyzed. It is noted that the true temperatures for high-temperature GTUs is significantly higher than values determined according to ISO standards. A computational procedure for the determination of gas temperatures in the air-gas channel of the gas turbine and cooling air consumptions over blade rims is proposed. As starting equations, the heat balance equation and the flow mixing equation for the combustion chamber are assumed. Results of acceptance GTU tests according to ISO standards and statistical dependencies of required cooling air consumptions on the gas temperature and the blade metal are also used for calculations. An example of the calculation is given for one of the units. Using a developed computer program, the temperatures in the air-gas channel of certain GTUs are calculated, taking into account their design features. These calculations are performed on the previously published procedure for the detailed calculation of the cooled gas turbine subject to additional losses arising because of the presence of the cooling system. The accuracy of calculations by the computer program is confirmed by conducting verification calculations for the GTU of the Mitsubishi Comp. and comparing results with published data of the company. Calculation data for temperatures were compared with the experimental data and the characteristics of the GTU, and the error of the proposed method is estimated.

  12. Water augmented indirectly-fired gas turbine systems and method

    DOEpatents

    Bechtel, Thomas F.; Parsons, Jr., Edward J.

    1992-01-01

    An indirectly-fired gas turbine system utilizing water augmentation for increasing the net efficiency and power output of the system is described. Water injected into the compressor discharge stream evaporatively cools the air to provide a higher driving temperature difference across a high temperature air heater which is used to indirectly heat the water-containing air to a turbine inlet temperature of greater than about 1,000.degree. C. By providing a lower air heater hot side outlet temperature, heat rejection in the air heater is reduced to increase the heat recovery in the air heater and thereby increase the overall cycle efficiency.

  13. The Thermal Evaluation of Air-Cooled Electronic Equipment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1952-09-01

    shielded thermocouple probes lo- cated at various levels and several inches removed from the unit. The mean of the air temperature so determined is the...that the highest is over-estimated more than the lowest, while all are likely to be conserva- tive. The one of the five components, having the...noticeably. In that case, vdth good convective conditions, like at ground level , the component may operate at a surface temperature lower than the

  14. Optimal Integrated Design of Air Separation Unit and Gas Turbine Block for IGCC Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindra S. Kamath; Ignacio E. Grossmann; Lorenz T. Biegler; Stephen E. Zitney

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems are considered as a promising technology for power generation. However, they are not yet in widespread commercial use and opportunities remain to improve system feasibility and profitability via improved process integration. This work focuses on the integrated design of gasification system, air separation unit (ASU) and the gas turbine (GT) block. The ASU supplies oxygen to the gasification system and it can also supply nitrogen (if required as a diluent) to the gas turbine block with minimal incremental cost. Since both GT and the ASU require a source of compressed air, integrating the air requirement of these units is a logical starting point for facility optimization (Smith et al., 1997). Air extraction from the GT can reduce or avoid the compression cost in the ASU and the nitrogen injection can reduce NOx emissions and promote trouble-free operation of the GT block (Wimer et al., 2006). There are several possible degrees of integration between the ASU and the GT (Smith and Klosek, 2001). In the case of 'total' integration, where all the air required for the ASU is supplied by the GT compressor and the ASU is expected to be an elevated-pressure (EP) type. Alternatively, the ASU can be 'stand alone' without any integration with the GT. In this case, the ASU operates at low pressure (LP), with its own air compressor delivering air to the cryogenic process at the minimum energy cost. Here, nitrogen may or may not be injected because of the energy penalty issue and instead, syngas humidification may be preferred. A design, which is intermediate between these two cases, involves partial supply of air by the gas turbine and the remainder by a separate air compressor. These integration schemes have been utilized in some IGCC projects. Examples include Nuon Power Plant at Buggenum, Netherlands (both air and nitrogen integration), Polk Power Station at Tampa, US (nitrogen-only integration) and LGTI at Plaquemine

  15. Air turbine - an interesting solution for straw energy conversion into electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bălănescu, D. T.; Homutescu, V. M.; Atanasiu, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    Straw is a non-hazardous by-product of crop plants processing. Currently, it represent one of the most important biomass resource. The huge quantities of straw annually produced generate big problems in what concerns their disposal. The traditional field burning is no longer accepted, so another disposal solutions must be found and recycling is the most attractive. The paper refers to such a solution consisting in the conversion of the straw energy potential into electricity in a power plant based on an air turbine. This power system it is in fact an external combustion engine, derived from a gas turbine engine and operating with air as working fluid instead of combustion gases. In order to make possible the use of straw as fuel, the conventional combustion chamber is substituted by a hot air generator. Schematic of this power system and the results of its energetic analysis are presented in the paper. There are analysed the main performance indicators, namely thermal efficiency, output power, fuel consumption and specific fuel consumption. The results of the study indicate the analysed power system as an interesting solution for straw recycling.

  16. Advanced Turbine System (ATS) program conceptual design and product development. Quarterly report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Achieving the goals of 60% efficiency, 8 ppmvd NOx, and 10% electric power cost reduction imposes competing characteristics on the gas turbine system: the turbine inlet temperature of the gas turbine must increase, leading also to increased NOx emission. However, improved coating and materials technologies along with creative combustor design can result in solutions to achieve the ultimate goal. The program is focused on two specific products: a 70MW class industrial gas turbine based on the GE90 core technology utilizing an innovative air cooling technology, and a 200MW class utility gas turbine based on an advanced GE heavy duty machine utilizing advanced cooling and enhancement in component efficiency.

  17. Performance analysis and optimization of power plants with gas turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besharati-Givi, Maryam

    The gas turbine is one of the most important applications for power generation. The purpose of this research is performance analysis and optimization of power plants by using different design systems at different operation conditions. In this research, accurate efficiency calculation and finding optimum values of efficiency for design of chiller inlet cooling and blade cooled gas turbine are investigated. This research shows how it is possible to find the optimum design for different operation conditions, like ambient temperature, relative humidity, turbine inlet temperature, and compressor pressure ratio. The simulated designs include the chiller, with varied COP and fogging cooling for a compressor. In addition, the overall thermal efficiency is improved by adding some design systems like reheat and regenerative heating. The other goal of this research focuses on the blade-cooled gas turbine for higher turbine inlet temperature, and consequently, higher efficiency. New film cooling equations, along with changing film cooling effectiveness for optimum cooling air requirement at the first-stage blades, and an internal and trailing edge cooling for the second stage, are innovated for optimal efficiency calculation. This research sets the groundwork for using the optimum value of efficiency calculation, while using inlet cooling and blade cooling designs. In the final step, the designed systems in the gas cycles are combined with a steam cycle for performance improvement.

  18. Cold-air performance of a tip turbine designed to drive a lift fan. 3: Effect of simulated fan leakage on turbine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, J. E.; Kofskey, M. G.; Hotz, G. M.; Futral, S. M., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Performance data were obtained experimentally for a 0.4 linear scale version of the LF460 lift fan turbine for a range of scroll inlet total to diffuser exit static pressure ratios at design equivalent speed with simulated fan leakage air. Tests were conducted for full and partial admission operation with three separate combinations of rotor inlet and rotor exit leakage air. Data were compared to the results obtained from previous investigations in which no leakage air was present. Results are presented in terms of mass flow, torque, and efficiency.

  19. Power Performance Test Report for the Southwest Windpower AIR-X Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    van Dam, J.; Meadors, M.; Link, H.; Migliore, P.

    2003-09-01

    In the period from 14 October 2002 to 16 January 2003, an early production version of Southwest Windpower's AIR-X turbine was installed at the NWTC test site for acoustic noise testing. In addition to the signals required for the noise testing, additional instrumentation that allowed power performance testing in accordance with IEC 61400-12[1] was added. The results of that test are described in this report. Please note that this test and the test report are not an accredited power performance test/test report because parts of the NWTC quality assurance system were not followed.

  20. Turbine Design and Application, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, A. J. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    Turbine technology concepts for thermodynamic and fluid dynamics are presented along with velocity diagrams, losses, mechanical design, operation and performance. Designs discussed include: supersonic turbines, radial-inflow turbines, and turbine cooling.