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Sample records for air core light

  1. Core Formation Process and Light Elements in the Planetary Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, E.; Sakairi, T.; Watanabe, K.; Kamada, S.; Sakamaki, T.; Hirao, N.

    2015-12-01

    Si, O, and S are major candidates for light elements in the planetary core. In the early stage of the planetary formation, the core formation started by percolation of the metallic liquid though silicate matrix because Fe-S-O and Fe-S-Si eutectic temperatures are significantly lower than the solidus of the silicates. Therefore, in the early stage of accretion of the planets, the eutectic liquid with S enrichment was formed and separated into the core by percolation. The major light element in the core at this stage will be sulfur. The internal pressure and temperature increased with the growth of the planets, and the metal component depleted in S was molten. The metallic melt contained both Si and O at high pressure in the deep magma ocean in the later stage. Thus, the core contains S, Si, and O in this stage of core formation. Partitioning experiments between solid and liquid metals indicate that S is partitioned into the liquid metal, whereas O is weakly into the liquid. Partitioning of Si changes with the metallic iron phases, i.e., fcc iron-alloy coexisting with the metallic liquid below 30 GPa is depleted in Si. Whereas hcp-Fe alloy above 30 GPa coexisting with the liquid favors Si. This contrast of Si partitioning provides remarkable difference in compositions of the solid inner core and liquid outer core among different terrestrial planets. Our melting experiments of the Fe-S-Si and Fe-O-S systems at high pressure indicate the core-adiabats in small planets, Mercury and Mars, are greater than the slope of the solidus and liquidus curves of these systems. Thus, in these planets, the core crystallized at the top of the liquid core and 'snowing core' formation occurred during crystallization. The solid inner core is depleted in both Si and S whereas the liquid outer core is relatively enriched in Si and S in these planets. On the other hand, the core adiabats in large planets, Earth and Venus, are smaller than the solidus and liquidus curves of the systems. The

  2. Acoustic detection of air shower cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, X.; Liu, Y.; Du, S.

    1985-01-01

    At an altitude of 1890m, a pre-test with an Air shower (AS) core selector and a small acoustic array set up in an anechoic pool with a volume of 20x7x7 cu m was performed, beginning in Aug. 1984. In analyzing the waveforms recorded during the effective working time of 186 hrs, three acoustic signals which cannot be explained as from any source other than AS cores were obtained, and an estimation of related parameters was made.

  3. Making Mercury's Core with Light Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Ross, D. Kent

    2016-01-01

    Recent results obtained from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging spacecraft showed the surface of Mercury has low FeO abundances (less than 2 wt%) and high S abundances (approximately 4 wt%), suggesting the oxygen fugacity of Mercury's surface materials is somewhere between 3 to 7 log10 units below the IW buffer. The highly reducing nature of Mercury has resulted in a relatively thin mantle and a large core that has the potential to exhibit an exotic composition in comparison to the other terrestrial planets. This exotic composition may extend to include light elements (e.g., Si, C, S). Furthermore, has argued for a possible primary floatation crust on Mercury composed of graphite, which may require a core that is C-saturated. In order to investigate mercurian core compositions, we conducted piston cylinder experiments at 1 GPa, from 1300 C to 1700 C, using a range of starting compositions consisting of various Si-Fe metal mixtures (Si5Fe95, Si10Fe90, Si22Fe78, and Si35Fe65). All metals were loaded into graphite capsules used to ensure C-saturation during the duration of each experimental run. Our experiments show that Fe-Si metallic alloys exclude carbon relative to more Fe-rich metal. This exclusion of carbon commences within the range of 5 to 10 wt% Si. These results indicate that if Mercury has a Si-rich core (having more than approximately 5 wt% silicon), it would have saturated in carbon at low C abundances allowing for the possible formation of a graphite floatation crust as suggested by. These results have important implications for the thermal and magmatic evolution of Mercury.

  4. Flexible liquid core light guide with focusing and light shaping attachments

    DOEpatents

    Kross, B.J.; Majewski, S.; Zorn, C.J.; Majewski, L.A.

    1997-11-04

    A liquid light guide system for ultraviolet light is disclosed that has a light shaping arrangement for the emitted light, a stable liquid core and sheath and reliable and effective end closures. 12 figs.

  5. Design considerations for an air core magnetic actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J.

    1992-01-01

    Equations for the force produced by an air core electromagnet on a permanent magnet core as a function of the coil height, coil inner and outer radii, and core displacement are developed. The magnetization vector of the permanent magnet core is assumed to be aligned with the central axis of the electromagnet and the forces which are produced lie along the same axis. Variations in force due to changes in electromagnet parameters and core displacement are investigated and parameter plots which should be useful for coil design are presented.

  6. Structure of air shower disc near the core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inoue, N.; Kawamoto, M.; Misaki, Y.; Maeda, T.; Takeuchi, T.; Toyoda, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The longitudinal structure of the air shower disk is studied by measuring the arrival time distributions of air shower particles for showers with electron size in the range 3.2 x 10 to the 5.5. power to 3.2 x 10 to the 7.5 power in the Akeno air-shower array (930 gcm squared atmospheric depth). The average FWHM as a parameter of thickness of air shower disk increases with core distances at less than 50m. AT the present stage, dependence on electron size, zenith angle and air shower age is not apparent. The average thickness of the air shower disk within a core distance of 50m could be determined by an electromagnetic cascade starting from the lower altitude.

  7. Flexible, liquid core light guide with focusing and light shaping attachments

    DOEpatents

    Wojcik, Randolph Frank; Majewski, Stanislaw; Zorn, Carl John; Kross, Brian

    1999-01-01

    A liquid light guide system for ultraviolet light is disclosed that has a light shaping arrangement for the emitted light, a stable liquid core and sheath and reliable and effective end closures. The end closures include a metal crimping arrangement that utilizes two layers of deformable materials to prevent cracking of endplugs.

  8. Flexible, liquid core light guide with focusing and light shaping attachments

    DOEpatents

    Wojcik, R.F.; Majewski, S.; Zorn, C.J.; Kross, B.

    1999-04-20

    A liquid light guide system for ultraviolet light is disclosed that has a light shaping arrangement for the emitted light, a stable liquid core and sheath and reliable and effective end closures. The end closures include a metal crimping arrangement that utilizes two layers of deformable materials to prevent cracking of endplugs. 19 figs.

  9. Reconfigurable optothermal microparticle trap in air-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, O A; Garbos, M K; Euser, T G; Russell, P St J

    2012-07-13

    We report a novel optothermal trapping mechanism that occurs in air-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. In the confined environment of the core, the motion of a laser-guided particle is strongly influenced by the thermal-gradient-driven flow of air along the core surface. Known as "thermal creep flow," this can be induced either statically by local heating, or dynamically by the absorption (at a black mark placed on the fiber surface) of light scattered by the moving particle. The optothermal force on the particle, which can be accurately measured in hollow-core fiber by balancing it against the radiation forces, turns out to exceed the conventional thermophoretic force by 2 orders of magnitude. The system makes it possible to measure pN-scale forces accurately and to explore thermally driven flow in micron-scale structures. PMID:23030165

  10. Reconfigurable Optothermal Microparticle Trap in Air-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, O. A.; Garbos, M. K.; Euser, T. G.; Russell, P. St. J.

    2012-07-01

    We report a novel optothermal trapping mechanism that occurs in air-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. In the confined environment of the core, the motion of a laser-guided particle is strongly influenced by the thermal-gradient-driven flow of air along the core surface. Known as “thermal creep flow,” this can be induced either statically by local heating, or dynamically by the absorption (at a black mark placed on the fiber surface) of light scattered by the moving particle. The optothermal force on the particle, which can be accurately measured in hollow-core fiber by balancing it against the radiation forces, turns out to exceed the conventional thermophoretic force by 2 orders of magnitude. The system makes it possible to measure pN-scale forces accurately and to explore thermally driven flow in micron-scale structures.

  11. Experimental constraints on light elements in the Earth's outer core.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youjun; Sekine, Toshimori; He, Hongliang; Yu, Yin; Liu, Fusheng; Zhang, Mingjian

    2016-01-01

    Earth's outer core is liquid and dominantly composed of iron and nickel (~5-10 wt%). Its density, however, is ~8% lower than that of liquid iron, and requires the presence of a significant amount of light element(s). A good way to specify the light element(s) is a direct comparison of density and sound velocity measurements between seismological data and those of possible candidate compositions at the core conditions. We report the sound velocity measurements of a model core composition in the Fe-Ni-Si system at the outer core conditions by shock-wave experiments. Combining with the previous studies, we found that the best estimate for the outer core's light elements is ~6 wt% Si, ~2 wt% S, and possible ~1-2.5 wt% O. This composition satisfies the requirements imposed by seismology, geochemistry, and some models of the early core formation. This finding may help us to further constrain the thermal structure of the Earth and the models of Earth's core formation. PMID:26932596

  12. Ab initio no core full configuration approach for light nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngman; Shin, Ik Jae; Maris, Pieter; Vary, James P.; Forssén, Christian; Rotureau, Jimmy

    2014-07-01

    Comprehensive understanding of the structure and reactions of light nuclei poses theoretical and computational challenges. Still, a number of ab initio approaches have been developed to calculate the properties of atomic nuclei using fundamental interactions among nucleons. Among them, we work with the ab initio no core full configuration (NCFC) method and ab initio no core Gamow Shell Model (GSM). We first review these approaches and present some recent results.

  13. Ab initio no core full configuration approach for light nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngman; Shin, Ik Jae; Maris, Pieter; Vary, James P.; Forssén, Christian; Rotureau, Jimmy

    2015-10-01

    Comprehensive understanding of the structure and reactions of light nuclei poses theoretical and computational challenges. Still, a number of ab initio approaches have been developed to calculate the properties of atomic nuclei using fundamental interactions among nucleons. Among them, we work with the ab initio no core full configuration (NCFC) method and ab initio no core Gamow Shell Model (GSM). We first review these approaches and present some recent results.

  14. Technical Issues Associated with Air Ingression During Core Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    POWERS,DANA A.

    2000-06-05

    This paper has shown that it is possible to get significant air intrusion into a ruptured reactor vessel even from a reactor cavity with restricted access. This suggests that there is some importance to considering the consequences of air intrusion following vessel penetration by core debris. The consequences will depend on the nature of core degradation in air and other oxidizing gases. If, indeed, fuel becomes exposed to strongly oxidizing gases, significant releases of ruthenium and hexavalent urania can be expected. Hexavalent urania could alter the nature of cesium release and cesium revaporization from the reactor coolant system. Hexavalent urania could destabilize CSI and enhance the formation of gaseous iodine unless there are other materials that will react readily with atomic iodine along the flow path to the reactor containment.

  15. Character of energy flow in air shower core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizushima, K.; Asakimori, K.; Maeda, T.; Kameda, T.; Misaki, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Energy per charged particle near the core of air showers was measured by 9 energy flow detectors, which were the combination of Cerenkov counters and scintillators. Energy per particle of each detector was normalized to energy at 2m from the core. The following results were obtained as to the energy flow: (1) integral frequency distribution of mean energy per particle (averaged over 9 detectors) is composed of two groups separated distinctly; and (2) showers contained in one group show an anisotropy of arrival direction.

  16. Bolometric and UV light curves of core-collapse supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, T. A.; Roming, P. W. A.; Brown, Peter J.; Bayless, Amanda J.; Frey, Lucille H.

    2014-06-01

    The Swift UV-Optical Telescope (UVOT) has been observing core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) of all subtypes in the UV and optical since 2005. Here we present 50 CCSNe observed with the Swift UVOT, analyzing their UV properties and behavior. Where we have multiple UV detections in all three UV filters (λ {sub c} = 1928-2600 Å), we generate early time bolometric light curves, analyze the properties of these light curves and the UV contribution to them, and derive empirical corrections for the UV-flux contribution to optical-IR based bolometric light curves.

  17. Light Elements in the Core: Constraints from Gallium Partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, I.; Badro, J.; Siebert, J.; Ryerson, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The formation of Earth's core has left a compositional imprint on the mantle, depleting and fractionating most of its siderophile (iron-loving) elements. Gallium is a moderately siderophile, hence it should be strongly depleted in the mantle. However, gallium concentration in the mantle matches that of lithophile (silicate-loving) elements having the same volatility. That is to say that either gallium behaves as a lithophile element during core formation, or a large influx of gallium was brought to the Earth after the core had formed. Geochemical evidence does not support the latter hypothesis, as it would require all other lithophile elements with similar volatility to be enriched in the mantle, or for late accretion to be composed of anomalously gallium-rich objects. In order to mitigate this issue, experimental studies have tried to understand how gallium behaves during core segregation by gauging the effects of pressure, temperature and oxygen fugacity on the partitioning of gallium between metal and silicate. None of these parameters provided the first-order change required to match the observation. We investigated the influence of core composition on gallium partitioning. The core in known to contain light-elements (oxygen, silicon sulfur and carbon), and those can change the activity of gallium in the metal, and strongly affect the behavior of gallium during core formation. We performed a series of metal-silicate partitioning experiments (2 GPa, 1673-2073 K) in a piston-cylinder press. We varied the light-element composition of the metal and observed that Si and O have a very strong influence on the activity of gallium, making it more lithophile. We then modeled terrestrial accretion as a continuous process and tested different accretion histories; we can reproduce the mantle concentration of gallium if the core segregates in a deep magma ocean (>40 GPa) and contains large amounts of silicon or oxygen.

  18. Light, Colour & Air Quality: Important Elements of the Learning Environment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathaway, Warren E.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews and evaluates studies of the effects of light, color, and air quality on the learning environment. Concludes that studies suggest a role for light in establishing and maintaining physiological functions and balances and a need for improved air quality in airtight, energy efficient buildings. (JHZ)

  19. OPTICAL COLORS OF INTRACLUSTER LIGHT IN THE VIRGO CLUSTER CORE

    SciTech Connect

    Rudick, Craig S.; Mihos, J. Christopher; Harding, Paul; Morrison, Heather L.; Feldmeier, John J.; Janowiecki, Steven

    2010-09-01

    We continue our deep optical imaging survey of the Virgo cluster using the CWRU Burrell Schmidt telescope by presenting B-band surface photometry of the core of the Virgo cluster in order to study the cluster's intracluster light (ICL). We find ICL features down to {mu}{sub B} {approx}29 mag arcsec{sup -2}, confirming the results of Mihos et al., who saw a vast web of low surface brightness streams, arcs, plumes, and diffuse light in the Virgo cluster core using V-band imaging. By combining these two data sets, we are able to measure the optical colors of many of the cluster's low surface brightness features. While much of our imaging area is contaminated by galactic cirrus, the cluster core near the cD galaxy, M87, is unobscured. We trace the color profile of M87 out to over 2000'', and find a blueing trend with radius, continuing out to the largest radii. Moreover, we have measured the colors of several ICL features which extend beyond M87's outermost reaches and find that they have similar colors to the M87's halo itself, B - V {approx}0.8. The common colors of these features suggest that the extended outer envelopes of cD galaxies, such as M87, may be formed from similar streams, created by tidal interactions within the cluster, that have since dissolved into a smooth background in the cluster potential.

  20. Microtube Light-Emitting Diode Arrays with Metal Cores.

    PubMed

    Tchoe, Youngbin; Lee, Chul-Ho; Park, Jun Beom; Baek, Hyeonjun; Chung, Kunook; Jo, Janghyun; Kim, Miyoung; Yi, Gyu-Chul

    2016-03-22

    We report the fabrication and characteristics of vertical microtube light-emitting diode (LED) arrays with a metal core inside the devices. To make the LEDs, gallium nitride (GaN)/indium gallium nitride (In(x)Ga(1-x)N)/zinc oxide (ZnO) coaxial microtube LED arrays were grown on an n-GaN/c-aluminum oxide (Al2O3) substrate. The microtube LED arrays were then lifted-off the substrate by wet chemical etching of the sacrificial ZnO microtubes and the silicon dioxide (SiO2) layer. The chemically lifted-off LED layer was then transferred upside-down on other supporting substrates. To create the metal cores, titanium/gold and indium tin oxide were deposited on the inner shells of the microtubes, forming n-type electrodes inside the metal-cored LEDs. The characteristics of the resulting devices were determined by measuring electroluminescence and current-voltage characteristic curves. To gain insights into the current-spreading characteristics of the devices and understand how to make them more efficient, we modeled them computationally. PMID:26855251

  1. Air-core grid for scattered x-ray rejection

    DOEpatents

    Logan, Clinton M.; Lane, Stephen M.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is directed to a grid used in x-ray imaging applications to block scattered radiation while allowing the desired imaging radiation to pass through, and to process for making the grid. The grid is composed of glass containing lead oxide, and eliminates the spacer material used in prior known grids, and is therefore, an air-core grid. The glass is arranged in a pattern so that a large fraction of the area is open allowing the imaging radiation to pass through. A small pore size is used and the grid has a thickness chosen to provide high scatter rejection. For example, the grid may be produced with a 200 .mu.m pore size, 80% open area, and 4 mm thickness.

  2. Air-core grid for scattered x-ray rejection

    DOEpatents

    Logan, C.M.; Lane, S.M.

    1995-10-03

    The invention is directed to a grid used in x-ray imaging applications to block scattered radiation while allowing the desired imaging radiation to pass through, and to process for making the grid. The grid is composed of glass containing lead oxide, and eliminates the spacer material used in prior known grids, and is therefore, an air-core grid. The glass is arranged in a pattern so that a large fraction of the area is open allowing the imaging radiation to pass through. A small pore size is used and the grid has a thickness chosen to provide high scatter rejection. For example, the grid may be produced with a 200 {micro}m pore size, 80% open area, and 4 mm thickness. 2 figs.

  3. EMPACT: Electrons Muons Partons with Air Core Toroids

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, M.D. )

    1990-05-25

    The EMPACT experiment utilizes a broad approach to maximize its discovery potential for new phenomena accessible at the SSC. The high resolution detector has a balances emphasis on, and large acceptance for, electrons, muons, jets, and noninteracting particles, and is capable of utilizing the ultimate luminosity of the SSC. The detector emphasizes excellent calorimetry augmented by TRD tracking, and employs an innovative system of superconducting air core toroids for muon measurements. Significant engineering effort has established the feasibility of a baseline detector concept and has addressed the related issues of support facilities, assembly, and detector integration. The design has been tested against the challenges of predicted phenomena, with the expectation that this will optimize the capacity for observing the unexpected. EMPACT's international collaboration has unprecedented support from major aerospace industries who are providing tools and expertise for project design and integration, which will assure that a detector optimized for performance and cost will be available for the first collisions at the new laboratory.

  4. Core testing of zinc/air refuelable battery modules

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J. F., LLNL

    1998-08-20

    We are developing a refuelable zinc/air battery (6-cells) for evaluation under the five USABC `core` test protocols. In the first half of the two year project ($1OOK, FY1997), an advanced refuelable design was developed, fabricated and tested at power levels up to 415 W. Performance matched or exceeded that of earlier multicell systems. A computer program was developed for automated data acquisition and drive cycle simulation. Small mockup cells (80 cm 2) were constructed for rapid testing of components. In the follow-on effort (FY1998, $1OOK) we will make minor advances in system design and fabrication efficiency, and seek to improve cathode performance and life, before delivery of two final units for test at DOE laboratory.

  5. Wire bonded 3D coils render air core microtransformers competitive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moazenzadeh, A.; Spengler, N.; Lausecker, R.; Rezvani, A.; Mayer, M.; Korvink, J. G.; Wallrabe, U.

    2013-11-01

    We present a novel wafer-level fabrication method for 3D solenoidal microtransformers using an automatic wire bonder for chip-scale, very high frequency regime applications. Using standard microelectromechanical systems fabrication processes for the manufacturing of supporting structures, together with ultra-fast wire bonding for the fabrication of solenoids, enables the flexible and repeatable fabrication, at high throughput, of high performance air core microtransformers. The primary and secondary solenoids are wound one on top of the other in the lateral direction, using a 25 µm thick insulated wire. Besides commonly available gold wire, we also introduce insulated copper wire to our coil winding process. The influence of copper on the transformer properties is explored and compared to gold. A simulation model based on the solenoids’ wire bonding trajectories has been defined using the FastHenry software to accurately predict and optimize the transformer's inductive properties. The transformer chips are encapsulated in polydimethylsiloxane in order to protect the coils from environmental influences and mechanical damage. Meanwhile, the effect of the increase in the internal capacitance of the chips as a result of the encapsulation is analyzed. A fabricated transformer with 20 windings in both the primary and the secondary coils, and a footprint of 1 mm2, yields an inductance of 490 nH, a maximum efficiency of 68%, and a coupling factor of 94%. The repeatability of the coil winding process was investigated by comparing the data of 25 identically processed devices. Finally, the microtransformers are benchmarked to underline the potential of the technology in rendering air core transformers competitive.

  6. AIRS-Light instrument concept and critical technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maschhoff, Kevin R.

    2002-12-01

    Understanding Earth's climate, atmospheric transport mechanisms, and the hydrologic cycle requires a precise knowledge of global atmospheric circulation, temperature profiles, and water vapor distribution. The accuracy of advanced sounders such as AIRS/AMSU/HSB on NASA's Aqua spacecraft can match radiosonde accuracy. It is essential to fold those capabilities fully into the NPOESS, enabling soundings of radiosonde accuracy every 6 hours around the globe on an operational basis. However, the size, mass, power demands, and thermal characteristics of the Aqua sounding instrument suite cannot be accommodated on the NPOESS spacecraft. AIRS-Light is an instrument concept, developed under the Instrument Incubator Program, which provides IR sounding performance identical to the AIRS instrument but uses advances in HgCdTe FPA technology and pulse tube cooler technology, as well as design changes, to dramatically reduce the size, mass, and power demand, allowing AIRS-Light to meet all NPOESS spacecraft interface requirements. The AIRS-Light Instrument Incubator program fostered the development of photovoltaic-mode HgCdTe detector array technology for the 13.5-15.4 μm band covered by photoconductive-mode HgCdTe arrays in AIRS, achieved state of the art results in this band, and substantially reduced the development risk for this last new technology needed for AIRS-Light implementation.

  7. AIRS-Light Instrument Concept and Critical Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maschhoff, Kevin

    2001-01-01

    Understanding Earth's climate, atmospheric transport mechanisms, and the hydrologic cycle requires a precise knowledge of global atmospheric circulation, temperature profiles, and water vapor distribution. The accuracy of advanced sounders such as AIRS/AMSU/HSB on NASA's Aqua spacecraft can match radiosonde accuracy. It is essential to fold those capabilities fully into the NPOESS, enabling soundings of radiosonde accuracy, every 6 hours around the globe on an operational basis. However, the size, mass, power demands, and thermal characteristics of the Aqua sounding instrument suite cannot be accommodated on the NPOESS spacecraft. AIRS-Light is an instrument concept, developed under the Instrument Incubator Program, which provides IR sounding performance identical to the AIRS instrument, but uses advances in HgCdTe FPA technology and pulse tube cooler technology, as well as design changes to dramatically reduce the size, mass, and power demand, allowing AIRS-Light to meet all NPOESS spacecraft interface requirements. The instrument concept includes substantial re-use of AIRS component designs, including the complex AIRS FPA, to reduce development risk and cost. The AIRS-Light Instrument Incubator program fostered the development of photovoltaic-mode HgCdTe detector array technology for the 13.5-15.4 micron band covered by photoconductive-mode HgCdTe arrays in AIRS, achieved state of the art results in this band, and substantially reduced the development risk for this last new technology needed for AIRS-Light implementation, A demonstration of a prototype 14.5-15.4 micron band IRFPA in a reduced heat-load dewar together with the IMAS pulse tube cryocooler is in progress.

  8. The core interthreshold zone during exposure to red and blue light

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study tested the hypothesis that the core interthreshold zone (CIZ) changes during exposure to red or blue light via the non-visual pathway, because it is known that light intensity affects the central nervous system. We conducted a series of human experiments with 5 or 10 male subjects in each experiment. Methods The air temperature in the climatic chamber was maintained at 20 to 24°C. The subjects wore suits perfused with 25°C water at a rate of 600 cm3/min. They exercised on an ergometer at 50% of their maximum work rate for 10 to 15 minutes until sweating commenced, and then remained continuously seated without exercise until their oxygen uptake increased. The rectal temperature and skin temperatures at four sites were monitored using thermistors. The sweating rate was measured at the forehead with a sweat rate monitor. Oxygen uptake was monitored with a gas analyzer. The subjects were exposed to red or blue light at 500 lx and 1000 lx in both summer and winter. Results The mean CIZs at 500 lx were 0.23 ± 0.16°C under red light and 0.20 ± 0.10°C under blue light in the summer, and 0.19 ± 0.20°C under red light and 0.26 ± 0.24°C under blue light in the winter. The CIZs at 1000 lx were 0.18 ± 0.14°C under red light and 0.15 ± 0.20°C under blue light in the summer, and 0.52 ± 0.18°C under red light and 0.71 ± 0.28°C under blue light in the winter. A significant difference (P <0.05) was observed in the CIZs between red and blue light at 1000 lx in the winter, and significant seasonal differences under red light (P <0.05) and blue light (P <0.01) were also observed at 1000 lx. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that dynamic changes in the physiological effects of colors of light on autonomic functions via the non-visual pathway may be associated with the temperature regulation system. PMID:23587209

  9. Automated Laser-Light Scattering measurements of Impurities, Bubbles, and Imperfections in Ice Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolz, M. R.; Ram, M.

    2004-12-01

    Laser- light scattering (LLS) on polar ice, or on polar ice meltwater, is an accepted method for measuring the concentration of water insoluble aerosol deposits (dust) in the ice. LLS on polar ice can also be used to measure water soluble aerosols, as well as imperfections (air bubbles and cavities) in the ice. LLS was originally proposed by Hammer (1977a, b) as a method for measuring the dust concentration in polar ice meltwater. Ram et al. (1995) later advanced the method and applied it to solid ice, measuring the dust concentration profile along the deep, bubble-free sections of the Greenland Ice Sheet Projetct 2 (GISP2) ice core (Ram et al., 1995, 2000) from central Greenland. In this paper, we will put previous empirical findings (Ram et al., 1995, 2000) on a theoretical footing, and extend the usability of LLS on ice into the realm of the non-transparent, bubbly polar ice. For LLS on clear, bubble-free polar ice, we studied numerically the scattering of light by soluble and insoluble (dust) aerosol particles embedded in the ice to complement previous experimental studies (Ram et al., 2000). For air bubbles in polar ice, we calculated the effects of multiple light scattering using Mie theory and Monte Carlo simulations, and found a method for determining the bubble number size and concentration using LLS on bubbly ice. We also demonstrated that LLS can be used on bubbly ice to measure annual layers rapidly in an objective manner. Hammer, C. U. (1977a), Dating of Greenland ice cores by microparticle concentration analyses., in International Symposium on Isotopes and Impurities in Snow and Ice, pp. 297-301, IAHS publ. no. 118. Hammer, C. U. (1977b), Dust studies on Greenland ice cores, in International Symposium on Isotopes and Impurities in Snow and Ice, pp. 365-370, IAHS publ. no. 118. Ram, M., M. Illing, P. Weber, G. Koenig, and M. Kaplan (1995), Polar ice stratigraphy from laser-light scattering: Scattering from ice, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(24), 3525

  10. Advanced light microscopy core facilities: Balancing service, science and career.

    PubMed

    Ferrando-May, Elisa; Hartmann, Hella; Reymann, Jürgen; Ansari, Nariman; Utz, Nadine; Fried, Hans-Ulrich; Kukat, Christian; Peychl, Jan; Liebig, Christian; Terjung, Stefan; Laketa, Vibor; Sporbert, Anje; Weidtkamp-Peters, Stefanie; Schauss, Astrid; Zuschratter, Werner; Avilov, Sergiy

    2016-06-01

    Core Facilities (CF) for advanced light microscopy (ALM) have become indispensable support units for research in the life sciences. Their organizational structure and technical characteristics are quite diverse, although the tasks they pursue and the services they offer are similar. Therefore, throughout Europe, scientists from ALM-CFs are forming networks to promote interactions and discuss best practice models. Here, we present recommendations for ALM-CF operations elaborated by the workgroups of the German network of ALM-CFs, German Bio-Imaging (GerBI). We address technical aspects of CF planning and instrument maintainance, give advice on the organization and management of an ALM-CF, propose a scheme for the training of CF users, and provide an overview of current resources for image processing and analysis. Further, we elaborate on the new challenges and opportunities for professional development and careers created by CFs. While some information specifically refers to the German academic system, most of the content of this article is of general interest for CFs in the life sciences. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:463-479, 2016. © 2016 THE AUTHORS MICROSCOPY RESEARCH AND TECHNIQUE PUBLISHED BY WILEY PERIODICALS, INC. PMID:27040755

  11. Patterns and properties of polarized light in air and water

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Thomas W.; Marshall, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Natural sources of light are at best weakly polarized, but polarization of light is common in natural scenes in the atmosphere, on the surface of the Earth, and underwater. We review the current state of knowledge concerning how polarization and polarization patterns are formed in nature, emphasizing linearly polarized light. Scattering of sunlight or moonlight in the sky often forms a strongly polarized, stable and predictable pattern used by many animals for orientation and navigation throughout the day, at twilight, and on moonlit nights. By contrast, polarization of light in water, while visible in most directions of view, is generally much weaker. In air, the surfaces of natural objects often reflect partially polarized light, but such reflections are rarer underwater, and multiple-path scattering degrades such polarization within metres. Because polarization in both air and water is produced by scattering, visibility through such media can be enhanced using straightforward polarization-based methods of image recovery, and some living visual systems may use similar methods to improve vision in haze or underwater. Although circularly polarized light is rare in nature, it is produced by the surfaces of some animals, where it may be used in specialized systems of communication. PMID:21282165

  12. Wireline-rotary air coring of the Bandelier Tuff, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teasdale, W.E.; Pemberton, R.R.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes experiments using wireline-rotary air-coring techniques conducted in the Bandelier Tuff using a modified standard wireline core-barrel system. The modified equipment was used to collect uncontaminated cores of unconsolidated ash and indurated tuff at Los Alamos, New Mexico. Core recovery obtained from the 210-foot deep test hole was about 92 percent. A standard HQ-size, triple-tube wireline core barrel (designed for the passage of liquid drilling fluids) was modified for air coring as follows: (1) Air passages were milled in the latch body part of the head assembly; (2) the inside dimension of the outer core barrel tube was machined and honed to provide greater clearance between the inner and outer barrels; (3) oversized reaming devices were added to the outer core barrel and the coring bit to allow more clearance for air and cuttings return; (4) the eight discharge ports in the coring bit were enlarged. To control airborne-dust pollution, a dust-and-cuttings discharge subassembly, designed and built by project personnel, was used. (USGS)

  13. Slow light generation in single-mode rectangular core photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Sandeep; Saini, Than Singh; Kumar, Ajeet

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we have designed and analyzed a rectangular core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) in Tellurite material. For the designed photonics crystal fiber, we have calculated the values of confinement loss and effective mode area for different values of air filling fraction (d/Λ). For single mode operation of the designed photonic crystal fiber, we have taken d/Λ= 0.4 for the further calculation of stimulated Brillouin scattering based time delay. A maximum time delay of 158 ns has been achieved for input pump power of 39 mW. We feel the detailed theoretical investigations and simulations carried out in the study have the potential impact on the design and development of slow light-based photonic devices.

  14. Amateur scientists - producing light from a bubble of air

    SciTech Connect

    Hiller, R.A.; Barber, B.P.

    1995-02-01

    A glowing bubble of air cannot be bought anywhere at any price. But with an oscilloscope, a moderately precise sound generator, a home stereo amplifier and about $100, readers can turn sound into light through a process called sonoluminescence. The apparatus is relatively simple. A glass spherical flask filled with water serves as the resonator - the cavity in which sound is created to trap and drive the bubble. Small speakers, called piezoelectric transducers, are cemented to the flask and powered by an audo generator and amplifier. Bubbles introduced into the water coalesce at the center of the flask and produce a dim light visible to the unaided eye in a darkened room.

  15. Power supply with air core transformer and seperated power supplies for high dynamic range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Aalami, Dean (Inventor); Darrach, Murray (Inventor); Orient, Otto (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A power supply for a quadrupole mass spectrometer which operates using an RF signal. The RF signal is controllable via a feedback loop. The feedback loop is from the output, through a comparator, and compared to a digital signal. An air core transformer is used to minimize the weight. The air core transformer is driven via two out of phase sawtooth signals which drive opposite ends of the transformer.

  16. Post-coring entrapment of modern air in polar ice: Evidence from CFC-12 measurements in Antarctic firn air and shallow ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, K. M.; Montzka, S. A.; Battle, M. O.; Williams, M. B.; de Bruyn, W. J.; Butler, J. H.; Verhulst, K. R.; Tatum, C.; Gun, B. K.; Plotkin, D. A.; Hall, B. D.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2009-12-01

    This study is a comparison of CFC-12 (CCl2F2) measurements in firn air and ice core samples from three Antarctic sites: South Pole, West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide (79.46°S, 112.13°W), and Siple Dome (81.65°S, 148.81°W). CFC-12 is a synthetic chlorofluorocarbon manufactured during the mid-late 20th century for use as a refrigerant and an aerosol spray propellant. Its atmospheric history is well established with agreement among instrumental time series measurements and industry-reported production data [Walker et al., 2000], the distribution of dissolved CFC-12 in the oceans [e.g. Weiss et al., 1985], and firn air measurements [Butler et al., 1999]. The atmospheric history indicates that there was no measureable CFC-12 in the atmosphere prior to the 1940’s. The firn air CFC-12 profiles are consistent with the known atmospheric history of this gas. In contrast, the air in ice core samples collected near the close-off depth exhibit anomalously high CFC-12 levels. We propose that this is due to entrapment of modern air in open pores that close after drilling, resulting in elevated CFC-12 mixing ratios. These results demonstrate how the composition of air trapped in shallow ice cores can be altered during the post-drilling period through purely physical processes. Comparison of firn air and ice core bubble composition is one of the commonly used tools for studying the bubble close-off process. The post-drilling entrapment process detected in this study represents a potential complication for such investigations.

  17. COMSORS: A light water reactor chemical core catcher

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Parker, G.W.; Rudolph, J.C.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Kenton, M.A.

    1997-02-24

    The Core-Melt Source Reduction System (COMSORS) is a new approach to terminate lightwater reactor (LWR) core-melt accidents and ensure containment integrity. A special dissolution glass made of lead oxide (PbO) and boron oxide (B{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is placed under the reactor vessel. If molten core debris is released onto the glass, the following sequence happens: (1) the glass absorbs decay heat as its temperature increases and the glass softens; (2) the core debris dissolves into the molten glass; (3) molten glass convective currents create a homogeneous high-level waste (HLW) glass; (4) the molten glass spreads into a wider pool, distributing the heat for removal by radiation to the reactor cavity above or transfer to water on top of the molten glass; and (5) the glass solidifies as increased surface cooling area and decreasing radioactive decay heat generation allows heat removal to exceed heat generation.

  18. A NEW METHOD FOR FINDING CORE LOCATIONS OF EXTENSIVE AIR SHOWERS

    SciTech Connect

    Hedayati Kh, H.; Anvari, A.; Bahmanabadi, M.; Samimi, J.; Khakian Ghomi, M.

    2011-02-01

    Analysis of an extensive air shower (EAS) detected by surface arrays highly depends on the determination of core locations. Here we present a new method to find the core location of an EAS that, unlike the common methods, does not depend on the lateral distribution function and uses arrival times of secondary particles. This method improves the accuracy of finding the core location of a low-energy EAS in the internal parts of an array, in comparison with common methods.

  19. The Yucca Mountain Project prototype air-coring test, U12g tunnel, Nevada test site

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, J.M.; Newsom, J.C.

    1994-12-01

    The Prototype Air-Coring Test was conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) G-Tunnel facility to evaluate standard coring techniques, modified slightly for air circulation, for use in testing at a prospective nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Air-coring technology allows sampling of subsurface lithology with minimal perturbation to ambient characteristic such as that required for exploratory holes near aquifers, environmental applications, and site characterization work. Two horizontal holes were cored, one 50 ft long and the other 150 ft long, in densely welded fractured tuff to simulate the difficult drilling conditions anticipated at Yucca Mountain. Drilling data from seven holes on three other prototype tests in nonwelded tuff were also collected for comparison. The test was used to establish preliminary standards of performance for drilling and dust collection equipment and to assess procedural efficiencies. The Longyear-38 drill achieved 97% recovery for HQ-size core (-2.5 in.), and the Atlas Copco dust collector (DCT-90) captured 1500 lb of fugitive dust in a mine environment with only minor modifications. Average hole production rates were 6-8 ft per 6-h shift in welded tuff and almost 20 ft per shift on deeper holes in nonwelded tuff. Lexan liners were successfully used to encapsulate core samples during the coring process and protect core properties effectively. The Prototype Air-Coring Test demonstrated that horizontal air coring in fractured welded tuff (to at least 150 ft) can be safely accomplished by proper selection, integration, and minor modification of standard drilling equipment, using appropriate procedures and engineering controls. The test also indicated that rig logistics, equipment, and methods need improvement before attempting a large-scale dry drilling program at Yucca Mountain.

  20. Study on micro-bend light transmission performance of novel liquid-core optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Junyan; Zhao, Zhimin; Wang, Kaisheng; Guo, Linfeng

    2007-01-01

    With the increasing development of material technology and electronic integration technology, optical fiber and its using in smart structure have become hot in the field of material research. And liquid-core optical fiber is a special kind of optical fiber, which is made using liquid material as core and polymer material as optical layer and protective covering, and it has the characteristics of large core diameter, high numerical aperture, large-scope and efficient spectrum transmission and long life for using. So the liquid-core optical fiber is very suitable for spectrum cure, ultraviolet solidification, fluorescence detection, criminal investigation and evidence obtainment, etc, and especially as light transfer element in some new structures for the measurement of some signals, such as concentration, voltage, temperature, light intensity and so on. In this paper, the novel liquid-core optical fiber is self-made, and then through the test of its light transmission performance in free state, the relation between axial micro-bend and light-intensity loss are presented. When the liquid-core optical fiber is micro-bent axially, along with the axial displacement's increase, output power of light is reducing increasingly, and approximately has linear relation to micro-displacement in a range. According to the results liquid-core fiber-optic micro-bend sensor can be designed to measure micro-displacement of the tested objects. Experimental data and analysis provide experimental basis for further application of liquid-core optical fiber.

  1. A Statistical Method for Reconstructing the Core Location of an Extensive Air Shower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedayati Kh., H.; Moradi, A.; Emami, M.

    2015-09-01

    Conventional methods of reconstructing extensive air showers (EASs) depend on a lateral density function which itself depends on shower size, age parameter, and core location. In the fitting procedure of a lateral density function to surface array information, the only parameter whose initial value is essential is core location. In this paper, we describe a refined version of a statistical method which can be used to find the initial trial core location of EASs with better precision than the conventional methods. In this method, we use arrival time information of secondary particles for finding not only arrival direction, but also core location.

  2. Light transmission and air used for inspection of glovebox gloves.

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, J. M.; Steckle, W. P. , Jr.; Macdonald, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    Various materials used for manufacturing the glovebox gloves are translucent material such as hypalon, rubbers, and neoprene. This means that visible light can be transmitted through the inside of the material. Performing this test can help to increase visualization of the integrity of the glove. Certain flaws such as pockmarks, foreign material, pinholes, and scratches could be detected with increased accuracy. An analysis was conducted of the glovebox gloves obscure polymer material using a inspection light table. The fixture is equipped with a central light supply and small air pump to inflate the glove and test for leak and stability. A glove is affixed to the fixture for 360-degree inspection. Certain inspection processes can be performed: (1) Inspection for pockmarks and thin areas within the gloves; (2) Observation of foreign material within the polymer matrix; and (3) Measurements could be taken for gloves thickness using light measurements. This process could help reduce eyestrain when examining gloves and making a judgment call on the size of material thickness in some critical areas. Critical areas are fingertips and crotch of fingers.

  3. Spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering of ultraviolet light in nitrogen, dry air, and moist air.

    PubMed

    Witschas, Benjamin; Vieitez, Maria O; van Duijn, Eric-Jan; Reitebuch, Oliver; van de Water, Willem; Ubachs, Wim

    2010-08-01

    Atmospheric lidar techniques for the measurement of wind, temperature, and optical properties of aerosols rely on the exact knowledge of the spectral line shape of the scattered laser light on molecules. We report on spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering measurements in the ultraviolet at a scattering angle of 90 degrees on N(2) and on dry and moist air. The measured line shapes are compared to the Tenti S6 model, which is shown to describe the scattering line shapes in air at atmospheric pressures with small but significant deviations. We demonstrate that the line profiles of N(2) and air under equal pressure and temperature conditions differ significantly, and that this difference can be described by the S6 model. Moreover, we show that even a high water vapor content in air up to a volume fraction of 3.6vol.% has no influence on the line shape of the scattered light. The results are of relevance for the future spaceborne lidars on ADM-Aeolus (Atmospheric Dynamics Mission) and EarthCARE (Earth Clouds, Aerosols, and Radiation Explorer). PMID:20676176

  4. Effects of light intensity light quality and air velocity on temperature in plant reproductive organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaya, Y.; Hirai, H.

    Excess temperature increase in plant reproductive organs such as anthers and stigmata could cause fertility impediments and thus produce sterile seeds under artificial lighting conditions in closed plant growth facilities There is a possibility that the aberration was caused by an excess increase in temperatures of reproductive organs in Bioregenerative Life Support Systems under microgravity conditions in space The fundamental study was conducted to know the thermal situation of the plant reproductive organs as affected by light intensity light quality and air velocity on the earth and to estimate the excess temperature increase in the reproductive organs in closed plant growth facilities in space Thermal images of reproductive organs of rice and strawberry were captured using infrared thermography at an air temperature of 10 r C The temperatures in flowers at 300 mu mol m -2 s -1 PPFD under the lights from red LEDs white LEDs blue LEDs fluorescent lamps and incandescent lamps increased by 1 4 1 7 1 9 6 0 and 25 3 r C respectively for rice and by 2 8 3 4 4 1 7 8 and 43 4 r C respectively for strawberry The flower temperatures increased with increasing PPFD levels The temperatures in petals anthers and stigmas of strawberry at 300 mu mol m -2 s -1 PPFD under incandescent lamps increased by 32 7 29 0 and 26 6 r C respectively at 0 1 m s -1 air velocity and by 20 6 18 5 and 15 9 r C respectively at 0 8 m s -1 air velocity The temperatures of reproductive organs decreased with increasing

  5. Stimulated Brillouin scattering of visible light in small-core photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Woodward, R I; Kelleher, E J R; Popov, S V; Taylor, J R

    2014-04-15

    We characterize stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) of visible light in small-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF). Threshold powers under 532 nm excitation agree with established theory, in contrast to measured values up to five times greater than expected for Brillouin scattering of 1550 nm light. An isolated, single-peaked signal at a Stokes shift of 33.5 GHz is observed, distinct from the multi-peaked Stokes spectra expected when small-core PCF is pumped in the infrared. This wavelength-dependence of the Brillouin threshold, and the corresponding spectrum, are explained by the acousto-optic interactions in the fiber, governed by dimensionless length scales that relate the modal area to the core size, and the pump wavelength to PCF hole pitch. Our results suggest new opportunities for exploiting SBS of visible light in small-core PCFs. PMID:24978985

  6. Termination of light-water reactor core-melt accidents with a chemical core catcher: the core-melt source reduction system (COMSORS)

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Parker, G.W.; Rudolph, J.C.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Kenton, M.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Core-Melt Source Reduction System (COMSORS) is a new approach to terminate light-water reactor core melt accidents and ensure containment integrity. A special dissolution glass is placed under the reactor vessel. If core debris is released onto the glass, the glass melts and the debris dissolves into the molten glass, thus creating a homogeneous molten glass. The molten glass, with dissolved core debris, spreads into a wide pool, distributing the heat for removal by radiation to the reactor cavity above or by transfer to water on top of the molten glass. Expected equilibrium glass temperatures are approximately 600 degrees C. The creation of a low-temperature, homogeneous molten glass with known geometry permits cooling of the glass without threatening containment integrity. This report describes the technology, initial experiments to measure key glass properties, and modeling of COMSORS operations.

  7. AIRS First Light Data: Eastern Mediterranean, June 14, 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2Figure 3

    Four images of the Mediterranean obtained concurrently on June 14, 2002 from the three instruments that make up the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder experiment system aboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft. The system features thousands of individual channels that observe Earth in the visible, infrared and microwave spectral regions. Each channel has a unique sensitivity to temperature, moisture, surface conditions and clouds.

    This visible light image from the AIRS instrument shows a band of white clouds extending from the Adriatic Sea over Greece to the Black Sea.

    The AIRS image (figure 1) at 900 cm-1 (11 micrometers) measures actual surface or cloud top temperatures. In it, land and ocean boundaries are well defined, with land appearing as warmer (darker red) than the ocean. The band of cold high cumulus clouds appears blue, with the darkest blue most likely a large thunderstorm.

    The 150 gigahertz channel from the Humidity Sounder for Brazil instrument (figure 2) is sensitive to moisture, ice particles and precipitation. The dry land temperature is comparable to the 11 micrometer temperatures, but over ocean this channel measures the temperature of moisture in the mid troposphere. The cold, blue areas off Sicily and in the Aegean Sea represent unusually dry areas over the ocean. There, clouds appear as green filaments--likely areas of precipitation.

    The 31.4 gigahertz channel from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit instrument (figure 3) is not affected by clouds.

    NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft, began sending high quality data on June 12, 2002. This 'first light' data is exceeding the expectations of scientists, confirming that the AIRS experiment is well on its way to meeting its goals of improving weather forecasting, establishing the connection between severe weather and

  8. The Effects of Very Light Jet Air Taxi Operations on Commercial Air Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the potential effects of Very Light Jet (VLJ) air taxi operations adding to delays experienced by commercial passenger air transportation in the year 2025. The affordable cost relative to existing business jets and ability to use many of the existing small, minimally equipped, but conveniently located airports is projected to stimulate a large demand for the aircraft. The resulting increase in air traffic operations will mainly be at smaller airports, but this study indicates that VLJs have the potential to increase further the pressure of demand at some medium and large airports, some of which are already operating at or near capacity at peak times. The additional delays to commercial passenger air transportation due to VLJ air taxi operations are obtained from simulation results using the Airspace Concepts Evaluation System (ACES) simulator. The direct increase in operating cost due to additional delays is estimated. VLJs will also cause an increase in traffic density, and this study shows increased potential for conflicts due to VLJ operations.

  9. Determination of radiocarbon in stratospheric CO2, obtained through AirCore sampling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Dipayan; Chen, Huilin; Been, Henk A.; Kivi, Rigel; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2016-04-01

    The concentration of Greenhouse Gases (GHG), with carbon dioxide as the most prominent example, has been and still is increasing, predominantly due to emissions from fossil fuel combustion. CO2 is also the most important component of the global carbon cycle. Among other tracers, radiocarbon (Carbon-14) is a unique and an important atmospheric tracer used in the understanding of the global carbon cycle. Radiocarbon is a naturally occurring isotope (radioactive, t 1/2 = 5730 ± 40 years) of carbon produced through the interaction of thermalized neutrons and nitrogen in the upper atmosphere. Generally, for performing atmospheric radiocarbon measurements in the higher atmosphere, large samples (few liters of air) were collected using aircrafts and balloons. However, collecting stratospheric samples on a regular basis for radiocarbon analysis is extremely expensive. Here we describe the determination of radiocarbon concentrations in stratospheric CO2, collected using AirCore sampling. AirCore is an innovative sampling technique for obtaining vertical atmospheric profiles and, in Europe, is done on a regular basis at Sodankylä, Finland for CO2, CH4 and CO. The stratospheric parts of two such AirCore profiles were used in this study as a proof-of-principle. CO2 from the stratospheric air samples were extracted and converted to elemental carbon, which were then measured at the Accelerator Mass Spectrometric (AMS) facility of the Centre for Isotope Research (CIO) at the University of Groningen. The stratospheric part of the AirCore profile was divided into six sections, each contained approximately 10 μg C. A detailed description of the extraction, graphitization, AMS analysis and the derivation of the stratospheric radiocarbon profile will be the main focus. Through our results, we will show that AirCore is a viable sampling method for performing high-precision radiocarbon measurements of stratospheric CO2 with reasonably good spatial resolution on a regular basis

  10. Excitation and separation of vortex modes in twisted air-core fiber.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jingfu; Li, Yan; Han, Yanhua; Deng, Duo; Guo, Zhongyi; Gao, Jianmin; Sun, Qiaoqun; Liu, Yi; Qu, Shiliang

    2016-04-18

    An air-core fiber imposed by torsion is investigated in this paper. We refer to this kind of fiber as twisted air-core fiber (TAF). It has been demonstrated that the eigenstates of the TAF consist of guided optical vortex waves with different propagation constants of a different effective index. With the increase of the twist rate, TAF could separate the OAM modes which are near degenerate or degenerate in the air-core fiber. The separation of OAM modes in TAF is conductive to ultralong distance propagation with low crosstalk. TAF could be considered as an ideal candidate fiber for OAM based optical communication. Moreover, we investigated the twisted air-core photonic crystal fiber (TAPCF) which can improve the relative energy distribution of the OAM modes. Compared with TAF, more energy is located in the ring shaped core, which is conductive to ultralong distance propagation. TAF and TAPCF are of potential interest for increasing channel capacity in optical telecommunications, and the result is also of interest to the photonic crystal community. PMID:27137269

  11. Mid-stratospheric measurements of CO2, CH4, and CO using AirCore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Karion, A.; Newberger, T.; Sweeney, C.; Andrews, A. E.; Tans, P. P.

    2011-12-01

    AirCore, a long tube descending from a high altitude with one end open and the other closed, has been demonstrated to be a reliable, cost-effective sampling system for CO2 and CH4 measurements. Previous studies show that vertical profiles from the ground level up to ~ 20 km (~ 40 mbar) can be achieved during a balloon flight. The ceiling of the profile is restricted mainly by the diffusion of air in the AirCore and the resolution of the analyzer used for the analysis. Here air with an extremely high CO mixing ratio (~ 10 ppm) has been employed as the initial fill air in the AirCore. This high CO fill gas is used as a label to track the mixing between sampled air and fill air at the top of the profile thus providing the ability to retrieve full profiles for CO2 and CH4 up to the balloon's ceiling height of ~ 30 km (~ 11 mbar). Stratospheric measurements of CO lack agreement among previous studies, (i.e. cryogenic sampling, in-situ measurements, and remote sensing) due to difficulties that are inherent to the various techniques and possibly due to latitudinal and seasonal variations that could not be represented by the available sparse observations. Efforts to collect an accurate profile of stratospheric CO using the AirCore, are complicated by the reaction of CO and O3 in the coil, which is particular important for stratospheric air with high O3. To remove the influence of O3 on the CO measurements from AirCore, we have investigated three O3 scrubbers: 1) Manganese dioxide (MnO2); 2) Sodium Sulfite (Na2SO3); 3) Sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3). Laboratory tests reveal that Sodium thiosulfate is the best choice as it has sufficient capacity to absorb O3 and does not impact measurements of CO2 and CH4. We will show experimental results from both aircraft and balloon flights. Regular ongoing stratospheric profiles of CO2, CH4, and CO are necessary to improve and validate total column measurements by remote sensing techniques, such as FTS and satellite. Such measurements

  12. Experimental constraints on light elements in the Earth’s outer core

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youjun; Sekine, Toshimori; He, Hongliang; Yu, Yin; Liu, Fusheng; Zhang, Mingjian

    2016-01-01

    Earth’s outer core is liquid and dominantly composed of iron and nickel (~5–10 wt%). Its density, however, is ~8% lower than that of liquid iron, and requires the presence of a significant amount of light element(s). A good way to specify the light element(s) is a direct comparison of density and sound velocity measurements between seismological data and those of possible candidate compositions at the core conditions. We report the sound velocity measurements of a model core composition in the Fe-Ni-Si system at the outer core conditions by shock-wave experiments. Combining with the previous studies, we found that the best estimate for the outer core’s light elements is ~6 wt% Si, ~2 wt% S, and possible ~1–2.5 wt% O. This composition satisfies the requirements imposed by seismology, geochemistry, and some models of the early core formation. This finding may help us to further constrain the thermal structure of the Earth and the models of Earth’s core formation. PMID:26932596

  13. Experimental constraints on light elements in the Earth’s outer core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Youjun; Sekine, Toshimori; He, Hongliang; Yu, Yin; Liu, Fusheng; Zhang, Mingjian

    2016-03-01

    Earth’s outer core is liquid and dominantly composed of iron and nickel (~5-10 wt%). Its density, however, is ~8% lower than that of liquid iron, and requires the presence of a significant amount of light element(s). A good way to specify the light element(s) is a direct comparison of density and sound velocity measurements between seismological data and those of possible candidate compositions at the core conditions. We report the sound velocity measurements of a model core composition in the Fe-Ni-Si system at the outer core conditions by shock-wave experiments. Combining with the previous studies, we found that the best estimate for the outer core’s light elements is ~6 wt% Si, ~2 wt% S, and possible ~1-2.5 wt% O. This composition satisfies the requirements imposed by seismology, geochemistry, and some models of the early core formation. This finding may help us to further constrain the thermal structure of the Earth and the models of Earth’s core formation.

  14. Illuminating light-dependent color shifts in core and veneer layers of dental all-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Cha, Hyun-Suk; Yu, Bin

    2014-09-01

    The color of an object is perceived differently depending on the ambient light conditions. Since dental all-ceramic restorations are fabricated by building up several layers to reproduce the tooth shade, the optical properties of each layer should be optimized for successful shade reproduction. This study aimed to determine the separate contributions of the color shifts in each of the core and veneer layers of all-ceramics by switching the illuminating lights on the color shifts of layered ceramics. Specimens of seven kinds of core ceramics and the corresponding veneer ceramics for each core were fabricated with a layered thickness of 1.5 mm. A sintering ceramic was used as a reference core material. The Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates of core, veneer, and layered specimens were measured with a spectroradiometer under the CIE illuminant D65 (daylight), A (incandescent lamp), and F9 (fluorescent lamp) simulating lights. Color shifts of the layered specimens were primarily determined by the CIE a* shifts (D65 to A switch) or by the CIE b* shifts (D65 to F9 switch) of the veneer layer. The color coordinates shifts in the constituent layers differentially influenced those of the layered specimens by the kind of switched lights. Therefore, the optical properties of the constituent layers of all-ceramics should be controlled to reflect these findings.

  15. Illuminating light-dependent color shifts in core and veneer layers of dental all-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Cha, Hyun-Suk; Yu, Bin

    2014-09-01

    The color of an object is perceived differently depending on the ambient light conditions. Since dental all-ceramic restorations are fabricated by building up several layers to reproduce the tooth shade, the optical properties of each layer should be optimized for successful shade reproduction. This study aimed to determine the separate contributions of the color shifts in each of the core and veneer layers of all-ceramics by switching the illuminating lights on the color shifts of layered ceramics. Specimens of seven kinds of core ceramics and the corresponding veneer ceramics for each core were fabricated with a layered thickness of 1.5 mm. A sintering ceramic was used as a reference core material. The Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates of core, veneer, and layered specimens were measured with a spectroradiometer under the CIE illuminant D65 (daylight), A (incandescent lamp), and F9 (fluorescent lamp) simulating lights. Color shifts of the layered specimens were primarily determined by the CIE a shifts (D65 to A switch) or by the CIE b shifts (D65 to F9 switch) of the veneer layer. The color coordinates shifts in the constituent layers differentially influenced those of the layered specimens by the kind of switched lights. Therefore, the optical properties of the constituent layers of all-ceramics should be controlled to reflect these findings. PMID:25247394

  16. Accelerator Mass Spectrometric determination of radiocarbon in stratospheric CO2, retrieved from AirCore sampling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Dipayan; Been, Henk A.; Chen, Huilin; Kivi, Rigel; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2015-04-01

    In this decade, understanding the impact of human activities on climate is one of the key issues of discussion globally. The continuous rise in the concentration of greenhouse gases, e.g., CO2, CH4, etc. in the atmosphere, predominantly due to human activities, is alarming and requires continuous monitoring to understand the dynamics. Radiocarbon is an important atmospheric tracer and one of the many used in the understanding of the global carbon budget, which includes the greenhouse gases like CO2 and CH4. Measurement of 14C (or radiocarbon) in atmospheric CO2 generally requires collection of large air samples (few liters) from which CO2 is extracted and then the concentration of radiocarbon is determined. Currently, Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is the most precise, reliable and widely used technique for atmospheric radiocarbon detection. However, the regular collection of air samples from troposphere and stratosphere, for example using aircraft, is prohibitively expensive. AirCore is an innovative atmospheric sampling system, developed by NOAA. It comprises of a long tube descending from a high altitude with one end open and the other closed, and has been demonstrated to be a reliable, cost-effective sampling system for high-altitude profile (up to ~ 30 km) measurements of CH4and CO2(Karion et al. 2010). In Europe, AirCore measurements are being performed on a regular basis near Sodankylä since September 2013. Here we describe the analysis of two such AirCore samples collected in July 2014, Finland, for determining the 14C concentration in stratospheric CO2. The two AirCore samples were collected on consecutive days. Each stratospheric AirCore sample was divided into six fractions, each containing ~ 35 μg CO2 (~9.5 μg C). Each fraction was separately trapped in 1 /4 inch coiled stainless steel tubing for radiocarbon measurements. The procedure for CO2 extraction from the stratospheric air samples; the sample preparation, with samples containing < 10

  17. AIRS First Light Data: Typhoon Ramasun, July 3, 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2Figure 3

    Four images of Tropical Cyclone Ramasun were obtained July 3, 2002 by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder experiment system onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft. The AIRS experiment, with its wide spectral coverage in four diverse bands, provides the ability to obtain complete 3-D observations of severe weather, from the surface, through clouds to the top of the atmosphere with unprecedented accuracy. This accuracy is the key to understanding weather patterns and improving weather predictions.

    Viewed separately, none of these images can provide accurate 3-D descriptions of the state of the atmosphere because of interference from clouds. However, the ability to make simultaneous observations at a wide range of wavelengths allows the AIRS experiment to 'see' through clouds.

    This visible light picture from the AIRS instrument provides important information about the location of the cyclone, cloud structure and distribution.

    The AIRS instrument image at 900 cm-1 (Figure 1) is from a 10 micron transparent 'window channel' that is little affected by water vapor but still cannot see through clouds. In clear areas (like the eye of the cyclone and over northwest Australia) it measures a surface temperature of about 300K (color encoded red). In cloudy areas it measures the cloud top temperature, about 200K for the cyclone, which translates to a cloud top height of about 50,000 feet.

    On the other hand, most clouds are relatively transparent in microwave, and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Instrument channel image (Figure 2) can see through all but the densest clouds. For example, Taiwan, which is covered by clouds, is clearly visible.

    The Humidity Sounder for Brazil instrument channel (Figure 3), also in the microwave, is more sensitive to both clouds and humidity. Only in clear, dry regions, such as the eye of the cyclone or the

  18. Simultaneous Filtered and Unfiltered Light Scattering Measurements in Laser Generated Air Sparks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limbach, Christopher; Miles, Richard

    2013-09-01

    Elastic laser light scattering may be used to measure the thermofluidic properties of gases and plasmas, including but not limited to density, temperature and velocity. Most of this information is contained within the spectra of the scattered radiation. This may be measured directly through dispersion or indirectly, by passing the light through an atomic or molecular vapor filter with known absorption features. In this work, filtered and unfiltered laser light scattering is used to diagnose air sparks generated by a 1064 nm Q-switched laser. The probe laser consists of a second Q-switched Nd:YAG laser frequency doubled to 532 nm. Simultaneous unfiltered and filtered images of the scattering are captured by a Princeton Instruments ICCD camera by using a 50 mm diameter concave re-imaging mirror. The filter consists of a well-characterized molecular Iodine cell. In the shock wave formed by the laser spark, spatially resolved measurements of density, temperature and radial velocity are extracted and compared with theory and models. Measurements in the spark core probe the ion feature of the electron Thomson scattering, from which ne and T can be extracted with the assumption Te =Ti . Partial funding was provided by General Electric Global Research Center: Niskayuna, New York. The first author is also supported by a National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship.

  19. Photoresponsive Cyanostilbene Bent-Core Liquid Crystals as New Materials with Light-Driven Modulated Polarization.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Abadía, Marta; Robles-Hernández, Beatriz; de la Fuente, María Rosario; Giménez, Raquel; Ros, Maria Blanca

    2016-08-01

    Two isomeric cyanostilbene photoswitchable bent-core mesogens with polar liquid crystal phases in which macroscopic polarization and luminescence can be light-modulated are introduced. Z/E isomerization or [2+2] cycloaddition photochemical processes occur depending on the chemical structure, which make the compounds very innovative multifunctional advanced materials. PMID:27213889

  20. Core-shell structured TiO2@polydopamine for highly active visible-light photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Mao, Wen-Xin; Lin, Xi-Jie; Zhang, Wei; Chi, Zi-Xiang; Lyu, Rong-Wen; Cao, An-Min; Wan, Li-Jun

    2016-06-01

    This communication reports that the TiO2@polydopamine nanocomposite with a core-shell structure could be a highly active photocatalyst working under visible light. A very thin layer of polydopamine at around 1 nm was found to be critical for the degradation of Rhodamine B. PMID:27165843

  1. Simplified Model of Contactless Air-Core Power Alternator and Transfer Using Ideal Superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jian Xun; Chen, Xiao Yuan

    The feasibility study of a contactless power transfer (CPT) system using high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC windings has been carried out. The analyses on two HTS CPT application schemes with iron-core and air-core loosely-coupled transformer structures indicate that the introduction of HTS DC windings makes the large-current coupling CPT available for improving the transfer power and efficiency, promising for large-power AC and DC contactless loads, and its transfer efficiency almost coincides with efficiency of the cooperated motor. The design considerations and procedures of the HTS CPT system have also been discussed.

  2. Orbital tuning of deep ice cores using O2/N2 of trapped air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.

    2014-12-01

    The chronology of the first Dome Fuji deep ice core (80,000-340,000 yr BP) was established by orbital tuning of measured O2/N2 ratios in trapped air to the past local summer insolation at the drill site (Kawamura et al., 2007). The O2/N2 ratios found in ice cores are generally lower than atmospheric ratio because of size-dependent molecular fractionation during bubble close-off. The magnitude of this gas fractionation appears to be influenced by snow metamorphism when the layer was originally at the surface, which in turn is controlled by local summer insolation (Fujita et al., 2009). The O2/N2 record has little 100,000-yr periodicity (strongest in climatic records), suggesting insignificant climatic influence in the orbital tuning. Agreement of the O2/N2 chronology with U-Th radiometric chronology of speleothems (within ~2000 yr) suggests that O2/N2 and summer insolation are indeed in phase. However, it may not be common to all ice cores that O2/N2 signal only records local summer insolation. For example, the GISP2 ice core (Greenland) has clear imprint of abrupt climate changes in the O2/N2 record, indicating climatic (non-insolation) signal in the record and the possibility of phase variability of O2/N2 relative to the past insolation (Suwa and Bender, 2008). Here we present new O2/N2 record from the second Dome Fuji ice core with significant improvements in ice core storage practice and mass spectrometry. In particular, the ice core had been stored at about -50 ˚C until the air extraction except during transportations, which prevent fractionation due to gas loss during the core storage. The precision of the new O2/N2 data set is improved by a factor of 3 over the previous data, and we do not observe outliers (there were 15% outliers in the previous data). Clear imprint of local insolation is recognizable in the new O2/N2, which would enable us to generate a chronology with accuracy of ~2000 yr towards older periods. Samples from the first core after long

  3. Air core poloidal magnetic field system for a toroidal plasma producing device

    DOEpatents

    Marcus, Frederick B.

    1978-01-01

    A poloidal magnetics system for a plasma producing device of toroidal configuration is provided that reduces both the total volt-seconds requirement and the magnitude of the field change at the toroidal field coils. The system utilizes an air core transformer wound between the toroidal field (TF) coils and the major axis outside the TF coils. Electric current in the primary windings of this transformer is distributed and the magnetic flux returned by air core windings wrapped outside the toroidal field coils. A shield winding that is closely coupled to the plasma carries a current equal and opposite to the plasma current. This winding provides the shielding function and in addition serves in a fashion similar to a driven conducting shell to provide the equilibrium vertical field for the plasma. The shield winding is in series with a power supply and a decoupling coil located outside the TF coil at the primary winding locations. The present invention requires much less energy than the usual air core transformer and is capable of substantially shielding the toroidal field coils from poloidal field flux.

  4. A two-component model for fitting light curves of core-collapse supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, A. P.; Vinkó, J.

    2016-05-01

    We present an improved version of a light curve model that is able to estimate the physical properties of different types of core-collapse supernovae that have double-peaked light curves and do so in a quick and efficient way. The model is based on a two-component configuration consisting of a dense inner region and an extended low-mass envelope. Using this configuration, we estimate the initial parameters of the progenitor by fitting the shape of the quasi-bolometric light curves of 10 SNe, including Type IIP and IIb events, with model light curves. In each case we compare the fitting results with available hydrodynamic calculations and also match the derived expansion velocities with the observed ones. Furthermore, we compare our calculations with hydrodynamic models derived by the SNEC code and examine the uncertainties of the estimated physical parameters caused by the assumption of constant opacity and the inaccurate knowledge of the moment of explosion.

  5. Observable fractions of core-collapse supernova light curves brightened by binary companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Takashi J.; Liu, Zheng-Wei; Izzard, Robert G.

    2015-07-01

    Many core-collapse supernova progenitors are presumed to be in binary systems. If a star explodes in a binary system, the early supernova light curve can be brightened by the collision of the supernova ejecta with the companion star. The early brightening can be observed when the observer is in the direction of the hole created by the collision. Based on a population synthesis model, we estimate the fractions of core-collapse supernovae in which the light-curve brightening by the collision can be observed. We find that 0.19 per cent of core-collapse supernova light curves can be observed with the collisional brightening. Type Ibc supernova light curves are more likely to be brightened by the collision (0.53 per cent) because of the high fraction of the progenitors being in binary systems and their proximity to the companion stars. Type II and IIb supernova light curves are less affected (˜10-3 and ˜10-2 per cent, respectively). Although the early, slow light-curve declines of some Type IIb and Ibc supernovae are argued to be caused by the collision with the companion star (e.g. SN 2008D), the small expected fraction, as well as the unrealistically small separation required, disfavour the argument. The future transient survey by the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope is expected to detect ˜10 Type Ibc supernovae with the early collisional brightening per year, and they will be able to provide information on supernova progenitors in binary systems.

  6. Shippingport operations with the Light Water Breeder Reactor core. (LWBR Development Program)

    SciTech Connect

    Budd, W.A.

    1986-03-01

    This report describes the operation of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station during the LWBR (Light Water Breeder Reactor) Core lifetime. It also summarizes the plant-oriented operations during the period preceding LWBR startup, which include the defueling of The Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 (PWR-2) and the installation of the LWBR Core, and the operations associated with the defueling of LWBR. The intent of this report is to examine LWBR experience in retrospect and present pertinent and significant aspects of LWBR operations that relate primarily to the nuclear portion of the Station. The nonnuclear portion of the Station is discussed only as it relates to overall plant operation or to unusual problems which result from the use of conventional equipment in radioactive environments. 30 refs., 69 figs., 27 tabs.

  7. Development of Yangbajing air shower core detector for a new EAS hybrid experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin-Sheng; Huang, Jing; Chen, Ding; Zhang, Ying; Zhai, Liu-Ming; Chen, Xu; Hu, Xiao-Bin; Lin, Yu-Hui; Zhang, Xue-Yao; Feng, Cun-Feng; Jia, Huan-Yu; Zhou, Xun-Xiu; Danzengluobu; Chen, Tian-Lu; Li, Hai-Jin; Liu, Mao-Yuan; Yuan, Ai-Fang

    2015-08-01

    Aiming at the observation of cosmic-ray chemical composition in the “knee” energy region, we have been developing a new type of air-shower core detector (YAC, Yangbajing Air shower Core detector array) to be set up at Yangbajing (90.522° E, 30.102° N, 4300 m above sea level, atmospheric depth: 606 g/m2) in Tibet, China. YAC works together with the Tibet air-shower array (Tibet-III) and an underground water Cherenkov muon detector array (MD) as a hybrid experiment. Each YAC detector unit consists of lead plates of 3.5 cm thickness and a scintillation counter which detects the burst size induced by high energy particles in the air-shower cores. The burst size can be measured from 1 MIP (Minimum Ionization Particle) to 106 MIPs. The first phase of this experiment, named “YAC- I”, consists of 16 YAC detectors each with a size of 40 cm×50 cm and distributed in a grid with an effective area of 10 m2. YAC- I is used to check hadronic interaction models. The second phase of the experiment, called “YAC- II”, consists of 124 YAC detectors with coverage of about 500 m2. The inner 100 detectors of 80 cm×50 cm each are deployed in a 10×10 matrix with a 1.9 m separation; the outer 24 detectors of 100 cm×50 cm each are distributed around these to reject non-core events whose shower cores are far from the YAC- II array. YAC- II is used to study the primary cosmic-ray composition, in particular, to obtain the energy spectra of protons, helium and iron nuclei between 5×1013 eV and 1016 eV, covering the “knee” and also connected with direct observations at energies around 100 TeV. We present the design and performance of YAC- II in this paper. Supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11078002, 11275212, 11165013), the Chinese Academy of Sciences (H9291450S3, Y4293211S5) and the Knowledge Innovation Fund of Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP), China (H95451D0U2, H8515530U1)

  8. Gap state related blue light emitting boron-carbon core shell structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Paviter; Kaur, Manpreet; Singh, Bikramjeet; Kaur, Gurpreet; Singh, Kulwinder; Kumar, Manjeet; Bala, Rajni; Thakur, Anup; Kumar, Akshay

    2016-05-01

    Boron- carbon core shell structures have been synthesized by solvo-thermal synthesis route. The synthesized material is highly pure. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the reduction of reactants in to boron and carbon. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the shell is uniform with average thickness of 340 nm. Photo luminescence studies showed that the material is blue light emitting with CIE color coordinates: x=0.16085, y=0.07554.

  9. Acceptability testing of radioluminescent lights for VFR-night air taxi operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Tritium-powered radioluminescent (RL) lights have been under development for remote, austere, and tactical airfield lighting applications. The State of Alaska has requested FAA approval for use of the technology as a safe alternative lighting system to meet the airfield lighting needs of air taxi operations and general aviation in the state. The tests described in this report were performed by PNL for the DOE Defense Byproducts Production and Utilization Program. These tests are a step toward gaining the required approvals.

  10. Analysis of air quality and nighttime light for Indian urban regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Prakhar; Takeuchi, Wataru

    2016-06-01

    Indian urban regions suffer severe air pollution issues. A 2014 study by WHO highlighted that out of 20 cities globally with worst air quality, 13 lie in India. Although insufficient ground monitoring data and incomplete air pollution source characterization impedes putting policy measures to tackle this issue, remote sensing and GIS can overcome this hurdle to some extent. To find out how much of this hazard is due to economic growth, past researches have tried to make use of socio-economic growth indicators like GDP, population or urban area to establish its correlation with air quality in urban centres. Since nightlight has been found to correlate well with economic conditions at national and city level, an attempt has been made to analyse it with air quality levels to find regions with high contribution of anthropogenic emissions. Nighttime light activity was observed through DayNight Band (DNB) of VIIRS sensor while the air quality levels were obtained for ANG and AOD (using MODIS sensor) and SO2 and NO2 (using OMI sensor). We have classified Indian landmass into 4 air-quality and DNB classes: LowLight- HighPollution, HighLight-HighPollution, LowLight-LowPollution and HighLight- LowPollution for each air quality species using June 2014 data. It was found that around half of urban regions show high AOD and ANG values. On the other hand almost all urban regions exhibit high SO2 and NO2 values.

  11. Primary disassembly of Light Water Breeder Reactor modules for core evaluation (LWBR Development Program)

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberger, R.J.; Miller, E.L.

    1987-10-01

    After successfully operating for 29,047 effective full power hours, the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core was defueled prior to total decommissioning of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. All nuclear fuel and much of the reactor internal hardware was removed from the reactor vessel. Non-fuel components were prepared for shipment to disposal sites, and the fuel assemblies were partially disassembled and shipped to the Expended Core Facility (ECF) in Idaho. At ECF, the fuel modules underwent further disassembly to provide fuel rods for nondestructive testing to establish the core's breeding efficiency and to provide core components for examinations to assess their performance characteristics. This report presents a basic description of the processes and equipment used to disassemble LWBR fuel modules for subsequent proof-of-breeding (POB) and core examination operations. Included are discussions of module handling fixtures and equipment, the underwater milling machine and bandsaw assemblies, and the associated design and operation of this equipment for LWBR fuel module disassembly.

  12. Light pollution from the ground, the air and the space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.; Gómez Castaño, J.; Aubé, M.; Bará, S.; Gallego, J.; Kyba, C. C. M.; Lombraña, D.; Nievas, M.; Pascual, S.; Tapia, C.

    2015-05-01

    The sky brightness is one of the things that most harms astronomical observation, near cities and on mountain observatories. Currently there are several initiatives to control light pollution, but the sky brightness measurements are usually local. To exercise adequate control of light pollution is necessary measurements of light pollution sources and their relation to the spatiotemporal variation of the sky brightness. We use various approaches: data taken ashore with photometers SQM and relate emissions and detected with VIIRS and DMSP satellites. We also use multispectral data taken from the International Space Station to distinguish different types of lamps that contribute to light pollution. Finally we used a spectrograph SAND for temporal analysis of the evolution of the contribution of the lights in the sky brightness of a big city like Madrid. Also we have performed a citizen science program to classify the night time images taken from the ISS (Sánchez de Miguel et al. 2014, A&G, 55, 4, 36).

  13. Oxygen as a light element: A solution to single-stage core formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corgne, Alexandre; Siebert, Julien; Badro, James

    2009-10-01

    The abundances of siderophile elements in the silicate Earth indicate that Earth's iron-rich core probably formed at high pressure and high temperature. A popular model of core formation considers that the concentrations of several moderately siderophile elements are consistent with a scenario of simple single-stage equilibration at the base of a magma ocean. However, recent work using temperature sensitive partitioning data for V and Nb have casted doubt on this interpretation since the required basal temperature would greatly exceed that of the mantle solidus. Here we show that single-stage core formation event could explain the mantle contents of siderophile elements best constrained by experiment (Ni, Co, V, Mn, Cr, and Nb) provided that the core contains a few weight percents of oxygen. Our calculations, based on partitioning and metallurgy data, reveal that V and Nb become significantly less siderophile with increasing the O content of core-forming materials, while the behaviour of Ni, Co, Cr and Mn is little affected. Since the other likely light element candidates C, Si and S do not drastically influence the siderophile behaviour, we conclude that a simple-equilibration scenario is a viable hypothesis only if O contributes partially to the core density deficit. This interpretation is consistent with the W budget of the silicate Earth and recently published W metal-silicate partitioning data. The presence of a few weight percents of oxygen in the core is also in agreement with recent high-pressure high-temperature solubility measurements in molten iron equilibrated with perovskite and ferropericlase.

  14. An investigation of polarization cross-coupling in air-core photonic bandgap fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaobin; Song, Ningfang; Zhang, Zhihao; Zhang, Zuchen; Jin, Jing; Zhang, Chunxi

    2016-05-01

    Polarization cross-coupling is one of the most important problems in air-core photonic bandgap fibers (PBF). In this research, polarization cross-coupling is investigated for PBFs of different lengths. The analyzing and simulation results show that the orientation of the birefringent axes induced by residual core ellipticity fluctuates with an average period of ~2.5 cm and random angles uniformly distributed over approximately [-7.5°, 7.5°]. The birefringent orientation in PBF varies much more frequently and strongly than that in any conventional fiber because of the difference in drawing process, and this is the most important factor causing the strong polarization cross-coupling in PBFs.

  15. Computation of the Mutual Inductance between Air-Cored Coils of Wireless Power Transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anele, A. O.; Hamam, Y.; Chassagne, L.; Linares, J.; Alayli, Y.; Djouani, K.

    2015-09-01

    Wireless power transfer system is a modern technology which allows the transfer of electric power between the air-cored coils of its transformer via high frequency magnetic fields. However, due to its coil separation distance and misalignment, maximum power transfer is not guaranteed. Based on a more efficient and general model available in the literature, rederived mathematical models for evaluating the mutual inductance between circular coils with and without lateral and angular misalignment are presented. Rather than presenting results numerically, the computed results are graphically implemented using MATLAB codes. The results are compared with the published ones and clarification regarding the errors made are presented. In conclusion, this study shows that power transfer efficiency of the system can be improved if a higher frequency alternating current is supplied to the primary coil, the reactive parts of the coils are compensated with capacitors and ferrite cores are added to the coils.

  16. The influence of inelastic neutrino interactions with light clusters on core-collapse supernova simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusawa, Shun; Nagakura, Hiroki; Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke; Yamada, Shoichi

    2014-12-01

    We perform numerical experiments to investigate the influence of inelastic neutrino reactions with light clusters in hot nuclear matter on core-collapse supernova simulations. These interactions have been neglected in most hydrodynamical supernova simulations. The neutrino absorptions and inelastic interactions with deuterons, tritons, helions and alpha particles are taken into account in the hydrodynamical simulations in addition to the ordinary charged- current interactions with nucleons. Axial symmetry is assumed but no equatorial symmetry is imposed. The time evolutions of shock waves are calculated with a simple light-bulb approximation for the neutrino transport and a multi-nuclei equation of state. We show that the heating rates of deuterons reach as high as ~ 10% of those of nucleons around the bottom of the gain region. On the other hand, alpha particles heat the matter near the shock wave, which is important when the shock wave expands and density and temperature of matter become low. It is also found that the models with heating by light clusters have different evolutions from those without it in non-linear evolution phase. The matter in the gain region has various densities and temperatures and there appear regions that are locally rich in deuterons and alpha particles. These results indicate that the inelastic reactions of light clusters, especially deuterons, should be incorporated in the simulations of core-collapse supernovae.

  17. Design of small core tellurite photonic crystal fiber for slow-light-based application using stimulated Brillouin scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherif, Rim; Salem, Amine Ben; Saini, Than Singh; Kumar, Ajeet; Sinha, Ravindra K.; Zghal, Mourad

    2015-07-01

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) performances of small core tellurite photonic crystal fibers (PCF) are rigorously studied. We propose a design of tellurite PCF that is used for slow-light-based applications. We developed a two-dimensional finite element mode solver to numerically study the acoustic and optical properties of complex refractive index profiles including tellurite PCF. Our results include the calculation of Brillouin gain spectrum, Brillouin gain coefficient (gB) and Brillouin frequency shift by taking into account the contribution of the higher-order acoustic modes. Several simulations were run by varying the air-filling ratio of various PCF structures to enhance the SBS. The real scanning electron microscope image of a small core of highly nonlinear tellurite fiber is considered. Optimized results show a frequency shift of 8.43 GHz and a Brillouin gain of 9.48×10-11 m/W with a time delay between 21 and 140 ns. Such fibers have drawn much interest because of their capacity for increasing and tailoring the SBS gain.

  18. Visible Light Responsive Catalyst for Air Water Purification Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Investigate and develop viable approaches to render the normally UV-activated TIO2 catalyst visible light responsive (VLR) and achieve high and sustaining catalytic activity under the visible region of the solar spectrum.

  19. Lighting energy efficiency opportunities at Cheyenne Mountain Air Station

    SciTech Connect

    Molburg, J.C.; Rozo, A.J.; Sarles, J.K.; Haffenden, R.A.; Thimmapuram, P.R.; Cavallo, J.D.

    1996-06-01

    CMAS is an intensive user of electricity for lighting because of its size, lack of daylight, and 24-hour operating schedule. Argonne National Laboratory recently conducted a lighting energy conservation evaluation at CMAS. The evaluation included inspection and characterization of existing lighting systems, analysis of energy-efficient retrofit options, and investigation of the environmental effects that these lighting system retrofits could have when they are ready to be disposed of as waste. Argonne devised three retrofit options for the existing lighting systems at various buildings: (1) minimal retrofit--limited fixture replacement; (2) moderate retrofit--more extensive fixture replacement and limited application of motion detectors; and (3) advanced retrofit--fixture replacement, reduction in the number of lamps, expansion of task lighting, and more extensive application of motion detectors. Argonne used data on electricity consumption to analyze the economic and energy effects of these three retrofit options. It performed a cost analysis for each retrofit option in terms of payback. The analysis showed that lighting retrofits result in savings because they reduce electricity consumption, cooling load, and maintenance costs. The payback period for all retrofit options was found to be less than 2 years, with the payback period decreasing for more aggressive retrofits. These short payback periods derived largely from the intensive (24-hours-per-day) use of electric lighting at the facility. Maintenance savings accounted for more than half of the annual energy-related savings under the minimal and moderate retrofit options and slightly less than half of these savings under the advanced retrofit option. Even if maintenance savings were excluded, the payback periods would still be impressive: about 4.4 years for the minimal retrofit option and 2 years for the advanced option. The local and regional environmental impacts of the three retrofit options were minimal.

  20. Paleoarchean and Cambrian observations of the geodynamo in light of new estimates of core thermal conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarduno, John; Bono, Richard; Cottrell, Rory

    2015-04-01

    Recent estimates of core thermal conductivity are larger than prior values by a factor of approximately three. These new estimates suggest that the inner core is a relatively young feature, perhaps as young as 500 million years old, and that the core-mantle heat flux required to drive the early dynamo was greater than previously assumed (Nimmo, 2015). Here, we focus on paleomagnetic studies of two key time intervals important for understanding core evolution in light of the revisions of core conductivity values. 1. Hadean to Paleoarchean (4.4-3.4 Ga). Single silicate crystal paleointensity analyses suggest a relatively strong magnetic field at 3.4-3.45 Ga (Tarduno et al., 2010). Paleointenity data from zircons of the Jack Hills (Western Australia) further suggest the presence of a geodynamo between 3.5 and 3.6 Ga (Tarduno and Cottrell, 2014). We will discuss our efforts to test for the absence/presence of the geodynamo in older Eoarchean and Hadean times. 2. Ediacaran to Early Cambrian (~635-530 Ma). Disparate directions seen in some paleomagnetic studies from this time interval have been interpreted as recording inertial interchange true polar wander (IITPW). Recent single silicate paleomagnetic analyses fail to find evidence for IITPW; instead a reversing field overprinted by secondary magnetizations is defined (Bono and Tarduno, 2015). Preliminary analyses suggest the field may have been unusually weak. We will discuss our on-going tests of the hypothesis that this interval represents the time of onset of inner core growth. References: Bono, R.K. & Tarduno, J.A., Geology, in press (2015); Nimmo, F., Treatise Geophys., in press (2015); Tarduno, J.A., et al., Science (2010); Tarduno, J.A. & Cottrell, R.D., AGU Fall Meeting (2014).

  1. Light Scattering by Ice Crystals Containing Air Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Panetta, R. L.; Yang, P.; Bi, L.

    2014-12-01

    The radiative effects of ice clouds are often difficult to estimate accurately, but are very important for interpretation of observations and for climate modeling. Our understanding of these effects is primarily based on scattering calculations, but due to the variability in ice habit it is computationally difficult to determine the required scattering and absorption properties, and the difficulties are only compounded by the need to include consideration of air and carbon inclusions of the sort frequently observed in collected samples. Much of the previous work on effects of inclusions in ice particles on scattering properties has been conducted with variants of geometric optics methods. We report on simulations of scattering by ice crystals with enclosed air bubbles using the pseudo-spectral time domain method (PSTD) and improved geometric optics method (IGOM). A Bouncing Ball Model (BBM) is proposed as a parametrization of air bubbles, and the results are compared with Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations. Consistent with earlier studies, we find that air inclusions lead to a smoothing of variations in the phase function, weakening of halos, and a reduction of backscattering. We extend these studies by examining the effects of the particular arrangement of a fixed number of bubbles, as well as the effects of splitting a given number of bubbles into a greater number of smaller bubbles with the same total volume fraction. The result shows that the phase function will not change much for stochastic distributed air bubbles. It also shows that local maxima of phase functions are smoothed out for backward directions, when we break bubbles into small ones, single big bubble scatter favors more forward scattering than multi small internal scatters.

  2. Bolometric light curves and explosion parameters of 38 stripped-envelope core-collapse supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, J. D.; Bersier, D.; James, P. A.; Mazzali, P. A.; Eldridge, J. J.; Fraser, M.; Pian, E.

    2016-03-01

    Literature data are collated for 38 stripped-envelope core-collapse supernovae (SE SNe; i.e. SNe IIb, Ib, Ic and Ic-BL) that have good light-curve coverage in more than one optical band. Using bolometric corrections derived in previous work, the bolometric light curve of each SN is recovered and template bolometric light curves provided. Peak light distributions and decay rates are investigated; SNe subtypes are not cleanly distinguished in this parameter space, although some grouping of types does occur and there is a suggestion of a Phillips-like relation for most SNe Ic-BL. The bolometric light curves are modelled with a simple analytical prescription and compared to results from more detailed modelling. Distributions of the explosion parameters show the extreme nature of SNe Ic-BL in terms of their 56Ni mass and the kinetic energy, however ejected masses are similar to other subtypes. SNe Ib and Ic have very similar distributions of explosion parameters, indicating a similarity in progenitors. SNe IIb are the most homogeneous subtype and have the lowest average values for 56Ni mass, ejected mass, and kinetic energy. Ejecta masses for each subtype and SE SNe as a whole are inconsistent with those expected from very massive stars. The majority of the ejecta mass distribution is well described by more moderately massive progenitors in binaries, indicating these are the dominant progenitor channel for SE SNe.

  3. Multi-band optical light-curve behavior of core-collapse supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Brijesh

    2014-01-01

    We present survey results obtained from the UBVRI optical photometric follow-up of 19 bright core-collapse SNe during 2002-2012 using 1-m class optical telescopes operated by the Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Science (acronym ARIES), Nainital India. This homogeneous set of data have been used to study behavior of optical light/color curve, and to gain insight into objet-to-object peculiarity. We derive integrated luminosities for types IIP, Ibc and luminous SNe. Two peculiar type IIP events having photometric properties similar to normal IIP and spectroscopic properties similar to sub-lumnious IIP have been identified.

  4. Statistical error propagation in ab initio no-core full configuration calculations of light nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro Pérez, R.; Amaro, J. E.; Ruiz Arriola, E.; Maris, P.; Vary, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    We propagate the statistical uncertainty of experimental N N scattering data into the binding energy of 3H and 4He. We also study the sensitivity of the magnetic moment and proton radius of the 3H to changes in the N N interaction. The calculations are made with the no-core full configuration method in a sufficiently large harmonic oscillator basis. For those light nuclei we obtain Δ Estat(3H) =0.015 MeV and Δ Estat(4He) =0.055 MeV .

  5. High-angle light scattering to determine the optical fiber core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Świrniak, Grzegorz

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the paper is to discuss the possibility of non-invasive sizing of a step-index optical fiber with the use of a beam of light of low temporal coherence. For this purpose we examine the angular profile of light scattered from the fiber at a high angle. The scattered pattern comprises chiefly two coupled, twin rainbows and depends on the fiber physical characteristics, i.e. its dimensions, shape, and refractive index profile. In order to find a causal link between the scattering pattern and the fiber morphology, a spectral analysis (Fast Fourier Transform, FFT) is performed over the scattering intensity. From the spectral data, the core diameter of a step-index optical fiber is extracted inversely.

  6. Physical properties of self-, dual-, and light-cured direct core materials.

    PubMed

    Rüttermann, Stefan; Alberts, Ian; Raab, Wolfgang H M; Janda, Ralf R

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate flexural strength, flexural modulus, compressive strength, curing temperature, curing depth, volumetric shrinkage, water sorption, and hygroscopic expansion of two self-, three dual-, and three light-curing resin-based core materials. Flexural strength and water sorption were measured according to ISO 4049, flexural modulus, compressive strength, curing temperature, and curing depth according to well-proven, literature-known methods, and the volumetric behavior was determined by the Archimedes' principle. ANOVA was calculated to find differences between the materials' properties, and correlation of water sorption and hygroscopic expansion was analysed according to Pearson (p < 0.05). Clearfil Photo Core demonstrated the highest flexural strength (125 ± 12 MPa) and curing depth (15.2 ± 0.1 mm) and had the highest flexural modulus (≈12.6 ± 1.2 GPa) concertedly with Multicore HB. The best compressive strength was measured for Voco Rebilda SC and Clearfil DC Core Auto (≈260 ± 10 MPa). Encore SuperCure Contrast had the lowest water sorption (11.8 ± 3.3 µg mm(-3)) and hygroscopic expansion (0.0 ± 0.2 vol.%). Clearfil Photo Core and Encore SuperCure Contrast demonstrated the lowest shrinkage (≈2.1 ± 0.1 vol.%). Water sorption and hygroscopic expansion had a very strong positive correlation. The investigated core materials significantly differed in the tested properties. The performance of the materials depended on their formulation, as well as on the respective curing process. PMID:20372950

  7. Inelastic Neutrino Reactions with Light Nuclei and Standing Accretion Shock Instability in Core-Collapse Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusawa, S.; Nagakura, H.; Sumiyoshi, K.; Yamada, S.

    2016-01-01

    We perform numerical experiments to investigate the influence of inelastic neutrino reactions with light nuclei on the standing accretion shock instability. The time evolutions of shock waves are calculated with a simple light-bulb approximation for the neutrino transport and a multi-nuclei equation of state. The neutrino absorptions and inelastic interactions with deuterons, tritons, helions and alpha particles are taken into account in the hydrodynamical simulations in addition to the ordinary charged-current interactions with nucleons. Axial symmetry is assumed but no equatorial symmetry is imposed. We show that the heating rates of deuterons reach as high as ∼ 10% of those of nucleons around the bottom of the gain region. On the other hands, alpha particles heat the matter near the shock wave, which is important when the shock wave expands and density and temperature of matter become low. It is also found that the models with heating by light nuclei have different evolutions from those without it in non-linear evolution phase. The matter in the gain region has various densities and temperatures and there appear regions that are locally rich in deuterons and alpha particles. These results indicate that the inelastic reactions of light nuclei, especially deuterons, should be incorporated in the simulations of core-collapse supernovae.

  8. Microstructured Air Cavities as High-Index Contrast Substrates with Strong Diffraction for Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Moon, Yoon-Jong; Moon, Daeyoung; Jang, Jeonghwan; Na, Jin-Young; Song, Jung-Hwan; Seo, Min-Kyo; Kim, Sunghee; Bae, Dukkyu; Park, Eun Hyun; Park, Yongjo; Kim, Sun-Kyung; Yoon, Euijoon

    2016-05-11

    Two-dimensional high-index-contrast dielectric gratings exhibit unconventional transmission and reflection due to their morphologies. For light-emitting devices, these characteristics help guided modes defeat total internal reflections, thereby enhancing the outcoupling efficiency into an ambient medium. However, the outcoupling ability is typically impeded by the limited index contrast given by pattern media. Here, we report strong-diffraction, high-index-contrast cavity engineered substrates (CESs) in which hexagonally arranged hemispherical air cavities are covered with a 80 nm thick crystallized alumina shell. Wavelength-resolved diffraction measurements and Fourier analysis on GaN-grown CESs reveal that the high-index-contrast air/alumina core/shell patterns lead to dramatic excitation of the low-order diffraction modes. Large-area (1075 × 750 μm(2)) blue-emitting InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated on a 3 μm pitch CES exhibit ∼39% enhancement in the optical power compared to state-of-the-art, patterned-sapphire-substrate LEDs, while preserving all of the electrical metrics that are relevant to LED devices. Full-vectorial simulations quantitatively demonstrate the enhanced optical power of CES LEDs and show a progressive increase in the extraction efficiency as the air cavity volume is expanded. This trend in light extraction is observed for both lateral- and flip-chip-geometry LEDs. Measurements of far-field profiles indicate a substantial beaming effect for CES LEDs, despite their few-micron-pitch pattern. Near-to-far-field transformation simulations and polarization analysis demonstrate that the improved extraction efficiency of CES LEDs is ascribed to the increase in emissions via the top escape route and to the extraction of transverse-magnetic polarized light. PMID:27045458

  9. Phase relationships between orbital forcing and the composition of air trapped in Antarctic ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazin, Lucie; Landais, Amaelle; Capron, Emilie; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Ritz, Catherine; Picard, Ghislain; Jouzel, Jean; Dumont, Marie; Leuenberger, Markus; Prié, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    Orbital tuning is central for ice core chronologies beyond annual layer counting, available back to 60 ka (i.e. thousands of years before 1950) for Greenland ice cores. While several complementary orbital tuning tools have recently been developed using δ18Oatm, δO2⁄N2 and air content with different orbital targets, quantifying their uncertainties remains a challenge. Indeed, the exact processes linking variations of these parameters, measured in the air trapped in ice, to their orbital targets are not yet fully understood. Here, we provide new series of δO2/N2 and δ18Oatm data encompassing Marine Isotopic Stage (MIS) 5 (between 100 and 160 ka) and the oldest part (340-800 ka) of the East Antarctic EPICA Dome C (EDC) ice core. For the first time, the measurements over MIS 5 allow an inter-comparison of δO2/N2 and δ18Oatm records from three East Antarctic ice core sites (EDC, Vostok and Dome F). This comparison highlights some site-specific δO2/N2 variations. Such an observation, the evidence of a 100 ka periodicity in the δO2/N2 signal and the difficulty to identify extrema and mid-slopes in δO2/N2 increase the uncertainty associated with the use of δO2/N2 as an orbital tuning tool, now calculated to be 3-4 ka. When combining records of δ18Oatm and δO2/N2 from Vostok and EDC, we find a loss of orbital signature for these two parameters during periods of minimum eccentricity (˜ 400 ka, ˜ 720-800 ka). Our data set reveals a time-varying offset between δO2/N2 and δ18Oatm records over the last 800 ka that we interpret as variations in the lagged response of δ18Oatm to precession. The largest offsets are identified during Terminations II, MIS 8 and MIS 16, corresponding to periods of destabilization of the Northern polar ice sheets. We therefore suggest that the occurrence of Heinrich-like events influences the response of δ18Oatm to precession.

  10. Millennial and Sub-millennial Variability of Total Air Content from the WAIS Divide Ice Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Jon; Brook, Edward; Fegyveresi, John; Lee, James; Mitchell, Logan; Sowers, Todd; Alley, Richard; McConnell, Joe; Severinghaus, Jeff; Baggenstos, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    The analysis of ancient air bubbles trapped in ice is integral to the reconstruction of climate over the last 800 ka. While mixing ratios of greenhouse gases along with isotopic ratios are being studied in ever increasing resolution, one aspect of the gas record that continues to be understudied is the total air content (TAC) of the trapped bubbles. Published records of TAC are often too low in temporal resolution to adequately capture sub-millennial scale variability. Here we present a high-resolution TAC record (10-50 year sampling resolution) from the WAIS Divide ice core, measured at Oregon State and Penn State Universities. The records cover a variety of climatic conditions over the last 56 ka and show millennial variability of up to 10% and sub-millennial variability between 2.5 and 3.5%. We find that using the pore close off volume parameterization (Delomotte et al., J. Glaciology, 1999, v.45), along with the site temperature derived from isotopes, our TAC record implies unrealistically large changes in surface pressure or elevation. For example, the TAC decreases by ~10% between 19.5ka and 17.3ka, and would imply an elevation increase of nearly 800m. The total accumulation of ice over this period is just 280m (Fudge et al. Nature 2013), making the calculated elevation interpretation implausible. To resolve this discrepancy, we investigate the millennial and sub-millennial variability in our TAC record as a function of changes in firn densification and particularly layering. The firn is the uppermost layer of an ice sheet where snow is compressed into ice, trapping ancient air. Thus firn processes are important for the interpretation of total air content as well as other gas records. We compare our TAC record with proxies for dust, temperature and accumulation to determine how processes other than elevation affect TAC.

  11. Effect of Zinc Incorporation on the Performance of Red Light Emitting InP Core Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Xi, Lifei; Cho, Deok-Yong; Besmehn, Astrid; Duchamp, Martial; Grützmacher, Detlev; Lam, Yeng Ming; Kardynał, Beata E

    2016-09-01

    This report presents a systematic study on the effect of zinc (Zn) carboxylate precursor on the structural and optical properties of red light emitting InP nanocrystals (NCs). NC cores were assessed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). When moderate Zn:In ratios in the reaction pot were used, the incorporation of Zn in InP was insufficient to change the crystal structure or band gap of the NCs, but photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) increased dramatically compared with pure InP NCs. Zn was found to incorporate mostly in the phosphate layer on the NCs. PL, PLQY, and time-resolved PL (TRPL) show that Zn carboxylates added to the precursors during NC cores facilitate the synthesis of high-quality InP NCs by suppressing nonradiative and sub-band-gap recombination, and the effect is visible also after a ZnS shell is grown on the cores. PMID:27551948

  12. Synthesis of fluorescent core-shell nanomaterials and strategies to generate white light

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Amandeep; Kaur, Ramanjot; Pandey, O. P.; Wei, Xueyong; Sharma, Manoj E-mail: manojsharma@bilkent.edu.tr

    2015-07-28

    In this work, cadmium free core-shell ZnS:X/ZnS (X = Mn, Cu) nanoparticles have been synthesized and used for white light generation. First, the doping concentration of Manganese (Mn) was varied from 1% to 4% to optimize the dopant related emission and its optimal value was found to be 1%. Then, ZnS shell was grown over ZnS:Mn(1%) core to passivate the surface defects. Similarly, the optimal concentration of Copper (Cu) was found to be 0.8% in the range varied from 0.6% to 1.2%. In order to obtain an emission in the whole visible spectrum, dual doping of Mn and Cu was done in the core and the shell, respectively. A solid-solid mixing in different ratios of separately doped quantum dots (QDs) emitting in the blue green and the orange region was performed. Results show that the optimum mixture of QDs excited at 300 nm gives Commission Internationale del'Éclairage color coordinates of (0.35, 0.36), high color rendering index of 88, and correlated color temperature of 4704 K with minimum self-absorption.

  13. Off-resonance frequency operation for power transfer in a loosely coupled air core transformer

    DOEpatents

    Scudiere, Matthew B

    2012-11-13

    A power transmission system includes a loosely coupled air core transformer having a resonance frequency determined by a product of inductance and capacitance of a primary circuit including a primary coil. A secondary circuit is configured to have a substantially same product of inductance and capacitance. A back EMF generating device (e.g., a battery), which generates a back EMF with power transfer, is attached to the secondary circuit. Once the load power of the back EMF generating device exceeds a certain threshold level, which depends on the system parameters, the power transfer can be achieved at higher transfer efficiency if performed at an operating frequency less than the resonance frequency, which can be from 50% to 95% of the resonance frequency.

  14. Mode-based microparticle conveyor belt in air-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Oliver A; Euser, Tijmen G; Russell, Philip St J

    2013-12-01

    We show how microparticles can be moved over long distances and precisely positioned in a low-loss air-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber using a coherent superposition of two co-propagating spatial modes, balanced by a backward-propagating fundamental mode. This creates a series of trapping positions spaced by half the beat-length between the forward-propagating modes (typically a fraction of a millimeter). The system allows a trapped microparticle to be moved along the fiber by continuously tuning the relative phase between the two forward-propagating modes. This mode-based optical conveyor belt combines long-range transport of microparticles with a positional accuracy of 1 µm. The technique also has potential uses in waveguide-based optofluidic systems. PMID:24514492

  15. Light Transmission Fluctuations from Extended Air Showers Produced by Cosmic-Rays and Gamma-Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Stuart

    Cosmic-ray and gamma-ray experiments that use the atmosphere as a calorimeter, such as the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) and the Telescope Array (TA), require understanding the transmission of the light from the air shower of particles produced by the cosmic-ray or gamma-ray striking the atmosphere. To better understand the scattering and transmission of light to the detectors, HiRes measures light from different calibrated sources. We compare scattered light from laser shots a few kilometers away from the two HiRes detectors with direct light from stable portable light sources placed a few meters in front of the phototubes. We use two HiRes detectors to study and isolate contributions to fluctuations of the measured light. These contributions include fluctuations in the source intensity, the night sky background, scattering and transmission of the laser beam, the phototubes and electronics, and photostatistics. N o rth Mirror Fields of View

  16. Interaction of Light Filaments Generated by Femtosecond Laser Pulses in Air

    SciTech Connect

    Xi Tingting; Lu Xin; Zhang Jie

    2006-01-20

    The interaction of two light filaments propagating in air is simulated. Simulations show that the interaction of the two light filaments displays interesting features such as attraction, fusion, repulsion, and spiral propagation, depending on the relative phase shift and the crossing angle between them. A long and stable channel can be formed by fusing two in-phase light filaments. The channel becomes unstable with the increase of the crossing angle and phase shift. The interaction of two light filaments in different planes is studied and the spiral propagation is observed.

  17. Design and analysis of a nuclear reactor core for innovative small light water reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatov, Alexey I.

    In order to address the energy needs of developing countries and remote communities, Oregon State University has proposed the Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor (MASLWR) design. In order to achieve five years of operation without refueling, use of 8% enriched fuel is necessary. This dissertation is focused on core design issues related with increased fuel enrichment (8.0%) and specific MASLWR operational conditions (such as lower operational pressure and temperature, and increased leakage due to small core). Neutron physics calculations are performed with the commercial nuclear industry tools CASMO-4 and SIMULATE-3, developed by Studsvik Scandpower Inc. The first set of results are generated from infinite lattice level calculations with CASMO-4, and focus on evaluation of the principal differences between standard PWR fuel and MASLWR fuel. Chapter 4-1 covers aspects of fuel isotopic composition changes with burnup, evaluation of kinetic parameters and reactivity coefficients. Chapter 4-2 discusses gadolinium self-shielding and shadowing effects, and subsequent impacts on power generation peaking and Reactor Control System shadowing. The second aspect of the research is dedicated to core design issues, such as reflector design (chapter 4-3), burnable absorber distribution and programmed fuel burnup and fuel use strategy (chapter 4-4). This section also includes discussion of the parameters important for safety and evaluation of Reactor Control System options for the proposed core design. An evaluation of the sensitivity of the proposed design to uncertainty in calculated parameters is presented in chapter 4-5. The results presented in this dissertation cover a new area of reactor design and operational parameters, and may be applicable to other small and large pressurized water reactor designs.

  18. Compression-Induced Fusion of Glassy Core Polymer Micelles at the Air-Water Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun Chang; Won, You-Yeon

    The surface mechanical and morphological properties of glassy core polymer micelles at the air-water interface were investigated. Asymmetric PS-PEG and PtBMA-PEG block copolymers with PEG weight fractions larger than 0.5 were formulated in the form of aqueous micelles and spread onto water. Compressed films of PS-PEG and PtBMA-PEG micelles reach high dynamic surface pressures. On the detailed level, however, PS-PEG and PtBMA-PEG micelles exhibit different surface pressure-area profiles. The PtBMA-PEG isotherm shows a transition to a plateau around a surface pressure of 24 mN/m, which is attributed to the PtBMA block as it forms a continuous film; this interpretation is supported by the fact that the surface pressure at the plateau transition is identical to the value of the spreading coefficient for PtBMA. This presents evidence that the core domains of PtBMA-PEG micelles melt and merge into a film when the micellar monolayer is laterally compressed. Such behavior was not observed with PS-PEG micelles. We suspect that under lateral compression, PtBMA-PEG micelles undergo fusion into a continuous film because PtBMA has the natural tendency to spread on the water surface, whereas PS-PEG micelles does not because the dewetting tendency of PS preventing formation of a uniform layer.

  19. The impact of drought and air pollution on metal profiles in peat cores.

    PubMed

    Souter, Laura; Watmough, Shaun A

    2016-01-15

    Peat cores have long been used to reconstruct atmospheric metal deposition; however, debate remains regarding how well historical depositional patterns are preserved in peat. This study examined peat cores sampled from 14 peatlands in the Sudbury region of Ontario, Canada, which has a well-documented history of acid and metal deposition. Copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) concentrations within individual peat cores were strongly correlated and were elevated in the upper 10 cm, especially in the sites closest to the main Copper Cliff smelter. In contrast, nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co) concentrations were often elevated at depths greater than 10 cm, indicating much greater post-depositional movement of these metals compared with Cu and Pb. Post-depositional movement of metals is supported by the observation that Ni and Co concentrations in peat pore water increased by approximately 530 and 960% for Ni and Co, respectively between spring and summer due to drought-induced acidification, but there was much less change in Cu concentration. Sphagnum cover and (210)Pb activity measured at 10 cm at the 14 sites significantly increased with distance from Copper Cliff, and the surface peat von Post score decreased with distance from Copper Cliff, indicating the rate of peat formation increases with distance from Sudbury presumably as a result of improved Sphagnum survival. This study shows that the ability of peat to preserve deposition histories of some metals is strongly affected by drought-induced post-depositional movement and that loss of Sphagnum due to air pollution impairs the rate of peat formation, further affecting metal profiles in peatlands. PMID:26473705

  20. Measurement of effective air diffusion coefficients for trichloroethene in undisturbed soil cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L.; Smith, James A.

    2002-06-01

    In this study, we measure effective diffusion coefficients for trichloroethene in undisturbed soil samples taken from Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey. The measured effective diffusion coefficients ranged from 0.0053 to 0.0609 cm 2/s over a range of air-filled porosity of 0.23-0.49. The experimental data were compared to several previously published relations that predict diffusion coefficients as a function of air-filled porosity and porosity. A multiple linear regression analysis was developed to determine if a modification of the exponents in Millington's [Science 130 (1959) 100] relation would better fit the experimental data. The literature relations appeared to generally underpredict the effective diffusion coefficient for the soil cores studied in this work. Inclusion of a particle-size distribution parameter, d10, did not significantly improve the fit of the linear regression equation. The effective diffusion coefficient and porosity data were used to recalculate estimates of diffusive flux through the subsurface made in a previous study performed at the field site. It was determined that the method of calculation used in the previous study resulted in an underprediction of diffusive flux from the subsurface. We conclude that although Millington's [Science 130 (1959) 100] relation works well to predict effective diffusion coefficients in homogeneous soils with relatively uniform particle-size distributions, it may be inaccurate for many natural soils with heterogeneous structure and/or non-uniform particle-size distributions.

  1. Effects of a Circulating-water Garment and Forced-air Warming on Body Heat Content and Core Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Akiko; Ratnaraj, Jebadurai; Kabon, Barbara; Sharma, Neeru; Lenhardt, Rainer; Sessler, Daniel I.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Forced-air warming is sometimes unable to maintain perioperative normothermia. We therefore compared heat transfer, regional heat distribution, and core rewarming of forced-air warming with a novel circulating-water garment. Methods: Nine volunteers were each evaluated on two randomly ordered study days. They were anesthetized and cooled to a core temperature near 34°C. The volunteers were subsequently warmed for 2.5 hours with either a circulating-water garment or forced-air cover. Overall, heat balance was determined from the difference between cutaneous heat loss (thermal flux transducers) and metabolic heat production (oxygen consumption). Average arm and leg (peripheral) tissue temperatures were determined from 18 intramuscular needle thermocouples, 15 skin thermal flux transducers, and “deep” arm and foot thermometers. Results: Heat production (≈ 60 kcal/h) and loss (≈45 kcal/h) were similar with each treatment before warming. The increase in heat transfer across anterior portions of the skin surface was similar with each warming system (≈65 kcal/h). Forced-air warming had no effect on posterior heat transfer whereas circulating-water transferred 21 ± 9 kcal/h through the posterior skin surface after a half hour of warming. Over 2.5 h, circulating-water thus increased body heat content 56% more than forced air. Core temperatures thus increased faster than with circulating water than forced air, especially during the first hour, with the result that core temperature was 1.1 ± 0.7°C greater after 2.5 h (P < 0.001). Peripheral tissue heat content increased twice as much as core heat content with each device, but the core-to-peripheral tissue temperature gradient remained positive throughout the study. Conclusions: The circulating-water system transferred more heat than forced air, with the difference resulting largely from posterior heating. Circulating water rewarmed patients 0.4°C/h faster than forced air. A substantial peripheral-to-core

  2. Light extinction by aerosols during summer air pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Fraser, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    In order to utilize satellite measurements of optical thickness over land for estimating aerosol properties during air pollution episodes, the optical thickness was measured from the surface and investigated. Aerosol optical thicknesses have been derived from solar transmission measurements in eight spectral bands within the band lambda 440-870 nm during the summers of 1980 and 1981 near Washington, DC. The optical thicknesses for the eight bands are strongly correlated. It was found that first eigenvalue of the covariance matrix of all observations accounts for 99 percent of the trace of the matrix. Since the measured aerosol optical thickness was closely proportional to the wavelength raised to a power, the aerosol size distribution derived from it is proportional to the diameter (d) raised to a power for the range of diameters between 0.1 to 1.0 micron. This power is insensitive to the total optical thickness. Changes in the aerosol optical thickness depend on several aerosol parameters, but it is difficult to identify the dominant one. The effects of relative humidity and accumulation mode concentration on the optical thickness are analyzed theoretically, and compared with the measurements.

  3. Transmission of Curing Light through Moist, Air-Dried, and EDTA Treated Dentine and Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Uusitalo, E.; Varrela, J.; Lassila, L.; Vallittu, P. K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study measured light transmission through enamel and dentin and the effect of exposed dentinal tubules to light propagation. Methods. Light attenuation through enamel and dentin layers of various thicknesses (1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm, and 4 mm) was measured using specimens that were (1) moist and (2) air-dried (n = 5). Measurements were repeated after the specimens were treated with EDTA. Specimens were transilluminated with a light curing unit (maximum power output 1869 mW/cm2), and the mean irradiance power of transmitting light was measured. The transmission of light through teeth was studied using 10 extracted intact human incisors and premolars. Results. Transmitted light irradiance through 1 mm thick moist discs was 500 mW/cm2 for enamel and 398 mW/cm2 for dentin (p < 0.05). The increase of the specimen thickness decreased light transmission in all groups (p < 0.005), and moist specimens attenuated light less than air-dried specimens in all thicknesses (p < 0.05). EDTA treatment increased light transmission from 398 mW/cm2 to 439 mW/cm2 (1 mm dentin specimen thickness) (p < 0.05). Light transmission through intact premolar was 6.2 mW/cm2 (average thickness 8.2 mm) and through incisor was 37.6 mW/cm2 (average thickness 5.6 mm). Conclusion. Light transmission through enamel is greater than that through dentin, probably reflecting differences in refractive indices and extinction coefficients. Light transmission through enamel, dentin, and extracted teeth seemed to follow Beer-Lambert's law. PMID:27446954

  4. Core design study of a supercritical light water reactor with double row fuel rods

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, C.; Wu, H.; Cao, L.; Zheng, Y.; Yang, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2012-07-01

    An equilibrium core for supercritical light water reactor has been designed. A novel type of fuel assembly with dual rows of fuel rods between water rods is chosen and optimized to get more uniform assembly power distributions. Stainless steel is used for fuel rod cladding and structural material. Honeycomb structure filled with thermal isolation is introduced to reduce the usage of stainless steel and to keep moderator temperature below the pseudo critical temperature. Water flow scheme with ascending coolant flow in inner regions is carried out to achieve high outlet temperature. In order to enhance coolant outlet temperature, the radial power distributions needs to be as flat as possible through operation cycle. Fuel loading pattern and control rod pattern are optimized to flatten power distribution at inner regions. Axial fuel enrichment is divided into three parts to control axial power peak, which affects maximum cladding surface temperature. (authors)

  5. Flexoelectric effect in a bent-core liquid crystal measured by Dynamic Light Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Madhabi; Neupane, K.; Gleeson, James. T.; Jakli, Antal; Sprunt, Samuel

    2008-03-01

    Flexoelectricity is a linear coupling between electric polarization and elastic flexure in liquid crystals [1]. Although typically quite weak in calamitic LCs, the flexoelectric effect has recently been shown, by direct (electromechanical) measurement of the flexure-induced polarization, to be enhanced by several orders of magnitude in certain bent-core nematic (BCN) liquid crystals [2]. We report here an application of dynamic light scattering to measure the flexoelectric coefficient (e1 + e3) of BCNs through coupling of polarization to elastic fluctuation modes of the optic axis. Our results agree in order of magnitude with the values obtained by the electromechanical method. [1] R.B. Meyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 918 (1969). [2] J. Harden, B. Mbanga, N. Eber, K. Fodor-Csorba, S. Sprunt, J. T. Gleeson, A. Jakli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 157802 (2006).

  6. Light-Harvesting Nanoparticle Core-Shell Clusters with Controllable Optical Output.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dazhi; Tian, Ye; Zhang, Yugang; Xu, Zhihua; Sfeir, Matthew Y; Cotlet, Mircea; Gang, Oleg

    2015-06-23

    We used DNA self-assembly methods to fabricate a series of core-shell gold nanoparticle-DNA-colloidal quantum dot (AuNP-DNA-Qdot) nanoclusters with satellite-like architecture to modulate optical (photoluminescence) response. By varying the intercomponent distance through the DNA linker length designs, we demonstrate precise tuning of the plasmon-exciton interaction and the optical behavior of the nanoclusters from regimes characterized by photoluminescence quenching to photoluminescence enhancement. The combination of detailed X-ray scattering probing with photoluminescence intensity and lifetime studies revealed the relation between the cluster structure and its optical output. Compared to conventional light-harvesting systems like conjugated polymers and multichromophoric dendrimers, the proposed nanoclusters bring enhanced flexibility in controlling the optical behavior toward a desired application, and they can be regarded as controllable optical switches via the optically pumped color. PMID:25933097

  7. Coherent light transmission properties of commercial photonic crystal hollow core optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Cranch, G A; Miller, G A

    2015-11-01

    Photonic crystal hollow core fiber (PC-HCF) has enabled many exciting new applications in nonlinear optics and spectroscopy. However, to date there has been less impact in coherent applications where preservation of optical phase over long fiber lengths is crucial. This paper presents characteristics of three commercially available PC-HCFs relevant to coherent applications including higher-order mode analysis, birefringence and polarization-dependent loss, and their impact on coherent light transmission in PC-HCF. Multipath interference due to higher-order mode propagation and Fresnel reflection is shown to generate excess intensity noise in transmission, which can be suppressed by up to 20 dB through high frequency phase modulation of the source laser. To demonstrate the potential of PC-HCF in high performance sensing, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) incorporating 10 m of PC-HCF in each arm is characterized and demonstrates a phase resolution (59×10(-9)  rad/Hz(1/2) at 30 kHz) close to the shot noise limit, which is better than can be achieved in a MZI made with the same length of single mode solid core fiber because of the limit set by fundamental thermodynamic noise (74×10(-9)  rad/Hz(1/2) at 30 kHz). PMID:26560626

  8. No effect of skin temperature on human ventilation response to hypercapnia during light exercise with a normothermic core temperature.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Jesse G; Clegg, Miriam E; Walsh, Michael L; White, Matthew D

    2010-05-01

    Hyperthermia potentiates the influence of CO(2) on pulmonary ventilation (.V(E)). It remains to be resolved how skin and core temperatures contribute to the elevated exercise ventilation response to CO(2). This study was conducted to assess the influences of mean skin temperature (_T(SK)) and end-tidal PCO(2) (P(ET)CO(2)) on .V(E) during submaximal exercise with a normothermic esophageal temperature (T(ES)). Five males and three females who were 1.76 +/- 0.11 m tall (mean +/- SD), 75.8 +/- 15.6 kg in weight and 22.0 +/- 2.2 years of age performed three 1 h exercise trials in a climatic chamber with the relative humidity (RH) held at 31.5 +/- 9.5% and the ambient temperature (T (AMB)) maintained at one of 25, 30, or 35 degrees C. In each trial, the volunteer breathed eucapnic air for 5 min during a rest period and subsequently cycle ergometer exercised at 50 W until T (ES) stabilized at approximately 37.1 +/- 0.4 degrees C. Once T (ES) stabilized in each trial, the volunteer breathed hypercapnic air twice for approximately 5 min with P(ET)CO(2) elevated by approximately +4 or +7.5 mmHg. The significantly (P < 0.05) different increases of P(ET)CO(2) of +4.20 +/- 0.49 and +7.40 +/- 0.51 mmHg gave proportionately larger increases in .V(E) of 10.9 +/- 3.6 and 15.2 +/- 3.6 L min(-1) (P = 0.001). This hypercapnia-induced hyperventilation was uninfluenced by varying the _T(SK) to three significantly different levels (P < 0.001) of 33.2 +/- 1.2 degrees C, to 34.5 +/- 0.8 degrees C to 36.4 +/- 0.5 degrees C. In conclusion, the results support that skin temperature between approximately 33 and approximately 36 degrees C has neither effect on pulmonary ventilation nor on hypercapnia-induced hyperventilation during a light exercise with a normothermic core temperature. PMID:20087599

  9. Optical properties of plasmonic light-emitting diodes based on flip-chip III-nitride core-shell nanowires.

    PubMed

    Nami, Mohsen; Feezell, Daniel F

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we utilize the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method to investigate the Purcell factor, light extraction efficiency (EXE), and cavity quality parameter (Q), and to predict the modulation response of Ag-clad flip-chip GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowire light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with the potential for electrical injection. We consider the need for a pn-junction, the effects of the substrate, and the limitations of nanoscale fabrication techniques in the evaluation. The investigated core-shell nanowire consists of an n-GaN core, surrounded by nonpolar m-plane quantum wells, p-GaN, and silver cladding layers. The core-shell nanowire geometry exhibits a Purcell factor of 57, resulting in a predicted limit of 30 GHz for the 3dB modulation bandwidth. PMID:25606879

  10. Measuring air core characteristics of a pressure-swirl atomizer via a transparent acrylic nozzle at various Reynolds numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eun J.; Oh, Sang Youp; Kim, Ho Y.; Yoon, Sam S.; James, Scott C.

    2010-11-15

    Because of thermal fluid-property dependence, atomization stability (or flow regime) can change even at fixed operating conditions when subject to temperature change. Particularly at low temperatures, fuel's high viscosity can prevent a pressure-swirl (or simplex) atomizer from sustaining a centrifugal-driven air core within the fuel injector. During disruption of the air core inside an injector, spray characteristics outside the nozzle reflect a highly unstable, nonlinear mode where air core length, Sauter mean diameter (SMD), cone angle, and discharge coefficient variability. To better understand injector performance, these characteristics of the pressure-swirl atomizer were experimentally investigated and data were correlated to Reynolds numbers (Re). Using a transparent acrylic nozzle, the air core length, SMD, cone angle, and discharge coefficient are observed as a function of Re. The critical Reynolds numbers that distinguish the transition from unstable mode to transitional mode and eventually to a stable mode are reported. The working fluids are diesel and a kerosene-based fuel, referred to as bunker-A. (author)

  11. The Learning-Focused Transformation of Biology and Physics Core Courses at the U.S. Air Force Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagendorf, Kenneth; Noyd, Robert K.; Morris, D. Brent

    2009-01-01

    An institution-wide focus on deep learning has made significant changes in the biology and physics core course curriculum at the U.S. Air Force Academy. The biology course director has reworked course objectives to reflect the learning-focused approach to teaching, while the physics curriculum has adopted new learning outcomes and ways to…

  12. Stationary rotary force waves on the liquid-air core interface of a swirl atomizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinn, J. J.; Cooper, D.; Yule, A. J.; Nasr, G. G.

    2015-11-01

    A one-dimensional wave equation, applicable to the waves on the surface of the air-core of a swirl atomizer is derived analytically, by analogy to the similar one-dimensional wave equation derivation for shallow-water gravity waves. In addition an analogy to the flow of water over a weir is used to produce an analytical derivation of the flow over the lip of the outlet of a swirl atomizer using the principle of maximum flow. The principle of maximum flow is substantiated by reference to continuity of the discharge in the direction of streaming. For shallow-water gravity waves, the phase velocity is the same expression as for the critical velocity over the weir. Similarly, in the present work, the wave phase velocity on the surface of the air-core is shown to be the same expression as for the critical velocity for the flow at the outlet. In addition, this wave phase velocity is shown to be the square root of the product of the radial acceleration and the liquid thickness, as analogous with the wave phase velocity for shallow water gravity waves, which is the square root of the product of the acceleration due to gravity and the water depth. The work revisits the weirs and flumes work of Binnie et al. but using a different methodology. The results corroborate with the work of Binnie. High speed video, Laser Doppler Anemometry and deflected laser beam experimental work has been carried out on an oversize Perspex (Plexiglas) swirl atomizer. Three distinctive types of waves were detected: helical striations, low amplitude random ripples and low frequency stationary waves. It is the latter wave type that is considered further in this article. The experimentally observed waves appear to be stationary upon the axially moving flow. The mathematical analysis allows for the possibility of a negative value for the phase velocity expression. Therefore the critical velocity and the wave phase velocity do indeed lead to stationary waves in the atomizer. A quantitative comparison

  13. Lateral distribution of high energy hadrons and gamma ray in air shower cores observed with emulsion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matano, T.; Machida, M.; Honda, K.; Hashimoto, K.; Navia, C. E.; Kawasumi, N.; Tsushima, I.; Matinic, N.; Aquirre, C.

    1985-01-01

    A high energy event of a bundle of electrons, gamma rays and hadronic gamma rays in an air shower core were observed. The bundles were detected with an emulsion chamber with thickness of 15 cm lead. This air shower is estimated to be initiated with a proton with energy around 10 to the 17th power to 10 to the 18th power eV at an altitude of around 100 gmc/2. Lateral distributions of the electromagnetic component with energy above 2 TeV and also the hadronic component of energy above 6 TeV of this air shower core were determined. Particles in the bundle are produced with process of the development of the nuclear cascade, the primary energy of each interaction in the cascade which produces these particles is unknown. To know the primary energy dependence of transverse momentum, the average products of energy and distance for various average energies of secondary particles are studied.

  14. Analysis of an Aircraft Honeycomb Sandwich Panel with Circular Face Sheet/Core Disbond Subjected to Ground-Air Pressurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinker, Martin; Krueger, Ronald; Ratcliffe, James

    2013-01-01

    The ground-air pressurization of lightweight honeycomb sandwich structures caused by alternating pressure differences between the enclosed air within the honeycomb core and the ambient environment is a well-known and controllable loading condition of aerospace structures. However, initial face sheet/core disbonds intensify the face sheet peeling effect of the internal pressure load significantly and can decrease the reliability of the sandwich structure drastically. Within this paper, a numerical parameter study was carried out to investigate the criticality of initial disbonds in honeycomb sandwich structures under ground-air pressurization. A fracture mechanics approach was used to evaluate the loading at the disbond front. In this case, the strain energy release rate was computed via the Virtual Crack Closure Technique. Special attention was paid to the pressure-deformation coupling which can decrease the pressure load within the disbonded sandwich section significantly when the structure is highly deformed.

  15. ZT-P: an advanced air core reversed field pinch prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenberg, K.F.; Buchenauer, C.J.; Burkhardt, L.C.; Caudill, L.D.; Dike, R.S.; Dominguez, T.; Downing, J.N.; Forman, P.R.; Garcia, J.A.; Giger, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    The ZT-P experiment, with a major radius of 0.45 m and a minor radius of 0.07 m, was designed to prototype the next generation of reversed field pinch (RFP) machines at Los Alamos. ZT-P utilizes an air-core poloidal field system, with precisely wound and positioned rigid copper coils, to drive the plasma current and provide plasma equilibrium with intrinsically low magnetic field errors. ZT-P's compact configuration is adaptable to test various first wall and limiter designs at reactor-relevant current densities in the range of 5 to 20 MA/m/sup 2/. In addition, the load assembly design allows for the installation of toroidal field divertors. Design of ZT-P began in October 1983, and assembly was completed in October 1984. This report describes the magnetic, electrical, mechanical, vacuum, diagnostic, data acquisition, and control aspects of the machine design. In addition, preliminary data from initial ZT-P operation are presented. Because of ZT-P's prototypical function, many of its design aspects and experimental results are directly applicable to the design of a next generation RFP. 17 refs., 47 figs.

  16. Light element partitioning between silicate and metallic melts: Insights into the formation and composition of Earth's core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhill, R.; Rubie, D. C.; Frost, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The mass deficit of the Earth's core, and the increasing solubility of light elements into metallic iron with increasing pressure demonstrate that the Earth's core must contain several weight percent of light elements such as Si, O, C and S. These light elements place important constraints on the depth of the primordial magma ocean(s), the chemical potentials of many of these elements in coexisting phases during differentiation, the temperature of the inner core boundary, and the composition of the bulk Earth. The P-wave velocity, Earth's mass deficit, and depth of the inner core boundary place two important constraints on the chemical composition of the core, but there are multiple trade-offs which cannot be resolved using seismology alone. In this study, we use a large experimental partitioning dataset to build activity-composition models for light elements in metallic melts in equilibrium with oxide and silicate phases (both solid and liquid). We avoid the use of epsilon models, which commonly fail at solute concentrations above a few weight percent. Instead we employ a modified subregular solution model, using intermediate species to calculate excess free energies of mixing. Flexible models like these are required to fit the experimental data which spans 0 - 100 GPa and 1500 - 5500 K. Several heuristics are used to reduce the number of free parameters where they are not independently constrained. We use our models to investigate the conditions of core formation and the chemical composition of the Earth's core using the approach of Rubie et al. (2015; Icarus v.248; pp 89-108).

  17. Air and silica core Bragg fibers for radiation delivery in the wavelength range 0.6-1.5 μ m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Milan; Jelínek, Michal; Kubeček, Václav; Kašík, Ivan; Podrazký, Ondřej; Matějec, Vlastimil

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents fundamental characteristics of laboratory designed and fabricated Bragg fibers with air and silica cores at wavelengths of 632, 975, 1064 and 1550 nm. Fibers with the 26- μ m-silica core and 5- or 73- μ m-air cores in diameters and claddings of 3 pairs of Bragg layers were prepared from one preform. The overall transmittance, attenuation coefficients, coupling losses, bending losses, and damage-intensity thresholds were determined using four continuous-wave laser sources with the maximum output power of 300 mW and a pulsed 9 ns laser with the maximum output energy up to 1 mJ. The lowest attenuation coefficient of about 70 dB/km was determined at 1064 nm with the 73- μ m-air-core Bragg fiber. All fibers have been found to exhibit negligible bending losses down to the bending diameters of 5 cm. In comparison with the conventional gradient optical fiber, all the prepared Bragg fibers have approximately six times higher damage intensity threshold of about 30 GWcm-2 and therefore they are very suitable for high power laser radiation delivery.

  18. Importance of air bubbles in the core of coated pellets: Synchrotron X-ray microtomography allows for new insights.

    PubMed

    Fahier, J; Muschert, S; Fayard, B; Velghe, C; Byrne, G; Doucet, J; Siepmann, F; Siepmann, J

    2016-09-10

    High-resolution X-ray microtomography was used to get deeper insight into the underlying mass transport mechanisms controlling drug release from coated pellets. Sugar starter cores were layered with propranolol HCl and subsequently coated with Kollicoat SR, plasticized with 10% TEC. Importantly, synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography (SR-μCT) allowed direct, non-invasive monitoring of crack formation in the film coatings upon exposure to the release medium. Propranolol HCl, as well as very small sugar particles from the pellets' core, were expulsed through these cracks into the surrounding bulk fluid. Interestingly, SR-μCT also revealed the existence of numerous tiny, air-filled pores (varying in size and shape) in the pellet cores before exposure to the release medium. Upon water penetration into the system, the contents of the pellet cores became semi-solid/liquid. Consequently, the air-pockets became mobile and fused together. They steadily increased in size (and decreased in number). Importantly, "big" air bubbles were often located in close vicinity of a crack within the film coating. Thus, they play a potentially crucial role for the control of drug release from coated pellets. PMID:27374626

  19. Towards constraining the stratosphere-troposphere exchange of radiocarbon: strategies of stratospheric 14CO2 measurements using AirCore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huilin; Paul, Dipayan; Meijer, Harro; Miller, John; Kivi, Rigel; Krol, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) plays an important role in the carbon cycle studies to understand both natural and anthropogenic carbon fluxes, but also in atmospheric chemistry to constrain hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations in the atmosphere. Apart from the enormous 14C emissions from nuclear bomb testing in the 1950s and 1960s, radiocarbon is primarily produced in the stratosphere due to the cosmogenic production. To this end, better understanding the stratospheric radiocarbon source is very useful to advance the use of radiocarbon for these applications. However, stratospheric 14C observations have been very limited so that there are large uncertainties on the magnitude and the location of the 14C production as well as the transport of radiocarbon from the stratosphere to the troposphere. Recently we have successfully made stratospheric 14C measurements using AirCore samples from Sodankylä, Northern Finland. AirCore is an innovative atmospheric sampling system, which passively collects atmospheric air samples into a long piece of coiled stainless steel tubing during the descent of a balloon flight. Due to the relatively low cost of the consumables, there is a potential to make such AirCore profiling in other parts of the world on a regular basis. In this study, we simulate the 14C in the atmosphere and assess the stratosphere-troposphere exchange of radiocarbon using the TM5 model. The Sodankylä radiocarbon measurements will be used to verify the performance of the model at high latitude. Besides this, we will also evaluate the influence of different cosmogenic 14C production scenarios and the uncertainties in the OH field on the seasonal cycles of radiocarbon and on the stratosphere-troposphere exchange, and based on the results design a strategy to set up a 14C measurement program using AirCore.

  20. An Examination of Intervention Research with Secondary Students with EBD in Light of Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Candace A.; Maccini, Paula; Wright, Kenneth; Miller, Jason

    2014-01-01

    In this review, the authors offer a critical analysis of published interventions for improving mathematics performance among middle and high school students with EBD in light of the Common Core State Standards. An exhaustive review of literature from 1975 to December 2012 yielded 20 articles that met criteria for inclusion. The authors analyzed…

  1. 10 CFR 50.46 - Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors. 50.46 Section 50.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... include the rupture opening. (3) Maximum hydrogen generation. The calculated total amount of...

  2. Core-shell heterostructured metal oxide arrays enable superior light-harvesting and hysteresis-free mesoscopic perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Khalid; Swain, Bhabani Sankar; Amassian, Aram

    2015-07-01

    To achieve highly efficient mesoscopic perovskite solar cells (PSCs), the structure and properties of an electron transport layer (ETL) or material (ETM) have been shown to be of supreme importance. Particularly, the core-shell heterostructured mesoscopic ETM architecture has been recognized as a successful electrode design, because of its large internal surface area, superior light-harvesting efficiency and its ability to achieve fast charge transport. Here we report the successful fabrication of a hysteresis-free, 15.3% efficient PSC using vertically aligned ZnO nanorod/TiO2 shell (ZNR/TS) core-shell heterostructured ETMs for the first time. We have also added a conjugated polyelectrolyte polymer into the growth solution to promote the growth of high aspect ratio (AR) ZNRs and substantially improve the infiltration of the perovskite light absorber into the ETM. The PSCs based on the as-synthesized core-shell ZnO/TiO2 heterostructured ETMs exhibited excellent performance enhancement credited to the superior light harvesting capability, larger surface area, prolonged charge-transport pathways and lower recombination rate. The unique ETM design together with minimal hysteresis introduces core-shell ZnO/TiO2 heterostructures as a promising mesoscopic electrode approach for the fabrication of efficient PSCs.To achieve highly efficient mesoscopic perovskite solar cells (PSCs), the structure and properties of an electron transport layer (ETL) or material (ETM) have been shown to be of supreme importance. Particularly, the core-shell heterostructured mesoscopic ETM architecture has been recognized as a successful electrode design, because of its large internal surface area, superior light-harvesting efficiency and its ability to achieve fast charge transport. Here we report the successful fabrication of a hysteresis-free, 15.3% efficient PSC using vertically aligned ZnO nanorod/TiO2 shell (ZNR/TS) core-shell heterostructured ETMs for the first time. We have also added a

  3. Triggering the volume phase transition of core-shell Au nanorod-microgel nanocomposites with light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Fernández, Jessica; Fedoruk, Michael; Hrelescu, Calin; Lutich, Andrey A.; Feldmann, Jochen

    2011-06-01

    We have coated gold nanorods (NRs) with thermoresponsive microgel shells based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM). We demonstrate by simultaneous laser-heating and optical extinction measurements that the Au NR cores can be simultaneously used as fast optothermal manipulators (switchers) and sensitive optical reporters of the microgel state in a fully externally controlled and reversible manner. We support our results with optical modeling based on the boundary element method and 3D numerical analysis on the temperature distribution. Briefly, we show that due to the sharp increase in refractive index resulting from the optothermally triggered microgel collapse, the longitudinal plasmon band of the coated Au NRs is significantly red-shifted. The optothermal control over the pNIPAM shell, and thereby over the optical response of the nanocomposite, is fully reversible and can be simply controlled by switching on and off a NIR heating laser. In contrast to bulk solution heating, we demonstrate that light-triggering does not compromise colloidal stability, which is of primary importance for the ultimate utilization of these types of nanocomposites as remotely controlled optomechanical actuators, for applications spanning from drug delivery to photonic crystals and nanoscale motion.

  4. Light Nuclei in the Framework of the Symplectic No-Core Shell Model

    SciTech Connect

    Draayer, Jerry P.; Dytrych, Tomas; Sviratcheva, Kristina D.; Bahri, Chairul; Vary, James P.; /Iowa State U. /LLNL, Livermore /SLAC

    2007-04-02

    A symplectic no-core shell model (Sp-NCSM) is constructed with the goal of extending the ab-initio NCSM to include strongly deformed higher-oscillator-shell configurations and to reach heavier nuclei that cannot be studied currently because the spaces encountered are too large to handle, even with the best of modern-day computers. This goal is achieved by integrating two powerful concepts: the ab-initio NCSM with that of the Sp(3,R) {contains} SU(3) group-theoretical approach. The NCSM uses modern realistic nuclear interactions in model spaces that consists of many-body configurations up to a given number of {h_bar}{Upsilon} excitations together with modern high-performance parallel computing techniques. The symplectic theory extends this picture by recognizing that when deformed configurations dominate, which they often do, the model space can be better selected so less relevant low-lying {h_bar}{Upsilon} configurations yield to more relevant high-lying {h_bar}{Upsilon} configurations, ones that respect a near symplectic symmetry found in the Hamiltonian. Results from an application of the Sp-NCSM to light nuclei are compared with those for the NCSM and with experiment.

  5. Light-stimulated cargo release from a core-shell structured nanocomposite for site-specific delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yun; Ling, Li; Li, Xiaofang; Chen, Meng; Su, Likai

    2015-03-01

    This paper reported a core-shell structured site-specific delivery system with a light switch triggered by low energy light (λ=510 nm). Its core was composed of supermagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles for magnetic guiding and targeting. Its outer shell consisted of mesoporous silica molecular sieve MCM-41 which offered highly ordered hexagonal tunnels for cargo capacity. A light switch N1-(4aH-cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b‧]dipyridin-5(5aH)-ylidene)benzene-1,4-diamine (CBD) was covalently grafted into these hexagonal tunnels, serving as light stimuli acceptor with loading content of 1.1 μM/g. This composite was fully characterized and confirmed by SEM, TEM, XRD patterns, N2 adsorption/desorption, thermogravimetric analysis, IR, UV-vis absorption and emission spectra. Experimental data suggested that this composite had a core as wide as 150 nm and could be magnetically guided to specific sites. Its hexagonal tunnels were as long as 180 nm. Upon light stimuli of "on" and "off" states, controllable release was observed with short release time of ~900 s (90% capacity).

  6. Light Transmission From Extended Air Showers Produced By Cosmic-Rays and Gamma-Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S. F.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Belov, K.; Cao, Z.; Chen, G.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kieda, D. B.; Matthews, J. N.; Salamon, M.; Sokolsky, P. V.; Smith, J. D.; Sommers, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Thomas, S. B.; Wiencke, L. R.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Clay, R. W.; Dawson, B. R.; Simpson, K.; Bells, J.; Boyer, J.; Knapp, B.; Song, B. H.; Zhang, X. Z.; SDSS Collaboration; High Resolution Fly's Eye Collaboration; Telescope Array/U. Tokyo Collaboration

    1999-05-01

    Cosmic-ray and gamma-ray experiments that use the atmosphere as a calorimeter, such as the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) and the Telescope Array (TA), require understanding the transmission of the light from the air shower of particles produced by the cosmic-ray or gamma-ray striking the atmosphere. To better understand the scattering and transmission of light to the detectors, HiRes measures light from different calibrated sources. We compare scattered light from laser shots a few kilometers away from the two HiRes detectors, with direct light from stable portable light sources placed a few meters in front of the phototubes. We use two HiRes detectors to study and isolate contributions to fluctuations of the measured light. These contributions include fluctuations in the source intensity, the night sky background, scattering and transmission of the laser beam, the phototubes and electronics, and photostatistics. The High Resolution Fly's Eye Collaboration gratefully acknowledges the support of the US National Science Foundation, DOE, the US Army's Dugway Proving Grounds, and the support of our member universities.

  7. Carbon and other light element contents in the Earth's core based on first-principles molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yigang; Yin, Qing-Zhu

    2012-11-27

    Carbon (C) is one of the candidate light elements proposed to account for the density deficit of the Earth's core. In addition, C significantly affects siderophile and chalcophile element partitioning between metal and silicate and thus the distribution of these elements in the Earth's core and mantle. Derivation of the accretion and core-mantle segregation history of the Earth requires, therefore, an accurate knowledge of the C abundance in the Earth's core. Previous estimates of the C content of the core differ by a factor of ∼20 due to differences in assumptions and methods, and because the metal-silicate partition coefficient of C was previously unknown. Here we use two-phase first-principles molecular dynamics to derive this partition coefficient of C between liquid iron and silicate melt. We calculate a value of 9 ± 3 at 3,200 K and 40 GPa. Using this partition coefficient and the most recent estimates of bulk Earth or mantle C contents, we infer that the Earth's core contains 0.1-0.7 wt% of C. Carbon thus plays a moderate role in the density deficit of the core and in the distribution of siderophile and chalcophile elements during core-mantle segregation processes. The partition coefficients of nitrogen (N), hydrogen, helium, phosphorus, magnesium, oxygen, and silicon are also inferred and found to be in close agreement with experiments and other geochemical constraints. Contents of these elements in the core derived from applying these partition coefficients match those derived by using the cosmochemical volatility curve and geochemical mass balance arguments. N is an exception, indicating its retention in a mantle phase instead of in the core. PMID:23150591

  8. CfAIR2: Near-infrared Light Curves of 94 Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Andrew S.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Marion, G. H.; Challis, Peter; Mandel, Kaisey S.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Modjaz, Maryam; Narayan, Gautham; Hicken, Malcolm; Foley, Ryan J.; Klein, Christopher R.; Starr, Dan L.; Morgan, Adam; Rest, Armin; Blake, Cullen H.; Miller, Adam A.; Falco, Emilio E.; Wyatt, William F.; Mink, Jessica; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Kirshner, Robert P.

    2015-09-01

    CfAIR2 is a large, homogeneously reduced set of near-infrared (NIR) light curves (LCs) for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained with the 1.3 m Peters Automated InfraRed Imaging TELescope. This data set includes 4637 measurements of 94 SNe Ia and 4 additional SNe Iax observed from 2005 to 2011 at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory on Mount Hopkins, Arizona. CfAIR2 includes {{JHK}}s photometric measurements for 88 normal and 6 spectroscopically peculiar SN Ia in the nearby universe, with a median redshift of z ˜ 0.021 for the normal SN Ia. CfAIR2 data span the range from -13 days to +127 days from B-band maximum. More than half of the LCs begin before the time of maximum, and the coverage typically contains ˜13-18 epochs of observation, depending on the filter. We present extensive tests that verify the fidelity of the CfAIR2 data pipeline, including comparison to the excellent data of the Carnegie Supernova Project. CfAIR2 contributes to a firm local anchor for SN cosmology studies in the NIR. Because SN Ia are more nearly standard candles in the NIR and are less vulnerable to the vexing problems of extinction by dust, CfAIR2 will help the SN cosmology community develop more precise and accurate extragalactic distance probes to improve our knowledge of cosmological parameters, including dark energy and its potential time variation.

  9. Performance of Introducing Outdoor Cold Air for Cooling a Plant Production System with Artificial Light

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Tong, Yuxin; Yang, Qichang; Xin, Min

    2016-01-01

    The commercial use of a plant production system with artificial light (PPAL) is limited by its high initial construction and operation costs. The electric-energy consumed by heat pumps, applied mainly for cooling, accounts for 15–35% of the total electric-energy used in a PPAL. To reduce the electric-energy consumption, an air exchanger with low capacity (180 W) was used for cooling by introducing outdoor cold air. In this experiment, the indoor air temperature in two PPALs (floor area: 6.2 m2 each) was maintained at 25 and 20°C during photoperiod and dark period, respectively, for lettuce production. A null CO2 balance enrichment method was used in both PPALs. In one PPAL (PPALe), an air exchanger (air flow rate: 250 m3·h−1) was used along with a heat pump (cooling capacity: 3.2 kW) to maintain the indoor air temperature at the set-point. The other PPAL (PPALc) with only a heat pump (cooling capacity: 3.2 kW) was used for reference. Effects of introducing outdoor cold air on energy use efficiency, coefficient of performance (COP), electric-energy consumption for cooling and growth of lettuce were investigated. The results show that: when the air temperature difference between indoor and outdoor ranged from 20.2 to 30.0°C: (1) the average energy use efficiency of the air exchanger was 2.8 and 3.4 times greater than the COP of the heat pumps in the PPALe and PPALc, respectively; (2) hourly electric-energy consumption for cooling in the PPALe reduced by 15.8–73.7% compared with that in the PPALc; (3) daily supply of CO2 in the PPALe reduced from 0.15 to 0.04 kg compared with that in the PPALc with the outdoor air temperature ranging from −5.6 to 2.7°C; (4) no significant difference in lettuce growth was observed in both PPALs. The results indicate that using air exchanger to introduce outdoor cold air should be considered as an effective way to reduce electric-energy consumption for cooling with little effects on plant growth in a PPAL. PMID:27066012

  10. Performance of Introducing Outdoor Cold Air for Cooling a Plant Production System with Artificial Light.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Tong, Yuxin; Yang, Qichang; Xin, Min

    2016-01-01

    The commercial use of a plant production system with artificial light (PPAL) is limited by its high initial construction and operation costs. The electric-energy consumed by heat pumps, applied mainly for cooling, accounts for 15-35% of the total electric-energy used in a PPAL. To reduce the electric-energy consumption, an air exchanger with low capacity (180 W) was used for cooling by introducing outdoor cold air. In this experiment, the indoor air temperature in two PPALs (floor area: 6.2 m(2) each) was maintained at 25 and 20°C during photoperiod and dark period, respectively, for lettuce production. A null CO2 balance enrichment method was used in both PPALs. In one PPAL (PPALe), an air exchanger (air flow rate: 250 m(3)·h(-1)) was used along with a heat pump (cooling capacity: 3.2 kW) to maintain the indoor air temperature at the set-point. The other PPAL (PPALc) with only a heat pump (cooling capacity: 3.2 kW) was used for reference. Effects of introducing outdoor cold air on energy use efficiency, coefficient of performance (COP), electric-energy consumption for cooling and growth of lettuce were investigated. The results show that: when the air temperature difference between indoor and outdoor ranged from 20.2 to 30.0°C: (1) the average energy use efficiency of the air exchanger was 2.8 and 3.4 times greater than the COP of the heat pumps in the PPALe and PPALc, respectively; (2) hourly electric-energy consumption for cooling in the PPALe reduced by 15.8-73.7% compared with that in the PPALc; (3) daily supply of CO2 in the PPALe reduced from 0.15 to 0.04 kg compared with that in the PPALc with the outdoor air temperature ranging from -5.6 to 2.7°C; (4) no significant difference in lettuce growth was observed in both PPALs. The results indicate that using air exchanger to introduce outdoor cold air should be considered as an effective way to reduce electric-energy consumption for cooling with little effects on plant growth in a PPAL. PMID:27066012

  11. Fabrication of a polyvinylidene difluoride fiber with a metal core and its application as directional air flow sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Yixiang; Liu, Rongrong; Hui, Shen

    2016-09-01

    We fabricated a sensitive air flow detector that mimic the sensing mechanism found at the tail of some insects. [see Y. Yang, A. Klein, H. Bleckmann and C. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2) (2011); J. J. Heys, T. Gedeon, B. C. Knott and Y. Kim, J. Biomech. 41(5), 977 (2008); J. Tao and X. Yu, Smart Mat. Struct. 21(11) (2012)]. Our bionic airflow sensor uses a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) microfiber with a molybdenum core which we produced with the hot extrusion tensile method. The surface of the fiber is partially coated with conductive silver adhesive that serve as surface electrodes. A third electrode, the metal core is used to polarize polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) under the surface electrodes. The cantilever beam structure of the prepared symmetric electrodes of metal core piezoelectric fiber (SMPF) is used as the artificial hair airflow sensor. The surface electrodes are used to measure output voltage. Our theoretical and experimental results show that the SMPF responds fast to air flow changes, the output charge has an exponential correlation with airflow velocity and a cosine relation with the direction of airflow. Our bionic airflow sensor with directional sensing ability can also measure air flow amplitude. [see H. Droogendijk, R. G. P. Sanders and G. J. M. Krijnen, New J. Phys. 15 (2013)]. By using two surface electrodes, our sensing circuit further improves sensitivity.

  12. In Situ Observation of Modulated Light Emission of Fiber Fuse Synchronized with Void Train over Hetero-Core Splice Point

    PubMed Central

    Todoroki, Shin-ichi

    2008-01-01

    Background Fiber fuse is a process of optical fiber destruction under the action of laser radiation, found 20 years ago. Once initiated, opical discharge runs along the fiber core region to the light source and leaves periodic voids whose shape looks like a bullet pointing the direction of laser beam. The relation between damage pattern and propagation mode of optical discharge is still unclear even after the first in situ observation three years ago. Methodology/Principal Findings Fiber fuse propagation over hetero-core splice point (Corning SMF-28e and HI 1060) was observed in situ. Sequential photographs obtained at intervals of 2.78 µs recorded a periodic emission at the tail of an optical discharge pumped by 1070 nm and 9 W light. The signal stopped when the discharge ran over the splice point. The corresponding damage pattern left in the fiber core region included a segment free of periodicity. Conclusions The spatial modulation pattern of the light emission agreed with the void train formed over the hetero-core splice point. Some segments included a bullet-shaped void pointing in the opposite direction to the laser beam propagation although the sequential photographs did not reveal any directional change in the optical discharge propagation. PMID:18815621

  13. Core-shell heterostructured metal oxide arrays enable superior light-harvesting and hysteresis-free mesoscopic perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Khalid; Swain, Bhabani Sankar; Amassian, Aram

    2015-08-14

    To achieve highly efficient mesoscopic perovskite solar cells (PSCs), the structure and properties of an electron transport layer (ETL) or material (ETM) have been shown to be of supreme importance. Particularly, the core-shell heterostructured mesoscopic ETM architecture has been recognized as a successful electrode design, because of its large internal surface area, superior light-harvesting efficiency and its ability to achieve fast charge transport. Here we report the successful fabrication of a hysteresis-free, 15.3% efficient PSC using vertically aligned ZnO nanorod/TiO2 shell (ZNR/TS) core-shell heterostructured ETMs for the first time. We have also added a conjugated polyelectrolyte polymer into the growth solution to promote the growth of high aspect ratio (AR) ZNRs and substantially improve the infiltration of the perovskite light absorber into the ETM. The PSCs based on the as-synthesized core-shell ZnO/TiO2 heterostructured ETMs exhibited excellent performance enhancement credited to the superior light harvesting capability, larger surface area, prolonged charge-transport pathways and lower recombination rate. The unique ETM design together with minimal hysteresis introduces core-shell ZnO/TiO2 heterostructures as a promising mesoscopic electrode approach for the fabrication of efficient PSCs. PMID:26159238

  14. Effect of Light Elements on the Sound Velocities in Solid Iron: Implications for the Composition of Earth's Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badro, J.; Fiquet, G.; Guyot, F.

    2006-12-01

    We measured compressional sound velocities in light-element alloys of iron (FeO, FeSi, FeS, and FeS2) at high pressure by inelastic x-ray scattering. This data set provides a mineralogical constraint on the composition of Earth's core, and completes the previous set formed by the pressure-density systematics for these compounds. Based on the combination of these data sets and their comparison with radial seismic models, we propose an average composition model of Earth's core. We show that sulphur cannot be the only light alloying element in the core, because it cannot satisfy both the compressibility, sound velocity and while retaining a reasonable abundance based on cosmochemical models. On the other hand, the incorporation of small amounts of silicon or oxygen is compatible with geophysical observations and geochemical abundances. From our data, the inner core contains 2.3 wt% silicon or 1.6 wt% oxygen. Using recent O and Si partitioning data, we build a new composite model of the core and discuss the effects of Nickel.

  15. Face Sheet/Core Disbond Growth in Honeycomb Sandwich Panels Subjected to Ground-Air-Ground Pressurization and In-Plane Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Zhi M.; Krueger, Ronald; Rinker, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Typical damage modes in light honeycomb sandwich structures include face sheet/core disbonding and core fracture, both of which can pose a threat to the structural integrity of a component. These damage modes are of particular interest to aviation certification authorities since several in-service occurrences, such as rudder structural failure and other control surface malfunctions, have been attributed to face sheet/core disbonding. Extensive studies have shown that face sheet/core disbonding and core fracture can lead to damage propagation caused by internal pressure changes in the core. The increasing use of composite sandwich construction in aircraft applications makes it vitally important to understand the effect of ground-air-ground (GAG) cycles and conditions such as maneuver and gust loads on face sheet/core disbonding. The objective of the present study was to use a fracture mechanics based approach developed earlier to evaluate the loading at the disbond front caused by ground-air-ground pressurization and in-plane loading. A honeycomb sandwich panel containing a circular disbond at one face sheet/core interface was modeled with three-dimensional (3D) solid finite elements. The disbond was modeled as a discrete discontinuity and the strain energy release rate along the disbond front was computed using the Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT). Special attention was paid to the pressure-deformation coupling which can decrease the pressure load within the disbonded sandwich section significantly when the structure is highly deformed. The commercial finite element analysis software, Abaqus/Standard, was used for the analyses. The recursive pressure-deformation coupling problem was solved by representing the entrapped air in the honeycomb cells as filled cavities in Abaqus/Standard. The results show that disbond size, face sheet thickness and core thickness are important parameters that determine crack tip loading at the disbond front. Further, the pressure

  16. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  17. Solid core dipoles and switching power supplies: Lower cost light sources?

    SciTech Connect

    Benesch, Jay; Philip, Sarin

    2015-05-05

    As a result of improvements in power semiconductors, moderate frequency switching supplies can now provide the hundreds of amps typically required by accelerators with zero-to-peak noise in the kHz region ~ 0.06% in current or voltage mode. Modeling was undertaken using a finite electromagnetic program to determine if eddy currents induced in the solid steel of CEBAF magnets and small supplemental additions would bring the error fields down to the 5ppm level needed for beam quality. The expected maximum field of the magnet under consideration is 0.85 T and the DC current required to produce that field is used in the calculations. An additional 0.1% current ripple is added to the DC current at discrete frequencies 360 Hz, 720 Hz or 7200 Hz. Over the region of the pole within 0.5% of the central integrated BdL the resulting AC field changes can be reduced to less than 1% of the 0.1% input ripple for all frequencies, and a sixth of that at 7200 Hz. Doubling the current, providing 1.5 T central field, yielded the same fractional reduction in ripple at the beam for the cases checked. A small dipole was measured at 60, 120, 360 and 720 Hz in two conditions and the results compared to the larger model for the latter two frequencies with surprisingly good agreement. Thus, for light sources with aluminum vacuum vessels and full energy linac injection, the combination of solid core dipoles and switching power supplies may result in significant cost savings.

  18. Centimeter-scale secondary information on hydraulic conductivity using a hand-held air permeameter on borehole cores.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogiers, B.; Winters, P.; Huysmans, M.; Beerten, K.; Mallants, D.; Gedeon, M.; Batelaan, O.; Dassargues, A.

    2012-04-01

    Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) is one of the most important parameters determining groundwater flow and contaminant transport in both unsaturated and saturated porous media. Determining the small-scale variability of this parameter is key to evaluate implications on effective parameters at the larger scale. Moreover, for stochastic simulations of groundwater flow and contaminant transport, accurate models on the spatial variability of Ks are very much needed. While several well-established laboratory methods exist for determining Ks, investigating the small-scale variability remains a challenge. If several tens to hundreds of metres of borehole core has to be hydraulically characterised at the centimetre to decimetre scale, several hundreds to thousands of Ks measurements are required, which makes it very costly and time-consuming should traditional methods be used. With reliable air permeameters becoming increasingly available from the late 80's, a fast and effective indirect method exists to determine Ks. Therefore, the use of hand-held air permeameter measurements for determining very accurate small-scale heterogeneity about Ks is very appealing. Very little is known, however, on its applicability for borehole cores that typically carry a small sediment volume. Therefore, the method was tested on several borehole cores of different size, originating from the Campine basin, Northern Belgium. The studied sediments are of Miocene to Pleistocene age, with a marine to continental origin, and consist of sand to clayey sand with distinct clay lenses, resulting in a Ks range of 7 orders of magnitude. During previous studies, two samples were taken from borehole cores each two meters for performing constant head lab permeameter tests. This data is now used as a reference for the air permeameter measurements that are performed with a resolution of 5 centimetres. Preliminary results indicate a very good correlation between the previously gathered constant head Ks

  19. Fluorescence light microscopy of pulmonary surfactant at the air-water interface of an air bubble of adjustable size.

    PubMed

    Knebel, D; Sieber, M; Reichelt, R; Galla, H-J; Amrein, M

    2002-07-01

    The structural dynamics of pulmonary surfactant was studied by epifluorescence light microscopy at the air-water interface of a bubble as a model close to nature for an alveolus. Small unilamellar vesicles of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol, a small amount of a fluorescent dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine-analog, and surfactant-associated protein C were injected into the buffer solution. They aggregated to large clusters in the presence of Ca(2+) and adsorbed from these units to the interface. This gave rise to an interfacial film that eventually became fully condensed with dark, polygonal domains in a fluorescent matrix. When now the bubble size was increased or decreased, respectively, the film expanded or contracted. Upon expansion of the bubble, the dark areas became larger to the debit of the bright matrix and reversed upon contraction. We were able to observe single domains during the whole process. The film remained condensed, even when the interface was increased to twice its original size. From comparison with scanning force microscopy directly at the air-water interface, the fluorescent areas proved to be lipid bilayers associated with the (dark) monolayer. In the lung, such multilayer phase acts as a reservoir that guarantees a full molecular coverage of the alveolar interface during the breathing cycle and provides mechanical stability to the film. PMID:12080141

  20. 'Core species' in three sources of indoor air belonging to the human micro-environment to the exclusion of outdoor air.

    PubMed

    Gaüzère, Carole; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Blanquart, Hélène; Ferreira, Stéphanie; Moularat, Stéphane; Robine, Enric; Moletta-Denat, Marina

    2014-07-01

    Although we spend the majority of our lives indoors, the airborne microbial content of enclosed spaces still remains inadequately described. The objective of this study was to characterize the bacterial diversity of indoor air in three different enclosed spaces with three levels of occupancy, and, in particular, to highlight the 'core' species, the opportunistic pathogens and their origins. Our findings provide an overall description of bacterial diversity in these indoor environments. Data gathered from the three enclosed spaces revealed the presence of a common indoor signature (60% of total sequences in common). This work will provide a clearer understanding of the dominant groups of bacteria encountered in enclosed spaces: Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Thus, certain evidence revealed a connection between 'core' species and the human micro-environment (20% of phylotypes and 12% of sequences of human origin). Overall PCA analysis showed that the indoor environment is influenced mainly by the microbial diversity from nose and skin. Among the 'core species' found during this study, a large number (72% of all pathogen-related sequences were concentrated in 'core species') of genera and species are known to be responsible for opportunistic or nosocomial diseases or to include human commensal bacteria such as Mycobacterium sp., Acinetobacter baumanii, Aerococcus viridians, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris or Clostridium perfringens. PMID:24747243

  1. Carbon and other light element contents in the Earth’s core based on first-principles molecular dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yigang; Yin, Qing-Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Carbon (C) is one of the candidate light elements proposed to account for the density deficit of the Earth’s core. In addition, C significantly affects siderophile and chalcophile element partitioning between metal and silicate and thus the distribution of these elements in the Earth’s core and mantle. Derivation of the accretion and core–mantle segregation history of the Earth requires, therefore, an accurate knowledge of the C abundance in the Earth’s core. Previous estimates of the C content of the core differ by a factor of ∼20 due to differences in assumptions and methods, and because the metal–silicate partition coefficient of C was previously unknown. Here we use two-phase first-principles molecular dynamics to derive this partition coefficient of C between liquid iron and silicate melt. We calculate a value of 9 ± 3 at 3,200 K and 40 GPa. Using this partition coefficient and the most recent estimates of bulk Earth or mantle C contents, we infer that the Earth’s core contains 0.1–0.7 wt% of C. Carbon thus plays a moderate role in the density deficit of the core and in the distribution of siderophile and chalcophile elements during core–mantle segregation processes. The partition coefficients of nitrogen (N), hydrogen, helium, phosphorus, magnesium, oxygen, and silicon are also inferred and found to be in close agreement with experiments and other geochemical constraints. Contents of these elements in the core derived from applying these partition coefficients match those derived by using the cosmochemical volatility curve and geochemical mass balance arguments. N is an exception, indicating its retention in a mantle phase instead of in the core. PMID:23150591

  2. A carbon-free polyoxometalate molecular catalyst with a cobalt-arsenic core for visible light-driven water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Chao; Wang, Xin-Long; Qin, Chao; Shao, Kui-Zhan; Su, Zhong-Min; Wang, En-Bo

    2016-07-21

    A carbon-free, stable, homogeneous water oxidation catalyst based on the unique hepta-nuclear cobalt-arsenic core ("fused" double-quasi-cubane) and polyoxometalate ligands, Na12[{Co(II)7As(III)6O9(OH)6}(A-α-SiW9O34)2]·8H2O (1), was synthesized, thoroughly characterized and employed to catalyze water oxidation under visible-light-driven conditions. PMID:27383015

  3. Evaluation of dust-related health hazards associated with air coring at G-Tunnel, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Skaggs, B.J.; Ortiz, L.W.; Burton, D.J.; Isom, B.L.; Vigil, E.A.

    1991-03-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project was established to evaluate the potential for storing high-level radioactive wastes in geologic formations. Hydrologists recommended that drilling or coring in support of characterization tests be performed dry. Dry drilling, or air coring, presents a concern about health protection for the drilling personnel. The rock generally has a high silica content, and natural zeolites are abundant. Some zeolites are fibrous, leading to concerns that inhalation may result in asbestos-like lung diseases. An industrial hygiene study (IH) was conducted as part of an air coring technical feasibility test. The IH study found the potential for exposures to airborne silica and nuisance dusts to be within regulatory requirements and determined the commercial dust control equipment monitored to be effective when used in conjunction with a good area ventilation system and sound IH practices. Fibrous zeolites were not detected. Recommendations for the Yucca Mountain studies are (1) dust collection and control equipment equivalent or superior to that monitored must be used for any dry drilling activity and must be used with good general dilution ventilation and local exhaust ventilation provided on major emission sources; (2) good industrial hygiene work practices must be implemented, including monitoring any area where zeolitic fibers are suspect; and (3) a study should be conducted to determine the biological effects of the fibrous zeolite, mordenite. 25 refs., 17 figs., 14 tabs.

  4. Highly active and durable core-corona structured bifunctional catalyst for rechargeable metal-air battery application.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu; Yu, Aiping; Higgins, Drew; Li, Hui; Wang, Haijiang; Chen, Zhongwei

    2012-04-11

    A new class of core-corona structured bifunctional catalyst (CCBC) consisting of lanthanum nickelate centers supporting nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNT) has been developed for rechargeable metal-air battery application. The nanostructured design of the catalyst allows the core and corona to catalyze the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), respectively. These materials displayed exemplary OER and ORR activity through half-cell testing, comparable to state of the art commercial lanthanum nickelate (LaNiO(3)) and carbon-supported platinum (Pt/C), with added bifunctional capabilities allowing metal-air battery rechargeability. LaNiO(3) and Pt/C are currently the most accepted benchmark electrocatalyst materials for the OER and ORR, respectively; thus with comparable activity toward both of these reactions, CCBC are presented as a novel, inexpensive catalyst component for the cathode of rechargeable metal-air batteries. Moreover, after full-range degradation testing (FDT) CCBC retained excellent activity, retaining 3 and 13 times greater ORR and OER current upon comparison to state of the art Pt/C. Zinc-air battery performances of CCBC is in good agreement with the half-cell experiments with this bifunctional electrocatalyst displaying high activity and stability during battery discharge, charge, and cycling processes. Owing to its outstanding performance toward both the OER and ORR, comparable with the highest performing commercial catalysts to date for each of the respective reaction, coupled with high stability and rechargeability, CCBC is presented as a novel class of bifunctional catalyst material that is very applicable to future generation rechargeable metal-air batteries. PMID:22372510

  5. Air content and O2/N2 tuned chronologies on local insolation signatures in the Vostok ice core are similar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipenkov, V.; Raynaud, D.; Loutre, M.-F.; Duval, P.; Lemieux-Dudon, B.

    2009-04-01

    An accurate chronology of ice cores is needed for interpreting the paleoclimatic record and understanding the relation between insolation and climate. A new domain of research in this area has been initially stimulated by the work of M. Bender (2002) linking the record of O2/N2 ratio in the air trapped in the Vostok ice with the local insolation. More recently, it has been proposed that the long-term changes in air content, V, recorded in ice from the high Antarctic plateau is also dominantly imprinted by the local summer insolation (Raynaud et al., 2007). The present paper presents a new V record from Vostok, which is compared with the published Vostok O2/N2 record for the same period of time (150-400 ka BP) by using the same spectral analysis methods. The spectral differences between the two properties and the possible mechanisms linking them with insolation through the surface snow structure and the close-off processes are discussed. The main result of our study is that the two experimentally independent local insolation proxies lead to absolute (orbital) time scales, which agree together within a standard deviation of 0.6 ka. This result strongly adds credibility to the air content of ice and the O2 to N2 ratio of the air trapped in ice as equally reliable and complementary tools for accurate dating of existing and future deep ice cores. References: M. Bender, Orbital tuning chronology for the Vostok climate record supported by trapped gas composition, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 204(2002) 275-289. D. Raynaud, V. Lipenkov, B. Lemieux-Dudon, P. Duval, M.F. Loutre, N. Lhomme, The local insolation signature of air content in Antarctic ice: a new step toward an absolute dating of ice records, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 261(2007) 337-349.

  6. Light Elements in the Core and Equilibration Degree with Silicate Mantle: Perspective from First-Principles Molecular Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Q.; Zhang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The degree of chemical equilibration (hereafter as Ke), defined as the cumulative mass fraction of the metalic core in equilibrium with the silicate mantle during the Earth accretion processes, greatly influences determination of the timing of the Earth core formation [1]. If Ke is larger than ~0.4, Hf-W chronology implies a fast accretion in less than 30 Myr for the Earth. Otherwise, Hf-W data can only be used to constrain the Ke instead of timing [1]. Here we use the two-phase first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) [2] to constrain the solubility of light elements in liquid iron in equilibration with silicate melt at temperatures from 2500 to 4200 K, pressures from 20 to 120 GPa, and two compositions simplified from the "O-bearing" and "Si-bearing" bulk Earth model compositions of McDonough [3]. The solubility data are then used in the simulations of the many possible accretion scenarios of the Earth as outlined in [4], considering magma ocean depth, homogeneous vs heterogeneous accretion etc. For each accretion route, we calculate the effective core-mantle equilibration degree (Ke), where Kei and Wi are the core-mantle equilibration degree and the accreted mass fraction of the ith step, respectively. The successful Ke are selected based on the criterion that the resulting Earth's core must meet the required density deficit [5]. The Ke in those successful simulations are all found to be larger than 0.57, implying that the core-mantle differentiation has to occur early [1], within 30 millions years from the beginning of the solar system as originally stated [6]. Additional simulations (all at 3200 K and 40 GPa) are also made to calculate the partition coefficients of several other light elements. Combined with the bulk Earth compositions of these elements [3], it is found Si, O, and S are the major light elements in the core while C, P, Mg, H, N, and He are the minor elements in the core. We show [7] that FPMD calculations lend strong support to the classical

  7. Generation of UV light by intense ultrashort laser pulses in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, Ilya; Ting, Antonio; Gordon, Daniel; Briscoe, Eldridge; Penano, Joe; Sprangle, Phillip

    2004-11-01

    The propagation of collimated high-peak-power ultrashort laser pulses in air has attracted considerable attention, which may have a variety of important applications including remote sensing and chemical-biological aerosols standoff detection. Sub-millimeter diameter laser filaments can develop without any focusing optics and instead solely from laser self-focusing and plasma formation in air. These filaments can produce ultraviolet radiations in the form of the 3rd harmonic of the fundamental frequency and also through spectral broadening due to self-phase modulation of the laser pulse. Using femtosecond laser pulses produced by a high power Ti:Sapphire laser (0.8 TW, 50 fs, 800 nm) we observed generation of the third harmonic radiation light in air (centered around 267 nm) by the laser filaments. Characterization of the 3rd harmonic generation with respect to the major gas components of the air will be reported. Supported by the ONR and RDECOM. I. Alexeev is NRC/NRL Post-Doc.

  8. Improved light output power of LEDs with embedded air voids structure and SiO2 current blocking layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shengjun; Yuan, Shu; Liu, Sheng; Ding, Han

    2014-06-01

    GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with an embedded air voids structure and a SiO2 current blocking layer (CBL) was fabricated and investigated. The air voids structure was formed between cone-shaped patterned sapphire substrate and GaN epitaxial layer by combining laser scribing with H3PO4-based hot chemical etching. The air voids embedded high power LED showed 8.9% higher light output power due to a strong light reflection and redirection at the interface between GaN and air voids, which could increase the top light extraction of the high power LED. Compared to the air voids embedded high power LED, the light output power of the high power LED by integrating air voids structure with SiO2 CBL was 9.1% higher than that of the air voids embedded LED without SiO2 CBL. It was also found that the simulation results agree well with the experimental results.

  9. [Temporal behavior of light emission of dielectric barrier discharges in air at atmospheric pressure].

    PubMed

    Yin, Zeng-qian; Dong, Li-fang; Han, Li; Li, Xue-chen; Chai, Zhi-fang

    2002-12-01

    The experimental setup of dielectric barrier discharge was designed which is propitious to optical measurement. Temporal behavior of light emission of dielectric barrier discharges (filamentary model) in air at atmospheric pressure was measured by using optical method. Temporal behavior of dielectric barrier discharges was obtained. The experimental results show that the discharge burst in each half cycle of applied voltage consists of a series of discharge pulses, the duration of each discharge pulse is about 30-50 ns, and the interval of the neighboring discharge pulses is about a few hundred ns. The result is of great importance to the application of dielectric barrier discharges. PMID:12914154

  10. Climatic and insolation control on the high-resolution total air content in the NGRIP ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eicher, O.; Baumgartner, M.; Schilt, A.; Schmitt, J.; Schwander, J.; Stocker, T. F.; Fischer, H.

    2015-11-01

    Because the total air content (TAC) of polar ice is directly affected by the atmospheric pressure, its record in polar ice cores was considered as a proxy for past ice sheet elevation changes. However the Antarctic ice core TAC record is known to also contain an insolation signature, although the underlying physical mechanisms are still a matter of debate. Here we present a high-resolution TAC record over the whole North Greenland Ice Core Project ice core, covering the last 120 000 years, which independently supports an insolation signature in Greenland. Wavelet analysis reveals a clear precession and obliquity signal similar to previous findings on Antarctic TAC, with different insolation history. In our high-resolution record we also find a decrease of 3-5 % (3-4.2 mL kg-1) in TAC as a response to Dansgaard-Oeschger-Events (DO-events). TAC starts to decrease in parallel to increasing Greenland surface temperature and slightly before CH4 reacts to the warming, but also shows a two-step decline that lasts for several centuries into the warm phase/interstadial. The TAC response is larger than expected considering only local temperature and atmospheric pressure as a driver, pointing to transient firnification response caused by the accumulation-induced increase in the load on the firn at bubble close-off, while temperature changes deeper in the firn are still small.

  11. Monitoring of Plant Light/Dark Cycles Using Air-coupled Ultrasonic Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fariñas, M. D.; Sancho-Knapik, D.; Peguero-Pina, J.; Gil-Pelegrín, E.; Álvarez-Arenas, T. E. G.

    This work presents the application of a technique based on the excitation, sensing and spectral analysis of leaves thickness resonances using air-coupled and wide-band ultrasound to monitor variations in leaves properties due to the plant response along light/dark cycles. The main features of these resonances are determined by the tautness of the cells walls in such a way that small modifications produced by variations in the transpiration rate, stomata aperture or water potential have a direct effect on the thickness resonances that can be measured in a completely non-invasive and contactless way. Results show that it is possible to monitor leaves changes due to variations in light intensity along the diurnal cycle, moreover, the technique reveals differences in the leaf response for different species and also within the same species but for specimens grown under different conditions that present different cell structures at the tissue level.

  12. Improved light extraction of nitride-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes by forming air voids on Ar-implanted sapphire substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Yu-Hsiang; Sheu, Jinn-Kong; Lee, Ming-Lun; Chen, Po-Cheng; Yang, Yu-Chen; Yen, Cheng-Hsiung; Lai, Wei-Chih

    2014-09-01

    GaN-based flip-chip light emitting diodes (FC-LEDs) with embedded air voids grown on a selective-area Arimplanted AlN/sapphire (AIAS) substrate was demonstrated in this study. The proposed FC LED with an embedded light scattering layer can destroy the light interference and thereby increase the LEE of GaN-based flip-chip LEDs. The epitaxial layers grown on Ar-implanted regions exhibited lower growth rates compared with those grown on implantation-free regions. Accordingly, air voids formed over the implanted regions after merging laterally grown GaN facet fronts. The light-output power of LEDs grown on AIAS was greater than that of LEDs grown on implantation free sapphire substrates. At an injection current of 700 mA, the output power of LEDs grown on AIAS was enhanced by 20% compared with those of LEDs without embedded air voids. The increase in output power was mainly attributed to the scattering of light around the air voids, which increased the probability of photons escaping from the LEDs. This study on FC LEDs with embedded light-scattering layer highlights the potential application of these LEDs as an alternative to conventional patterned sapphire substrates for improving the LEE of GaN/sapphire-based LEDs. Based on ray tracing simulation, if the height and the width of bottom of gaps were increased to 3 μm, the Lop could be enhanced over 60%.

  13. A Speed-up Method of Light RDBMS SQLite for Stream Processing Utilizing Multi-core CPU Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Moriki

    The data generated at a very high rate by sensors and RFIDs are required to be handled by continuous queries keeping real time response. Because of its purpose, DSMSs are used in several cases of these large scale systems. On the other hand, sensor terminal systems include light RDBMSs generally in many cases. So if light RDBMSs can handle the high rate data directly, it is convenient for several applications. This paper proposes a speed-up method of stream processing by using a light RDBMS SQLite without any special modifications. If DSMSs are categorized by performance such as large, medium and small scale, this method aims at a small or medium scale performance. The database performance mainly depends on storage access time, so this proposed method adopts a memory database, a bulk store records technique and parallel processing while taking advantage of multi-core CPU configurations of terminal systems.

  14. Damage-free single-mode transmission of deep-UV light in hollow-core PCF.

    PubMed

    Gebert, F; Frosz, M H; Weiss, T; Wan, Y; Ermolov, A; Joly, N Y; Schmidt, P O; Russell, P St J

    2014-06-30

    Transmission of UV light with high beam quality and pointing stability is desirable for many experiments in atomic, molecular and optical physics. In particular, laser cooling and coherent manipulation of trapped ions with transitions in the UV require stable, single-mode light delivery. Transmitting even ~2 mW CW light at 280 nm through silica solid-core fibers has previously been found to cause transmission degradation after just a few hours due to optical damage. We show that photonic crystal fiber of the kagomé type can be used for effectively single-mode transmission with acceptable loss and bending sensitivity. No transmission degradation was observed even after >100 hours of operation with 15 mW CW input power. In addition it is shown that implementation of the fiber in a trapped ion experiment increases the coherence time of the internal state transfer due to an increase in beam pointing stability. PMID:24977799

  15. Design and fabrication of a metal core PVDF fiber for an air flow sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Yixiang; Liu, Rongrong; Huang, Xiaomei; Hong, Jin; Huang, Huiyu; Hui, Shen

    2015-10-01

    To track prey or avoid predators, many arthropods can detect variations in airflow and pressure gradients using an array of very thin and sensitive filiform hairs. In this study, metal core piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) fibers were prepared to mimic such hair sensors. The flexibility of the fibers was very good, which was helpful for overcoming the typical brittleness of piezoelectric ceramic fibers. At the same time, the diameter of the fibers was very small (down to 50 μm in diameter). In order to mimic the insects’ hairs to the maximum extent, which was expected to greatly improve the sensitivity of such PVDF fiber-based sensors, a feasible process to prepare and extract electrodes on the surface of the fibers had to be developed. Compared with stainless steel filament-core fibers, the molybdenum filament-core PVDF fibers were easy to stretch. The molybdenum filament was then covered by a cylindrical PVDF layer with a diameter of 400 μm. One half of the longitudinal surface of the fibers was spray-coated with a conductive silver adhesive. The metal core was then used as one electrode, and the conductive silver adhesive was used as the other electrode. After polarization, a single metal-core PVDF fiber could be used as an airflow sensor. The surface structure and the sections of the PVDF fiber were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The results of the mechanical stretching tests showed that the metal core greatly enhanced the mechanical properties of the PVDF fibers. X-ray diffraction revealed that the greater the stretching ratio, the higher the α-to-β-phase conversion rate during the preparation of the PVDF fibers. A single metal-core PVDF fiber was used as a bionic airflow sensor, and a mechanical model of this sensor was derived. The airflow sensing capability of the PVDF fiber was experimentally confirmed in a miniature wind tunnel. The results showed that a cantilevered metal-core PVDF fiber is capable of detecting the range

  16. Aerosol Light Absorption and Scattering Assessments and the Impact of City Size on Air Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes-Miranda, Guadalupe

    The general problem of urban pollution and its relation to the city population is examined in this dissertation. A simple model suggests that pollutant concentrations should scale approximately with the square root of city population. This model and its experimental evaluation presented here serve as important guidelines for urban planning and attainment of air quality standards including the limits that air pollution places on city population. The model was evaluated using measurements of air pollution. Optical properties of aerosol pollutants such as light absorption and scattering plus chemical species mass concentrations were measured with a photoacoustic spectrometer, a reciprocal nephelometer, and an aerosol mass spectrometer in Mexico City in the context of the multinational project "Megacity Initiative: Local And Global Research Observations (MILAGRO)" in March 2006. Aerosol light absorption and scattering measurements were also obtained for Reno and Las Vegas, NV USA in December 2008-March 2009 and January-February 2003, respectively. In all three cities, the morning scattering peak occurs a few hours later than the absorption peak due to the formation of secondary photochemically produced aerosols. In particular, for Mexico City we determined the fraction of photochemically generated secondary aerosols to be about 75% of total aerosol mass concentration at its peak near midday. The simple 2-d box model suggests that commonly emitted primary air pollutant (e.g., black carbon) mass concentrations scale approximately as the square root of the urban population. This argument extends to the absorption coefficient, as it is approximately proportional to the black carbon mass concentration. Since urban secondary pollutants form through photochemical reactions involving primary precursors, in linear approximation their mass concentration also should scale with the square root of population. Therefore, the scattering coefficient, a proxy for particulate matter

  17. High performance of InGaN light-emitting diodes by air-gap/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jae Hyoung; Kim, Hee Yun; Kim, Hyun Kyu; Katharria, Yashpal Singh; Han, Nam; Kang, Ji Hye; Park, Young Jae; Han, Min; Ryu, Beo Deul; Ko, Kang Bok; Suh, Eun-Kyoung; Hong, Chang-Hee

    2012-04-23

    The effect of air-gap/GaN DBR structure, fabricated by selective lateral wet-etching, on InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is investigated. The air-gap/GaN DBR structures in LED acts as a light reflector, and thereby improve the light output power due to the redirection of light into escape cones on both front and back sides of the LED. At an injection current of 20 mA, the enhancement in the radiometric power as high as 1.91 times as compared to a conventional LED having no DBR structure and a far-field angle as low as 128.2° are realized with air-gap/GaN DBR structures. PMID:22535092

  18. A dual-emitting core-shell carbon dot-silica-phosphor composite for white light emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yonghao; Lei, Bingfu; Zheng, Mingtao; Zhang, Haoran; Zhuang, Jianle; Liu, Yingliang

    2015-11-01

    A unique dual-emitting core-shell carbon dot-silica-phosphor (CDSP) was constructed from carbon dots (CDs), tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+ phosphor through a one-pot sol-gel method. Blue emitting CDs uniformly disperse in the silica layer covering the orange emitting phosphor via a polymerization process, which makes CDSP achieve even white light emission. Tunable photoluminescence of CDSP is observed and the preferable white light emission is achieved through changing the excitation wavelength or controlling the mass ratio of the phosphor. When CDSP powders with a phosphor rate of 3.9% and 5.1% are excited at a wavelength of 400 nm, preferable white light emission is observed, with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.32, 0.32) and (0.34, 0.32), respectively. Furthermore, CDSP can mix well with epoxy resin to emit strong and even white light, and based on this, a CDSP-based white LED with a high colour rendering index (CRI) of 94 was fabricated.A unique dual-emitting core-shell carbon dot-silica-phosphor (CDSP) was constructed from carbon dots (CDs), tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+ phosphor through a one-pot sol-gel method. Blue emitting CDs uniformly disperse in the silica layer covering the orange emitting phosphor via a polymerization process, which makes CDSP achieve even white light emission. Tunable photoluminescence of CDSP is observed and the preferable white light emission is achieved through changing the excitation wavelength or controlling the mass ratio of the phosphor. When CDSP powders with a phosphor rate of 3.9% and 5.1% are excited at a wavelength of 400 nm, preferable white light emission is observed, with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.32, 0.32) and (0.34, 0.32), respectively. Furthermore, CDSP can mix well with epoxy resin to emit strong and even white light, and based on this, a CDSP-based white LED with a high colour rendering index (CRI) of 94 was fabricated

  19. Carbon isotope fractionation between Fe-carbide and diamond; a light C isotope reservoir in the deep Earth and Core?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhail, S.; Jones, A. P.; Hunt, S. A.; Guillermier, C.; Dobson, D. P.; Tomlinson, E.; Dan, H.; Milledge, H.; Franchi, I.; Wood, I.; Beard, A.; Verchovsky, S.

    2010-12-01

    The largest accessible reservoir for terrestrial carbon is the mantle; however the core may yield even more. Carbon is commonly proposed as the light element (or one of) to make up the observed density deficit in the earth’s metallic core (NAKAJIMA et al., 2009). The potential isotopic effects of carbon incorporation into the core have not yet been investigated. In-situ ion probe (nanoSIMS) mapping and imaging of carbon isotope variations across rare sub-mm-scale Fe-rich carbide inclusions in mantle diamond (from Jagersfontein, South Africa) show the carbide to be significantly depleted in 13C relative to their diamond host. Distinctive textures suggest metallic liquid precipitates similar in geometry to (giant) nitrogen platelets, controlled by the octahedral symmetry of diamond, which we interpret as syngenic formation. The difference in δ13C values between the two natural phases for diamond-Fe carbide, gives an isotopic fractionation factor (ΔC) which agrees well with HPHT multi-anvil experiments (5-9 GPa and >1400°C). Our measured ΔC between Fe-carbide and diamond may only have local significance, but the measured isotopic values represent characterization of the highest PT carbide known (i.e. > minimum depth of the diamond stability field ≈ 150 km). The direction and magnitude of ΔC agrees with observations of the ΔC between cohenite-graphite in iron meteorites (DEINES and WICKMAN, 1975) and both agree with HPHT experiments, thus suggesting that carbon in the deep Earth, and particularly in the core, may be similarly fractionated (i.e. depleted in the 13C). Since metallic liquid drained from the silicate mantle to form the core during the early Earth, we can use our values as a proxy to constrain evolution of deep carbon reservoirs such as the core and bulk silicate Earth. For example, we can test the suggestion of Grady et al (2004) that the upper mantle value of δ13C ≈ -5 ‰ may not be representative of the bulk Earth, since solar system

  20. A theory divided: current representations of the anchoring theory of lightness contradict the original's core claims.

    PubMed

    Maniatis, Lydia M

    2014-09-01

    The anchoring theory of lightness perception (Gilchrist et al., Psychological Review 106 (1999) 795-834) has been described as one of the most successful approaches to lightness perception. Yet, not only does the original proposal contain serious gaps and inconsistencies, later expressions of the theory, which was never formally revised, seem to contradict the original claims while leaving the gaps unresolved. These problems call into question the theory's viability. PMID:24796510

  1. AirCore-HR: A high-resolution column measurement to enhance the knowledge on the vertical distribution of CO2 and CH4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Membrive, Olivier; Crevoisier, Cyril; Danis, François; Hertzog, Albert; Sweeney, Colm; Picon, Laurence; Durry, Georges; Amarouche, Nadir; Engel, Andreas; Boenisch, Harald

    2015-04-01

    The AirCore-HR (high-resolution) instrument is a simple and innovative atmospheric sampling system inspired from the NOAA AirCore (Karion et al. 2010). It consists of a 300m long coiled stainless steel tube (200m 1/8 in. and 100m 1/4 in. linked together as one). AirCore-HR allows balloon measurements of GHG vertical profiles (CO2 & CH4) from the surface up to approximately 30 km. It has been developed at LMD in partnership with NOAA and differs from other AirCores by its high vertical resolution: 100m at the surface up to 200m at 8km, then 100m at 8km up to 1 km at 30 km. AirCores rely on positive changes in ambient pressure for passive sampling of the atmosphere and are flown open at one end and closed at the other. The AirCore-HR closes at landing and the sample is measured with a continuous analyser for trace gas mole fraction. Our instrument was flown for the first time during the stratospheric balloon campaign operated by the French space agency CNES in Timmins (Ontario, Canada) in August 2014 on the "EdS-Stratéole" flight. The multi-instrument Gondola of this flight carried several instruments, including two others that measured CO2 & CH4 in situ: the Pico-SDLA (based on laser spectrometry) from GSMA, University of Reims & INSU Division Technique and two other AirCores with lower vertical resolution from Frankfurt University. The simultaneous flight of these instruments under the same balloon allows for direct comparison between the different measurements of mixing ratio profiles. We compare profiles from the AirCore-HR and in situ measurements. Moreover, AirCores provide extremely innovative means of observation that will provide a priori knowledge on the variations of methane and carbon dioxide for spaceborne total column measurements or model simulations. Here, we show the usefulness of the high vertical resolution in the upper troposphere and stratosphere for interpreting observations of total and partial column of methane and carbon dioxide from current

  2. Group velocity dispersion of CdSSe/ZnS core-shell colloidal quantum dots measured with white light interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanEngen Spivey, Amelia G.

    2016-03-01

    We measure the group velocity dispersion coefficient of CdSSe/ZnS core-shell colloidal quantum dots in liquid suspension in the ∼700-900 nm wavelength range using a white-light Michelson interferometer. Two different sizes of dots are investigated. In both cases, the group velocity dispersion coefficient decreases with increasing wavelength above the absorption edge in the dots. For quantum dots in which the linear absorption spectrum shows clear peaks, the absorption characteristics of the dots can be used to accurately model the wavelength-dependence of the group velocity dispersion coefficient.

  3. Accurate age scale of the Dome Fuji ice core, Antarctica from O2/N2 ratio of trapped air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Suzuki, K.; Parrenin, F.

    2012-04-01

    Chronology of the first Dome Fuji deep ice core (core length: 2,500 m, ice thickness: 3,035 m) for the age range from 80 kyr to 340 kyr ago was established by orbital tuning of measured O2/N2 ratios in trapped air to local summer insolation, with precision better than about 2,000 years (Kawamura et al., 2007). The O2/N2 ratios found in polar ice cores are slightly lower than the atmospheric ratio because of size-dependent molecular fractionation during bubble close-off. The magnitude of this gas fractionation is believed to be governed by the magnitude of snow metamorphism when the layer was originally at the surface, which in turn is controlled by local summer insolation (Fujita et al., 2009). A strong advantage of the O2/N2 chronology is that there is no need to assume a lag between climatic records in the ice core and orbital forcings, becacuse O2/N2 ratios record local insolation through physical processes. Accuracy of the chronology was validated by comparing the O2/N2 chronology with U-Th radiometric chronology of speleothem records (Cheng et al., 2009) for the ends of Terminations II, III and IV, as well as several large climatic events, for which both ice-core CH4 and speleothem δ18O (a proxy for precipitation) show abrupt shifts as seen in the last glacial period. All ages from O2/N2 and U-Th chronology agreed with each other within ~2,000 yr. The O2/N2 chronology permits comparisons between Antarctic climate, greenhouse gases, astronomically calculated orbital parameters, and radiometrically-dated sea level and monsoon records. Here, we completed the measurements of O2/N2 ratios of the second Dome Fuji ice core, which reached bedrock, for the range from 2,400 to 3,028 m (320 - 700 kyr ago) at approximately 2,000-year time resolution. We made significant improvements in ice core storage practices and mass spectrometry. In particular, the ice core samples were stored at about -50 ° C until the air extraction, except during short periods of transportation

  4. Full Bayesian hierarchical light curve modeling of core-collapse supernova populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Nathan; Betancourt, Michael; Soderberg, Alicia Margarita

    2016-06-01

    While wide field surveys have yielded remarkable quantities of photometry of transient objects, including supernovae, light curves reconstructed from this data suffer from several characteristic problems. Because most transients are discovered near the detection limit, signal to noise is generally poor; because coverage is limited to the observing season, light curves are often incomplete; and because temporal sampling can be uneven across filters, these problems can be exacerbated at any one wavelength. While the prevailing approach of modeling individual light curves independently is successful at recovering inferences for the objects with the highest quality observations, it typically neglects a substantial portion of the data and can introduce systematic biases. Joint modeling of the light curves of transient populations enables direct inference on population-level characteristics as well as superior measurements for individual objects. We present a new hierarchical Bayesian model for supernova light curves, where information inferred from observations of every individual light curve in a sample is partially pooled across objects to constrain population-level hyperparameters. Using an efficient Hamiltonian Monte Carlo sampling technique, the model posterior can be explored to enable marginalization over weakly-identified hyperparameters through full Bayesian inference. We demonstrate our technique on the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) Type IIP supernova light curve sample published by Sanders et al. (2015), consisting of nearly 20,000 individual photometric observations of more than 70 supernovae in five photometric filters. We discuss the Stan probabilistic programming language used to implement the model, computational challenges, and prospects for future work including generalization to multiple supernova types. We also discuss scientific results from the PS1 dataset including a new relation between the peak magnitude and decline rate of SNe IIP, a new perspective on the

  5. Slow light based on stimulated Raman scattering in an integrated liquid-core optical fiber filled with CS2.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Oscar D; Schneebeli, L; Kieu, K; Norwood, R A; Peyghambarian, N

    2013-04-01

    We demonstrate a fiber-based slow light system using a carbon disulfide (CS2)) filled integrated liquid-core optical fiber (i-LCOF). Using 1 meter of i-LCOF we were able to delay 18ps pulses up to 34ps; a delay of 188% of the pulse width. This experimental setup serves as a foundation for slow-light experiments in other nonlinear liquids. Numerical simulations of pulse-propagation equations confirmed the observed delay and a simplified method is presented that can be applied to calculate induced delay for non-cw Stokes pulses. The system is all-fiber and compact with delays greater than a pulse width, indicating potential application as an ultrafast controllable delay line for time division multiplexing in multiGb/s telecommunication systems. PMID:23571972

  6. Evidence for Symplectic Symmetry in Ab Initio No-Core Shell Model Results for Light Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Dytrych, Tomas; Sviratcheva, Kristina D.; Bahri, Chairul; Draayer, Jerry P.; Vary, James P.; /Iowa State U. /LLNL, Livermore /SLAC

    2007-04-24

    Clear evidence for symplectic symmetry in low-lying states of {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O is reported. Eigenstates of {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O, determined within the framework of the no-core shell model using the JISP16 NN realistic interaction, typically project at the 85-90% level onto a few of the most deformed symplectic basis states that span only a small fraction of the full model space. The results are nearly independent of whether the bare or renormalized effective interactions are used in the analysis. The outcome confirms Elliott's SU(3) model which underpins the symplectic scheme, and above all, points to the relevance of a symplectic no-core shell model that can reproduce experimental B(E2) values without effective charges as well as deformed spatial modes associated with clustering phenomena in nuclei.

  7. Optical diversity transmission using WDM signal and phase-conjugate lights through multi-core fiber.

    PubMed

    Koga, Masafumi; Moroi, Mitsuki; Takara, Hidehiko

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes a maximum-ratio combining (MRC) scheme for a WDM signal and phase-conjugate pair (PCP) diversity transmission to cancel nonlinear phase-shift. A transfer function approximation for nonlinear phase-shift cancellation is formulated. It shows, with the help of a numerical calculation, that span-by-span chromatic dispersion compensation is more effective than the lumped equivalent at the receiver. This is confirmed in a 2-core diversity 5 channel WDM transmission experiment over 3-spans of 60km MCF with 25 Gbit/s-QPSK PCP. The peak Q-value was enhanced by 3.6dB through MRC, resulting in superior bitrate-distance product and optical power density limit, compared to twice the single core transmission. PMID:27137550

  8. Optimization of Extreme Ultraviolet Light Source from High Harmonic Generation for Condensed-Phase Core-Level Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ming-Fu; Verkamp, Max A.; Ryland, Elizabeth S.; Benke, Kristin; Zhang, Kaili; Carlson, Michaela; Vura-Weis, Josh

    2015-06-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (XUV) light source from high-order harmonic generation has been shown to be a powerful tool for core-level spectroscopy. In addition, this light source provides very high temporal resolution (10-18 s to 10-15 s) for time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy. Most applications of the light source have been limited to the studies of atomic and molecular systems, with technique development focused on optimizing for shorter pulses (i.e. tens of attoseconds) or higher XUV energy (i.e. ~keV range). For the application to general molecular systems in solid and liquid forms, however, the XUV photon flux and stability are highly demanded due to the strong absorption by substrates and solvents. In this case, the main limitation is due to the stability of the high order generation process and the limited bandwidth of the XUV source that gives only discrete even/odd order peaks. Consequently, this results in harmonic artifact noise that overlaps with the resonant signal. In our current study, we utilize a semi-infinite cell for high harmonic generation from two quantum trajectories (i.e. short and long) at over-driven NIR power. This condition, produces broad XUV spectrum without using complicated optics (e.g. hollow-core fibers and double optical gating). This light source allows us to measure the static absorption spectrum of the iron M-edge from a Fe(acac)3 molecular solid film, which shows a resonant feature of 0.01 OD (~2.3% absorption). Moreover, we also investigate how sample roughness affects the static absorption spectrum. We are able to make smooth solar cell precursor materials (i.e. PbI2 and PbBr2) by spin casting and observe iodine (50 eV) and bromine (70 eV) absorption edges in the order of 0.05 OD with minimal harmonic artifact noise.

  9. Multicolor Light Curve Simulations of Population III Core-Collapse Supernovae: From Shock Breakout to 56Co Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstov, Alexey; Nomoto, Ken’ichi; Tominaga, Nozomu; Ishigaki, Miho N.; Blinnikov, Sergey; Suzuki, Tomoharu

    2016-04-01

    The properties of the first generation of stars and their supernova (SN) explosions remain unknown due to the lack of actual observations. Recently, many transient surveys have been conducted and the feasibility of detecting supernovae (SNe) of Pop III stars is growing. In this paper, we study the multicolor light curves for a number of metal-free core-collapse SN models (25–100 {M}ȯ ) to determine the indicators for the detection and identification of first generation SNe. We use mixing-fallback supernova explosion models that explain the observed abundance patterns of metal-poor stars. Numerical calculations of the multicolor light curves are performed using the multigroup radiation hydrodynamic code stella. The calculated light curves of metal-free SNe are compared with non-zero-metallicity models and several observed SNe. We have found that the shock breakout characteristics, the evolution of the photosphere’s velocity, the luminosity, and the duration and color evolution of the plateau, that is, all of the SN phases from shock breakout to 56Co decay, are helpful for estimating the parameters of the SN progenitor: the mass, the radius, the explosion energy, and the metallicity. We conclude that the multicolor light curves could potentially be used to identify first-generation SNe in current (Subaru/HSC) and future transient surveys (LSST, James Webb Space Telescope). They are also suitable for identifying low-metallicity SNe in the nearby universe (PTF, Pan-STARRS, Gaia).

  10. A new equation of state with light nuclei and their weak interactions in core-collapse supernova simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Furusawa, Shun; Yamada, Shoichi; Nagakura, Hiroki; Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke; Suzuki, Hideyuki

    2014-05-02

    We perform numerical experiments to investigate the influence of inelastic neutrino reactions with light nuclei on the standing accretion shock instability. The time evolutions of shock waves are calculated with a simple light-bulb approximation for the neutrino transport and a multi-nuclei equation of state. The neutrino absorptions and inelastic interactions with deuterons, tritons, helions and alpha particles are taken into account in the hydrodynamical simulations in addition to the ordinary charged-current interactions with nucleons. Axial symmetry is assumed but no equatorial symmetry is imposed. We show that the heating rates of deuterons reach as high as ∼ 10% of those of nucleons around the bottom of the gain region. On the other hands, alpha particles heat the matter near the shock wave, which is important when the shock wave expands and density and temperature of matter become low. It is also found that the models with heating by light nuclei have different evolutions from those without it in non-linear evolution phase. The matter in the gain region has various densities and temperatures and there appear regions that are locally rich in deuterons and alpha particles. These results indicate that the inelastic reactions of light nuclei, especially deuterons, should be incorporated in the simulations of core-collapse supernovae.

  11. A new equation of state with light nuclei and their weak interactions in core-collapse supernova simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusawa, Shun; Nagakura, Hiroki; Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke; Yamada, Shoichi; Suzuki, Hideyuki

    2014-05-01

    We perform numerical experiments to investigate the influence of inelastic neutrino reactions with light nuclei on the standing accretion shock instability. The time evolutions of shock waves are calculated with a simple light-bulb approximation for the neutrino transport and a multi-nuclei equation of state. The neutrino absorptions and inelastic interactions with deuterons, tritons, helions and alpha particles are taken into account in the hydrodynamical simulations in addition to the ordinary charged-current interactions with nucleons. Axial symmetry is assumed but no equatorial symmetry is imposed. We show that the heating rates of deuterons reach as high as ˜ 10% of those of nucleons around the bottom of the gain region. On the other hands, alpha particles heat the matter near the shock wave, which is important when the shock wave expands and density and temperature of matter become low. It is also found that the models with heating by light nuclei have different evolutions from those without it in non-linear evolution phase. The matter in the gain region has various densities and temperatures and there appear regions that are locally rich in deuterons and alpha particles. These results indicate that the inelastic reactions of light nuclei, especially deuterons, should be incorporated in the simulations of core-collapse supernovae.

  12. Ab initio no core calculations of light nuclei and preludes to Hamiltonian quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Vary, J. P.; Maris, P.; Honkanen, H.; Li, J.; Shirokov, A. M.; Brodsky, S. J.; Harindranath, A.

    2009-12-17

    Recent advances in ab initio quantum many-body methods and growth in computer power now enable highly precise calculations of nuclear structure. The precision has attained a level sufficient to make clear statements on the nature of 3-body forces in nuclear physics. Total binding energies, spin-dependent structure effects, and electroweak properties of light nuclei play major roles in pinpointing properties of the underlying strong interaction. Eventually, we anticipate a theory bridge with immense predictive power from QCD through nuclear forces to nuclear structure and nuclear reactions. Light front Hamiltonian quantum field theory offers an attractive pathway and we outline key elements.

  13. Ab initio no core calculations of light nuclei and preludes to Hamiltonian quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Vary, J.P.; Maris, P.; Shirokov, A.M.; Honkanen, H.; li, J.; Brodsky, S.J.; Harindranath, A.; Teramond, G.F.de; /Costa Rica U.

    2009-08-03

    Recent advances in ab initio quantum many-body methods and growth in computer power now enable highly precise calculations of nuclear structure. The precision has attained a level sufficient to make clear statements on the nature of 3-body forces in nuclear physics. Total binding energies, spin-dependent structure effects, and electroweak properties of light nuclei play major roles in pinpointing properties of the underlying strong interaction. Eventually,we anticipate a theory bridge with immense predictive power from QCD through nuclear forces to nuclear structure and nuclear reactions. Light front Hamiltonian quantum field theory offers an attractive pathway and we outline key elements.

  14. Civil air transport: A fresh look at power-by-wire and fly-by-light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    1990-05-01

    Power-by-wire (PBW) is a key element under subsonic transport flight systems technology with potential savings of over 10 percent in gross take-off-weight and in fuel consumption compared to today's transport aircraft. The PBW technology substitutes electrical actuation in place of centralized hydraulics, uses internal starter-motor/generators and eliminates the need for variable engine bleed air to supply cabin comfort. The application of advanced fiber optics to the electrical power system controls, to built-in-test (BITE) equipment, and to fly-by-light (FBL) flight controls provides additional benefits in lightning and high energy radio frequency (HERF) immunity over existing mechanical or even fly-by-wire controls. The program plan is reviewed and a snapshot is given of the key technologies and their benefits to all future aircraft, both civil and military.

  15. Civil air transport - A fresh look at power-by-wire and fly-by-light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    1990-01-01

    Power-by-wire (PBW) is a key element under subsonic transport flight systems technology, with potential savings of over 10 percent in gross take off weight and in fuel consumption compared to today's transport aircraft. The PBW technology substitutes electrical actuation in place of centralized hydraulics, uses internal starter-motor/generators, and eliminates the need for variable engine bleed air to supply cabin comfort. The application of advanced fiber optics to the electrical power system controls, to built-in-test (BITE) equipment, and to fly-by-light (FBL) flight controls provides additional benefits in lightning and high-energy radio frequency (HERF) immunity over existing mechanical or even fly-by-wire controls. The program plan is reviewed and a snapshot is given of the key technologies and their benefits to future aircraft, both civil and military.

  16. Civil air transport: A fresh look at power-by-wire and fly-by-light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    1990-01-01

    Power-by-wire (PBW) is a key element under subsonic transport flight systems technology with potential savings of over 10 percent in gross take-off-weight and in fuel consumption compared to today's transport aircraft. The PBW technology substitutes electrical actuation in place of centralized hydraulics, uses internal starter-motor/generators and eliminates the need for variable engine bleed air to supply cabin comfort. The application of advanced fiber optics to the electrical power system controls, to built-in-test (BITE) equipment, and to fly-by-light (FBL) flight controls provides additional benefits in lightning and high energy radio frequency (HERF) immunity over existing mechanical or even fly-by-wire controls. The program plan is reviewed and a snapshot is given of the key technologies and their benefits to all future aircraft, both civil and military.

  17. Civil air transport: A fresh look at power-by-wire and fly-by-light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    1991-01-01

    Power-by-wire (PBW) is a key element under subsonic transport flight systems technology with potential savings of over 10 percent in operating empty weight and in fuel consumption compared to today's transport aircraft. The PBW technology substitutes electrical actuation in place of centralized hydraulics, uses internal starter-motor/generators and eliminates the need for variable engine bleed air to supply cabin comfort. The application of advanced fiber optics to the electrical power system controls, to built-in-test (BIT) equipment, and to fly-by-light (FBL) flight controls provides additional benefits in lightning and high energy radio frequency (HERF) immunity over existing mechanical or even fly-by-wire controls. The program plan is reviewed and a snapshot is given of the key technologies and their benefits to all future aircraft, both civil and military.

  18. White light emitting diode based on InGaN chip with core/shell quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Changyu; Hong, Yan; Ma, Jiandong; Ming, Jiangzhou

    2009-08-01

    Quantum dots have many applications in optoelectronic device such as LEDs for its many superior properties resulting from the three-dimensional confinement effect of its carrier. In this paper, single chip white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) were fabricated by combining blue InGaN chip with luminescent colloidal quantum dots (QDs). Two kinds of QDs of core/shell CdSe /ZnS and core/shell/shell CdSe /ZnS /CdS nanocrystals were synthesized by thermal deposition using cadmium oxide and selenium as precursors in a hot lauric acid and hexadecylamine trioctylphosphine oxide hybrid. This two kinds of QDs exhibited high photoluminescence efficiency with a quantum yield more than 41%, and size-tunable emission wavelengths from 500 to 620 nm. The QDs LED mainly consists of flip luminescent InGaN chip, glass ceramic protective coating, glisten cup, QDs using as the photoluminescence material, pyroceram, gold line, electric layer, dielectric layer, silicon gel and bottom layer for welding. The WLEDs had the CIE coordinates of (0.319, 0.32). The InGaN chip white-light-emitting diodes with quantum dots as the emitting layer are potentially useful in illumination and display applications.

  19. Storage of LWR (light-water-reactor) spent fuel in air

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, L.E.; Charlot, L.A.; Coleman, J.E. ); Knoll, R.W. )

    1989-12-01

    An experimental program is being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to determine the oxidation response of light-water-reactor (LWR) spent fuels under conditions appropriate to fuel storage in air. The program is designed to investigate several independent variables that might affect the oxidation behavior of spent fuel. Included are temperature (135 to 230{degree}C), fuel burnup (to about 34 MWd/kgM), reactor type (pressurized and boiling water reactors), moisture level in the air, and the presence of a high gamma field. In continuing tests with declad spent fuel and nonirradiated UO{sub 2} specimens, oxidation rates were monitored by weight-gain measurements and the microstructures of subsamples taken during the weighing intervals were characterized by several analytical methods. The oxidation behavior indicated by weight gain and time to form powder will be reported in Volume III of this series. The characterization results obtained from x-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Auger electron spectrometry of oxidized fuel samples are presented in this report. 28 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Light-weight sandwich panel honeycomb core with hybrid carbon-glass fiber composite skin for electric vehicle application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahyono, Sukmaji Indro; Widodo, Angit; Anwar, Miftahul; Diharjo, Kuncoro; Triyono, Teguh; Hapid, A.; Kaleg, S.

    2016-03-01

    The carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite is relative high cost material in current manufacturing process of electric vehicle body structure. Sandwich panels consisting polypropylene (PP) honeycomb core with hybrid carbon-glass fiber composite skin were investigated. The aim of present paper was evaluate the flexural properties and bending rigidity of various volume fraction carbon-glass fiber composite skins with the honeycomb core. The flexural properties and cost of panels were compared to the reported values of solid hybrid Carbon/Glass FRP used for the frame body structure of electric vehicle. The finite element model of represented sandwich panel was established to characterize the flexural properties of material using homogenization technique. Finally, simplified model was employed to crashworthiness analysis for engine hood of the body electric vehicle structure. The good cost-electiveness of honeycomb core with hybrid carbon-glass fiber skin has the potential to be used as a light-weight alternative material in body electric vehicle fabricated.

  1. No-Core Shell Model Calculations in Light Nuclei with Three-Nucleon Forces

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, B R; Vary, J P; Nogga, A; Navratil, P; Ormand, W E

    2004-01-08

    The ab initio No-Core Shell Model (NCSM) has recently been expanded to include nucleon-nucleon (NN) and three-nucleon (3N) interactions at the three-body cluster level. Here it is used to predict binding energies and spectra of p-shell nuclei based on realistic NN and 3N interactions. It is shown that 3N force (3NF) properties can be studied in these nuclear systems. First results show that interactions based on chiral perturbation theory lead to a realistic description of {sup 6}Li.

  2. A method of observing cherenkov light from extensive air shower at Yakutsk EAS array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, Lev; Anatoly, Ivanov

    2016-07-01

    Proposed a new method for measuring the cherenkov light from the extensive air shower (EAS) of cosmic rays (CR), which allows to determine not only the primary particle energy and angle of arrival, but also the parameters of the shower in the atmosphere - the maximum depth and "age". For measurements Cherenkov light produced by EAS is proposed to use a ground network of wide-angle telescopes which are separated from each other by a distance 100-300 m depending on the total number of telescopes operating in the coincidence signals, acting autonomously, or includes a detector of the charged components, radio waves, etc. as part of EAS. In a results such array could developed, energy measurement and CR angle of arrival data on the depth of the maximum and the associated mass of the primary particle generating by EAS. This is particularly important in the study of galactic cosmic ray in E> 10^14 eV, where currently there are no direct measurements of the maximum depth of the EAS.

  3. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Solid Lighting Core Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Jiangeng Xue; Elliot Douglas

    2011-03-31

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate an ultra-effective light extraction mechanism that can be universally applied to all top-emitting white OLEDs (TE-WOLEDs) and can be integrated with thin film encapsulation techniques. The scope of work proposed in this project includes four major areas: (1) optical modeling; (2) microlens and array fabrication; (3) fabrication, encapsulation, and characterization of TE-WOLEDs; and (4) full device integration and characterization. First, the light extraction efficiency in a top-emitting OLED with or without a microlens array are modeled using wave optics. Second, individual microlenses and microlens arrays are fabricated by inkjet printing of microdroplets of a liquid thiol-ene monomer with high refractive index followed by photopolymerization. Third, high efficiency top-emitting white OLEDs are fabricated, and fully characterized. Finally, optimized microlens arrays are fabricated on TE-WOLEDs with dielectric barrier layers. The overall light extraction efficiency of these devices, as well as its wavelength and angular dependencies, are measured by comparing the efficiencies of devices with and without microlens arrays. In conclusion, we have demonstrated the feasibility of applying inkjet printed microlens arrays to enhance the light extraction efficiency of top-emitting white OLEDs. We have shown that the geometry (contact angle) of the printed microlenses can be controlled by controlling the surface chemistry prior to printing the lenses. A 90% enhancement in the light extraction efficiency has been achieved with printed microlens array on a top-emitting white OLED, which can be further improved to 140% using a more close-packed microlens array fabricated from a molding process. Future work will focus on improvement of the microlens fabrication process to improve the array fill factor and the contact angle, as well as use transparent materials with a higher index of refraction. We will also further

  4. Spectral broadening and temporal compression of ∼ 100 fs pulses in air-filled hollow core capillary fibers.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Rishad, K P M; Horak, P; Matsuura, Y; Faccio, D

    2014-01-13

    We experimentally study the spectral broadening of intense, ∼ 100 femtosecond laser pulses at 785 nm coupled into different kinds of hollow core capillary fibers, all filled with air at ambient pressure. Differently from observations in other gases, the spectra are broadened with a strong red-shift due to highly efficient intrapulse Raman scattering. Numerical simulations show that such spectra can be explained only by increasing the Raman fraction of the third order nonlinearity close to 100%. Experimentally, these broadened and red-shifted pulses do not generally allow for straightforward compression using, for example, standard chirped mirrors. However, using special hollow fibers that are internally coated with silver and polymer we obtain pulse durations in the sub-20 fs regime with energies up to 300 μJ. PMID:24515074

  5. Visible Light Responsive Catalysts Using Quantum Dot-Modified Ti02 for Air and Water Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Levine, Lanfang H.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Hintze, paul; Clausen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The method of photocatalysis utilizing titanium dioxide, TiO2, as the catalyst has been widely studied for trace contaminant control for both air and water applications because of its low energy consumption and use of a regenerable catalyst. Titanium dioxide requires ultraviolet light for activation due to its band gap energy of 3.2 eV. Traditionally, Hg-vapor fluorescent light sources are used in PCO reactors and are a setback for the technology for space application due to the possibility of Hg contamination. The development of a visible light responsive (VLR) TiO2-based catalyst could lead to the use of solar energy in the visible region (approx.45% of the solar spectrum lies in the visible region; > 400 nm) or highly efficient LEDs (with wavelengths > 400 nm) to make PCO approaches more efficient, economical, and safe. Though VLR catalyst development has been an active area of research for the past two decades, there are few commercially available VLR catalysts; those that are available still have poor activity in the visible region compared to that in the UV region. Thus, this study was aimed at the further development of VLR catalysts by a new method - coupling of quantum dots (QD) of a narrow band gap semiconductor (e.g., CdS, CdSe, PbS, ZnSe, etc.) to the TiO2 by two preparation methods: 1) photodeposition and 2) mechanical alloying using a high-speed ball mill. A library of catalysts was developed and screened for gas and aqueous phase applications, using ethanol and 4-chlorophenol as the target contaminants, respectively. Both target compounds are well studied in photocatalytic systems serve as model contaminants for this research. Synthesized catalysts were compared in terms of preparation method, type of quantum dots, and dosage of quantum dots.

  6. No Core CI calculations for light nuclei with chiral 2- and 3-body forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maris, Pieter; Metin Aktulga, H.; Binder, Sven; Calci, Angelo; Çatalyürek, Ümit V.; Langhammer, Joachim; Ng, Esmond; Saule, Erik; Roth, Robert; Vary, James P.; Yang, Chao

    2013-08-01

    The atomic nucleus is a self-bound system of strongly interacting nucleons. In No-Core Configuration Interaction calculations, the nuclear wavefunction is expanded in Slater determinants of single-nucleon wavefunctions (Configurations), and the many-body Schrödinger equation becomes a large sparse matrix problem. The challenge is to reach numerical convergence to within quantified numerical uncertainties for physical observables using finite truncations of the infinite-dimensional basis space. We discuss strategies for constructing and solving the resulting large sparse matrices for a set of low-lying eigenvalues and eigenvectors on current multicore computer architectures. Several of these strategies have been implemented in the code MFDn, a hybrid MPI/OpenMP Fortran code for ab initio nuclear structure calculations that scales well to over 200,000 cores. We discuss how the similarity renormalization group can be used to improve the numerical convergence. We present results for excitation energies and other selected observables for 8Be and 12C using realistic 2- and 3-body forces obtained from chiral perturbation theory. Finally, we demonstrate that collective phenomena such as rotational band structures can emerge from these microscopic calculations.

  7. An Optimized Air-Core Coil Sensor with a Magnetic Flux Compensation Structure Suitable to the Helicopter TEM System

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Liu, Fei; Lin, Jun; Zhu, Kaiguang; Wang, Yanzhang

    2016-01-01

    The air-core coil sensor (ACS) is widely used as a transducer to measure the variation in magnetic fields of a helicopter transient electromagnetic (TEM) system. A high periodic emitting current induces the magnetic field signal of the underground medium. However, such current also generates a high primary field signal that can affect the received signal of the ACS and even damage the receiver. To increase the dynamic range of the received signal and to protect the receiver when emitting current rises/falls, the combination of ACS with magnetic flux compensation structure (bucking coil) is necessary. Moreover, the optimized ACS, which is composed of an air-core coil and a differential pre-amplifier circuit, must be investigated to meet the requirements of the helicopter TEM system suited to rapid surveying for shallow buried metal mine in rough topography. Accordingly, two ACSs are fabricated in this study, and their performance is verified and compared inside a magnetic shielding room. Using the designed ACSs, field experiments are conducted in Baoqing County. The field experimental data show that the primary field response can be compensated when the bucking coil is placed at an appropriate point in the range of allowed shift distance beyond the center of the transmitting coil and that the damage to the receiver induced by the over-statured signal can be solved. In conclusion, a more suitable ACS is adopted and is shown to have better performance, with a mass of 2.5 kg, resultant effective area of 11.6 m2 (i.e., diameter of 0.496 m), 3 dB bandwidth of 66 kHz, signal-to-noise ratio of 4 (i.e., varying magnetic field strength of 0.2 nT/s), and normalized equivalent input noise of 3.62 nV/m2. PMID:27077862

  8. An Optimized Air-Core Coil Sensor with a Magnetic Flux Compensation Structure Suitable to the Helicopter TEM System.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Liu, Fei; Lin, Jun; Zhu, Kaiguang; Wang, Yanzhang

    2016-01-01

    The air-core coil sensor (ACS) is widely used as a transducer to measure the variation in magnetic fields of a helicopter transient electromagnetic (TEM) system. A high periodic emitting current induces the magnetic field signal of the underground medium. However, such current also generates a high primary field signal that can affect the received signal of the ACS and even damage the receiver. To increase the dynamic range of the received signal and to protect the receiver when emitting current rises/falls, the combination of ACS with magnetic flux compensation structure (bucking coil) is necessary. Moreover, the optimized ACS, which is composed of an air-core coil and a differential pre-amplifier circuit, must be investigated to meet the requirements of the helicopter TEM system suited to rapid surveying for shallow buried metal mine in rough topography. Accordingly, two ACSs are fabricated in this study, and their performance is verified and compared inside a magnetic shielding room. Using the designed ACSs, field experiments are conducted in Baoqing County. The field experimental data show that the primary field response can be compensated when the bucking coil is placed at an appropriate point in the range of allowed shift distance beyond the center of the transmitting coil and that the damage to the receiver induced by the over-statured signal can be solved. In conclusion, a more suitable ACS is adopted and is shown to have better performance, with a mass of 2.5 kg, resultant effective area of 11.6 m² (i.e., diameter of 0.496 m), 3 dB bandwidth of 66 kHz, signal-to-noise ratio of 4 (i.e., varying magnetic field strength of 0.2 nT/s), and normalized equivalent input noise of 3.62 nV/m². PMID:27077862

  9. Near-infrared light-responsive core-shell nanogels for targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Kang, Huaizhi; Trondoli, Anna Carolina; Zhu, Guizhi; Chen, Yan; Chang, Ya-Jen; Liu, Haipeng; Huang, Yu-Fen; Zhang, Xiaoling; Tan, Weihong

    2011-06-28

    A near-infrared light-responsive drug delivery platform based on Au-Ag nanorods (Au-Ag NRs) coated with DNA cross-linked polymeric shells was constructed. DNA complementarity has been applied to develop a polyacrylamide-based sol-gel transition system to encapsulate anticancer drugs into the gel scaffold. The Au-Ag NR-based nanogels can also be readily functionalized with targeting moieties, such as aptamers, for specific recognition of tumor cells. When exposed to NIR irradiation, the photothermal effect of the Au-Ag NRs leads to a rapid rise in the temperature of the surrounding gel, resulting in the fast release of the encapsulated payload with high controllability. In vitro study confirmed that aptamer-functionalized nanogels can be used as drug carriers for targeted drug delivery with remote control capability by NIR light with high spatial/temporal resolution. PMID:21542633

  10. Near-Infrared Light-Responsive Core-Shell Nanogels for Targeted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Huaizhi; Trondoli, Anna Carolina; Zhu, Guizhi; Chen, Yan; Chang, Ya-Jen; Liu, Haipeng; Huang, Yu-Fen; Zhang, Xiaoling; Tan, Weihong

    2011-01-01

    A near-infrared light-responsive drug delivery platform based on Au-Ag-nanorods (Au-Ag NRs) coated with DNA-crosslinked polymeric shells was constructed. DNA complementarity has been applied to develop a polyacrylamide-based sol-gel transition system to encapsulate anticancer drugs into the gel scaffold. The Au-Ag NR based nanogels can also be readily functionalized with targeting moieties, such as aptamers, for specific recognition of tumor cells. When exposed to NIR irradiation, the photothermal effect of the Au-Ag NRs leads to a rapid rise in the temperature of the surrounding gel, resulting in the fast release of the encapsulated payload with high controllability. In vitro study confirmed that aptamer functionalized nanogels can be used as drug carriers feasible for targeted drug delivery with remote control capability by NIR light with high spatial/temporal resolution. PMID:21542633

  11. Impacts of Light Precipitation Detection with Dual Frequency Radar on Global Precipitation Measurement Core Observatory (GPM/DPR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayabu, Y. N.; Hamada, A.; Oki, R.; Kachi, M.; Kubota, T.; Iguchi, T.; Shige, S.; Nakamura, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) on board the GPM Core Observatory consists of Ku-band (13.6 GHz) and Ka-band (35.5 GHz) radars, with an improved minimum detection sensitivity of precipitation compared to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Precipitation Radar (TRMM PR). We have studied impacts of improved detection sensitivity with the GPM DPR compared with the TRMM PR. One example of light precipitation is, a scattered rainfall around a trough over the subtropical South Pacific Ocean, which consists of weak but erect precipitation reaching over the melting level of ~2.5 km and trailing precipitation above, which reaches as high as 5km. Another example is a light anvil precipitation spreading from convective cores of a storm in the upper troposphere, overcasting shallow convective precipitation below. The ability of globally detecting such light precipitation will improve our knowledge of precipitation processes. Utilizing an early version of the DPR product, a quick evaluation on statistical impacts of increasing the detection sensitivity from 17dBZ to 12dBZ has been performed. Here, 17dBZ is the value which is mostly accepted as the performed detection sensitivity of the TRMM PR, and 12dBZ is the guaranteed sensitivity for GPM Ka-band radar. For the near surface precipitation, impacts are significant in terms of numbers, but limited to several regions in terms of the rainfall volume. Volume impacts are much larger at the upper troposphere, which is indicated by the detection of the anvil precipitation, for example. The upper level improvements are mostly found where the deep precipitation systems exist. Quantitative discussions utilizing the latest version of the DPR data, which is scheduled to be released to the public in September, will be presented at the session.

  12. Degradation of organic dyes by Si/SiOx core-shell nanowires: Spontaneous generation of superoxides without light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yu; Gu, Xiaoyu; Yu, Hongkun; Zeng, Wei; Liu, Xiang; Jiang, Suhua; Li, Yuesheng

    2016-02-01

    Recently, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have been proven to be highly active in the photocatalysis of dye degradation. However, the unstable hydrogen-terminated surface and the need for constant light irradiation hinder their extensive use. In this work, a stable silica shell was intentionally formed on the surface of SiNWs to produce Si/SiOx core-shell silicon nanowires (S-SiNWs). Light-illuminated or not, S-SiNWs showed almost identical degradation ability for the degradation of indigo carmine (IC) in both conditions, which meant neither hydrogen termination nor light irradiation was a prerequisite for the degradation activity of S-SiNWs. UV/Vis spectroscopy and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry showed that IC was converted into isatin sulfonic acid in this process. Quenching studies and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that this bleaching ability was highly dependent on superoxides. A possible mechanism was accordingly suggested. In addition, the recently discovered reductase-like activity of SiNWs can be explained by the superoxides generation. PMID:26421622

  13. Geometric structures in hadronic cores of extensive air showers observed by KASCADE

    SciTech Connect

    Antoni, T.; Glasstetter, R.; Hoerandel, J.R.; Roth, M.; Apel, W.D.; Badea, F.; Bekk, K.; Bozdog, H.; Daumiller, K.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Fessler, F.; Gils, H.J.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Klages, H.O.; Maier, G.; Mathes, H.J.; Mayer, H.J.

    2005-04-01

    The geometric distribution of high-energy hadrons {>=}100 GeV in shower cores measured with the KASCADE calorimeter is analyzed. The data are checked for sensitivity to hadronic interaction features and indications of new physics as discussed in the literature. The angular correlation of the most energetic hadrons and, in particular, the fraction of events with hadrons being aligned are quantified by means of the commonly used parameter {lambda}{sub 4}. The analysis shows that the observed {lambda}{sub 4} distribution is compatible with that predicted by simulations and is not linked to an angular correlation from hadronic jet production at high energy. Another parameter, d{sub 4}{sup max}, describing distances between hadrons measured in the detector, is found to be sensitive both to the transverse momenta in secondary hadron production and the primary particle type. Transverse momenta in high-energy hadron interactions differing by a factor two or more from what is assumed in the standard simulations are disfavored by the measured d{sub 4}{sup max} distribution.

  14. Symmetry-Adapted No-Core Shell Model for Light Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launey, K. D.; Dytrych, T.; Draayer, J. P.; Tobin, G. K.; Ferriss, M. C.; Langr, D.; Dreyfuss, A. C.; Maris, P.; Vary, J. P.; Bahri, C.

    2014-09-01

    We present results for p-shell nuclei based on the ab initio symmetry-adapted no-core shell model that utilizes an SU(3) coupling scheme. Details given for 12C are reflective of similar results found for 6Li, 8B, 8Be, and 16O, all of which exhibit a strong preference for large quadrupole deformations and a narrow set of intrinsic spin values. The outcome suggests that a small subspace of symmetry-adapted configurations can very closely approximate the exact solutions. The symmetry patterns unveiled in these results are, in turn, employed to explore ultra-large model spaces for 12C, in particular to study the elusive Hoyle state, as well as for 8Be and sd-shell nuclei including Ne and Mg.

  15. Emergence of rotational bands in ab initio no-core configuration interaction calculations of light nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprio, Mark A.; Maris, Pieter; Vary, James P.

    2014-03-01

    The emergence of rotational bands has recently been observed in no-core configuration interaction (NCCI) calculations for p-shell nuclei, as evidenced by rotational patterns for excitation energies, electromagnetic moments, and electromagnetic transitions. Yrast and low-lying excited bands are found. The results demonstrate the possibility of well-developed rotational structure in NCCI calculations, using realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions, and within finite, computationally-accessible configuration spaces. This talk will focus on results for rotation in both the even-mass and odd-mass Be isotopes (7 <= A <= 12). Supported by US DOE (DE-FG02-95ER-40934, DESC0008485 SciDAC/NUCLEI, DE-FG02-87ER40371), US NSF (0904782), and Research Corporation for Science Advancement (Cottrell Scholar Award). Computational resources provided by NERSC (US DOE DE-AC02-05CH11231).

  16. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in isolated air-guided modes of a hollow-core photonic-crystal fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov, A.B.; Zheltikov, A.M.; Konorov, S.O.; Mitrokhin, V.P.; Serebryannikov, E.E

    2004-10-01

    Hollow-core photonic-crystal fibers are shown to offer the unique possibility of coherent excitation and probing of Raman-active vibrations in molecules by isolated air-guided modes of electromagnetic radiation. A 3-cm section of a hollow photonic-crystal fiber is used to prepare isolated air-guided modes of pump and probe fields for a coherent excitation of 2331-cm{sup -1} Q-branch vibrations of molecular nitrogen in the gas filling the fiber core, enhancing coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering through these vibrations by a factor of 15 relative to the regime of tight focusing.

  17. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Solid State Lighting Core Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Franky So; Paul Holloway; Jiangeng Xue

    2009-08-06

    The project objective is to demonstrate high efficiency white emitting OLED devices with a target luminous efficiency between 100 1m/W and 150 1m/W with integrated microcavity structure and down conversion phosphors. The main focus of this work will be on three areas: (1) demonstration of a 2X reduction in OLED device operating voltage by employing the appropriate dopants in the carrier transporting layers; (2) demonstration of a 3X light out-coupling efficiency enhancement by incorporating microcavity structure in the OLED devices; and (3) demonstration of a 2X down-conversion efficiency enhancement (from blue to white) using phosphors.

  18. Microfabrication of air core power inductors with metal-encapsulated polymer vias

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J; Herrault, F; Yu, XH; Kim, M; Shafer, RH; Allen, MG

    2013-01-25

    This paper reports three-dimensional (3-D) microfabricated toroidal inductors intended for power electronics applications. A key fabrication advance is the exploitation of thick metal encapsulation of polymer pillars to form a vertical via interconnections. The radial conductors of the toroidal inductor are formed by conventional plating-through-mold techniques, while the vertical windings (up to 650 mu m in height) are formed by polymer cores with metal plated on their external surfaces. This encapsulated polymer approach not only significantly reduces the required plating time but also exploits the relative ease of fabricating high-aspect-ratio SU-8 pillars. To form the top radial conductors, non-photopatternable SU-8 is introduced as a thick sacrificial layer. Two toroidal inductor geometries were fabricated and tested. The first inductor had an inner diameter of 2 mm, an outer diameter of 6 mm, 25 turns and a vertical via height of 650 mu m. The second inductor had an inner diameter of 4 mm, an outer diameter of 8 mm, 50 turns and a vertical via height of 650 mu m. Both inductor geometries were successfully fabricated and characterized in the frequency range of 0.1-100 MHz. Characterization results of the 25- and 50-turn inductors showed an average inductance of 76 and 200 nH, a low frequency (0.1 MHz) resistance of 0.2 and 1 Omega and a quality factor of 35 and 24 at 100 MHz, respectively. Finite-element simulations of the inductors were performed and agreed with the measured results to within 8%. The turn-to-turn breakdown voltage was measured to be in excess of 800 V and currents as high as 0.5 A could be successfully carried by the inductor windings.

  19. Visible-Light Responsive Catalysts Using Quantum Dot-Modified TiO2 for Air and Water Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Hintze, Paul E.; Clausen, Christian A.; Richards, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Photocatalysis, the oxidation or reduction of contaminants by light-activated catalysts, utilizing titanium dioxide (TiO2) as the catalytic substrate has been widely studied for trace contaminant control in both air and water applications. The interest in this process is due primarily to its low energy consumption and capacity for catalyst regeneration. Titanium dioxide requires ultraviolet light for activation due to its relatively large band gap energy of 3.2 eV. Traditionally, Hg-vapor fluorescent light sources are used in PCO reactors; however, the use of mercury precludes the use of this PCO technology in a spaceflight environment due to concerns over crew Hg exposure.

  20. A preliminary investigation into the use of Red Pine (Pinus Resinosa) tree cores as historic passive samplers of POPs in outdoor air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauert, Cassandra; Harner, Tom

    2016-09-01

    The suitability of Red Pine trees (Pinus Resinosa) to act as passive samplers for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in outdoor air and to provide historic information on air concentration trends was demonstrated in this preliminary investigation. Red Pine tree cores from Toronto, Canada, were tested for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), alkylated-PAHs, nitro and oxy-PAHs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and novel brominated flame retardants (novel BFRs). The PBDEs and novel BFRs demonstrated a similar relative contribution in cores representing 30 years of tree growth, to that reported in contemporary air samples. Analysis of tree ring segments of 5-15 years resulted in detectable concentrations of some PAHs and alk-PAHs and demonstrated a transition from petrogenic sources to pyrogenic sources over the period 1960-2015. A simple uptake model was developed that treats the tree rings as linear-phase passive air samplers. The bark infiltration factor, IFBARK, is a key parameter of the model that reflects the permeability of the bark to allow chemicals to be transferred from ambient air to the outer tree layer (cambium). An IFBARK of about 2% was derived for the Red Pine trees based on tree core and air monitoring data.

  1. Protective structures on the surface of zirconium components of light water reactor cores: Formation, testing, and prototype equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begrambekov, L. B.; Gordeev, A. A.; Evsin, A. E.; Ivanova, S. V.; Kaplevsky, A. S.; Sadovskiy, Ya. A.

    2015-12-01

    The results of tests of plasma treatment of zirconium and deposition of protective yttrium coatings used as the methods of protection of zirconium components of light water reactor cores against hydrogenation are detailed. The amount of hydrogen in the treated sample exposed to superheated steam for 2500 h at temperature T = 400°C and pressure p = 1 atm was five times lower than the corresponding value for the untreated one. The amount of hydrogen in the sample coated with yttrium remained almost unchanged in 4000 h of exposure. A plasma method for rapid testing for hydrogen resistance is proposed. The hydrogenation rate provided by this method is 700 times higher than that in tests with superheated steam. The results of preliminary experiments confirm the possibility of constructing a unit for batch processing of the surfaces of fuel rod claddings.

  2. Protective structures on the surface of zirconium components of light water reactor cores: Formation, testing, and prototype equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Begrambekov, L. B.; Gordeev, A. A.; Evsin, A. E. Ivanova, S. V.; Kaplevsky, A. S.; Sadovskiy, Ya. A.

    2015-12-15

    The results of tests of plasma treatment of zirconium and deposition of protective yttrium coatings used as the methods of protection of zirconium components of light water reactor cores against hydrogenation are detailed. The amount of hydrogen in the treated sample exposed to superheated steam for 2500 h at temperature T = 400°C and pressure p = 1 atm was five times lower than the corresponding value for the untreated one. The amount of hydrogen in the sample coated with yttrium remained almost unchanged in 4000 h of exposure. A plasma method for rapid testing for hydrogen resistance is proposed. The hydrogenation rate provided by this method is 700 times higher than that in tests with superheated steam. The results of preliminary experiments confirm the possibility of constructing a unit for batch processing of the surfaces of fuel rod claddings.

  3. Two-photon excitation cross section in light and intermediate atoms in frozen-core LS-coupling approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidvar, K.

    1980-01-01

    Using the method of explicit summation over the intermediate states two-photon absorption cross sections in light and intermediate atoms based on the simplistic frozen-core approximation and LS coupling have been formulated. Formulas for the cross section in terms of integrals over radial wave functions are given. Two selection rules, one exact and one approximate, valid within the stated approximations are derived. The formulas are applied to two-photon absorptions in nitrogen, oxygen, and chlorine. In evaluating the radial integrals, for low-lying levels, the Hartree-Fock wave functions, and for high-lying levels, hydrogenic wave functions obtained by the quantum-defect method have been used. A relationship between the cross section and the oscillator strengths is derived.

  4. Metal-free porphyrin-sensitized mesoporous titania films for visible-light indoor air oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Adel A; Bahnemann, Detlef W

    2010-09-24

    Transparent cubic mesoporous TiO2 films coated on soda-lime glass have been developed. A metal free meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrin (TPPS) has been adsorbed on these TiO2 films from aqueous solutions. The results indicated that the obtained mesoporous TiO2 and 3D TPPS/TiO2 films are optically transparent and crack free (thickness ca. 200±20 nm). The introduction of the TPPS molecules has only a very small influence on the pore system and some limited pore blocking seems to occur. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed that the adsorption of TPPS does not disrupt the meso order of TPPS/TiO2. The particle size of these TiO2 nanocrystals has been measured to be approximately 5-8 nm. TPPS/TiO2 photocatalysts, exhibiting regularly ordered mesopores, large surface area (ca. 102.5 cm(2) cm(-2)), and specific pore volume of about 0.1 mm(3) cm(-2), show improved light-harvesting efficiency as compared with other transparent TiO2 films. Employing the 3D TPPS/TiO2 photocatalyst, a quantum efficiency of 0.059 % has been obtained for the photodegradation of CH3CHO in the gas phase under visible-light illumination. Recycling tests demonstrated that the newly synthesized photocatalyst was quite stable during this gas-solid heterogeneous photocatalytic process because no significant decrease in photocatalytic activity was observed even after being used repetitively up to five times. Therefore, the newly synthesized transparent 3D TPPS/TiO2 photocatalysts can potentially be applied for low-cost air purification and self-cleaning applications. PMID:20806316

  5. Air-Hybrid Distributed Bragg Reflector Structure for Improving the Light Output Power in AlGalnP-Based LEDs.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hwa Sub; Ryu, Ho-Soung; Park, Sueng Ho; Jeong, Tak; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Hyung Joo; Cho, Young Dae; Kwak, Joon-Seop; Baek, Jong Hyeob

    2015-07-01

    We investigated air gap-induced hybrid distributed Bragg reflectors (AH-DBRs) for use in high brightness and reliable AlGalnP-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). An air gap was inserted into the side of DBRs by selectively etching the Al(x),Ga1-xAs DBR structures. With the AH-DBR structures, the optical output power of LEDs was enhanced by 15% compared to LEDs having conventional DBRs, due to the effective reflection of obliquely incident light by the air gap structures. In addition, the electrical characteristics showed that the AH-DBR LED is a desirable structure for reducing the leakage current, as it suppresses unwanted surface recombinations. PMID:26373075

  6. The influence of negative ionization of the air on motor activity in Syrian hamsters ( Masocricetus auratus Waterhouse) in light conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenkiewicz, Zofia; Dabrowska, Barbara; Schiffer, Zofia

    1989-12-01

    The motor activity of Syrian hamsters ( Mesocricetus auratus Waterhouse) under the influence of negative ionization of the atmosphere applied for 10, 20 or 30 min per day was investigated. An ionizer with output of 14000 light negative ions per 1 cm3 of air was used. Studies carried out in the light phase of a 12∶12 h light/dark regime revealed a relation between the reaction of the animal and the time of day at which ionization was applied. Ionization for 20 or 30 min in the light phase decreased motor activity, while 10 min of ionization increased it compared to control animals. Ionization in the dark phase gave a more distinct rise in activity than that applied in the light phase for all three durations of ionization.

  7. Light absorption processes and optimization of ZnO/CdTe core-shell nanowire arrays for nanostructured solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michallon, Jérôme; Bucci, Davide; Morand, Alain; Zanuccoli, Mauro; Consonni, Vincent; Kaminski-Cachopo, Anne

    2015-02-01

    The absorption processes of extremely thin absorber solar cells based on ZnO/CdTe core-shell nanowire (NW) arrays with square, hexagonal or triangular arrangements are investigated through systematic computations of the ideal short-circuit current density using three-dimensional rigorous coupled wave analysis. The geometrical dimensions are optimized for optically designing these solar cells: the optimal NW diameter, height and array period are of 200 ± 10 nm, 1-3 μm and 350-400 nm for the square arrangement with CdTe shell thickness of 40-60 nm. The effects of the CdTe shell thickness on the absorption of ZnO/CdTe NW arrays are revealed through the study of two optical key modes: the first one is confining the light into individual NWs, the second one is strongly interacting with the NW arrangement. It is also shown that the reflectivity of the substrate can improve Fabry-Perot resonances within the NWs: the ideal short-circuit current density is increased by 10% for the ZnO/fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/ideal reflector as compared to the ZnO/FTO/glass substrate. Furthermore, the optimized square arrangement absorbs light more efficiently than both optimized hexagonal and triangular arrangements. Eventually, the enhancement factor of the ideal short-circuit current density is calculated as high as 1.72 with respect to planar layers, showing the high optical potentiality of ZnO/CdTe core-shell NW arrays.

  8. Lighting.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-09-01

    Since lighting accounts for about one-third of the energy used in commercial buildings, there is opportunity to conserve. There are two ways to reduce lighting energy use: modify lighting systems so that they used less electricity and/or reduce the number of hours the lights are used. This booklet presents a number of ways to do both. Topics covered include: reassessing lighting levels, reducing lighting levels, increasing bulb & fixture efficiency, using controls to regulate lighting, and taking advantage of daylight.

  9. Efficient polymer light-emitting diode with air-stable aluminum cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbaszadeh, D.; Wetzelaer, G. A. H.; Doumon, N. Y.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2016-03-01

    The fast degradation of polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) in ambient conditions is primarily due to the oxidation of highly reactive metals, such as barium or calcium, which are used as cathode materials. Here, we report the fabrication of PLEDs using an air-stable partially oxidized aluminum (AlOx) cathode. Usually, the high work function of aluminum (4.2 eV) imposes a high barrier for injecting electrons into the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the emissive polymer (2.9 eV below the vacuum level). By partially oxidizing aluminum, its work function is decreased, but not sufficiently low for efficient electron injection. Efficient injection is obtained by inserting an electron transport layer of poly[(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-(benzo[2,1,3]thiadiazol-4,8-diyl)] (F8BT), which has its LUMO at 3.3 eV below vacuum, between the AlOx cathode and the emissive polymer. The intermediate F8BT layer not only serves as a hole-blocking layer but also provides an energetic staircase for electron injection from AlOx into the emissive layer. PLEDs with an AlOx cathode and F8BT interlayer exhibit a doubling of the efficiency as compared to conventional Ba/Al PLEDs, and still operate even after being kept in ambient atmosphere for one month without encapsulation.

  10. A centrifugal ice microtome for measurements of atmospheric CO2 on air trapped in polar ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bereiter, B.; Stocker, T. F.; Fischer, H.

    2012-10-01

    For atmospheric CO2 reconstructions using ice cores, the technique to release the trapped air from the ice samples is crucial for the precision and accuracy of the measurements. We present here a new dry extraction technique in combination with a new gas analytical system that together show significant improvements with respect to current systems. Ice samples (3-15 g) are pulverized using a novel Centrifugal Ice Microtome (CIM) by shaving the ice in a cooled vacuum chamber (-27 °C) in which no friction occurs due to the use of magnetic bearings. Both, the shaving principle of the CIM and the use of magnetic bearings have not been applied so far in this field. Shaving the ice samples produces finer ice powder and releases a minimum of 90% of the trapped air compared to 50%-70% when needle crushing is employed. In addition, the friction-free motion with an optimized design to reduce contaminations of the inner surfaces of the device result in a reduced system offset of about 2.0 ppmv compared to 4.9ppmv. The gas analytical part shows a factor two higher precision than our corresponding part of the previous system and all processes except the loading and cleaning of the CIM now run automatically. Compared to our previous system the new system shows a 3 times better measurement reproducibility of about 1.1 ppmv (1σ) which is similar to the best reproducibility of other systems applied in this field. With this high reproducibility, replicate measurements are not required anymore for most prospective measurement campaigns resulting in a possible output of 12-20 measurements per day compared to a maximum of 6 with other systems.

  11. A centrifugal ice microtome for measurements of atmospheric CO2 on air trapped in polar ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bereiter, B.; Stocker, T. F.; Fischer, H.

    2013-02-01

    For atmospheric CO2 reconstructions using ice cores, the technique to release the trapped air from the ice samples is essential for the precision and accuracy of the measurements. We present here a new dry extraction technique in combination with a new gas analytical system that together show significant improvements with respect to current systems. Ice samples (3-15 g) are pulverised using a novel centrifugal ice microtome (CIM) by shaving the ice in a cooled vacuum chamber (-27 °C) in which no friction occurs due to the use of magnetic bearings. Both, the shaving principle of the CIM and the use of magnetic bearings have not been applied so far in this field. Shaving the ice samples produces finer ice powder and releases a minimum of 90% of the trapped air compared to 50%-70% when needle crushing is employed. In addition, the friction-free motion with an optimized design to reduce contaminations of the inner surfaces of the device result in a reduced system offset of about 2.0 ppmv compared to 4.9 ppmv. The gas analytical part shows a higher precision than the corresponding part of our previous system by a factor of two, and all processes except the loading and cleaning of the CIM now run automatically. Compared to our previous system, the complete system shows a 3 times better measurement reproducibility of about 1.1 ppmv (1 σ) which is similar to the best reproducibility of other systems applied in this field. With this high reproducibility, no replicate measurements are required anymore for most future measurement campaigns resulting in a possible output of 12-20 measurements per day compared to a maximum of 6 with other systems.

  12. Low-light-level nonlinear optics with rubidium atoms in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagwat, Amar Ramdas

    Low-light-level optical nonlinearities are of significant interest for performing operations such as single-photon switching and quantum non-demolition measurements on single-photons. To evoke strong nonlinearities from single-photons, one can enhance the matter-photon interaction using strongly nonlinear materials such as alkali vapors in combination with an appropriate geometry such as a waveguide, which provides a long interaction length while maintaining a small light mode area. We demonstrate for the first time that such a system can be experimentally realized by loading rubidium vapor inside a hollow-core photonic band-gap fiber. Using the technique of light-induced atomic desorption in this geometry, we have generated optical depths greater than 1000. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) with control powers 1000 times lower than those used for hot vapor cells in a focused beam geometry. Working with such a high aspect ratio geometry requires us to identify and measure the various sources of decoherence via spectroscopy of desorbed atoms in the fiber. Using such techniques, we also estimate the temperature of the desorbing atoms inside the fiber. The desorption mechanism is studied, and we show that pulsed desorption beams of the right amplitude and duration can be used for generating precisely controlled optical depths. Finally, we investigate the use of various buffer gas techniques for increasing the effective transverse path of the atoms as they move across the fiber in order to reduce their ground state decoherence and map this effect as a function of buffer gas pressure.

  13. First clinical application of a liquid-core light guide connected to an Er:YAG laser for oral treatment of leukoplakia.

    PubMed

    Meister, Jörg; Franzen, Rene; Eyrich, Gerold; Bongartz, Jens; Gutknecht, Norbert; Hering, Peter

    2010-09-01

    For medical applications, erbium lasers are usually equipped with articulated mirror arms or special glass fibers. However, only with mirror arms is it so far possible to transmit high average powers or pulse energies in the region of 1 J to achieve suitable energy densities for fast tissue preparation. An alternative to the glass fiber systems mentioned above are liquid-core light guides. An extremely flexible liquid-core light guide was used to connect a dental Er:YAG laser system to an especially adapted dental laser applicator. The core liquid was continuously circulated during laser irradiation to transmit pulse energies up to 1.1 J. A modified laser handpiece was used for exemplary clinical treatment. The experimental setup with the highly flexible light guide was completed successfully, and its ease of handling for a dental surgeon was demonstrated in the clinical treatment of leukoplakia of the oral cheek mucosa. Complete ablation of the epithelium with the laser was performed. One year postoperatively, the patient remains disease-free. This article describes the technical realization of a liquid-core light guide system for medical applications. We report about the first successful clinical treatment of oral hyperkeratosis using this new light guide technology. PMID:20393767

  14. Effects of lighting and air movement on temperatures in reproductive organs of plants in a closed plant growth facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaya, Y.; Hirai, H.

    Temperature increases in plant reproductive organs such as anthers and stigmas could cause fertility impediments and thus produce sterile seeds under artificial lighting conditions without adequately controlled environments in closed plant growth facilities. There is a possibility such a situation could occur in Bioregenerative Life Support Systems under microgravity conditions in space because there will be little natural convective or thermal mixing. This study was conducted to determine the temperature of the plant reproductive organs as affected by illumination and air movement under normal gravitational forces on the earth and to make an estimation of the temperature increase in reproductive organs in closed plant growth facilities under microgravity in space. Thermal images of reproductive organs of rice and strawberry were captured using infrared thermography at air temperatures of 10 11 °C. Compared to the air temperature, temperatures of petals, stigmas and anthers of strawberry increased by 24, 22 and 14 °C, respectively, after 5 min of lighting at an irradiance of 160 W m-2 from incandescent lamps. Temperatures of reproductive organs and leaves of strawberry were significantly higher than those of rice. The temperatures of petals, stigmas, anthers and leaves of strawberry decreased by 13, 12, 13 and 14 °C, respectively, when the air velocity was increased from 0.1 to 1.0 ms-1. These results show that air movement is necessary to reduce the temperatures of plant reproductive organs in plant growth facilities.

  15. Air-void embedded GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown on laser drilling patterned sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao; Li, Yufeng; Wang, Shuai; Feng, Lungang; Xiong, Han; Su, Xilin; Yun, Feng

    2016-07-01

    Air-void structure was introduced in GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes (LED) with one-step growth on periodic laser drilling patterned sapphire substrate, which free of any photolithography or wet/dry etching process. The influence of filling factors (FF) of air-void on crystal quality and optical performance were investigate. Transmission electron microscopy images and micro-Raman spectroscopy indicated that the dislocation was bended and the partially compressed strain was released. When FF was 55.43%, compared with the LED structure grown on flat sapphire substrate, the incorporation of air-void was observed to reduce the compressed stress of ˜20% and the luminance intensity has improved by 128%. Together with the simulated reflection intensity enhancement by finite difference time-domain (FDTD) method, we attribute the enhanced optical performance to the combined contribution of strong back-side light reflection of air-void and better GaN epitaxial quality. This approach provides a simple replacement to the conventional air-void embedded LED process.

  16. Facet-Dependent and Light-Assisted Efficient Hydrogen Evolution from Ammonia Borane Using Gold-Palladium Core-Shell Nanocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Rej, Sourav; Hsia, Chi-Fu; Chen, Tzu-Yu; Lin, Fan-Cheng; Huang, Jer-Shing; Huang, Michael H

    2016-06-13

    Au-Pd core-shell nanocrystals with tetrahexahedral (THH), cubic, and octahedral shapes and comparable sizes were synthesized. Similar-sized Au and Pd cubes and octahedra were also prepared. These nanocrystals were used for the hydrogen-evolution reaction (HER) from ammonia borane. Light irradiation can enhance the reaction rate for all the catalysts. In particular, Au-Pd THH exposing {730} facets showed the highest turnover frequency for hydrogen evolution under light with 3-fold rate enhancement benefiting from lattice strain, modified surface electronic state, and a broader range of light absorption. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations show a stronger electric field enhancement on Au-Pd core-shell THH than those on other Pd-containing nanocrystals. Light-assisted nitro reduction by ammonia borane on Au-Pd THH was also demonstrated. Au-Pd tetrahexahedra supported on activated carbon can act as a superior recyclable plasmonic photocatalyst for hydrogen evolution. PMID:27136738

  17. Computational Assessment of the GT-MHR Graphite Core Support Structural Integrity in Air-Ingress Accident Condition

    SciTech Connect

    Jong B. Lim; Eung S. Kim; Chang H. Oh; Richard R. Schultz; David A. Petti

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this project was to perform stress analysis for graphite support structures of the General Atomics’ 600 MWth GT-MHR prismatic core design using ABAQUS ® (ver. 6.75) to assess their structural integrity in air-ingress accident conditions where the structure weakens over time due to oxidation damages. The graphite support structures of prismatic type GT-MHR was analyzed based on the change of temperature, burn-off and corrosion depth during the accident period predicted by GAMMA, a multi-dimensional gas multi-component mixture analysis code developed in the Republic of Korea (ROK)/United States (US) International –Nuclear Engineering Research Initiative (I-NERI) project. Both the loading and thermal stresses were analyzed, but the thermal stress was not significant, leaving the loading stress to be the major factor. The mechanical strengths are exceeded between 11 to 11.5 days after loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA), corresponding to 5.5 to 6 days after the start of natural convection.

  18. Temperature dependence of beat-length and confinement loss in an air-core photonic band-gap fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhenlong; Li, Xuyou; Hong, Yong; Liu, Pan; Yang, Hanrui; Ling, Weiwei

    2016-05-01

    The temperature dependence of polarization-maintaining (PM) property and loss in a highly-birefringent air-core photonic band-gap fiber (PBF) is investigated. The effects of temperature variation on the effective index, beat-length and confinement loss are studied numerically by using the full-vector finite element method (FEM). It is found that, the PM property of this PBF is insensitive to the temperature, and the temperature-dependent beat-length coefficient can be as low as 2.86×10-8 m/°C, which is typically 200 times less than those of conventional panda fibers, the PBF has a stable confinement loss of 0.01 dB/m over the temperature range of -30 to 20 °C for the slow axis at the wavelength of 1.55 μm. The PBF with ultra-low temperature-dependent PM property and low loss can reduce the thermally induced polarization instability apparently in interferometric applications such as resonant fiber optic gyroscope (RFOG), optical fiber sensors, and so on.

  19. Static voltage distribution between turns of secondary winding of air-core spiral strip transformer and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong-bo; Liu, Jin-liang; Cheng, Xin-bing; Zhang, Yu

    2011-09-01

    The static voltage distribution between winding turns has great impact on output characteristics and lifetime of the air-core spiral strip pulse transformer (ACSSPT). In this paper, winding inductance was calculated by electromagnetic theory, so that the static voltage distribution between turns of secondary winding of ACSSPT was analyzed conveniently. According to theoretical analysis, a voltage gradient because of the turn-to-turn capacitance was clearly noticeable across the ground turns. Simulation results of Pspice and CST EM Studio codes showed that the voltage distribution between turns of secondary winding had linear increments from the output turn to the ground turn. In experiment, the difference in increased voltage between the ground turns and the output turns of a 20-turns secondary winding is almost 50%, which is believed to be responsible for premature breakdown of the insulation, particularly between the ground turns. The experimental results demonstrated the theoretical analysis and simulation results, which had important value for stable and long lifetime ACSSPT design. A new ACSSPT with improved structure has been used successfully in intense electron beam accelerators steadily.

  20. Summary report on effects at temperature, humidity, and fuel-air ratio on two air-cooled light aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Five different engine models were tested to experimentally characterize emissions and to determine the effects of variation in fuel-air ratio and spark timing on emissions levels and other operating characteristics such as cooling, misfiring, roughness, power acceleration, etc. The results are given of two NASA reports covering the Avco Lycoming 0-320-D engine testing and the recently obtained results on the Teledyne Continental TSIO-360-C engine.

  1. Investigating the Cherenkov light lateral distribution function for primary proton and iron nuclei in extensive air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Rubaiee, A. A.; Hashim, U.; Al-Douri, Y.

    2015-11-01

    The lateral distribution function (LDF) of Cherenkov radiation in extensive air showers (EAS) was simulated by CORSIKA program for the conditions of Yakutsk Cherenkov array at the high energy range (1013-1016) eV for two primary particles (p and Fe) for different zenith angles. By depending on Breit-Wigner function for analyzing of Cherenkov light LDF, a parameterization of Cherenkov light LDF was reconstructed by depending on CORSIKA simulation as a function of primary energy. The comparison between the estimated Cherenkov light LDF with the LDF that measured on the Yakutsk EAS array gives the ability of particle identification that initiated the shower and determination of particle's energy around the knee region. The extrapolation of approximated Cherenkov light LDF for energies 20 and 30 PeV was obtained for primary particles (p and Fe).

  2. EFFECT OF LASER LIGHT ON LASER PLASMAS: Laser plasma at low air pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vas'kovskiĭ, Yu M.; Moiseev, V. N.; Rovinskiĭ, R. E.; Tsenina, I. S.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamic and optical characteristics of the laser plasma produced during the application of a CO2 laser pulse to a target have been studied as a function of the ambient air pressure. The changes in the surface roughness of the sample after bombardment were studied as a function of the air pressure. It is concluded from the results that a transition from an air plasma to an erosion plasma occurs at a residual air pressure on the order of 1 torr. The experiment data support the existing picture of the process by which a plasma is produced near the surface of a target in air by laser pulses.

  3. Stomatal Opening in Isolated Epidermal Strips of Vicia faba. I. Response to Light and to CO2-free Air 1

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, R. A.

    1968-01-01

    This paper reports a consistent and large opening response to light + CO2-free air in living stomata of isolated epidermal strips of Vicia faba. The response was compared to that of non-isolated stomata in leaf discs floating on water; stomatal apertures, guard cell solute potentials and starch contents were similar in the 2 situations. To obtain such stomatal behavior, it was necessary to float epidermal strips on dilute KCl solutions. This suggests that solute uptake is necessary for stomatal opening. The demonstration of normal stomatal behavior in isolated epidermal strips provides a very useful system in which to investigate the mechanism of stomatal opening. It was possible to show independent responses in stomatal aperture to light and to CO2-free air. PMID:16656995

  4. Multi-color Optical and Near-infrared Light Curves of 64 Stripped-envelope Core-Collapse Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, F. B.; Modjaz, M.; Hicken, M.; Friedman, A.; Kirshner, R. P.; Bloom, J. S.; Challis, P.; Marion, G. H.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Rest, A.

    2014-08-01

    We present a densely sampled, homogeneous set of light curves of 64 low-redshift (z <~ 0.05) stripped-envelope supernovae (SNe of Type IIb, Ib, Ic, and Ic-BL). These data were obtained between 2001 and 2009 at the Fred L. Whipple Observatory (FLWO) on Mount Hopkins in Arizona, with the optical FLWO 1.2 m and the near-infrared (NIR) Peters Automated Infrared 1.3 m telescopes. Our data set consists of 4543 optical photometric measurements on 61 SNe, including a combination of {U\\!BV\\!RI}, {U\\!BV\\!r^{\\prime }i^{\\prime }}, and {u^{\\prime }\\!BV\\!r^{\\prime }i^{\\prime }}, and 1919 JHKs NIR measurements on 25 SNe. This sample constitutes the most extensive multi-color data set of stripped-envelope SNe to date. Our photometry is based on template-subtracted images to eliminate any potential host-galaxy light contamination. This work presents these photometric data, compares them with data in the literature, and estimates basic statistical quantities: date of maximum, color, and photometric properties. We identify promising color trends that may permit the identification of stripped-envelope SN subtypes from their photometry alone. Many of these SNe were observed spectroscopically by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) SN group, and the spectra are presented in a companion paper. A thorough exploration that combines the CfA photometry and spectroscopy of stripped-envelope core-collapse SNe will be presented in a follow-up paper.

  5. MULTI-COLOR OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED LIGHT CURVES OF 64 STRIPPED-ENVELOPE CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Bianco, F. B.; Modjaz, M.; Hicken, M.; Friedman, A.; Kirshner, R. P.; Challis, P.; Marion, G. H.; Bloom, J. S.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Rest, A.

    2014-08-01

    We present a densely sampled, homogeneous set of light curves of 64 low-redshift (z ≲ 0.05) stripped-envelope supernovae (SNe of Type IIb, Ib, Ic, and Ic-BL). These data were obtained between 2001 and 2009 at the Fred L. Whipple Observatory (FLWO) on Mount Hopkins in Arizona, with the optical FLWO 1.2 m and the near-infrared (NIR) Peters Automated Infrared 1.3 m telescopes. Our data set consists of 4543 optical photometric measurements on 61 SNe, including a combination of U BV RI, U BV r{sup ′}i{sup ′}, and u{sup ′} BV r{sup ′}i{sup ′}, and 1919 JHK{sub s} NIR measurements on 25 SNe. This sample constitutes the most extensive multi-color data set of stripped-envelope SNe to date. Our photometry is based on template-subtracted images to eliminate any potential host-galaxy light contamination. This work presents these photometric data, compares them with data in the literature, and estimates basic statistical quantities: date of maximum, color, and photometric properties. We identify promising color trends that may permit the identification of stripped-envelope SN subtypes from their photometry alone. Many of these SNe were observed spectroscopically by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) SN group, and the spectra are presented in a companion paper. A thorough exploration that combines the CfA photometry and spectroscopy of stripped-envelope core-collapse SNe will be presented in a follow-up paper.

  6. Light-induced voltage changes associated with electron and proton transfer in photosystem II core complexes reconstituted in phospholipid monolayers.

    PubMed Central

    Höök, F; Brzezinski, P

    1994-01-01

    We have measured light-induced voltage changes (electrogenic events) in photosystem II (PSII) core complexes oriented in phospholipid monolayers. These events are compared to those measured in the functionally and structurally closely related reaction centers from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides. In both systems we observed a rapid (< 100 ns) light-induced increase in voltage associated with charge separation. In PSII reaction centers it was followed by a decrease (decay) of approximately 14% of the charge-separation voltage and a time constant of approximately 500 microseconds. In bacterial reaction centers this decay was approximately 9% of the charge-separation voltage, and the time constant was approximately 200 microseconds. The decay was presumably associated with a structural change. In bacterial reaction centers, in the presence of excess water-soluble cytochrome c2+, it was followed by a slower increase of approximately 30% of the charge-separation voltage, associated with electron transfer from the cytochrome to the oxidized donor, P+. In PSII reaction centers, after the decay the voltage remained on the same level for > or = 0.5 s. In PSII reaction centers the electron transfer Q-AQB-->QA Q-B contributed with an electrogenicity of < or = 5% of that of the charge separation. In bacterial reaction centers this electrogenicity was < or = 2% of the charge-separation electrogenicity. Proton transfer to Q2-B in PSII reaction centers contributed with approximately 5% of the charge-separation voltage, which is approximately a factor of three smaller than that observed in bacterial reaction centers. PMID:8075340

  7. Laser sheet light flow visualization for evaluating room air flowsfrom Registers

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.; Claret, Valerie; Smith, Brian

    2006-04-01

    Forced air heating and cooling systems and whole house ventilation systems deliver air to individual rooms in a house via supply registers located on walls ceilings or floors; and occasionally less straightforward locations like toe-kicks below cabinets. Ideally, the air velocity out of the registers combined with the turbulence of the flow, vectoring of air by register vanes and geometry of register placement combine to mix the supply air within the room. A particular issue that has been raised recently is the performance of multiple capacity and air flow HVAC systems. These systems vary the air flow rate through the distribution system depending on the system load, or if operating in a ventilation rather than a space conditioning mode. These systems have been developed to maximize equipment efficiency, however, the high efficiency ratings do not include any room mixing effects. At lower air flow rates, there is the possibility that room air will be poorly mixed, leading to thermal stratification and reduced comfort for occupants. This can lead to increased energy use as the occupants adjust the thermostat settings to compensate and parts of the conditioned space have higher envelope temperature differences than for the well mixed case. In addition, lack of comfort can be a barrier to market acceptance of these higher efficiency systems To investigate the effect on room mixing of reduced air flow rates requires the measurement of mixing of supply air with room air throughout the space to be conditioned. This is a particularly difficult exercise if we want to determine the transient performance of the space conditioning system. Full scale experiments can be done in special test chambers, but the spatial resolution required to fully examine the mixing problem is usually limited by the sheer number of thermal sensors required. Current full-scale laboratory testing is therefore severely limited in its resolution. As an alternative, we used a water-filled scale model

  8. Particle distributions in approximately 10(14) 10(16) eV air shower cores at sea level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodson, A. L.; Ash, A. G.; Bull, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental evidence is reported for fixed distances (0, 1.0, 2.5 and 4.0 m) from the shower centers and for core flattening. The cores become flatter, on average, as the shower size (primary energy) increases. With improved statistics on 4192 cores, the previous results are exactly confirmed.

  9. Efficient and short-range light coupling to index-matched liquid-filled hole in a solid-core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Gerosa, Rodrigo M; Spadoti, Danilo H; de Matos, Christiano J S; Menezes, Leonardo de S; Franco, Marcos A R

    2011-11-21

    A photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with a section of one of the holes next to the solid core filled with an index-matched liquid is studied. Liquid filling alters the core geometry, which locally comprises the original silica core, the liquid channel and the silica around it. It is demonstrated that when light reaches the filled section, it periodically and efficiently couples to the liquid, via the excitation of a number of modes of the composite core, with coupling lengths ranging from tens to hundreds of microns. The resulting modal-interference-modulated spectrum shows temperature sensitivity as high as 5.35 nm/°C. The proposed waveguide geometry presents itself as an interesting way to pump and/or to probe liquid media within the fiber, combining advantages usually found separately in liquid-filled hollow-core PCFs (high light-liquid overlap) and in solid-core PCFs (low insertion losses). Therefore, pumping and luminescence guiding with a PCF filled with a Rhodamine solution is also demonstrated. PMID:22109496

  10. Highly efficient near-infrared light-emitting diodes by using type-II CdTe/CdSe core/shell quantum dots as a phosphor.

    PubMed

    Shen, Huaibin; Zheng, Ying; Wang, Hongzhe; Xu, Weiwei; Qian, Lei; Yang, Yixing; Titov, Alexandre; Hyvonen, Jake; Li, Lin Song

    2013-11-29

    In this paper, we present an innovative method for the synthesis of CdTe/CdSe type-II core/shell structure quantum dots (QDs) using 'greener' chemicals. The PL of CdTe/CdSe type-II core/shell structure QDs ranges from 600 to 820 nm, and the as-synthesized core/shell structures show narrow size distributions and stable and high quantum yields (50–75%). Highly efficient near-infrared light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been demonstrated by employing the CdTe/CdSe type-II core/shell QDs as emitters. The devices fabricated based on these type-II core/shell QDs show color-saturated near-infrared emission from the QD layers, a low turn-on voltage of 1.55 V, an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 1.59%, and a current density and maximum radiant emittance of 2.1 × 10(3) mA cm−2 and 17.7 mW cm−2 at 8 V; it is the first report to use type-II core/shell QDs as near-infrared emitters and these results may offer a practicable platform for the realization of near-infrared QD-based light-emitting diodes, night-vision-readable displays, and friend/foe identification system. PMID:24192490

  11. Highly efficient near-infrared light-emitting diodes by using type-II CdTe/CdSe core/shell quantum dots as a phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Huaibin; Zheng, Ying; Wang, Hongzhe; Xu, Weiwei; Qian, Lei; Yang, Yixing; Titov, Alexandre; Hyvonen, Jake; Li, Lin Song

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we present an innovative method for the synthesis of CdTe/CdSe type-II core/shell structure quantum dots (QDs) using ‘greener’ chemicals. The PL of CdTe/CdSe type-II core/shell structure QDs ranges from 600 to 820 nm, and the as-synthesized core/shell structures show narrow size distributions and stable and high quantum yields (50-75%). Highly efficient near-infrared light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been demonstrated by employing the CdTe/CdSe type-II core/shell QDs as emitters. The devices fabricated based on these type-II core/shell QDs show color-saturated near-infrared emission from the QD layers, a low turn-on voltage of 1.55 V, an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 1.59%, and a current density and maximum radiant emittance of 2.1 × 103 mA cm-2 and 17.7 mW cm-2 at 8 V it is the first report to use type-II core/shell QDs as near-infrared emitters and these results may offer a practicable platform for the realization of near-infrared QD-based light-emitting diodes, night-vision-readable displays, and friend/foe identification system.

  12. High-power phosphor-free InGaN/AlGaN dot-in-a-wire core-shell white light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hieu P. T.; Djavid, Mehrdad; Woo, Steffi Y.; Liu, Xianhe; Wang, Qi; Botton, Gianluigi A.; Mi, Zetian

    2015-03-01

    We report on the achievement of relatively high power phosphor-free white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using a new self-organized InGaN/AlGaN dot-in-a-wire core-shell nanowire heterostructure. Multiple AlGaN shell layers are spontaneously formed during the growth of the quantum dot active region. Due to the drastically reduced nonradiative surface recombination, such core-shell nanowire structures exhibit significantly increased carrier lifetime (from ~ 0.3ns to ~ 4.5ns) and massively enhanced photoluminescence intensity. Strong white-light emission was recorded for the unpackaged core-shell nanowire LEDs with an output power of >5 mW, measured under an injection current ~ 60A/cm2, with a color rendering index of ~ 95.

  13. Fast fabrication of copper nanowire transparent electrodes by a high intensity pulsed light sintering technique in air.

    PubMed

    Ding, Su; Jiu, Jinting; Tian, Yanhong; Sugahara, Tohru; Nagao, Shijo; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2015-12-14

    Copper nanowire transparent electrodes have received increasing interest due to the low price and nearly equal electrical conductivity compared with other TEs based on silver nanowires and indium tin oxide (ITO). However, a post-treatment at high temperature in an inert atmosphere or a vacuum environment was necessary to improve the conductivity of Cu NW TEs due to the easy oxidation of copper in air atmosphere, which greatly cancelled out the low price advantage of Cu NWs. Here, a high intensity pulsed light technique was introduced to sinter and simultaneously deoxygenate these Cu NWs into a highly conductive network at room temperature in air. The strong light absorption capacity of Cu NWs enabled the welding of the nanowires at contact spots, as well as the removal of the thin layer of residual organic compounds, oxides and hydroxide of copper even in air. The Cu NW TE with a sheet resistance of 22.9 Ohm sq(-1) and a transparency of 81.8% at 550 nm has been successfully fabricated within only 6 milliseconds exposure treatment, which is superior to other films treated at high temperature in a hydrogen atmosphere. The HIPL process was simple, convenient and fast to fabricate easily oxidized Cu NW TEs in large scale in an air atmosphere, which will largely extend the application of cheap Cu NW TEs. PMID:26536570

  14. Fabrication and characterization of carbon nanofiber@mesoporous carbon core-shell composite for the Li-air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Myeong Jun; Shin, Moo Whan

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we successfully design and synthesize the mesoporous carbon coated carbon nanofibers (CNF@mesoCs) for the Li-air battery. The composites are fabricated via electrospinning technique and nanocasting strategy. After mesoporous carbon coating process, the composites have retained their original one-dimensional structure as pristine carbon nanofibers. Every nanofiber entangles with each other to form a three-dimensional cross-linked web structure. Because of the mesoporous carbon coating on carbon nanofibers, the surface area increases from 708 m2 g-1 to 2194 m2 g-1. We confirm that the mesoporous carbon coated on carbon nanofibers is well-graphitized by analysis of Raman spectra. The graphitized surface of CNF@mesoCs (4.638 S cm-1) is believed to result in their higher electrical conductivity than that of pristine carbon nanofibers (3.0759 S cm-1). Without employment of any binders and metal foams, the cathode of CNF@mesoCs exhibits high discharge capacity of 4000 mA h g-1, which is much higher than that from pristine carbon nanofibers (2750 mA h g-1). This work demonstrates that the fabricated CNF@mesoCs structures have a great potential to be employed as light-weight and efficient electrode for energy storage and conversion devices.

  15. Fabrication of hydrophilic S/In2O3 core-shell nanocomposite for enhancement of photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Sugang; Cao, Zhisheng; Fu, Xianliang; Chen, Shifu

    2015-01-01

    Recently, elemental semiconductors as new photocatalysts excited by visible light have attracted great attention due to their potential applications for environmental remediation and clean energy generation. However, it is still a challenge to fabricate elemental photocatalysts with high activity and stability. In this paper, a straightforward ball-milling method was carried out to fabricate core-shell S/In2O3 nanocomposite photocatalyst with high performance. The photocatalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, photoluminescence spectra (PL) and super-hydrophilic experiment. The results showed that In2O3 nanoparticles were successfully grown round of S blocks and formed core-shell heterostructures. The 10% S/In2O3 core-shell nanocomposite exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity for degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation. The reaction rate constant (k) of the 10% S/In2O3 core-shell nanocomposite is about 8.7 times as high as the sum of pure In2O3 and S because of the formation of core-shell S/In2O3 heterostructures, which might remedy the drawbacks of poor hydrophilicity of S, enhance visible light absorption and separate the photogenerated carriers efficiently. Furthermore, the mechanism of influence on the photocatalytic activity of the S/In2O3 core-shell nanocomposite was also discussed. It is anticipated that our work may open up a new direction for the fabrication of core-shell heterostructure to remedy the drawbacks of a photocatalyst and expand its application in the field of photocatalysis.

  16. The proteolysis adaptor, NblA, is essential for degradation of the core pigment of the cyanobacterial light-harvesting complex.

    PubMed

    Sendersky, Eleonora; Kozer, Noga; Levi, Mali; Moizik, Michael; Garini, Yuval; Shav-Tal, Yaron; Schwarz, Rakefet

    2015-09-01

    The cyanobacterial light-harvesting complex, the phycobilisome, is degraded under nutrient limitation, allowing the cell to adjust light absorbance to its metabolic capacity. This large light-harvesting antenna comprises a core complex of the pigment allophycocyanin, and rod-shaped pigment assemblies emanating from the core. NblA, a low-molecular-weight protein, is essential for degradation of the phycobilisome. NblA mutants exhibit high absorbance of rod pigments under conditions that generally elicit phycobilisome degradation, implicating NblA in degradation of these pigments. However, the vast abundance of rod pigments and the substantial overlap between the absorbance spectra of rod and core pigments has made it difficult to directly associate NblA with proteolysis of the phycobilisome core. Furthermore, lack of allophycocyanin degradation in an NblA mutant may reflect a requirement for rod degradation preceding core degradation, and does not prove direct involvement of NblA in proteolysis of the core pigment. Therefore, in this study, we used a mutant lacking phycocyanin, the rod pigment of Synechococcus elongatusPCC7942, to examine whether NblA is required for allophycocyanin degradation. We demonstrate that NblA is essential for degradation of the core complex of the phycobilisome. Furthermore, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy provided in situ evidence for the interaction of NblA with allophycocyanin, and indicated that NblA interacts with allophycocyanin complexes that are associated with the photosynthetic membranes. Based on these data, as well as previous observations indicating interaction of NblA with phycobilisomes attached to the photosynthetic membranes, we suggest a model for sequential phycobilisome disassembly by NblA. PMID:26173720

  17. Bicolor Mn-doped CuInS{sub 2}/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals for white light-emitting diode with high color rendering index

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Bo; Dai, Qian; Zhang, Huichao; Liao, Chen; Cui, Yiping; Zhang, Jiayu; Zhuo, Ningze; Jiang, Qingsong; Shi, Fenghua; Wang, Haibo

    2014-09-07

    We synthesized bicolor Mn-doped CuInS{sub 2} (CIS)/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals (NCs), in which Mn{sup 2+} ions and the CIS core were separated with a ZnS layer, and both Mn{sup 2+} ions and CIS cores could emit simultaneously. Transmission electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction measurements indicated the epitaxial growth of ZnS shell on the CuInS{sub 2} core, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum indicated that Mn{sup 2+} ions were on the lattice points of ZnS shell. By integrating these bicolor NCs with commercial InGaN-based blue-emitting diodes, tricolor white light-emitting diodes with color rendering index of 83 were obtained.

  18. Direct observation of a resolvable spin separation in the spin Hall effect of light at an air-glass interface

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Jin-Li; Wang, Bo; Xiao, Yun-Feng; Gong, Qihuang; Li, Yan

    2015-09-14

    We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that it is possible to directly observe the resolvable spin separation in the spin Hall effect of light at an air-glass interface by choosing optimal parameters. When a P-polarized light with a beam waist of 10 μm is incident around Brewster's angle, the two spin components of the reflected beam can be completely separated by eliminating the influence of the in-plane wavevector spread. This not only obviously reveals the strong impacts of the polarization state, the incident angle, the beam waist, and the in-plane wavevector spread, but also intuitively visualizes the observation of the spin Hall effect of light.

  19. Hollow Au-Cu2O Core-Shell Nanoparticles with Geometry-Dependent Optical Properties as Efficient Plasmonic Photocatalysts under Visible Light.

    PubMed

    Lu, Biao; Liu, Aiping; Wu, Huaping; Shen, Qiuping; Zhao, Tingyu; Wang, Jianshan

    2016-03-29

    Hollow Au-Cu2O core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized by using hollow gold nanoparticles (HGNs) as the plasmon-tailorable cores to direct epitaxial growth of Cu2O nanoshells. The effective geometry control of hollow Au-Cu2O core-shell nanoparticles was achieved through adjusting the HGN core sizes, Cu2O shell thicknesses, and morphologies related to structure-directing agents. The morphology-dependent plasmonic band red-shifts across the visible and near-infrared spectral regions were observed from experimental extinction spectra and theoretical simulation based on the finite-difference time-domain method. Moreover, the hollow Au-Cu2O core-shell nanoparticles with synergistic optical properties exhibited higher photocatalytic performance in the photodegradation of methyl orange when compared to pristine Cu2O and solid Au-Cu2O core-shell nanoparticles under visible-light irradiation due to the efficient photoinduced charge separation, which could mainly be attributed to the Schottky barrier and plasmon-induced resonant energy transfer. Such optical tunability achieved through the hollow cores and structure-directed shells is of benefit to the performance optimization of metal-semiconductor nanoparticles for photonic, electronic, and photocatalytic applications. PMID:26954100

  20. The light element component of the Earth’s core: Constraints from in situ X-Radiography in the LHDAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lord, O. T.; Walter, M. J.; Walker, D.; Clark, S. M.

    2009-12-01

    The light element budget of the Earth’s core depends in part on the high-pressure melting relations of the relevant iron rich binary systems. Candidate alloying elements include H, C, O, Si and S, due to their cosmochemical abundance. Many of these systems are known to contain eutectic points, the temperatures and compositions of which are critical to reconstructing the phase relations of these systems. Thus far most studies reporting the composition of eutectic liquids depend on ex situ analysis with a potential for systematic errors introduced by quench induced exsolution. To circumvent this issue we have developed an in situ technique for the determination of liquid compositions in iron-rich binary systems at simultaneous high-pressure and high-temperature conditions. Samples consist of Fe(1-x)O or FeS, surrounded by a ring of iron forming a ‘donut’ with a diameter of ~100μm and a thickness of ~20μm. Pressure is monitored by ruby fluorescence. The sample is heated at the boundary between the iron and light element compound using two 100 W IR lasers in a double-sided configuration at beamline 12.2.2 at the Advanced Light Source. Temperature is measured by spectroradiometry. Before, during and after melting, X-radiographic images of the sample are taken by shining a defocused beam of synchrotron X-rays through the sample and onto a CdWO4 phosphor. The visible light from the phosphor is then focused onto a high resolution CCD, where absorption contrast images are recorded. The absorption of the molten region is then determined, and it’s composition calculated by comparison to the absorption of the two solid end members. In previous work we measured the composition of the Fe-FeS eutectic to 20 GPa and the Fe-Fe3C eutectic to 44 GPa [1,2]. Further, we saw no discernible solubility of oxygen in liquid iron up to 43 GPa [1]. Here we extend the data for sulfur up to 70 GPa and for oxygen up to 63 GPa. Our new sulfur data fit well with previous studies at lower

  1. Influence of light-curing protocols on polymerization shrinkage and shrinkage force of a dual-cured core build-up resin composite.

    PubMed

    Tauböck, Tobias T; Bortolotto, Tissiana; Buchalla, Wolfgang; Attin, Thomas; Krejci, Ivo

    2010-08-01

    This study investigated the influence of time delay and duration of photo-activation on linear polymerization shrinkage, shrinkage force, and hardening of a dual-cured core build-up resin composite. The test material (Rebilda DC) was light-cured for 20 or 60 s either early (2 min) or late (7 min) after the start of mixing. Non-irradiated self-cured specimens served as controls. Linear shrinkage and shrinkage force were measured for 60 min using custom-made devices. Knoop hardness was determined at the end of the observation period. Self-cured controls, showing a linear shrinkage similar to that of specimens early light-cured for 20 s generated the lowest shrinkage force and hardness. A shorter light exposure time (20 s vs. 60 s) reduced linear shrinkage, shrinkage force, and hardness when early light-curing was performed, but did not affect the three properties in specimens light-cured late after the start of mixing. Late photo-activation increased linear shrinkage, irrespective of irradiation time, and resulted in a higher shrinkage force and hardness for short light exposure time. A moderate correlation was found between the two shrinkage properties studied (r(2) = 0.65). In conclusion, improvements in shrinkage behavior of the tested core build-up material were associated with inferior hardening, making it important to adapt curing protocols to the clinical situation. PMID:20662918

  2. Emissions of an AVCO Lycoming 0-320-DIAD air cooled light aircraft engine as a function of fuel-air ratio, timing, and air temperature and humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, P. R.; Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A carbureted aircraft engine was operated over a range of test conditions to establish the exhaust levels over the EPA seven-mode emissions cycle. Baseline (full rich production limit) exhaust emissions at an induction air temperature of 59 F and near zero relative humidity were 90 percent of the EPA standard for HC, 35 percent for NOx, and 161 percent for CO. Changes in ignition timing around the standard 25 deg BTDC from 30 deg BTDC to 20 deg BTDC had little effect on the exhaust emissions. Retarding the timing to 15 deg BTDC increased both the HC and CO emissions and decreased NOx emissions. HC and CO emissions decreased as the carburetor was leaned out, while NOx emissions increased. The EPA emission standards were marginally achieved at two leanout conditions. Variations in the quantity of cooling air flow over the engine had no effect on exhaust emissions. Temperature-humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased.

  3. Do-It-Yourself Air Sensors – Exploring the Atmosphere and Turning on Light Bulbs!?

    EPA Science Inventory

    These are educational slides that will be presented in a webinar to the National Science Teachers Association. Topics covered include general air quality, current EPA research, and EPA's particle sensor kit that is a classroom activity.

  4. The edge of the M 87 halo and the kinematics of the diffuse light in the Virgo cluster core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, M.; Arnaboldi, M.; Das, P.; Gerhard, O.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Ciardullo, R.; Feldmeier, J. J.; Freeman, K. C.; Jacoby, G. H.; Murante, G.

    2009-08-01

    Aims: We study the kinematics and dynamics of the extreme outer halo of M 87, the central galaxy in the Virgo cluster, and its transition to the intracluster light (ICL). Methods: We present high resolution FLAMES/VLT spectroscopy of intracluster planetary nebula (PN) candidates, targeting three new fields in the Virgo cluster core with surface brightness down to μB = 28.5. Based on the projected phase space information (sky positions and line-of-sight velocities) we separate galaxy and cluster components in the confirmed PN sample. We then use the spherical Jeans equation and the total gravitational potential as traced by the X-ray emission to derive the orbital distribution in the outer stellar halo of M 87. We determine the luminosity-specific PN number for the M 87 halo and the ICL from the photometric PN catalogs and sampled luminosities, and discuss the origin of the ICL in Virgo based on its measured PN velocities. Results: We confirm a further 12 PNs in Virgo, five of which are bound to the halo of M 87, and the remainder are true intracluster planetary nebulas (ICPNs). The M 87 PNs are confined to the extended stellar envelope of M 87, within a projected radius of ~160 kpc, while the ICPNs are scattered across the whole surveyed region between M 87 and M 86, supporting a truncation of M 87's luminous outer halo at a 2σ level. The line-of-sight velocity distribution of the M 87 PNs at projected radii of 60 kpc and 144 kpc shows (i) no evidence for rotation of the halo along the photometric major axis; and (ii) that the velocity dispersion decreases in the outer halo, down to σ_last = 78±25 km s-1 at 144 kpc. The Jeans model for the M 87 halo stars fits the observed line-of-sight velocity dispersion profile only if the stellar orbits are strongly radially anisotropic (β ≃ 0.4 at r ≃ 10 kpc increasing to 0.8 at the outer edge), and if additionally the stellar halo is truncated at ≃ 150 kpc average elliptical radius. The α-parameters for the M 87

  5. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H; Norman, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    Proper maintenance can help vehicles perform as designed, positively affecting fuel economy, emissions, and the overall drivability. This effort investigates the effect of one maintenance factor, intake air filter replacement, with primary focus on vehicle fuel economy, but also examining emissions and performance. Older studies, dealing with carbureted gasoline vehicles, have indicated that replacing a clogged or dirty air filter can improve vehicle fuel economy and conversely that a dirty air filter can be significantly detrimental to fuel economy. The effect of clogged air filters on the fuel economy, acceleration and emissions of five gasoline fueled vehicles is examined. Four of these were modern vehicles, featuring closed-loop control and ranging in model year from 2003 to 2007. Three vehicles were powered by naturally aspirated, port fuel injection (PFI) engines of differing size and cylinder configuration: an inline 4, a V6 and a V8. A turbocharged inline 4-cylinder gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine powered vehicle was the fourth modern gasoline vehicle tested. A vintage 1972 vehicle equipped with a carburetor (open-loop control) was also examined. Results reveal insignificant fuel economy and emissions sensitivity of modern vehicles to air filter condition, but measureable effects on the 1972 vehicle. All vehicles experienced a measured acceleration performance penalty with clogged intake air filters.

  6. Progress report on a new search for free e/3 quarks in the cores of 10(15) - 10(16) eV air showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodson, A. L.; Bull, R. M.; Taylor, R. S.; Belford, C. H.

    1985-01-01

    The Leeds 3 sq m Wilson cloud chamber is being used in a new search for free e/3 quarks close to the axes of 10 to the 15th power - 10 to the 16th power eV air showers. A ratio trigger circuit is used to detect the incidence of air shower cores; the position of the shower center and the axis direction are determined from photographs of current-limited spark chambers. It is thus possible, for the first time, to know where we have looked for quarks in air showers and to select for scanning only those cloud chamber photographs where we have good evidence that the shower axis was close to the chamber. 250 g/sq cm of lead/concrete absorber above the cloud chamber serve to reduce particle densities and make a quark search possible very close to the shower axes. The current status of the search is given.

  7. Application of laser light scattering for determination of the border aerosol-air in a specialized physical laboratory setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damov, K. S.; Iliev, M. T.

    2016-02-01

    The current article examines the application of laser light scattering in a specialized laboratory setup. It is used for determination of the kinematic viscosity and mass density of Aerodispersed Systems formed in Limited Volume (High Concentration Aerosols) by the method of free flow out. The measurement chamber is first filled with the investigated aerosol. After a predetermined delay time the aerosol is allowed to flow out through a calibrated pipe with fixed size located few centimetres above the chamber's bottom. The lowering of the upper border aerosol-air is continuously scanned using a laser beam directed along the axis of the cylindrical chamber. The kinematic viscosity and mass density of the investigated aerosol phase are calculated by formulas obtained by the authors. The suggested application of laser light scattering led to higher accuracy of the determination the position of aerosol-air border, thence the certainty of this method. This improvement allowed the use of computer controlled optoelectronic setting. The use of laser light scattering significantly improves the method for determination of the kinematic viscosity and mass density of Aerodispersed Systems formed in Limited Volume.

  8. Reevaluation of core damage frequency in light of the occurrence of complex transients at B and W plants

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, R.; Hsu, C.J.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Amico, P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a unified treatment of ''complex transients'' and core damage events, with the aim of relating the frequencies if the two types of events to each other and to the frequencies of their constituent events. This framework provides a basis for relating the observed frequency of certain transient types to core damage frequency, and deciding whether the occurrence of complex transients means that core damage frequency is higher than it was previously believed to be. 5 refs.

  9. Synthesis and optical study of green light emitting polymer coated CdSe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, S.K.; Sharma, Mamta

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Synthesis of Polymer coated core CdSe and CdSe/ZnSe core/shell NCs. ► From TEM image, the spherical nature of CdSe and CdSe/ZnSe is obtained. ► Exhibiting green band photoemission peak at 541 nm and 549 nm for CdSe core and CdSe/ZnSe core/shell NCs. ► The shell thickness has been calculated by using superposition of quantum confinement energy model. - Abstract: CdSe/ZnSe Core/Shell NCs dispersed in PVA are synthesized by chemical method at room temperature. This is characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV/Vis spectra and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). TEM image shows the spherical nature of CdSe/ZnSe core/shell NCs. The red shift of absorption and emission peak of CdSe/ZnSe core/shell NCs as compared to CdSe core confirmed the formation of core/shell. The superposition of quantum confinement energy model is used for calculation of thickness of ZnSe shell.

  10. CuS@mSiO2-PEG core-shell nanoparticles as a NIR light responsive drug delivery nanoplatform for efficient chemo-photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xijian; Ren, Qilong; Fu, Fanfan; Zou, Rujia; Wang, Qian; Xin, Guobing; Xiao, Zhiyin; Huang, Xiaojuan; Liu, Qian; Hu, Junqing

    2015-06-14

    We report a facile and low-cost approach to design a difunctional nanoplatform (CuS@mSiO2-PEG) as a near-infrared (NIR) light responsive drug delivery system for efficient chemo-photothermal therapy. The nanoplatform demonstrated good biocompatibility and colloidal stability, as well as high loading capacity for the anticancer drug (26.5 wt% for doxorubicin (DOX)). The CuS nanocrystals (core) within these CuS@mSiO2-PEG core-shell nanoparticles can effectively absorb and convert NIR light to fatal heat under NIR light irradiation for photothermal therapy, and the release of DOX from the mesoporous silica (shell) can be triggered by pH and NIR light for chemotherapy. When the CuS@mSiO2-PEG/DOX nanocomposites were irradiated by 980 nm light, both chemotherapy and photothermal therapy were simultaneously driven, resulting in a synergistic effect for killing cancer cells. Importantly, compared with chemotherapy or photothermal treatment alone, the combined therapy significantly improved the therapeutic efficacy. PMID:25970690

  11. Correction of the spectral calibration of the Joint European Torus core light detecting and ranging Thomson scattering diagnostic using ray tracing.

    PubMed

    Hawke, J; Scannell, R; Maslov, M; Migozzi, J B

    2013-10-01

    This work isolated the cause of the observed discrepancy between the electron temperature (T(e)) measurements before and after the JET Core LIDAR Thomson Scattering (TS) diagnostic was upgraded. In the upgrade process, stray light filters positioned just before the detectors were removed from the system. Modelling showed that the shift imposed on the stray light filters transmission functions due to the variations in the incidence angles of the collected photons impacted plasma measurements. To correct for this identified source of error, correction factors were developed using ray tracing models for the calibration and operational states of the diagnostic. The application of these correction factors resulted in an increase in the observed T(e), resulting in the partial if not complete removal of the observed discrepancy in the measured T(e) between the JET core LIDAR TS diagnostic, High Resolution Thomson Scattering, and the Electron Cyclotron Emission diagnostics. PMID:24188274

  12. Correction of the spectral calibration of the Joint European Torus core light detecting and ranging Thomson scattering diagnostic using ray tracing

    SciTech Connect

    Hawke, J.; Scannell, R.; Maslov, M.; Migozzi, J. B.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2013-10-15

    This work isolated the cause of the observed discrepancy between the electron temperature (T{sub e}) measurements before and after the JET Core LIDAR Thomson Scattering (TS) diagnostic was upgraded. In the upgrade process, stray light filters positioned just before the detectors were removed from the system. Modelling showed that the shift imposed on the stray light filters transmission functions due to the variations in the incidence angles of the collected photons impacted plasma measurements. To correct for this identified source of error, correction factors were developed using ray tracing models for the calibration and operational states of the diagnostic. The application of these correction factors resulted in an increase in the observed T{sub e}, resulting in the partial if not complete removal of the observed discrepancy in the measured T{sub e} between the JET core LIDAR TS diagnostic, High Resolution Thomson Scattering, and the Electron Cyclotron Emission diagnostics.

  13. Stability and transient effects in nanosecond ultraviolet light filaments in air.

    PubMed

    Niday, Thomas A; Wright, Ewan M; Kolesik, Miroslav; Moloney, Jerry V

    2005-07-01

    We investigate the transient behavior and stability of nanosecond duration ultraviolet pulses propagating in air. Both the transient behavior arising from the finite pulse duration and the modulational instability, are found to cause pulses to fragment over lengths on the scale of meters. We discuss the theoretical and experimental implications of the instability and transient effects for long duration pulse propagating in air and generating filaments. In particular, our results imply that continuous-wave models are very limited when used to predict dynamical properties of pulse propagation. PMID:16090118

  14. Angularly symmetric splitting of a light beam upon reflection and refraction at an air-dielectric plane boundary: comment.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Torben B

    2016-05-01

    In a recent paper, conditions for achieving equal and opposite angular deflections of a light beam by reflection and refraction at an interface between air and a dielectric were determined [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A32, 2436 (2015)JOAOD60740-323210.1364/JOSAA.32.002436]. The paper gives plots of angles of incidence and refraction as a function of the prism refractive index as well as plots of reflectances and incident linear-polarization azimuth angles as functions of the refractive index. We show here that it is possible to express these quantities as simple algebraic functions of the refractive index. PMID:27140897

  15. High efficiency, full-color AlInGaN quaternary nanowire light emitting diodes with spontaneous core-shell structures on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Renjie; Liu, Xuedong; Shih, Ishiang; Mi, Zetian

    2015-06-01

    We have developed AlInGaN quaternary core-shell nanowire heterostructures on Si substrate, wherein an In-rich core and an Al-rich shell were spontaneously formed during the epitaxial growth process. By varying the growth conditions, the emission wavelengths can be tuned from ˜430 nm to ˜630 nm. Such core-shell structures can largely suppress nonradiative surface recombination, leading to a significant enhancement of carrier lifetime from ˜0.2 ns to ˜2 ns. The resulting nanowire light emitting diodes can exhibit an output power exceeding 30 mW for a ˜1 × 1 mm2 non-packaged device at a current density of 100 A/cm2.

  16. Angularly symmetric splitting of a light beam upon reflection and refraction at an air-dielectric plane boundary.

    PubMed

    Azzam, R M A

    2015-12-01

    Conditions for achieving equal and opposite angular deflections of a light beam by reflection and refraction at an air-dielectric boundary are determined. Such angularly symmetric beam splitting (ASBS) is possible only if the angle of incidence is >60° by exactly one third of the angle of refraction. This simple law, plus Snell's law, leads to several analytical results that clarify all aspects of this phenomenon. In particular, it is shown that the intensities of the two symmetrically deflected beams can be equalized by proper choice of the prism refractive index and the azimuth of incident linearly polarized light. ASBS enables a geometrically attractive layout of optical systems that employ multiple prism beam splitters. PMID:26831398

  17. Ice core sulfur and methanesulfonic acid (MSA) records from southern Greenland document North American and European air pollution and suggest a decline in regional biogenic sulfur emissions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasteris, D. R.; McConnell, J. R.; Burkhart, J. F.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    Sulfate aerosols have an important cooling effect on the Earth because they scatter sunlight back to space and form cloud condensation nuclei. However, understanding of the atmospheric sulfur cycle is incomplete, leading to uncertainty in the assessment of past, present and future climate forcing. Here we use annually resolved observations of sulfur and methanesulfonic acid (MSA) concentration in an array of precisely dated Southern Greenland ice cores to assess the history of sulfur pollution emitted from North America and Europe and the history of biogenic sulfate aerosol derived from the North Atlantic Ocean over the last 250 years. The ice core sulfur time series is found to closely track sulfur concentrations in North American and European precipitation since records began in 1965, and also closely tracks estimated sulfur emissions since 1850 within the air mass source region as determined by back trajectory analysis. However, a decline to near-preindustrial sulfur concentrations in the ice cores after 1995 that is not so extensive in the source region emissions indicates that there has been a change in sulfur cycling over the last 150 years. The ice core MSA time series shows a decline of 60% since the 1860s, and is well correlated with declining sea ice concentrations around Greenland, suggesting that the phytoplankton source of biogenic sulfur has declined due to a loss of marginal sea ice zone habitat. Incorporating the implied decrease in biogenic sulfur in our analysis improves the match between the ice core sulfur record and the source region emissions throughout the last 150 years, and solves the problem of the recent return to near-preindustrial levels in the Greenland ice. These findings indicate that the transport efficiency of sulfur air pollution has been relatively stable through the industrial era and that biogenic sulfur emissions in the region have declined.

  18. One-step synthesis of novel PANI-Fe3O4@ZnO core-shell microspheres: An efficient photocatalyst under visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Wu, Jianning; Meng, Guihua; Guo, Xuhong; Liu, Chang; Liu, Zhiyong

    2016-03-01

    For the first time, novel multifunctional superparamagnetic PANI-Fe3O4@ZnO core-shell composite photocatalysts with different PANI: ZnO ratios were synthesized by Pickering emulsion route in one step in the presence of ZnO nanoparticles. PANI-Fe3O4@ZnO core-shell microspheres consist of PANI core which embedded with Fe3O4-OA (oleic acid modified Fe3O4) nanoparticles and tunable ZnO shell thickness. The resulting samples were thoroughly studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The catalytic activity of the as-prepared PANI-Fe3O4@ZnO core-shell microspheres is investigated by the degradation of MB under visible light irradiation. As expected, the as prepared PANI-Fe3O4@ZnO photocatalysts exhibit highly enhanced photocatalytic activities in the degradation of MB under visible light irradiation owing to fast separation of photo-generated electron-hole pairs. Significantly, the PANI-Fe3O4@ZnO catalysts can be separated from the reaction media by applying an external magnet, and can be reused for seven cycles without change in stability and degradation efficiency.

  19. Ice core evidence of rapid air temperature increases since 1960 in alpine areas of the Wind River Range, Wyoming, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naftz, D.L.; Susong, D.D.; Schuster, P.F.; Cecil, L.D.; Dettinger, M.D.; Michel, R.L.; Kendall, C.

    2002-01-01

    Site-specific transfer functions relating delta oxygen 18 (??18O) values in snow to the average air temperature (TA) during storms on Upper Fremont Glacier (UFG) were used in conjunction with ??18O records from UFG ice cores to reconstruct long-term trends in air temperature from alpine areas in the Wind River Range, Wyoming. Transfer functions were determined by using data collected from four seasonal snowpacks (1989-1990, 1997-1998, 1998-1999, and 1999-2000). The timing and amount of each storm was determined from an automated snowpack telemetry (SNOTEL) site, 22 km northeast of UFG, and ???1060 m in elevation below UFG. Statistically significant and positive correlations between ??18O values in the snow and TA were consistently found in three of the four seasonal snowpacks. The snowpack with the poor correlation was deposited in 1997-1998 during the 1997-1998 El Nin??o Southern Oscillation (ENSO). An ultrasonic snow-depth sensor installed on UFG provided valuable insights into site-specific storms and postdepositional processes that occur on UFG. The timing of storms recorded at the UFG and Cold Springs SNOTEL sites were similar; however, selected storms did not correlate. Snow from storms occurring after mid-October and followed by high winds was most susceptible to redeposition of snow. This removal of lower temperature snowfall could potentially bias the ??18O values preserved in ice core records to environmental conditions reflecting higher air temperatures and lower wind speeds. Transfer functions derived from seasonal snow cover on UFG were used to reconstruct TA values from ??18O values determined from two ice cores collected from UFG. Reconstructed air temperatures from the ice core data indicate an increase in TA of ???3.5??C from the mid-1960s to the early 1990s in the alpine areas of northwestern Wyoming. Reconstructed TA from the ice core records between the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA), mid-1800s, and the early 1990s indicate a TA increase of

  20. A Compact Fiber Inclinometer Using a Thin-Core Fiber with Incorporated an Air-Gap Microcavity Fiber Interferometer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiacheng; Qiao, Xueguang; Rong, Qiangzhou; Sun, An

    2016-01-01

    A compact fiber-optic inclinometer is proposed and experimentally demonstrated based on a Fabry-Perot interference (FFPI). The sensing head consists of a short segment of thin-core fiber (TCF) following with a piece of hollow-core fiber (HCF). High-order cladding modes have been excited because of core diameter mismatch. A clear interference spectrum has been obtained as the consequence of interference among the reflected core modes and cladding modes. Fringe contrast of the interference spectrum is highly sensitive to fiber bending with direction independence, and good linearity has been observed during the bending range from 1° to 3° with a sensitivity of 2.71 dB/deg. PMID:26771614

  1. Design of single-winding energy-storage reactors for dc-to-dc converters using air-gapped magnetic-core structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohri, A. K.; Wilson, T. G.; Owen, H. A., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A procedure is presented for designing air-gapped energy-storage reactors for nine different dc-to-dc converters resulting from combinations of three single-winding power stages for voltage stepup, current stepup and voltage stepup/current stepup and three controllers with control laws that impose constant-frequency, constant transistor on-time and constant transistor off-time operation. The analysis, based on the energy-transfer requirement of the reactor, leads to a simple relationship for the required minimum volume of the air gap. Determination of this minimum air gap volume then permits the selection of either an air gap or a cross-sectional core area. Having picked one parameter, the minimum value of the other immediately leads to selection of the physical magnetic structure. Other analytically derived equations are used to obtain values for the required turns, the inductance, and the maximum rms winding current. The design procedure is applicable to a wide range of magnetic material characteristics and physical configurations for the air-gapped magnetic structure.

  2. Cost and Energy Savings Opportunities with Heating, Air Conditioning and Lighting Systems in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Electric Energy Association, New York, NY.

    Great potential exists for saving energy and operating costs with a wide variety of heat conservation systems. Two major electric services--space conditioning and lighting--afford cost and energy savings opportunities. These services are detailed in checklist fashion in this brochure, with the suggestions included under space conditioning…

  3. Longitudinal evolution of extensive air showers according to the results of Cherenkov-light studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kalmykov, N.N.; Khristiansen, G.B.; Prosin, V.V.

    1995-09-01

    The results of an analysis of the longitudinal evolution of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) with the aid of experimental recording the space-time structure of shower-induced Cherenkov radiation with the Yakutsk and Samarkand arrays are summarized. The combined data from these experiments make it possible to obtain the energy dependence of the mean depth of the EAS maximum in the wide energy range 3 x 10{sup 15} - 5 x 10{sup 17} eV, the shape of the mean cascade curve, and the depth distribution of EAS maxima at E{sub 0} = 10{sup 16} eV. The cross section for the inelastic interaction of 10{sup 16}-eV protons with the nuclei of air atoms is estimated. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Feasibility report: Operation of light air cushion vehicle at McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dibbern, J. S.

    1987-02-01

    This report explores the viability of the use of an air cushion vehicle (ACV) or hovercraft to perform logistic and scientific support in the area of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. After a review of personnel assets and facilities at McMurdo Station to support the ACV plus a reconnaissance of the five major routes selected, it appears that an air cushion vehicle in the 1 to 1 1/2 ton payload class would be of significant value to support operations. It would reduce transit times for surface vehicle traverses on the routes selected and reduce requirements for expenditure of helicopter flight time in others. Of major significance is the ability to handle passenger/shuttle requirements between the Scott Base transition and Williams Field Skiway. Use of the ACV for high frequency passenger operations would help preserve the snow road for cargo operations during periods of road deterioration.

  5. Gold-Quantum Dot Core-Satellite Assemblies for Lighting Up MicroRNA In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xueli; Xu, Liguang; Sun, Maozhong; Ma, Wei; Wu, Xiaoling; Kuang, Hua; Wang, Libing; Xu, Chuanlai

    2016-09-01

    A high yield DNA-driven gold-quantum dot core-satellite is developed for miRNA detection in vitro and vivo. In the presence of the target miRNA, the DNA hairpin between core and satellite is ruined, resulting in the recovery of fluorescence. The limit of detection for miRNA-21 detection in living cells reaches 296 copies per cell. PMID:26849492

  6. Defect-mediated of Cu@TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles with oxygen vacancies for photocatalytic degradation 2,4-DCP under visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Zang, Ling; Fan, Xiaoyun; Jia, Hanzhong; Li, Li; Deng, Wenye; Wang, Chuanyi

    2015-12-01

    Cu @TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles with different mass ratios of Cu to TiO2 were facilely synthesized via wet chemical approaches, and were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflection absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance. The photocatalytic efficiency of Cu@TiO2 nanoparticles was evaluated by degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol, a typical persistent organic pollutant, under visible light irradiation. The results show that the oxygen vacancy creation obviously enhances the visible-light absorption of TiO2. Meanwhile, the Cu nanoparticle incorporation into the TiO2 can effectively improve charge-separation efficiency of Cu@TiO2 under visible-light irradiation, thereby enhancing the photoactivity.

  7. The enhancement of the deflection effect in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with an ellipsoidal air tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun Kyu; Ryu, Jae Hyoung; Kim, Hee Yun; Kang, Ji Hye; Han, Nam; Park, Young Jae; Ryu, Beo Deul; Ko, Kang Bok; Baek, Yun Seon; Lysak, Volodymyr-V.; Hong, Chang-Hee; Kim, Hyung Gu

    2012-03-01

    This paper reports on the deflection effect of ellipsoidal air tunnel (EAT) array as an embedded deflector with low refractive index in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Light extraction efficiency (LEE) for different height-to-width (h/w) ratios of air structure is analyzed by using an optical simulation program. Maximum LEE was obtained at a h/w ratio of 0.3, which corresponds to an ellipsoidal shape of the air structure. An LED structure with EAT array embedded between the sapphire substrate and the GaN epitaxial layer has been fabricated. The reflectance spectra measured over the entire visible spectral range showed reflectance modulations by the EAT structures. Moreover, the light-output power of the EAT-embedded LED was enhanced by 2.3 times compared to a conventional LED without EAT arrays. This could be attributed to the enhanced light deflection from EAT structures.

  8. Brief light stimulation during the mouse nocturnal activity phase simultaneously induces a decline in core temperature and locomotor activity followed by EEG-determined sleep

    PubMed Central

    Studholme, Keith M.; Gompf, Heinrich S.

    2013-01-01

    Light exerts a variety of effects on mammals. Unexpectedly, one of these effects is the cessation of nocturnal locomotion and the induction of behavioral sleep (photosomnolence). Here, we extend the initial observations in several ways, including the fundamental demonstration that core body temperature (Tc) drops substantially (about 1.5°C) in response to the light stimulation at CT15 or CT18 in a manner suggesting that the change is a direct response to light rather than simply a result of the locomotor suppression. The results show that 1) the decline of locomotion and Tc begin soon after nocturnal light stimulation; 2) the variability in the magnitude and onset of light-induced locomotor suppression is very large, whereas the variability in Tc is very small; 3) Tc recovers from the light-induced decline in advance of the recovery of locomotion; 4) under entrained and freerunning conditions, the daily late afternoon Tc increase occurs in advance of the corresponding increase in wheel running; and 5) toward the end of the subjective night, the nocturnally elevated Tc persists longer than does locomotor activity. Finally, EEG measurements confirm light-induced sleep and, when Tc or locomotion was measured, show their temporal association with sleep onset. Both EEG- and immobility-based sleep detection methods confirm rapid induction of light-induced sleep. The similarities between light-induced loss of locomotion and drop in Tc suggest a common cause for parallel responses. The photosomnolence response may be contingent upon both the absence of locomotion and a simultaneous low Tc. PMID:23364525

  9. Facile fabrication of novel SiO2/g-C3N4 core-shell nanosphere photocatalysts with enhanced visible light activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Bo; Xue, Chao; Yan, Xiaoqing; Yang, Guidong; Yang, Guang; Yang, Bolun

    2015-12-01

    Novel SiO2/g-C3N4 core-shell nanospheres were simply synthesized using heating method to anneal the mixture of silica dioxide nanospheres and molten cyanamide (CA) in nitrogen atmosphere. The effects of various initial mass ratios of SiO2 nanospheres and CA molecules on the catalyst structure, surface property and catalytic activity have been systematically investigated. The characterization results show that the as-obtained photocatalysts possess the ordered core-shell nanostructure, large mesoporous distribution and inflated BET specific surface areas. The photocatalytic activities of the SiO2/g-C3N4 composites were evaluated by decomposing the rhodamine B (RhB) dye under visible light irradiation. Compared with pure g-C3N4, all of the SiO2/g-C3N4 core-shell composites showed the improved photoactivity, and the optimal SiO2/g-C3N4 catalyst (SC-3) showed the highest activity with an RhB conversion of 94.3% after 150 min visible light irradiation, which is 3.5 times higher than that of pure g-C3N4. Meanwhile, the recycling test showed that the SC-3 sample owns outstanding stability and durability. The enhancement in both activity and stability can be assigned to the specific core-shell structure, inflated surface area, higher visible light adsorption and efficient charge separation originating from the closely contacted interfaces between SiO2 nanospheres and g-C3N4.

  10. Technologies for Maintaining Animals in Space: Lighting, Air Quality, Noise, Food and Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, C. M.; Skidmore, M. G.; Holley, D. C.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    In the terrestrial environment multiple time cues exist. Zeitgebers have been identified and studied for their ability to convey temporal information to various physiological systems, In the microgravity experiment it is necessary to define time cues within the flight hardware prior to flight. During flight if changes in the Circadian System (e.g., mean, phase angle, period) occur this would indicate that the gravity vector is important relative to biological timing. This presentation is concerned with the environmental parameters to support rodent experiments in microgravity. The Animal Enclosure Module (AEM) provides solid food bars and water via lixits ad libitum. Flight animals (Sprague-Dawley rats, 60 - 300g) when compared to ground controls show similar growth (mean growth per day, g +/- SD; flight 5.4 +/- 2.0, ground 5.9 +/- 2.1). Current AEMs use incandescent lighting (approx. 5 Lux). Light emitting diode (LED) arrays are being developed that provide a similar light environment as cool-white fluorescent sources (40 Lux). In ground based tests (12L:12D), these arrays show normal circadian entrainment (Tau = 24.0) with respect to the behavioral responses. measured (drinking, eating, gross locomotor activity). A newly developed ultra high efficiency filter system can entrap all feces, urine and odors from 6 rats for 24 days. Maximum sound level exposure limits (per octave band 22 Hz - 179 kHz) have been established. The AEM will effectively support animal experiments in microgravity.

  11. Technologies For Maintaining Animals In Space: Lighting, Air Quality, Noise, Food And Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, C. M.; Skidmore, M. G.; Holley, D. C.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    In the terrestrial environment multiple time cues exist. Zeitgebers have been identified and studied for their ability to convey temporal information to various physiological systems. In the microgravity experiment it is necessary to define time cues within the flight hardware prior to flight. During flight if changes in the Circadian System (e.g., mean, phase angle, period) occur this would indicate that the gravity vector is important relative to biological timing. This presentation is concerned with the environmental parameter: to support rodent experiments in microgravity. The Animal Enclosure Module (AEM) provides solid food bars and water via lixits and ad libitum. Flight animals (Sprague-Dawley rats, 60 - 300g) when compared to ground controls show similar growth (mean growth per day g, plus or minus SD; flight 5.4 plus or minus 2.0, ground 5.9 plus or minus 2.1). Current AEMs use incandescent lighting (approx. 5 Lux). Light emitting diode (LED) arrays are being developed that provide a similar light environment as cool-white fluorescent sources (40 Lux). In ground based tests (12L:12D), these arrays show normal circadian entrainment (Tau = 24.0) with respect to the behavioral responses, measured (drinking, eating, gross locomotor activity). A newly developed ultra high efficiency filter system can entrap all feces, urine and odors from 6 rats for 24 days. Maximum sound level exposure limits (per octave band 22 Hz - 179 kHz) have been established. The AEM will effectively support animal experiments in microgravity.

  12. Phase and Size Control of Core-Shell Upconversion Nanocrystals Light up Deep Dual Luminescence Imaging and CT In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ning; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Yaming; Wang, Dong; Chen, Chuan; Ye, Shefang; Nie, Liming; Ren, Lei

    2016-06-01

    Upconversion nanocrystals (UCNCs) have recently been explored as optical imaging nanoprobes. However, conventional β-NaLuF4 (-) based UCNCs often suffer from large particle size and weak upconversion luminescence (UCL) intensity, leading to poor biocompatibility and low detection sensitivity. Here, a novel strategy for controlling the crystalline phase and size of UCNCs has been developed by doping of yttrium ions, resulting in particle size reduction and phase transition. The total UCL intensity of prepared core-shell UCNCs is significantly enhanced up to ≈4.9 and ≈17.4 times after Tm(3+) and Er(3+) doping than that of core UCNCs, offering deeper tissue UCL imaging with a depth of 8 mm in vivo. Moreover, the CT signal of core-shell UCNCs is ≈1.5 and ≈3.5 times brighter than that of core UCNCs and commercial ioversol agent because of increasing contents of Lu(3+) doped in UCNCs. The synthesized core-shell UCNCs hold a great promise in deep UCL and CT dual-modality imaging in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26990395

  13. Ultrathin TiO2 layer coated-CdS spheres core-shell nanocomposite with enhanced visible-light photoactivity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhang; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2013-12-26

    Development of various strategies for controllable fabrication of core-shell nanocomposites (CSNs) with highly active photocatalytic performance has been attracting ever-increasing research attention. In particular, control of the ultrathin layer TiO2 shell in constructing CSNs in an aqueous phase is a significant but technologically challenging issue. Here, this paper demonstrates the interface assembly synthesis of CdS nanospheres@TiO2 core-shell photocatalyst via the electrostatic interaction of negatively charged water-stable titania precursor with positively charged CdS nanospheres (CdS NSPs), followed by the formation of the ultrathin-layer TiO2 shell through a facile refluxing process in aqueous phase. The as-formed CdS NSPs@TiO2 core-shell nanohybrid exhibits a high visible-light-driven photoactivity for selective transformation and reduction of heavy metal ions. The ultrathin TiO2 layer coated on CdS NSPs results in excellent light transmission property, enhanced adsorption capacity, and improved transfer of charge carriers and lifespan of photoinduced electron-hole pairs, which would prominently contribute to the significant photoactivity enhancement. It is anticipated that this facile aqueous-phase synthesis strategy could be extended to design a variety of more efficient CSN photocatalysts with controllable morphology toward target applications in diverse photoredox processes. PMID:24245797

  14. NEW EQUATIONS OF STATE BASED ON THE LIQUID DROP MODEL OF HEAVY NUCLEI AND QUANTUM APPROACH TO LIGHT NUCLEI FOR CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Furusawa, Shun; Yamada, Shoichi; Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke; Suzuki, Hideyuki

    2013-08-01

    We construct new equations of state for baryons at subnuclear densities for the use in core-collapse simulations of massive stars. The abundance of various nuclei is obtained together with thermodynamic quantities. A model free energy is constructed, based on the relativistic mean field theory for nucleons and the mass formula for nuclei with the proton number up to {approx}1000. The formulation is an extension of the previous model, in which we adopted the liquid drop model to all nuclei under the nuclear statistical equilibrium. We reformulate the new liquid drop model so that the temperature dependences of bulk energies could be taken into account. Furthermore, we extend the region in the nuclear chart, in which shell effects are included, by using theoretical mass data in addition to experimental ones. We also adopt a quantum-theoretical mass evaluation of light nuclei, which incorporates the Pauli- and self-energy shifts that are not included in the ordinary liquid drop model. The pasta phases for heavy nuclei are taken into account in the same way as in the previous model. We find that the abundances of heavy nuclei are modified by the shell effects of nuclei and temperature dependence of bulk energies. These changes may have an important effect on the rates of electron captures and coherent neutrino scatterings on nuclei in supernova cores. The abundances of light nuclei are also modified by the new mass evaluation, which may affect the heating and cooling rates of supernova cores and shocked envelopes.

  15. The Effects of Projected Future Demand Including Very Light Jet Air-Taxi Operations on U.S. National Airspace System Delays as a Function of Next Generation Air Transportation System Airspace Capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jerry; Viken, Jeff; Dollyhigh, Samuel; Trani, Antonio; Baik, Hojong; Hinze, Nicholas; Ashiabor, Senanu

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a study which investigates the potential effects of the growth in air traffic demand including projected Very Light Jet (VLJ) air-taxi operations adding to delays experienced by commercial passenger air transportation in the year 2025. The geographic region studied is the contiguous United States (U.S.) of America, although international air traffic to and from the U.S. is included. The main focus of this paper is to determine how much air traffic growth, including VLJ air-taxi operations will add to enroute airspace congestion and determine what additional airspace capacity will be needed to accommodate the expected demand. Terminal airspace is not modeled and increased airport capacity is assumed.

  16. BODIPY catalyzed amide synthesis promoted by BHT and air under visible light.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Yu, Shu-Sheng; Wang, Chao; Xue, Dong; Xiao, Jianliang

    2016-08-01

    A novel and efficient protocol for the synthesis of amides is reported which employs a BODIPY catalyzed oxidative amidation reaction between aromatic aldehydes and amines under visible light. Compared with the known Ru or Ir molecular catalysts and other organic dyes, the BODIPY catalyst showed higher reactivity toward this reaction. Mechanistic studies reveal that dioxygen could be activated through an ET and a SET pathway, forming active peroxides in situ, which are vital for the key step of the reaction, i.e. the oxidation of hemiaminal to amide. The broad substrate scope and mild reaction conditions make this reaction practically useful and environmentally friendly for the synthesis of amide compounds. PMID:27363514

  17. Emission Characteristics of InGaN/GaN Core-Shell Nanorods Embedded in a 3D Light-Emitting Diode.

    PubMed

    Jung, Byung Oh; Bae, Si-Young; Lee, Seunga; Kim, Sang Yun; Lee, Jeong Yong; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    We report the selective-area growth of a gallium nitride (GaN)-nanorod-based InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well (MQW) core-shell structure embedded in a three-dimensional (3D) light-emitting diode (LED) grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and its optical analysis. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) observation revealed the high quality of the GaN nanorods and the position dependence of the structural properties of the InGaN/GaN MQWs on multiple facets. The excitation and temperature dependences of photoluminescence (PL) revealed the m-plane emission behaviors of the InGaN/GaN core-shell nanorods. The electroluminescence (EL) of the InGaN/GaN core-shell-nanorod-embedded 3D LED changed color from green to blue with increasing injection current. This phenomenon was mainly due to the energy gradient and deep localization of the indium in the selectively grown InGaN/GaN core-shell MQWs on the 3D architecture. PMID:27102904

  18. Emission Characteristics of InGaN/GaN Core-Shell Nanorods Embedded in a 3D Light-Emitting Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Byung Oh; Bae, Si-Young; Lee, Seunga; Kim, Sang Yun; Lee, Jeong Yong; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    We report the selective-area growth of a gallium nitride (GaN)-nanorod-based InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well (MQW) core-shell structure embedded in a three-dimensional (3D) light-emitting diode (LED) grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and its optical analysis. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) observation revealed the high quality of the GaN nanorods and the position dependence of the structural properties of the InGaN/GaN MQWs on multiple facets. The excitation and temperature dependences of photoluminescence (PL) revealed the m-plane emission behaviors of the InGaN/GaN core-shell nanorods. The electroluminescence (EL) of the InGaN/GaN core-shell-nanorod-embedded 3D LED changed color from green to blue with increasing injection current. This phenomenon was mainly due to the energy gradient and deep localization of the indium in the selectively grown InGaN/GaN core-shell MQWs on the 3D architecture.

  19. Results from Geothermal Logging, Air and Core-Water Chemistry Sampling, Air Injection Testing and Tracer Testing in the Northern Ghost Dance Fault, YUCCA Mountain, Nevada, November 1996 to August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Lecain, G.D.; Anna, L.O.; Fahy, M.F.

    1998-08-01

    Geothermal logging, air and core-water chemistry sampling, air-injection testing, and tracer testing were done in the northern Ghost Dance Fault at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, from November 1996 to August 1998. The study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. The fault-testing drill room and test boreholes were located in the crystal-poor, middle nonlithophysal zone of the Topopah Spring Tuff, a tuff deposit of Miocene age. The drill room is located off the Yucca Mountain underground Exploratory Studies Facility at about 230 meters below ground surface. Borehole geothermal logging identified a temperature decrease of 0.1 degree Celsius near the Ghost Dance Fault. The temperature decrease could indicate movement of cooler air or water, or both, down the fault, or it may be due to drilling-induced evaporative or adiabatic cooling. In-situ pneumatic pressure monitoring indicated that barometric pressure changes were transmitted from the ground surface to depth through the Ghost Dance Fault. Values of carbon dioxide and delta carbon-13 from gas samples indicated that air from the underground drill room had penetrated the tuff, supporting the concept of a well-developed fracture system. Uncorrected carbon-14-age estimates from gas samples ranged from 2,400 to 4,500 years. Tritium levels in borehole core water indicated that the fault may have been a conduit for the transport of water from the ground surface to depth during the last 100 years.

  20. Fabrication of Au@Ag core/shell nanoparticles decorated TiO2 hollow structure for efficient light-harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yun, Juyoung; Hwang, Sun Hye; Jang, Jyongsik

    2015-01-28

    Improving the light-harvesting properties of photoanodes is promising way to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We synthesized Au@Ag core/shell nanoparticles decorated TiO2 hollow nanoparticles (Au@Ag/TiO2 HNPs) via sol-gel reaction and chemical deposition. The Au@Ag/TiO2 HNPs exhibited multifunctions from Au@Ag core/shell NPs (Au@Ag CSNPs) and TiO2 hollow nanoparticles (TiO2 HNPs). These Au@Ag CSNPs exhibited strong and broadened localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), together with a large specific surface area of 129 m(2) g(-1), light scattering effect, and facile oxidation-reduction reaction of electrolyte from TiO2 HNPs, which resulted in enhancement of the light harvesting. The optimum PCE of η = 9.7% was achieved for the DSSCs using photoanode materials based on TiO2 HNPs containing Au@Ag/TiO2 HNPs (0.2 wt % Au@Ag CSNPs with respect to TiO2 HNPs), which outperformed by 24% enhancement that of conventional photoanodes formed using P25 (η = 7.8%). PMID:25562329

  1. Fe3O4@Bi2WO6 Core-Shell Structured Microspheres: Facile Construction and Magnetically Recyclable Photocatalytic Activity Under Visible-Light.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu-Xue; Tong, Ling; Zeng, Xiang-Hua; Chen, Xiao-Bing

    2015-12-01

    Core-shell structured Fe3O4@Bi2WO6 composite microspheres (Fe3O4 microspheres as core and Bi2WO6 nanoplates as shell) have been fabricated in a facile and cost effective reflux way. Such fabricated Fe3O4@Bi2WO6 composites show good visible-light driven photocatalytic performance on degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) from solution in presence of H2O2. More importantly, they can be easily harvested from aqueous system for recycle with small loss of their photocatalytic activity upon applying an external magnet. However, this combination of Bi2WO6 photocatalytic activity and Fe3O4 magnetic property endows such composite with a bright perspective in low cost waste water treatment by taking full advantage of solar energy. PMID:26682426

  2. Solar and volcanic forcing of summer air temperatures - a combined ice core and tree ring perspective form the Carpathian Mts. (Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perşoiu, Aurel; Popa, Ionel

    2014-05-01

    In order to improve our understanding of natural and anthropogenic influences on climate, high resolution reconstruction of the climate changes (and associated forcings) during the recent past (last millennium) are strongly needed. While these types of records are available for numerous regions, they are still scarce and with low resolution in the Eastern half of the European continent. In this paper, we present a high-resolution (decadal and better) reconstruction of summer air temperatures from the Carpathian Mts. (Romania), using water stable isotopes in cave ice cores (from Scărişoara Ice Cave) and tree-rings as proxies for summer air temperatures (late and early, respectively). Our combined results show that periods of low solar activity (Wolf, Spörer and Dalton) and the main volcanic eruptions of the past millennium had had a clearly visible - in both isotope and tree ring data - impact on summer temperatures in the area. Worth to mention is that the "year without a summer" occurred in 1818 in both records, two years later than in most of the reconstructions in the vicinity. The Medieval Warm Period is seen as a relatively warm (~0.5 °C warmer than the 1960-1990 period) and stable period in the ice core data, but it's not clearly recorded by the tree rings, while the Little Ice Age (starting at around 1350 in the 14C-dated ice core chronology, and in 1370 in the annually resolved tree ring data) is marked by lower than present (by ~ 1 °C) air temperatures and increased variability. The ice core record stops at 1870 AD due to enhanced ice melting in the 20th century, associated with drier and warmer summer, as seen in the tree ring reconstruction. Our results provide a unique picture of the climate during the past millennium for a region where such information is mostly missing, strengthening the general view of 1) a relatively variable climate during the past 1000 years and 2) rapid warming during the past ~100 years.

  3. In situ crystallization for fabrication of a core-satellite structured BiOBr-CdS heterostructure with excellent visible-light-responsive photoreactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yuxi; Huang, Hongwei; He, Ying; Tian, Na; Zhang, Tierui; Chu, Paul K.; An, Qi; Zhang, Yihe

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a core-satellite structured BiOBr-CdS photocatalyst with highly efficient photocatalytic reactivity via a facile in situ crystallization approach at room temperature. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) results reveal that the BiOBr flakes are surrounded by CdS particles. The coverage of the satellites on the surface of the BiOBr nanosheets could be controlled by changing the content of the CdS, which contributes to the enhanced level of photocatalytic performance. The UV-vis diffuse reflection spectra demonstrate that the visible light absorption of the BiOBr-CdS photocatalyst is also enhanced by the CdS loaded. The excellent structural and spectral properties endow the BiOBr-CdS heterojunctions with improved photocatalytic performance pertaining to bisphenol A (BPA) degradation and photocurrent generation. Under visible light irradiation, the optimum photocatalytic activity of BiOBr-CdS at a molar ratio of 1 : 5 (CdS/BiOBr) is almost 2.8 times and 24.6 times as high as that of pure BiOBr and CdS. The remarkably enhanced photoreactivity should be attributed to the match in the energy levels and close core-satellite structural coupling between the CdS and BiOBr, which greatly facilitates the separation and transfer of photoinduced electron-hole pairs, as confirmed by photoluminescence (PL) and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). The present work sheds new light on the construction of highly efficient core-satellite heterojunctional photocatalysts for practical applications.We demonstrate the fabrication of a core-satellite structured BiOBr-CdS photocatalyst with highly efficient photocatalytic reactivity via a facile in situ crystallization approach at room temperature. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) results reveal that the BiOBr flakes are surrounded by CdS particles. The coverage of

  4. Unprecedented photocatalytic activity of carbon coated/MoO3 core-shell nanoheterostructurs under visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffar, Iqra; Warsi, Muhammad Farooq; Shahid, Muhammad; Shakir, Imran

    2016-05-01

    We reveal that nano-scale carbon layer deposited by hydrothermal process on molybdenum oxide (MoO3) nanowires surface significantly improve the light absorption range. Furthermore, the graphene-carbon coated MoO3 nanocopmosite (rGO/C-MoO3 nanocomposite) exhibits excellent chemical stability and enhanced photocatalytic activity for methylene blue in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation compared to the bare MoO3 nanowires and carbon coated MoO3 nanowires (C-MoO3 nanowires). The enhanced photocatalytic activity of rGO/C-MoO3 nanocomposite could be attributed to the extended light absorption range, better adsorptivity of dye molecules and efficient separation of photogenerated electrons and holes. Overall, this work provides new insights that the as synthesized rGO/C-MoO3 nanocomposite can be efficiently used as high performance photocatalysts to improve the environmental protection issues under visible light irradiation.

  5. Design study of an air pump and integral lift engine ALF-504 using the Lycoming 502 core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauch, D.

    1972-01-01

    Design studies were conducted for an integral lift fan engine utilizing the Lycoming 502 fan core with the final MQT power turbine. The fan is designed for a 12.5 bypass ratio and 1.25:1 pressure ratio, and provides supercharging for the core. Maximum sea level static thrust is 8370 pounds with a specific fuel consumption of 0.302 lb/hr-lb. The dry engine weight without starter is 1419 pounds including full-length duct and sound-attenuating rings. The engine envelope including duct treatment but not localized accessory protrusion is 53.25 inches in diameter and 59.2 inches long from exhaust nozzle exit to fan inlet flange. Detailed analyses include fan aerodynamics, fan and reduction gear mechanical design, fan dynamic analysis, engine noise analysis, engine performance, and weight analysis.

  6. In situ crystallization for fabrication of a core-satellite structured BiOBr-CdS heterostructure with excellent visible-light-responsive photoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuxi; Huang, Hongwei; He, Ying; Tian, Na; Zhang, Tierui; Chu, Paul K; An, Qi; Zhang, Yihe

    2015-07-21

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a core-satellite structured BiOBr-CdS photocatalyst with highly efficient photocatalytic reactivity via a facile in situ crystallization approach at room temperature. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) results reveal that the BiOBr flakes are surrounded by CdS particles. The coverage of the satellites on the surface of the BiOBr nanosheets could be controlled by changing the content of the CdS, which contributes to the enhanced level of photocatalytic performance. The UV-vis diffuse reflection spectra demonstrate that the visible light absorption of the BiOBr-CdS photocatalyst is also enhanced by the CdS loaded. The excellent structural and spectral properties endow the BiOBr-CdS heterojunctions with improved photocatalytic performance pertaining to bisphenol A (BPA) degradation and photocurrent generation. Under visible light irradiation, the optimum photocatalytic activity of BiOBr-CdS at a molar ratio of 1 : 5 (CdS/BiOBr) is almost 2.8 times and 24.6 times as high as that of pure BiOBr and CdS. The remarkably enhanced photoreactivity should be attributed to the match in the energy levels and close core-satellite structural coupling between the CdS and BiOBr, which greatly facilitates the separation and transfer of photoinduced electron-hole pairs, as confirmed by photoluminescence (PL) and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). The present work sheds new light on the construction of highly efficient core-satellite heterojunctional photocatalysts for practical applications. PMID:26102357

  7. Study of Cherenkov Light Lateral Distribution Function Around the Knee Region in Extensive Air Showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Rubaiee, A.; Hashim, U.; Marwah, M.; Al-Douri, Y.

    2015-06-01

    The Cherenkov light lateral distribution function (LDF) was simulated with the CORSIKA code in the energy range (10^{13} - 10^{16}) eV. This simulation was performed for conditions and configurations of the Tunka EAS Cherenkov array for the two primary particles (p and Fe). Basing on the simulated results, many approximated functions are structured for two primary particles and different zenith angles. This allowed us to reconstruct the EAS events, which is, to determine the type and energy of the primary particles that produced showers from signal amplitudes of Cherenkov radiation measured by the Tunka Cherenkov array experiment. Comparison of the calculated LDF of Cherenkov radiation with that measured at the Tunka EAS array shows the ability to identify the primary particle that initiated the EAS cascades by determining its primary energy around the knee region of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  8. Semi-transparent all-oxide ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on ZnO/NiO-core/shell nanowires.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhi-Feng; Xu, Ting-Ting; Wu, Di; Zhang, Yuan-Tao; Zhang, Bao-Lin; Tian, Yong-Tao; Li, Xin-Jian; Du, Guo-Tong

    2016-05-21

    Semi-transparent all-oxide light-emitting diodes based on ZnO/NiO-core/shell nanowire structures were prepared on double-polished c-Al2O3 substrates. The entire heterojunction diode showed an average transparency of ∼65% in the ultraviolet and visible regions. Under forward bias, the diode displayed an intense ultraviolet emission at ∼382 nm, and its electroluminescence performance was remarkable in terms of a low emission onset, acceptable operating stability, and the ability to optically excite emissive semiconductor nanoparticle chromophores. PMID:27142941

  9. Identification of a Single Light Atom within a Multinuclear Metal Cluster using Valence-to-Core X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Jaime, Mario Ulises; Dible, Benjamin R.; Chiang, Karen P.; Brennessel, William W.; Bergmann, Uwe; Holland, Patrick L.

    2011-01-01

    Iron valence-to-core Fe Kβ x-ray emission spectroscopy (V2C XES) is established as a means to identify light atoms (C. N, O) within complex multimetallic frameworks. The ability to distinguish light atoms, particularly in the presence of heavier atoms, is a well-known limitation of both crystallography and EXAFS. Using the sensitivity of V2C XES to the ionization potential of the bound ligand energetic shifts of ~10 eV in the ligand 2s ionization energies of bound C, N and O may be observed. As V2C XES is a high-energy X-ray method, it is readily applicable to samples in any physical form. This method thus has great potential for application to multimetallic inorganic frameworks involved in both small molecule storage and activation. PMID:21954894

  10. White Light Demonstration of One Hundred Parts per Billion Irradiance Suppression in Air by New Starshade Occulters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinton, Douglas B.; Cash, Webster C.; Gleason, Brian; Kaiser, Michael J.; Levine, Sara A.; Lo, Amy S.; Schindhelm, Eric; Shipley, Ann F.

    2007-01-01

    A new mission concept for the direct imaging of exo-solar planets called the New Worlds Observer (NWO) has been proposed. The concept involves flying a meter-class space telescope in formation with a newly-conceived, specially-shaped, deployable star-occulting shade several meters across at a separation of some tens of thousands of kilometers. The telescope would make its observations from behind the starshade in a volume of high suppression of incident irradiance from the star around which planets orbit. The required level of irradiance suppression created by the starshade for an efficacious mission is of order 0.1 to 10 parts per billion in broadband light. This paper discusses the experimental setup developed to accurately measure the suppression ratio of irradiance produced at the null position behind candidate starshade forms to these levels. It also presents results of broadband measurements which demonstrated suppression levels of just under 100 parts per billion in air using the Sun as a light source. Analytical modeling of spatial irradiance distributions surrounding the null are presented and compared with photographs of irradiance captured in situ behind candidate starshades.

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF INELASTIC NEUTRINO REACTIONS WITH LIGHT NUCLEI ON THE STANDING ACCRETION SHOCK INSTABILITY IN CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Furusawa, Shun; Nagakura, Hiroki; Yamada, Shoichi; Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke

    2013-09-01

    We perform numerical experiments to investigate the influence of inelastic neutrino reactions with light nuclei on the standing accretion shock instability (SASI). The time evolution of shock waves is calculated with a simple light-bulb approximation for the neutrino transport and a multi-nuclei equation of state. The neutrino absorptions and inelastic interactions with deuterons, tritons, helions, and alpha particles are taken into account in the hydrodynamical simulations. In addition, the effects of ordinary charged-current interactions with nucleons is addressed in the simulations. Axial symmetry is assumed but no equatorial symmetry is imposed. We show that the heating rates of deuterons reach as high as {approx}10% of those of nucleons around the bottom of the gain region. On the other hand, alpha particles are heated near the shock wave, which is important when the shock wave expands and the density and temperature of matter become low. It is also found that the models with heating by light nuclei evolve differently in the non-linear phase of SASI than do models that lack heating by light nuclei. This result is because matter in the gain region has a varying density and temperature and therefore sub-regions appear that are locally rich in deuterons and alpha particles. Although the light nuclei are never dominant heating sources and they work favorably for shock revival in some cases and unfavorably in other cases, they are non-negligible and warrant further investigation.

  12. Experimental study of the types of cavitation by air seeding using light microscopy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fanyi; Cheng, Yanxia; Zhang, Li; Gao, Rongfu; Shao, Xuemeng

    2015-12-01

    Recently, three types of cavitation: (i) expanding gradually; (ii) expanding-exploding, becoming a long-shaped bubble-lengthening by degrees; (iii) suddenly exploding and fully filling the conduit instantly, were proposed. Directed by this theory, experiments were performed using light microscopy to study the natural drying processes of xylem sections of Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco. Three different phenomena of gas filling process in conduits were captured by replaying recorded videos. The first phenomenon is that a bubble emerging in a conduit expands and elongates gradually to fill the conduit. The second phenomenon is that a bubble emerging in a conduit expands gradually, and then suddenly becomes long-shaped, and extends continuously. The third phenomenon is that a bubble instantly fully fills a conduit. This paper suggests in these experiments that after losing the bulk water of a section, as the water stress of that section became more severe, the water pressures of different conduits of the section were not necessarily the same, and as time went on, the water pressures decreased constantly. Considering some practical factors, the three phenomena captured in our experiment are explained by our theory. PMID:26338303

  13. Manipulation of coherent Stokes light by transient stimulated Raman scattering in gas filled hollow-core PCF.

    PubMed

    Chugreev, Alexey; Nazarkin, Alexander; Abdolvand, Amir; Nold, Johannes; Podlipensky, Alexander; Russell, Philip St J

    2009-05-25

    Transient stimulated Raman scattering is investigated in methane-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. Using frequency-chirped ps-pulses at 1.06 microm as pump and tunable CW-radiation as Stokes seed, the vibrational excitation of the CH(4) molecules can be controlled on the sub T(2) time-scale. In this way the generated Stokes pulse can be phase-locked to the pump pulse and its spectrum manipulated. PMID:19466132

  14. Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Audin, L.

    1994-12-31

    EPAct covers a vast territory beyond lighting and, like all legislation, also contains numerous {open_quotes}favors,{close_quotes} compromises, and even some sleight-of-hand. Tucked away under Title XIX, for example, is an increase from 20% to 28% tax on gambling winnings, effective January 1, 1993 - apparently as a way to help pay for new spending listed elsewhere in the bill. Overall, it is a landmark piece of legislation, about a decade overdue. It remains to be seen how the Federal Government will enforce upgrading of state (or even their own) energy codes. There is no mention of funding for {open_quotes}energy police{close_quotes} in EPAct. Merely creating such a national standard, however, provides a target for those who sincerely wish to create an energy-efficient future.

  15. Two lighter than air systems in opposing flight regimes: An unmanned short haul, heavy load transport balloon and a manned, light payload airship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohl, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Lighter Than Air vehicles are generally defined or categorized by the shape of the balloon, payload capacity and operational flight regime. Two balloon systems that are classed as being in opposite categories are described. One is a cable guided, helium filled, short haul, heavy load transport Lighter Than Air system with a natural shaped envelope. The other is a manned, aerodynamic shaped airship which utilizes hot air as the buoyancy medium and is in the light payload class. While the airship is in the design/fabrication phase with flight tests scheduled for the latter part of 1974, the transport balloon system has been operational for some eight years.

  16. Semi-transparent all-oxide ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on ZnO/NiO-core/shell nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhi-Feng; Xu, Ting-Ting; Wu, Di; Zhang, Yuan-Tao; Zhang, Bao-Lin; Tian, Yong-Tao; Li, Xin-Jian; Du, Guo-Tong

    2016-05-01

    Semi-transparent all-oxide light-emitting diodes based on ZnO/NiO-core/shell nanowire structures were prepared on double-polished c-Al2O3 substrates. The entire heterojunction diode showed an average transparency of ~65% in the ultraviolet and visible regions. Under forward bias, the diode displayed an intense ultraviolet emission at ~382 nm, and its electroluminescence performance was remarkable in terms of a low emission onset, acceptable operating stability, and the ability to optically excite emissive semiconductor nanoparticle chromophores.Semi-transparent all-oxide light-emitting diodes based on ZnO/NiO-core/shell nanowire structures were prepared on double-polished c-Al2O3 substrates. The entire heterojunction diode showed an average transparency of ~65% in the ultraviolet and visible regions. Under forward bias, the diode displayed an intense ultraviolet emission at ~382 nm, and its electroluminescence performance was remarkable in terms of a low emission onset, acceptable operating stability, and the ability to optically excite emissive semiconductor nanoparticle chromophores. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07236k

  17. Investigation of indium gallium nitride facet-dependent nonpolar growth rates and composition for core-shell light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gîrgel, Ionut; Edwards, Paul R.; Le Boulbar, Emmanuel; Coulon, Pierre-Marie; Sahonta, Suman-Lata; Allsopp, Duncan W. E.; Martin, Robert W.; Humphreys, Colin J.; Shields, Philip A.

    2016-01-01

    Core-shell indium gallium nitride (InGaN)/gallium nitride (GaN) structures are attractive as light emitters due to the large nonpolar surface of rod-like cores with their longitudinal axis aligned along the c-direction. These facets do not suffer from the quantum-confined Stark effect that limits the thickness of quantum wells and efficiency in conventional light-emitting devices. Understanding InGaN growth on these submicron three-dimensional structures is important to optimize optoelectronic device performance. In this work, the influence of reactor parameters was determined and compared. GaN nanorods (NRs) with both {11-20} a-plane and {10-10} m-plane nonpolar facets were prepared to investigate the impact of metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy reactor parameters on the characteristics of a thick (38 to 85 nm) overgrown InGaN shell. The morphology and optical emission properties of the InGaN layers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging. The study reveals that reactor pressure has an important impact on the InN mole fraction on the {10-10} m-plane facets, even at a reduced growth rate. The sample grown at 750°C and 100 mbar had an InN mole fraction of 25% on the {10-10} facets of the NRs.

  18. Delivery of high energy Er:YAG pulsed laser light at 2.94 µm through a silica hollow core photonic crystal fibre.

    PubMed

    Urich, A; Maier, R R J; Mangan, B J; Renshaw, S; Knight, J C; Hand, D P; Shephard, J D

    2012-03-12

    In this paper the delivery of high power Er:YAG laser pulses through a silica hollow core photonic crystal fibre is demonstrated. The Er:YAG wavelength of 2.94 µm is well beyond the normal transmittance of bulk silica but the unique hollow core guidance allows silica to guide in this regime. We have demonstrated for the first time the ability to deliver high energy pulses through an all-silica fibre at 2.94 µm. These silica fibres are mechanically and chemically robust, biocompatible and have low sensitivity to bending. A maximum pulse energy of 14 mJ at 2.94 µm was delivered through the fibre. This, to our knowledge, is the first time a silica hollow core photonic crystal fibre has been shown to transmit 2.94 μm laser light at a fluence exceeding the thresholds required for modification (e.g. cutting and drilling) of hard biological tissue. Consequently, laser delivery systems based on these fibres have the potential for the realization of novel, minimally-invasive surgical procedures. PMID:22418551

  19. Electrical current leakage and open-core threading dislocations in AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, Michael Allerman, Andrew; Crawford, Mary; Wierer, Jonathan J.; Smith, Michael; Biedermann, Laura

    2014-08-07

    Electrical current transport through leakage paths in AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet (DUV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and their effect on LED performance are investigated. Open-core threading dislocations, or nanopipes, are found to conduct current through nominally insulating Al{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}N layers and limit the performance of DUV-LEDs. A defect-sensitive phosphoric acid etch reveals these open-core threading dislocations in the form of large, micron-scale hexagonal etch pits visible with optical microscopy, while closed-core screw-, edge-, and mixed-type threading dislocations are represented by smaller and more numerous nanometer-scale pits visible by atomic-force microscopy. The electrical and optical performances of DUV-LEDs fabricated on similar Si-doped Al{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}N templates are found to have a strong correlation to the density of these nanopipes, despite their small fraction (<0.1% in this study) of the total density of threading dislocations.

  20. Light Water Breeder end-of-life component examinations at Shippingport Atomic Power Station and module visual and dimensional examinations at Expended Core Facility (LWBR Development Program)

    SciTech Connect

    Wargo, J.E.

    1987-10-01

    This report presents highlights of visual and dimensional examinations of the Light Water Breeder Reactor fuel assemblies and selected core components following five years of power operation in which the core achieved 29,047 effective full power hours. Each type of fuel assembly (seed, blanket, and reflector) is described, and the end-of-life conditions are documented in photographs and data plots. Fuel modules were examined immediately after removal from the reactor vessel at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station and after shipment to the Expended Core Facility at the Naval Reactors Facility in Idaho. Further inspection was performed on one seed and one reflector assembly after their external support shells were removed. Module length changes and bow data are presented for selected assemblies. Structural component examinations include magnetic particle testing and ultrasonic test inspection of the LWBR reactor vessel closure head. Visual inspections were also performed on compression sleeves and guide tube extensions which formed part of the guide path for the movable fuel assemblies. 4 refs., 103 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Bright white-light emission from Ag/SiO2/CdS-ZnS core/shell/shell plasmon couplers.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chen; Tang, Luping; Gao, Xiaoqin; Xu, Ruilin; Zhang, Huichao; Yu, Yongya; Lu, Changgui; Cui, Yiping; Zhang, Jiayu

    2015-12-28

    Well-defined plasmon couplers (PCs) that comprise a Ag core overcoated with a SiO(2) shell with controlled thickness, followed by a monolayer of CdS-ZnS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized to modify the emission from trap-rich CdS-ZnS QDs by adjusting the distance between the QDs and Ag nanoparticles (NPs). When the thickness of the SiO(2) shell was 10 nm, because the shell could effectively suppress the non-radiative energy transfer from the semiconductor QDs to the metal NPs and the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the Ag NPs spectrally matched the emission peak of the CdS-ZnS QDs to bring about strong plasmon coupling, optimum enhancements of the surface state emission (SSE) (17 times) and band-edge emission (BEE) (4 times) were simultaneously realized and the SSE to BEE intensity ratio was increased to 55%. As a result, a bright white-light source with 1931 Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates of (0.32, 0.34) was realized by the superposition of the two emissions. The experimental results from Ag/SiO(2)/CdSe-ZnS and the Ag/SiO(2)/CdS:Mn-ZnS core/shell/shell PCs indicated that suppressing the non-radiative decay rate (k(nr)) was the underlying mechanism for plasmon coupling fluorescence enhancement. PMID:26592756

  2. Bright white-light emission from Ag/SiO2/CdS-ZnS core/shell/shell plasmon couplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Chen; Tang, Luping; Gao, Xiaoqin; Xu, Ruilin; Zhang, Huichao; Yu, Yongya; Lu, Changgui; Cui, Yiping; Zhang, Jiayu

    2015-12-01

    Well-defined plasmon couplers (PCs) that comprise a Ag core overcoated with a SiO2 shell with controlled thickness, followed by a monolayer of CdS-ZnS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized to modify the emission from trap-rich CdS-ZnS QDs by adjusting the distance between the QDs and Ag nanoparticles (NPs). When the thickness of the SiO2 shell was 10 nm, because the shell could effectively suppress the non-radiative energy transfer from the semiconductor QDs to the metal NPs and the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the Ag NPs spectrally matched the emission peak of the CdS-ZnS QDs to bring about strong plasmon coupling, optimum enhancements of the surface state emission (SSE) (17 times) and band-edge emission (BEE) (4 times) were simultaneously realized and the SSE to BEE intensity ratio was increased to 55%. As a result, a bright white-light source with 1931 Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates of (0.32, 0.34) was realized by the superposition of the two emissions. The experimental results from Ag/SiO2/CdSe-ZnS and the Ag/SiO2/CdS:Mn-ZnS core/shell/shell PCs indicated that suppressing the non-radiative decay rate (knr) was the underlying mechanism for plasmon coupling fluorescence enhancement.

  3. Growth Kinetics, Carbohydrate, and Leaf Phosphate Content of Clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) after Transfer to a High CO2 Atmosphere or to High Light and Ambient Air 1

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Francoise; André, Marcel; Betsche, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    Intact air-grown (photosynthetic photon flux density, 400 microeinsteins per square meter per second) clover plants (Trifolium subterraneum L.) were transfered to high CO2 (4000 microliters CO2 per liter; photosynthetic photon flux density, 400 microeinsteins per square meter per second) or to high light (340 microliters CO2 per liter; photosynthetic photon flux density, 800 microeinsteins per square meter per second) to similarly stimulate photosynthetic net CO2 uptake. The daily increment of net CO2 uptake declined transiently in high CO2, but not in high light, below the values in air/standard light. After about 3 days in high CO2, the daily increment of net CO2 uptake increased but did not reach the high light values. Nightly CO2 release increased immediately in high light, whereas there was a 3-day lag phase in high CO2. During this time, starch accumulated to a high level, and leaf deterioration was observed only in high CO2. After 12 days, starch was two- to threefold higher in high CO2 than in high light, whereas sucrose was similar. Leaf carbohydrates were determined during the first and fourth day in high CO2. Starch increased rapidly throughout the day. Early in the day, sucrose was low and similar in high CO2 and ambient air (same light). Later, sucrose increased considerably in high CO2. The findings that (a) much more photosynthetic carbon was partitioned into the leaf starch pool in high CO2 than in high light, although net CO2 uptake was similar, and that (b) rapid starch formation occurred in high CO2 even when leaf sucrose was only slightly elevated suggest that low sink capacity was not the main constraint in high CO2. It is proposed that carbon partitioning between starch (chloroplast) and sucrose (cytosol) was perturbed by high CO2 because of the lack of photorespiration. Total phosphate pools were determined in leaves. Concentrations based on fresh weight of orthophosphate, soluble esterified phosphate, and total phosphate markedly declined

  4. Visible-Light-Responsive Catalysts Using Quantum Dot-Modified TiO2 for Air and Water Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Hintze, Paul E.; Clausen, Christian; Richards, Jeffrey Todd

    2014-01-01

    Photocatalysis, the oxidation or reduction of contaminants by light-activated catalysts, utilizing titanium dioxide (TiO2) as the catalytic substrate has been widely studied for trace contaminant control in both air and water applications. The interest in this process is due primarily to its low energy consumption and capacity for catalyst regeneration. Titanium dioxide requires ultraviolet light for activation due to its relatively large band gap energy of 3.2 eV. Traditionally, Hg-vapor fluorescent light sources are used in PCO reactors; however, the use of mercury precludes the use of this PCO technology in a spaceflight environment due to concerns over crew Hg exposure. The development of a visible-light responsive (VLR) TiO2-based catalyst would eliminate the concerns over mercury contamination. Further, VLR development would allow for the use of ambient visible solar radiation or highly efficient LEDs, both of which would make PCO approaches more efficient, flexible, economical, and safe. Though VLR catalyst development has been an active area of research for the past two decades, there are few commercially available VLR catalysts. Those VLR catalysts that are commercially available do not have adequate catalytic activity, in the visible region, to make them competitive with those operating under UV irradiation. This study was initiated to develop more effective VLR catalysts through a novel method in which quantum dots (QD) consisting of narrow band gap semiconductors (e.g., CdS, CdSe, PbS, ZnSe, etc.) are coupled to TiO2 via two preparation methods: 1) photodeposition and 2) mechanical alloying using a high-speed ball mill. A library of catalysts was developed and screened for gas and aqueous phase applications using ethanol and 4-chlorophenol as the target contaminants, respectively. Both target compounds are well studied in photocatalytic systems and served as model contaminants for this research. Synthesized catalysts were compared in terms of

  5. Hot prominence detected in the core of a coronal mass ejection: Analysis of SOHO/UVCS Lα and SOHO/LASCO visible-light observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzel, P.; Susino, R.; Jejčič, S.; Bemporad, A.; Anzer, U.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The paper deals with the physics of erupting prominences in the core of coronal mass ejections (CME). Aims: We determine the physical parameters of an erupting prominence embedded in the core of a CME using SOHO/UVCS hydrogen Lα and Lβ lines and SOHO/LASCO visible light observations. In particular we analyze the CME event observed on August 2, 2000. We develop the non-LTE (NLTE; i.e. considering departures from the local thermodynamic equilibrium - LTE) spectral diagnostics based on Lα and visible light observations. Methods: Our method is based on 1D NLTE modeling of eruptive prominences and takes into account the effect of large flow velocities, which reach up to 300 km s-1 for the studied event (the so-called Doppler dimming). The NLTE radiative-transfer method can be used for both optically thin and thick prominence structures. We combine spectroscopic UVCS observations of an erupting prominence in the core of a CME with visible light images from LASCO-C2 in order to derive the geometrical parameters like projected thickness and velocity, together with the effective temperature and column density of electrons. These are then used to constrain our NLTE radiative transfer modeling which provides the kinetic temperature, microturbulent velocity, gas pressure, ionization degree, the line opacities, and the prominence effective thickness (geometrical filling factor). Results: Analysis was made for 69 observational points (spatial pixels) inside the whole erupting prominence. Roughly one-half of them show a non-negligible Lα optical thickness for flow velocity 300 km s-1 and about one-third for flow velocity 150 km s-1. All pixels with Lατ0 ≤ 0.3 have been considered for further analysis, which is presented in the form of statistical distributions (histograms) of various physical quantities such as the kinetic temperature, gas pressure, and electron density for two representative flow velocities (150 and 300 km s-1) and non-zero microturbulence. For

  6. Hollow-Core Fiber Lamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Lin (Inventor); Tjoelker, Robert L. (Inventor); Burt, Eric A. (Inventor); Huang, Shouhua (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Hollow-core capillary discharge lamps on the millimeter or sub-millimeter scale are provided. The hollow-core capillary discharge lamps achieve an increased light intensity ratio between 194 millimeters (useful) and 254 millimeters (useless) light than conventional lamps. The capillary discharge lamps may include a cone to increase light output. Hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF) may also be used.

  7. High birefringent rectangular-lattice photonic crystal fibers with low confinement loss employing different sizes of elliptical air holes in the cladding and the core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Jianfei; Sun, Junqiang

    2012-12-01

    Based on the full-vector finite element method with anisotropic perfectly matched layers, modal birefringence and confinement loss for the fundamental mode in rectangular-lattice photonic crystal fibers with different sizes of elliptical air holes in the cladding and the core are investigated numerically. The results show that the modal birefringence in this proposed photonic crystal fibers can be up to 5.64 × 10-2 at the wavelength of 1.55 μm. Moreover, when the birefringence is higher than 4 × 10-2, the confinement loss of x-polarized mode can be kept less than 0.005 dB/km at 1.55 μm. It means that the tradeoff between the high birefringence and the low confinement loss is overcome.

  8. Banded transformer cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W. T. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A banded transformer core formed by positioning a pair of mated, similar core halves on a supporting pedestal. The core halves are encircled with a strap, selectively applying tension whereby a compressive force is applied to the core edge for reducing the innate air gap. A dc magnetic field is employed in supporting the core halves during initial phases of the banding operation, while an ac magnetic field subsequently is employed for detecting dimension changes occurring in the air gaps as tension is applied to the strap.

  9. Revolutionizing the FRET-based light emission in core-shell nanostructures via comprehensive activity of surface plasmons.

    PubMed

    Kochuveedu, Saji Thomas; Son, Taehwang; Lee, Youmin; Lee, Minyung; Kim, Donghyun; Kim, Dong Ha

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the surface-plasmon-induced enhancement of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)using a model multilayer core-shell nanostructure consisting of an Au core and surrounding FRET pairs, i.e., CdSe quantum dot donors and S101 dye acceptors. The multilayer configuration was demonstrated to exhibit synergistic effects of surface plasmon energy transfer from the metal to the CdSe and plasmon-enhanced FRET from the quantum dots to the dye. With precise control over the distance between the components in the nanostructure, significant improvement in the emission of CdSe was achieved by combined resonance energy transfer and near-field enhancement by the metal, as well as subsequent improvement in the emission of dye induced by the enhanced emission of CdSe. Consequently, the Förster radius was increased to 7.92 nm and the FRET efficiency was improved to 86.57% in the tailored plasmonic FRET nanostructure compared to the conventional FRET system (22.46%) without plasmonic metals. PMID:24751860

  10. Effective photocatalytic dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol by a novel graphene encapsulated ZnO/Co3O4 core-shell hybrid under visible light.

    PubMed

    Rakibuddin, Md; Ananthakrishnan, Rajakumar

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, a graphene encapsulated ZnO/Co3O4 (GE/ZnO/Co3O4) core-shell hybrid is fabricated through a facile self-assembly approach, where the mutual electrostatic interaction force drives the ZnO/Co3O4 heteronanostructures to be fully wrapped with flexible ultrathin graphene shells. The as-prepared GE/ZnO/Co3O4 core-shell hybrid is characterized and exhibits excellent visible light photocatalytic ability toward dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) in the aqueous phase. It is worth noting that 2,4-DCP is almost completely mineralized into CO2 and H2O by the GE/ZnO/Co3O4 after 5 h of a photocatalytic reaction. This type of higher dechlorination and mineralization efficiency of 2,4-DCP is not generally observed, and is found to be higher than some previous studies. The dechlorination of 2,4-DCP has been achieved under different parametric conditions. The unique architecture of the GE/ZnO/Co3O4 core-shell hybrid also provides high stability and recyclability towards degradation of 2,4-DCP. The higher photocatalytic activity of the hybrid can be ascribed to the synergistic effect of ZnO, Co3O4 and graphene, and also by an increase in the contact surface between the metal oxide core and the graphene shell, which acts as a continuous path for rapid electron transport to offer a greater number of reactive species. PMID:26677128

  11. Air stable organic salt as an n-type dopant for efficient and stable organic light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Bin, Zhengyang; Duan, Lian; Qiu, Yong

    2015-04-01

    Air-stable and low-temperature-evaporable n-type dopants are highly desired for efficient and stable organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this work, 2-(2-Methoxyphenyl)-1,3-dimethyl-1H-benzoimidazol-3-ium iodide (o-MeO-DMBI-I), a thermally decomposable precursor of organic radical o-MeO-DMBI, has been employed as a novel n-type dopant in OLEDs, because of its air stability, low decomposition temperature, and lack of atom diffusion. The n-type electrical doping is evidenced by the rapid increase in current density of electron-only devices and the large improvement in conductivity, originated from increased electron concentration in electron-transport layer (ETL) and reduced electron injection barrier. A highly efficient and stable OLED is created using o-MeO-DMBI as an n-type dopant in Bphen. Compared with the control device with its high-temperature-evaporable n-type dopant cesium carbonate (Cs2CO3), o-MeO-DMBI-doped device showed an incredible boom in current efficiency from 28.6 to 42.2 cd/A. Moreover, the lifetime (T(70%)) of o-MeO-DMBI-doped device is 45 h, more than 20 times longer than that of the Cs2CO3-doped device (2 h). The enhanced efficiency and stability are attributed to the improved balance of holes and electrons in the emissive layer, and the eliminated atom diffusion of cesium. PMID:25768295

  12. OWL-Orbital Wide-angle Light-collector for the air watch program, and multiple OWL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Mohri, Mamoru; Dimmock, John O.; Hillman, Lloyd W.; Hadaway, James B.; Lamb, David J.; Handa, Toshihiro

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will revolutionize scientific experimentation by providing a platform upon which some of the most ambitious projects yet conceived may be constructed, operated, and deployed. The Orbiting Wide-angle Light-collector (OWL-Airwatch) is a proposed space-based extensive air shower observatory which will detect a significant number of cosmic rays with energies above 1020 eV (Takahashi, 1996; Streitmatter, 1998; DeMarzo, 1998). A complete understanding of the origins and propagation of these particles may only be possible by introducing new and exotic physical mechanisms, and OWL-Airwatch may provide the first definitive evidence for the existence and decay of topological defects and other such exotic phenomena. There also exists the possibility of detecting high energy neutrinos as well as observing the effects of quantum gravity with the OWL-Airwatch instrument. Although the first OWL-Airwatch mission is planned as a free-flying observatory, its scientific abilities can be greatly enhanced by moving to a so-called multi-OWL configuration with the resources available on the ISS. The current OWL-Airwatch mission will observe nitrogen fluorescence resulting from cosmic ray induced extensive air showers in the earth's atmosphere. Observing from space enables a large enough portion of the earth to be viewed such that a statistically significant number of the rare highest energy events can be detected within the life span of the mission. A second phase multi-OWL system fabricated and assembled on the ISS would further increase the threshold and statistics of the OWL-Airwatch mission. In this scheme, as many as seven OWL-Airwatch instruments would be assembled and deployed from the ISS. These seven units would cover the entire horizon of the earth's atmosphere at an orbit of 1000 km and would accurately map the cosmic ray spectrum beyond 1021 eV. .

  13. THE MID-INFRARED LIGHT CURVE OF NEARBY CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA SN 2011dh (PTF 11eon)

    SciTech Connect

    Helou, George; Surace, Jason; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Ofek, Eran O.; Arcavi, Iair; Gal-Yam, Avishay

    2013-11-20

    We present Spitzer observations at 3.6 and 4.5 μm of the supernova SN 2011dh (PTF 11eon) in M51 from 18 days to 625 days after explosion. The mid-infrared emission peaks at 24 days after explosion at a few ×10{sup 7} L {sub ☉}, and decays more slowly than the visible-light bolometric luminosity. The infrared color temperature cools for the first 90 days and then is constant. Simple numerical models of a thermal echo can qualitatively reproduce the early behavior. At late times, the mid-IR light curve cannot be explained by a simple thermal echo model, suggesting additional dust heating or line emission mechanisms. We also propose that thermal echoes can serve as effective probes to uncover supernovae in heavily obscured environments, and speculate that under the right conditions, integrating the early epoch of the mid-infrared light curve may constrain the total energy in the shock breakout flash.

  14. Light and scanning electron microscopic study on the lingual papillae and their connective tissue cores of the Cape hyrax Procavia capensis

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Ken; Hama, Natsuki; Shindo, Junji; Kobayashi, Kan; Kageyama, Ikuo

    2008-01-01

    We examined the epithelial surface and connective tissue cores (CTCs) of each lingual papilla on the Paenungulata, Cape hyrax (Procavia capensis), by scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. The tongue consisted of a lingual apex, lingual body and lingual root. Filiform, fungiform and foliate papillae were observed on the dorsal surface of the tongue; however, fungiform papillae were quite diminished on the lingual prominence. Moreover, no clearly distinguishable vallate papillae were found on the tongue. Instead of vallate papillae, numerous dome-like large fungiform papillae were arranged in a row just in front of the rather large foliate papillae. Foliate papillae were situated in the one-third postero-lateral margin of the lingual body. The epithelium of filiform papillae was covered by a keratinized layer with kerato-hyaline granules, whereas weak keratinization was observed on the interpapillary epithelium. The external surface of the filiform papillae was conical in shape. CTCs of the filiform papillae were seen as a hood-like core with a semicircular concavity in the anterior portion of each core. Large filiform papillae were distributed on the lingual prominence. The CTCs of large filiform papillae after exfoliation of their epithelium consisted of a concave primary core and were associated with several small protrusions. The surface of fungiform papillae was smooth and dome-like. After removal of the epithelium, CTCs appeared as a flower bud-like primary core and were associated with several protrusions that were arranged on the rim of the primary core. Several taste buds were found on the top of the dorsal part of the epithelium of both fungiform and large fungiform papillae. Well-developed foliate papillae were seen and numerous taste buds could be observed in the lateral wall of the epithelium in a slit-like groove. The morphological characteristics of the tongue of the Cape hyrax had similarities with other Paenungulata such as Sirenia

  15. Direct white-light from core-shell-like sphere with Sr3Mg-Si2O8: Eu2+, Mn2+ coated on Sr2SiO4:Eu2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Deng, Jia-chun; Lu, Qi-fei; Wang, Da-jian

    2013-07-01

    A method of color mixture for white light is presented with Sr3MgSi2O8:Eu2+, Mn2+ shell coated on Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ core by spray pyrolysis procedure. Upon near ultraviolet (NUV) excitation, a 550 nm band emission of Eu2+ from core host combines with the simultaneous emissions of Eu2+ at 457 nm and Mn2+ at 683 nm based on energy transfer in the shell lattice to generate warm white light with color rendering index (CRI) of 91. With such a core-shell-like structure, the re-absorption of blue light from shell layer can be effectively suppressed, and the chemical stability of the phosphor is verified experimentally to be superior to that of the Sr2SiO4:Eu2+. This new proposed phosphor provides great potential in the color mixture of blending-free phosphor converted white NUV light emitting diode (LED) devices.

  16. Study of field-pole Bi2223 windings of air core type for a HTS propulsion motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugyo, D.; Kimura, Y.; Sano, T.; Yamaguchi, K.; Izumi, M.; Miki, M.; Ohmatu, K.; Fukumoto, Y.; Fujimoto, H.

    2008-02-01

    In the present study, we designed a field pole of Bi2223 superconductor winding without iron core applied to high-temperature superconducting (HTS) motor of an axial gap type. As the preliminary step to form a field pole winding, we designed a double-pancake-coil (DPC) and qualified relationship between the terminal voltage and the excitation current. We adopted the structure of HTS winding field pole composed of stacked two layered DPC because of effective conduction cooling and electromagnetic effect. We manufactured 16 poles DPC and verified the critical current vs. terminal voltage at 77 K with liquid nitrogen. To form a rotor, 8 field-pole HTS windings were manufactured by integrating of two DPCs as a split coil. We measured the coil Ic and voltage drop of the terminal at 30 K cooled with gas-liquid mixing helium and qualified the heat generation from the coils with DC current excitation. The cooling and excitation test of the constructed field pole coils were performed in the testing motor. The results exhibit that presently developed coils possesses sufficient performance on the heat generation and the magnetic flux density in the axial-type machine under construction.

  17. Core-shell InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes analyzed by electron beam induced current microscopy and cathodoluminescence mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchernycheva, M.; Neplokh, V.; Zhang, H.; Lavenus, P.; Rigutti, L.; Bayle, F.; Julien, F. H.; Babichev, A.; Jacopin, G.; Largeau, L.; Ciechonski, R.; Vescovi, G.; Kryliouk, O.

    2015-07-01

    We report on the electron beam induced current (EBIC) microscopy and cathodoluminescence (CL) characterization correlated with compositional analysis of light emitting diodes based on core/shell InGaN/GaN nanowire arrays. The EBIC mapping of cleaved fully operational devices allows to probe the electrical properties of the active region with a nanoscale resolution. In particular, the electrical activity of the p-n junction on the m-planes and on the semi-polar planes of individual nanowires is assessed in top view and cross-sectional geometries. The EBIC maps combined with CL characterization demonstrate the impact of the compositional gradients along the wire axis on the electrical and optical signals: the reduction of the EBIC signal toward the nanowire top is accompanied by an increase of the CL intensity. This effect is interpreted as a consequence of the In and Al gradients in the quantum well and in the electron blocking layer, which influence the carrier extraction efficiency. The interface between the nanowire core and the radially grown layer is shown to produce in some cases a transitory EBIC signal. This observation is explained by the presence of charged traps at this interface, which can be saturated by electron irradiation.We report on the electron beam induced current (EBIC) microscopy and cathodoluminescence (CL) characterization correlated with compositional analysis of light emitting diodes based on core/shell InGaN/GaN nanowire arrays. The EBIC mapping of cleaved fully operational devices allows to probe the electrical properties of the active region with a nanoscale resolution. In particular, the electrical activity of the p-n junction on the m-planes and on the semi-polar planes of individual nanowires is assessed in top view and cross-sectional geometries. The EBIC maps combined with CL characterization demonstrate the impact of the compositional gradients along the wire axis on the electrical and optical signals: the reduction of the EBIC

  18. Life cycle air quality impacts of conventional and alternative light-duty transportation in the United States

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tessum, Christopher W.; Hill, Jason D.; Marshall, Julian D.

    2014-12-30

    Commonly considered strategies for reducing the environmental impact of light-duty transportation include using alternative fuels and improving vehicle fuel economy. We evaluate the air quality-related human health impacts of 10 such options, including the use of liquid biofuels, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) in internal combustion engines; the use of electricity from a range of conventional and renewable sources to power electric vehicles (EVs); and the use of hybrid EV technology. Our approach combines spatially, temporally, and chemically detailed life cycle emission inventories; comprehensive, fine-scale state-of-the-science chemical transport modeling; and exposure, concentration–response, and economic health impact modeling for ozonemore » (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). We find that powering vehicles with corn ethanol or with coal-based or “grid average” electricity increases monetized environmental health impacts by 80% or more relative to using conventional gasoline. Conversely, EVs powered by low-emitting electricity from natural gas, wind, water, or solar power reduce environmental health impacts by 50% or more. Consideration of potential climate change impacts alongside the human health outcomes described here further reinforces the environmental preferability of EVs powered by low-emitting electricity relative to gasoline vehicles.« less

  19. Life cycle air quality impacts of conventional and alternative light-duty transportation in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jason D.; Marshall, Julian D.

    2014-01-01

    Commonly considered strategies for reducing the environmental impact of light-duty transportation include using alternative fuels and improving vehicle fuel economy. We evaluate the air quality-related human health impacts of 10 such options, including the use of liquid biofuels, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) in internal combustion engines; the use of electricity from a range of conventional and renewable sources to power electric vehicles (EVs); and the use of hybrid EV technology. Our approach combines spatially, temporally, and chemically detailed life cycle emission inventories; comprehensive, fine-scale state-of-the-science chemical transport modeling; and exposure, concentration–response, and economic health impact modeling for ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). We find that powering vehicles with corn ethanol or with coal-based or “grid average” electricity increases monetized environmental health impacts by 80% or more relative to using conventional gasoline. Conversely, EVs powered by low-emitting electricity from natural gas, wind, water, or solar power reduce environmental health impacts by 50% or more. Consideration of potential climate change impacts alongside the human health outcomes described here further reinforces the environmental preferability of EVs powered by low-emitting electricity relative to gasoline vehicles. PMID:25512510

  20. Life cycle air quality impacts of conventional and alternative light-duty transportation in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Tessum, Christopher W.; Hill, Jason D.; Marshall, Julian D.

    2014-12-30

    Commonly considered strategies for reducing the environmental impact of light-duty transportation include using alternative fuels and improving vehicle fuel economy. We evaluate the air quality-related human health impacts of 10 such options, including the use of liquid biofuels, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) in internal combustion engines; the use of electricity from a range of conventional and renewable sources to power electric vehicles (EVs); and the use of hybrid EV technology. Our approach combines spatially, temporally, and chemically detailed life cycle emission inventories; comprehensive, fine-scale state-of-the-science chemical transport modeling; and exposure, concentration–response, and economic health impact modeling for ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). We find that powering vehicles with corn ethanol or with coal-based or “grid average” electricity increases monetized environmental health impacts by 80% or more relative to using conventional gasoline. Conversely, EVs powered by low-emitting electricity from natural gas, wind, water, or solar power reduce environmental health impacts by 50% or more. Consideration of potential climate change impacts alongside the human health outcomes described here further reinforces the environmental preferability of EVs powered by low-emitting electricity relative to gasoline vehicles.

  1. Life cycle air quality impacts of conventional and alternative light-duty transportation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tessum, Christopher W; Hill, Jason D; Marshall, Julian D

    2014-12-30

    Commonly considered strategies for reducing the environmental impact of light-duty transportation include using alternative fuels and improving vehicle fuel economy. We evaluate the air quality-related human health impacts of 10 such options, including the use of liquid biofuels, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) in internal combustion engines; the use of electricity from a range of conventional and renewable sources to power electric vehicles (EVs); and the use of hybrid EV technology. Our approach combines spatially, temporally, and chemically detailed life cycle emission inventories; comprehensive, fine-scale state-of-the-science chemical transport modeling; and exposure, concentration-response, and economic health impact modeling for ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). We find that powering vehicles with corn ethanol or with coal-based or "grid average" electricity increases monetized environmental health impacts by 80% or more relative to using conventional gasoline. Conversely, EVs powered by low-emitting electricity from natural gas, wind, water, or solar power reduce environmental health impacts by 50% or more. Consideration of potential climate change impacts alongside the human health outcomes described here further reinforces the environmental preferability of EVs powered by low-emitting electricity relative to gasoline vehicles. PMID:25512510

  2. Formation of amorphous silicon passivation films with high stability against postannealing, air exposure, and light soaking using liquid silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Cheng; Ohdaira, Keisuke; Takagishi, Hideyuki; Masuda, Takashi; Shen, Zhongrong; Shimoda, Tatsuya

    2016-04-01

    We applied liquid-source vapor deposition (LVD), thermal CVD from the vapor of cyclopentasilane (CPS), to form amorphous silicon (a-Si) passivation films on crystalline Si (c-Si) wafers, and investigated the thermal stability of the films against postannealing. LVD a-Si passivation films showed a high initial effective minority carrier lifetime (τeff) of >300 µs and a higher thermal stability than a reference plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor-deposited (PECVD) sample. The high thermal stability of LVD a-Si passivation films may be attributed to the considerably high deposition temperature of the films at 360 °C or more. LVD a-Si passivation films were sufficiently stable also against air exposure and 1-sun light soaking. We also confirmed that the epitaxial growth of Si films does not occur on c-Si even at such high deposition temperatures, and LVD could realize the simultaneous deposition of a-Si films on both sides of a c-Si wafer.

  3. An efficient dye-sensitized BiOCl photocatalyst for air and water purification under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Guisheng; Jiang, Bo; Xiao, Shuning; Lian, Zichao; Zhang, Dieqing; Yu, Jimmy C; Li, Hexing

    2014-08-01

    A photosensitized BiOCl catalyst was found to be effective for photocatalytic water purification and air remediation under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). Prepared by a solvothermal method, the BiOCl crystals possessed a 3D hierarchical spherical structure with the highly active facets exposed. When sensitized by Rhodamine B (RhB), the photocatalyst system was more active than N-doped TiO2 for breaking down 4-chlorophenol (4-CP, 200 ppm) and nitric monoxide (NO, 500 ppb). The high activity could be attributed to the hierarchical structure (supplying feasible reaction tunnels for adsorption and transition of reactants or products) and the efficient exposure of the {001} facets. The former provides an enriched oxygen atom density that promotes adsorption of cationic dye RhB, and creates an oxygen vacancy state. The HO˙ and ˙O2(-) radicals produced from the injected electrons from the excited dye molecule (RhB*) into the conduction band of BiOCl were responsible for the excellent photocatalytic performance of the RhB-BiOCl system. PMID:24934740

  4. Dual-core antiresonant hollow core fibers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuesong; Fan, Zhongwei; Shi, Zhaohui; Ma, Yunfeng; Yu, Jin; Zhang, Jing

    2016-07-25

    In this work, dual-core antiresonant hollow core fibers (AR-HCFs) are numerically demonstrated, based on our knowledge, for the first time. Two fiber structures are proposed. One is a composite of two single-core nested nodeless AR-HCFs, exhibiting low confinement loss and a circular mode profile in each core. The other has a relatively simple structure, with a whole elliptical outer jacket, presenting a uniform and wide transmission band. The modal couplings of the dual-core AR-HCFs rely on a unique mechanism that transfers power through the air. The core separation and the gap between the two cores influence the modal coupling strength. With proper designs, both of the dual-core fibers can have low phase birefringence and short modal coupling lengths of several centimeters. PMID:27464191

  5. Interfacial redox reaction-directed synthesis of silver@cerium oxide core-shell nanocomposites as catalysts for rechargeable lithium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Man; Cao, Lu-Jie; Yang, Ming-Yang; Ho-Sum Cheng, Samson; Cao, Chen-Wei; Leung, Kwan-Lan; Chung, Chi-Yuen; Lu, Zhou-Guang

    2015-07-01

    A facile oxidation-reduction reaction method has been implemented to prepare pomegranate-like Ag@CeO2 multicore-shell structured nanocomposites. Under Ar atmosphere, redox reaction automatically occurs between AgNO3 and Ce(NO3)3 in an alkaline solution, where Ag+ is reduced to Ag nanopartilces and Ce3+ is simultaneously oxidized to form CeO2, followed by the self-assembly to form the pomegranate-like multicore-shell structured Ag@CeO2 nanocomposites driven by thermodynamic equilibrium. No other organic amines or surfactants are utilized in the whole reaction system and only NaOH instead of organic reducing agent is used to prevent the introduction of a secondary reducing byproduct. The as-obtained pomegranate-like Ag@CeO2 multicore-shell structured nanocomposites have been characterized as electro-catalysts for the air cathode of lithium-air batteries operated in a simulated air environment. Superior electrochemical performance with high discharge capacity of 3415 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1, stable cycling and small charge/discharge polarization voltage is achieved, which is much better than that of the CeO2 or simple mixture of CeO2 and Ag. The enhanced properties can be primarily attributed to the synergy effect between the Ag core and the CeO2 shell resulting from the unique pomegranate-like multicore-shell nanostructures possessing plenty of active sites to promote the facile formation and decomposition of Li2O2.

  6. Air-snow transfer of nitrate on the East Antarctic Plateau - Part 2: An isotopic model for the interpretation of deep ice-core records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erbland, J.; Savarino, J.; Morin, S.; France, J. L.; Frey, M. M.; King, M. D.

    2015-10-01

    Unraveling the modern budget of reactive nitrogen on the Antarctic Plateau is critical for the interpretation of ice-core records of nitrate. This requires accounting for nitrate recycling processes occurring in near-surface snow and the overlying atmospheric boundary layer. Not only concentration measurements but also isotopic ratios of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate provide constraints on the processes at play. However, due to the large number of intertwined chemical and physical phenomena involved, numerical modeling is required to test hypotheses in a quantitative manner. Here we introduce the model TRANSITS (TRansfer of Atmospheric Nitrate Stable Isotopes To the Snow), a novel conceptual, multi-layer and one-dimensional model representing the impact of processes operating on nitrate at the air-snow interface on the East Antarctic Plateau, in terms of concentrations (mass fraction) and nitrogen (δ15N) and oxygen isotopic composition (17O excess, Δ17O) in nitrate. At the air-snow interface at Dome C (DC; 75° 06' S, 123° 19' E), the model reproduces well the values of δ15N in atmospheric and surface snow (skin layer) nitrate as well as in the δ15N profile in DC snow, including the observed extraordinary high positive values (around +300 ‰) below 2 cm. The model also captures the observed variability in nitrate mass fraction in the snow. While oxygen data are qualitatively reproduced at the air-snow interface at DC and in East Antarctica, the simulated Δ17O values underestimate the observed Δ17O values by several per mill. This is explained by the simplifications made in the description of the atmospheric cycling and oxidation of NO2 as well as by our lack of understanding of the NOx chemistry at Dome C. The model reproduces well the sensitivity of δ15N, Δ17O and the apparent fractionation constants (15ϵapp, 17Eapp) to the snow accumulation rate. Building on this development, we propose a framework for the interpretation of nitrate records

  7. Air-snow transfer of nitrate on the East Antarctic plateau - Part 2: An isotopic model for the interpretation of deep ice-core records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erbland, J.; Savarino, J.; Morin, S.; France, J. L.; Frey, M. M.; King, M. D.

    2015-03-01

    Unraveling the modern budget of reactive nitrogen on the Antarctic plateau is critical for the interpretation of ice core records of nitrate. This requires accounting for nitrate recycling processes occurring in near surface snow and the overlying atmospheric boundary layer. Not only concentration measurements, but also isotopic ratios of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, provide constraints on the processes at play. However, due to the large number of intertwined chemical and physical phenomena involved, numerical modelling is required to test hypotheses in a quantitative manner. Here we introduce the model "TRansfer of Atmospheric Nitrate Stable Isotopes To the Snow" (TRANSITS), a novel conceptual, multi-layer and one-dimensional model representing the impact of processes operating on nitrate at the air-snow interface on the East Antarctic plateau, in terms of concentrations (mass fraction) and the nitrogen (δ15N) and oxygen isotopic composition (17O}-excess, Δ17O) in nitrate. At the air-snow interface at Dome C (DC, 75°06' S, 123°19' E), the model reproduces well the values of δ15N in atmospheric and surface snow (skin layer) nitrate as well as in the δ15N profile in DC snow including the observed extraordinary high positive values (around +300 ‰) below 20 unit{cm}. The model also captures the observed variability in nitrate mass fraction in the snow. While oxygen data are qualitatively reproduced at the air-snow interface at DC and in East Antarctica, the simulated Δ17O values underestimate the observed Δ17O values by a few ‰. This is explained by the simplifications made in the description of the atmospheric cycling and oxidation of NO2. The model reproduces well the sensitivity of δ15N, Δ17O and the apparent fractionation constants (15ϵapp, 17Eapp) to the snow accumulation rate. Building on this development, we propose a framework for the interpretation of nitrate records measured from ice cores. Measurement of nitrate mass fractions

  8. Light propagation characteristics in photonic crystal fibers with α-power profiles of air hole diameter distributions and their application to fiber collimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Hirohisa; Higuchi, Keiichi; Imai, Yoh

    2016-08-01

    Light propagation characteristics in photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) with α-power profiles of air hole diameter distributions were theoretically investigated. It was clarified that the intensity peak of the beam propagating in the PCF with Gaussian beam excitation varied periodically with little power attenuation. It was found that the envelope of the periodic intensity variation depended on α. We theoretically demonstrated that the PCF with the α-power profile of the air hole diameter distribution could be applied to a collimator for a conventional PCF with uniform air holes in Gaussian beam excitation to reduce coupling loss, where a PCF of appropriate length with the α-power air hole diameter distribution was spliced to a conventional PCF. It was also found that the coupling efficiency was higher for a larger α.

  9. Unraveling Surface Plasmon Decay in Core-Shell Nanostructures toward Broadband Light-Driven Catalytic Organic Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hao; Zhang, Lei; Lv, Zhiheng; Long, Ran; Zhang, Chao; Lin, Yue; Wei, Kecheng; Wang, Chengming; Chen, Lu; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Zhang, Qun; Luo, Yi; Xiong, Yujie

    2016-06-01

    Harnessing surface plasmon of metal nanostructures to promote catalytic organic synthesis holds great promise in solar-to-chemical energy conversion. High conversion efficiency relies not only on broadening the absorption spectrum but on coupling the harvested energy into chemical reactions. Such coupling undergoes hot-electron transfer and photothermal conversion during the decay of surface plasmon; however, the two plasmonic effects are unfortunately entangled, making their individual roles still under debate. Here, we report that in a model system of bimetallic Au-Pd core-shell nanostructures the two effects can be disentangled through tailoring the shell thickness at atomic-level precision. As demonstrated by our ultrafast absorption spectroscopy characterizations, the achieved tunability of the two effects in a model reaction of Pd-catalyzed organic hydrogenation offers a knob for enhancing energy coupling. In addition, the two intrinsic plasmonic modes at 400-700 and 700-1000 nm in the bar-shaped nanostructures allow for utilizing photons to a large extent in full solar spectrum. This work establishes a paradigmatic guidance toward designing plasmonic-catalytic nanomaterials for enhanced solar-to-chemical energy conversion. PMID:27175744

  10. Turning on the light within: subcortical nuclei of the isodentritic core and their role in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Theofilas, Panos; Dunlop, Sara; Heinsen, Helmut; Grinberg, Lea Tenenholz

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological interventions in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are likely to be more efficacious if administered early in the course of the disease, foregoing the spread of irreversible changes in the brain. Research findings underline an early vulnerability of the isodendritic core (IC) network to AD neurofibrillary lesions. The IC constitutes a phylogenetically conserved subcortical system including the locus coeruleus in pons, dorsal raphe nucleus and substantia nigra in the midbrain, and nucleus basalis of Meynert in basal forebrain. Through their ascending projections to the cortex, the IC neurons regulate homeostasis and behavior by synthesizing aminergic and cholinergic neurotransmitters. Here we reviewed the evidence demonstrating that neurons of the IC system show neurofibrillary tangles in the earliest stages of AD, prior to cortical pathology, and how this involvement may explain pre-amnestic symptoms, including depression, agitation and sleep disturbances in AD patients. In fact, clinical and animal studies show a significant reduction of AD cognitive and behavioral symptoms following replenishment of neurotransmitters associated with the IC network. Therefore, the IC network represents a unique candidate for viable therapeutic intervention and should become a high priority for research in AD. PMID:25720408

  11. Turning on the Light Within: Subcortical Nuclei of the Isodentritic Core and their Role in Alzheimer's Disease Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Theofilas, Panos; Dunlop, Sara; Heinsen, Helmut; Grinberg, Lea Tenenholz

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological interventions in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are likely to be more efficacious if administered early in the course of the disease, foregoing the spread of irreversible changes in the brain. Research findings underline an early vulnerability of the isodendritic core (IC) network to AD neurofibrillary lesions. The IC constitutes a phylogenetically conserved subcortical system including the locus coeruleus in pons, dorsal raphe nucleus, and substantia nigra in the midbrain, and nucleus basalis of Meynert in basal forebrain. Through their ascending projections to the cortex, the IC neurons regulate homeostasis and behavior by synthesizing aminergic and cholinergic neurotransmitters. Here we reviewed the evidence demonstrating that neurons of the IC system show neurofibrillary tangles in the earliest stages of AD, prior to cortical pathology, and how this involvement may explain pre-amnestic symptoms, including depression, agitation, and sleep disturbances in AD patients. In fact, clinical and animal studies show a significant reduction of AD cognitive and behavioral symptoms following replenishment of neurotransmitters associated with the IC network. Therefore, the IC network represents a unique candidate for viable therapeutic intervention and should become a high priority for research in AD. PMID:25720408

  12. Depolarized guided acoustic wave Brillouin scattering in hollow-core photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wenjia Elser née; Stiller, Birgit; Elser, Dominique; Heim, Bettina; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd

    2015-10-19

    By performing quantum-noise-limited optical heterodyne detection, we observe polarization noise in light after propagation through a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF). We compare the noise spectrum to the one of a standard fiber and find an increase of noise even though the light is mainly transmitted in air in a hollow-core PCF. Combined with our simulation of the acoustic vibrational modes in the hollow-core PCF, we are offering an explanation for the polarization noise with a variation of guided acoustic wave Brillouin scattering (GAWBS). Here, instead of modulating the strain in the fiber core as in a solid core fiber, the acoustic vibrations in hollow-core PCF influence the effective refractive index by modulating the geometry of the photonic crystal structure. This induces polarization noise in the light guided by the photonic crystal structure. PMID:26480433

  13. A visible-light-driven core-shell like Ag2S@Ag2CO3 composite photocatalyst with high performance in pollutants degradation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Changlin; Wei, Longfu; Zhou, Wanqin; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Zhu, Lihua; Shu, Qing; Liu, Hong

    2016-08-01

    A series of Ag2S-Ag2CO3 (4%, 8%, 16%, 32% and 40% Ag2S), Ag2CO3@Ag2S (32%Ag2S) and Ag2S@Ag2CO3 (32%Ag2S) composite photocatalysts were fabricated by coprecipitation or successive precipitation reaction. The obtained catalysts were analyzed by N2 physical adsorption, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and photocurrent test. Under visible light irradiation, the influences of Ag2S content and core-shell property on photocatalytic activity and stability were evaluated in studies focused on the degradation of methyl orange (MO) dye, phenol, and bisphenol A. Results showed that excellent photocatalytic performance was obtained over Ag2S/Ag2CO3 composite photocatalysts with respect to Ag2S and Ag2CO3. With optimal content of Ag2S (32 wt%), the Ag2S-Ag2CO3 showed the highest photocatalytic degradation efficiency. Moreover, the structured property of Ag2S/Ag2CO3 greatly influenced the activity. Compared with Ag2S-Ag2CO3 and Ag2CO3@Ag2S, core-shell like Ag2S@Ag2CO3 demonstrated the highest activity and stability. The main reason for the boosting of photocatalytic performance was due to the formation of Ag2S/Ag2CO3 well contacted interface and unique electron structures. Ag2S/Ag2CO3 interface could significantly increase the separation efficiency of the photo-generated electrons (e(-)) and holes (h(+)), and production of OH radicals. More importantly, the low solubility of Ag2S shell could effectively protect the core of Ag2CO3, which further guarantees the stability of Ag2CO3. PMID:27236845

  14. Broadband and Low-Loss Plasmonic Light Trapping in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Micrometer-Scale Rodlike and Spherical Core-Shell Plasmonic Particles.

    PubMed

    Malekshahi Byranvand, Mahdi; Nemati Kharat, Ali; Taghavinia, Nima; Dabirian, Ali

    2016-06-29

    Dielectric scattering particles have widely been used as embedded scattering elements in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) to improve the optical absorption of the device. Here we systematically study rodlike and spherical core-shell silica@Ag particles as more effective alternatives to the dielectric scattering particles. The wavelength-scale silica@Ag particles with sufficiently thin Ag shell support hybrid plasmonic-photonic resonance modes that have low parasitic absorption losses and a broadband optical response. Both of these features lead to their successful deployment in light trapping in high-efficiency DSCs. Optimized rodlike silica@Ag@silica particles improve the power conversion efficiency of a DSC from 6.33 to 8.91%. The dimension, surface morphology, and concentration of these particles are optimized to achieve maximal efficiency enhancement. The rodlike silica particles are prepared in a simple one-pot synthesis process and then are coated with Ag in a liquid-phase deposition process by reducing an Ag salt. The aspect ratio of silica rods is tuned by adjusting the temperature and duration of the growth process, whereas the morphology of Ag shell is tailored by controlling the reduction rate of Ag salt, where slower reduction in a polyol process gives a smoother Ag shell. Using optical calculations, the superior performance of the plasmonic core-shell particles is related to the large number of hybrid photonic-plasmonic resonance modes that they support. PMID:27300764

  15. Highly Improved Efficiency of Deep-Blue Fluorescent Polymer Light-Emitting Device Based on a Novel Hole Interface Modifier with 1,3,5-Triazine Core.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lianpeng; Xue, Yuyuan; Xiong, Kang; Cai, Chaosheng; Peng, Zuosheng; Wu, Ying; Li, Yuan; Miao, Jingsheng; Chen, Dongcheng; Hu, Zhanhao; Wang, Jianbin; Peng, Xiaobin; Mo, Yueqi; Hou, Lintao

    2015-12-01

    We present an investigation of deep-blue fluorescent polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) with a novel functional 1,3,5-triazine core material (HQTZ) sandwiched between poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonic acid) layer and poly(vinylcarbazole) layer as a hole injection layer (HIL) without interface intermixing. Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and Kelvin probe measurements were carried out to determine the change of anode work function influenced by the HQTZ modifier. The thin HQTZ layer can efficiently maximize the charge injection from anode to blue emitter and simultaneously enhance the hole mobility of HILs. The deep-blue device performance is remarkably improved with the maximum luminous efficiency of 4.50 cd/A enhanced by 80% and the maximum quantum efficiency of 4.93%, which is 1.8-fold higher than that of the conventional device without HQTZ layer, including a lower turn-on voltage of 3.7 V and comparable Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage coordinates of (0.16, 0.09). It is the highest efficiency ever reported to date for solution-processed deep-blue PLEDs based on the device structure of ITO/HILs/poly(9,9-dialkoxyphenyl-2,7-silafluorene)/CsF/AL. The results indicate that HQTZ based on 1,3,5-triazine core can be a promising candidate of interfacial materials for deep-blue fluorescent PLEDs. PMID:26422296

  16. Energy upconversion in GaP/GaNP core/shell nanowires for enhanced near-infrared light harvesting.

    PubMed

    Dobrovolsky, Alexander; Sukrittanon, Supanee; Kuang, Yanjin; Tu, Charles W; Chen, Weimin M; Buyanova, Irina A

    2014-11-12

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) have recently gained increasing interest due to their great potential for photovoltaics. A novel material system based on GaNP NWs is considered to be highly suitable for applications in efficient multi-junction and intermediate band solar cells. This work shows that though the bandgap energies of GaN(x)P(1-x) alloys lie within the visible spectral range (i.e., within 540-650 nm for the currently achievable x < 3%), coaxial GaNP NWs grown on Si substrates can also harvest infrared light utilizing energy upconversion. This energy upconversion can be monitored via anti-Stokes near-band-edge photoluminescence (PL) from GaNP, visible even from a single NW. The dominant process responsible for this effect is identified as being due to two-step two-photon absorption (TS-TPA) via a deep level lying at about 1.28 eV above the valence band, based on the measured dependences of the anti-Stokes PL on excitation power and wavelength. The formation of the defect participating in the TS-TPA process is concluded to be promoted by nitrogen incorporation. The revealed defect-mediated TS-TPA process can boost efficiency of harvesting solar energy in GaNP NWs, beneficial for applications of this novel material system in third-generation photovoltaic devices. PMID:25045136

  17. Strongly polarized quantum-dot-like light emitters embedded in GaAs/GaNAs core/shell nanowires.

    PubMed

    Filippov, S; Jansson, M; Stehr, J E; Palisaitis, J; Persson, P O Å; Ishikawa, F; Chen, W M; Buyanova, I A

    2016-09-21

    Recent developments in fabrication techniques and extensive investigations of the physical properties of III-V semiconductor nanowires (NWs), such as GaAs NWs, have demonstrated their potential for a multitude of advanced electronic and photonics applications. Alloying of GaAs with nitrogen can further enhance the performance and extend the device functionality via intentional defects and heterostructure engineering in GaNAs and GaAs/GaNAs coaxial NWs. In this work, it is shown that incorporation of nitrogen in GaAs NWs leads to formation of three-dimensional confining potentials caused by short-range fluctuations in the nitrogen composition, which are superimposed on long-range alloy disorder. The resulting localized states exhibit a quantum-dot like electronic structure, forming optically active states in the GaNAs shell. By directly correlating the structural and optical properties of individual NWs, it is also shown that formation of the localized states is efficient in pure zinc-blende wires and is further facilitated by structural polymorphism. The light emission from these localized states is found to be spectrally narrow (∼50-130 μeV) and is highly polarized (up to 100%) with the preferable polarization direction orthogonal to the NW axis, suggesting a preferential orientation of the localization potential. These properties of self-assembled nano-emitters embedded in the GaNAs-based nanowire structures may be attractive for potential optoelectronic applications. PMID:27537077

  18. Tunable light emission by exciplex state formation between hybrid halide perovskite and core/shell quantum dots: Implications in advanced LEDs and photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Rafael S; de la Fuente, Mauricio Solis; Suarez, Isaac; Muñoz-Matutano, Guillermo; Martinez-Pastor, Juan P; Mora-Sero, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    We report the first observation of exciplex state electroluminescence due to carrier injection between the hybrid lead halide perovskite (MAPbI3-xClx) and quantum dots (core/shell PbS/CdS). Single layers of perovskite (PS) and quantum dots (QDs) have been produced by solution processing methods, and their photoluminescent properties are compared to those of bilayer samples in both PS/QD and QD/PS configurations. Exciplex emission at lower energies than the band gap of both PS and QD has been detected. The exciplex emission wavelength of this mixed system can be simply tuned by controlling the QD size. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been fabricated using those configurations, which provide light emission with considerably low turn-on potential. The "color" of the LED can also be tuned by controlling the applied bias. The presence of the exciplex state PS and QDs opens up a broad range of possibilities with important implications not only in tunable LEDs but also in the preparation of intermediate band gap photovoltaic devices with the potentiality of surpassing the Shockley-Queisser limit. PMID:26844299

  19. Toward Generation of High Power Ultrafast White Light Laser Using Femtosecond Terawatt Laser in a Gas-Filled Hollow-Core Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawfik, Walid

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we could experimentally achieved the generation of white-light laser pulses of few-cycle fs pulses using a neon-filled hollow-core fiber. The observed pulses reached 6-fs at at repetition rate of 1 kHz using 2.5 mJ of 31 fs femtosecond pulses. The pulse compressing achieved by the supercontinuum produced in static neon-filled hollow fibers while the dispersion compensation is achieved by five pairs of chirped mirrors. We showed that gas pressure can be used to continuously vary the bandwidth from 350 nm to 900 nm. Furthermore, the applied technique allows for a straightforward tuning of the pulse duration via the gas pressure whilst maintaining near-transform-limited pulses with constant output energy, thereby reducing the complications introduced by chirped pulses. Through measurements of the transmission through the fiber as a function of gas pressure, a high throughput exceeding 60% was achieved. Adaptive pulse compression is achieved by using the spectral phase obtained from a spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction (SPIDER) measurement as feedback for a liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM). The spectral phase of these supercontinua is found to be extremely stable over several hours. This allowed us to demonstrate successful compression to pulses as short as 5.2 fs with controlled wide spectral bandwidth, which could be used to excite different states in complicated molecules at once.

  20. Tunable light emission by exciplex state formation between hybrid halide perovskite and core/shell quantum dots: Implications in advanced LEDs and photovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Rafael S.; de la Fuente, Mauricio Solis; Suarez, Isaac; Muñoz-Matutano, Guillermo; Martinez-Pastor, Juan P.; Mora-Sero, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    We report the first observation of exciplex state electroluminescence due to carrier injection between the hybrid lead halide perovskite (MAPbI3–xClx) and quantum dots (core/shell PbS/CdS). Single layers of perovskite (PS) and quantum dots (QDs) have been produced by solution processing methods, and their photoluminescent properties are compared to those of bilayer samples in both PS/QD and QD/PS configurations. Exciplex emission at lower energies than the band gap of both PS and QD has been detected. The exciplex emission wavelength of this mixed system can be simply tuned by controlling the QD size. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been fabricated using those configurations, which provide light emission with considerably low turn-on potential. The “color” of the LED can also be tuned by controlling the applied bias. The presence of the exciplex state PS and QDs opens up a broad range of possibilities with important implications not only in tunable LEDs but also in the preparation of intermediate band gap photovoltaic devices with the potentiality of surpassing the Shockley-Queisser limit. PMID:26844299

  1. Warm White Light Emitting Diodes with Gelatin-Coated AgInS2/ZnS Core/Shell Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xiaojiao; Yang, Yanchun; Wang, Lan; Wei, Song; Pan, Daocheng

    2015-12-23

    Cadmium-free and water-soluble AgInS2/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) with a cost of 2.5 $/g are synthesized in an electric pressure cooker. The QD powders with different Ag/In ratios exhibit bright yellow, orange, and orange-red luminescence under UV light. Their absolute photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs) can reach as high as 50.5, 57, and 52%, respectively. Because gelatin is used as the capping agent, the concentrated QDs/gelatin solution can be directly utilized as phosphor for the fabrication of white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by a simple drop-drying process without the need of resin package. Warm-white LEDs are obtained by combining orange-emitting QDs with blue InGaN chip. As-fabricated warm-white LED exhibits a luminous efficacy of 39.85 lm/W, a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 2634 K and a color rendering index (CRI) of 71 at a drive current of 20 mA. Furthermore, the electroluminescence (EL) stability of LED device and thermal stability of as-prepared QDs are evaluated. PMID:26629791

  2. Unusual electroluminescence from n-ZnO@i-MgO core-shell nanowire color-tunable light-emitting diode at reverse bias.

    PubMed

    Mo, Xiaoming; Fang, Guojia; Long, Hao; Li, Songzhan; Wang, Haoning; Chen, Zhao; Huang, Huihui; Zeng, Wei; Zhang, Yupeng; Pan, Chunxu

    2014-05-28

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on n-ZnO@i-MgO core-shell (CS) nanowires (NWs) are herein demonstrated and characterized. MgO insulating layers were rationally introduced as shells to modify/passivate the surface defects of ZnO NWs. A high-quality ZnO/MgO interface was attained and the optically pumped near-band-edge emission of the bare ZnO NWs was greatly enhanced after cladding i-MgO shells. Electroluminescence (EL) spectra measured in the whole UV-visible range revealed that light emission can only be detected when LEDs were applied with reverse bias. Moreover, the emission color can be tuned from orange to bright white with increasing reverse bias. We explored these interesting results tentatively in terms of the energy-band diagram of the heterojunction and it was found that the interfacial i-MgO shells not only acted as an insulator to prevent a short circuit between the two electrodes, but also offered a potential energy difference so that electron tunneling was energetically possible, both of which were essential to generate the reverse-bias EL. The dipole-forbidden d-d transitions by the Laporte selection rule in the p-NiO might be the reason to why there is no light being detected from the CS NW LED under forward bias. It is hoped that this simple and facile route may provide an effective approach in designing low-cost CS NW LEDs. PMID:24715023

  3. A new laser spectrometer for measurements of the carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) of methane in air and applications to ice core studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. E.; Brook, E.; Dong, F.; Gupta, M.

    2012-12-01

    Methane is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas contributing to global climate change, and yet its sources and sinks are still poorly understood. Isotopic ratios of methane released to the atmosphere depend on the isotopic composition of the source and fractionation by sink processes. Analysis of isotopic compositions can provide further understanding of methane source strength and location. Traditional measurements by mass spectrometry are laborious and not easily adaptable to new continuous gas extraction methodologies. Recent technological advances have reduced the amount of methane necessary for precise measurements of δ13C in methane by laser spectrometry to a practical sample size for ice core studies. We present a new laser-based analyzer for measurement of δ13C in methane that requires less than 6 μmol of CH4. Current precision is better than ±0.5‰ (1σ, 100 seconds) on dry air with [CH4]= 2ppm. The sensor is operable in either discrete or continuous sampling modes allowing for continuous measurement of gas sample exhausted from other analyzers. Detailed performance characteristics and tests will be discussed at the meeting.

  4. Rapid phase adjustment of melatonin and core body temperature rhythms following a 6-h advance of the light/dark cycle in the horse

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Barbara A; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Sessions, Dawn R; Vick, Mandi M; Kennedy, Erin L; Fitzgerald, Barry P

    2007-01-01

    Background Rapid displacement across multiple time zones results in a conflict between the new cycle of light and dark and the previously entrained program of the internal circadian clock, a phenomenon known as jet lag. In humans, jet lag is often characterized by malaise, appetite loss, fatigue, disturbed sleep and performance deficit, the consequences of which are of particular concern to athletes hoping to perform optimally at an international destination. As a species renowned for its capacity for athletic performance, the consequences of jet lag are also relevant for the horse. However, the duration and severity of jet lag related circadian disruption is presently unknown in this species. We investigated the rates of re-entrainment of serum melatonin and core body temperature (BT) rhythms following an abrupt 6-h phase advance of the LD cycle in the horse. Methods Six healthy, 2 yr old mares entrained to a 12 h light/12 h dark (LD 12:12) natural photoperiod were housed in a light-proofed barn under a lighting schedule that mimicked the external LD cycle. Following baseline sampling on Day 0, an advance shift of the LD cycle was accomplished by ending the subsequent dark period 6 h early. Blood sampling for serum melatonin analysis and BT readings were taken at 3-h intervals for 24 h on alternate days for 11 days. Disturbances to the subsequent melatonin and BT 24-h rhythms were assessed using repeated measures ANOVA and analysis of Cosine curve fitting parameters. Results We demonstrate that the equine melatonin rhythm re-entrains rapidly to a 6-h phase advance of an LD12:12 photocycle. The phase shift in melatonin was fully complete on the first day of the new schedule and rhythm phase and waveform were stable thereafter. In comparison, the advance in the BT rhythm was achieved by the third day, however BT rhythm waveform, especially its mesor, was altered for many days following the LD shift. Conclusion Aside from the temperature rhythm disruption, rapid

  5. Temperature Dependence of Light-Induced Absorbance Changes Associated with Chlorophyll Photooxidation in Manganese-Depleted Core Complexes of Photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Zabelin, A A; Shkuropatova, V A; Shkuropatov, A Ya; Shuvalov, V A

    2015-10-01

    Mid-infrared (4500-1150 cm(-1)) absorbance changes induced by continuous illumination of Mn-depleted core complexes of photosystem II (PSII) from spinach in the presence of exogenous electron acceptors (potassium ferricyanide and silicomolybdate) were studied by FTIR difference spectroscopy in the temperature range 100-265 K. The FTIR difference spectrum for photooxidation of the chlorophyll dimer P680 was determined from the set of signals associated with oxidation of secondary electron donors (β-carotene, chlorophyll) and reduction of the primary quinone QA. On the basis of analysis of the temperature dependence of the P680(+)/P680 FTIR spectrum, it was concluded that frequencies of 13(1)-keto-C=O stretching modes of neutral chlorophyll molecules PD1 and PD2, which constitute P680, are similar to each other, being located at ~1700 cm(-1). This together with considerable difference between the stretching mode frequencies of keto groups of PD1(+) and PD2(+) cations (1724 and 1709 cm(-1), respectively) is in agreement with a literature model (Okubo et al. (2007) Biochemistry, 46, 4390-4397) suggesting that the positive charge in the P680(+) dimer is mainly localized on one of the two chlorophyll molecules. A partial delocalization of the charge between the PD1 and PD2 molecules in P680(+) is supported by the presence of a characteristic electronic intervalence band at ~3000 cm(-1). It is shown that a bleaching band at 1680 cm(-1) in the P680(+)/P680 FTIR spectrum does not belong to P680. A possible origin of this band is discussed, taking into account the temperature dependence (100-265 K) of light-induced absorbance changes of PSII core complexes in the visible spectral region from 620 to 720 nm. PMID:26567571

  6. Planetary Nebulae and their parent stellar populations. Tracing the mass assembly of M87 and Intracluster light in the Virgo cluster core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaboldi, Magda; Longobardi, Alessia; Gerhard, Ortwin

    2016-08-01

    The diffuse extended outer regions of galaxies are hard to study because they are faint, with typical surface brightness of 1% of the dark night sky. We can tackle this problem by using resolved star tracers which remain visible at large distances from the galaxy centers. This article describes the use of Planetary Nebulae as tracers and the calibration of their properties as indicators of the star formation history, mean age and metallicity of the parent stars in the Milky Way and Local Group galaxies. We then report on the results from a deep, extended, planetary nebulae survey in a 0.5 deg2 region centered on the brightest cluster galaxy NGC 4486 (M87) in the Virgo cluster core, carried out with SuprimeCam@Subaru and FLAMES-GIRAFFE@VLT. Two planetary nebulae populations are identified out to 150 kpc distance from the center of M87. One population is associated with the M87 halo and the second one with the intracluster light in the Virgo cluster core. They have different line-of-sight velocity and spatial distributions, as well as different planetary nebulae specific frequencies and luminosity functions. The intracluster planetary nebulae in the surveyed region correspond to a luminosity of four times the luminosity of the Large Magellanic Cloud. The M87 halo planetary nebulae trace an older, more metal-rich, parent stellar population. A substructure detected in the projected phase-space of the line-of-sight velocity vs. major axis distance for the M87 halo planetary nebulae provides evidence for the recent accretion event of a satellite galaxy with luminosity twice that of M33. The satellite stars were tidally stripped about 1 Gyr ago, and reached apocenter at a major axis distance of 60-90 kpc from the center of M87. The M87 halo is still growing significantly at the distances where the substructure is detected.

  7. A core/shell/satellite anticancer platform for 808 NIR light-driven multimodal imaging and combined chemo-/photothermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guixin; Lv, Ruichan; He, Fei; Qu, Fengyu; Gai, Shili; Du, Shaokang; Wei, Zibo; Yang, Piaoping

    2015-08-01

    In this contribution, a novel multifunctional anti-cancer nanoplatform has been firstly constructed by conjugating a photothermal agent (CuS nanoparticles) and a cancer cell target agent (folic acid, FA) onto the surface of mesoporous silica coated core-shell-shell up-conversion nanoparticles (UCNPs). It was found that the doxorubicin (DOX) loaded system exhibits obvious pH and NIR-responsive release behaviour and the drug can be targetedly delivered to the cancer cells by a receptor mediated endocytosis manner. Furthermore, both photothermal therapy (PTT) and chemotherapy can be triggered simultaneously by a single 808 nm near infrared (NIR) light source, thus leading to a synergistic effect. The combined chemo- and NIR photothermal therapy can significantly improve the therapeutic efficacy compared to any single therapy, which has been evidenced by both in vitro and in vivo results. Besides, due to the doped rare earth ions, the platform also exhibits good up-conversion luminescence (UCL), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) properties. Based on the excellent multimodal imaging and anti-tumor properties, the multifunctional nanoplatform should be a promising candidate for imaging-guided anti-cancer therapy.In this contribution, a novel multifunctional anti-cancer nanoplatform has been firstly constructed by conjugating a photothermal agent (CuS nanoparticles) and a cancer cell target agent (folic acid, FA) onto the surface of mesoporous silica coated core-shell-shell up-conversion nanoparticles (UCNPs). It was found that the doxorubicin (DOX) loaded system exhibits obvious pH and NIR-responsive release behaviour and the drug can be targetedly delivered to the cancer cells by a receptor mediated endocytosis manner. Furthermore, both photothermal therapy (PTT) and chemotherapy can be triggered simultaneously by a single 808 nm near infrared (NIR) light source, thus leading to a synergistic effect. The combined chemo- and NIR photothermal

  8. Air-Stable, Near- to Mid-Infrared Emitting Solids of PbTe/CdTe Core-Shell Colloidal quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Protesescu, Loredana; Zünd, Tanja; Bodnarchuk, Maryna I; Kovalenko, Maksym V

    2016-03-01

    Light emitters and detectors operating in the near- and mid-infrared spectral regions are important to many applications, such as telecommunications, high-resolution gas analysis, atmospheric pollution monitoring, medical diagnostics, and night vision. Various lead chalcogenides (binary, ternary, and quaternary alloys) in the form of quantum dots (QDs) or quantum wells provide narrow bandgap energies that cover the broad infrared region corresponding to wavelengths of 1-30 μm. Here, we report an inexpensive, all-solution-based synthesis strategy to thin-film solids consisting of 5-16 nm PbTe QDs encapsulated by CdTe shells. Colloidally synthesized PbTe QDs were first converted into core-shell PbTe/CdTe QDs, and then deposited as thin films. The subsequent fusion of the CdTe shells is achieved by ligand removal and annealing in the presence of CdCl2 . Contrary to highly unstable bare PbTe QDs, PbTe/CdTe QD solids exhibit bright and stable near- to mid-infrared emission at wavelengths of 1-3 μm, which is also retained upon prolonged storage at ambient conditions for one year. PMID:26676076

  9. Life cycle air emissions impacts and ownership costs of light-duty vehicles using natural gas as a primary energy source.

    PubMed

    Luk, Jason M; Saville, Bradley A; MacLean, Heather L

    2015-04-21

    This paper aims to comprehensively distinguish among the merits of different vehicles using a common primary energy source. In this study, we consider compressed natural gas (CNG) use directly in conventional vehicles (CV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and natural gas-derived electricity (NG-e) use in plug-in battery electric vehicles (BEV). This study evaluates the incremental life cycle air emissions (climate change and human health) impacts and life cycle ownership costs of non-plug-in (CV and HEV) and plug-in light-duty vehicles. Replacing a gasoline CV with a CNG CV, or a CNG CV with a CNG HEV, can provide life cycle air emissions impact benefits without increasing ownership costs; however, the NG-e BEV will likely increase costs (90% confidence interval: $1000 to $31 000 incremental cost per vehicle lifetime). Furthermore, eliminating HEV tailpipe emissions via plug-in vehicles has an insignificant incremental benefit, due to high uncertainties, with emissions cost benefits between -$1000 and $2000. Vehicle criteria air contaminants are a relatively minor contributor to life cycle air emissions impacts because of strict vehicle emissions standards. Therefore, policies should focus on adoption of plug-in vehicles in nonattainment regions, because CNG vehicles are likely more cost-effective at providing overall life cycle air emissions impact benefits. PMID:25825338

  10. Efficient visible light-driven H₂ production in water by CdS/CdSe core/shell nanocrystals and an ordinary nickel-sulfur complex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Zhang, Jie; He, Haili; Xu, Xiaolong; Jin, Yongdong

    2014-11-21

    Solar energy conversion to hydrogen has gained tremendous interest due to its great potential in solving the problem of energy crisis. Among different ways to achieve the goals of H2 photogeneration, the quantum dot (QD)-based multicomponent system has been proven to be one of the most prominent methods. Although significant advances have been made recently, the development of a practical visible light-driven hydrogen generation system with high efficiency and low-cost is still challenging. In this work, we report that a highly active catalyst could be simply obtained through the complexing of nickel ions with S(2-) or 3-mercaptopropionic acid, and after further combination with the carefully designed CdS/CdSe core/shell nanocrystals, the aqueous system exhibits a good stability and high efficiency for the H2 photogeneration. It is expected that our findings would provide new insights for the facile construction of a highly efficient and cost-effective solar H2 generation system for practical applications. PMID:25315042

  11. 'Giant' CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystal quantum dots as efficient electroluminescent materials: strong influence of shell thickness on light-emitting diode performance.

    PubMed

    Pal, Bhola N; Ghosh, Yagnaseni; Brovelli, Sergio; Laocharoensuk, Rawiwan; Klimov, Victor I; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A; Htoon, Han

    2012-01-11

    We use a simple device architecture based on a poly(3,4-ethylendioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)-coated indium tin oxide anode and a LiF/Al cathode to assess the effects of shell thickness on the properties of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) comprising CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs) as the emitting layer. Specifically, we are interested in determining whether LEDs based on thick-shell nanocrystals, so-called "giant" NQDs, afford enhanced performance compared to their counterparts incorporating thin-shell systems. We observe significant improvements in device performance as a function of increasing shell thickness. While the turn-on voltage remains approximately constant for all shell thicknesses (from 4 to 16 CdS monolayers), external quantum efficiency and maximum luminance are found to be about one order of magnitude higher for thicker shell nanocrystals (≥13 CdS monolayers) compared to thinner shell structures (<9 CdS monolayers). The thickest-shell nanocrystals (16 monolayers of CdS) afforded an external quantum efficiency and luminance of 0.17% and 2000 Cd/m(2), respectively, with a remarkably low turn-on voltage of ~3.0 V. PMID:22148981

  12. Synthesis of BiVO4@C Core-Shell Structure on Reduced Graphene Oxide with Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhihua; Li, Chenzhe; Zhu, Shenmin; Cho, Maenghyo; Chen, Zhixin; Cho, Kyeongjae; Liao, Yongliang; Yin, Chao; Zhang, Di

    2015-08-24

    Herein, a facile strategy for the controllable synthesis of BiVO4@C core-shell nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is reported. The BiVO4 particle size can be controlled in the process by adjusting the volume ratio of glycerol in the sol-gel solution. The glycerol layers adsorbed on BiVO4 (BiVO4@glycerol) made it possible to form hydrogen bonds between BiVO4@glycerol and graphene oxide with the assistance of ultrasound. After thermal treatment, glycerol adsorbed on the BiVO4 particles formed amorphous carbon shells to link the particles and RGO. As a result, the obtained RGO-BiVO4@C nanocomposite showed a five times higher rate in O2 evolution from water under visible-light irradiation. Also, it demonstrated a six times higher photocatalytic performance enhancement than that of pure BiVO4 in the degradation of Rhodamine B. The enhanced performance is attributed to the carbon shells that restrict the growth of BiVO4 , the reduced graphene oxide that improves the electronic conductivity of the composite, and importantly, the bonds formed between the carbon shells and RGO that reduce the recombination loss of photogenerated charges effectively. The strategy is simple, effective, and can be extended to other ternary oxides with controlled size and high performance. PMID:26212377

  13. Sci—Thur PM: Imaging — 03: A novel Čerenkov detector based on air-spaced light guiding taper for megavoltage x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Teymurazyan, A; Rowlands, J A; Pang, G

    2014-08-15

    Electronic Portal Imaging Devices (EPIDs) have been used in radiation therapy and are still needed on linear accelerators (Linacs) equipped with kilovoltage cone beam CT (kV-CBCT) or MRI systems. Recently a new concept of a high quantum efficiency (QE) Čerenkov Portal Imaging Device (CPID) for MV x-ray imaging in radiation therapy was introduced. It relies on Čerenkov effect for x-ray detection. The proposed design consisted of a matrix of optical fibres aligned with the incident x-rays and coupled to an active matrix flat panel imager (AMFPI) for image readout. A weakness of such design is that too few Čerenkov light photons reach the AMFPI for each incident x-ray and an AMFPI with an avalanche gain is required. In this work we propose to replace the optical fibers in the CPID with light guides without a cladding layer that are suspended in air. The air between the light guides takes on the role of the cladding layer found in a regular optical fiber. Since air has a significantly lower refractive index, a much superior light collection efficiency is achieved. Our Monte Carlo studies have shown that the modified new CPID has a QE more than an order of magnitude greater than that of current clinical systems and yet a spatial resolution similar to that of current flat-panel based EPIDs. Furthermore it has been demonstrated that the new CPID does not require an avalanche gain in the AMFPI and is quantum noise limited at dose levels corresponding to a single Linac pulse.

  14. The timing of the human circadian clock is accurately represented by the core body temperature rhythm following phase shifts to a three-cycle light stimulus near the critical zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewett, M. E.; Duffy, J. F.; Czeisler, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    A double-stimulus experiment was conducted to evaluate the phase of the underlying circadian clock following light-induced phase shifts of the human circadian system. Circadian phase was assayed by constant routine from the rhythm in core body temperature before and after a three-cycle bright-light stimulus applied near the estimated minimum of the core body temperature rhythm. An identical, consecutive three-cycle light stimulus was then applied, and phase was reassessed. Phase shifts to these consecutive stimuli were no different from those obtained in a previous study following light stimuli applied under steady-state conditions over a range of circadian phases similar to those at which the consecutive stimuli were applied. These data suggest that circadian phase shifts of the core body temperature rhythm in response to a three-cycle stimulus occur within 24 h following the end of the 3-day light stimulus and that this poststimulus temperature rhythm accurately reflects the timing of the underlying circadian clock.

  15. Comparison of the efficacy of a forced-air warming system and circulating-water mattress on core temperature and post-anesthesia shivering in elderly patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty under spinal anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu Chang; Lee, Myeong Jong; Kim, Mi-Na; Kim, Ji-Sub; Lee, Won Sang; Lee, Jung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Background In the present study, we compared changes in body temperature and the occurrence of shivering in elderly patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty under spinal anesthesia during warming with either a forced-air warming system or a circulating-water mattress. Methods Forty-six patients were randomly assigned to either the forced-air warming system (N = 23) or circulating-water mattress (N = 23) group. Core temperature was recorded using measurements at the tympanic membrane and rectum. In addition, the incidence and intensity of post-anesthesia shivering and verbal analogue score for thermal comfort were simultaneously assessed. Results Core temperature outcomes did not differ between the groups. The incidence (13.0 vs 43.5%, P < 0.05) and intensity (20/2/1/0/0 vs 13/5/3/2/0, P < 0.05) of post-anesthesia shivering was significantly lower in the forced-air system group than in the circulating-water mattress group. Conclusions The circulating-water mattress was as effective as the forced-air warming system for maintaining body temperature. However, the forced-air warming system was superior to the circulating-water mattress in reducing the incidence of post-anesthesia shivering. PMID:24910726

  16. A laminar solid core photonic crystal waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willig, R. L.

    2005-11-01

    A one-dimensional model is presented to explain the physics of solid core photonic crystal fibers. The model provides a clear way to demonstrate many of the interesting characteristics of these fibers: variation of cladding index with wavelength, endlessly single-mode operation, short wavelength index limit, long wavelength index limit, and variation of these properties with the air/silica fraction. The effective index is calculated for a laminar cladding consisting of periodic layers of alternating high and low index dielectrics. The waveguide model consists of the same periodic layers surrounding a high-index core through which most of the light propagates. The light is confined by total internal reflection. The model is shown to be an accurate analogue for a more complicated two-dimensional finned dielectric waveguide.

  17. Magnetically separable {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-Ce-doped TiO{sub 2} core-shell nanocomposites: Fabrication and visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    He, Minqiang; Li, Di; Jiang, Deli; Chen, Min

    2012-08-15

    Novel visible-light-induced {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-Ce-doped-TiO{sub 2} core-shell nanocomposite photocatalysts capable of magnetic separation have been synthesized by a facile sol-gel and after-annealing process. The as-obtained core-shell nanocomposite is composed of a central {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} core with a strong response to external fields, an interlayer of SiO{sub 2}, and an outer layer of Ce-doped TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals. UV-vis spectra analysis indicates that Ce doping in the compound results in a red-shift of the absorption edge, thus offering increased visible light absorption. We show that such a {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-Ce-doped-TiO{sub 2} core-shell nanocomposite with appreciated Ce doping amount exhibits much higher visible-light photocatalytic activity than bare TiO{sub 2} and undoped {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} core-shell nanocomposite toward the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB). Moreover, the {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-Ce-doped-TiO{sub 2} core-shell nanocomposite photocatalysts could be easily separated and reused from the treated water under application of an external magnetic field. - Graphical abstract: Novel {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-Ce-doped-TiO{sub 2} core/shell nanocomposite photocatalysts with enhanced photocatalytic activity and fast magnetic separability were prepared. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-Ce-doped TiO{sub 2} core/shell composite photocatalysts were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The resulting core/shell composite show high visible light photocatalytic activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanocomposite photocatalysts can be easily recycled with excellent durability.

  18. Geophysics: Earth's core problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, David

    2016-06-01

    Measurements of the electrical resistance and thermal conductivity of iron at extreme pressures and temperatures cast fresh light on controversial numerical simulations of the properties of Earth's outer core. See Letters p.95 & 99

  19. Air-Stable and Solution-Processable Perovskite Photodetectors for Solar-Blind UV and Visible Light.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yunlong; Liu, Chao; Tanaka, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Eiichi

    2015-02-01

    Stable perovskite CH3NH3PbI3-xClx for a photodetector was prepared through spin-coating of a fluorous polymer as a light protection layer. The best responsivity of photodetector was 14.5 A/W to white light and 7.85 A/W for solar-blind UV light (λ = 254 nm). The response time was in the submicrosecond range. The fluorous polymer coating increases the lifetime of the devices to almost 100 days. PMID:26261975

  20. Core assembly storage structure

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., Charles E.; Brunings, Jay E.

    1988-01-01

    A structure for the storage of core assemblies from a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor. The structure comprises an enclosed housing having a substantially flat horizontal top plate, a bottom plate and substantially vertical wall members extending therebetween. A plurality of thimble members extend downwardly through the top plate. Each thimble member is closed at its bottom end and has an open end adjacent said top plate. Each thimble member has a length and diameter greater than that of the core assembly to be stored therein. The housing is provided with an inlet duct for the admission of cooling air and an exhaust duct for the discharge of air therefrom, such that when hot core assemblies are placed in the thimbles, the heat generated will by convection cause air to flow from the inlet duct around the thimbles and out the exhaust duct maintaining the core assemblies at a safe temperature without the necessity of auxiliary powered cooling equipment.

  1. Highly efficient blue-green quantum dot light-emitting diodes using stable low-cadmium quaternary-alloy ZnCdSSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Shen, Huaibin; Wang, Sheng; Wang, Hongzhe; Niu, Jinzhong; Qian, Lei; Yang, Yixing; Titov, Alexandre; Hyvonen, Jake; Zheng, Ying; Li, Lin Song

    2013-05-22

    High-quality blue-green emitting ZnxCd(1-x)S(1-y)Se(y)/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) have been synthesized by a phosphine-free method. The quantum yields of as-synthesized ZnxCd(1-x)S(1-y)Se(y)/ZnS core/shell QDs can reach 50-75% with emissions between 450 and 550 nm. The emissions of such core/shell QDs are not susceptible to ligand loss through the photostability test. Blue-green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on the low-cadmium ZnxCd(1-x)S(1-y)Se(y)/ZnS core/shell QDs have been successfully demonstrated. Composite films of poly[9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-N-[4-(3-methylpropyl)]-diphenylamine] (TFB) and ZnO nanoparticle layers were chosen as the hole-transporting and the electron-transporting layers, respectively. Highly bright blue-green QD-based light-emitting devices (QD-LEDs) showing maximum luminance up to 10000 cd/m(2), in particular, the blue QD-LEDs show an unprecedentedly high brightness over 4700 cd/m(2) and peak external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 0.8%, which is the highest value ever reported. These results signify a remarkable progress in QD-LEDs and offer a practicable platform for the realization of QD-based blue-green display and lighting. PMID:23633527

  2. Ultrafast imaging the light-speed propagation of a focused femtosecond laser pulse in air and its ionized electron dynamics and plasma-induced pulse reshaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yanwu; Jiang, Lan; Cao, Qiang; Shi, Xueshong; Wang, Qingsong; Wang, Guoyan; Lu, Yongfeng

    2016-03-01

    The light-speed propagation of a focused femtosecond (fs) laser pulse in air was recorded by a pump-probe shadowgraph imaging technique with femtosecond time resolution. The ultrafast dynamics of the laser-ionized electrons were studied, which revealed a strong reshaping of the laser field due to laser-air nonlinear interaction. The influence of laser fluence and focusing conditions on the pulse reshaping was studied, and it was found that: (1) double foci are formed due to the refocusing effect when the laser fluence is higher than 500 J/cm2 and the focusing numeric aperture (NA) is higher than 0.30; and (2) a higher NA focusing lens can better inhibit the prefocusing effect and nonlinear distortion in the Gaussian beam waist.

  3. Fabrication and different photoelectric responses of nanocrystalline ZnO film irradiated with UV and white light in dry air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Zhijun; Qiu, Yang; Xie, Changsheng; Xu, Jingjing; Luo, Yongsong; Wang, Chunlei; Yan, Hailong

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, nanocrystalline ZnO film with porous structure was successfully prepared on alumina substrate by the technology of screen printing and the subsequent heat treatment. The fundamental characteristics of the as-prepared sample were examined through XRD, FE-SEM, EDX and PL spectra measurements. Meanwhile, photoelectric responses of it were tested under UV and white light irradiation, respectively. Different photocurrent curves were obtained. Under UV light, the photocurrent with comparatively high amplitude of each cycle could mostly recover upon the light off. While for white light, the photocurrent with low amplitude just partially recovered when the light was turned off. This phenomenon indicated that, after the white light off, a large number of free electrons still remained within the materials. To calculate the amount of the remained free electrons, three photocurrent parameters, which are related to the density of free electrons in ZnO, were defined for the first time. Furthermore, the explanations for the different photoelectric responses of ZnO based on the double Schottky barrier model were also proposed.

  4. Dependence of Aerosol Light Absorption and Single-Scattering Albedo On Ambient Relative Humidity for Sulfate Aerosols with Black Carbon Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, Jens; Russell, Philip B.; Hamill, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols frequently contain hygroscopic sulfate species and black carbon (soot) inclusions. In this paper we report results of a modeling study to determine the change in aerosol absorption due to increases in ambient relative humidity (RH), for three common sulfate species, assuming that the soot mass fraction is present as a single concentric core within each particle. Because of the lack of detailed knowledge about various input parameters to models describing internally mixed aerosol particle optics, we focus on results that were aimed at determining the maximum effect that particle humidification may have on aerosol light absorption. In the wavelength range from 450 to 750 nm, maximum absorption humidification factors (ratio of wet to 'dry=30% RH' absorption) for single aerosol particles are found to be as large as 1.75 when the RH changes from 30 to 99.5%. Upon lesser humidification from 30 to 80% RH, absorption humidification for single particles is only as much as 1.2, even for the most favorable combination of initial ('dry') soot mass fraction and particle size. Integrated over monomodal lognormal particle size distributions, maximum absorption humidification factors range between 1.07 and 1.15 for humidification from 30 to 80% and between 1.1 and 1.35 for humidification from 30 to 95% RH for all species considered. The largest humidification factors at a wavelength of 450 nm are obtained for 'dry' particle size distributions that peak at a radius of 0.05 microns, while the absorption humidification factors at 700 nm are largest for 'dry' size distributions that are dominated by particles in the radius range of 0.06 to 0.08 microns. Single-scattering albedo estimates at ambient conditions are often based on absorption measurements at low RH (approx. 30%) and the assumption that aerosol absorption does not change upon humidification (i.e., absorption humidification equal to unity). Our modeling study suggests that this assumption alone can

  5. Coincident observation of air [hacek C]erenkov light by a surface array and muon bundles by a deep underground detector

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Auriemma, G.; Baker, R.; Baldini, A.; Bam, B.; Barbarino, G.C.; Barish, B.C.; Battistoni, G.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bilokon, H.; Bisi, V.; Bloise, C.; Bower, C.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, D.; Carboni, M.; Corona, A.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Chiarella, V.; Cormack, R.; Coutu, S.; DeCataldo, G.; Dekhissi, H.; DeMarzo, C.; De Vincenzi, M.; Di Credico, A.; Diehl, E.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Forti, C.; Fusco, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Grassi, M.; Green, P.; Grillo, A.; Guarino, F.; Guarnaccia, P.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Heinz, R.; Hong, J.T.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kearns, E.; Kertzman, M.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Lee, C.; Levin, D.S.; Lipari, P.; Liu, G.; Liu, R.; Longo, M.J.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, G.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta-Neri, A.; Marin, A.; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Marzari Chiesa, A.; Michael, D.G.; Mikheyev, S.; Miller, L.; Mittlebrunn, M.; Mon

    1994-09-01

    We report on the simultaneous observation of atmospheric [hacek C]erenkov light by a prototype five telescope array, GRACE, (Gran Sasso Air [hacek C]erenkov Experiment) with deep underground muons in the MACRO (Monopole Astrophysics and Cosmic Ray Observatory). The telescope array was deployed at Campo Imperatore above the Gran Sasso Laboratory for a run completed in the fall of 1992. The total live time for the combined surface-underground operation was [similar to]100 h during which more than 300 events were seen in coincidence. The efficacy of this technique to monitor the electromagnetic and penetrating muon components of a cosmic-ray-induced cascade is discussed.

  6. A convenient N2-CCl4 mixture plasma treatment to improve TiO2 photocatalytic oxidation of aromatic air contaminants under both UV and visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shaozheng; Li, Fayun; Fan, Zhiping

    2013-12-01

    A convenient N2-CCl4 mixture plasma treatment to improve TiO2 photocatalytic oxidation of aromatic air contaminants under both UV and visible light was reported. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption, UV-vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the prepared TiO2 catalysts. The microstructures of the TiO2 catalysts were preserved after plasma treatments. Chlorine ions did not doped into TiO2 lattice but located on TiO2 surface via the coordination with Ti4+ sites. The doping N content of prepared TiO2 catalyst increased obviously by using this N2-CCl4 mixture plasma method. The activities were tested in the photocatalytic oxidation of benzene and toluene under both UV and visible light. Chlorine radicals which formed under illumination are effective in oxidizing aromatic side groups, but ineffective in reactions with the aromatic ring.

  7. Magnetic core-shell CuFe2O4@C3N4 hybrids for visible light photocatalysis of Orange II.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yunjin; Lu, Fang; Zhu, Yanping; Wei, Fengyu; Liu, Xueting; Lian, Chao; Wang, Shaobin

    2015-10-30

    Novel CuFe2O4@C3N4 core-shell photocatalysts were fabricated through a self-assembly method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Uv-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy. The photocatalytic performances of the CuFe2O4@C3N4 catalysts were evaluated in photo Fenton-like discoloration of Orange II dye using H2O2 as an oxidant under visible-light irradiation (λ>420 nm). It was found the CuFe2O4@C3N4 hybrid (mass ratio of CuFe2O4/g-C3N4 at 2:1) exhibits a superior activity as compared with single component of CuFe2O4 or g-C3N4 and the mixture of g-C3N4 and CuFe2O4, due to the elevation of the separation efficiency of photoinduced electron-hole pairs, resulted from the heterojunction between the interfaces of g-C3N4 and CuFe2O4. The quenching tests of different scavengers displayed that O2(•-), OH and h(+) are responsible for the Orange II decolorization. In addition, the effects of initial concentration of the dye contaminant (0.014-0.140 mM), different anions (Cl(-), SO4(2-), NO3(-), CH3COO(-) and HCO3(-)) and temperature (15-65 °C) in photoreaction were also investigated. The CuFe2O4@C3N4 sample exhibited stable performance without obvious loss of catalytic activity after five successive runs, showing a promising application for the photo-oxidative degradation of environmental contaminants. PMID:25974659

  8. Comparison of Standard Light Water Reactor Cross-Section Libraries using the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Pressurized Water Reactor Standard Core Loading Benchmark Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzu Alpan, F.; Kulesza, Joel A.

    2016-02-01

    This paper compares contemporary and historical light water reactor shielding and pressure vessel dosimetry cross-section libraries for a pressurized water reactor calculational benchmark problem with a standard out-in core loading. The calculational benchmark problem was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory by the request of the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and used the Oak Ridge National Laboratory two-dimensional discrete ordinates code DORT and the BUGLE-93 cross-section library for the calculations. In this paper, a Westinghouse three-dimensional discrete ordinates code with parallel processing, the RAPTOR-M3G code was used. A variety of cross section libraries were used with RAPTOR-M3G including the BUGLE-93, BUGLE-96, and BUGLE-B7 cross-section libraries developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the broad-group ALPAN-VII.0 cross-section library developed at Westinghouse. In comparing the calculation-to-calculation reaction rates using the BUGLE-93 cross-section library at the thermal shield, pressure vessel, and cavity capsules, for eleven dosimetry reaction rates, a maximum relative difference of 5% was observed, with the exception of 65Cu(n,2n) in the pressure vessel capsule that had a 90% relative difference with respect to the reference results. It is thought that the 65Cu(n,2n) reaction rate reported in the reference for the pressure vessel capsule is not correct. In considering the libraries developed after BUGLE-93, a maximum relative difference of 12% was observed in reaction rates, with respect to the reference results, for 237Np(n,f) in the cavity capsule using BUGLE-B7.

  9. Calcium ions are required for the enhanced thermal stability of the light-harvesting-reaction center core complex from thermophilic purple sulfur bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yukihiro; Yu, Long-Jiang; Hirano, Yu; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Wang, Zheng-Yu

    2009-01-01

    Thermochromatium tepidum is a thermophilic purple sulfur photosynthetic bacterium collected from the Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park. A previous study showed that the light-harvesting-reaction center core complex (LH1-RC) purified from this bacterium is highly stable at room temperature (Suzuki, H., Hirano, Y., Kimura, Y., Takaichi, S., Kobayashi, M., Miki, K., and Wang, Z.-Y. (2007) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1767, 1057-1063). In this work, we demonstrate that thermal stability of the Tch. tepidum LH1-RC is much higher than that of its mesophilic counterparts, and the enhanced thermal stability requires Ca2+ as a cofactor. Removal of the Ca2+ from Tch. tepidum LH1-RC resulted in a complex with the same degree of thermal stability as that of the LH1-RCs purified from mesophilic bacteria. The enhanced thermal stability can be restored by addition of Ca2+ to the Ca2+-depleted LH1-RC, and this process is fully reversible. Interchange of the thermal stability between the two forms is accompanied by a shift of the LH1 Qy transition between 915 nm for the native and 880 nm for the Ca2+-depleted LH1-RC. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements reveal that degradation temperature of the native LH1-RC is 15 degrees C higher and the enthalpy change is about 28% larger than the Ca2+-depleted LH1-RC. Substitution of the Ca2+ with other metal cations caused a decrease in thermal stability of an extent depending on the properties of the cations. These results indicate that Ca2+ ions play a dual role in stabilizing the structure of the pigment-membrane protein complex and in altering its spectroscopic properties, and hence provide insight into the adaptive strategy of this photosynthetic organism to survive in extreme environments using natural resources. PMID:18977753

  10. Biomolecular Markers within the Core Axis of Aging and Particulate Air Pollution Exposure in the Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Pieters, Nicky; Janssen, Bram G.; Dewitte, Harrie; Cox, Bianca; Cuypers, Ann; Lefebvre, Wouter; Smeets, Karen; Vanpoucke, Charlotte; Plusquin, Michelle; Nawrot, Tim S.

    2015-01-01

    .5. Citation: Pieters N, Janssen BG, Dewitte H, Cox B, Cuypers A, Lefebvre W, Smeets K, Vanpoucke C, Plusquin M, Nawrot TS. 2016. Biomolecular markers within the core axis of aging and particulate air pollution exposure in the elderly: a cross-sectional study. Environ Health Perspect 124:943–950; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509728 PMID:26672058

  11. Real-Time Spectroscopic Monitoring of the Synthesis of Core and Core/Shell Upconversion Nanocrystals and Finite-Difference Time Domain Modeling of the Interaction Between Light and Spherical Microwell Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suter, John

    Nanocrystalline beta-NaYF4:17% Yb3+, 3% Er 3+ has significant potential for applications in a wide variety of fields including solar technologies, security printing, and biological imaging and sensing. In order to increase the potential of these nanocrystals for these applications, we have developed a method for the real-time, in situ, spectroscopic monitoring of nanocrystal growth and shell-addition. In situ real-time monitoring of upconversion emission is applied to study the reaction mechanism for the synthesis of beta-NaYF 4:17% Yb3+, 3% Er3++ nanoparticles in oleic acid and octadecene via the heat-up method. Transmission electron microscopy is used to correlate the spectroscopic signature of the reaction mixture with its composition. The power of real-time spectroscopic monitoring to precisely time the duration of the various stages of the reaction, and to accurately identify the transitions between those stages, including the completion of the reaction, is demonstrated. Real-time spectroscopic monitoring is used to study the effect of increasing the oleic acid concentration on the duration of these stages as well as the size and shape of resulting nanocrystals. The use of real-time spectroscopic monitoring to study shell-addition, specifically, the addition of an un-doped NaYF4 shell, is also discussed. Patterned gold surfaces are known to enhance the upconversion efficiency of lanthanide based upconversion materials, such as nanocrystalline beta-NaYF 4:17% Yb3+, 3% Er3+. Here, spherical microwell arrays are shown to provide up to a 40x enhancement of upconversion emission from beta-NaYF4:17% Yb3+, 3% Er 3+ nanocrystals. Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) is a method to solve, numerically, the Maxwell equations across a 3D simulation grid and has been used to simulate the interaction of light with a variety of materials, including metal surfaces and particles. FDTD simulations is used to investigate the nature of the enhancement from the patterned gold

  12. Modal cutoff in rare-earth-doped photonic crystal fibers with multi-layer air-holes missing in the core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xing-tao; Zheng, Yi; Liu, Xiao-xu; Li, Shu-guang; Han, Ying; Hou, Zhi-yun; Wang, Na; Hou, Lan-tian

    2013-05-01

    The various mode effective indices of the doped photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) are compared, the mode field distributions of the fundamental mode and the second-order mode are analyzed, and the single-mode condition is presented. The mode effective indices of large-core doped PCFs with different core indices and structure parameters are simulated by the finite element method (FEM). The relations of the core index with the fiber structure parameters of pitch, hole-to-pitch ratio and core diameter are obtained for single-mode propagation. In the design and fabrication of the doped PCF, we can adjust the core index and fiber structure parameters to achieve large mode area and single-mode propagation.

  13. Highly Emissive Whole Rainbow Fluorophores Consisting of 1,4-Bis(2-phenylethynyl)benzene Core Skeleton: Design, Synthesis, and Light-Emitting Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Ochi, Takanori; Matsubara, Yoshio; Yoshida, Zen-ichi

    2015-08-13

    To create the whole-rainbow-fluorophores (WRF) having the small Δλem (the difference of λem between a given fluorophore and nearest neighboring fluorophore having the same core skeleton) values (<20 nm) in full visible region (λem: 400-650 nm), the high log ε (>4.5), and the high Φf (>0.6), we investigated molecular design, synthesis, and light-emitting characteristics of the π-conjugated molecules (D/A-BPBs) consisting of 1,4-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene (BPB) modified by donor groups (OMe, SMe, NMe2, and NPh2) and an acceptor group (CN). As a result, synthesized 20 D/A-BPBs (1a-5d) were found to be the desired WRF. To get the intense red fluorophore (Φf > 0.7, λem > 610 nm), we synthesized new compounds (5e-5i) and elucidated their photophysical properties in CHCl3 solution. As a result, 5h, in which a 4-cyanophenyl group is introduced to the para-position of two benzene rings in the terminal NPh2 group of 5d, was found to be the desired intense red fluorophore (log ε = 4.56, Φf = 0.76, λem = 611 nm). The intramolecular charge-transfer nature of the S1 state of WRF (1a-5d) was elucidated by the positive linear relationship between optical transition energy (νem) from the S1 state to the S0 state and HOMO(D)-LUMO(A) difference, and the molecular orbitals calculated with the DFT method. It is demonstrated that our concept (Φf = 1/(exp(-Aπ) + 1)) connected with the relationship between Φf and magnitude (Aπ) of π conjugation length in the S1 state can be applied to WRF (1a-5d). It is suggested that the prediction of Φf from a structural model can be achieved by the equation Φf = 1/(exp(-((ν̃a - ν̃f)(1/2) × a(3/2)) + 1), where ν̃a and ν̃f are the wavenumber (cm(-1)) of absorption and fluorescence peaks, respectively, and a is the calculated molecular radius. From the viewpoint of application of WRF to various functional materials, the light-emitting characteristics of 1a-5i in doped polymer films were examined. It was demonstrated that 1a-5

  14. Air-Stable, Cross-Linkable, Hole-Injecting/Transporting Interlayers for Improved Charge Injection in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Li,J.; Marks, T.

    2008-01-01

    Modification of inorganic electrode surfaces has attracted great attention in the quest to optimize organic optoelectronic devices. An air-stable, cross-linkable trimethoxysilane functionalized hole-transporting triarylamine (4,4'-bis[(p-trimethoxysilylpropylphenyl)phenylamino]biphenyl, TPD-[Si(OMe)3]2) has been synthesized and self-assembled or spin-coated onto tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) anode surfaces to form monolayers or multilayer siloxane films, respectively. The modified ITO surfaces were characterized by advancing aqueous contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Increased surface work function and enhanced ITO-hole transport layer (HTL) contact via robust covalent bonding are expected to facilitate hole injection from the ITO anode, resulting in organic light-emitting diode (OLED) performance enhancement versus that of a device without such interlayers. For a device having the structure ITO/spin-coated-TPD-[Si(OMe)3]2 from aqueous alcohol + acetic acid blend solution (40 nm)/NPB (20 nm)/Alq (60 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (100 nm), a maximum light output of 32800 cd/m2, a 4.25 V turn-on voltage, and a maximum current efficiency of 5.8 cd/A is achieved. This performance is comparable to or superior to that of analogous devices prepared with analogous trichorosilyl precursors. The air-stable interlayer material developed here is also applicable to large-area coating techniques.

  15. 40 CFR 52.2301 - Federal compliance date for automobile and light-duty truck coating. Texas Air Control Board...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Federal compliance date for automobile... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2301 Federal compliance date for automobile and..., automobile and light-duty truck coating operations were to have complied with final control limits of §...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2301 - Federal compliance date for automobile and light-duty truck coating. Texas Air Control Board...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Federal compliance date for automobile... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2301 Federal compliance date for automobile and..., automobile and light-duty truck coating operations were to have complied with final control limits of §...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2301 - Federal compliance date for automobile and light-duty truck coating. Texas Air Control Board...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Federal compliance date for automobile... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2301 Federal compliance date for automobile and..., automobile and light-duty truck coating operations were to have complied with final control limits of §...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2301 - Federal compliance date for automobile and light-duty truck coating. Texas Air Control Board...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Federal compliance date for automobile... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2301 Federal compliance date for automobile and..., automobile and light-duty truck coating operations were to have complied with final control limits of §...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2301 - Federal compliance date for automobile and light-duty truck coating. Texas Air Control Board...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal compliance date for automobile... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2301 Federal compliance date for automobile and..., automobile and light-duty truck coating operations were to have complied with final control limits of §...

  20. Antimony porphyrins as red-light powered photocatalysts for solar fuel production from halide solutions in the presence of air.

    PubMed

    Ertl, M; Wöß, E; Knör, G

    2015-10-01

    Halide ions (X(-)) as cheap and abundant electron donors are oxidized with simulated sunlight in a photocatalytic reaction based on robust antimony porphyrins acting as red-light harvesting multielectron transfer sensitizers. Besides halogen formation (X2/X3(-)) this solar energy storing process under certain conditions also accumulates hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a second energy-rich compound. PMID:26360604

  1. Angularly symmetric splitting of a light beam upon reflection and refraction at an air-dielectric plane boundary: reply.

    PubMed

    Azzam, R M A

    2016-05-01

    The simplified explicit expressions derived by Andersen [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A33, 984 (2016)JOAOD60740-323210.1364/JOSAA.32.000984], that relate to angularly symmetric beam splitting by reflection and refraction at an air-dielectric interface recently described by Azzam [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A32, 2436 (2015)JOAOD60740-323210.1364/JOSAA.32.002436], are welcome. A few additional remarks are also included in my reply to Andersen's comment. PMID:27140898

  2. Reflection and transmission of light waves from the air-magnetoplasma interface: Spatial and angular Imbert-Fedorov shifts

    SciTech Connect

    Borhanian, Jafar

    2015-03-15

    We have investigated the reflection and transmission of an electromagnetic wave from the air-magnetoplasma interface. The reflection and transmission coefficients are obtained for an arbitrary polarized incident wave. The spatial and angular Imbert-Fedorov (IF) shifts are discussed. The numerical results are presented to study the dependence of the reflection and transmission coefficients and IF shifts on relevant parameters of the system. The plasma and wave parameters can be used to control the reflection coefficients and IF shifts.

  3. Monte Carlo simulation of a quantum noise limited Čerenkov detector based on air-spaced light guiding taper for megavoltage x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Teymurazyan, A.; Rowlands, J. A.; Pang, G.

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Electronic Portal Imaging Devices (EPIDs) have been widely used in radiation therapy and are still needed on linear accelerators (Linacs) equipped with kilovoltage cone beam CT (kV-CBCT) or MRI systems. Our aim is to develop a new high quantum efficiency (QE) Čerenkov Portal Imaging Device (CPID) that is quantum noise limited at dose levels corresponding to a single Linac pulse. Methods: Recently a new concept of CPID for MV x-ray imaging in radiation therapy was introduced. It relies on Čerenkov effect for x-ray detection. The proposed design consisted of a matrix of optical fibers aligned with the incident x-rays and coupled to an active matrix flat panel imager (AMFPI) for image readout. A weakness of such design is that too few Čerenkov light photons reach the AMFPI for each incident x-ray and an AMFPI with an avalanche gain is required in order to overcome the readout noise for portal imaging application. In this work the authors propose to replace the optical fibers in the CPID with light guides without a cladding layer that are suspended in air. The air between the light guides takes on the role of the cladding layer found in a regular optical fiber. Since air has a significantly lower refractive index (∼1 versus 1.38 in a typical cladding layer), a much superior light collection efficiency is achieved. Results: A Monte Carlo simulation of the new design has been conducted to investigate its feasibility. Detector quantities such as quantum efficiency (QE), spatial resolution (MTF), and frequency dependent detective quantum efficiency (DQE) have been evaluated. The detector signal and the quantum noise have been compared to the readout noise. Conclusions: Our studies show that the modified new CPID has a QE and DQE more than an order of magnitude greater than that of current clinical systems and yet a spatial resolution similar to that of current low-QE flat-panel based EPIDs. Furthermore it was demonstrated that the new CPID does not require an

  4. Poster — Thur Eve — 24: Commissioning and preliminary measurements using an Attix-style free air ionization chamber for air kerma measurements on the BioMedical Imaging and Therapy beamlines at the Canadian Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D; McEwen, M; Shen, H; Siegbahn, EA; Fallone, BG; Warkentin, B

    2014-08-15

    Synchrotron facilities, including the Canadian Light Source (CLS), provide opportunities for the development of novel imaging and therapy applications. A vital step progressing these applications toward clinical trials is the availability of accurate dosimetry. In this study, a refurbished Attix-style (cylindrical) free air chamber (FAC) is tested and used for preliminary air kerma measurements on the two BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) beamlines at the CLS. The FAC consists of a telescoping chamber that relies on a difference measurement of collected charge in expanded and collapsed configurations. At the National Research Council's X-ray facility, a Victoreen Model 480 FAC was benchmarked against two primary standard FACs. The results indicated an absolute accuracy at the 0.5% level for energies between 60 and 150 kVp. A series of measurements were conducted on the small, non-uniform X-ray beams of the 05B1-1 (∼8 – 100 keV) and 05ID-2 (∼20 – 200 keV) beamlines for a variety of energies, filtrations and beam sizes. For the 05B1-1 beam with 1.1 mm of Cu filtration, recombination corrections of less than 5 % could only be achieved for field sizes no greater than 0.5 mm × 0.6 mm (corresponding to an air kerma rate of ∼ 57 Gy/min). Ionic recombination thus presents a significant challenge to obtaining accurate air kerma rate measurements using this FAC in these high intensity beams. Future work includes measurements using a smaller aperture to sample a smaller and thus more uniform beam area, as well as experimental and Monte Carlo-based investigation of correction factors.

  5. Efficiently Enhancing Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity of Faceted TiO2 Nanocrystals by Synergistic Effects of Core-Shell Structured Au@CdS Nanoparticles and Their Selective Deposition.

    PubMed

    Tong, Ruifeng; Liu, Chang; Xu, Zhenkai; Kuang, Qin; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Zheng, Lansun

    2016-08-24

    Integrating wide bandgap semiconductor photocatalysts with visible-light-active inorganic nanoparticles (such as Au and CdS) as sensitizers is one of the most efficient methods to improve their photocatalytic activity in the visible light region. However, as for all such composite photocatalysts, a rational design and precise control over their architecture is often required to achieve optimal performance. Herein, a new TiO2-based ternary composite photocatalyst with superior visible light activity was designed and synthesized. In this composite photocatalyst, the location of the visible light sensitizers was engineered according to the intrinsic facet-induced effect of well-faceted TiO2 nanocrystals on the spatial separation of photogenerated carriers. Experimentally, core-shell structured Au@CdS nanoparticles acting as visible light sensitizers were selectively deposited onto photoreductive {101} facets of well-faceted anatase TiO2 nanocrystals through a two-step in situ photodeposition route. Because the combination of Au@CdS and specific {101} facets of TiO2 nanocrystals facilitates the transport of charges photogenerated under visible light irradiation, this well-designed ternary composite photocatalyst exhibited superior activity in visible-light-driven photocatalytic H2 evolution, as expected. PMID:27479634

  6. Low-temperature ignition delay for hydrogen-air mixtures in light of a reaction mechanism with quantum correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, S. P.; Agafonov, G. L.; Khomik, S. V.

    2016-09-01

    A reaction mechanism with quantum correction is used to model low-temperature/high-pressure autoignition of lean hydrogen-air mixtures. This approach provides a good approximation for experimental data on autoignition delay and the low activation energy observed in experiments. Calculated results demonstrate that ignition delay time is inversely proportional to pressure, squared. The proposed scaling reduces spread in experimental data. The application of a quantum correction to hydrogen oxidation provides a basis for developing a general reaction mechanism that can be used to predict the autoignition behavior of hydrogen over an entire temperature/pressure range relevant to rocket engine conditions.

  7. Membrane-Based Air Composition Control for Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles: A Benefit and Cost Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    K. Stork; R. Poola

    1998-10-01

    This report presents the methodologies and results of a study conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to assess the benefits and costs of several membrane-based technologies. The technologies evaluated will be used in automotive emissions-control and performance-enhancement systems incorporated into light-duty diesel vehicle engines. Such engines are among the technologies that are being considered to power vehicles developed under the government-industry Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from diesel engines have long been considered a barrier to use of diesels in urban areas. Recently, particulate matter (PM) emissions have also become an area of increased concern because of new regulations regarding emissions of particulate matter measuring 2.5 micrometers or less (PM{sub 2.5}). Particulates are of special concern for diesel engines in the PNGV program; the program has a research goal of 0.01 gram per mile (g/mi) of particulate matter emissions under the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle. This extremely low level (one-fourth the level of the Tier II standard) could threaten the viability of using diesel engines as stand-alone powerplants or in hybrid-electric vehicles. The techniques analyzed in this study can reduce NO{sub x} and particulate emissions and even increase the power density of the diesel engines used in light-duty diesel vehicles.

  8. High Light Absorption and Charge Separation Efficiency at Low Applied Voltage from Sb-Doped SnO2/BiVO4 Core/Shell Nanorod-Array Photoanodes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lite; Zhao, Chenqi; Giri, Binod; Allen, Patrick; Xu, Xiaowei; Joshi, Hrushikesh; Fan, Yangyang; Titova, Lyubov V; Rao, Pratap M

    2016-06-01

    BiVO4 has become the top-performing semiconductor among photoanodes for photoelectrochemical water oxidation. However, BiVO4 photoanodes are still limited to a fraction of the theoretically possible photocurrent at low applied voltages because of modest charge transport properties and a trade-off between light absorption and charge separation efficiencies. Here, we investigate photoanodes composed of thin layers of BiVO4 coated onto Sb-doped SnO2 (Sb:SnO2) nanorod-arrays (Sb:SnO2/BiVO4 NRAs) and demonstrate a high value for the product of light absorption and charge separation efficiencies (ηabs × ηsep) of ∼51% at an applied voltage of 0.6 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode, as determined by integration of the quantum efficiency over the standard AM 1.5G spectrum. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the highest ηabs × ηsep efficiencies achieved to date at this voltage for nanowire-core/BiVO4-shell photoanodes. Moreover, although WO3 has recently been extensively studied as a core nanowire material for core/shell BiVO4 photoanodes, the Sb:SnO2/BiVO4 NRAs generate larger photocurrents, especially at low applied voltages. In addition, we present control experiments on planar Sb:SnO2/BiVO4 and WO3/BiVO4 heterojunctions, which indicate that Sb:SnO2 is more favorable as a core material. These results indicate that integration of Sb:SnO2 nanorod cores with other successful strategies such as doping and coating with oxygen evolution catalysts can move the performance of BiVO4 and related semiconductors closer to their theoretical potential. PMID:27203779

  9. Transition from downward to upward air-sea momentum transfer in swell-dominated light wind condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedman, Ann-Sofi; Högström, Ulf; Rutgersson, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric and surface wave data from two oceanic experiments carried out on FLIP and ASIS platforms are analysed in order to identify swell-related effects on the momentum exchange during low wind speed conditions. The RED experiment was carried out on board an R/P Floating Instrument Platform, FLIP, anchored north east of the Hawaiian island Oahu with sonic anemometers at four levels: 5.1 m, 6.9 m, 9.9 m and 13.8 m respectively. The meteorological conditions were characterized by north- easterly trade wind and with swell present during most of the time. During swell the momentum flux was directed downwards meaning a positive contribution to the stress. The FETCH experiment was carried out in the Gulf of Lion in the north-western Mediterranean Sea. On the ASIS (air-sea interaction spar) buoy a sonic anemometer was mounted at 7 m above the mean surface level. During strong swell conditions the momentum flux was directed upwards meaning a negative contribution to the stress in this case. The downward momentum flux is shown to be a function of the orbital circulation while the upward momentum flux is a function of wave height. The dividing wind speed is found to be 3.5 m/s Conclusion: Wind speed > 3.5 m/s creates waves (ripples) and thus roughness. Combination of orbital motion and asymmetric structure of ripples lead to flow perturbation and downward transport of negative momentum. With low wind speed (no ripples but viscosity) circulations will form above the crest and the trough with opposite direction which will cause a pressure drop in the vertical direction and an upward momentum transport from the water to the air.

  10. Technical report series on global modeling and data assimilation. Volume 5: Documentation of the AIRES/GEOS dynamical core, version 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, Max J. (Editor); Takacs, Lawrence L.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed description of the numerical formulation of Version 2 of the ARIES/GEOS 'dynamical core' is presented. This code is a nearly 'plug-compatible' dynamics for use in atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs). It is a finite difference model on a staggered latitude-longitude C-grid. It uses second-order differences for all terms except the advection of vorticity by the rotation part of the flow, which is done at fourth-order accuracy. This dynamical core is currently being used in the climate (ARIES) and data assimilation (GEOS) GCMs at Goddard.

  11. Facile synthesis of gold nanorods/hydrogels core/shell nanospheres for pH and near-infrared-light induced release of 5-fluorouracil and chemo-photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hui; Liu, Xifeng; Gui, Rijun; Wang, Zonghua

    2015-04-01

    We described a facile synthesis of pH and near-infrared (NIR) light dual-sensitive core/shell hybrid nanospheres, consisting of gold nanorods (GNR) as the core and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) as the shell, p(NIPAM-MAA). The resultant GNR/p(NIPAM-MAA) nanospheres showed a core/shell structure, with an average diameter of ∼110nm and a strong longitudinal surface plasmon band at NIR region. Due to the photothermal effect of GNR and pH/thermal-sensitive volume transition of p(NIPAM-MAA) hydrogels, the nanospheres with loading of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) by electrostatic interactions were developed as a smart carrier for pH- and photothermal-induced release of 5-FU. Experimental results testified that the cumulative release of 5-FU from nanospheres was markedly increased in a mild acidic medium. Moreover, a NIR light (808nm) irradiation triggered a greater and faster release of 5-FU, which was further testified by relevant results from in vitro cytotoxicity assay, in vivo tumor growth inhibition and histological images of ex vivo tumor sections. These results revealed significant applications of GNR/p(NIPAM-MAA) nanospheres in controlled release of anticancer agents and photothermal ablation therapy of tumor tissues, accompanied by synergistic effect of chem-photothermal therapy. PMID:25794443

  12. Composite Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Spang & Company's new configuration of converter transformer cores is a composite of gapped and ungapped cores assembled together in concentric relationship. The net effect of the composite design is to combine the protection from saturation offered by the gapped core with the lower magnetizing requirement of the ungapped core. The uncut core functions under normal operating conditions and the cut core takes over during abnormal operation to prevent power surges and their potentially destructive effect on transistors. Principal customers are aerospace and defense manufacturers. Cores also have applicability in commercial products where precise power regulation is required, as in the power supplies for large mainframe computers.

  13. Cartilage Tissue Engineering Application of Injectable Gelatin Hydrogel with In Situ Visible-Light-Activated Gelation Capability in Both Air and Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hang; Cheng, Anthony Wai-Ming; Alexander, Peter G.; Beck, Angela M.

    2014-01-01

    Chondroprogenitor cells encapsulated in a chondrogenically supportive, three-dimensional hydrogel scaffold represents a promising, regenerative approach to articular cartilage repair. In this study, we have developed an injectable, biodegradable methacrylated gelatin (mGL)–based hydrogel capable of rapid gelation via visible light (VL)–activated crosslinking in air or aqueous solution. The mild photocrosslinking conditions permitted the incorporation of cells during the gelation process. Encapsulated human-bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) showed high, long-term viability (up to 90 days) throughout the scaffold. To assess the applicability of the mGL hydrogel for cartilage tissue engineering, we have evaluated the efficacy of chondrogenesis of the encapsulated hBMSCs, using hBMSCs seeded in agarose as control. The ability of hBMSC-laden mGL constructs to integrate with host tissues after implantation was further investigated utilizing an in vitro cartilage repair model. The results showed that the mGL hydrogel, which could be photopolymerized in air and aqueous solution, supports hBMSC growth and TGF-β3-induced chondrogenesis. Compared with agarose, mGL constructs laden with hBMSCs are mechanically stronger with time, and integrate well with native cartilage tissue upon implantation based on push-out mechanical testing. VL-photocrosslinked mGL scaffold thus represents a promising scaffold for cell-based repair and resurfacing of articular cartilage defects. PMID:24575844

  14. Environmental Technology Verification: Supplement to Test/QA Plan for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners; Bioaerosol Inactivation Efficiency by HVAC In-Duct Ultraviolet Light Air Cleaners

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center has selected general ventilation air cleaners as a technology area. The Generic Verification Protocol for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners is on the Environmental Technology Verification we...

  15. ZnO@Ag2S core-shell nanowire arrays for environmentally friendly solid-state quantum dot-sensitized solar cells with panchromatic light capture and enhanced electron collection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Liu, Jianhua; Zhang, Jindan; Vlachopoulos, Nick; Johansson, Erik M J

    2015-05-21

    A solid-state environmentally friendly Ag2S quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) is demonstrated. The photovoltaic device is fabricated by applying ZnO@Ag2S core-shell nanowire arrays (NWAs) as light absorbers and electron conductors, and poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) as a solid-state hole conductor. Ag2S quantum dots (QDs) were directly grown on the ZnO nanowires by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method to obtain the core-shell nanostructure. The number of SILAR cycles for QD formation and the length of the core-shell NWs significantly affect the photocurrent. The device with a core-shell NWAs photoanode shows a power conversion efficiency increase by 32% compared with the device based on a typical nanoparticle-based photoanode with Ag2S QDs. The enhanced performance is attributed to enhanced collection of the photogenerated electrons utilizing the ZnO nanowire as an efficient pathway for transporting the photogenerated electrons from the QD to the contact. PMID:25907247

  16. Nanocrystalline Si/SiO2 core-shell network with intense white light emission fabricated by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Y.; Dutt, A.; Santana-Rodríguez, G.; Santoyo-Salazar, J.; Aceves-Mijares, M.

    2015-04-01

    We report the fabrication of a stable Si/SiO2 core-shell network using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition on a silicon substrate at a relatively low substrate temperature of 200 °C. Structural investigations using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction confirm the presence of nanocrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide quantum dots in the form of a core-shell network embedded in the amorphous SiOx matrix, while selected area electron diffraction confirms the formation of a core-shell structure. The core-shell structure exhibits a bright white emission that can be seen with the unaided eye at room temperature without any post-annealing treatments, and the observed photoemission does not alter in color or intensity after prolonged laser exposure. Additional measurements are performed while varying the laser power and optical gain is found in the as-deposited material. Intense stable white luminescence is observed and shows the prospective for various optical and biological applications in the future.

  17. Nanocrystalline Si/SiO{sub 2} core-shell network with intense white light emission fabricated by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Y. Dutt, A.; Santana-Rodríguez, G.; Santoyo-Salazar, J.; Aceves-Mijares, M.

    2015-04-27

    We report the fabrication of a stable Si/SiO{sub 2} core-shell network using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition on a silicon substrate at a relatively low substrate temperature of 200 °C. Structural investigations using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction confirm the presence of nanocrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide quantum dots in the form of a core-shell network embedded in the amorphous SiO{sub x} matrix, while selected area electron diffraction confirms the formation of a core-shell structure. The core-shell structure exhibits a bright white emission that can be seen with the unaided eye at room temperature without any post-annealing treatments, and the observed photoemission does not alter in color or intensity after prolonged laser exposure. Additional measurements are performed while varying the laser power and optical gain is found in the as-deposited material. Intense stable white luminescence is observed and shows the prospective for various optical and biological applications in the future.

  18. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FACILITY CORE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Exposure Assessment Facility Core will continue to collect environmental measures including personal and indoor air monitoring and repeat collection of dust samples from the home and biologic measures including urine and blood samples collected from the mother during pregn...

  19. From hollow olive-shaped BiVO4 to n-p core-shell BiVO4@Bi2O3 microspheres: controlled synthesis and enhanced visible-light-responsive photocatalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Guan, Mei-Li; Ma, De-Kun; Hu, Sheng-Wei; Chen, Yan-Jun; Huang, Shao-Ming

    2011-02-01

    In this study, hollow olive-shaped BiVO(4) and n-p core-shell BiVO(4)@Bi(2)O(3) microspheres were synthesized by a novel sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT)-assisted mixed solvothermal route and a thermal solution of NaOH etching process under hydrothermal conditions for the first time, respectively. The as-obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, and UV-vis diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy in detail. The influence of AOT and solvent ratios on the final products was studied. On the basis of SEM observations and XRD analyses of the samples synthesized at different reaction stages, the formation mechanism of hollow olive-shaped BiVO(4) microspheres was proposed. The photocatalytic activities of hollow olive-shaped BiVO(4) and core-shell BiVO(4)@Bi(2)O(3) microspheres were evaluated on the degradation of rhodamine B under visible-light irradiation (λ > 400 nm). The results indicated that core-shell BiVO(4)@Bi(2)O(3) exhibited much higher photocatalytic activities than pure olive-shaped BiVO(4). The mechanism of enhanced photocatalytic activity of core-shell BiVO(4)@Bi(2)O(3) microspheres was discussed on the basis of the calculated energy band positions as well. The present study provides a new strategy to enhancing the photocatalytic activity of visible-light-responsive Bi-based photocatalysts by p-n heterojunction. PMID:21171642

  20. Growth of metal-semiconductor core-multishell nanorods with optimized field confinement and nonlinear enhancement.

    PubMed

    Nan, Fan; Xie, Fang-Ming; Liang, Shan; Ma, Liang; Yang, Da-Jie; Liu, Xiao-Li; Wang, Jia-Hong; Cheng, Zi-Qiang; Yu, Xue-Feng; Zhou, Li; Wang, Qu-Quan; Zeng, Jie

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes a facile method for the synthesis of Au/AuAg/Ag2S/PbS core-multishell nanorods with double trapping layers. The synthesis, in sequence, involved deposition of Ag shells onto the surfaces of Au nanorod seeds, formation of AuAg shells by a galvanic replacement reaction, and overgrowth of the Ag2S shells and PbS shells. The resulting core-multishell nanorod possesses an air gap between the Au core and the AuAg shell. Together with the Ag2S shell, the air gap can efficiently trap light, causing strong field confinement and nonlinear enhancement. The as-prepared Au/AuAg/Ag2S/PbS core-multishell nanorods display distinct localized surface plasmon resonance and nonlinear optical properties, demonstrating an effective pathway for maneuvering the optical properties of nanocavities. PMID:27241031

  1. Monte Carlo simulations of electron lateral distributions in the core region of 10(13) - 10(16) eV air showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, A. G.

    1985-01-01

    This paper contains details of computer models of shower development which have been used to investigate the experimental data on shower cores observed in the Leeds 35 sq m and Sacramento Peak (New Mexico) 20 sq m arrays of current limited spark (discharge) chambers. The simulations include predictions for primaries ranging from protons to iron nuclei (with heavy nuclei treated using both superposition and fragmentation models).

  2. Voltage-induced electroluminescence characteristics of hybrid light-emitting diodes with CdSe/Cd/ZnS core-shell nanoparticles embedded in a conducting polymer on plastic substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Kwak, Kiyeol; Cho, Kyoungah E-mail: sangsig@korea.ac.kr; Kim, Sangsig E-mail: sangsig@korea.ac.kr

    2014-03-10

    We investigate the electroluminescence (EL) characteristics of a hybrid light-emitting diode (HyLED) with an emissive layer comprised of CdSe/Cd/ZnS core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in poly(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) (PFO) on a plastic substrate. The EL characteristics change dramatically with increasing of the biased voltage. At low voltages, recombination of electrons and holes occurs only in the PFO film because of poor charge transfer in the PFO-CdSe/Cd/ZnS NPs composite film, while the color of the light-emitting from the HyLED changes from blue to red as the biased voltage increases from 7.5 to 17.5 V. We examine and discuss the mechanism of this color tunability.

  3. Growth of metal-semiconductor core-multishell nanorods with optimized field confinement and nonlinear enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Fan; Xie, Fang-Ming; Liang, Shan; Ma, Liang; Yang, Da-Jie; Liu, Xiao-Li; Wang, Jia-Hong; Cheng, Zi-Qiang; Yu, Xue-Feng; Zhou, Li; Wang, Qu-Quan; Zeng, Jie

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes a facile method for the synthesis of Au/AuAg/Ag2S/PbS core-multishell nanorods with double trapping layers. The synthesis, in sequence, involved deposition of Ag shells onto the surfaces of Au nanorod seeds, formation of AuAg shells by a galvanic replacement reaction, and overgrowth of the Ag2S shells and PbS shells. The resulting core-multishell nanorod possesses an air gap between the Au core and the AuAg shell. Together with the Ag2S shell, the air gap can efficiently trap light, causing strong field confinement and nonlinear enhancement. The as-prepared Au/AuAg/Ag2S/PbS core-multishell nanorods display distinct localized surface plasmon resonance and nonlinear optical properties, demonstrating an effective pathway for maneuvering the optical properties of nanocavities.This paper describes a facile method for the synthesis of Au/AuAg/Ag2S/PbS core-multishell nanorods with double trapping layers. The synthesis, in sequence, involved deposition of Ag shells onto the surfaces of Au nanorod seeds, formation of AuAg shells by a galvanic replacement reaction, and overgrowth of the Ag2S shells and PbS shells. The resulting core-multishell nanorod possesses an air gap between the Au core and the AuAg shell. Together with the Ag2S shell, the air gap can efficiently trap light, causing strong field confinement and nonlinear enhancement. The as-prepared Au/AuAg/Ag2S/PbS core-multishell nanorods display distinct localized surface plasmon resonance and nonlinear optical properties, demonstrating an effective pathway for maneuvering the optical properties of nanocavities. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr09151a

  4. Ce-doped YAG nanophosphor and red emitting CuInS2/ZnS core/shell quantum dots for warm white light-emitting diode with high color rendering index.

    PubMed

    Aboulaich, Abdelhay; Michalska, Martyna; Schneider, Raphaël; Potdevin, Audrey; Deschamps, Jérôme; Deloncle, Rodolphe; Chadeyron, Geneviève; Mahiou, Rachid

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we report the solvothermal synthesis of Ce-doped YAG (YAG:Ce) nanoparticles (NPs) and their association with a free-Cd CuInS2/ZnS (CIS/ZnS) core/shell QDs for application into white light emitting diode (WLED). 1500 °C-annealed YAG:Ce NPs and CIS/ZnS core/shell QDs exhibited intense yellow and red emissions band with maxima at 545 and 667 nm, respectively. Both YAG:Ce nanophosphor and CIS/ZnS QDs showed high photoluminescence quantum yield (PL QY) of about 50% upon 460 nm excitation. YAG:Ce nanophosphor layer and bilayered YAG:Ce nanophosphor-CIS/ZnS QDs were applied on blue InGaN chip as converter wavelength to achieve WLED. While YAG:Ce nanophosphor converter layer showed low color rendering index (CRI) and cold white light, bilayered YAG:Ce nanophosphor-CIS/ZnS QDs displayed higher CRI of about 84 and warm white light with a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 2784 K. WLED characteristics were measured as a function of forward current from 20 to 1200 mA. The white light stability of bilayered nanophosphor-QDs-based WLED operated at 200 mA was also studied as a function of operating time up to 40 h. Interestingly, CRI and CCT of such device tend to remain constant after 7 h of operating time suggesting that layer-by-layer structure of YAG:Ce phosphor and red-emitting CIS/ZnS QDs could be a good solution to achieve stable warm WLED, especially when high current density is applied. PMID:24320991

  5. Core-shell Cd0.2Zn0.8S@BiOX (X = Cl, Br and I) microspheres: a family of hetero-structured catalysts with adjustable bandgaps, enhanced stability and photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yannan; Wen, Ting; Chang, Binbin; Yang, Baocheng; Wang, Yonggang

    2016-09-21

    Heterostructures consisting of two semiconductors have merited considerable attention in photocatalytic applications due to synergistic effects in complex redox processes. The incorporation of solid solutions into such architectures can further offer extra variability to control the bandgap. In this study, we report the fabrication of a series of core-shell Cd0.2Zn0.8S@BiOX (X = Cl, Br and I) microspheres via a solvothermal route that lead to enhanced photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation. By optimizing the synthesis conditions, uniform and porous Cd0.2Zn0.8S@BiOX microspheres were achieved. The products were thoroughly characterized by X-ray diffraction studies, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence studies, absorption measurements and the photodegradation of RhB. Remarkably, the electronic structures of Cd0.2Zn0.8S@BiOX composites can be continuously tuned by varying the composition of BiOX to achieve the best catalytic performance under visible light irradiation. Finally, this greatly enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic efficiency was observed in the optimized Cd0.2Zn0.8S@BiOI composites when compared to their single-component counterparts, which may be attributed to increased light absorption and improved electron-hole separation. The photocatalytic mechanism has also been proposed based on the experimental evidences and the theoretical band positions of Cd0.2Zn0.8S@BiOI. PMID:27510184

  6. Direct correlations of structural and optical properties of three-dimensional GaN/InGaN core/shell micro-light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadat Mohajerani, Matin; Müller, Marcus; Hartmann, Jana; Zhou, Hao; Wehmann, Hergo-H.; Veit, Peter; Bertram, Frank; Christen, Jürgen; Waag, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) InGaN/GaN quantum-well (QW) core–shell light emitting diodes (LEDs) are a promising candidate for the future solid state lighting. In this contribution, we study direct correlations of structural and optical properties of the core–shell LEDs using highly spatially-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy (CL) in combination with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Temperature-dependent resonant photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy has been performed to understand recombination mechanisms and to estimate the internal quantum efficiency (IQE).

  7. PERFORMANCE OF AN AIR CLASSIFIER TO REMOVE LIGHT ORGANIC CONTAMINATION FROM ALUMINUM RECOVERED FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE BY EDDY CURRENT SEPARATION. TEST NO. 5.03, RECOVERY 1, NEW ORLEANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a test in which aluminum cans recovered from municipal waste, together with known amounts of contaminant, were processed by a 'zig-zag' vertical air classifier to remove aerodynamically light contaminant. Twelve test runs were conducted; the proportions of co...

  8. Origin of thermal degradation of Sr(2-x)Si5N8:Eu(x) phosphors in air for light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chiao-Wen; Chen, Wei-Ting; Liu, Ru-Shi; Hu, Shu-Fen; Sheu, Hwo-Shuenn; Chen, Jin-Ming; Hintzen, Hubertus T

    2012-08-29

    The orange-red emitting phosphors based on M(2)Si(5)N(8):Eu (M = Sr, Ba) are widely utilized in white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) because of their improvement of the color rendering index (CRI), which is brilliant for warm white light emission. Nitride-based phosphors are adopted in high-performance applications because of their excellent thermal and chemical stabilities. A series of nitridosilicate phosphor compounds, M(2-x)Si(5)N(8):Eu(x) (M = Sr, Ba), were prepared by solid-state reaction. The thermal degradation in air was only observed in Sr(2-x)Si(5)N(8):Eu(x) with x = 0.10, but it did not appear in Sr(2-x)Si(5)N(8):Eu(x) with x = 0.02 and Ba analogue with x = 0.10. This is an unprecedented investigation to study this phenomenon in the stable nitrides. The crystal structural variation upon heating treatment of these compounds was carried out using the in situ XRD measurements. The valence of Eu ions in these compounds was determined by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The morphology of these materials was examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Combining all results, it is concluded that the origin of the thermal degradation in Sr(2-x)Si(5)N(8):Eu(x) with x = 0.10 is due to the formation of an amorphous layer on the surface of the nitride phosphor grain during oxidative heating treatment, which results in the oxidation of Eu ions from divalent to trivalent. This study provides a new perspective for the impact of the degradation problem as a consequence of heating processes in luminescent materials. PMID:22831180

  9. Particle distributions in approximately 10(13) - 10(16) eV air shower cores at mountain altitude and comparison with Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, A. G.

    1985-01-01

    Photographs of 521 shower cores in an array of current-limited spark (discharge) chambers at Sacramento Peak (2900m above sea level, 730 g /sq cm.), New Mexico, U.S.A., have been analyzed and the results compared with similar data from Leeds (80m above sea level, 1020 g sq cm.). It was found that the central density differential spectrum is consistent with a power law index of -2 up to approx. 1500/sq m where it steepens, and that shower cores become flatter on average with increasing size. Scaling model predictions for proton primaries with a approx E sup -2.71 energy spectrum account well for the altitude dependence of the data at lower densities. However, deviations at higher densities indicate a change in hadron interaction characteristics between approx few x 10 to the 14th power and 10 to the 15th power eV primary energy causing particles close to the shower axis to be spread further out.

  10. First steps toward development of a stable isotope forward model for tropical ice cores: cold air incursions and snow days at Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, J. V.; Vuille, M. F.; Hardy, D. R.; Burns, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    We are working towards a forward-model reconstruction of the South American Summer Monsoon (SASM) for the last millennium from the Quelccaya Ice Cap (QIC) d18O record. QIC receives precipitation almost exclusively during the SASM season. Initial efforts focus on dynamics that yield precipitation at this receding tropical ice cap, and how they relate to the hydrogen and oxygen stable isotopes. We present over a decade of daily snow-height change observations from the summit of QIC. Accumulation of snow (~2 m yr-1) at the summit occurs October through April, peaking in December. Net monthly snow-height change is negative May through September, though positive snow height change days do occur throughout the year. Snow height change time-series are used to develop d18O age-models for annual snow collected in vertical profiles near the summit of QIC since 2003. Snow d18O decreases during austral summer from about -17 to -24 per mil VSMOW. Post-depositional alteration of late summer snow during austral winter elevates d18O from about -24 to about -15 per mil VSMOW. Timing of 90thpercentile positive snow-height change events at QIC corresponds with regional precipitation and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) anomalies that are dynamically triggered by cold air incursions propagating from the midlatitudes east of the Andes into the Amazon Basin. Precipitation and OLR anomalies migrate northwest in about 2-3 days from near Rio de la Plata to central Peru. The convective anomalies are the result of southerly horizontal wind anomalies in the lower troposphere that advect cold extratropical air equatorward. Composite analysis of satellite measurements shows that cold air incursions are associated with negative water vapor dD (~ -40 per mil) anomalies at QIC. We expect that snow stable isotope values from QIC are thus not only records of the deep overturning component of the monsoon circulation but also of synoptic scale monsoon disturbances. Cold air incursions into the South

  11. CdSe/TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles produced in AOT reverse micelles: applications in pollutant photodegradation using visible light

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    CdSe quantum dots with a prominent band-edge photoluminescence were obtained by a soft AOT water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsion templating method with an estimated size of 2.7 nm. The CdSe particles were covered with a TiO2 layer using an intermediate SiO2 coupling reagent by a sol-gel process. The resulting CdSe/TiO2 core/shell nanoparticles showed appreciable photocatalytic activity at λ = 405 nm which can only originate because of electron injection from the conduction band of CdSe to that of TiO2. PMID:21711492

  12. Hybrid light-emitting diodes from anthracene-contained polymer and CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Ming-Lung; Su, Yan-Kuin; Chen, Ruei-Tang

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we added CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) into anthracene-contained polymer. The photoluminescent (PL) characteristic of polymer/QD composite film could identify the energy transitions of anthracene-contained polymer and QDs. Furthermore, the electroluminescent (EL) characteristic of hybrid LED also identifies emission peaks of blue polymer and QDs. The maximum luminescence of the device is 970 cd/m2 with 9.1 wt.% QD hybrid emitter. The maximum luminous efficiency is 2.08 cd/A for the same device.

  13. Detection of reflected Cherenkov light from extensive air showers in the SPHERE experiment as a method of studying superhigh energy cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, R. A.; Aulova, T. V.; Bonvech, E. A.; Galkin, V. I.; Dzhatdoev, T. A.; Podgrudkov, D. A.; Roganova, T. M.; Chernov, D. V.

    2015-01-01

    Although a large number of experiments were carried out during the last few decades, the uncertainty in the spectrum of all nuclei of primary cosmic rays (PCRs) with superhigh energies is still high, and the results of many experiments on nuclear composition of PCRs are contradictory. An overview of the SPHERE experiment on detecting Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation from extensive air shower (EAS) reflected from a ground snow surface is given. A number of experimental studies implementing this method are presented and their results are analyzed. Some other popular methods of studying PCRs with superhigh energies ( E 0 > 1015 eV) and their main advantages and drawbacks are briefly considered. The detecting equipment of the SPHERE-2 experiment and the technique of its calibration are considered. The optical properties of snow, which are important for experiments on reflected Cherenkov light (CL) from EAS, are discussed and the history of observing reflected EAS CL is described. The algorithm of simulating the detector response and calculating the fiducial acceptance of shower detection is described. The procedure of processing the experimental data with a subsequent reconstruction of the spectrum of all PCR nuclei and analysis of the mass composition is shown. The first results of reconstructing the spectrum and separating groups of cosmic-ray nuclei with high energies in the SPHERE-2 experiment are presented. Main sources of systematic errors are considered. The prospects of developing the technique of observation of reflected EAS CL in future experiments are discussed.

  14. The influence of floc size and hydraulic detention time on the performance of a dissolved air flotation (DAF) pilot unit in the light of a mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Moruzzi, R B; Reali, M A P

    2014-12-01

    The influence of floc size and hydraulic detention time on the performance of a dissolved air flotation (DAF) pilot unit was investigated in the light of a known mathematical model. The following design and operational parameters were considered: the hydraulic detention time (tdcz) and hydraulic loading rate in the contact zone, the down-flow loading rate in the clarification zone, the particle size distribution (d F), and the recirculation rate (p). As a reference for DAF performance analysis, the proposed β.td parameter from the above mentioned mathematical model was employed. The results indicated that tdcz is an important factor in DAF performance and that d F and floc size are also determinants of DAF efficiency. Further, β.td was sensitive to both design and operational parameters, which were varied in the DAF pilot plant. The performance of the DAF unit decreases with increasing β.td values because a higher td (considering a fixed β) or a higher β (e.g., higher hydrophobicity of the flocs for a fixed td) would be necessary in the reaction zone to reach desired flotation efficiency. PMID:24871277

  15. Carbon-Coated Core-Shell Fe-Cu Nanoparticles as Highly Active and Durable Electrocatalysts for a Zn-Air Battery.

    PubMed

    Nam, Gyutae; Park, Joohyuk; Choi, Min; Oh, Pilgun; Park, Suhyeon; Kim, Min Gyu; Park, Noejung; Cho, Jaephil; Lee, Jang-Soo

    2015-06-23

    Understanding the interaction between a catalyst and oxygen has been a key step in designing better electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as well as applying them in metal-air batteries and fuel cells. Alloying has been studied to finely tune the catalysts' electronic structures to afford proper binding affinities for oxygen. Herein, we synthesized a noble-metal-free and nanosized transition metal CuFe alloy encapsulated with a graphitic carbon shell as a highly efficient and durable electrocatalyst for the ORR in alkaline solution. Theoretical models and experimental results demonstrated that the CuFe alloy has a more moderate binding strength for oxygen molecules as well as the final product, OH(-), thus facilitating the oxygen reduction process. Furthermore, the nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon-coated layer, formed catalytically under the influence of iron, affords enhanced charge transfer during the oxygen reduction process and superior durability. These benefits were successfully confirmed by realizing the catalyst application in a mechanically rechargeable Zn-air battery. PMID:25967866

  16. Cold-air annular-cascade investigation of aerodynamic performance of core-engine-cooled turbine vanes. 1: Solid-vane performance and facility description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, L. J.; Mclallin, K. L.

    1975-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of a solid (uncooled) version of a core engine cooled stator vane was experimentally determined in a full-annular cascade, where three-dimensional effects could be obtained. The solid vane, which serves as a basis for comparison with subsequent cooled tests, was tested over a range of aftermixed critical velocity ratios of 0.57 to 0.90. Overall vane aftermixed efficiencies were obtained over this critical velocity ratio range and compared with results from a two-dimensional cascade. The variation in vane efficiency and aftermixed flow conditions with circumferential and radial position were obtained and compared with design values. Vane surface static-pressure distributions were also measured and compared with theoretical results.

  17. Facile construction of vertically aligned EuS-ZnO hybrid core shell nanorod arrays for visible light driven photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ranjith, K. S.; Kumar, D. Ranjith; Kumar, R. T. Rajendra

    2015-06-24

    We demonstrated the development of coupled semiconductor in the form of hybrid heterostructures for significant advancement in catalytic functional materials. In this article, we report the preparation of vertically aligned core shell ZnO-EuS nanorod photocatalyst arrays by a simple chemical solution process followed by sulfudation process. The XRD pattern confirmed formation of the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO and cubic nature of the EuS. Cross sectional FESEM images show vertical rod array structure, and the size of the nanorods ranges from 80 to 120 nm. UV-Vis DRS spectra showed that the optical absorption of ZnO was significantly enhanced to the visible region by modification with EuS surfaces. TEM study confirmed that the surface of ZnO was drastically improved by the modification with EuS nanoparticle. The catalytic activity of EuS−ZnO core shell nanorod arrays were evaluated by the photodegradation of Methylene Blue (MB) dye under visible irradiation. The results revealed that the photocatalytic activity of EuS−ZnO was much higher than that of ZnO under natural sunlight. EuS−ZnO was found to be stable and reusable without appreciable loss of catalytic activity up to four consecutive cycles.

  18. Electrical Current Leakage and Open-Core Threading Dislocations in AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes.

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Moseley, Michael William; Allerman, Andrew A.; Crawford, Mary H.; Wierer, Jonathan; Smith, Michael L.; Biedermann, Laura

    2014-08-04

    Electrical current transport through leakage paths in AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet (DUV) lightemitting diodes (LEDs) and their effect on LED performance are investigated. Open-core threading dislocations, or nanopipes, are found to conduct current through nominally insulating Al0.7Ga0.3N layers and limit the performance of DUV-LEDs. A defect-sensitive phosphoric acid etch reveals these opencore threading dislocations in the form of large, micron-scale hexagonal etch pits visible with optical microscopy, while closed-core screw-, edge-, and mixed-type threading dislocations are represented by smaller and more numerous nanometer-scale pits visible by atomic-force microscopy. The electrical and optical performances of DUV-LEDs fabricated on similar Si-doped Al0.7Ga0.3N templatesmore » are found to have a strong correlation to the density of these nanopipes, despite their small fraction (<0.1% in this study) of the total density of threading dislocations.« less

  19. Electrical Current Leakage and Open-Core Threading Dislocations in AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, Michael William; Allerman, Andrew A.; Crawford, Mary H.; Wierer, Jonathan; Smith, Michael L.; Biedermann, Laura

    2014-08-04

    Electrical current transport through leakage paths in AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet (DUV) lightemitting diodes (LEDs) and their effect on LED performance are investigated. Open-core threading dislocations, or nanopipes, are found to conduct current through nominally insulating Al0.7Ga0.3N layers and limit the performance of DUV-LEDs. A defect-sensitive phosphoric acid etch reveals these opencore threading dislocations in the form of large, micron-scale hexagonal etch pits visible with optical microscopy, while closed-core screw-, edge-, and mixed-type threading dislocations are represented by smaller and more numerous nanometer-scale pits visible by atomic-force microscopy. The electrical and optical performances of DUV-LEDs fabricated on similar Si-doped Al0.7Ga0.3N templates are found to have a strong correlation to the density of these nanopipes, despite their small fraction (<0.1% in this study) of the total density of threading dislocations.

  20. Core Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; turbofan design trends and their aeroacoustic implications; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduce-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge; and the current research activities in the core noise area. Recent work1 on the turbine-transmission loss of combustor noise is briefly described, two2,3 new NRA efforts in the core-noise area are outlined, and an effort to develop CMC-based acoustic liners for broadband noise reduction suitable for turbofan-core application is delineated. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project's Reduce-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries.

  1. NaYF{sub 4}:Er,Yb/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} core/shell nanocomposite: A highly efficient visible-light-driven photocatalyst utilizing upconversion

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yuanyuan; Wang, Wenzhong Sun, Songmei; Zhang, Ling

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Design and synthesis of NaYF{sub 4}:Er,Yb/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} based on upconversion. • NaYF{sub 4}:Er,Yb/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} nanocomposite was prepared for the first time. • Core–shell structure benefits the properties. • Upconversion contributed to the enhanced photocatalytic activity. • Helps to understand the functionality of new type photocatalysts. - Abstract: NaYF{sub 4}:Er,Yb/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} core/shell nanocomposite was designed and prepared for the first time based on upconversion. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The results revealed that the as-synthesized NaYF{sub 4}:Er,Yb/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} consisted of spheres with a core diameter of about 26 nm and a shell diameter of around 6 nm. The core was upconversion illuminant NaYF{sub 4}:Er,Yb and the shell was Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} around the core, which was confirmed by EDS. The NaYF{sub 4}:Er,Yb/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} exhibited higher photocatalytic activity for the photodecomposition of Rhodamine B (RhB) under the irradiation of Xe lamp and green light emitting diode (g-LED). The mechanism of the high photocatalytic activity was discussed by photoluminescence spectra (PL), which is mainly attributed to upconversion of NaYF{sub 4}:Er,Yb in the NaYF{sub 4}:Er,Yb/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} nanocomposite and the core–shell structure.

  2. Silica aerogel core waveguide.

    PubMed

    Grogan, M D W; Leon-Saval, S G; England, R; Birks, T A

    2010-10-11

    We have selectively filled the core of hollow photonic crystal fibre with silica aerogel. Light is guided in the aerogel core, with a measured attenuation of 0.2 dB/cm at 1540 nm comparable to that of bulk aerogel. The structure guides light by different mechanisms depending on the wavelength. At long wavelengths the effective index of the microstructured cladding is below the aerogel index of 1.045 and guidance is by total internal reflection. At short wavelengths, where the effective cladding index exceeds 1.045, a photonic bandgap can guide the light instead. There is a small region of crossover, where both index- and bandgap-guided modes were simultaneously observed. PMID:20941148

  3. Design of a circular photonic crystal fiber with flattened chromatic dispersion using a defected core and selectively reduced air holes: Application to supercontinuum generation at 1.55 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medjouri, Abdelkader; Simohamed, Lotfy Mokhtar; Ziane, Omar; Boudrioua, Azzedine; Becer, Zoubir

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present and numerically investigate a new and simple design of Circular Lattice Photonic Crystal Fiber (CL-PCF) with near zero ultra-flattened chromatic dispersion. The near zero dispersion is obtained by introducing a defect into the solid core and the dispersion flatness is achieved by appropriately reducing the diameter of the core-neighboring air holes ring. Simulations are performed by using the finite-difference frequency-domain (FDFD) method combined with the perfectly matched layer (PML) boundary condition. Results show that an ultra-flattened chromatic dispersion as small as ±0.66 ps/nm km is obtained over a broad band of 400 nm with high nonlinearity and ultra-low confinement loss. Furthermore, the supercontinuum (SC) generation over a short length of the proposed CL-PCF is numerically investigated. Results indicate that flat SC spectrum with a Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of 600 nm is achieved with 25 cm of fiber length.

  4. Core-Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015 (N+1), 2020 (N+2), and 2025 (N+3) timeframes; SFW strategic thrusts and technical challenges; SFW advanced subsystems that are broadly applicable to N+3 vehicle concepts, with an indication where further noise research is needed; the components of core noise (compressor, combustor and turbine noise) and a rationale for NASA's current emphasis on the combustor-noise component; the increase in the relative importance of core noise due to turbofan design trends; the need to understand and mitigate core-noise sources for high-efficiency small gas generators; and the current research activities in the core-noise area, with additional details given about forthcoming updates to NASA's Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) core-noise prediction capabilities, two NRA efforts (Honeywell International, Phoenix, AZ and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, respectively) to improve the understanding of core-noise sources and noise propagation through the engine core, and an effort to develop oxide/oxide ceramic-matrix-composite (CMC) liners for broadband noise attenuation suitable for turbofan-core application. Core noise must be addressed to ensure that the N+3 noise goals are met. Focused, but long-term, core-noise research is carried out to enable the advanced high-efficiency small gas-generator subsystem, common to several N+3 conceptual designs, needed to meet NASA's technical challenges. Intermediate updates to prediction tools are implemented as the understanding of the source structure and engine-internal propagation effects is improved. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The

  5. Nanofocus x-ray diffraction and cathodoluminescence investigations into individual core-shell (In,Ga)N/GaN rod light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Krause, Thilo; Hanke, Michael; Cheng, Zongzhe; Niehle, Michael; Trampert, Achim; Rosenthal, Martin; Burghammer, Manfred; Ledig, Johannes; Hartmann, Jana; Zhou, Hao; Wehmann, Hergo-Heinrich; Waag, Andreas

    2016-08-12

    Employing nanofocus x-ray diffraction, we investigate the local strain field induced by a five-fold (In,Ga)N multi-quantum well embedded into a GaN micro-rod in core-shell geometry. Due to an x-ray beam width of only 150 nm in diameter, we are able to distinguish between individual m-facets and to detect a significant in-plane strain gradient along the rod height. This gradient translates to a red-shift in the emitted wavelength revealed by spatially resolved cathodoluminescence measurements. We interpret the result in terms of numerically derived in-plane strain using the finite element method and subsequent kinematic scattering simulations which show that the driving parameter for this effect is an increasing indium content towards the rod tip. PMID:27352816

  6. Light absorption and plasmon - exciton interaction in three-layer nanorods with a gold core and outer shell composed of molecular J- and H-aggregates of dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, B. I.; Tyshkunova, E. S.; Kondorskiy, A. D.; Lebedev, V. S.

    2015-12-01

    Optical properties of hybrid rod-like nanoparticles, consisting of a gold core, an intermediate passive organic layer (spacer) and outer layer of ordered molecular cyanine dye aggregates, are experimentally and theoretically investigated. It is shown that these dyes can form not only ordered J-aggregates but also H-aggregates (differing by the packing angle of dye molecules in an aggregate and having other spectral characteristics) in the outer shell of the hybrid nanostructure. Absorption spectra of synthesised three-layer nanorods are recorded, and their sizes are determined. The optical properties of the composite nanostructures under study are found to differ significantly, depending on the type of the molecular aggregate formed in the outer shell. The experimental data are quantitatively explained based on computer simulation using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, and characteristic features of the plasmon - exciton interaction in the systems under study are revealed.

  7. Au@Cu2O stellated polytope with core-shelled nanostructure for high-performance adsorption and visible-light-driven photodegradation of cationic and anionic dyes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xueqing; Cai, Jiabai; Li, Shunxing; Zheng, Fengying; Lai, Zhanghua; Zhu, Licong; Chen, Tanju

    2016-05-01

    Au nanoparticles were covered by Cu2O nanoparticles shell and then Au@Cu2O stellated polytope was synthesized by a facile aqueous solution approach. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction patterns, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Brunner-Emmet-Teller measurements, and Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy analysis. With good aqueous dispersibility, surface positive charge, and high chemisorption capacity, Au@Cu2O could be used for anionic dyes removal. Compared with Degussa P25-TiO2, the adsorption of anionic dyes (acid violet 43 or methyl blue, 5.0 mg L(-1)) onto Au@Cu2O was increased by 90.12% and 50.8%, respectively. The photodegradation activity of methyl orange and methyl violet were in the declining order: Au@Cu2O>Cu2O-Au nanocomposites>Cu2O>P25-TiO2. The synergistic effect of coupling Au core with Cu2O shell on the dyes photodegradation was observed. The photoexcited electrons from Cu2O conduction band could be captured by Au nanoparticles, resulting in an improved electron-hole separation. Moreover, a Schottky barrier was assumed to form at the Cu2O-Au interface and Au NPs as electron sink could reduce the recombination of photoinduced electrons and holes, facilitating the photocatalytic interface reaction. The geometry of core-shell and stellated polytope is effective in the design of Cu2O-Au nanocomposites for adsorption and photocatalysis. PMID:26874979

  8. Effect of air temperature and relative humidity at various fuel-air ratios on exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis of an Avco Lycoming 0-320 DIAD light aircraft engine. Volume 2: Individual data points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Meng, P. R.; Kempke, E. R.

    1976-01-01

    A carbureted four cylinder air cooled 0-320 DIAD Lycoming aircraft engine was tested to establish the effects of air temperature and humidity at various fuel-air ratios on the exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis. The test conditions included carburetor lean-out at air temperatures of 50, 59, 80, and 100 F at relative humidities of 0, 30, 60, and 80 percent. Temperature-humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased. Even at a fixed fuel-air ratio, the HC emissions increase and the NOx emissions decrease at the higher values of air temperature and humidity. Volume II contains the data taken at each of the individual test points.

  9. Effect of Air Temperature and Relative Humidity at Various Fuel-Air Ratios on Exhaust Emissions on a Per-Mode Basis of an AVCO Lycoming 0-320 Diad Light Aircraft Engine: Volume 1: Results and Plotted Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Meng, P. R.; Kempe, E. E., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A carbureted four cylinder air cooled 0-320 DIAD Lycoming aircraft engine was tested to establish the effects of air temperature and humidity at various fuel-air ratios on the exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis. The test conditions include carburetor lean out at air temperatures of 50, 59, 80, and 100 F at relative humidities of 0, 30, 60, and 80 percent. Temperature humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased. Even at a fixed fuel air ratio, the HC emissions increase and the NOx emissions decrease at the higher values of air temperature and humidity.

  10. DUBLIN CORE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Dublin Core is a metadata element set intended to facilitate discovery of electronic resources. It was originally conceived for author-generated descriptions of Web resources, and the Dublin Core has attracted broad ranging international and interdisciplinary support. The cha...

  11. Evaluating the Use of MODIS AOD for Air Quality Determination by Comparison with the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Light Scattering Coefficient Obtained with a Balloon-Borne Nephelometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumlin, B.; Arnott, W. P.; Moosmuller, H.

    2012-12-01

    The MODIS instruments aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites provide aerosol optical depth information for the entire Earth on a daily basis. Ideally, satellite measurements should correlate with ground-based measurements in order to be useful for air quality applications. Reno, Nevada, USA is a high desert city situated in the Great Basin. Its unique geography and proximity to urban and biomass burning aerosol sources make it an ideal candidate for aerosol research. In August 2011, the Reno Aerosol Characterization Experiment measured atmospheric aerosols with a ground-based Cimel CE-318 sun-photometer and in situ photoacoustic instrumentation to quantify aerosol concentrations at the surface and in the column. However, the results of these measurements indicated the existence of a more complex system of aerosol mixing above the atmospheric boundary layer than previously thought. In order to validate these measurements, an autonomous suite of instrumentation has been developed. This device is carried aloft by a weather balloon and utilizes a reciprocal nephelometer to obtain a high-resolution profile of the vertical distribution of aerosol light scattering coefficient, as well as instrumentation to record atmospheric variables such as temperature, pressure, relative humidity, and dew point. Position, course, speed, and altitude are logged with an onboard GPS module and correlated with atmospheric and aerosol measurements. Presented is the design and development of this new instrument, its comparison with proven laboratory instruments, data gathered from flights during August-November 2012, and its comparison to ground-based measurements and satellite data from the MODIS instruments.

  12. Core-Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation is a technical progress report and near-term outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external work on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduced-Noise-Aircraft Technical Challenge; the current research activities in the core-noise area, with some additional details given about the development of a high-fidelity combustion-noise prediction capability; the need for a core-noise diagnostic capability to generate benchmark data for validation of both high-fidelity work and improved models, as well as testing of future noise-reduction technologies; relevant existing core-noise tests using real engines and auxiliary power units; and examples of possible scenarios for a future diagnostic facility. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The SFW Reduced-Noise-Aircraft Technical Challenge aims to enable concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries. This reduction of aircraft noise is critical for enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. Noise generated in the jet engine core, by sources such as the compressor, combustor, and turbine, can be a significant contribution to the overall noise signature at low-power conditions, typical of approach flight. At high engine power during takeoff, jet and fan noise have traditionally dominated over core noise. However, current design trends and expected technological advances in engine-cycle design as well as noise-reduction methods are likely to reduce non-core noise even at engine-power points higher than approach. In addition, future low-emission combustor designs could increase

  13. Strong photonic crystal behavior in regular arrays of core-shell and quantum disc InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lewins, C. J. Le Boulbar, E. D.; Lis, S. M.; Shields, P. A.; Allsopp, D. W. E.; Edwards, P. R.; Martin, R. W.

    2014-07-28

    We show that arrays of emissive nanorod structures can exhibit strong photonic crystal behavior, via observations of the far-field luminescence from core-shell and quantum disc InGaN/GaN nanorods. The conditions needed for the formation of directional Bloch modes characteristic of strong photonic behavior are found to depend critically upon the vertical shape of the nanorod sidewalls. Index guiding by a region of lower volume-averaged refractive index near the base of the nanorods creates a quasi-suspended photonic crystal slab at the top of the nanorods which supports Bloch modes. Only diffractive behavior could be observed without this region. Slab waveguide modelling of the vertical structure shows that the behavioral regime of the emissive nanorod arrays depends strongly upon the optical coupling between the nanorod region and the planar layers below. The controlled crossover between the two regimes of photonic crystal operation enables the design of photonic nanorod structures formed on planar substrates that exploit either behavior depending on device requirements.

  14. Scaling To A Million Cores And Beyond: Using Light-Weight Simulation to Understand The Challenges Ahead On The Road To Exascale

    SciTech Connect

    Engelmann, Christian

    2014-01-01

    As supercomputers scale to 1,000 PFlop/s over the next decade, investigating the performance of parallel applications at scale on future architectures and the performance impact of different architecture choices for high-performance computing (HPC) hardware/software co-design is crucial. This paper summarizes recent efforts in designing and implementing a novel HPC hardware/software co-design toolkit. The presented Extreme-scale Simulator (xSim) permits running an HPC application in a controlled environment with millions of concurrent execution threads while observing its performance in a simulated extreme-scale HPC system using architectural models and virtual timing. This paper demonstrates the capabilities and usefulness of the xSim performance investigation toolkit, such as its scalability to 2^27 simulated Message Passing Interface (MPI) ranks on 960 real processor cores, the capability to evaluate the performance of different MPI collective communication algorithms, and the ability to evaluate the performance of a basic Monte Carlo application with different architectural parameters.

  15. U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory Solid-State Lighting Core Technologies Light Emitting Diodes on Semipolar Bulk GaN Substrate with IQE > 80% at 150 A/cm2 and 100 0C

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Arpan; David, Aurelien; Grundmann, Michael; Tyagi, Anurag; Craven, Michael; Hurni, Christophe; Cich, Michael

    2015-03-31

    GaN is a crucial material for light-emitting diodes (LEDs) emitting in the violet-to-green range. Despite its good performance, it still suffers from significant technical limitations. In particular, the efficiency of GaN-based LEDs decreases at high current (“current droop”) and high temperature (“temperature droop”). This is problematic in some lighting applications, where a high-power operation is required. This program studied the use of particular substrates to improve the efficiency of GaN-based LEDs: bulk semipolar (SP) GaN substrates. These substrates possess a very high material quality, and physical properties which are distinctly different from legacy substrates currently used in the LED industry. The program focused on the development of accurate metrology to quantify the performance of GaN-based LEDs, and on improvement to LED quality and design on SP substrates. Through a thorough optimization process, we demonstrated violet LEDs with very high internal quantum efficiency, exceeding 85% at high temperature and high current. We also investigated longer-wavelength blue emitters, but found that the limited strain budget was a key limitation.

  16. Outer-core compositional stratification from observed core wave speed profiles.

    PubMed

    Helffrich, George; Kaneshima, Satoshi

    2010-12-01

    Light elements must be present in the nearly pure iron core of the Earth to match the remotely observed properties of the outer and inner cores. Crystallization of the inner core excludes light elements from the solid, concentrating them in liquid near the inner-core boundary that potentially rises and collects at the top of the core, and this may have a seismically observable signal. Here we present array-based observations of seismic waves sensitive to this part of the core whose wave speeds require there to be radial compositional variation in the topmost 300 km of the outer core. The velocity profile significantly departs from that of compression of a homogeneous liquid. Total light-element enrichment is up to five weight per cent at the top of the core if modelled in the Fe-O-S system. The stratification suggests the existence of a subadiabatic temperature gradient at the top of the outer core. PMID:21150995

  17. Controlling Light Harvesting with Light.

    PubMed

    Gwizdala, Michal; Berera, Rudi; Kirilovsky, Diana; van Grondelle, Rienk; Krüger, Tjaart P J

    2016-09-14

    When exposed to intense sunlight, all organisms performing oxygenic photosynthesis implement various photoprotective strategies to prevent potentially lethal photodamage. The rapidly responding photoprotective mechanisms, occurring in the light-harvesting pigment-protein antennae, take effect within tens of seconds, while the dramatic and potentially harmful light intensity fluctuations manifest also on shorter time scales. Here we show that, upon illumination, individual phycobilisomes from Synechocystis PCC 6803, which, in vivo under low-light conditions, harvest solar energy, and have the built-in capacity to switch rapidly and reversibly into light-activated energy-dissipating states. Simultaneously measured fluorescence intensity, lifetime, and spectra, compared with a multicompartmental kinetic model, revealed that essentially any subunit of a phycobilisome can be quenched, and that the core complexes were targeted most frequently. Our results provide the first evidence for fluorescence blinking from a biologically active system at physiological light intensities and suggest that the light-controlled switches to intrinsically available energy-dissipating states are responsible for a novel type of photoprotection in cyanobacteria. We anticipate other photosynthetic organisms to employ similar strategies to respond instantly to rapid solar light intensity fluctuations. A detailed understanding of the photophysics of photosynthetic antenna complexes is of great interest for bioinspired solar energy technologies. PMID:27546794

  18. Core Noise - Increasing Importance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; turbofan design trends and their aeroacoustic implications; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge; and the current research activities in the core-noise area, with additional details given about the development of a high-fidelity combustor-noise prediction capability as well as activities supporting the development of improved reduced-order, physics-based models for combustor-noise prediction. The need for benchmark data for validation of high-fidelity and modeling work and the value of a potential future diagnostic facility for testing of core-noise-reduction concepts are indicated. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries. This reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. Noise generated in the jet engine core, by sources such as the compressor, combustor, and turbine, can be a significant contribution to the overall noise signature at low-power conditions, typical of approach flight. At high engine power during takeoff, jet and fan noise have traditionally dominated over core noise. However, current design trends and expected technological advances in engine-cycle design as well as noise-reduction methods are likely to reduce non-core noise even at engine-power points higher than approach. In addition, future low-emission combustor

  19. Optical fiber sensor having a sol-gel fiber core and a method of making

    DOEpatents

    Tao, Shiquan; Jindal, Rajeev; Winstead, Christopher; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2006-06-06

    A simple, economic wet chemical procedure is described for making sol-gel fibers. The sol-gel fibers made from this process are transparent to ultraviolet, visible and near infrared light. Light can be guided in these fibers by using an organic polymer as a fiber cladding. Alternatively, air can be used as a low refractive index medium. The sol-gel fibers have a micro pore structure which allows molecules to diffuse into the fiber core from the surrounding environment. Chemical and biochemical reagents can be doped into the fiber core. The sol-gel fiber can be used as a transducer for constructing an optical fiber sensor. The optical fiber sensor having an active sol-gel fiber core is more sensitive than conventional evanescent wave absorption based optical fiber sensors.

  20. 24. A CORE WORKER DISPLAYS THE CORE BOX AND CORES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. A CORE WORKER DISPLAYS THE CORE BOX AND CORES FOR A BRASS GATE VALVE BODY MADE ON A CORE BOX, CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  1. Towards high efficiency air-processed near-infrared responsive photovoltaics: bulk heterojunction solar cells based on PbS/CdS core-shell quantum dots and TiO2 nanorod arrays.

    PubMed

    Gonfa, Belete Atomsa; Kim, Mee Rahn; Delegan, Nazar; Tavares, Ana C; Izquierdo, Ricardo; Wu, Nianqiang; El Khakani, My Ali; Ma, Dongling

    2015-06-14

    Near infrared (NIR) PbS quantum dots (QDs) have attracted significant research interest in solar cell applications as they offer several advantages, such as tunable band gaps, capability of absorbing NIR photons, low cost solution processability and high potential for multiple exciton generation. Nonetheless, reports on solar cells based on NIR PbS/CdS core-shell QDs, which are in general more stable and better passivated than PbS QDs and thus more promising for solar cell applications, remain very rare. Herein we report high efficiency bulk heterojunction QD solar cells involving hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanorod arrays and PbS/CdS core-shell QDs processed in air (except for a device thermal annealing step) with a photoresponse extended to wavelengths >1200 nm and with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) as high as 4.43%. This efficiency was achieved by introducing a thin, sputter-deposited, uniform TiO2 seed layer to improve the interface between the TiO2 nanorod arrays and the front electrode, by optimizing TiO2 nanorod length and by conducting QD annealing treatment to enhance charge carrier transport. It was found that the effect of the seed layer became more obvious when the TiO2 nanorods were longer. Although photocurrent did not change much, both open circuit voltage and fill factor clearly changed with TiO2 nanorod length. This was mainly attributed to the variation of charge transport and recombination processes, as evidenced by series and shunt resistance studies. The optimal PCE was obtained at the nanorod length of ∼450 nm. Annealing is shown to further increase the PCE by ∼18%, because of the improvement of charge carrier transport in the devices as evidenced by considerably increased photocurrent. Our results clearly demonstrate the potential of the PbS/CdS core-shell QDs for the achievement of high PCE, solution processable and NIR responsive QD solar cells. PMID:25975363

  2. Honeycomb Core Permeability Under Mechanical Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, David E.; Raman, V. V.; Venkat, Venki S.; Sankaran, Sankara N.

    1997-01-01

    A method for characterizing the air permeability of sandwich core materials as a function of applied shear stress was developed. The core material for the test specimens was either Hexcel HRP-3/16-8.0 and or DuPont Korex-1/8-4.5 and was nominally one-half inch thick and six inches square. The facesheets where made of Hercules' AS4/8552 graphite/epoxy (Gr/Ep) composites and were nominally 0.059-in. thick. Cytec's Metalbond 1515-3M epoxy film adhesive was used for co-curing the facesheets to the core. The permeability of the specimens during both static (tension) and dynamic (reversed and non-reversed) shear loads were measured. The permeability was measured as the rate of air flow through the core from a circular 1-in2 area of the core exposed to an air pressure of 10.0 psig. In both the static and dynamic testing, the Korex core experienced sudden increases in core permeability corresponding to a core catastrophic failure, while the URP core experienced a gradual increase in the permeability prior to core failure. The Korex core failed at lower loads than the HRP core both in the transverse and ribbon directions.

  3. Core strengthening.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Elizabeth A

    2007-01-01

    Several recent studies have evaluated interventional techniques designed to reduce the risk of serious knee injuries, particularly noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes. Maintenance of rotational control of the limb underneath the pelvis, especially in response to cutting and jumping activities, is a common goal in many training programs. Rotational control of the limb underneath the pelvis is mediated by a complex set of factors including the strength of the trunk muscles and the relationship between the core muscles. It is important to examine the interrelationship between lower extremity function and core stability. PMID:17472321

  4. Enhanced waveguide-type ultraviolet electroluminescence from ZnO/MgZnO core/shell nanorod array light-emitting diodes via coupling with Ag nanoparticles localized surface plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cen; Marvinney, Claire Elizabeth; Xu, Hai Yang; Liu, Wei Zhen; Wang, Chun Liang; Zhang, Li Xia; Wang, Jian Nong; Ma, Jian Gang; Liu, Yi Chun

    2014-12-01

    Localized surface plasmon (LSP) enhanced waveguide-type ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated by sputtering Ag nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) onto ZnO/MgZnO core/shell nanorod array (CS-NRA)/p-GaN heterostructures. A ~9-fold enhancement of ZnO ultraviolet electroluminescence (EL) was demonstrated by the Ag-NPs decorated LED compared with the device without Ag-NPs. Angle-dependent EL measurements, as well as finite-difference time-domain simulations of the EL intensity spatial distribution, confirmed the waveguide-type EL transmission mode along the NR's axial direction. The increased spontaneous emission rate observed in time-resolved spectroscopy suggested that the ZnO EL enhancement was attributed to LSP-exciton/polariton coupling. However, a direct coupling is very difficult to achieve between Ag-LSPs and electron-hole pairs in the active region due to their ``remote'' separation. Thereby, two possible models involving the dynamic process of interactions among excitons, photons, and LSPs, were established to understand the selective enhancement of ZnO EL.Localized surface plasmon (LSP) enhanced waveguide-type ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated by sputtering Ag nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) onto ZnO/MgZnO core/shell nanorod array (CS-NRA)/p-GaN heterostructures. A ~9-fold enhancement of ZnO ultraviolet electroluminescence (EL) was demonstrated by the Ag-NPs decorated LED compared with the device without Ag-NPs. Angle-dependent EL measurements, as well as finite-difference time-domain simulations of the EL intensity spatial distribution, confirmed the waveguide-type EL transmission mode along the NR's axial direction. The increased spontaneous emission rate observed in time-resolved spectroscopy suggested that the ZnO EL enhancement was attributed to LSP-exciton/polariton coupling. However, a direct coupling is very difficult to achieve between Ag-LSPs and electron-hole pairs in the active region due to their ``remote'' separation

  5. Evaluation of Air Pollution Applications of AERONET and MODIS Aerosol Column Optical Depth by Comparison with In Situ Measurements of Aerosol Light Scattering and Absorption for Reno, NV, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loria Salazar, S.; Arnott, W. P.; Moosmuller, H.; Colucci, D.

    2012-12-01

    Reno, Nevada, USA is subject to typical urban aerosol, wind-blown dust, and occasional biomass burning smoke from anthropogenic and natural fires. Reno has complex air flow at levels relevant for aerosol transport. At times recirculating mountain and urban flow arrives from the Sierra Nevada, San Francisco, CA and Sacramento, CA. The urban plumes are further modified by biogenic forest emissions and secondary aerosol formation during transport over the Sierra Nevada Mountains to Reno. This complicates the use of MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) for air quality measurements in Reno. Our laboratory at the University of Nevada Reno has collocated multispectral photoacoustic instruments and reciprocal nephelometers to measure light absorption and light scattering coefficients as well as an AERONET operated CIMEL CE-318 ground-based sunphotometer. Preliminary measurements from August 2011 indicate substantially larger Cimel AOD than could be accounted for by use of the in situ aerosol extinction measurements combined with mixing height estimate. This poster presents new results comparing AERONET AOD and single scattering albedo and MODIS AOD with in situ measurements for summer and fall 2012, along with extensive back trajectory analysis, to evaluate conditions when satellite measurement may be useful for air pollution applications in Reno.

  6. Air-snow interactions and atmospheric chemistry.

    PubMed

    Dominé, Florent; Shepson, Paul B

    2002-08-30

    The presence of snow greatly perturbs the composition of near-surface polar air, and the higher concentrations of hydroxyl radicals (OH) observed result in a greater oxidative capacity of the lower atmosphere. Emissions of nitrogen oxides, nitrous acid, light aldehydes, acetone, and molecular halogens have also been detected. Photolysis of nitrate ions contained in the snow appears to play an important role in creating these perturbations. OH formed in the snowpack can oxidize organic matter and halide ions in the snow, producing carbonyl compounds and halogens that are released to the atmosphere or incorporated into snow crystals. These reactions modify the composition of the snow, of the interstitial air, and of the overlying atmosphere. Reconstructing the composition of past atmospheres from ice-core analyses may therefore require complex corrections and modeling for reactive species. PMID:12202818

  7. Air-Snow Interactions and Atmospheric Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominé, Florent; Shepson, Paul B.

    2002-08-01

    The presence of snow greatly perturbs the composition of near-surface polar air, and the higher concentrations of hydroxyl radicals (OH) observed result in a greater oxidative capacity of the lower atmosphere. Emissions of nitrogen oxides, nitrous acid, light aldehydes, acetone, and molecular halogens have also been detected. Photolysis of nitrate ions contained in the snow appears to play an important role in creating these perturbations. OH formed in the snowpack can oxidize organic matter and halide ions in the snow, producing carbonyl compounds and halogens that are released to the atmosphere or incorporated into snow crystals. These reactions modify the composition of the snow, of the interstitial air, and of the overlying atmosphere. Reconstructing the composition of past atmospheres from ice-core analyses may therefore require complex corrections and modeling for reactive species.

  8. Enhanced waveguide-type ultraviolet electroluminescence from ZnO/MgZnO core/shell nanorod array light-emitting diodes via coupling with Ag nanoparticles localized surface plasmons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cen; Marvinney, Claire Elizabeth; Xu, Hai Yang; Liu, Wei Zhen; Wang, Chun Liang; Zhang, Li Xia; Wang, Jian Nong; Ma, Jian Gang; Liu, Yi Chun

    2015-01-21

    Localized surface plasmon (LSP) enhanced waveguide-type ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated by sputtering Ag nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) onto ZnO/MgZnO core/shell nanorod array (CS-NRA)/p-GaN heterostructures. A ∼9-fold enhancement of ZnO ultraviolet electroluminescence (EL) was demonstrated by the Ag-NPs decorated LED compared with the device without Ag-NPs. Angle-dependent EL measurements, as well as finite-difference time-domain simulations of the EL intensity spatial distribution, confirmed the waveguide-type EL transmission mode along the NR's axial direction. The increased spontaneous emission rate observed in time-resolved spectroscopy suggested that the ZnO EL enhancement was attributed to LSP-exciton/polariton coupling. However, a direct coupling is very difficult to achieve between Ag-LSPs and electron-hole pairs in the active region due to their "remote" separation. Thereby, two possible models involving the dynamic process of interactions among excitons, photons, and LSPs, were established to understand the selective enhancement of ZnO EL. PMID:25475883

  9. Metamaterials. Invisibility cloaking in a diffusive light scattering medium.

    PubMed

    Schittny, Robert; Kadic, Muamer; Bückmann, Tiemo; Wegener, Martin

    2014-07-25

    In vacuum, air, and other surroundings that support ballistic light propagation according to Maxwell's equations, invisibility cloaks that are macroscopic, three-dimensional, broadband, passive, and that work for all directions and polarizations of light are not consistent with the laws of physics. We show that the situation is different for surroundings leading to multiple light scattering, according to Fick's diffusion equation. We have fabricated cylindrical and spherical invisibility cloaks made of thin shells of polydimethylsiloxane doped with melamine-resin microparticles. The shells surround a diffusively reflecting hollow core, in which arbitrary objects can be hidden. We find good cloaking performance in a water-based diffusive surrounding throughout the entire visible spectrum and for all illumination conditions and incident polarizations of light. PMID:24903561

  10. Visible-Light-Active Plasmonic Ag-SrTiO3 Nanocomposites for the Degradation of NO in Air with High Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Huang, Yu; Xu, Lifeng; Cao, Jun-ji; Ho, Wingkei; Lee, Shun Cheng

    2016-02-17

    Harnessing inexhaustible solar energy for photocatalytic disposal of nitrogen oxides is of great significance nowadays. In this study, Ag-SrTiO3 nanocomposites (Ag-STO) were synthesized via one-pot solvothermal method for the first time. The deposition of Ag nanoparticles incurs a broad plasmonic resonance absorption in the visible light range, resulting in enhanced visible light driven activity on NO removal in comparison with pristine SrTiO3. The Ag loading amount has a significant influence on light absorption properties of Ag-STO, which further affects the photocatalytic efficiency. It was shown that 0.5% Ag loading onto SrTiO3 (in mass ratio) could remove 30% of NO in a single reaction path under visible light irradiation, which is twice higher than that achieved on pristine SrTiO3. Most importantly, the generation of harmful intermediate (NO2) is largely inhibited over SrTiO3 and Ag-STO nanocomposites, which can be ascribed to the basic surface property of strontium sites. As identified by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra,·O2(-) and ·OH radicals are the major reactive species for NO oxidation. Essentially speaking, the abundance of reactive oxygen radicals produced over Ag-STO nanocomposites are responsible for the improved photocatalytic activity. This work provides a facile and controllable route to fabricate plasmonic Ag-SrTiO3 nanocomposite photocatalyst featuring high visible light activity and selectivity for NO abatement. PMID:26796511

  11. The Properties of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haglund, Richard F.

    The mystery of light has formed the core of creation stories in every culture, and attracted the earnest attentions of philosophers since at least the fifth century BCE. Their questions have ranged from how and what we see, to the interaction of light with material bodies, and finally to the nature of light itself. This chapter begins with a brief intellectual history of light from ancient Greece to the end of the 19th century. After introducing the physical parameterization of light in terms of standard units, three concepts of light are introduced: light as a wave, light as a quantum particle, and light as a quantum field. After highlighting the distinctive characteristics of light beams from various sources - thermal radiation, luminescence from atoms and molecules, and synchrotron light sources - the distinctive physical characteristics of light beams are examined in some detail. The chapter concludes with a survey of the statistical and quantum-mechanical properties of light beams. In the appropriate limits, this treatment not only recovers the classical description of light waves and the semiclassical view of light as a stream of quanta, but also forms a consistent description of quantum phenomena - such as interference phenomena generated by single photons - that have no classical analogs.

  12. Causes and consequences of outer core stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helffrich, George; Kaneshima, Satoshi

    2013-10-01

    The Earth’s outer core appears to be compositionally layered. Exotic mechanisms such as an original chemically layered core preserved from the Earth’s accretionary period, or compositionally different core material delivered by a Moon-creating impactor are conceivable, but require a core whose outermost part has been stratified throughout core history, relying on unknowable processes to achieve. Barodiffusion and core-mantle reaction lead to layers significantly thinner than observed. We show that a balance of mass transferred from the inner core to the top of the outer core is possible, and that the stratification could arise as a byproduct of light element accumulation. However, if a subadiabatic thermal gradient at the top of the outer core exists that quells radial flow, it could serve as a witness of light element accumulation by preventing mixing with the convecting part of the core. The temperature difference through a subadiabatic layer could be 80-300 K and carry heat fluxes through the core-mantle boundary of 0.5-23 TW, given uncertainty in core properties.

  13. Photon upconversion in supramolecular gel matrixes: spontaneous accumulation of light-harvesting donor-acceptor arrays in nanofibers and acquired air stability.

    PubMed

    Duan, Pengfei; Yanai, Nobuhiro; Nagatomi, Hisanori; Kimizuka, Nobuo

    2015-02-11

    Efficient triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA)-based photon upconversion (UC) is achieved in supramolecular organogel matrixes. Intense UC emission was observed from donor (sensitizer)-acceptor (emitter) pairs in organogels even under air-saturated condition, which solved a major problem: deactivation of excited triplet states and TTA-UC by molecular oxygen. These unique TTA-UC molecular systems were formed by spontaneous accumulation of donor and acceptor molecules in the gel nanofibers which are stabilized by developed hydrogen bond networks. These molecules preorganized in nanofibers showed efficient transfer and migration of triplet energy, as revealed by a series of spectroscopic, microscopic, and rheological characterizations. Surprisingly, the donor and acceptor molecules incorporated in nanofibers are significantly protected from the quenching action of dissolved molecular oxygen, indicating very low solubility of oxygen to nanofibers. In addition, efficient TTA-UC is achieved even under excitation power lower than the solar irradiance. These observations clearly unveil the adaptive feature of host gel nanofiber networks that allows efficient and cooperative inclusion of donor-acceptor molecules while maintaining their structural integrity. As evidence, thermally induced reversible assembly/disassembly of supramolecular gel networks lead to reversible modulation of the UC emission intensity. Moreover, the air-stable TTA-UC in supramolecular gel nanofibers was generally observed for a wide combination of donor-acceptor pairs which enabled near IR-to-yellow, red-to-cyan, green-to-blue, and blue-to-UV wavelength conversions. These findings provide a new perspective of air-stable TTA-UC molecular systems; spontaneous and adaptive accumulation of donor and acceptor molecules in oxygen-blocking, self-assembled nanomatrixes. The oxygen-barrier property of l-glutamate-derived organogel nanofibers has been unveiled for the first time, which could find many

  14. Bili lights

    MedlinePlus

    Phototherapy for jaundice; Bilirubin - bili lights; Neonatal care - bili lights; Newborn care - bili lights ... Phototherapy involves shining fluorescent light from the bili lights on bare skin. A specific wavelength of light can break down bilirubin into a form that ...

  15. Kinetics of conversion of air bubbles to air hydrate crystals in antarctic ice.

    PubMed

    Price, P B

    1995-03-24

    The depth dependence of bubble concentration at pressures above the transition to the air hydrate phase and the optical scattering length due to bubbles in deep ice at the South Pole are modeled with diffusion-growth data from the laboratory, taking into account the dependence of age and temperature on depth in the ice. The model fits the available data on bubbles in cores from Vostok and Byrd and on scattering length in deep ice at the South Pole. It explains why bubbles and air hydrate crystals coexist in deep ice over a range of depths as great as 800 meters and predicts that at depths below approximately 1400 meters the AMANDA neutrino observatory at the South Pole will operate unimpaired by light scattering from bubbles. PMID:17775808

  16. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  17. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  18. Gaseous and Particulate Oxidation Products Analysis of a Mixture of a-pinene + b-pinene/O3/Air in the Absence of Light and a-pinene + b-pinene/NOx/Air in the Presence of Natural Sunlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaoui, M.; Kamens, R.

    2001-12-01

    The gas and particle phase reaction products of a mixture of the atmospherically important terpenes a-pinene and b-pinene with the atmospheric oxidants O3 and OHNOx were investigated using both gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for identification and quantification of reaction products. The nighttime oxidation of a mixture of a-pinene and b-pinene in the presence of O3air, and the daytime oxidation of a mixture of a-pinene + b-pinene with NOx/air in the presence of natural sunlight were carried out in the University of North Carolina's large outdoor smog chamber (190 m3) located in Chatham County, North Carolina. Mass balances for gaseous and aerosol reaction products are reported over the course of the reaction. More than twenty-nine products were identified and/or quantified in this study. On average, measured gas and particle phase products accounted for ~74 to ~80% of the reacted a-pineneb-pinene mixture carbon. Measurements show that a number of reaction products were found in both O3 and NOx system [pinonaldehyde, pinic acid, pinonic acid, pinalic-3-acid, 4-hydroxypinalic-3-acid, 4-oxonopinone, 1-hydroxy-nopinone, 3-hydroxy-nopinone, and nopinone]. Pinonic acid, pinic acid, pinalic-3-acid, 4-hydroxypinalic-3-acid, and 10-hydroxypinonic acid were observed in the early stage in the aerosol phase and may play an important role in the early formation of secondary aerosols.

  19. Optical fiber sensor having an active core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egalon, Claudio Oliveira (Inventor); Rogowski, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An optical fiber is provided. The fiber is comprised of an active fiber core which produces waves of light upon excitation. A factor ka is identified and increased until a desired improvement in power efficiency is obtained. The variable a is the radius of the active fiber core and k is defined as 2 pi/lambda wherein lambda is the wavelength of the light produced by the active fiber core. In one embodiment, the factor ka is increased until the power efficiency stabilizes. In addition to a bare fiber core embodiment, a two-stage fluorescent fiber is provided wherein an active cladding surrounds a portion of the active fiber core having an improved ka factor. The power efficiency of the embodiment is further improved by increasing a difference between the respective indices of refraction of the active cladding and the active fiber core.

  20. Fate and aqueous transport of mercury in light of the Clean Air Mercury Rule for coal-fired electric power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzuman, Anry

    Mercury is a hazardous air pollutant emitted to the atmosphere in large amounts. Mercury emissions from electric power generation sources were estimated to be 48 metric tons/year, constituting the single largest anthropogenic source of mercury in the U.S. Settled mercury species are highly toxic contaminants of the environment. The newly issued Federal Clean Air Mercury Rule requires that the electric power plants firing coal meet the new Maximum Achievable Mercury Control Technology limit by 2018. This signifies that all of the air-phase mercury will be concentrated in solid phase which, based on the current state of the Air Pollution Control Technology, will be fly ash. Fly ash is utilized by different industries including construction industry in concrete, its products, road bases, structural fills, monifills, for solidification, stabilization, etc. Since the increase in coal combustion in the U.S. (1.6 percent/year) is much higher than the fly ash demand, large amounts of fly ash containing mercury and other trace elements are expected to accumulate in the next decades. The amount of mercury transferred from one phase to another is not a linear function of coal combustion or ash production, depends on the future states of technology, and is unknown. The amount of aqueous mercury as a function of the future removal, mercury speciation, and coal and aquifer characteristics is also unknown. This paper makes a first attempt to relate mercury concentrations in coal, flue gas, fly ash, and fly ash leachate using a single algorithm. Mercury concentrations in all phases were examined and phase transformation algorithms were derived in a form suitable for probabilistic analyses. Such important parameters used in the transformation algorithms as Soil Cation Exchange Capacity for mercury, soil mercury selectivity sequence, mercury activity coefficient, mercury retardation factor, mercury species soil adsorption ratio, and mercury Freundlich soil adsorption isotherm

  1. AIR COOLED NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

    1958-05-27

    A nuclear reactor of the air-cooled, graphite moderated type is described. The active core consists of a cubicle mass of graphite, approximately 25 feet in each dimension, having horizontal channels of square cross section extending between two of the opposite faces, a plurality of cylindrical uranium slugs disposed in end to end abutting relationship within said channels providing a space in the channels through which air may be circulated, and a cadmium control rod extending within a channel provided in the moderator. Suitable shielding is provlded around the core, as are also provided a fuel element loading and discharge means, and a means to circulate air through the coolant channels through the fuel charels to cool the reactor.

  2. Polymer-gas reactions (air pollutants: NO2 and SO2) as function of pressure, UV light, temperature, and morphology: A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jellinek, H. H. G.

    1972-01-01

    Reactions of various polymers, such as polystyrene and its stereo-specific isomers, butylrubber, nylon, etc., with nitrogen dioxide and sulfur-dioxide were studied over the past few years. More recently, work has been initiated on the influence of polymer morphology on degradation of polymers in presence of these gases, near UV radiation and oxygen. Unexpected effects have been observed during chain scission near room temperature. Thus, for instance, isotactic polystyrene of various crystallinities, as far as extent and type are concerned, show marked differences in their degradation characteristics. Thus, for instance, crystalline polymers show faster degradation than amorphous ones, which seems to be contrary to expectations. However, this phenomenon can be explained in quite a consistent manner. The importance of all these reactions in connection with air pollution is briefly discussed.

  3. Improved electron injection and transport by use of baking soda as a low-cost, air-stable, n-dopant for solution-processed phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earmme, Taeshik; Jenekhe, Samson A.

    2013-06-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda, NaHCO3) is found to be an efficient low-cost, air-stable, and environmentally friendly n-dopant for electron-transport layer (ETL) in solution-processed phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs). A 2.0-fold enhancement in power efficiency of blue PhOLEDs is observed by use of NaHCO3-doped 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BPhen) ETL. The bulk conductivity of NaHCO3-doped BPhen film is increased by 5 orders of magnitude. Enhanced performance of PhOLEDs is similarly observed by use of NaHCO3-doped 1,3,5-tris(m-pyrid-3-yl-phenyl)benzene ETL. These results demonstrate that sodium bicarbonate is an effective n-dopant in organic electronics.

  4. Relation between gamma-ray family and EAS core: Monte-Carlo simulation of EAS core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanagita, T.

    1985-01-01

    Preliminary results of Monte-Carlo simulation on Extensive Air Showers (EAS) (Ne=100,000) core is reported. For the first collision at the top of the atmosphere, high multiplicity (high rapidity, density) and a large Pt (1.5GeV average) model is assumed. Most of the simulated cores show a complicated structure.

  5. Design and fabrication of embedded two elliptical cores hollow fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Fengjun; Yuan, Libo; Dai, Qian; Liu, Zhihai

    2011-11-01

    We propose a novel embedded two elliptical cores fiber with a hollow air hole, and demonstrate the fabrication of the embedded two elliptical cores hollow fiber (EECHF). By using a suspended core-in-tube technique, the fibers are drawn from the preform utilizing a fiber drawing system with a pressure controller. The fiber have a 60μm diameter hollow air hole centrally, a 125μm diameter cladding, two 7.2μm /3.0μm (major axis/minor axis) elliptical cores, and a 3μm thickness silica cladding between core layer and air hole. The EECHF has a great potential for PMFs, high sensitivity in-fiber interferometers, poling fiber and Bio-sensor based on evanescent wave field. The fabrication technology is simple and versatile, and can be easily utilized to fabricate multi-core fiber with any desired aspect ratio elliptical core.

  6. High-frequency-peaked BL Lacertae Objects as Spectral Candles to Measure the Extragalactic Background Light in the Fermi and Air Cherenkov Telescopes Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankuzhiyil, Nijil; Persic, Massimo; Tavecchio, Fabrizio

    2010-05-01

    The extragalactic background light (EBL) is the integrated light from all the stars that have ever formed, and spans the IR-UV range. The interaction of very high-energy (VHE: E > 100 GeV) γ-rays, emitted by sources located at cosmological distances, with the intervening EBL results in e - e + pair production that leads to energy-dependent attenuation of the observed VHE flux. This introduces a fundamental ambiguity into the interpretation of measured VHE γ-ray spectra: neither the intrinsic spectrum nor the EBL are separately known—only their combination is. In this Letter, we propose a method to measure the EBL photon number density. It relies on using simultaneous observations of BL Lac objects in the optical, X-ray, high-energy (HE: E > 100 MeV) γ-ray (from the Fermi telescope), and VHE γ-ray (from Cherenkov telescopes) bands. For each source, the method involves best-fitting the spectral energy distribution from optical through HE γ-rays (the latter being largely unaffected by EBL attenuation as long as z <~ 1) with a synchrotron self-Compton model. We extrapolate such best-fitting models into the VHE regime and assume they represent the BL Lacs' intrinsic emission. Contrasting measured versus intrinsic emission leads to a determination of the γγ opacity to VHE photons. Using, for each given source, different states of emission will only improve the accuracy of the proposed method. We demonstrate this method using recent simultaneous multifrequency observations of the high-frequency-peaked BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 and discuss how similar observations can more accurately probe the EBL.

  7. HIGH-FREQUENCY-PEAKED BL LACERTAE OBJECTS AS SPECTRAL CANDLES TO MEASURE THE EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT IN THE FERMI AND AIR CHERENKOV TELESCOPES ERA

    SciTech Connect

    Mankuzhiyil, Nijil; Persic, Massimo; Tavecchio, Fabrizio

    2010-05-20

    The extragalactic background light (EBL) is the integrated light from all the stars that have ever formed, and spans the IR-UV range. The interaction of very high-energy (VHE: E > 100 GeV) {gamma}-rays, emitted by sources located at cosmological distances, with the intervening EBL results in e {sup -} e {sup +} pair production that leads to energy-dependent attenuation of the observed VHE flux. This introduces a fundamental ambiguity into the interpretation of measured VHE {gamma}-ray spectra: neither the intrinsic spectrum nor the EBL are separately known-only their combination is. In this Letter, we propose a method to measure the EBL photon number density. It relies on using simultaneous observations of BL Lac objects in the optical, X-ray, high-energy (HE: E > 100 MeV) {gamma}-ray (from the Fermi telescope), and VHE {gamma}-ray (from Cherenkov telescopes) bands. For each source, the method involves best-fitting the spectral energy distribution from optical through HE {gamma}-rays (the latter being largely unaffected by EBL attenuation as long as z {approx_lt} 1) with a synchrotron self-Compton model. We extrapolate such best-fitting models into the VHE regime and assume they represent the BL Lacs' intrinsic emission. Contrasting measured versus intrinsic emission leads to a determination of the {gamma}{gamma} opacity to VHE photons. Using, for each given source, different states of emission will only improve the accuracy of the proposed method. We demonstrate this method using recent simultaneous multifrequency observations of the high-frequency-peaked BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 and discuss how similar observations can more accurately probe the EBL.

  8. Lighting: Green Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniccia, Dorine

    2003-01-01

    Explains that by using sustainable (green) building practices, schools and universities can make their lighting systems more efficient, noting that embracing green design principles can help schools attract students. Discusses lighting-control technologies (occupancy sensing technology, daylighting technology, and scheduling based technologies),…

  9. Light weight aluminum optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catura, R. C.; Vieira, J. R.

    1985-09-01

    Light weight mirror blanks were fabricated by dip-brazing a core of low mass aluminum foam material to thin face sheets of solid aluminum. The blanks weigh 40% of an equivalent size solid mirror and were diamond turned to provide reflective surfaces. Optical interferometry was used to assess their dimensional stability over 7 months. No changes in flatness are observed (to the sensitivity of the measurements of a half wavelength of red light).

  10. Fiber optic direct Raman imaging system based on a hollow-core fiber bundle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, S.; Katagiri, T.; Matsuura, Y.

    2015-03-01

    A Raman imaging system which combined a hollow fiber bundle and a direct imaging technique was constructed for high-speed endoscopic Raman imaging. The hollow fiber bundle is fabricated by depositing a silver thin film on the inner surface of pre-drawn glass capillary bundle. It performs as a fiber optic probe which transmits a Raman image with high signal-to-noise ratio because the propagating light is confined into the air core inducing little light scattering. The field of view on the sample is uniformly irradiated by the excitation laser light via the probe. The back-scattered image is collected by the probe and captured directly by an image sensor. A pair of thin film tunable filters is used to select target Raman band. This imaging system enables flexible and high-speed Raman imaging of biological tissues.

  11. Inner Core Structure Behind the PKP Core Phase Triplication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blom, N.; Paulssen, H.; Deuss, A. F.; Waszek, L.

    2015-12-01

    Despite its small size, the Earth's inner core plays an important role in the Earth's dynamics. Because it is slowly growing, its structure - and the variation thereof with depth - may reveal important clues about the history of the core, its convection and the resulting geodynamo. Learning more about this structure has been a prime effort in the past decades, leading to discoveries about anisotropy, hemispheres and heterogeneity in the inner core in general. In terms of detailed structure, mainly seismic body waves have contributed to these advances. However, at depths between ~100-200 km, the seismic structure is relatively poorly known. This is a result of the PKP core phase triplication and the existence of strong precursors to PKP phases, whose simultaneous arrival hinders the measurement of inner core waves PKIKP at epicentral distances between roughly 143-148°. As a consequence, the interpretation of deeper structure also remains difficult. To overcome these issues, we stack seismograms in slowness and time, separating PKP and PKIKP phases which arrive simultaneously, but with different slowness. We apply this method to study the inner core's Western hemisphere between South and Central America using paths travelling in the quasi-polar direction between epicentral distances of 140-150°. This enables us to measure PKiKP-PKIKP differential travel times up to greater epicentral distance than has previously been done. The resulting differential travel time residuals increase with epicentral distance, indicating a marked increase in seismic velocity with depth compared to reference model AK135 for the studied polar paths. Assuming a homogeneous outer core, these findings can be explained by either (i) inner core heterogeneity due to an increase in isotropic velocity, or (ii) increase in anisotropy over the studied depth range. Our current data set cannot distinguish between the two hypotheses, but in light of previous work we prefer the latter interpretation.

  12. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  13. Method and device for optimizing the air-fuel mixture burn rate of internal combustion engines during low speed, light and heavy load operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Burandt, C.O.

    1990-10-09

    This patent describes a method for optimizing low speed light load and low speed heavy load operating conditions in an internal combustion engine. The engine has a camshaft, a crankshaft, at least one intake valve and at least one piston, and is capable of providing for small valve events, and the engine providing for earlier than normal intake valve closings the method comprises: sensing the load demand on the engine, regulating the phasing of the operation of the camshaft of the engine with the operation of the crankshaft of the engine in response to the sensed load demand by advancing the operation of camshaft relative to the operation of the crankshaft when a heavy load demand is sensed and by retarding the operation of the camshaft relative to the operation of the crankshaft when alight load demand is sensed, and sensing detonation in the engine and regulating the phasing operation of the camshaft relative to the operation of the crankshaft by advancing the operation of the camshaft relative to the crankshaft when detonation is sensed.

  14. Nonlinear compression of ultrafast industrial lasers in hypocyloid-core Kagome hollow-core fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giree, A.; Guichard, F.; Machinet, G.; Zaouter, Y.; Hagen, Y.; Debords, B.; Dupriez, P.; Gérôme, F.; Hanna, M.; Benabid, F.; Hönninger, C.; Georges, P.; Mottay, E.

    2015-03-01

    The duration of energetic ultrashort pulses is usually limited by the available gain bandwidth of ultrashort amplifiers used to amplify nJ or pJ level seed to hundreds of μμJ or even several mJ. In the case of Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers, the available bandwidth is of the order of 40 nm, typically limiting the pulse duration of high-energy fiber chirped-pulse amplifiers to durations above 300 fs. In the case of solid-state amplifier based on Yb:YAG crystals, the host matrix order restricts the amplification bandwidth even more leading to pulses in the low picosecond range. Both architecture would greatly benefit from pulse durations well-below what is allowed by their respective gain bandwidth e.g. sub-100 fs for fiber amplifier and sub-300 fs for solid-state Yb:YAG amplifier. In this contribution, we report on the post-compression of two high energy industrial ultrashort fiber and thin-disk amplifiers using an innovative and efficient hollow core fiber structure, namely the hypocycloid-core Kagome fiber. This fiber exhibits remarkably low propagation losses due to the unique inhibited guidance mechanism that minimize that amount of light propagating in the silica cladding surrounding the hollow core. Spectral broadening is realized in a short piece of Kagome fiber filled with air at 1 atmosphere pressure. For both amplifiers, we were able to demonstrate more than 200 μJ of energy per pulse with duration <100 fs in the case of the fiber amplifier and <300 fs in the case of the thin disk amplifier. Limitations and further energy scaling will also be discussed.

  15. Light shield and cooling apparatus. [high intensity ultraviolet lamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, T. G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A light shield and cooling apparatus was developed for a high intensity ultraviolet lamp including water and high pressure air for cooling and additional apparatus for shielding the light and suppressing the high pressure air noise.

  16. Illuminating system and method for specialized and decorative lighting using liquid light guides

    DOEpatents

    Zorn, Carl J.; Kross, Brian J.; Majewski, Stanislaw; Wojcik, Randolph F.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention comprises an illumination system for specialized decorative lighting including a light source, a flexible plastic tube sheath for distributing the light to a remote location, a transparent liquid core filling the tube that has an index of refraction greater than that of the plastic tube and an arrangement where light coupled from the light source is caused to leak from the liquid light guide at desired locations for the purposes of specialized lighting, such as underwater illumination in swimming pools.

  17. Photothermal Desorption of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Coconut Shell-Activated Carbons Using a Continuous Light Source for Application in Air Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Evan L.; Sapag, Karim; Oh, Jonghwa; Lungu, Claudiu T.

    2014-01-01

    Many techniques exist to measure airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs), each with differing advantages; sorbent sampling is compact, versatile, has good sample stability, and is the preferred technique for collecting VOCs for hygienists. Development of a desorption technique that allows multiple analyses per sample (similar to chemical desorption) with enhanced sensitivity (similar to thermal desorption) would be helpful to field hygienists. In this study, activated carbon (AC) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) were preloaded with toluene vapor and partially desorbed with light using a common 12-V DC, 50-W incandescent/halogen lamp. A series of experimental chamber configurations were explored starting with a 500-ml chamber under static conditions, then with low ventilation and high ventilation, finally a 75-ml high ventilation chamber was evaluated. When preloaded with toluene and irradiated at the highest lamp setting for 4min, AC desorbed 13.9, 18.5, 23.8, and 45.9% of the loaded VOC mass, in each chamber configuration, respectively; SWNT desorbed 25.2, 24.3, 37.4, and 70.5% of the loaded VOC mass, respectively. SWNT desorption was significantly greater than AC in all test conditions (P = 0.02–<0.0001) demonstrating a substantial difference in sorbent performance. When loaded with 0.435mg toluene and desorbed at the highest lamp setting for 4min in the final chamber design, the mean desorption for AC was 45.8% (39.7, 52.0) and SWNT was 72.6% (68.8, 76.4) (mean represented in terms of 95% confidence interval). All desorption measurements were obtained using a field grade photoionization detector; this demonstrates the potential of using this technique to perform infield prescreening of VOC samples for immediate exposure feedback and in the analytical lab to introduce sample to a gas chromatograph for detailed analysis of the sample. PMID:25016598

  18. Photothermal desorption of single-walled carbon nanotubes and coconut shell-activated carbons using a continuous light source for application in air sampling.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Evan L; Sapag, Karim; Oh, Jonghwa; Lungu, Claudiu T

    2014-08-01

    Many techniques exist to measure airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs), each with differing advantages; sorbent sampling is compact, versatile, has good sample stability, and is the preferred technique for collecting VOCs for hygienists. Development of a desorption technique that allows multiple analyses per sample (similar to chemical desorption) with enhanced sensitivity (similar to thermal desorption) would be helpful to field hygienists. In this study, activated carbon (AC) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) were preloaded with toluene vapor and partially desorbed with light using a common 12-V DC, 50-W incandescent/halogen lamp. A series of experimental chamber configurations were explored starting with a 500-ml chamber under static conditions, then with low ventilation and high ventilation, finally a 75-ml high ventilation chamber was evaluated. When preloaded with toluene and irradiated at the highest lamp setting for 4min, AC desorbed 13.9, 18.5, 23.8, and 45.9% of the loaded VOC mass, in each chamber configuration, respectively; SWNT desorbed 25.2, 24.3, 37.4, and 70.5% of the loaded VOC mass, respectively. SWNT desorption was significantly greater than AC in all test conditions (P = 0.02-<0.0001) demonstrating a substantial difference in sorbent performance. When loaded with 0.435mg toluene and desorbed at the highest lamp setting for 4min in the final chamber design, the mean desorption for AC was 45.8% (39.7, 52.0) and SWNT was 72.6% (68.8, 76.4) (mean represented in terms of 95% confidence interval). All desorption measurements were obtained using a field grade photoionization detector; this demonstrates the potential of using this technique to perform infield prescreening of VOC samples for immediate exposure feedback and in the analytical lab to introduce sample to a gas chromatograph for detailed analysis of the sample. PMID:25016598

  19. Baseline Design Compliance Matrix for the Rotary Mode Core Sampling System

    SciTech Connect

    LECHELT, J.A.

    2000-10-17

    The purpose of the design compliance matrix (DCM) is to provide a single-source document of all design requirements associated with the fifteen subsystems that make up the rotary mode core sampling (RMCS) system. It is intended to be the baseline requirement document for the RMCS system and to be used in governing all future design and design verification activities associated with it. This document is the DCM for the RMCS system used on Hanford single-shell radioactive waste storage tanks. This includes the Exhauster System, Rotary Mode Core Sample Trucks, Universal Sampling System, Diesel Generator System, Distribution Trailer, X-Ray Cart System, Breathing Air Compressor, Nitrogen Supply Trailer, Casks and Cask Truck, Service Trailer, Core Sampling Riser Equipment, Core Sampling Support Trucks, Foot Clamp, Ramps and Platforms and Purged Camera System. Excluded items are tools such as light plants and light stands. Other items such as the breather inlet filter are covered by a different design baseline. In this case, the inlet breather filter is covered by the Tank Farms Design Compliance Matrix.

  20. Towards implementation of hollow core fibres for surgical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urich, Artur; Delmonte, Tiina; Maier, Robert R. J.; Hand, Duncan P.; Shephard, Jonathan D.

    2011-03-01

    Presently, there is no truly flexible delivery system for light from Er:Yag medical lasers (λ = 2.94 μm) which allows surgeons to work unrestricted. Instead, either a relatively inflexible articulated arm or multi-mode fibre, limited to large bend radii, must be used. One proposed solution is the use of novel types of hollow core - band gap optical fibre rather than more traditional large area solid core fibres. In these silica based fibres, material absorption and damage limitations are overcome by using a photonic band gap structure. This confines radiation to lower order modes, that are guided in a small diameter air core. The overall fibre diameter is also smaller, which allows a smaller mechanical bend radius. Together with the guidance in air, this improves the laser power damage threshold. However, there are many practical hurdles that must be overcome to achieve a robust system for use in surgery. One of the main problems is that the fibre structure is hollow and ingress of dust, vapour, fluids and other contaminants need to be prevented to ensure safe in-vivo usage. Additionally, any infibre contamination will degrade the laser damage resistance of the fibre leading to potential catastrophic failure. The development of a robust and hermetically sealed end cap for the fibre, without adversely affecting beam quality or damage threshold is an essential prerequisite for the safe and efficient use of such fibres in surgery. In this paper we report on the progress on implementing end caps and describe novel methods of sealing off these hollow fibres in particular for surgical applications. This work will demonstrate that the use of these superior fibres with low loss guidance at 2.94 μm in surgery is feasible.

  1. A simple way to establish a dual-core hollow fiber for laser surgery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Chengbin; Kendall, Wesley; Harrington, James A.

    2016-03-01

    A dual-core hollow fiber has two separate cores for propagation of light. Such a fiber can have some good applications in laser surgery. The dual-core guide can transmit an infrared laser beam for cutting or ablation while a visible laser beam is simultaneously transmitted as a pilot or aiming beam. The traditional fabrication procedure for a dual-core hollow fiber involves chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth on silica tubing of an inner cladding layer followed by the deposition of a low index polymer on the outside of the tubing. This will provide a hollow structure that has a clad-core-clad tube. This work provides an alternative approach which involves nesting of two hollow waveguides to establish a dual-core hollow fiber. An Ag/AgI hollow glass fiber is fabricated for transmitting CO2 laser. Another silica glass tube is selected carefully so that its inner diameter is just slightly larger than the outer diameter of the Ag/AgI hollow fiber. The outer surface of the as-selected glass tubing is coated with a low refractive index polymer. The Ag/AgI hollow fiber was inserted into the polymer coated silica glass tubing to establish an air or silicone oil gap between the two tubes. A visible laser beam is transmitted through the outer tube's core. The CO2 laser beam is transmitted through the inner Ag/AgI hollow fiber. The dual-core hollow fibers show good transmission for both the red aiming beam and the CO2 laser. Therefore this structure can be a good candidate for laser surgery applications.

  2. Double-diffusive inner core translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deguen, Renaud; Alboussière, Thierry; Labrosse, Stéphane

    2015-04-01

    The hemispherical asymmetry of the inner core has recently been interpreted as resulting form a high-viscosity mode of inner core convection, consisting in a translation of the inner core. With melting on one hemisphere and crystallization on the other one, inner core translation would impose a strongly asymmetric buoyancy flux at the bottom of the outer core, with likely strong implications for the dynamics of the outer core and the geodynamo. The main requirement for convective instability in the inner core is an adverse radial density gradient. While older estimates of the inner core thermal conductivity favored a superadiabatic temperature gradient and the existence of thermal convection, the much higher values recently proposed make thermal convection unlikely. Compositional convection might be a viable alternative to thermal convection: an unstable compositional gradient may arise in the inner core either because the light elements present in the core are predicted to become increasingly incompatible as the inner core grows (Gubbins et al. 2013), or because of a possibly positive feedback of the development of the F-layer on inner core convection. Though the magnitude of the destabilizing effect of the compositional field is predicted to be similar to or smaller than the stabilizing effect of the thermal field, the huge difference between thermal and chemical diffusivities implies that double-diffusive instabilities may still arise even if the net density decreases upward. We propose here a theoretical (linear stability analysis) and numerical study of double diffusive convection in the inner core, focusing on the translation mode, and discuss in what conditions inner core translation can develop.

  3. Core-core and core-valence correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of (1s) core correlation on properties and energy separations was analyzed using full configuration-interaction (FCI) calculations. The Be 1 S - 1 P, the C 3 P - 5 S and CH+ 1 Sigma + or - 1 Pi separations, and CH+ spectroscopic constants, dipole moment and 1 Sigma + - 1 Pi transition dipole moment were studied. The results of the FCI calculations are compared to those obtained using approximate methods. In addition, the generation of atomic natural orbital (ANO) basis sets, as a method for contracting a primitive basis set for both valence and core correlation, is discussed. When both core-core and core-valence correlation are included in the calculation, no suitable truncated CI approach consistently reproduces the FCI, and contraction of the basis set is very difficult. If the (nearly constant) core-core correlation is eliminated, and only the core-valence correlation is included, CASSCF/MRCI approached reproduce the FCI results and basis set contraction is significantly easier.

  4. Mercury's thermal evolution and core crystallization regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivoldini, A.; Van Hoolst, T.; Dumberry, M.; Steinle-Neumann, G.

    2015-10-01

    Unlike the Earth, where the liquid core isentrope is shallower than the core liquidus, at the lower pressures inside Mercury's core the isentrope can be steeper than the melting temperature. As a consequence, upon cooling, the isentrope may first enter a solid stability field near the core mantle boundary and produce ironrich snow that sinks under gravity and produces buoyant upwellings of iron depleted fluid. Similar to bottom up crystallization, crystallization initiated near the top might generate sufficient buoyancy flux to drive magnetic field generation by compositional convection.In this study we model Mercury's thermal evolution by taking into account the formation of iron-rich snow to assess when the conditions for an internally magnetic field can be satisfied. We employ a thermodynamic consistent description of the iron high-pressure phase diagram and thermoelastic properties of iron alloys as well as the most recent data about the thermal conductivity of core materials. We use a 1-dimensional parametrized thermal evolution model in the stagnant lid regime for the mantle (e.g. [1]) that is coupled to the core. The model for the mantle takes into account the formation of the crust due to melting at depth. Mantle convection is driven by heat producing radioactive elements, heat loss from secular cooling and from the heat supplied by the core. The heat generated inside the core is mainly provided from secular cooling, from the latent heat released at iron freezing, and from gravitational energy resulting form the release of light elements at the inner core-outer core boundary as well as from the sinking of iron-rich snow and subsequent upwellings of light elements in the snow zone. If the heat flow out of the core is smaller than the heat transported along the core isentrope a thermal boundary will from at the top of the outer core. To determine the extension of the convecting region inside the liquid core we calculate the convective power [2]. Finally, we

  5. Light-weight plastination.

    PubMed

    Steinke, Hanno; Rabi, Suganthy; Saito, Toshiyuki; Sawutti, Alimjan; Miyaki, Takayoshi; Itoh, Masahiro; Spanel-Borowski, Katharina

    2008-11-20

    Plastination is an excellent technique which helps to keep the anatomical specimens in a dry, odourless state. Since the invention of plastination technique by von Hagens, research has been done to improve the quality of plastinated specimens. In this paper, we have described a method of producing light-weight plastinated specimens using xylene along with silicone and in the final step, substitute xylene with air. The finished plastinated specimens were light-weight, dry, odourless and robust. This method requires less use of resin thus making the plastination technique more cost-effective. The light-weight specimens are easy to carry and can easily be used for teaching. PMID:18752934

  6. PT phase control in circular multi-core fibers.

    PubMed

    Longhi, Stefano

    2016-05-01

    We consider light dynamics in a circular multi-core fiber with balanced gain and loss core distribution, and show that transition from unbroken to broken PT phases can be conveniently controlled by geometric twist of the fiber. The twist introduces Peierls phases in the coupling constants and, thus, acts as an artificial gauge field. As an application, we discuss twist-induced tuning of optical transmission in a six-core fiber with one lossy core. PMID:27128033

  7. Core formation and core composition from coupled geochemical and geophysical constraints

    PubMed Central

    Badro, James; Brodholt, John P.; Piet, Hélène; Siebert, Julien; Ryerson, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of Earth’s core left behind geophysical and geochemical signatures in both the core and mantle that remain to this day. Seismology requires that the core be lighter than pure iron and therefore must contain light elements, and the geochemistry of mantle-derived rocks reveals extensive siderophile element depletion and fractionation. Both features are inherited from metal−silicate differentiation in primitive Earth and depend upon the nature of physiochemical conditions that prevailed during core formation. To date, core formation models have only attempted to address the evolution of core and mantle compositional signatures separately, rather than seeking a joint solution. Here we combine experimental petrology, geochemistry, mineral physics and seismology to constrain a range of core formation conditions that satisfy both constraints. We find that core formation occurred in a hot (liquidus) yet moderately deep magma ocean not exceeding 1,800 km depth, under redox conditions more oxidized than present-day Earth. This new scenario, at odds with the current belief that core formation occurred under reducing conditions, proposes that Earth’s magma ocean started oxidized and has become reduced through time, by oxygen incorporation into the core. This core formation model produces a core that contains 2.7–5% oxygen along with 2–3.6% silicon, with densities and velocities in accord with radial seismic models, and leaves behind a silicate mantle that matches the observed mantle abundances of nickel, cobalt, chromium, and vanadium. PMID:26392555

  8. Core formation and core composition from coupled geochemical and geophysical constraints.

    PubMed

    Badro, James; Brodholt, John P; Piet, Hélène; Siebert, Julien; Ryerson, Frederick J

    2015-10-01

    The formation of Earth's core left behind geophysical and geochemical signatures in both the core and mantle that remain to this day. Seismology requires that the core be lighter than pure iron and therefore must contain light elements, and the geochemistry of mantle-derived rocks reveals extensive siderophile element depletion and fractionation. Both features are inherited from metal-silicate differentiation in primitive Earth and depend upon the nature of physiochemical conditions that prevailed during core formation. To date, core formation models have only attempted to address the evolution of core and mantle compositional signatures separately, rather than seeking a joint solution. Here we combine experimental petrology, geochemistry, mineral physics and seismology to constrain a range of core formation conditions that satisfy both constraints. We find that core formation occurred in a hot (liquidus) yet moderately deep magma ocean not exceeding 1,800 km depth, under redox conditions more oxidized than present-day Earth. This new scenario, at odds with the current belief that core formation occurred under reducing conditions, proposes that Earth's magma ocean started oxidized and has become reduced through time, by oxygen incorporation into the core. This core formation model produces a core that contains 2.7-5% oxygen along with 2-3.6% silicon, with densities and velocities in accord with radial seismic models, and leaves behind a silicate mantle that matches the observed mantle abundances of nickel, cobalt, chromium, and vanadium. PMID:26392555

  9. Core-shell nanostructured catalysts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiao; Lee, Ilkeun; Joo, Ji Bong; Zaera, Francisco; Yin, Yadong

    2013-08-20

    excellent catalytic activity for the oxidation of organic compounds under UV, visible, and direct sunlight. The enhanced photocatalytic efficiency of this nanostructure resulted from an added interfacial nonmetal doping, which improved visible light absorption, and from plasmonic metal decoration that enhanced light harvesting and charge separation. In addition to our synthetic efforts, we have developed ways to evaluate the accessibility of reactants to the metal cores and to characterize the catalytic properties of the core-shell samples we have synthesized. We have adapted infrared absorption spectroscopy and titration experiments using carbon monoxide and other molecules as probes to study adsorption on the surface of metal cores in metal oxide-shell structures in situ in both gas and liquid phases. In particular, the experiments in solution have provided insights into the ease of diffusion of molecules of different sizes in and out of the shells in these catalysts. PMID:23268644

  10. High resolution imaging of galaxy cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, P.; Stiavelli, M.; King, I. R.; Deharveng, J. M.; Albrecht, R.; Barbieri, C.; Blades, J. C.; Boksenberg, A.; Disney, M. J.; Jakobsen, P.

    1993-01-01

    Surface photometry data obtained with the Faint Object Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope in the cores of ten galaxies is presented. The major results are: (1) none of the galaxies show truly 'isothermal' cores, (2) galaxies with nuclear activity show very similar light profiles, (3) all objects show central mass densities above 10 exp 3 solar masses/cu pc3, and (4) four of the galaxies (M87, NGC 3862, NGC 4594, NGC 6251) show evidence for exceptional nuclear mass concentrations.

  11. Formation of oligonucleotide-gated silica shell-coated Fe₃O₄-Au core-shell nanotrisoctahedra for magnetically targeted and near-infrared light-responsive theranostic platform.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Peng; Liao, Pei-Yi; Su, Chia-Hao; Yeh, Chen-Sheng

    2014-07-16

    A new multifunctional nanoparticle to perform a near-infrared (NIR)-responsive remote control drug release behavior was designed for applications in the biomedical field. Different from the previous studies in formation of Fe3O4-Au core-shell nanoparticles resulting in a spherical morphology, the heterostructure with polyhedral core and shell was presented with the truncated octahedral Fe3O4 nanoparticle as the core over a layer of trisoctahedral Au shell. The strategy of Fe3O4@polymer@Au was adopted using poly-l-lysine as the mediate layer, followed by the subsequent seeded growth of Au nanoparticles to form a Au trisoctahedral shell. Fe3O4@Au trisoctahedra possess high-index facets of {441}. To combine photothermal and chemotherapy in a remote-control manner, the trisoctahedral core-shell Fe3O4@Au nanoparticles were further covered with a mesoporous silica shell, yielding Fe3O4@Au@mSiO2. The bondable oligonucleotides (referred as dsDNA) were used as pore blockers of the mesoporous silica shell that allowed the controlled release, resulting in a NIR-responsive DNA-gated Fe3O4@Au@mSiO2 nanocarrier. Taking advantage of the magnetism, remotely triggered drug release was facilitated by magnetic attraction accompanied by the introduction of NIR radiation. DNA-gated Fe3O4@Au@mSiO2 serves as a drug control and release carrier that features functions of magnetic target, MRI diagnosis, and combination therapy through the manipulation of a magnet and a NIR laser. The results verified the significant therapeutic effects on tumors with the assistance of combination therapy consisting of magnetic guidance and remote NIR control. PMID:24953310

  12. Facet recovery and light emission from GaN/InGaN/GaN core-shell structures grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy on etched GaN nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Boulbar, E. D.; Gîrgel, I.; Lewins, C. J.; Edwards, P. R.; Martin, R. W.; Šatka, A.; Allsopp, D. W. E.; Shields, P. A.

    2013-09-01

    The use of etched nanorods from a planar template as a growth scaffold for a highly regular GaN/InGaN/GaN core-shell structure is demonstrated. The recovery of m-plane non-polar facets from etched high-aspect-ratio GaN nanorods is studied with and without the introduction of a hydrogen silsesquioxane passivation layer at the bottom of the etched nanorod arrays. This layer successfully prevented c-plane growth between the nanorods, resulting in vertical nanorod sidewalls (˜89.8°) and a more regular height distribution than re-growth on unpassivated nanorods. The height variation on passivated nanorods is solely determined by the uniformity of nanorod diameter, which degrades with increased growth duration. Facet-dependent indium incorporation of GaN/InGaN/GaN core-shell layers regrown onto the etched nanorods is observed by high-resolution cathodoluminescence imaging. Sharp features corresponding to diffracted wave-guide modes in angle-resolved photoluminescence measurements are evidence of the uniformity of the full core-shell structure grown on ordered etched nanorods.

  13. Cadmium Telluride, Cadmium Telluride/Cadmium Sulfide Core/Shell, and Cadmium Telluride/Cadmium Sulfide/Zinc Sulfide Core/Shell/Shell Quantum Dots Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yueran

    CdTe, CdTe/CdS core/shell, and CdTe/CdS/ZnS core/shell/shell quantum dots (QDs) are potential candidates for bio-imaging and solar cell applications because of some special physical properties in these nano materials. For example, the band gap energy of the bulk CdTe is about 1.5 eV, so that principally they can emit 790 nm light, which is in the near-infrared range (also called biological window). Moreover, theoretically hot exciton generated by QDs is possible to be caught since the exciton relaxation process in QDs is slower than in bulk materials due to the large intraband energy gap in QDs. In this dissertation, we have synthesized the CdTe and CdTe/CdS core/shell QDs, characterized their structure, and analyzed their photophysical properties. We used organometallic methods to synthesize the CdTe QDs in a noncoordinating solvent. To avoid being quenched by air, ligands, solvent, or other compounds, CdS shell was successfully deposited on the CdTe QDs by different methods, including the slow injection method, the successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method, and thermal-cycling coupled single precursor method (TC-SP). Our final product, quasi-type- II CdTe/CdS core/shell QDs were able to emit at 770 nm with a fluorescence quantum yield as high as 70%. We also tried to deposit a second shell ZnS on CdTe/CdS core/shell QDs since some compounds can quench CdTe/CdS core/shell QDs. Even though different methods were used to deposit ZnS shell on the CdTe/CdS core/shell QDs, CdTe/CdS/ZnS core/shell/shell QDs still can be quenched. Furthermore, the CdTe/CdS core/shell and CdTe/CdS/ZnS core/shell/shell QDs were transferred into aqueous phase, phosphate buffered saline or deionized water, by switching the hydrophilic ligands (thiol or PEG ligands). The thioglycolic acid (TGA)-capped CdTe/CdS core/shell QDs can be kept in aqueous phase with high fluorescence quantum yield (60%--70%) for more than two months. However, some other compounds in organic or

  14. Air resources

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This section describes the ambient (surrounding) air quality of the TVA region, discusses TVA emission contributions to ambient air quality, and identifies air quality impacts to human health and welfare. Volume 2 Technical Document 2, Environmental Consequences, describes how changes in TVA emissions could affect regional air quality, human health, environmental resources, and materials. The primary region of the affected environment is broadly defined as the state of Tennessee, as well as southern Kentucky, western Virginia, southern West Virginia, western North Carolina, and northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. This area represents the watershed of the Tennessee River and the 201 counties of the greater TVA service area. Emissions from outside the Tennessee Valley region contribute to air quality in the Valley. Also, TVA emissions are transported outside the Valley and have some impact on air quality beyond the primary study area. Although the study area experiences a number of air quality problems, overall air quality is good.

  15. Light Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  16. Light Duty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    Discusses multipurpose athletic-field lighting specifications to enhance lighting quality and reduce costs. Topics discussed include lamp choice, lighting spillover and glare prevention, luminary assemblies and poles, and the electrical dimming and switching systems. (GR)

  17. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  18. Academic Rigor: The Core of the Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Some educators see the Common Core State Standards as reason for stress, most recognize the positive possibilities associated with them and are willing to make the professional commitment to implementing them so that academic rigor for all students will increase. But business leaders, parents, and the authors of the Common Core are not the only…

  19. Air Cleaning Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    to remove airborne pathogens from room air depends on several factors, including the airflow rate through the unit’s filter and the airflow patterns in the room. Tested under a variety of conditions, in-room air cleaners, including portable or ceiling mounted units with either a HEPA or a non-HEPA filter, portable units with UVGI lights only, or ceiling mounted units with combined HEPA filtration and UVGI lights, have been estimated to be between 30% and 90%, 99% and 12% and 80% effective, respectively. However, and although their effectiveness is variable, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has acknowledged in-room air cleaners as alternative technology for increasing room ventilation when this cannot be achieved by the building’s HVAC system with preference given to fixed recirculating systems over portable ones. Importantly, the use of an in-room air cleaner does not preclude either the need for health care workers and visitors to use personal protective equipment (N95 mask or equivalent) when entering AII rooms or health care facilities from meeting current regulatory requirements for airflow rates (ventilation rates) in buildings and airflow differentials for effective negative-pressure rooms. The Plasmacluster ion technology, developed in 2000, is an air purification technology. Its manufacturer, Sharp Electronics Corporation, says that it can disable airborne microorganisms through the generation of both positive and negative ions. (1) The functional unit is the hydroxyl, which is a molecule comprised of one oxygen molecule and one hydrogen atom. Plasmacluster ion air purifier uses a multilayer filter system composed of a prefilter, a carbon filter, an antibacterial filter, and a HEPA filter, combined with an ion generator to purify the air. The ion generator uses an alternating plasma discharge to split water molecules into positively and negatively charged ions. When these ions are emitted into the air, they are surrounded by

  20. Core-nucleus distortation in hypernuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Bodmer, A.R.; Usmani, Q.N.

    1995-08-01

    We are completing a study of the effects of the spherical distortion of the {open_quotes}core{close_quotes} nucleus by the {Lambda} in a hypernucleus. The response of the core was determined by an appropriately chosen energy-density functional which depends, in particular, on the nuclear compressibility. The forcing action of the A is determined by the nuclear density dependence of the {Lambda} binding in nuclear matter which is obtained from our work on the {Lambda} single-particle energies. Because of the strongly repulsive {Lambda}NN forces, this {Lambda} binding {open_quotes}saturates{close_quotes} at a density close to the central density of nuclei, and results in a reduced core-nucleus distortion much less than would otherwise be obtained. The effects of the core distortion then turn out to be very small even for quite light hypernuclei. This result justifies the assumption that spherical core nuclei are effectively undistorted in a hypernucleus.