Science.gov

Sample records for air cycle machines

  1. Air cycle machine for an aircraft environmental control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decrisantis, Angelo A. (Inventor); O'Coin, James R. (Inventor); Taddey, Edmund P. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An ECS system includes an ACM mounted adjacent an air-liquid heat exchanger through a diffuser that contains a diffuser plate. The diffuser plate receives airflow from the ACM which strikes the diffuser plate and flows radially outward and around the diffuser plate and into the air-liquid heat exchanger to provide minimal pressure loss and proper flow distribution into the air-liquid heat exchanger with significantly less packaging space.

  2. Characteristic Analysis of Vuilleumier Cycle Machine and Its Application to Air-Conditioning Heat Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiya, Hiroshi

    The Vuilleumier (VM) cycle machine is realized as a regenerative and external-combustion machine in the same way as a Stirling (ST) cycle machine. In the VM cycle, heat enters the cyc1e from hot and cold temperature heat sources and is delivered to an intermediate temperature heat source by a working gas. In consequence of the theoretical cycle, output power is not produced. The VM cycle machine is made of the same elements as the ST cycle machine and also closely connected with the ST cycle machine in its working principle. By means of analysis using an isothermal model, it is found that the VM cycle machine is internally divided into a ST engine and a ST refrigerator. In addition, the calculated results by a simulation model based on a so-called 3rd-order method clarify that the VM cycle machine has different featuers from the ST cycle macine with regard to the working gas behavior, the energy flow and the performance depending on the revolution speed. Application of the VM cycle machine to a heat pump for heating and cooling takes effect on the environment and energy problems arising on a terrestrial scale. In reacent years, research and development have been making on the VM haet pumps.

  3. Study on feasible applications of stirling cycle machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-03-01

    The feasibily study of a stirling cycle machine was made on its application to air conditioners and refrigerating machines as well as on the utilization of various heat sources such as LNG cryogenic heat, solar energy, and that of incinerator waste heat. Its application to the air conditioners was technically verified already by the development research which has been made by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization. Its application research on the field of the refrigerating machines is promoted, but it is considered that the machines will also play an important role in promoting the latest leading techniques such as superconductivity. LNG cryogenic power generation is the new field which has been technically developed first in Japan in the world in which country a large quantity of LNG is consumed, and the high efficiency utilization of the stirling cycle machines in this field is expected to be realized in future. It is a important problem to establish the technical basis of a solar energy stirling cycle machine, and they are promoting to develop this machine for practical use not only in Japan but also in many countries in the world. Further, the technical development of the stirling cycle machines utilizing heat sources such as waste heat, geothermal heat, and woody fuel, is also laid on an important situation.

  4. Liquid air cycle engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosevear, Jerry

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a definition of Liquid Air Cycle Engines (LACE) and existing relevant technologies. Heat exchanger design and fabrication techniques, the handling of liquid hydrogen to achieve the greatest heat sink capabilities, and air decontamination to prevent heat exchanger fouling are discussed. It was concluded that technology needs to be extended in the areas of design and fabrication of heat exchangers to improve reliability along with weight and volume reductions. Catalysts need to be improved so that conversion can be achieved with lower quantities and lower volumes. Packaging studies need to be investigated both analytically and experimentally. Recycling with slush hydrogen needs further evaluation with experimental testing.

  5. Air Quality Management Process Cycle

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Air quality management are activities a regulatory authority undertakes to protect human health and the environment from the harmful effects of air pollution. The process of managing air quality can be illustrated as a cycle of inter-related elements.

  6. High efficiency air cycle air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rannenberg, G. C.

    1985-11-19

    An air cycle air conditioning system is provided with regenerative heat exchangers upstream and downstream of an expansion turbine. A closedloop liquid circulatory system serially connects the two regenerative heat exchangers for regeneration without the bulk associated with air-to-air heat exchange. The liquid circulatory system may also provide heat transport to a remote sink heat exchanger and from a remote load as well as heat exchange within the sink heat exchanger and load for enhanced compactness and efficiency.

  7. Air-Bearing Table for Machine Shops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrisco, D.

    1986-01-01

    Frequent workpiece repositioning made easier. Air-bearing table facilitates movement of heavy workpiece during machining or between repeated operations at different positions. Table assembly consists of workpiece supporting fixture riding on air bearing. Table especially useful for inertia welding, in which ease of mobility is important.

  8. Ventilation air, the economy cycle, and VAV

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, R.W.

    1994-10-01

    This article describes a simple yet effective method of providing both minimum and economy cycle control of outside air with a VAV system. Like most of the people in the HVAC industry, the author has been aware that there are problems with ventilation air and economy cycle outside air control when variable air volume (VAV) systems are used. It seemed obvious that the simple solution was to use an injection fan in the outside air intake to provide the minimum ventilation requirement under any operating condition of the VAV system and--presto--the problem would be solved. Recently the author was asked to prepare a seminar on HVAC controls for one of the ASHRAE chapters, with special emphasis on VAV systems. This forced him to take a careful look at the situation, and in the ensuing analysis, it became apparent that the previous look at the problem had not discovered the simplest and perhaps best solution.

  9. Heat transfer head for a Stirling cycle machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emigh, Stuart G. (Inventor); Noble, Jack E. (Inventor); Lehmann, Gregory A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A common heat acceptor is provided between opposed displacers in a Stirling cycle machine. It includes two sets of open channels in separate fluid communications with the expansion spaces of the receptive cyclinders. The channels confine movement of working fluid in separate paths that extend between the expansion space of one cylinder and the compression space of the other. The method for operating the machine involves alternatively directing working fluid from the expansion space of each cylinder in a fluid path leading to the compression space of the other cylinder and from the compression space of each cylinder in a fluid path leading to the expansion space of the other cylinder.

  10. Air Conditioning System using Rankine Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, Shigemi; Yamaguchi, Hiroichi; Hattori, Hitoshi; Futamura, Motonori

    Natural gas is used as the energy source to cope with the recent situation of increasing demand for electricity especially in summer. In this paper, the performance of a Rankine cycle air conditioning system driven by natural gas was studied. The following results were obtained : (1) Basic equations of performance, refrigerant mass flow rate and expander volume were developed by using the values of heating efficiency, regeneration efficiency, expander efficiency and compressor efficiency. (2) R134a refrigerant has been considered to be suitable for the Rankine cycle air conditioning system, compared with other refrigerants. (3)A Rankine cycle cooling system using R134a refrigerant as a single working fluid was developed. System COP of 0.47 was attained at typical operating condition.

  11. Quantum thermodynamic processes: a control theory for machine cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birjukov, J.; Jahnke, T.; Mahler, G.

    2008-07-01

    The minimal set of thermodynamic control parameters consists of a statistical (thermal) and a mechanical one. These suffice to introduce all the pertinent thermodynamic variables; thermodynamic processes can then be defined as paths on this 2-dimensional control plane. Putting aside coherence we show that for a large class of quantum objects with discrete spectra and for the cycles considered the Carnot efficiency applies as a universal upper bound. In the dynamic (finite time) regime renormalized thermodynamic variables allow to include non-equilibrium phenomena in a systematic way. The machine function ceases to exist in the large speed limit; the way, in which this limit is reached, depends on the type of cycle considered.

  12. 5. Machine shop and air brake shop sections of roundhouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Machine shop and air brake shop sections of roundhouse in background. Foundry (MN-99-B) in foreground. View to south. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  13. HUMID AIR TURBINE CYCLE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Tuthill

    2002-07-18

    The Humid Air Turbine (HAT) Cycle Technology Development Program focused on obtaining HAT cycle combustor technology that will be the foundation of future products. The work carried out under the auspices of the HAT Program built on the extensive low emissions stationary gas turbine work performed in the past by Pratt & Whitney (P&W). This Program is an integral part of technology base development within the Advanced Turbine Systems Program at the Department of Energy (DOE) and its experiments stretched over 5 years. The goal of the project was to fill in technological data gaps in the development of the HAT cycle and identify a combustor configuration that would efficiently burn high moisture, high-pressure gaseous fuels with low emissions. The major emphasis will be on the development of kinetic data, computer modeling, and evaluations of combustor configurations. The Program commenced during the 4th Quarter of 1996 and closed in the 4th Quarter of 2001. It teamed the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) with P&W, the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), and a subcontractor on-site at UTRC, kraftWork Systems Inc. The execution of the program started with bench-top experiments that were conducted at UTRC for extending kinetic mechanisms to HAT cycle temperature, pressure, and moisture conditions. The fundamental data generated in the bench-top experiments was incorporated into the analytical tools available at P&W to design the fuel injectors and combustors. The NETL then used the hardware to conduct combustion rig experiments to evaluate the performance of the combustion systems at elevated pressure and temperature conditions representative of the HAT cycle. The results were integrated into systems analysis done by kraftWork to verify that sufficient understanding of the technology had been achieved and that large-scale technological application and demonstration could be undertaken as follow-on activity. An optional program extended the

  14. Main roll for an air press of a papermaking machine

    DOEpatents

    Beck, David A.

    2004-03-09

    A roll for use in an air press assembly of a papermaking machine has a pair of ends associated therewith. The roll includes a pair of edge portions with each edge portion extending to one of the pair of ends. Each edge portion has an edge surface portion composed of a first material, the first material having a first hardness. The roll further includes a middle portion located between the pair of edge portions, the middle portion having a middle surface portion composed of a second material. The second material has a second hardness, the second material being harder than the first material. The first material is preferably a soft, seal material which promotes reduced air leakage from the air press assembly.

  15. Chloroform in Indoor Air and Wastewater: The Role of Residential Washing Machines.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Jennifer L; Corsi, Richard L; Kemp, Jeff

    1996-07-01

    A residential washing machine was studied in order to determine the extent of chloroform formation following the application of a laundry bleach containing sodium hypochlorite. A dynamic model was also developed to estimate chloroform formation, mass transfer, and gaseous emissions during a typical wash cycle. A series of 22 experiments was completed to determine model parameters, including chemical reaction and mass transfer rate coefficients, as well as headspace air exchange rates. Three additional experiments were completed to evaluate model performance. Experimental and model results suggest that washing machine environments are very conducive to chloroform formation, with chloroform levels frequently exceeding 1 mg/L in washwater. Chloroform stripping efficiencies were observed to be greater than those previously reported for ethanol, but less than those reported for radon. Mass emissions of chloroform to indoor air during a ten-minute wash cycle were predicted to be between 5.3 and 9.8 mg. On a unit activity basis, chloroform emissions associated with hypochlorite-containing bleach addition to washing machines far exceeded emissions from showers. Each source was estimated to emit similar quantities of chloroform on an annual basis. Finally, it was estimated that the use of hypochlorite-containing laundry bleaches may contribute a significant fraction of chloroform mass loadings to municipal wastewater.

  16. Volatilization of chemicals from drinking water to indoor air: the role of residential washing machines.

    PubMed

    Howard, C; Corsi, R L

    1998-10-01

    Previous research has indicated that residential washing machines are potential sources of pollution due to the associated use of chemicals found in consumer products, for example, ethanol in laundry detergent and chlorine in bleach. Washing machines may also emit hazardous air pollutants found in contaminated drinking water. To better understand the extent and impact of chemical emissions from tap water, 26 experiments were completed using a residential washing machine and a cocktail of chemical tracers representing a wide range of physicochemical properties. Variable operating conditions for these experiments included water temperature, amount of clothes present in the machine, water volume, and level of washwater agitation. Chemical stripping efficiencies and mass transfer coefficients were determined during each cycle (fill, wash, and rinse) of a normal washing machine event. Headspace ventilation rates were determined using an isobutylene tracer gas. Mass transfer rates were significantly influenced by operating parameters as exhibited by a wide range of chemical stripping efficiencies. Stripping efficiencies ranged from 0.74 to 36% for acetone, 8.2 to 99% for toluene, 10 to 99% for ethylbenzene, and 6.9 to 100% for cyclohexane.

  17. Volatilization of Chemicals from Drinking Water to Indoor Air: The Role of Residential Washing Machines.

    PubMed

    Howard, Cynthia; Corsi, Richard L

    1998-10-01

    Previous research has indicated that residential washing machines are potential sources of pollution due to the associated use of chemicals found in consumer products, for example, ethanol in laundry detergent and chlorine in bleach.(1,2) Washing machines may also emit hazardous air pollutants found in contaminated drinking water. To better understand the extent and impact of chemical emissions from tap water, 26 experiments were completed using a residential washing machine and a cocktail of chemical tracers representing a wide range of physicochemical properties. Variable operating conditions for these experiments included water temperature, amount of clothes present in the machine, water volume, and level of washwater agitation. Chemical stripping efficiencies and mass transfer coefficients were determined during each cycle (fill, wash, and rinse) of a normal washing machine event. Headspace ventilation rates were determined using an isobutylene tracer gas. Mass transfer rates were significantly influenced by operating parameters as exhibited by a wide range of chemical stripping efficiencies. Stripping efficiencies ranged from 0.74 to 36% for acetone, 8.2 to 99% for toluene, 10 to 99% for ethylbenzene, and 6.9 to 100% for cyclohexane.

  18. Effect of the Machining Processes on Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of a Powder Metallurgy Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telesman, J.; Kantzos, P.; Gabb, T. P.; Ghosn, L. J.

    2010-01-01

    A study has been performed to investigate the effect of various machining processes on fatigue life of configured low cycle fatigue specimens machined out of a NASA developed LSHR P/M nickel based disk alloy. Two types of configured specimen geometries were employed in the study. To evaluate a broach machining processes a double notch geometry was used with both notches machined using broach tooling. EDM machined notched specimens of the same configuration were tested for comparison purposes. Honing finishing process was evaluated by using a center hole specimen geometry. Comparison testing was again done using EDM machined specimens of the same geometry. The effect of these machining processes on the resulting surface roughness, residual stress distribution and microstructural damage were characterized and used in attempt to explain the low cycle fatigue results.

  19. Direct control of air gap flux in permanent magnet machines

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus for field weakening in PM machines uses field weakening coils (35, 44, 45, 71, 72) to produce flux in one or more stators (34, 49, 63, 64), including a flux which counters flux normally produced in air gaps between the stator(s) (34, 49, 63, 64) and the rotor (20, 21, 41, 61) which carries the PM poles. Several modes of operation are introduced depending on the magnitude and polarity of current in the field weakening coils (35, 44, 45, 71, 72). The invention is particularly useful for, but not limited to, the electric vehicle drives and PM generators.

  20. Ozone and other air pollutants from photocopying machines

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, T.B.; Andersen, B.

    1986-10-01

    The ozone emission from 69 different photocopying machines was determined by a described standard procedure. The emission rates were in the range of 0 to 1350 ..mu..g/min. The concentration in the breathing zone of 19 operators was found to be between less than or equal to 0.001 and 0.15 ppm. Technical conditions for the amount of ozone generated by photocopiers are described, as well as conditions for the rate of decomposition of ozone. The efficiencies of three different types of ozone filters were tested: activated carbon granulate; polyester; and polyurethane impregnated with activated carbon. Other pollutants levels from the copying process (selenium and cadmium) were less than the limit of detection. Dust concentrations (toner) in the air exhausted from photocopies were found in the same magnitude as normal dust concentrations in offices. Vapors from the resin in the toner were often present in concentrations and gave operators an unpleasant feeling.

  1. A thumb-nail sketch of the gas processes in the Stirling cycle machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Organ, A. J.

    The gas processes in the Stirling cycle machine are usually modeled in the Eulerian reference frame. In Lagrange coordinates the energy equation by itself is a transparent statement of the physical phenomena involved, and is simple symbolically. It is virtually a 'one-line' description of the gas processes at all locations and at all points in the cycle.

  2. Active vibration and balance system for closed cycle thermodynamic machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qiu, Songgang (Inventor); Augenblick, John E. (Inventor); Peterson, Allen A. (Inventor); White, Maurice A. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An active balance system is provided for counterbalancing vibrations of an axially reciprocating machine. The balance system includes a support member, a flexure assembly, a counterbalance mass, and a linear motor or an actuator. The support member is configured for attachment to the machine. The flexure assembly includes at least one flat spring having connections along a central portion and an outer peripheral portion. One of the central portion and the outer peripheral portion is fixedly mounted to the support member. The counterbalance mass is fixedly carried by the flexure assembly along another of the central portion and the outer peripheral portion. The linear motor has one of a stator and a mover fixedly mounted to the support member and another of the stator and the mover fixedly mounted to the counterbalance mass. The linear motor is operative to axially reciprocate the counterbalance mass. A method is also provided.

  3. Quantum Performance of Thermal Machines over Many Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Gentaro; Venkatesh, B. Prasanna; Talkner, Peter; del Campo, Adolfo

    2017-02-01

    The performance of quantum heat engines is generally based on the analysis of a single cycle. We challenge this approach by showing that the total work performed by a quantum engine need not be proportional to the number of cycles. Furthermore, optimizing the engine over multiple cycles leads to the identification of scenarios with a quantum enhancement. We demonstrate our findings with a quantum Otto engine based on a two-level system as the working substance that supplies power to an external oscillator.

  4. Quantum Performance of Thermal Machines over Many Cycles.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Gentaro; Venkatesh, B Prasanna; Talkner, Peter; Del Campo, Adolfo

    2017-02-03

    The performance of quantum heat engines is generally based on the analysis of a single cycle. We challenge this approach by showing that the total work performed by a quantum engine need not be proportional to the number of cycles. Furthermore, optimizing the engine over multiple cycles leads to the identification of scenarios with a quantum enhancement. We demonstrate our findings with a quantum Otto engine based on a two-level system as the working substance that supplies power to an external oscillator.

  5. DWPF Air Lift Pump Life Cycle Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    IMRICH, KENNETH

    2004-03-15

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) air lift pump was successfully tested at Clemson for 72 days of operation. It provided sufficient flow to pump molten glass without excessive foaming. Slurry feeding also did not reveal any problems with cold cap stability. Metallurgically the Inconel 690 (690) portions of the pump were in excellent condition with no visual evidence of degradation even in high flow regions, i.e., air/melt interface and glass discharge regions. Spinel deposits, which completely covered the air passage on one side, were found at the inlet of each platinum/rhodium (Pt/Rh) nozzle. Although the deposits were extensive, they were porous and did not have an adverse effect on the operation of the pump. The technique used to secure the platinum/rhodium nozzles to the 690 housing appeared to be adequate with only minor oxidation of the 690 threads and glass in-leakage. Galvanic attack was observed where the nozzle formed a seal with the 690. Significant pitting of the 690 was observed around the entire seal. Intergranular cracking of the Pt/Rh alloy was extensive but the cause could not be determined. Testing would be required to evaluate the degradation. Data from the performance test and the metallurgical evaluation are being used to modify the design of the first DWPF production air lift pump. It will be fabricated entirely from 690 and use argon as the purge gas. It is intended to have a service life of 6 months. Recommendations for insertion, operation, and inspection of the pump are also included in this report. Performance data collected from the operation of the production pump will be used to further optimize the design. Laboratory exposure tests should also be performed to evaluate the galvanic effect between platinum/rhodium and 690.

  6. Selection of the air heat exchanger operating in a gas turbine air bottoming cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielniak, Tadeusz; Czaja, Daniel; Lepszy, Sebastian

    2013-12-01

    A gas turbine air bottoming cycle consists of a gas turbine unit and the air turbine part. The air part includes a compressor, air expander and air heat exchanger. The air heat exchanger couples the gas turbine to the air cycle. Due to the low specific heat of air and of the gas turbine exhaust gases, the air heat exchanger features a considerable size. The bigger the air heat exchanger, the higher its effectiveness, which results in the improvement of the efficiency of the gas turbine air bottoming cycle. On the other hand, a device with large dimensions weighs more, which may limit its use in specific locations, such as oil platforms. The thermodynamic calculations of the air heat exchanger and a preliminary selection of the device are presented. The installation used in the calculation process is a plate heat exchanger, which is characterized by a smaller size and lower values of the pressure drop compared to the shell and tube heat exchanger. Structurally, this type of the heat exchanger is quite similar to the gas turbine regenerator. The method on which the calculation procedure may be based for real installations is also presented, which have to satisfy the economic criteria of financial profitability and cost-effectiveness apart from the thermodynamic criteria.

  7. Improving air traffic control: Proving new tools or approving the joint human-machine system?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaillard, Irene; Leroux, Marcel

    1994-01-01

    From the description of a field problem (i.e., designing decision aids for air traffic controllers), this paper points out how a cognitive engineering approach provides the milestones for the evaluation of future joint human-machine systems.

  8. Neon turbo-Brayton cycle refrigerator for HTS power machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Hirokazu; Hirokawa, M.; Yoshida, Shigeru; Nara, N.; Ozaki, S.; Hayashi, H.; Okamoto, H.; Shiohara, Y.

    2012-06-01

    We developed a prototype turbo-Brayton refrigerator whose working fluid is neon gas. The refrigerator is designed for a HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) power transformer and its cooling power is more than 2 kW at 65 K. The refrigerator has a turboexpander and a turbo-compressor, which utilize magnetic bearings. These rotational machines have no rubbing parts and no oil-components. Those make a long maintenance interval of the refrigerator. The refrigerator is very compact because our newly developed turbo-compressor is volumetrically smaller than a displacement type compressor in same operating specification. Another feature of the refrigerator is a wide range operation capability for various heat-loads. Cooling power is controlled by the input-power of the turbo-compressor instead of the conventional method of using an electric heater. The rotational speed of the compressor motor is adjusted by an inverter. This system is expected to be more efficient. We show design details, specification and cooling test results of the new refrigerator in this paper.

  9. MEASUREMENT OF INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS FROM DRY-PROCESS PHOTOCOPY MACHINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article provides background information on indoor air emissions from office equipment, with emphasis on dry-process photocopy machines. The test method is described in detail along with results of a study to evaluate the test method using four dry-process photocopy machines. ...

  10. Mounting arrangement for the drive system of an air-bearing spindle on a machine tool

    DOEpatents

    Lunsford, J.S.; Crisp, D.W.; Petrowski, P.L.

    1987-12-07

    The present invention is directed to a mounting arrangement for the drive system of an air-bearing spindle utilized on a machine tool such as a lathe. The mounting arrangement of the present invention comprises a housing which is secured to the casing of the air bearing in such a manner that the housing position can be selectively adjusted to provide alignment of the air-bearing drive shaft supported by the housing and the air-bearing spindle. Once this alignment is achieved the air between spindle and the drive arrangement is maintained in permanent alignment so as to overcome misalignment problems encountered in the operation of the machine tool between the air-bearing spindle and the shaft utilized for driving the air-bearing spindle.

  11. Recent Research in Compression Refrigeration Cycle Air Source Heat Pumps.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Akira; Senshu, Takao

    The most important theme for heat pump air conditioners is the improvement of energy saving and comfort. Recently, cycle components, especially compressores and heat exchangers have been improved greatly in their performance and efficiency. As for compressors, large progress in their efficiencies have been made by detailed analysises such as mechanical losses and by the development of a new type compression mechanism. As for heat exchangers, various high heat transfer surfaces have been developed together with the improvement of the production technologies for them. Further, the effect of the capacity-modulated cycle is evaluated quantitatively through the improvements of static and transient cycle simulation technologies. And in order to realize this cffect, the electrically driven expansion valves heve been marketed. This review introduces the trends of these energy-saving technologies as well as comfort improvement studies.

  12. Thermodynamic study of air-cycle and mercury-vapor-cycle systems for refrigerating cooling air for turbines or other components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nachtigall, Alfred J; Freche, John C; Esgar, Jack B

    1956-01-01

    An analysis of air refrigeration systems indicated that air cycles are generally less satisfactory than simple heat exchangers unless high component efficiencies and high values of heat-exchanger effectiveness can be obtained. A system employing a mercury-vapor cycle appears to be feasible for refrigerating air that must enter the system at temperature levels of approximately 1500 degrees R, and this cycle is more efficient than the air cycle. Weight of the systems was not considered. The analysis of the systems is presented in a generalized dimensionless form.

  13. Permanent-magnet-less machine having an enclosed air gap

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, John S.

    2013-03-05

    A permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous system includes a stator that generates a magnetic rotating field when sourced by an alternating current. An uncluttered rotor disposed within the magnetic rotating field is spaced apart from the stator to form an air gap relative to an axis of rotation. A stationary excitation core spaced apart from the uncluttered rotor by an axial air gap and a radial air gap substantially encloses the stationary excitation core. Some permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous systems include stator core gaps to reduce axial flux flow. Some permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous systems include an uncluttered rotor coupled to outer laminations. The quadrature-axis inductance may be increased in some synchronous systems. Some synchronous systems convert energy such as mechanical energy into electrical energy (e.g., a generator); other synchronous systems may convert any form of energy into mechanical energy (e.g., a motor).

  14. Permanent-magnet-less machine having an enclosed air gap

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, John S

    2012-02-07

    A permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous system includes a stator that generates a magnetic rotating field when sourced by an alternating current. An uncluttered rotor disposed within the magnetic rotating field is spaced apart from the stator to form an air gap relative to an axis of rotation. A stationary excitation core spaced apart from the uncluttered rotor by an axial air gap and a radial air gap substantially encloses the stationary excitation core. Some permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous systems include stator core gaps to reduce axial flux flow. Some permanent magnet-less, brushless synchronous systems include an uncluttered rotor coupled to outer laminations. The quadrature-axis inductance may be increased in some synchronous systems. Some synchronous systems convert energy such as mechanical energy into electrical energy (e.g., a generator); other synchronous systems may convert any form of energy into mechanical energy (e.g., a motor).

  15. Performance Characteristics of Hybrid Cycle Combined Absorption Heat Transformer and Absorption Refrigerating Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyoki, Shigeki; Otsuka, Shin-Ichi; Uemura, Tadashi

    In this paper, four kinds of hybrid cycles which combined the single-stage absorption refrigerating machine and four kinds of absorption heat transformers were proposed. It is possible that each of these hybrid cycles gets high temperature and low temperature from one cycle, simultaneously. As basic cycle of absorption heat transformer, the following were chosen: two kinds of single-stage absorption heat transformer and two kinds of two-stage absorption heat transformer. As a working medium-absorbent system, H2O-LiBr system, H2O-LiBr-LiNO3 system, H2O-LiBr-LiNO3-LiCl system, H2O-LiBr-C2H6O2 system and H2O-LiNO3-LiCl system were adopted. Using these five kinds of working medium-absorbent system, the performance characteristics of four kinds of hybrid cycle were simulated. And the performance characteristics of these cycles were compared.

  16. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF AIR INTAKE MANIFOLDS; PHASE I: 2.0 L FORD CONTOUR AIR INTAKE MANIFOLD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project team applied the life cycle design methodology to the design analysis of three alternative air intake manifolds: a sand cast aluminum, brazed aluminum tubular, and nylon composite. The design analysis included a life cycle inventory analysis, environmental regulatory...

  17. Life cycle assessment comparison of photocatalytic coating and air purifier.

    PubMed

    Tichá, Marie; Žilka, Miroslav; Stieberová, Barbora; Freiberg, František

    2016-07-01

    This article presents a comparison of 2 very different options for removal of undesirable microorganisms and airborne pollutants from the indoor environment of hospitals, schools, homes, and other enclosed spaces using air purifiers and photocatalytic coatings based on nano titanium dioxide (TiO2 ). Both products were assessed by life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology from cradle-to-grave. The assessment also includes comparison of 2 different nano TiO2 production technologies, one by continuous hydrothermal synthesis and the other by a sulfate process. Results of the study showed a relatively large contribution of photocatalytic coatings to reducing the effects of selected indices in comparison with an air purifier, regardless of which nano TiO2 production method is used. Although the impacts of the sulfate process are significantly lower compared to those of hydrothermal synthesis when viewed in terms of production alone, taken in the context of the entire product life cycle, the net difference becomes less significant. The study has been elaborated within the Sustainable Hydrothermal Manufacturing of Nanomaterials (SHYMAN) project, which aims to develop competitive and sustainable continuous nanoparticle (NP) production technology based on supercritical hydrothermal synthesis. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:478-485. © 2016 SETAC.

  18. Modelling and simulation of air-conditioning cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rais, Sandi; Kadono, Yoshinori; Murayama, Katsunori; Minakuchi, Kazuya; Takeuchi, Hisae; Hasegawa, Tatsuya

    2017-02-01

    The heat-pump cycle for air conditioning was investigated both numerically and experimentally by evaluating the coefficient of performance (COP) under Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS B 8619:1999) and ANSI/AHRI standard 750-2007 operating conditions. We used two expansion valve coefficients Cv_{(φ)} = 0.12 for standard operating conditions (Case 1) approaching 1.3 MPa at high pressure and 0.2 MPa at low pressure, and Cv_{(φ)} = 0.06 namely poor operating conditions (Case 2). To improve the performance of the air conditioner, we compared the performance for two outside air temperatures, 35 and 40 °C (Case 3). The simulation and experiment comparison resulted the decreasing of the COP for standard operating condition is equal to 14 %, from 3.47 to 2.95 and a decrease of the cooling capacity is equal to 18 %, from 309.72 to 253.53 W. This result was also occurred in poor operating condition which the COP was superior at 35 °C temperature.

  19. Modelling and simulation of air-conditioning cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rais, Sandi; Kadono, Yoshinori; Murayama, Katsunori; Minakuchi, Kazuya; Takeuchi, Hisae; Hasegawa, Tatsuya

    2016-05-01

    The heat-pump cycle for air conditioning was investigated both numerically and experimentally by evaluating the coefficient of performance (COP) under Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS B 8619:1999) and ANSI/AHRI standard 750-2007 operating conditions. We used two expansion valve coefficients Cv_{(\\varphi )} = 0.12 for standard operating conditions (Case 1) approaching 1.3 MPa at high pressure and 0.2 MPa at low pressure, and Cv_{(\\varphi )} = 0.06 namely poor operating conditions (Case 2). To improve the performance of the air conditioner, we compared the performance for two outside air temperatures, 35 and 40 °C (Case 3). The simulation and experiment comparison resulted the decreasing of the COP for standard operating condition is equal to 14 %, from 3.47 to 2.95 and a decrease of the cooling capacity is equal to 18 %, from 309.72 to 253.53 W. This result was also occurred in poor operating condition which the COP was superior at 35 °C temperature.

  20. A novel method for machine performance degradation assessment based on fixed cycle features test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Linxia; Lee, Jay

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents a novel machine performance degradation scheme based on fixed cycle features test (FCFT). Instead of monitoring the machine under constant working load, FCFT introduces a new testing method which obtains data during the transient periods of different working loads. A novel performance assessment method based on those transient data without failure history is proposed. Wavelet packet analysis (WPA) is applied to extract features which capture the dynamic characteristics from the non-stationary vibration data. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used to reduce the dimension of the feature space. Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is utilized to approximate the density distribution of the lower-dimensional feature space which consists of the major principal components. The performance index of the machine is calculated based on the overlap between the distribution of the baseline feature space and that of the testing feature space. Bayesian information criterion (BIC) is used to determine the number of mixtures for the GMM and a density boosting method is applied to achieve better accuracy of the distribution estimation. A case study for a chiller system performance assessment is used as an example to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Study on Cooling Performance of Stirling Cycle Machine wiht New Regenerator Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, Noboru; Kitahama, Dai; Takeuchi, Takuro; Matsuguchi, Atsushi; Tsuruno, Seizo

    In order to develop Stirling cycle machines with high efficiency, suitable regenerator for each machine must be designed. To realize the flexibility of design and to improve the performance of regenerator, a new matrix, mesh sheet was proposed. It is a plate type with electrically etched holes. Each small hole is connected with neighboring holes by grooves on the plate. The performance test of cooling mode was carried out with a 3-kW Stirling engine in order to measure its cooling performance. Three types of the mesh sheet were developed and two of them were respectively stacked to install in the machine. Also, the pressure and regenerator losses were compared with conventional stacked wire gauzes and the mesh sheets. From the results, it was clarified that the performance of the cooling mode was improved about 5 to 40 % by the mesh sheet. In this paper, the relation between the dimensions of the mesh sheet, the pressure and regenerator losses were also clarified.

  2. Prediction of Air Pollutants Concentration Based on an Extreme Learning Machine: The Case of Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiangshe; Ding, Weifu

    2017-01-01

    With the development of the economy and society all over the world, most metropolitan cities are experiencing elevated concentrations of ground-level air pollutants. It is urgent to predict and evaluate the concentration of air pollutants for some local environmental or health agencies. Feed-forward artificial neural networks have been widely used in the prediction of air pollutants concentration. However, there are some drawbacks, such as the low convergence rate and the local minimum. The extreme learning machine for single hidden layer feed-forward neural networks tends to provide good generalization performance at an extremely fast learning speed. The major sources of air pollutants in Hong Kong are mobile, stationary, and from trans-boundary sources. We propose predicting the concentration of air pollutants by the use of trained extreme learning machines based on the data obtained from eight air quality parameters in two monitoring stations, including Sham Shui Po and Tap Mun in Hong Kong for six years. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm performs better on the Hong Kong data both quantitatively and qualitatively. Particularly, our algorithm shows better predictive ability, with R2 increased and root mean square error values decreased respectively. PMID:28125034

  3. Prediction of Air Pollutants Concentration Based on an Extreme Learning Machine: The Case of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiangshe; Ding, Weifu

    2017-01-24

    With the development of the economy and society all over the world, most metropolitan cities are experiencing elevated concentrations of ground-level air pollutants. It is urgent to predict and evaluate the concentration of air pollutants for some local environmental or health agencies. Feed-forward artificial neural networks have been widely used in the prediction of air pollutants concentration. However, there are some drawbacks, such as the low convergence rate and the local minimum. The extreme learning machine for single hidden layer feed-forward neural networks tends to provide good generalization performance at an extremely fast learning speed. The major sources of air pollutants in Hong Kong are mobile, stationary, and from trans-boundary sources. We propose predicting the concentration of air pollutants by the use of trained extreme learning machines based on the data obtained from eight air quality parameters in two monitoring stations, including Sham Shui Po and Tap Mun in Hong Kong for six years. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm performs better on the Hong Kong data both quantitatively and qualitatively. Particularly, our algorithm shows better predictive ability, with R 2 increased and root mean square error values decreased respectively.

  4. Air exchange rates from atmospheric CO2 daily cycle.

    PubMed

    Carrilho, João Dias; Mateus, Mário; Batterman, Stuart; da Silva, Manuel Gameiro

    2015-04-01

    We propose a new approach for measuring ventilation air exchange rates (AERs). The method belongs to the class of tracer gas techniques, but is formulated in the light of systems theory and signal processing. Unlike conventional CO2 based methods that assume the outdoor ambient CO2 concentration is constant, the proposed method recognizes that photosynthesis and respiration cycle of plants and processes associated with fuel combustion produce daily, quasi-periodic, variations in the ambient CO2 concentrations. These daily variations, which are within the detection range of existing monitoring equipment, are utilized for estimating ventilation rates without the need of a source of CO2 in the building. Using a naturally-ventilated residential apartment, AERs obtained using the new method compared favorably (within 10%) to those obtained using the conventional CO2 decay fitting technique. The new method has the advantages that no tracer gas injection is needed, and high time resolution results are obtained.

  5. Air exchange rates from atmospheric CO2 daily cycle

    PubMed Central

    Carrilho, João Dias; Mateus, Mário; Batterman, Stuart; da Silva, Manuel Gameiro

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new approach for measuring ventilation air exchange rates (AERs). The method belongs to the class of tracer gas techniques, but is formulated in the light of systems theory and signal processing. Unlike conventional CO2 based methods that assume the outdoor ambient CO2 concentration is constant, the proposed method recognizes that photosynthesis and respiration cycle of plants and processes associated with fuel combustion produce daily, quasi-periodic, variations in the ambient CO2 concentrations. These daily variations, which are within the detection range of existing monitoring equipment, are utilized for estimating ventilation rates without the need of a source of CO2 in the building. Using a naturally-ventilated residential apartment, AERs obtained using the new method compared favorably (within 10%) to those obtained using the conventional CO2 decay fitting technique. The new method has the advantages that no tracer gas injection is needed, and high time resolution results are obtained. PMID:26236090

  6. Dry Air Cooler Modeling for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J.; Lv, Q.

    2016-07-28

    Modeling for commercially available and cost effective dry air coolers such as those manufactured by Harsco Industries has been implemented in the Argonne National Laboratory Plant Dynamics Code for system level dynamic analysis of supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) Brayton cycles. The modeling can now be utilized to optimize and simulate sCO2 Brayton cycles with dry air cooling whereby heat is rejected directly to the atmospheric heat sink without the need for cooling towers that require makeup water for evaporative losses. It has sometimes been stated that a benefit of the sCO2 Brayton cycle is that it enables dry air cooling implying that the Rankine steam cycle does not. A preliminary and simple examination of a Rankine superheated steam cycle and an air-cooled condenser indicates that dry air cooling can be utilized with both cycles provided that the cycle conditions are selected appropriately

  7. Modelling and analysing track cycling Omnium performances using statistical and machine learning techniques.

    PubMed

    Ofoghi, Bahadorreza; Zeleznikow, John; Dwyer, Dan; Macmahon, Clare

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the utilisation of an unsupervised machine learning technique and statistical approaches (e.g., the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test) that assist cycling experts in the crucial decision-making processes for athlete selection, training, and strategic planning in the track cycling Omnium. The Omnium is a multi-event competition that will be included in the summer Olympic Games for the first time in 2012. Presently, selectors and cycling coaches make decisions based on experience and intuition. They rarely have access to objective data. We analysed both the old five-event (first raced internationally in 2007) and new six-event (first raced internationally in 2011) Omniums and found that the addition of the elimination race component to the Omnium has, contrary to expectations, not favoured track endurance riders. We analysed the Omnium data and also determined the inter-relationships between different individual events as well as between those events and the final standings of riders. In further analysis, we found that there is no maximum ranking (poorest performance) in each individual event that riders can afford whilst still winning a medal. We also found the required times for riders to finish the timed components that are necessary for medal winning. The results of this study consider the scoring system of the Omnium and inform decision-making toward successful participation in future major Omnium competitions.

  8. Hadoop-Based Distributed System for Online Prediction of Air Pollution Based on Support Vector Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaemi, Z.; Farnaghi, M.; Alimohammadi, A.

    2015-12-01

    The critical impact of air pollution on human health and environment in one hand and the complexity of pollutant concentration behavior in the other hand lead the scientists to look for advance techniques for monitoring and predicting the urban air quality. Additionally, recent developments in data measurement techniques have led to collection of various types of data about air quality. Such data is extremely voluminous and to be useful it must be processed at high velocity. Due to the complexity of big data analysis especially for dynamic applications, online forecasting of pollutant concentration trends within a reasonable processing time is still an open problem. The purpose of this paper is to present an online forecasting approach based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the air quality one day in advance. In order to overcome the computational requirements for large-scale data analysis, distributed computing based on the Hadoop platform has been employed to leverage the processing power of multiple processing units. The MapReduce programming model is adopted for massive parallel processing in this study. Based on the online algorithm and Hadoop framework, an online forecasting system is designed to predict the air pollution of Tehran for the next 24 hours. The results have been assessed on the basis of Processing Time and Efficiency. Quite accurate predictions of air pollutant indicator levels within an acceptable processing time prove that the presented approach is very suitable to tackle large scale air pollution prediction problems.

  9. Comparison of the regulated air pollutant emission characteristics of real-world driving cycle and ECE cycle for motorcycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Hung-Lung; Huang, Pei-Hsiu; Lai, Yen-Ming; Lee, Ting-Yi

    2014-04-01

    Motorcycles are an important means of transportation, and their numbers have increased significantly in recent years. However, motorcycles can emit significant amounts of air pollutants; therefore, the emission characteristics and driving patterns of motorcycles are necessary baseline information for the implementation of control measures for motorcycles in urban areas. The selected motorcycles were equipped with global positioning systems (GPS) to obtain speed-time data for determination of the characteristics of real-world driving parameters, and an on-board exhaust gas analyser with data logger was employed to determine the instantaneous concentration of regulated air pollutants from motorcycle exhaust. Results indicated that the time proportions of acceleration, cruising, and deceleration are different from those of the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) driving cycle, and the time percentages of acceleration and deceleration of the ECE cycle are much less than those in Taichung city. In general, the emission factors of the Taichung motorcycle driving cycle (TMDC) were higher HC and lower NOx emission than those of the ECE cycle. The average fuel consumption of tested motorcycles on three roads during workdays was 5% higher than that on weekends. The fuel consumption in the real-world motorcycle driving cycle was also about 7% higher than that of the ECE cycle, which again indicates that the ECE cycle is unsuitable for measuring fuel consumption in the Taichung metropolitan area. Therefore, understanding the local driving cycle is necessary for developing accurate emission data for air pollution control measures for urban areas.

  10. Power Output and Air Requirements of a Two-stroke Cycle Engine for Aeronautical Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paton, C R; Kemper, Carlton

    1927-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the pressure and amount of air necessary for satisfactory high-speed, two-stroke cycle operation and thus permit the power requirements of the air pump or blower to be determined. Based on power output and air requirement here obtained the two-stroke cycle engine would seem to be favorable for aeronautical use. No attempts were made to secure satisfactory operation at idling speeds.

  11. The optimization air separation plants for combined cycle MHD-power plant applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, A. J.; Springmann, H.; Greenberg, R.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the design approaches being employed during a current supported study directed at developing an improved air separation process for the production of oxygen enriched air for magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) combustion are outlined. The ultimate objective is to arrive at conceptual designs of air separation plants, optimized for minimum specific power consumption and capital investment costs, for integration with MHD combined cycle power plants.

  12. Supercontinuum based absorption spectrometer for cycle-resolved multiparameter measurements in a rapid compression machine.

    PubMed

    Werblinski, Thomas; Kleindienst, Stefan; Engelbrecht, Rainer; Zigan, Lars; Will, Stefan

    2016-06-10

    A broadband supercontinuum (SC) based absorption spectrometer capable of cycle-resolved multiparameter measurements at internal combustion (IC) engine conditions is presented. Three parameters, temperature, pressure and water mole fraction, were extracted from broadband near-infrared H2O absorption spectra, spanning the wavelength-range from 1340 to 1405.5 nm, which exhibits a large number of specific H2O transitions. The spectrometer is based on spatial domain detection and features a near-infrared line scan camera as a detector. Measurements were performed during a compression cycle of a rapid compression machine comprising a pressure and temperature range from 2.5 to 65 bar and 300 to 900 K, respectively. With the new spectrometer, we are for the first time, based on the authors' knowledge, able to perform measurements based on SC radiation over a complete compression and expansion stroke at measurement rates up to 50 kHz. A detailed overview is provided about the best match algorithm between theory and experiments, including parameters from two different spectral databases, namely the Barber-Tennyson database (BT2) and HITRAN2012. The results indicate that spectral broadening effects are not properly described by theory, especially at pressure levels exceeding 20 bar, which culminates in a clear underestimation of the derived pressure data by SC absorption spectroscopy. Nevertheless, temperature can be determined accurately by performing a three-parameter fit based on water mole fraction, temperature, and pressure. In contrast, making use of pressure transducer data as look-up values and varying only temperature and H2O mole fraction to find the best match leads to a clear overestimation of temperature at elevated pressures.

  13. Speech Analysis and Synthesis and Man-Machine Speech Communications for Air Operations. (Synthese et Analyse de la Parole et Liaisons Vocales Homme- Machine dans les Operations Aeriennes)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    fact that the spoken word plays and will continue to play a significant role in man-man, man-machine and machine-man communications for air operation...quality speech at 32 kb/s. In fact, a highly complex version cah provide high-quality speech at the lower bit rate. similarly’lower-complexity...precis on speech coding which is given here because of tho central role of the subject in the whole !poeoh processing field will be elaborated on and

  14. Air compressor battery duration with mechanical ventilation in a field anesthesia machine.

    PubMed

    Szpisjak, Dale F; Giberman, Anthony A

    2015-05-01

    Compressed air to power field anesthesia machine ventilators may be supplied by air compressor with battery backup. This study determined the battery duration when the compPAC ventilator's air compressor was powered by NiCd battery to ventilate the Vent Aid Training Test Lung modeling high (HC = 0.100 L/cm H2O) and low (LC = 0.020 L/cm H2O) pulmonary compliance. Target tidal volumes (VT) were 500, 750, and 1,000 mL. Respiratory rate = 10 bpm, inspiratory-to-expiratory time ratio = 1:2, and fresh gas flow = 1 L/min air. N = 5 in each group. Control limits were determined from the first 150 minutes of battery power for each run and lower control limit = mean VT - 3SD. Battery depletion occurred when VT was below the lower control limit. Battery duration ranged from 185.8 (±3.2) minutes in the LC-1000 group to 233.3 (±3.6) minutes in the HC-750 group. Battery duration of the LC-1000 group was less than all others (p = 0.027). The differences among the non-LC-1000 groups were not clinically significant.

  15. CAESCAP: A computer code for compressed-air energy-storage-plant cycle analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fort, J. A.

    1982-10-01

    The analysis code, CAESCAP, was developed as an aid in comparing and evaluating proposed compressed air energy storage (CAES) cycles. Input consists of component parameters and working fluid conditions at points along a cycle. The code calculates thermodynamic properties at each point and then calculates overall cycle performance. Working fluid capabilities include steam, air, nitrogen, and parahydrogen. The CAESCAP code was used to analyze a variety of CAES cycles. The combination of straightforward input and flexible design make the code easy and inexpensive to use.

  16. Application of high temperature air heaters to advanced power generation cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, T R; Boss, W H; Chapman, J N

    1992-03-01

    Recent developments in ceramic composite materials open up the possibility of recuperative air heaters heating air to temperatures well above the feasible with metal tubes. A high temperature air heater (HTAH) has long been recognized as a requirement for the most efficient MHD plants in order to reach high combustor flame temperatures. The application of gas turbines in coal-fired plants of all types has been impeded because of the problems in cleaning exhaust gas sufficiently to avoid damage to the turbine. With a possibility of a HTAH, such plants may become feasible on the basis of air turbine cycles, in which air is compressed and heated in the HTAH before being applied to turbine. The heat exchanger eliminates the need for the hot gas cleanup system. The performance improvement potential of advanced cycles with HTAH application including the air turbine cycle in several variations such as the DOE program on ``Coal-Fired Air Furnace Combined Cycle...,`` variations originated by the authors, and the MHD combined cycle are presented. The status of development of ceramic air heater technology is included.

  17. Carbon dioxide, ground air and carbon cycling in Gibraltar karst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattey, D. P.; Atkinson, T. C.; Barker, J. A.; Fisher, R.; Latin, J.-P.; Durrell, R.; Ainsworth, M.

    2016-07-01

    We put forward a general conceptual model of CO2 behaviour in the vadose zone of karst aquifers, based on physical principles of air flow through porous media and caves, combined with a geochemical interpretation of cave monitoring data. This 'Gibraltar model' links fluxes of water, air and carbon through the soil with the porosity of the vadose zone, the circulation of ground air and the ventilation of caves. Gibraltar hosts many natural caves whose locations span the full length and vertical range of the Rock. We report results of an 8-year monitoring study of carbon in soil organic matter and bedrock carbonate, dissolved inorganic carbon in vadose waters, and gaseous CO2 in soil, cave and ground air. Results show that the regime of cave air CO2 results from the interaction of cave ventilation with a reservoir of CO2-enriched ground air held within the smaller voids of the bedrock. The pCO2 of ground air, and of vadose waters that have been in close contact with it, are determined by multiple factors that include recharge patterns, vegetation productivity and root respiration, and conversion of organic matter to CO2 within the soil, the epikarst and the whole vadose zone. Mathematical modelling and field observations show that ground air is subject to a density-driven circulation that reverses seasonally, as the difference between surface and underground temperatures reverses in sign. The Gibraltar model suggests that cave air pCO2 is not directly related to CO2 generated in the soil or the epikarstic zone, as is often assumed. Ground air CO2 formed by the decay of organic matter (OM) washed down into the deeper unsaturated zone is an important additional source of pCO2. In Gibraltar the addition of OM-derived CO2 is the dominant control on the pCO2 of ground air and the Ca-hardness of waters within the deep vadose zone. The seasonal regime of CO2 in cave air depends on the position of a cave in relation to the density-driven ground air circulation pattern which

  18. Ultrasensitive electrochemical analysis of two analytes by using an autonomous DNA machine that works in a two-cycle mode.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Fang, Congcong; Zhang, Shusheng

    2011-06-27

    We report a novel autonomous DNA machine for amplified electrochemical analysis of two DNAs. The DNA machine operates in a two-cycle working mode to amplify DNA recognition events; the working mode is assisted by two different nicking endonucleases (NEases). Two bio-barcode probes, a ZnS nanoparticle (NP)-DNA probe and a CdS NP-DNA probe, were used to trace two target DNAs. The detection system was based on a sensitive differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) method for the simultaneous detection of Zn(II) and Cd(II) tracers, which were obtained by dissolving the two probes. Under the optimised conditions, detection limits as low as 5.6×10(-17) (3σ) and 4.1×10(-17)  M (3σ) for the two target DNAs were achieved. It has been proven that the DNA machine system can simultaneously amplify two target DNAs by more than four orders of magnitude within 30 min at room temperature. In addition, in combination with an aptamer recognition strategy, the DNA machine was further used in the aptamer-based amplification analysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and lysozyme. With the amplification of the DNA machine, detection limits as low as 5.6×10(-9)  M (3σ) for ATP and 5.2×10(-13)  M (3σ) for lysozyme were simultaneously obtained. The satisfactory determination of ATP and lysozyme in Ramos cells reveals the good selectivity and feasibility of this protocol. The DNA machine is a promising tool for ultrasensitive and simultaneous multianalysis because of its remarkable signal amplification and simple machine-like operation.

  19. Innovative open air brayton combined cycle systems for the next generation nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohuri, Bahman

    The purpose of this research was to model and analyze a nuclear heated multi-turbine power conversion system operating with atmospheric air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a molten salt, or liquid metal, to gas heat exchanger reaching a peak temperature of 660 0C. The effects of adding a recuperator or a bottoming steam cycle have been addressed. The calculated results are intended to identify paths for future work on the next generation nuclear power plant (GEN-IV). This document describes the proposed system in sufficient detail to communicate a good understanding of the overall system, its components, and intended uses. The architecture is described at the conceptual level, and does not replace a detailed design document. The main part of the study focused on a Brayton --- Rankine Combined Cycle system and a Recuperated Brayton Cycle since they offer the highest overall efficiencies. Open Air Brayton power cycles also require low cooling water flows relative to other power cycles. Although the Recuperated Brayton Cycle achieves an overall efficiency slightly less that the Brayton --- Rankine Combined Cycle, it is completely free of a circulating water system and can be used in a desert climate. Detailed results of modeling a combined cycle Brayton-Rankine power conversion system are presented. The Rankine bottoming cycle appears to offer a slight efficiency advantage over the recuperated Brayton cycle. Both offer very significant advantages over current generation Light Water Reactor steam cycles. The combined cycle was optimized as a unit and lower pressure Rankine systems seem to be more efficient. The combined cycle requires a lot less circulating water than current power plants. The open-air Brayton systems appear to be worth investigating, if the higher temperatures predicted for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant do materialize.

  20. A PILOT STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF RESIDENTIAL HAC DUTY CYCLE ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY (AE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple methodology was developed to collect measurements of duty cycle, the fraction of time the heating and air conditioning (HAC) system was operating, inside residences. The primary purpose of the measurements was to assess whether the HAC duty cycle was related to reductio...

  1. A PILOT STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF RESIDENTIAL HAC DUTY CYCLE ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple methodology was developed to collect measurements of duty cycle, the fraction of time the heating and air conditioning (HAC) system was operating inside residences. The primary purpose of the measurements was to assess whether the HAC duty cycle was related to reducti...

  2. Thermodynamic Cycle and CFD Analyses for Hydrogen Fueled Air-breathing Pulse Detonation Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, Louis A.; Yungster, Shaye

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a thermodynamic cycle analysis of a pulse detonation engine (PDE) using a hydrogen-air mixture at static conditions. The cycle performance results, namely the specific thrust, fuel consumption and impulse are compared to a single cycle CFD analysis for a detonation tube which considers finite rate chemistry. The differences in the impulse values were indicative of the additional performance potential attainable in a PDE.

  3. Integrated air separation plant-integrated gasification combined cycle power generator

    SciTech Connect

    Allam, R.J.; Topham, A.

    1992-01-21

    This patent describes an integrated gasification combined cycle power generation system, comprising an air separation unit wherein air is compressed, cooled, and separated into an oxygen and nitrogen enriched fractions, a gasification system for generating a fuel gas, an air compressor system for supplying compressed air for use in combusting the fuel gas, a combustion zone for effecting combustion of the compressed air and the fuel gas, and a gas turbine for effecting the generation of power from the resulting combusted gases from the combustion zone in the combined cycle power generation system. It comprises independently compressing feed air to the air separation unit to pressures of from 8 to 20 bar from the compressor system used to compress air for the combustion zone; cryogenically separating the air in the air separation unit having at least one distillation column operating at pressures of between 8 and 20 bar and producing an oxygen enriched fraction consisting of low purity oxygen, and; utilizing at least a portion of the low purity oxygen for effecting gasification of a carbon containing fuel source by partial oxidation in the gasification system and thereby generating a fuel gas stream; removing at least a portion of a nitrogen enriched fraction from the air separation unit and boosting its pressures to a pressure substantially equal to that of the fuel gas stream; and expanding at least another portion of the nitrogen enriched fraction in an expansion engine.

  4. INFLUENCE OF RESIDENTIAL HVAC DUTY CYCLE ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements of duty cycle, the fraction of time the heating and cooling (HVAC) system was operating, were made in homes during the spring season of the RTP Particulate Matter Panel Study and the Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study. A temperature sensor/logger placed on an outlet...

  5. Cascade Reverse Osmosis Air Conditioning System: Cascade Reverse Osmosis and the Absorption Osmosis Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Battelle is developing a new air conditioning system that uses a cascade reverse osmosis (RO)-based absorption cycle. Analyses show that this new cycle can be as much as 60% more efficient than vapor compression, which is used in 90% of air conditioners. Traditional vapor-compression systems use polluting liquids for a cooling effect. Absorption cycles use benign refrigerants such as water, which is absorbed in a salt solution and pumped as liquid—replacing compression of vapor. The refrigerant is subsequently separated from absorbing salt using heat for re-use in the cooling cycle. Battelle is replacing thermal separation of refrigerant with a more efficient reverse osmosis process. Research has shown that the cycle is possible, but further investment will be needed to reduce the number of cascade reverse osmosis stages and therefore cost.

  6. Monthly prediction of air temperature in Australia and New Zealand with machine learning algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salcedo-Sanz, S.; Deo, R. C.; Carro-Calvo, L.; Saavedra-Moreno, B.

    2016-07-01

    Long-term air temperature prediction is of major importance in a large number of applications, including climate-related studies, energy, agricultural, or medical. This paper examines the performance of two Machine Learning algorithms (Support Vector Regression (SVR) and Multi-layer Perceptron (MLP)) in a problem of monthly mean air temperature prediction, from the previous measured values in observational stations of Australia and New Zealand, and climate indices of importance in the region. The performance of the two considered algorithms is discussed in the paper and compared to alternative approaches. The results indicate that the SVR algorithm is able to obtain the best prediction performance among all the algorithms compared in the paper. Moreover, the results obtained have shown that the mean absolute error made by the two algorithms considered is significantly larger for the last 20 years than in the previous decades, in what can be interpreted as a change in the relationship among the prediction variables involved in the training of the algorithms.

  7. Can air pollution negate the health benefits of cycling and walking?

    PubMed

    Tainio, Marko; de Nazelle, Audrey J; Götschi, Thomas; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Rojas-Rueda, David; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Kelly, Paul; Woodcock, James

    2016-06-01

    Active travel (cycling, walking) is beneficial for the health due to increased physical activity (PA). However, active travel may increase the intake of air pollution, leading to negative health consequences. We examined the risk-benefit balance between active travel related PA and exposure to air pollution across a range of air pollution and PA scenarios. The health effects of active travel and air pollution were estimated through changes in all-cause mortality for different levels of active travel and air pollution. Air pollution exposure was estimated through changes in background concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), ranging from 5 to 200μg/m3. For active travel exposure, we estimated cycling and walking from 0 up to 16h per day, respectively. These refer to long-term average levels of active travel and PM2.5 exposure. For the global average urban background PM2.5 concentration (22μg/m3) benefits of PA by far outweigh risks from air pollution even under the most extreme levels of active travel. In areas with PM2.5 concentrations of 100μg/m3, harms would exceed benefits after 1h 30min of cycling per day or more than 10h of walking per day. If the counterfactual was driving, rather than staying at home, the benefits of PA would exceed harms from air pollution up to 3h 30min of cycling per day. The results were sensitive to dose-response function (DRF) assumptions for PM2.5 and PA. PA benefits of active travel outweighed the harm caused by air pollution in all but the most extreme air pollution concentrations.

  8. Évaluation pratique des performances d'une machine Stirling de taille reduite fonctionnant en cycle frigorifique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nika, Ph.; Lanzetta, F.

    1997-07-01

    This paper describes predict performance and testing of a small Stirling cooling machine. The theoretical model is based on an energy balance for an open thermodynamic system applied to a compressor volume with moving piston and without valves. This model is applied in the compression volume, expansion volume and in the regenerator for the four processes of the refrigerating cycle. Theoretical method involves geometrical, mechanical, thermodynamical and thermal parameters. Evolutions of temperatures, pressures and masses of the gas are given for the compression volume, expansion volume and regenerator volume during the four processes of the refrigerating cycle. These evolutions axe then compared with experimental measures. Les auteurs présentent une étude concernant l'évaluation des performances d'une machine thermodynamique de Stirling de taille réduite fonctionnant en cycle frigorifique. La méthode retenue est basée sur un bilan d'énergie pour un système ouvert constitué d'un cylindre sans clapets et de son piston. Cette méthode est appliquée dans les volumes de détente et de compression ainsi que dans le régénérateur pour chacune des quatre phases du cycle frigorifique. Les paramètres intervenant dans l'étude théorique sont d'ordres géométrique, mécanique, thermodynamique et thermique. La résolution des équations issues du bilan énergétique pour chacune des quatre phases du cycle permet de tracer les évolutions des températures dans les volumes de compression et de détente, des variations de pression et des masses du gaz de travail et de la production frigorifique. Celles-ci sont ensuite comparées aux résultats expérimentaux.

  9. An inlet air washer/chiller system for combined cycle planet repowering

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, U.; Soroka, G. )

    1989-01-01

    A conditioning method to achieve increased output at any relative humidity condition is an air washer and absorption chiller arrangement. At elevated temperatures and low humidity, the air washer operates as an evaporative cooler without the chiller in operation. In this mode, the air washer will give similar results as a media type evaporative cooler at a fraction of the pressure loss. In the air washer plus chiller operating mode the chiller maintains cooling effectiveness of the air washer during periods of high relative humidity. This makes such a system very appropriate anywhere relative humidity is high. Many combined cycle plants utilize supplemental firing of the heat recovery steam generators to offset the loss of gas turbine power at high ambient temperatures. This paper shows that in contrast to supplementary firing, the combination air washer/chiller system can generate power more efficiently and at lower cost.

  10. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air-liquefaction technologies for combined-cycle propulsion applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a technical assessment of the realization of cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction technologies in a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process setting. The technical findings related to the status of air liquefaction technologies are reviewed. Compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers, heat exchanger atmospheric constituent fouling alleviation measures, para/ortho-hydrogen shift-conversion catalysts, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps, hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as a heat sink, liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket-type combustion devices, and technically related engine concepts are discussed. Much of the LACE work is related to aerospaceplane propulsion concepts that were developed in the 1960's. Emphasis is placed on the Liquid Air Cycle Engine (LACE).

  11. Late - Cycle Injection of Air/Oxygen - Enriched Air for Diesel Exhaust Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect

    Mather, Daniel

    2000-08-20

    Reduce the ''Engine Out'' particulates using the ''In Cylinder'' technique of late cycle auxiliary gas injection (AGI). Reduce the ''Engine Out'' NOx by combining AGI with optimization of fuel injection parameters. Maintain or Improve the Fuel Efficiency.

  12. Study of hydraulic air compression for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion open-cycle application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golshani, A.; Chen, F. C.

    1983-01-01

    A hydraulic air compressor, which requires no mechanical moving parts and operates in a nearly isothermal mode, can be an alternative for the noncondensible gas disposal of an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) open-cycle power system. The compressor requires only a downward flow of water to accomplish air compression. An air compressor test loop was assembled and operated to obtain test data that would lead to the design of an OTEC hydraulic air compressor. A one dimensional, hydraulic gas compressor, computer model was employed to simulate the laboratory experiments, and it was tuned to fit the test results. A sensitivity study that shows the effects of various parameters on the applied head of the hydraulic air compression is presented.

  13. Electric power generating plant having direct coupled steam and compressed air cycles

    DOEpatents

    Drost, Monte K.

    1982-01-01

    An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

  14. Electric power generating plant having direct-coupled steam and compressed-air cycles

    DOEpatents

    Drost, M.K.

    1981-01-07

    An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

  15. Effect of fast freeze-thaw cycles on mechanical properties of ordinary-air-entrained concrete.

    PubMed

    Shang, Huai-shuai; Cao, Wei-qun; Wang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Freezing-thawing resistance is a very significant characteristic for concrete in severe environment (such as cold region with the lowest temperature below 0°C). In this study, ordinary-air-entrained (O-A-E) concrete was produced in a laboratory environment; the compressive strength, cubic compressive strength of C50, C40, C30, C25, and C20 ordinary-air-entrained concrete, tensile strength, and cleavage strength of C30 ordinary-air-entrained concrete were measured after fast freeze-thaw cycles. The effects of fast freeze-thaw cycles on the mechanical properties (compressive strength and cleavage strength) of ordinary-air-entrained concrete materials are investigated on the basis of the experimental results. And the concise mathematical formula between mechanical behavior and number of fast freeze-thaw cycles was established. The experiment results can be used as a reference in design, maintenance, and life prediction of ordinary-air-entrained concrete structure (such as dam, offshore platform, etc.) in cold regions.

  16. Effect of Fast Freeze-Thaw Cycles on Mechanical Properties of Ordinary-Air-Entrained Concrete

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Huai-shuai; Cao, Wei-qun; Wang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Freezing-thawing resistance is a very significant characteristic for concrete in severe environment (such as cold region with the lowest temperature below 0°C). In this study, ordinary-air-entrained (O-A-E) concrete was produced in a laboratory environment; the compressive strength, cubic compressive strength of C50, C40, C30, C25, and C20 ordinary-air-entrained concrete, tensile strength, and cleavage strength of C30 ordinary-air-entrained concrete were measured after fast freeze-thaw cycles. The effects of fast freeze-thaw cycles on the mechanical properties (compressive strength and cleavage strength) of ordinary-air-entrained concrete materials are investigated on the basis of the experimental results. And the concise mathematical formula between mechanical behavior and number of fast freeze-thaw cycles was established. The experiment results can be used as a reference in design, maintenance, and life prediction of ordinary-air-entrained concrete structure (such as dam, offshore platform, etc.) in cold regions. PMID:24895671

  17. A novel triple-actuating mechanism of an active air mount for vibration control of precision manufacturing machines: experimental work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyung-Tae; Kim, Cheol-Ho; Choi, Seung-Bok; Moon, Seok-Jun; Song, Won-Gil

    2014-07-01

    With the goal of vibration control and isolation in a clean room, we propose a new type of air mount which consists of pneumatic, electromagnetic (EM), and magnetorheological (MR) actuators. The air mount is installed below a semiconductor manufacturing machine to reduce the adverse effects caused by unwanted vibration. The proposed mechanism integrates the forces in a parallel connection of the three actuators. The MR part is designed to operate in an air spring in which the EM part is installed. The control logic is developed with a classical method and a switching mode to avoid operational mismatch among the forces developed. Based on extended microprocessors, a portable, embedded controller is installed to execute both nonlinear logic and digital communication with the peripherals. The pneumatic forces constantly support the heavy weight of an upper structure and maintain the level of the air mount. The MR damper handles the transient response, while the EM controller reduces the resonance response, which is switched mutually with a threshold. Vibration is detected by laser displacement sensors which have submicron resolution. The impact test results of three tons load weight demonstrate practical feasibility by showing that the proposed triple-actuating mechanism can reduce the transient response as well as the resonance in the air mount, resulting in accurate motion of the semiconductor manufacturing machine.

  18. Influence of cycle exercise on acetone in expired air and skin gas.

    PubMed

    Yamai, Kazuaki; Ohkuwa, Tetsuo; Itoh, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko; Tsuda, Takao

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of cycle exercise on acetone concentration in expired air and skin gas. The subjects for this experiment were eight healthy males. Subjects performed a continuous graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer. The workloads were 360 (1.0 kg), 720 (2.0 kg), 990 (2.75 kg) kgm/min, and each stage was 5 min in duration. A pedaling frequency of 60 rpm was maintained. Acetone concentration was analyzed by gas chromatography. The acetone concentration in expired air and skin gas during exercise at 990 kgm/min intensity was significantly increased compared with the basal level. The skin-gas acetone concentration at 990 kgm/min significantly increased compared with the 360 kgm/min (P < 0.05). The acetone excretion of expired air at 720 kgm/min and 990 kgm/min significantly increased compared with the basal level (P < 0.05). Acetone concentration in expired air was 4-fold greater than skin gas at rest and 3-fold greater during exercise (P < 0.01). Skin gas acetone concentration significantly related with expired air (r = 0.752; P < 0.01). This study confirmed that the skin-gas acetone concentration reflected that of expired air.

  19. The relationship of air temperature variations over the northern hemisphere during the secular and 11-year solar cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryzhakov, L. Y.; Tomskaya, A. S.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison was made of air temperature anomaly maps for the months of January and July against a background of high and low secular solar activity, with and without regard for the 11 year cycle. By comparing temperature variations during the 11 year and secular cycles, it is found that the 11 year cycle influences thermal conditions more strongly than the secular cycle, and that temperature differences between extreme phases of the solar cycles are greater in January than in July.

  20. Cost and energy consumption estimates for the aluminum-air battery anode fuel cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    At the request of DOE's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to generate estimates of the energy use and costs associated with the aluminum anode fuel cycle of the aluminum-air (Al-air) battery. The results of this analysis indicate that the cost and energy consumption characteristics of the mechanically rechargeable Al-air battery system are not as attractive as some other electrically rechargeable electric vehicle battery systems being developed by OESD. However, there are distinct advantages to mechanically rechargeable batteries, which may make the Al-air battery (or other mechanically rechargeable batteries) attractive for other uses, such as stand-alone applications. Fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane (PEM), and advanced secondary batteries may be better suited to electric vehicle applications.

  1. Cost and energy consumption estimates for the aluminum-air battery anode fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    At the request of DOE's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to generate estimates of the energy use and costs associated with the aluminum anode fuel cycle of the aluminum-air (Al-air) battery. The results of this analysis indicate that the cost and energy consumption characteristics of the mechanically rechargeable Al-air battery system are not as attractive as some other electrically rechargeable electric vehicle battery systems being developed by OESD. However, there are distinct advantages to mechanically rechargeable batteries, which may make the Al-air battery (or other mechanically rechargeable batteries) attractive for other uses, such as stand-alone applications. Fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane (PEM), and advanced secondary batteries may be better suited to electric vehicle applications. 26 refs., 3 figs., 25 tabs.

  2. Air Evaporation closed cycle water recovery technology - Advanced energy saving designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morasko, Gwyndolyn; Putnam, David F.; Bagdigian, Robert

    1986-01-01

    The Air Evaporation water recovery system is a visible candidate for Space Station application. A four-man Air Evaporation open cycle system has been successfully demonstrated for waste water recovery in manned chamber tests. The design improvements described in this paper greatly enhance the system operation and energy efficiency of the air evaporation process. A state-of-the-art wick feed design which results in reduced logistics requirements is presented. In addition, several design concepts that incorporate regenerative features to minimize the energy input to the system are discussed. These include a recuperative heat exchanger, a heat pump for energy transfer to the air heater, and solar collectors for evaporative heat. The addition of the energy recovery devices will result in an energy reduction of more than 80 percent over the systems used in earlier manned chamber tests.

  3. Feasibility and operating costs of an air cycle for CCHP in a fast food restaurant

    DOE PAGES

    Perez-Blanco, Horacio; Vineyard, Edward

    2016-05-06

    This work considers the possibilities of an air-based Brayton cycle to provide the power, heating and cooling needs of fast-food restaurants. A model of the cycle based on conventional turbomachinery loss coefficients is formulated. The heating, cooling and power capabilities of the cycle are extracted from simulation results. Power and thermal loads for restaurants in Knoxville, TN and in International Falls, MN, are considered. It is found that the cycle can meet the loads by setting speed and mass flow-rate apportionment between the power and cooling functional sections. The associated energy costs appear elevated when compared to the cost ofmore » operating individual components or a more conventional, absorption-based CHP system. Lastly, a first-order estimate of capital investments is provided. Suggestions for future work whereby the operational costs could be reduced are given in the conclusions.« less

  4. Feasibility and operating costs of an air cycle for CCHP in a fast food restaurant

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Blanco, Horacio; Vineyard, Edward

    2016-05-06

    This work considers the possibilities of an air-based Brayton cycle to provide the power, heating and cooling needs of fast-food restaurants. A model of the cycle based on conventional turbomachinery loss coefficients is formulated. The heating, cooling and power capabilities of the cycle are extracted from simulation results. Power and thermal loads for restaurants in Knoxville, TN and in International Falls, MN, are considered. It is found that the cycle can meet the loads by setting speed and mass flow-rate apportionment between the power and cooling functional sections. The associated energy costs appear elevated when compared to the cost of operating individual components or a more conventional, absorption-based CHP system. Lastly, a first-order estimate of capital investments is provided. Suggestions for future work whereby the operational costs could be reduced are given in the conclusions.

  5. Consequential life cycle air emissions externalities for plug-in electric vehicles in the PJM interconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, Allison; Jaramillo, Paulina; Michalek, Jeremy

    2016-02-01

    We perform a consequential life cycle analysis of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and conventional gasoline vehicles in the PJM interconnection using a detailed, normative optimization model of the PJM electricity grid that captures the change in power plant operations and related emissions due to vehicle charging. We estimate and monetize the resulting human health and environmental damages from life cycle air emissions for each vehicle technology. We model PJM using the most recent data available (2010) as well as projections of the PJM grid in 2018 and a hypothetical scenario with increased wind penetration. We assess a range of sensitivity cases to verify the robustness of our results. We find that PEVs have higher life cycle air emissions damages than gasoline HEVs in the recent grid scenario, which has a high percentage of coal generation on the margin. In particular, battery electric vehicles with large battery capacity can produce two to three times as much air emissions damage as gasoline HEVs, depending on charge timing. In our future 2018 grid scenarios that account for predicted coal plant retirements, PEVs would produce air emissions damages comparable to or slightly lower than HEVs.

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of five compressed-air energy-storage cycles. [Using CAESCAP computer code

    SciTech Connect

    Fort, J. A.

    1983-03-01

    One important aspect of the Compressed-Air Energy-Storage (CAES) Program is the evaluation of alternative CAES plant designs. The thermodynamic performance of the various configurations is particularly critical to the successful demonstration of CAES as an economically feasible energy-storage option. A computer code, the Compressed-Air Energy-Storage Cycle-Analysis Program (CAESCAP), was developed in 1982 at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This code was designed specifically to calculate overall thermodynamic performance of proposed CAES-system configurations. The results of applying this code to the analysis of five CAES plant designs are presented in this report. The designs analyzed were: conventional CAES; adiabatic CAES; hybrid CAES; pressurized fluidized-bed CAES; and direct coupled steam-CAES. Inputs to the code were based on published reports describing each plant cycle. For each cycle analyzed, CAESCAP calculated the thermodynamic station conditions and individual-component efficiencies, as well as overall cycle-performance-parameter values. These data were then used to diagram the availability and energy flow for each of the five cycles. The resulting diagrams graphically illustrate the overall thermodynamic performance inherent in each plant configuration, and enable a more accurate and complete understanding of each design.

  7. Observation of the water cycle from space with the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahine, M. T.; Waliser, D. E.; Fetzer, E. J.; Olsen, E. T.

    2007-12-01

    AIRS is one of six instruments on board the Aqua satellite, part of NASA's Earth Observing System launched in a sun synchronous near polar orbit on May 4, 2002. AIRS and its partner microwave instrument, AMSU A, provide high quality data facilitating studies of the global water and energy cycles, climate variation and trends, and the response of the climate system to increased greenhouse gases. The exceptional stability of the AIRS instrument provides a climate record of thermal infrared radiance spectra spanning the 3.74 15.4 mm spectral band with 2378 channels at a nominal resolution of 1/1200. (Chahine et al, in BAMS, July 2006) Accurate knowledge of the vertical distribution of water vapor in the atmosphere is critically important to the determination of the warming the Earth will experience as a result of anthropogenic forcing. Comparison of the AIRS specific humidity product to state of the art climate models has shown most models exhibit a pattern of drier than observed (by 10 25%) in the tropics below 800 hPa and moister than observed (by 25 100%) between 300 and 600 hPa in the extra tropics (Pierce et al, GRL 2006). The AIRS water vapor measurements also reveal tropospheric moisture perturbations that are much larger than those depicted in previous NCAR/NCEP reanalysis and ECMWF analysis datasets, both of which have been widely used as observations to validate models. This suggests that the impact of convection induced downdrafts on the atmospheric boundary layer is significantly underestimated in both ECMWF and NCEP reanalysis (Fu et al., GRL 2006). AIRS data have led to the discovery of significant differences in the lower troposphere moisture and temperature fields during the spatial temporal evolution of the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO). The anomalous lower troposphere temperature structure is observed in detail by AIRS for the Indian and western Pacific Oceans, while it remains much less well defined in the NCEP temperature fields (Tian et al

  8. Dimensional approach on hot air turbine power plant in opened cycle for straw recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bălănescu, D. T.; Homutescu, V. M.; Atanasiu, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    Currently, disposal of straw is one of the biggest problems that crop plant producers are facing. The ideal case implies not only to get rid of straw but also to recover its energetic potential. In this context, the performance of a hot air turbine power plant operating in open cycle, with straw as fuel, was analyzed in a previous study and proved to be a very interesting solution for straw disposal. As consequence, dimensional analysis of the hot air turbine power plant is required into the next step and this makes the subject of the present study. The dimensional analysis is focused on the compressed air heater - the largest component of the Power Plant, with crucial role in what concerns its entire size and mass. Once both performance and dimensional analysis performed, the final conclusions are drawn in an overall approach, by taking also into consideration the economic aspects.

  9. Effect of duty-cycles on the air plasma gas-phase of dielectric barrier discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barni, R.; Biganzoli, I.; Dell'Orto, E. C.; Riccardi, C.

    2015-10-01

    An experimental investigation concerning the effects of a duty-cycle in the supply of a dielectric barrier discharge in atmospheric pressure air has been performed. Electrical characteristics of the discharge have been measured, focusing mainly on the statistical properties of the current filaments and on dielectric surface charging, both affected by the frequent repetition of breakdown imposed by the duty-cycle. Information on the gas-phase composition was gathered too. In particular, a strong enhancement in the ozone formation rate is observed when suitable long pauses separate the active discharge phases. A simulation of the chemical kinetics in the gas-phase, based on a simplified discharge modeling, is briefly described in order to shed light on the observed increase in ozone production. The effect of a duty-cycle on surface modification of polymeric films in order to increase their wettability has been investigated too.

  10. Life is a self-organizing machine driven by the informational cycle of Brillouin.

    PubMed

    Michel, Denis

    2013-04-01

    Acquiring information is indisputably energy-consuming and conversely, the availability of information permits greater efficiency. Strangely, the scientific community long remained reluctant to establish a physical equivalence between the abstract notion of information and sensible thermodynamics. However, certain physicists such as Szilard and Brillouin proposed: (i) to give to information the status of a genuine thermodynamic entity (k B T ln2 joules/bit) and (ii) to link the capacity of storing information inferred from correlated systems, to that of indefinitely increasing organization. This positive feedback coupled to the self-templating molecular potential could provide a universal basis for the spontaneous rise of highly organized structures, typified by the emergence of life from a prebiotic chemical soup. Once established, this mechanism ensures the longevity and robustness of life envisioned as a general system, by allowing it to accumulate and optimize microstate-reducing recipes, thereby giving rise to strong nonlinearity, decisional capacity and multistability. Mechanisms possibly involved in priming this cycle are proposed.

  11. Thermo-economic comparative analysis of gas turbine GT10 integrated with air and steam bottoming cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaja, Daniel; Chmielnak, Tadeusz; Lepszy, Sebastian

    2014-12-01

    A thermodynamic and economic analysis of a GT10 gas turbine integrated with the air bottoming cycle is presented. The results are compared to commercially available combined cycle power plants based on the same gas turbine. The systems under analysis have a better chance of competing with steam bottoming cycle configurations in a small range of the power output capacity. The aim of the calculations is to determine the final cost of electricity generated by the gas turbine air bottoming cycle based on a 25 MW GT10 gas turbine with the exhaust gas mass flow rate of about 80 kg/s. The article shows the results of thermodynamic optimization of the selection of the technological structure of gas turbine air bottoming cycle and of a comparative economic analysis. Quantities are determined that have a decisive impact on the considered units profitability and competitiveness compared to the popular technology based on the steam bottoming cycle. The ultimate quantity that can be compared in the calculations is the cost of 1 MWh of electricity. It should be noted that the systems analyzed herein are power plants where electricity is the only generated product. The performed calculations do not take account of any other (potential) revenues from the sale of energy origin certificates. Keywords: Gas turbine air bottoming cycle, Air bottoming cycle, Gas turbine, GT10

  12. Analyzing the evolutionary mechanisms of the Air Transportation System-of-Systems using network theory and machine learning algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotegawa, Tatsuya

    Complexity in the Air Transportation System (ATS) arises from the intermingling of many independent physical resources, operational paradigms, and stakeholder interests, as well as the dynamic variation of these interactions over time. Currently, trade-offs and cost benefit analyses of new ATS concepts are carried out on system-wide evaluation simulations driven by air traffic forecasts that assume fixed airline routes. However, this does not well reflect reality as airlines regularly add and remove routes. A airline service route network evolution model that projects route addition and removal was created and combined with state-of-the-art air traffic forecast methods to better reflect the dynamic properties of the ATS in system-wide simulations. Guided by a system-of-systems framework, network theory metrics and machine learning algorithms were applied to develop the route network evolution models based on patterns extracted from historical data. Constructing the route addition section of the model posed the greatest challenge due to the large pool of new link candidates compared to the actual number of routes historically added to the network. Of the models explored, algorithms based on logistic regression, random forests, and support vector machines showed best route addition and removal forecast accuracies at approximately 20% and 40%, respectively, when validated with historical data. The combination of network evolution models and a system-wide evaluation tool quantified the impact of airline route network evolution on air traffic delay. The expected delay minutes when considering network evolution increased approximately 5% for a forecasted schedule on 3/19/2020. Performance trade-off studies between several airline route network topologies from the perspectives of passenger travel efficiency, fuel burn, and robustness were also conducted to provide bounds that could serve as targets for ATS transformation efforts. The series of analysis revealed that high

  13. Analyzing the possibility of constructing the air heating system for an integrated solid fuel gasification combined-cycle power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikula, V. A.; Ryzhkov, A. F.; Val'tsev, N. V.

    2015-11-01

    Combined-cycle power plants operating on solid fuel have presently been implemented only in demonstration projects. One of possible ways for improving such plants consists in making a shift to hybrid process circuits of integrated gasification combined-cycle plants with external firing of solid fuel. A high-temperature air heater serving to heat compressed air is a key element of the hybrid process circuit. The article describes application of a high-temperature recuperative metal air heater in the process circuit of an integrated gasification combined-cycle power plant (IGCC). The available experience with high-temperature air heating is considered, and possible air heater layout arrangements are analyzed along with domestically produced heat-resistant grades of steel suitable for manufacturing such air heater. An alternative (with respect to the traditional one) design is proposed, according to which solid fuel is fired in a noncooled furnace extension, followed by mixing the combustion products with recirculation gases, after which the mixture is fed to a convective air heater. The use of this design makes it possible to achieve considerably smaller capital outlays and operating costs. The data obtained from thermal and aerodynamic calculations of the high-temperature air heater with a thermal capacity of 258 MW for heating air to a temperature of up to 800°C for being used in the hybrid process circuit of a combined-cycle power plant are presented.

  14. Life-cycle CO{sub 2} emissions for air-blown gasification combined-cycle using selexol

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, R.D.; Molburg, J.C.; Thimmapuram, P.; Berry, G.F.; Livengood, C.D.

    1993-06-01

    Initiatives to limit carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions have drawn considerable interest to integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power generation. With its higher efficiency, this process can reduce CO{sub 2} production. It is also amenable to CO{sub 2} capture, because CO{sub 2} Can be removed before combustion and the associated dilution with atmospheric nitrogen. This paper presents a process-design baseline that encompasses the IGCC system, CO{sub 2} transport -by pipeline, and land-based sequestering of CO{sub 2} in geological reservoirs. The intent of this study is to provide the CO{sub 2} budget, or an ``equivalent CO{sub 2}`` budget, associated with each of the individual energy-cycle steps. Design capital and operating costs for the process are included in the fill study but are not reported in the present paper. The value used for the equivalent CO{sub 2} budget will be 1 kg CO{sub 2}/kWh{sub e}. The base case is a 470-MW (at the busbar) IGCC system using an air-blown Kellogg Rust Westinghouse (KRW) agglomerating fluidized-bed gasifier, US Illinois {number_sign}6 bituminous coal feed, and in-bed sulfur removal. Mining, feed preparation, and conversion result in a net electric power production of 461 MW, with a CO{sub 2} release rate of 0.830 kg/kWh{sub e}. In the CO{sub 2} recovery case, the gasifier output is taken through water-gas shift and then to Selexol, a glycol-based absorber-stripper process that recovers CO{sub 2} before it enters the combustion turbine. This process results in 350 MW at the busbar.

  15. A testing machine for dental air-turbine handpiece characteristics: free-running speed, stall torque, bearing resistance.

    PubMed

    Darvell, Brain W; Dyson, J E

    2005-01-01

    The measurement of performance characteristics of dental air turbine handpieces is of interest with respect to product comparisons, standards specifications and monitoring of bearing longevity in clinical service. Previously, however, bulky and expensive laboratory equipment was required. A portable test machine is described for determining three key characteristics of dental air-turbine handpieces: free-running speed, stall torque and bearing resistance. It relies on a special circuit design for performing a hardware integration of a force signal with respect to rotational position, independent of the rate at which the turbine is allowed to turn during both stall torque and bearing resistance measurements. Free-running speed without the introduction of any imbalance can be readily monitored. From the essential linear relationship between torque and speed, dynamic torque and, hence, power, can then be calculated. In order for these measurements to be performed routinely with the necessary precision of location on the test stage, a detailed procedure for ensuring proper gripping of the handpiece is described. The machine may be used to verify performance claims, standard compliance checks should this be established as appropriate, monitor deterioration with time and usage in the clinical environment and for laboratory investigation of design development.

  16. Successive dehumidification/regeneration cycles by LiCL desiccant for air-conditioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzenada, S.; Kaabi, A. N.; Fraikin, L.; Léonard, A.

    2017-02-01

    Dehumidification by desiccant is a new application in air-conditioning system. This technology is providing important advantages in solving many problems and brings environmentally friendly products. Desiccants are natural substances that are capable of showing a strong attraction for water vapour and can be regenerated. They can undergo continuous cycles. An experimental study is carried out on successive phases of absorption/regeneration, during 7 days by using LiCl desiccant and on separate phases. The effect of climatic parameters on moisture removal rate and salt concentration on absorption and regeneration processes is discussed. The results show that higher air humidity gives a higher mass transfer potential then a higher moisture rate absorbed dm/dt. The decrease of salt concentration affects the dm/dt and vapour pressure. Also, these results show that at regeneration temperature, the amount of water desorbed is nearly equal to the amount of water absorbed (equilibrium condition) for a complete cycle. The amount of 7.87 mg of water vapor can be absorbed in the first hour of absorption cycle for 12.6144 mg at 50% of relative humidity, and 7.004mg for 36.31 mg of initial mass subjected at 70% RH. The LiCl desiccant is able to return to almost its original concentration 31.39% during regeneration phase. Also, LiCl desiccant is able to be regenerated at low temperature 40°C which can be easily obtained by using solar energy. Then, the LiCl is a good hygroscopic material for using in liquid desiccant air-conditioning system.

  17. Infrared pulse characterization using four-wave mixing inside a few cycle pulse filament in air

    SciTech Connect

    Marceau, Claude Thomas, Steven; Kassimi, Yacine; Gingras, Guillaume; Witzel, Bernd

    2014-02-03

    We demonstrate a four-wave mixing (FWM) technique to measure near- and mid-infrared (IR) laser pulse shapes in time domain. Few cycle 800 nm laser pulses were synchronized with the IR pulse and focused colinearly to generate a plasma filament in air. Second harmonic radiation around 400 nm was generated through FWM, with a yield proportional to the IR pulse intensity. Excellent signal to noise ratio was observed from 2.1 μm to 18 μm. With proper phase stabilization of the IR beam, this technique is a promising step toward direct electric field sensing of near-IR pulses in air.

  18. Monitoring of Plant Light/Dark Cycles Using Air-coupled Ultrasonic Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fariñas, M. D.; Sancho-Knapik, D.; Peguero-Pina, J.; Gil-Pelegrín, E.; Álvarez-Arenas, T. E. G.

    This work presents the application of a technique based on the excitation, sensing and spectral analysis of leaves thickness resonances using air-coupled and wide-band ultrasound to monitor variations in leaves properties due to the plant response along light/dark cycles. The main features of these resonances are determined by the tautness of the cells walls in such a way that small modifications produced by variations in the transpiration rate, stomata aperture or water potential have a direct effect on the thickness resonances that can be measured in a completely non-invasive and contactless way. Results show that it is possible to monitor leaves changes due to variations in light intensity along the diurnal cycle, moreover, the technique reveals differences in the leaf response for different species and also within the same species but for specimens grown under different conditions that present different cell structures at the tissue level.

  19. Study and Development of an Air Conditioning System Operating on a Magnetic Heat Pump Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Pao-Lien

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the design of a laboratory scale demonstration prototype of an air conditioning system operating on a magnetic heat pump cycle. Design parameters were selected through studies performed by a Kennedy Space Center (KSC) System Simulation Computer Model. The heat pump consists of a rotor turning through four magnetic fields that are created by permanent magnets. Gadolinium was selected as the working material for this demonstration prototype. The rotor was designed to be constructed of flat parallel disks of gadolinium with very little space in between. The rotor rotates in an aluminum housing. The laboratory scale demonstration prototype is designed to provide a theoretical Carnot Cycle efficiency of 62 percent and a Coefficient of Performance of 16.55.

  20. A theoretical study of limit cycle oscillations of plenum air cushions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinchey, M. J.; Sullivan, P. A.

    1981-11-01

    Air cushion vehicles (ACV) are prone to the occurrence of dynamic instabilities which frequently appear as stable finite amplitude oscillations. The aim of this work is to ascertain if the non-linearities characteristics of ACV dynamics generate limit cycle oscillations for cushion systems operating at conditions for which a linear theory predicts instability. The types of non-linearity that can occur are discussed, and an analysis is presented for a single cell flexible skirted plenum chamber constrained to move in pure heave only. Two cushion feed cases are considered: a plenum box supply and a duct. The results obtained by a Galerkin/describing function analysis are compared with those generated by a full numerical simulation. For the plenum box supply system, it is shown that the limit cycles can be suppressed by using a piston to introduce high frequency small amplitude volume oscillations into the plenum chamber.

  1. Engine Cycle Analysis of Air Breathing Microwave Rocket with Reed Valves

    SciTech Connect

    Fukunari, Masafumi; Komatsu, Reiji; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Arakawa, Yoshihiro; Katsurayama, Hiroshi

    2011-11-10

    The Microwave Rocket is a candidate for a low cost launcher system. Pulsed plasma generated by a high power millimeter wave beam drives a blast wave, and a vehicle acquires impulsive thrust by exhausting the blast wave. The thrust generation process of the Microwave Rocket is similar to a pulse detonation engine. In order to enhance the performance of its air refreshment, the air-breathing mechanism using reed valves is under development. Ambient air is taken to the thruster through reed valves. Reed valves are closed while the inside pressure is high enough. After the time when the shock wave exhausts at the open end, an expansion wave is driven and propagates to the thrust-wall. The reed valve is opened by the negative gauge pressure induced by the expansion wave and its reflection wave. In these processes, the pressure oscillation is important parameter. In this paper, the pressure oscillation in the thruster was calculated by CFD combined with the flux through from reed valves, which is estimated analytically. As a result, the air-breathing performance is evaluated using Partial Filling Rate (PFR), the ratio of thruster length to diameter L/D, and ratio of opening area of reed valves to superficial area {alpha}. An engine cycle and predicted thrust was explained.

  2. Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Li–Air Batteries: Lithium Metal Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Grande, Lorenzo; Paillard, Elie; Kim, Guk-Tae; Monaco, Simone; Passerini, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the electrochemical stability and lithium plating/stripping performance of N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Pyr14TFSI) are reported, by investigating the behavior of Li metal electrodes in symmetrical Li/electrolyte/Li cells. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements and galvanostatic cycling at different temperatures are performed to analyze the influence of temperature on the stabilization of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), showing that TFSI-based ionic liquids (ILs) rank among the best candidates for long-lasting Li–air cells. PMID:24815072

  3. Life Cycle Cost Analyses of U.S. Air Force Heating Plants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    1989. 31 ORNL/TM- 11146 internal Distribution 1. D. W. Burton 17. V. K. Wilkinson 2. E. C. Fox 18-20. J. M. Young 3 -7. F. P. Griffin 21. Central Research...required for the heating plant operation are assumed to follow the standard "bathtub" reliability curve as shown in Fig. 3 . The first three years of...ORNL/TM- 11146 NOAK RIDGE ~NATIONAL N LABORATORY Life-Cycle Cost Analyses of U.S.Air Force Heating Plants V. K. Wilkinson DTI * ~DI LECT A’roreve-3f

  4. Ionic liquid electrolytes for Li-air batteries: lithium metal cycling.

    PubMed

    Grande, Lorenzo; Paillard, Elie; Kim, Guk-Tae; Monaco, Simone; Passerini, Stefano

    2014-05-08

    In this work, the electrochemical stability and lithium plating/stripping performance of N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Pyr14TFSI) are reported, by investigating the behavior of Li metal electrodes in symmetrical Li/electrolyte/Li cells. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements and galvanostatic cycling at different temperatures are performed to analyze the influence of temperature on the stabilization of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), showing that TFSI-based ionic liquids (ILs) rank among the best candidates for long-lasting Li-air cells.

  5. Enhanced cycling stability of hybrid Li-air batteries enabled by ordered Pd3Fe intermetallic electrocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhiming; Li, Longjun; Manthiram, Arumugam; Goodenough, John B

    2015-06-17

    We report an ordered Pd3Fe intermetallic catalyst that exhibits significantly enhanced activity and durability for the oxygen reduction reaction under alkaline conditions. Ordered Pd3Fe enables a hybrid Li-air battery to exhibit the best reported full-cell cycling performance (220 cycles, 880 h).

  6. Biannual cycles of organochlorine pesticide enantiomers in arctic air suggest changing sources and pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidleman, T. F.; Jantunen, L. M.; Hung, H.; Ma, J.; Stern, G. A.; Rosenberg, B.; Racine, J.

    2014-09-01

    Air samples collected during 1994-2000 at the Canadian arctic air monitoring station Alert (82°30' N, 62°20' W) were analyzed by enantiospecific gas chromatography - mass spectrometry for α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), trans-chlordane (TC) and cis-chlordane (CC). Results were expressed as enantiomer fractions (EF = quantities of (+)/[(+) + (-)] enantiomers), where EFs = 0.5, <0.5 and >0.5 indicate racemic composition, and preferential depletion of (+) and (-) enantiomers, respectively. Long-term average EFs were close to racemic values for α-HCH (0.504 ± 0.004, n = 197) and CC (0.505 ± 0.004, n = 162), and deviated farther from racemic for TC (0.470 ± 0.013, n = 165). Digital filtration analysis revealed biannual cycles of lower α-HCH EFs in summer-fall and higher EFs in winter-spring. These cycles suggest volatilization of partially degraded α-HCH with EF < 0.5 from open water and advection to Alert during the warm season, and background transport of α-HCH with EF > 0.5 during the cold season. The contribution of sea-volatilized α-HCH was only 11% at Alert, vs. 32% at Resolute Bay (74.68° N, 94.90° W) in 1999. EFs of TC also followed biannual cycles of lower and higher values in the warm and cold seasons. These were in phase with low and high cycles of the TC/CC ratio (expressed as FTC = TC/(TC + CC)), which suggests greater contribution of microbially "weathered" TC in summer-fall vs. winter-spring. CC was closer to racemic than TC and displayed seasonal cycles only in 1997-1998. EF profiles are likely to change with rising contribution of secondary emission sources, weathering of residues in the environment, and loss of ice cover in the Arctic. Enantiomer-specific analysis could provide added forensic capability to air monitoring programs.

  7. Annual cycles of organochlorine pesticide enantiomers in Arctic air suggest changing sources and pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidleman, T. F.; Jantunen, L. M.; Hung, H.; Ma, J.; Stern, G. A.; Rosenberg, B.; Racine, J.

    2015-02-01

    Air samples collected during 1994-2000 at the Canadian Arctic air monitoring station Alert (82°30' N, 62°20' W) were analysed by enantiospecific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), trans-chlordane (TC) and cis-chlordane (CC). Results were expressed as enantiomer fractions (EF = peak areas of (+)/[(+) + (-)] enantiomers), where EFs = 0.5, < 0.5 and > 0.5 indicate racemic composition, and preferential depletion of (+) and (-) enantiomers, respectively. Long-term average EFs were close to racemic values for α -HCH (0.504 ± 0.004, n = 197) and CC (0.505 ± 0.004, n = 162), and deviated farther from racemic for TC (0.470 ± 0.013, n = 165). Digital filtration analysis revealed annual cycles of lower α-HCH EFs in summer-fall and higher EFs in winter-spring. These cycles suggest volatilization of partially degraded α-HCH with EF < 0.5 from open water and advection to Alert during the warm season, and background transport of α-HCH with EF > 0.5 during the cold season. The contribution of sea-volatilized α-HCH was only 11% at Alert, vs. 32% at Resolute Bay (74.68° N, 94.90° W) in 1999. EFs of TC also followed annual cycles of lower and higher values in the warm and cold seasons. These were in phase with low and high cycles of the TC/CC ratio (expressed as FTC = TC/(TC+CC)), which suggests greater contribution of microbially "weathered" TC in summer-fall versus winter-spring. CC was closer to racemic than TC and displayed seasonal cycles only in 1997-1998. EF profiles are likely to change with rising contribution of secondary emission sources, weathering of residues in the environment, and loss of ice cover in the Arctic. Enantiomer-specific analysis could provide added forensic capability to air monitoring programs.

  8. Development of a Prototype Flat Winding Machine for Winding Air Deployed Fiberoptic Cable.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-11

    98032 1.0 INTRODUCTION Glass fibers are being used as media for acoustic sensors based on optical phase change detection. Deployment of these fibers...involving Machine Design Engineers, Hughes Aircraft, and Navy personell is described. A summary of the technical objectives of the project as...understood through discussions with Navy personel since the award of the contract is included. A schedule showing the milestones to be accomplished during the

  9. Low-cycle fatigue of two austenitic alloys in hydrogen gas and air at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaske, C. E.; Rice, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    The low-cycle fatigue resistance of type 347 stainless steel and Hastelloy Alloy X was evaluated in constant-amplitude, strain-controlled fatigue tests conducted under continuous negative strain cycling at a constant strain rate of 0.001 per sec and at total axial strain ranges of 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 percent in both hydrogen gas and laboratory air environments in the temperature range 538-871 C. Elevated-temperature, compressive-strain hold-time experiments were also conducted. In hydrogen, the cyclic stress-strain behavior of both materials at 538 C was characterized by appreciable cyclic hardening at all strain ranges. At 871 C neither material hardened significantly; in fact, at 5% strain range 347 steel showed continuous cyclic softening until failure. The fatigue resistance of 347 steel was slightly higher than that of Alloy X at all temperatures and strain ranges. Ten-minute compressive hold time experiments at 760 and 871 C resulted in increased fatigue lives for 347 steel and decreased fatigue lives for Alloy X. Both alloys showed slightly lower fatigue resistance in air than in hydrogen. Some fractographic and metallographic results are also given.

  10. Performance and cycle life of carbon- and conductive-based air electrodes for rechargeable Zn-air battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chellapandi Velraj, Samgopiraj

    The development of high-performance, cyclically stable bifunctional air electrodes are critical to the commercial deployment of rechargeable Zn-air batteries. The carbon material predominantly used as support material in the air electrodes due to its higher surface area and good electrical conductivity suffers from corrosion at high oxygen evolution overpotentials. This study addresses the carbon corrosion issues and suggests alternate materials to replace the carbon as support in the air electrode. In this study, Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO3-delta with good electrochemical performance and cyclic lifetime was identified as an alternative catalyst material to the commonly used La0.4Ca 0.6CoO3 catalyst for the carbon-based bifunctional electrodes. Also, a comprehensive study on the effects of catalyst morphology, testing conditions on the cycle life as well as the relevant degradation mechanism for the carbon-based electrode was conducted in this dissertation. The cyclic life of the carbon-based electrodes was strongly dependent on the carbon support material, while the degradation mechanisms were entirely controlled by the catalyst particle size/morphology. Some testing conditions like resting time and electrolyte concentration did not change the cyclic life or degradation mechanism of the carbon-based electrode. The current density used for cyclic testing was found to dictate the degradation mechanism leading to the electrode failure. An alternate way to circumvent the carbon corrosion is to replace the carbon support with a suitable electrically-conductive ceramic material. In this dissertation, LaNi0.9Mn0.1O3, LaNi 0.8Co0.2O3, and NiCo2O4 were synthesized and evaluated as prospective support materials due to their good electrical conductivity and their ability to act as the catalyst needed for the bifunctional electrode. The carbon-free electrodes had remarkably higher catalytic activity for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) when compared to the carbon-based electrode. However

  11. Daily Cycle of Air Temperature and Surface Temperature in Stone Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Li, Y.; Wang, X.; Yuan, M.

    2013-12-01

    Urbanization is one of the most profound human activities that impact on climate change. In cities, where are highly artificial areas, the conflict between human activity and natural climate is particularly prominent. Urban areas always have the larger area of impervious land, the higher consumption of greenhouse gases, more emissions of anthropogenic heat and air pollution, all contribute to the urban warming phenomena. Understanding the mechanisms causing a variety of phenomena involved in the urban warming is critical to distinguish the anthropogenic effect and natural variation in the climate change. However, the exact dynamics of urban warming were poorly understood, and effective control strategies are not available. Here we present a study of the daily cycle of air temperature and surface temperature in Stone Forest. The specific heat of the stones in the Stone Forest and concrete of the man-made structures within the cities are approximate. Besides, the height of the Stone Forest and the height of buildings within the city are also similar. As a scenic area, the Stone Forest is being preserved and only opened for sightseeing. There is no anthropogenic heat, as well air pollution within the Stone Forest. The thermal environment in Stone Forest can be considered to be a simulation of thermal environment in the city, which can reveal the effect of man-made structures on urban thermal environment. We conducted the field studies and numerical analysis in the Stone Forest for 4 typical urban morphology and environment scenarios, including high-rise compact cities, low-rise sparse cities, garden cities and isolated single stone. Air temperature and relative humidity were measured every half an hour in 15 different locations, which within different spatial distribution of stones and can represent the four urban scenarios respectively. At the same time, an infrared camera was used to take thermal images and get the hourly surface temperatures of stones and

  12. Life-cycle assessment of selected management options for air pollution control residues from waste incineration.

    PubMed

    Fruergaard, Thilde; Hyks, Jiri; Astrup, Thomas

    2010-09-15

    Based on available technology and emission data seven selected management options for air-pollution-control (APC) residues from waste incineration were evaluated by life-cycle assessment (LCA) using the EASEWASTE model. Scenarios were evaluated with respect to both non-toxicity impact categories (e.g. global warming) and toxicity related impact categories (e.g. ecotoxicity and human toxicity). The assessment addressed treatment and final placement of 1 tonne of APC residue in seven scenarios: 1) direct landfilling without treatment (baseline), 2) backfilling in salt mines, 3) neutralization of waste acid, 4) filler material in asphalt, 5) Ferrox stabilization, 6) vitrification, and 7) melting with automobile shredder residues (ASR). The management scenarios were selected as examples of the wide range of different technologies available worldwide while at the same time using realistic technology data. Results from the LCA were discussed with respect to importance of: energy consumption/substitution, material substitution, leaching, air emissions, time horizon aspects for the assessment, and transportation distances. The LCA modeling showed that thermal processes were associated with the highest loads in the non-toxicity categories (energy consumption), while differences between the remaining alternatives were small and generally considered insignificant. In the toxicity categories, all treatment/utilization options were significantly better than direct landfilling without treatment (lower leaching), although the thermal processes had somewhat higher impacts than the others options (air emissions). Transportation distances did not affect the overall ranking of the management alternatives.

  13. Development and Performance Evaluation of an Ozone-Contained Ice Making Machine Employing Pressurized Air Tight Containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Kenji; Akiyama, Tomoaki; Hirofuji, Yushi; Koyama, Shigeru

    Ozone has the capability of sterilization and deodorization due to high oxidation power. It is also effective for the conservation of perishable foods and purification of water. However, ozone has a disadvantage, that is, conservation of ozone is difficult because it reacts to oxygen. Recently, ozone-contained ice is taken attention for the purpose of its conservation. The use of ozone-contained ice seems to keep food fresher when we conserve and transport perishable foods due to the effects of cooling and sterilization of ozone-contained ice. In the present study, we have developed an ozone-contained ice making machine employing pressurized air tight containers with commercially available size. And the performance evaluation of the system is also carried out. Furthermore, we investigated the sterilization effect of ozone-contained ice on conservation of fish. It was seen that ozone-contained ice is effective for sterilization of surface of fish.

  14. Prediction of DC Corona Onset Voltage for Rod-Plane Air Gaps by a Support Vector Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shuo; Ruan, Jiangjun; Du, Zhiye; Zhu, Lin; Shu, Shengwen

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposes a new method to predict the corona onset voltage for a rod-plane air gap, based on the support vector machine (SVM). Because the SVM is not limited by the size, dimension and nonlinearity of the samples, this method can realize accurate prediction with few training data. Only electric field features are chosen as the input; no geometric parameter is included. Therefore, the experiment data of one kind of electrode can be used to predict the corona onset voltages of other electrodes with different sizes. With the experimental data obtained by ozone detection technology, and experimental data provided by the reference, the efficiency of the proposed method is validated. Accurate predicted results with an average relative less than 3% are obtained with only 6 experimental data. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51477120)

  15. Utilizing Crowdsourced Data for Studies of Cycling and Air Pollution Exposure: A Case Study Using Strava Data.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yeran; Mobasheri, Amin

    2017-03-08

    With the development of information and communications technology, user-generated content and crowdsourced data are playing a large role in studies of transport and public health. Recently, Strava, a popular website and mobile app dedicated to tracking athletic activity (cycling and running), began offering a data service called Strava Metro, designed to help transportation researchers and urban planners to improve infrastructure for cyclists and pedestrians. Strava Metro data has the potential to promote studies of cycling and health by indicating where commuting and non-commuting cycling activities are at a large spatial scale (street level and intersection level). The assessment of spatially varying effects of air pollution during active travel (cycling or walking) might benefit from Strava Metro data, as a variation in air pollution levels within a city would be expected. In this paper, to explore the potential of Strava Metro data in research of active travel and health, we investigate spatial patterns of non-commuting cycling activities and associations between cycling purpose (commuting and non-commuting) and air pollution exposure at a large scale. Additionally, we attempt to estimate the number of non-commuting cycling trips according to environmental characteristics that may help identify cycling behavior. Researchers who are undertaking studies relating to cycling purpose could benefit from this approach in their use of cycling trip data sets that lack trip purpose. We use the Strava Metro Nodes data from Glasgow, United Kingdom in an empirical study. Empirical results reveal some findings that (1) when compared with commuting cycling activities, non-commuting cycling activities are more likely to be located in outskirts of the city; (2) spatially speaking, cyclists riding for recreation and other purposes are more likely to be exposed to relatively low levels of air pollution than cyclists riding for commuting; and (3) the method for estimating of the

  16. Utilizing Crowdsourced Data for Studies of Cycling and Air Pollution Exposure: A Case Study Using Strava Data

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yeran; Mobasheri, Amin

    2017-01-01

    With the development of information and communications technology, user-generated content and crowdsourced data are playing a large role in studies of transport and public health. Recently, Strava, a popular website and mobile app dedicated to tracking athletic activity (cycling and running), began offering a data service called Strava Metro, designed to help transportation researchers and urban planners to improve infrastructure for cyclists and pedestrians. Strava Metro data has the potential to promote studies of cycling and health by indicating where commuting and non-commuting cycling activities are at a large spatial scale (street level and intersection level). The assessment of spatially varying effects of air pollution during active travel (cycling or walking) might benefit from Strava Metro data, as a variation in air pollution levels within a city would be expected. In this paper, to explore the potential of Strava Metro data in research of active travel and health, we investigate spatial patterns of non-commuting cycling activities and associations between cycling purpose (commuting and non-commuting) and air pollution exposure at a large scale. Additionally, we attempt to estimate the number of non-commuting cycling trips according to environmental characteristics that may help identify cycling behavior. Researchers who are undertaking studies relating to cycling purpose could benefit from this approach in their use of cycling trip data sets that lack trip purpose. We use the Strava Metro Nodes data from Glasgow, United Kingdom in an empirical study. Empirical results reveal some findings that (1) when compared with commuting cycling activities, non-commuting cycling activities are more likely to be located in outskirts of the city; (2) spatially speaking, cyclists riding for recreation and other purposes are more likely to be exposed to relatively low levels of air pollution than cyclists riding for commuting; and (3) the method for estimating of the

  17. Controlled-force end seal arrangement for an air press of a papermaking machine

    DOEpatents

    Beck, David A.

    2003-07-08

    An air press for pressing a fiber web includes a plurality of rolls and a pair of end seal arrangements. Of the plurality of rolls, each pair of adjacent rolls forms a nip therebetween. Further, each roll has a pair of roll ends, the plurality of rolls together forming two sets of roll ends. Each end seal arrangement coacts with one set of roll ends, the plurality of rolls and the pair of end seal arrangements together defining an air press chamber having an air chamber pressure. Each end seal arrangement is composed of at least one roll seal, including a first roll seal, and an adjustable bias mechanism. Each roll seal forms a seal with at least one roll end, and one side of the first roll seal being exposed to the air chamber pressure. The adjustable bias mechanism is configured for controlling a position of each roll seal relative to a respective at least one roll end and for adjusting a seal force between the roll seal and the respective at least one roll end.

  18. Influence of number of dental autoclave treatment cycles on rotational performance of commercially available air-turbine handpieces.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Masahiro; Takakuda, Kazuo

    2006-06-01

    The influence of number of autoclave treatment cycles (N) on rotational speed and total indicated run-out of commercially available air-turbine handpieces from five manufacturers was investigated at N=0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 cycles, and the significance in the test results was assessed by Dunnett's multiple comparison test. Some air-turbine handpieces showed the significant differences in rotational speed at N=300 cycles, however, the decreases of the rotational speeds were only 1 to 3.5 percent. Some air-turbine handpieces showed the significant differences in total indicated run-out, however, the respective values were smaller than that at N=0 cycle. Accordingly, it can be considered that the ball bearing in the air-turbine handpieces is not affected significantly by autoclave. To further evaluate rotational performance, this study focused on the rotational vibration of the ball bearing components of the air-turbine, as measured by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis; the power spectra of frequency of the ball's revolution, frequency of the cage's rotation and frequency of the ball's rotation were comparatively investigated at N=0, 150 and 300 cycles, and the influence of autoclave was evaluated qualitatively. No abnormalities in the ball bearings were recognized.

  19. Effect of Gas/Steam Turbine Inlet Temperatures on Combined Cycle Having Air Transpiration Cooled Gas Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Singh, O.

    2012-10-01

    Worldwide efforts are being made for further improving the gas/steam combined cycle performance by having better blade cooling technology in topping cycle and enhanced heat recovery in bottoming cycle. The scope of improvement is possible through turbines having higher turbine inlet temperatures (TITs) of both gas turbine and steam turbine. Literature review shows that a combined cycle with transpiration cooled gas turbine has not been analyzed with varying gas/steam TITs. In view of above the present study has been undertaken for thermodynamic study of gas/steam combined cycle with respect to variation in TIT in both topping and bottoming cycles, for air transpiration cooled gas turbine. The performance of combined cycle with dual pressure heat recovery steam generator has been evaluated for different cycle pressure ratios (CPRs) varying from 11 to 23 and the selection diagrams presented for TIT varying from 1,600 to 1,900 K. Both the cycle efficiency and specific work increase with TIT for each pressure ratio. For each TIT there exists an optimum pressure ratio for cycle efficiency and specific work. For the CPR of 23 the best cycle performance is seen at a TIT of 1,900 K for maximum steam temperature of 570 °C, which gives the cycle efficiency of 60.9 % with net specific work of 909 kJ/kg.

  20. Few-cycle pulse laser-induced damage of thin films in air and vacuum ambience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafka, Kyle R. P.; Talisa, Noah; Tempea, Gabriel; Austin, Drake R.; Neacsu, Catalin; Chowdhury, Enam A.

    2016-12-01

    Laser-induced damage mechanisms were investigated for an ultra-broadband chirped mirror, as part of a systematic study of few-cycle pulse laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of widely-used ultra-broadband optics, in vacuum and in air, for single and multi-pulse regimes (S-on-1). Microscopic analysis of damage morphology suggests that three different damage mechanisms occur across the fluence range 0.15-0.4J/cm2, while no ablation was yet observed. The three regimes resulted in shallow swelling (< 10 nm tall), tall blistering ( 150 nm tall), and annular blistering (damage suppressed at highest intensity, forming a ring shape). Descriptions of the potential mechanisms are discussed.

  1. Air core notch-coil magnet with variable geometry for fast-field-cycling NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruber, S.; Farrher, G. D.; Anoardo, E.

    2015-10-01

    In this manuscript we present details on the optimization, construction and performance of a wide-bore (71 mm) α -helical-cut notch-coil magnet with variable geometry for fast-field-cycling NMR. In addition to the usual requirements for this kind of magnets (high field-to-power ratio, good magnetic field homogeneity, low inductance and resistance values) a tunable homogeneity and a more uniform heat dissipation along the magnet body are considered. The presented magnet consists of only one machined metallic cylinder combined with two external movable pieces. The optimal configuration is calculated through an evaluation of the magnetic flux density within the entire volume of interest. The magnet has a field-to-current constant of 0.728 mT/A, allowing to switch from zero to 0.125 T in less than 3 ms without energy storage assistance. For a cylindrical sample volume of 35 cm3 the effective magnet homogeneity is lower than 130 ppm.

  2. Air core notch-coil magnet with variable geometry for fast-field-cycling NMR.

    PubMed

    Kruber, S; Farrher, G D; Anoardo, E

    2015-10-01

    In this manuscript we present details on the optimization, construction and performance of a wide-bore (71 mm) α-helical-cut notch-coil magnet with variable geometry for fast-field-cycling NMR. In addition to the usual requirements for this kind of magnets (high field-to-power ratio, good magnetic field homogeneity, low inductance and resistance values) a tunable homogeneity and a more uniform heat dissipation along the magnet body are considered. The presented magnet consists of only one machined metallic cylinder combined with two external movable pieces. The optimal configuration is calculated through an evaluation of the magnetic flux density within the entire volume of interest. The magnet has a field-to-current constant of 0.728 mT/A, allowing to switch from zero to 0.125 T in less than 3 ms without energy storage assistance. For a cylindrical sample volume of 35 cm(3) the effective magnet homogeneity is lower than 130 ppm.

  3. Valuation of plug-in vehicle life-cycle air emissions and oil displacement benefits

    PubMed Central

    Michalek, Jeremy J.; Chester, Mikhail; Jaramillo, Paulina; Samaras, Constantine; Shiau, Ching-Shin Norman; Lave, Lester B.

    2011-01-01

    We assess the economic value of life-cycle air emissions and oil consumption from conventional vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs), and battery electric vehicles in the US. We find that plug-in vehicles may reduce or increase externality costs relative to grid-independent HEVs, depending largely on greenhouse gas and SO2 emissions produced during vehicle charging and battery manufacturing. However, even if future marginal damages from emissions of battery and electricity production drop dramatically, the damage reduction potential of plug-in vehicles remains small compared to ownership cost. As such, to offer a socially efficient approach to emissions and oil consumption reduction, lifetime cost of plug-in vehicles must be competitive with HEVs. Current subsidies intended to encourage sales of plug-in vehicles with large capacity battery packs exceed our externality estimates considerably, and taxes that optimally correct for externality damages would not close the gap in ownership cost. In contrast, HEVs and PHEVs with small battery packs reduce externality damages at low (or no) additional cost over their lifetime. Although large battery packs allow vehicles to travel longer distances using electricity instead of gasoline, large packs are more expensive, heavier, and more emissions intensive to produce, with lower utilization factors, greater charging infrastructure requirements, and life-cycle implications that are more sensitive to uncertain, time-sensitive, and location-specific factors. To reduce air emission and oil dependency impacts from passenger vehicles, strategies to promote adoption of HEVs and PHEVs with small battery packs offer more social benefits per dollar spent. PMID:21949359

  4. Valuation of plug-in vehicle life-cycle air emissions and oil displacement benefits.

    PubMed

    Michalek, Jeremy J; Chester, Mikhail; Jaramillo, Paulina; Samaras, Constantine; Shiau, Ching-Shin Norman; Lave, Lester B

    2011-10-04

    We assess the economic value of life-cycle air emissions and oil consumption from conventional vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs), and battery electric vehicles in the US. We find that plug-in vehicles may reduce or increase externality costs relative to grid-independent HEVs, depending largely on greenhouse gas and SO(2) emissions produced during vehicle charging and battery manufacturing. However, even if future marginal damages from emissions of battery and electricity production drop dramatically, the damage reduction potential of plug-in vehicles remains small compared to ownership cost. As such, to offer a socially efficient approach to emissions and oil consumption reduction, lifetime cost of plug-in vehicles must be competitive with HEVs. Current subsidies intended to encourage sales of plug-in vehicles with large capacity battery packs exceed our externality estimates considerably, and taxes that optimally correct for externality damages would not close the gap in ownership cost. In contrast, HEVs and PHEVs with small battery packs reduce externality damages at low (or no) additional cost over their lifetime. Although large battery packs allow vehicles to travel longer distances using electricity instead of gasoline, large packs are more expensive, heavier, and more emissions intensive to produce, with lower utilization factors, greater charging infrastructure requirements, and life-cycle implications that are more sensitive to uncertain, time-sensitive, and location-specific factors. To reduce air emission and oil dependency impacts from passenger vehicles, strategies to promote adoption of HEVs and PHEVs with small battery packs offer more social benefits per dollar spent.

  5. Integrating Human Indoor Air Pollutant Exposure within Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hellweg, Stefanie; Demou, Evangelia; Bruzzi, Raffaella; Meijer, Arjen; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2008-12-21

    Neglecting health effects from indoor pollutant emissions and exposure, as currently done in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), may result in product or process optimizations at the expense of workers? or consumers? health. To close this gap, methods for considering indoor exposure to chemicals are needed to complement the methods for outdoor human exposure assessment already in use. This paper summarizes the work of an international expert group on the integration of human indoor and outdoor exposure in LCA, within the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative. A new methodological framework is proposed for a general procedure to include human-health effects from indoor exposure in LCA. Exposure models from occupational hygiene and household indoor air quality studies and practices are critically reviewed and recommendations are provided on the appropriateness of various model alternatives in the context of LCA. A single-compartment box model is recommended for use as a default in LCA, enabling one to screen occupational and household exposures consistent with the existing models to assess outdoor emission in a multimedia environment. An initial set of model parameter values was collected. The comparison between indoor and outdoor human exposure per unit of emission shows that for many pollutants, intake per unit of indoor emission may be several orders of magnitude higher than for outdoor emissions. It is concluded that indoor exposure should be routinely addressed within LCA.

  6. Using Machine learning method to estimate Air Temperature from MODIS over Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzban, F.; Preusker, R.; Sodoudi, S.; Taheri, H.; Allahbakhshi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is defined as the temperature of the interface between the Earth's surface and its atmosphere and thus it is a critical variable to understand land-atmosphere interactions and a key parameter in meteorological and hydrological studies, which is involved in energy fluxes. Air temperature (Tair) is one of the most important input variables in different spatially distributed hydrological, ecological models. The estimation of near surface air temperature is useful for a wide range of applications. Some applications from traffic or energy management, require Tair data in high spatial and temporal resolution at two meters height above the ground (T2m), sometimes in near-real-time. Thus, a parameterization based on boundary layer physical principles was developed that determines the air temperature from remote sensing data (MODIS). Tair is commonly obtained from synoptic measurements in weather stations. However, the derivation of near surface air temperature from the LST derived from satellite is far from straight forward. T2m is not driven directly by the sun, but indirectly by LST, thus T2m can be parameterized from the LST and other variables such as Albedo, NDVI, Water vapor and etc. Most of the previous studies have focused on estimating T2m based on simple and advanced statistical approaches, Temperature-Vegetation index and energy-balance approaches but the main objective of this research is to explore the relationships between T2m and LST in Berlin by using Artificial intelligence method with the aim of studying key variables to allow us establishing suitable techniques to obtain Tair from satellite Products and ground data. Secondly, an attempt was explored to identify an individual mix of attributes that reveals a particular pattern to better understanding variation of T2m during day and nighttime over the different area of Berlin. For this reason, a three layer Feedforward neural networks is considered with LMA algorithm

  7. Open-air type plasma chemical vaporization machining by applying pulse-width modulation control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Yoshiki; Hata, Yuki; Endo, Katsuyoshi; Yamamura, Kazuya

    2014-03-01

    Photolithography techniques have been used to enable the low-cost and high-speed transfer of a pattern onto a silicon wafer. However, owing to the high integration of semiconductors, extreme ultraviolet will be increasingly used as the exposure light source and all optics must be reflective to focus light because the wavelength of the light will be so short that it cannot pass through a lens. The form accuracy of reflective optics affects the accuracy of transfer, and a flatness of less than 32 nm on a 6 inch photomask substrate is required according to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors roadmap. Plasma chemical vaporization machining is an ultraprecise figuring technique that enables a form accuracy of nanometre order to be obtained. In our previous study, the removal volume was controlled by changing the scanning speed of the worktable. However, a discrepancy between the theoretical scanning speed and the actual scanning speed occurred owing to the inertia of the worktable when the change in speed was rapid. As an attempt to resolve this issue, we controlled the removal volume by controlling the electric power applied during plasma generation while maintaining a constant scanning speed. The methods that we adapted to control the applied electric power were amplitude-modulation (AM) control and pulse-width modulation (PWM) control. In this work, we evaluate the controllability of the material removal rate in the AM and PWM control modes.

  8. Study on computer controlled polishing machine with small air bag tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Ni, Ying; Yu, Jing-chi

    2007-12-01

    Laser and infrared optical technologies are developed quickly recently. Small aspheric lens of φ30 to 100mm which are normally used in such optical systems are largely demanded. But computer controlled polishing technology for small batch-quantity aspheric lens is a bottle-neck technology to prevent the development of laser and infrared optical technologies. In this article, the technology of computer controlled optical surfacing (CCOS) was used to solve the problems of batch-quantity aspheric lens' polishing. First, material's removing action by computer controlled small polishing tool is detailed simulated by computer. Then, According to the simulation result, polishing correction is completed after adjusting the function of tool's resident time. Finally the accuracy of 70 mm aspheric lens (Surface shape measurement value is 0.45μm, roughness measurement value is 2.687nm) is achieved under efficient polishing with our home made model computer controlled polishing machine which has three universal driving shafts. Efficiency of small aspheric lens' batch-quantity manufacturing is remarkably improved.

  9. Interim Report: Air-Cooled Condensers for Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants Improved Binary Cycle Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel S. Wendt; Greg L. Mines

    2010-09-01

    As geothermal resources that are more expensive to develop are utilized for power generation, there will be increased incentive to use more efficient power plants. This is expected to be the case with Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) resources. These resources will likely require wells drilled to depths greater than encountered with hydrothermal resources, and will have the added costs for stimulation to create the subsurface reservoir. It is postulated that plants generating power from these resources will likely utilize the binary cycle technology where heat is rejected sensibly to the ambient. The consumptive use of a portion of the produced geothermal fluid for evaporative heat rejection in the conventional flash-steam conversion cycle is likely to preclude its use with EGS resources. This will be especially true in those areas where there is a high demand for finite supplies of water. Though they have no consumptive use of water, using air-cooling systems for heat rejection has disadvantages. These systems have higher capital costs, reduced power output (heat is rejected at the higher dry-bulb temperature), increased parasitics (fan power), and greater variability in power generation on both a diurnal and annual basis (larger variation in the dry-bulb temperature). This is an interim report for the task ‘Air-Cooled Condensers in Next- Generation Conversion Systems’. The work performed was specifically aimed at a plant that uses commercially available binary cycle technologies with an EGS resource. Concepts were evaluated that have the potential to increase performance, lower cost, or mitigate the adverse effects of off-design operation. The impact on both cost and performance were determined for the concepts considered, and the scenarios identified where a particular concept is best suited. Most, but not all, of the concepts evaluated are associated with the rejection of heat. This report specifically addresses three of the concepts evaluated: the use of

  10. Cross-directional interlocking of rolls in an air press of a papermaking machine

    DOEpatents

    Beck, David A.; Gorshe, Thomas

    2003-05-13

    An air press for pressing a paper web is composed of a plurality of rolls including at least a first roll and a second roll. The first roll and the second roll are positioned adjacent one another and form a first nip therebetween. Further, the first roll and the second roll each have a roll end, the roll end of the first roll adjoining the roll end of the second roll. A bevel plate is attached to the roll end of the first roll, the bevel plate having at least a first angled plate face. A seal ring is positioned adjacent the roll end of the second roll, the seal ring being juxtaposed to the bevel plate. The seal ring has at least a first angled ring face, and the first angled ring face mates with the first angled plate face.

  11. Ontology for Life-Cycle Modeling of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Systems: Experimental Applications Using Revit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Center, Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (ERDC-CERL) has developed a core life- cycle building information model ( BIM ) based on three...was to promote consistency and quality of content created for Building Information Models ( BIMs ) across various disciplines. The HVAC MVD was...MVD. 15. SUBJECT TERMS building information modeling ( BIM ), ontology, Army facilities, heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems

  12. High cycle fatigue behavior of implant Ti-6Al-4V in air and simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-jie; Cui, Shi-ming; He, Chao; Li, Jiu-kai; Wang, Qing-yuan

    2014-01-01

    Ti-6Al-4V implants that function as artificial joints are usually subjected to long-term cyclic loading. To study long-term fatigue behaviors of implant Ti-6Al-4V in vitro and in vivo conditions exceeding 107 cycles, constant stress amplitude fatigue experiments were carried out at ultrasonic frequency (20 kHz) with two different surface conditions (ground and polished) in ambient air and in a simulated body fluid. The initiation mechanisms of fatigue cracks were investigated with scanning electron microscopy. Improvement of fatigue strength is pronounced for polished specimens below 106 cycles in ambient air since fatigue cracks are initiated from surfaces of specimens. While the cycles exceed 106, surface conditions have no effect on fatigue behaviors because the defects located within the specimens become favorable sites for crack initiation. The endurance limit at 108 cycles of polished Ti-6Al-4V specimens decreases by 7% if it is cycled in simulated body fluid instead of ambient air. Fracture surfaces show that fatigue failure is initiated from surfaces in simulated body fluid. Surface improvement has a beneficial effect on fatigue behaviors of Ti-6Al-4V at high stress amplitudes. The fatigue properties of Ti-6Al-4V deteriorate and the mean endurance limits decrease significantly in simulated body fluid.

  13. Air-Sea Exchange and Atmospheric Cycling of Mercury in South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, C. M.; Liu, C. S.; Lamborg, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    Limited knowledge exists concerning the role of the low-latitude marginal seas in mercury (Hg) emissions on a global scale, especially tropical-subtropical and monsoon-dominated marginal seas in East Asia. To assess this potential mobilization of Hg through air-sea gas exchange, we have determined the dissolved elemental Hg (DEM) and gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) concentrations in surface seawater and atmosphere, respectively, during seasonal oceanographic cruises to the SouthEast Asian Time-series Study (SEATS) station (18 oN, 116 oE) from 2003 to 2007. The sampling and analysis of GEM and DEM were performed on board ship by using an on-line mercury analyzer (GEMA). Over the SCS, the GEM concentrations are elevated 2-3 times above global background values, with higher enhancements in the winter when the northeast monsoon draws air from China. The impact of long-range transport, as controlled by seasonal monsoons, has on the Hg atmospheric distribution and cycling in the SCS. The DEM concentration varied seasonally, with a high in summer and a low in winter and showed a positive correlation with sea surface temperature (SST). The elevated DEM concentration in summer appears mainly abiologically driven. In winter, the SCS acts as a sink of atmosphere Hg0 as a result of low SST and high wind of the year, enhanced vertical mixing and elevated atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury. Annually, the SCS serves as a source of Hg0 to the atmosphere of 300±50 pmol m-2 d-1 (390±60 kmol Hg y-1, ~2.6% of global emission in ~1% of global ocean area), suggesting high regional Hg pollution impacts from the surrounding Mainland (mostly China).

  14. Solar Cycle and Anthropogenic Forcing of Surface-Air Temperature at Armagh Observatory, Northern Ireland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    A comparison of 10-yr moving average (yma) values of Armagh Observatory (Northern Ireland) surface-air temperatures with selected solar cycle indices (sunspot number (SSN) and the Aa geomagnetic index (Aa)), sea-surface temperatures in the Nino 3.4 region, and Mauna Loa carbon dioxide (CO2) (MLCO2) atmospheric concentration measurements reveals a strong correlation (r = 0.686) between the Armagh temperatures and Aa, especially, prior to about 1980 (r = 0.762 over the interval of 1873-1980). For the more recent interval 1963-2003, the strongest correlation (r = 0.877) is between Armagh temperatures and MLCO2 measurements. A bivariate fit using both Aa and Mauna Loa values results in a very strong fit (r = 0.948) for the interval 1963-2003, and a trivariate fit using Aa, SSN, and Mauna Loa values results in a slightly stronger fit (r = 0.952). Atmospheric CO2 concentration now appears to be the stronger driver of Armagh surface-air temperatures. An increase of 2 C above the long-term mean (9.2 C) at Armagh seems inevitable unless unabated increases in anthropogenic atmospheric gases can be curtailed. The present growth in 10-yma Armagh temperatures is about 0.05 C per yr since 1982. The present growth in MLCO2 is about 0.002 ppmv, based on an exponential fit using 10-yma values, although the growth appears to be steepening, thus, increasing the likelihood of deleterious effects attributed to global warming.

  15. Dynamic evaluation of a regional air quality model: Assessing the emissions-induced weekly ozone cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Thomas; Hogrefe, Christian; Trivikrama Rao, S.; Porter, P. Steven; Ku, Jia-Yeong

    2010-09-01

    Air quality models are used to predict changes in pollutant concentrations resulting from envisioned emission control policies. Recognizing the need to assess the credibility of air quality models in a policy-relevant context, we perform a dynamic evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system for the "weekend ozone effect" to determine if observed changes in ozone due to weekday-to-weekend (WDWE) reductions in precursor emissions can be accurately simulated. The weekend ozone effect offers a unique opportunity for dynamic evaluation, as it is a widely documented phenomenon that has persisted since the 1970s. In many urban areas of the Unites States, higher ozone has been observed on weekends than weekdays, despite dramatically reduced emissions of ozone precursors (nitrogen oxides [NO x] and volatile organic compounds [VOCs]) on weekends. More recent measurements, however, suggest shifts in the spatial extent or reductions in WDWE ozone differences. Using 18 years (1988-2005) of observed and modeled ozone and temperature data across the northeastern United States, we re-examine the long-term trends in the weekend effect and confounding factors that may be complicating the interpretation of this trend and explore whether CMAQ can replicate the temporal features of the observed weekend effect. The amplitudes of the weekly ozone cycle have decreased during the 18-year period in our study domain, but the year-to-year variability in weekend minus weekday (WEWD) ozone amplitudes is quite large. Inter-annual variability in meteorology appears to influence WEWD differences in ozone, as well as WEWD differences in VOC and NO x emissions. Because of the large inter-annual variability, modeling strategies using a single episode lasting a few days or a few episodes in a given year may not capture the WEWD signal that exists over longer time periods. The CMAQ model showed skill in predicting the absolute values of ozone concentrations during the

  16. Air--Sea CO2 Cycling in the Southeastern Beaufort Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Else, Brent Gordon Thomas

    During the fourth International Polar Year, an interdisciplinary study was conducted to examine the couplings between sea ice, ocean, atmosphere, and ecosystem in the southeastern Beaufort Sea. This thesis examines components of the system that control the air-sea exchange of carbon dioxide. Using eddy covariance measurements, we found enhanced CO2 exchange associated with new ice formation in winter flaw leads. This exchange was typically directed towards the surface, although we also measured one instance of outgassing. Sea surface dissolved CO2 measurements (pCO 2sw) in Amundsen Gulf showed significant undersaturation with respect to the atmosphere at freeze-up, followed by a slow increase over the winter until spring phytoplankton blooms caused strong undersaturation at break-up. Over the summer, pCO2sw increased until becoming slightly supersaturated due to surface warming. Along the southern margins of Amundsen Gulf and on the Mackenzie Shelf we found pCO2sw supersaturations in the fall due to wind-driven coastal upwelling. In the spring, this upwelling occurred along the landfast ice edges of Amundsen Gulf. By combining observations of enhanced winter gas exchange with observations of pCO 2sw in Amundsen Gulf, we derived an annual budget of air-sea CO2 exchange for the region. This exercise showed that uptake through the winter season was as important as the open water season, making the overall annual uptake of CO2 about double what had previously been calculated. Prior to this work, the prevailing paradigm of airsea CO2 cycling in Arctic polynya regions posited that strong CO2 absorption occurs in the open water seasons, and that a potential outgassing during the winter is inhibited by the sea ice cover. As a new paradigm, we propose that the spatial and temporal variability of many processes---including phytoplankton blooms, sea surface temperature and salinity changes, upwelling, river input, continental shelf processes, and the potential for high rates

  17. Nuclear Air-Brayton Combined Cycle Power Conversion Design, Physical Performance Estimation and Economic Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreades, Charalampos

    The combination of an increased demand for electricity for economic development in parallel with the widespread push for adoption of renewable energy sources and the trend toward liberalized markets has placed a tremendous amount of stress on generators, system operators, and consumers. Non-guaranteed cost recovery, intermittent capacity, and highly volatile market prices are all part of new electricity grids. In order to try and remediate some of these effects, this dissertation proposes and studies the design and performance, both physical and economic, of a novel power conversion system, the Nuclear Air-Brayton Combined Cycle (NACC). The NACC is a power conversion system that takes a conventional industrial frame type gas turbine, modifies it to accept external nuclear heat at 670°C, while also maintaining its ability to co-fire with natural gas to increase temperature and power output at a very quick ramp rate. The NACC addresses the above issues by allowing the generator to gain extra revenue through the provision of ancillary services in addition to energy payments, the grid operator to have a highly flexible source of capacity to back up intermittent renewable energy sources, and the consumer to possibly see less volatile electricity prices and a reduced probability of black/brown outs. This dissertation is split into six sections that delve into specific design and economic issues related to the NACC. The first section describes the basic design and modifications necessary to create a functional externally heated gas turbine, sets a baseline design based upon the GE 7FB, and estimates its physical performance under nominal conditions. The second section explores the off-nominal performance of the NACC and characterizes its startup and shutdown sequences, along with some of its safety measures. The third section deals with the power ramp rate estimation of the NACC, a key performance parameter in a renewable-heavy grid that needs flexible capacity. The

  18. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  19. Workout Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Orbotron is a tri-axle exercise machine patterned after a NASA training simulator for astronaut orientation in the microgravity of space. It has three orbiting rings corresponding to roll, pitch and yaw. The user is in the middle of the inner ring with the stomach remaining in the center of all axes, eliminating dizziness. Human power starts the rings spinning, unlike the NASA air-powered system. Marketed by Fantasy Factory (formerly Orbotron, Inc.), the machine can improve aerobic capacity, strength and endurance in five to seven minute workouts.

  20. Applied physiology of cycling.

    PubMed

    Faria, I E

    1984-01-01

    Historically, the bicycle has evolved through the stages of a machine for efficient human transportation, a toy for children, a finely-tuned racing machine, and a tool for physical fitness development, maintenance and testing. Recently, major strides have been made in the aerodynamic design of the bicycle. These innovations have resulted in new land speed records for human powered machines. Performance in cycling is affected by a variety of factors, including aerobic and anaerobic capacity, muscular strength and endurance, and body composition. Bicycle races range from a 200m sprint to approximately 5000km. This vast range of competitive racing requires special attention to the principle of specificity of training. The physiological demands of cycling have been examined through the use of bicycle ergometers, rollers, cycling trainers, treadmill cycling, high speed photography, computer graphics, strain gauges, electromyography, wind tunnels, muscle biopsy, and body composition analysis. These techniques have been useful in providing definitive data for the development of a work/performance profile of the cyclist. Research evidence strongly suggests that when measuring the cyclist's aerobic or anaerobic capacity, a cycling protocol employing a high pedalling rpm should be used. The research bicycle should be modified to resemble a racing bicycle and the cyclist should wear cycling shoes. Prolonged cycling requires special nutritional considerations. Ingestion of carbohydrates, in solid form and carefully timed, influences performance. Caffeine appears to enhance lipid metabolism. Injuries, particularly knee problems which are prevalent among cyclists, may be avoided through the use of proper gearing and orthotics. Air pollution has been shown to impair physical performance. When pollution levels are high, training should be altered or curtailed. Effective training programmes simulate competitive conditions. Short and long interval training, blended with long

  1. Performance analysis of a bio-gasification based combined cycle power plant employing indirectly heated humid air turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, S.; Mondal, P.; Ghosh, S.

    2016-07-01

    Rapid depletion of fossil fuel has forced mankind to look into alternative fuel resources. In this context, biomass based power generation employing gas turbine appears to be a popular choice. Bio-gasification based combined cycle provides a feasible solution as far as grid-independent power generation is concerned for rural electrification projects. Indirectly heated gas turbine cycles are promising alternatives as they avoid downstream gas cleaning systems. Advanced thermodynamic cycles have become an interesting area of study to improve plant efficiency. Water injected system is one of the most attractive options in this field of applications. This paper presents a theoretical model of a biomass gasification based combined cycle that employs an indirectly heated humid air turbine (HAT) in the topping cycle. Maximum overall electrical efficiency is found to be around 41%. Gas turbine specific air consumption by mass is minimum when pressure ratio is 6. The study reveals that, incorporation of the humidification process helps to improve the overall performance of the plant.

  2. A spatially and temporally explicit life cycle inventory of air pollutants from gasoline and ethanol in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tessum, Christopher W; Marshall, Julian D; Hill, Jason D

    2012-10-16

    The environmental health impacts of transportation depend in part on where and when emissions occur during fuel production and combustion. Here we describe spatially and temporally explicit life cycle inventories (LCI) of air pollutants from gasoline, ethanol derived from corn grain, and ethanol from corn stover. Previous modeling for the U.S. by Argonne National Laboratory (GREET: Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) suggested that life cycle emissions are generally higher for ethanol from corn grain or corn stover than for gasoline. Our results show that for ethanol, emissions are concentrated in the Midwestern "Corn Belt". We find that life cycle emissions from ethanol exhibit different temporal patterns than from gasoline, reflecting seasonal aspects of farming activities. Enhanced chemical speciation beyond current GREET model capabilities is also described. Life cycle fine particulate matter emissions are higher for ethanol from corn grain than for ethanol from corn stover; for black carbon, the reverse holds. Overall, our results add to existing state-of-the-science transportation fuel LCI by providing spatial and temporal disaggregation and enhanced chemical speciation, thereby offering greater understanding of the impacts of transportation fuels on human health and opening the door to advanced air dispersion modeling of fuel life cycles.

  3. 20130416_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Vanderhoff, Alex

    2013-04-24

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 4/16/13.

  4. Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data 20130731

    DOE Data Explorer

    Vanderhoff, Alex

    2013-08-30

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 7/1/13 to 7/31/13.

  5. 20140430_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Thibedeau, Joe

    2014-05-05

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 01 April to 30 April 2014.

  6. Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Vanderhoff, Alex

    2013-07-15

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 6/1/13 to 6/30/13

  7. [Life support of the Mars exploration crew. Control of a zeolite system for carbon dioxide removal from space cabin air within a closed air regeneration cycle].

    PubMed

    Chekov, Iu F

    2009-01-01

    The author describes a zeolite system for carbon dioxide removal integrated into a closed air regeneration cycle aboard spacecraft. The continuous operation of a double-adsorbent regeneration system with pCO2-dependable productivity is maintained through programmable setting of adsorption (desorption) semicycle time. The optimal system regulation curve is presented within the space of statistical performance family obtained in quasi-steady operating modes with controlled parameters of the recurrent adsorption-desorption cycle. The automatically changing system productivity ensures continuous intake of concentrated CO2. Control of the adsorption-desorption process is based on calculation of the differential adsorption (desorption) heat from gradient of adsorbent and test inert substance temperatures. The adaptive algorithm of digital control is implemented through the standard spacecraft interface with the board computer system and programmable microprocessor-based controllers.

  8. Dynamic Evaluation of a Regional Air Quality Model: Assessing the Emissions-Induced Weekly Ozone Cycle

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality models are used to predict changes in pollutant concentrations resulting from envisioned emission control policies. Recognizing the need to assess the credibility of air quality models in a policy-relevant context, we perform a dynamic evaluation of the community Mult...

  9. Municipal solid waste management health risk assessment from air emissions for China by applying life cycle analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Nitivattananon, Vilas; Li, Peng

    2015-05-01

    This study is to quantify and objectively evaluate the extent of environmental health risks from three waste treatment options suggested by the national municipal solid waste management enhancing strategy (No [2011] 9 of the State Council, promulgated on 19 April 2011), which includes sanitary landfill, waste-to-energy incineration and compost, together with the material recovery facility through a case study in Zhangqiu City of China. It addresses potential chronic health risks from air emissions to residential receptors in the impacted area. It combines field survey, analogue survey, design documents and life cycle inventory methods in defining the source strength of chemicals of potential concern. The modelling of life cycle inventory and air dispersion is via integrated waste management(IWM)-2 and Screening Air Dispersion Model (Version 3.0) (SCREEN3). The health risk assessment is in accordance with United States Environmental Protection Agency guidance Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS), Volume I: Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part F, Supplemental Guidance for Inhalation Risk Assessment). The exposure concentration is based on long-term exposure to the maximum ground level contaminant in air under the 'reasonable worst situation' emissions and then directly compared with reference for concentration and unit risk factor/cancer slope factor derived from the national air quality standard (for a conventional pollutant) and toxicological studies (for a specific pollutant). Results from this study suggest that the option of compost with material recovery facility treatment may pose less negative health impacts than other options; the sensitivity analysis shows that the landfill integrated waste management collection rate has a great influence on the impact results. Further investigation is needed to validate or challenge the findings of this study.

  10. Evaluation of cleaning and disinfection performance of automatic washer disinfectors machines in programs presenting different cycle times and temperatures.

    PubMed

    Bergo, Maria do Carmo Noronha Cominato

    2006-01-01

    Thermal washer-disinfectors represent a technology that brought about great advantages such as, establishment of protocols, standard operating procedures, reduction in occupational risk of a biological and environmental nature. The efficacy of the cleaning and disinfection obtained by automatic washer disinfectors machines in running programs with different times and temperatures determined by the different official agencies was validated according to recommendations from ISO Standards 15883-1/1999 and HTM2030 (NHS Estates, 1997) for the determining of the Minimum Lethality and DAL both theoretically and through the use with thermocouples. In order to determine the cleaning efficacy, the Soil Test, Biotrace Pro-tect and the Protein Test Kit were used. The procedure to verify the CFU count of viable microorganisms was performed before and after the thermal disinfection. This article shows that the results are in compliance with the ISO and HTM Standards. The validation steps confirmed the high efficacy level of the Medical Washer-Disinfectors. This protocol enabled the evaluation of the procedure based on evidence supported by scientific research, aiming at the support of the Supply Center multi-professional personnel with information and the possibility of developing further research.

  11. Effect of air-entry angle on performance of a 2-stroke-cycle compression-ignition engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Earle, Sherod L; Dutee, Francis J

    1937-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine the effect of variations in the horizontal and vertical air-entry angles on the performance characteristics of a single-cylinder 2-stroke-cycle compression-ignition test engine. Performance data were obtained over a wide range of engine speed, scavenging pressure, fuel quantity, and injection advance angle with the optimum guide vanes. Friction and blower-power curves are included for calculating the indicated and net performances. The optimum horizontal air-entry angle was found to be 60 degrees from the radial and the optimum vertical angle to be zero, under which conditions a maximum power output of 77 gross brake horsepower for a specific fuel consumption of 0.52 pound per brake horsepower-hour was obtained at 1,800 r.p.m. and 16-1/2 inches of Hg scavenging pressure. The corresponding specific output was 0.65 gross brake horsepower per cubic inch of piston displacement. Tests revealed that the optimum scavenging pressure increased linearly with engine speed. The brake mean effective pressure increased uniformly with air quantity per cycle for any given vane angle and was independent of engine speed and scavenging pressure.

  12. Stability of amine-functionalized cellulose during temperature-vacuum-swing cycling for CO2 capture from air.

    PubMed

    Gebald, Christoph; Wurzbacher, Jan A; Tingaut, Philippe; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2013-09-03

    The stability of amine-functionalized nanofibrilated cellulose sorbent for direct air capture of CO2 is investigated during temperature-vacuum-swing (TVS) cycling. The presence of O2 at 90 °C degrades the sorbent, reducing its CO2 adsorption capacity by 30% after 15 h of treatment in moist air with a dew point of 22 °C. In contrast, exposure to moist CO2 at 90 °C with a dew point of 22 °C does not deteriorate its CO2 adsorption capacity after 15 h. Performing 100 TVS consecutive cycles, with CO2 adsorption from ambient air containing 400-530 ppm CO2 at 30 °C and 60% relative humidity and with CO2 desorption at 90 °C and 30 mbar, resulted in a reduction of the equilibrium CO2 adsorption capacity by maximum 5%. The average CO2 adsorption capacity during TVS cyclic operation is 0.90 mmol CO2/g.

  13. Effects of the 7-8-year cycle in daily mean air temperature as a cross-scale information transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jajcay, Nikola; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Paluš, Milan

    2015-04-01

    Using a novel nonlinear time-series analysis method, an information transfer from larger to smaller scales of the air temperature variability has been observed in daily mean surface air temperature (SAT) data from European stations as the influence of the phase of slow oscillatory phenomena with periods around 6-11 years on amplitudes of the variability characterized by smaller temporal scales from a few months to 4-5 years [1]. The strongest effect is exerted by an oscillatory mode with the period close to 8 years and its influence can be seen in 1-2 °C differences of the conditional SAT means taken conditionally on the phase of the 8-year cycle. The size of this effect, however, changes in space and time. The changes in time are studied using sliding window technique, showing that the effect evolves in time, and during the last decades the effect is stronger and significant. Sliding window technique was used along with seasonal division of the data, and it has been found that the cycle is most pronounced in the winter season. Different types of surrogate data are applied in order to establish statistical significance and distinguish the effect of the 7-8-yr cycle from climate variability on shorter time scales. [1] M. Palus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 078702 (2014) This study is supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic within the Program KONTAKT II, Project No. LH14001.

  14. The Role of the Cytoskeleton in the Life Cycle of Viruses and Intracellular Bacteria: Tracks, Motors, and Polymerization Machines

    PubMed Central

    Bearer, E.L.; Satpute-Krishnan, P.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in microbiology implicate the cytoskeleton in the life cycle of some pathogens, such as intracellular bacteria, Rickettsia and viruses. The cellular cytoskeleton provides the basis for intracellular movements such as those that transport the pathogen to and from the cell surface to the nuclear region, or those that produce cortical protrusions that project the pathogen outwards from the cell surface towards an adjacent cell. Transport in both directions within the neuron is required for pathogens such as the herpesviruses to travel to and from the nucleus and perinuclear region where replication takes place. This trafficking is likely to depend on cellular motors moving on a combination of microtubule and actin filament tracks. Recently, Bearer et al. reconstituted retrograde transport of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in the giant axon of the squid. These studies identified the tegument proteins as the viral proteins most likely to recruit retrograde motors for the transport of HSV to the neuronal nucleus. Similar microtubule-based intracellular movements are part of the biological behavior of vaccinia, a poxvirus, and of adenovirus. Pathogen-induced surface projections and motility within the cortical cytoplasm also play a role in the life cycle of intracellular pathogens. Such motility is driven by pathogen-mediated actin polymerization. Virulence depends on this actin-based motility, since virulence is reduced in Listeria ActA mutants that lack the ability to recruit Arp2/3 and polymerize actin and in vaccinia virus mutants that cannot stimulate actin polymerization. Inhibition of intracellular movements provides a potential strategy to limit pathogenicity. The host cell motors and tracks, as well as the pathogen factors that interact with them, are potential targets for novel antimicrobial therapy. PMID:12462128

  15. Life-cycle-assessment of the historical development of air pollution control and energy recovery in waste incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Damgaard, Anders; Riber, Christian; Fruergaard, Thilde; Hulgaard, Tore; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2010-07-15

    Incineration of municipal solid waste is a debated waste management technology. In some countries it is the main waste management option whereas in other countries it has been disregarded. The main discussion point on waste incineration is the release of air emissions from the combustion of the waste, but also the energy recovery efficiency has a large importance. The historical development of air pollution control in waste incineration was studied through life-cycle-assessment modelling of eight different air pollution control technologies. The results showed a drastic reduction in the release of air emissions and consequently a significant reduction in the potential environmental impacts of waste incineration. Improvements of a factor 0.85-174 were obtained in the different impact potentials as technology developed from no emission control at all, to the best available emission control technologies of today (2010). The importance of efficient energy recovery was studied through seven different combinations of heat and electricity recovery, which were modelled to substitute energy produced from either coal or natural gas. The best air pollution control technology was used at the incinerator. It was found that when substituting coal based energy production total net savings were obtained in both the standard and toxic impact categories. However, if the substituted energy production was based on natural gas, only the most efficient recovery options yielded net savings with respect to the standard impacts. With regards to the toxic impact categories, emissions from the waste incineration process were always larger than those from the avoided energy production based on natural gas. The results shows that the potential environmental impacts from air emissions have decreased drastically during the last 35 years and that these impacts can be partly or fully offset by recovering energy which otherwise should have been produced from fossil fuels like coal or natural gas.

  16. Life-cycle-assessment of the historical development of air pollution control and energy recovery in waste incineration.

    PubMed

    Damgaard, Anders; Riber, Christian; Fruergaard, Thilde; Hulgaard, Tore; Christensen, Thomas H

    2010-07-01

    Incineration of municipal solid waste is a debated waste management technology. In some countries it is the main waste management option whereas in other countries it has been disregarded. The main discussion point on waste incineration is the release of air emissions from the combustion of the waste, but also the energy recovery efficiency has a large importance. The historical development of air pollution control in waste incineration was studied through life-cycle-assessment modelling of eight different air pollution control technologies. The results showed a drastic reduction in the release of air emissions and consequently a significant reduction in the potential environmental impacts of waste incineration. Improvements of a factor 0.85-174 were obtained in the different impact potentials as technology developed from no emission control at all, to the best available emission control technologies of today (2010). The importance of efficient energy recovery was studied through seven different combinations of heat and electricity recovery, which were modelled to substitute energy produced from either coal or natural gas. The best air pollution control technology was used at the incinerator. It was found that when substituting coal based energy production total net savings were obtained in both the standard and toxic impact categories. However, if the substituted energy production was based on natural gas, only the most efficient recovery options yielded net savings with respect to the standard impacts. With regards to the toxic impact categories, emissions from the waste incineration process were always larger than those from the avoided energy production based on natural gas. The results shows that the potential environmental impacts from air emissions have decreased drastically during the last 35 years and that these impacts can be partly or fully offset by recovering energy which otherwise should have been produced from fossil fuels like coal or natural gas.

  17. Generation of sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses by four-wave mixing through filamentation in air.

    PubMed

    Fuji, Takao; Suzuki, Toshinori

    2007-11-15

    Generation of sub-two-cycle, microjoule pulses in the mid-infrared region is demonstrated. Fundamental and second-harmonic pulses of 25 fs Ti:sapphire amplifier output were focused into the air to produce extremely broadband mid-infrared pulses by four-wave difference-frequency generation through the filamentation. The full width at half-maximum of the spectral bandwidth reaches one octave (2.5-5.5 microm), which is sufficiently broad for sub-single-cycle pulse generation. The pulse width was estimated to be 13 fs, without any compressors, by cross-correlation frequency resolved optical gating. The output energy of more than a few microjoule is sufficient for spectroscopy.

  18. Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Paulina; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2007-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in the coming decades the United States' natural gas (NG) demand for electricity generation will increase. Estimates also suggest that NG supply will increasingly come from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG). Additional supplies of NG could come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification-methanation. The objective of this study is to compare greenhouse gas (GHG), SOx, and NOx life-cycle emissions of electricity generated with NG/LNG/SNG and coal. This life-cycle comparison of air emissions from different fuels can help us better understand the advantages and disadvantages of using coal versus globally sourced NG for electricity generation. Our estimates suggest that with the current fleet of power plants, a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have lower GHG emissions than coal. If advanced technologies with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) are used, however, coal and a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have very similar life-cycle GHG emissions. For SOx and NOx we find there are significant emissions in the upstream stages of the NG/ LNG life-cycles, which contribute to a larger range in SOx and NOx emissions for NG/LNG than for coal and SNG.

  19. Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews

    2007-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in the coming decades the United States' natural gas (NG) demand for electricity generation will increase. Estimates also suggest that NG supply will increasingly come from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG). Additional supplies of NG could come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification-methanation. The objective of this study is to compare greenhouse gas (GHG), SOx, and NOx life-cycle emissions of electricity generated with NG/LNG/SNG and coal. This life-cycle comparison of air emissions from different fuels can help us better understand the advantages and disadvantages of using coal versus globally sourced NG for electricity generation. Our estimates suggest that with the current fleet of power plants, a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have lower GHG emissions than coal. If advanced technologies with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) are used, however, coal and a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have very similar life-cycle GHG emissions. For SOx and NOx we find there are significant emissions in the upstream stages of the NG/LNG life-cycles, which contribute to a larger range in SOx and NOx emissions for NG/LNG than for coal and SNG. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Effects of conventional machining on the high cycle fatigue strength and crack initiation sites of the gamma titanium aluminide alloy Ti-47Al-2Nb-2Cr (at%) at 23 and 760 C

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.E.; Eylon, D.

    1999-07-01

    Effects of a deformed surface layer, created by conventional machining, on the high cycle fatigue strength (10e6 cycles) and fatigue initiation sites of Ti-48Al-2Nb-2Cr (at%) were examined above and below the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature. All samples were tested to failure under the same step loading profile. Comparisons were made between samples having the same load history. At room temperature, fatigue strength and initiation sites were equivalent for turned and electropolished surface conditions. At the anticipated service temperature, 760 C, the work hardened layer created by turning quickly recrystallized. This fine recrystallized surface enhanced the fatigue crack initiation resistance of turned specimens when compared to coarse grained electropolished samples which did not recrystallize during the test. The severe surface deformation resulting from conventional machining did not impair the high cycle fatigue behavior of this intermetallic alloy under the conditions evaluated.

  1. Air-sea heat exchange, an element of the water cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chahine, M. T.

    1984-01-01

    The distribution and variation of water vapor, clouds and precipitation are examined. Principal driving forces for these distributions are energy exchange and evaporation at the air-sea interface, which are also important elements of air-sea interaction studies. The overall aim of air-sea interaction studies is to quantitatively determine mass, momentum and energy fluxes, with the goal of understanding the mechanisms controlling them. The results of general circulation simulations indicate that the atmosphere in mid-latitudes responds to changes in the oceanic surface conditions in the tropics. This correlation reflects the strong interaction between tropical and mid-latitude conditions caused by the transport of heat and momentum from the tropics. Studies of air-sea exchanges involve a large number of physica, chemical and dynamical processes including heat flux, radiation, sea-surface temperature, precipitation, winds and ocean currents. The fluxes of latent heat are studied and the potential use of satellite data in determining them evaluated. Alternative ways of inferring heat fluxes will be considered.

  2. Impact of Charge Degradation on the Life Cycle Climate Performance of a Residential Air-Conditioning System

    SciTech Connect

    Beshr, Mohamed; Aute, Vikrant; Abdelaziz, Omar; Fricke, Brian A; Radermacher, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Vapor compression systems continuously leak a small fraction of their refrigerant charge to the environment, whether during operation or servicing. As a result of the slow leak rate occurring during operation, the refrigerant charge decreases until the system is serviced and recharged. This charge degradation, after a certain limit, begins to have a detrimental effect on system capacity, energy consumption, and coefficient of performance (COP). This paper presents a literature review and a summary of previous experimental work on the effect of undercharging or charge degradation of different vapor compression systems, especially those without a receiver. These systems include residential air conditioning and heat pump systems utilizing different components and refrigerants, and water chiller systems. Most of these studies show similar trends for the effect of charge degradation on system performance. However, it is found that although much experimental work exists on the effect of charge degradation on system performance, no correlation or comparison between charge degradation and system performance yet exists. Thus, based on the literature review, three different correlations that characterize the effect of charge on system capacity and energy consumption are developed for different systems as follows: one for air-conditioning systems, one for vapor compression water-to-water chiller systems, and one for heat pumps. These correlations can be implemented in vapor compression cycle simulation tools to obtain a better prediction of the system performance throughout its lifetime. In this paper, these correlations are implemented in an open source tool for life cycle climate performance (LCCP) based design of vapor compression systems. The LCCP of a residential air-source heat pump is evaluated using the tool and the effect of charge degradation on the results is studied. The heat pump is simulated using a validated component-based vapor compression system model and

  3. Demand Controlled Economizer Cycles: A Direct Digital Control Scheme for Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Systems,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    includes a heating coil and thermostatic control to maintain the air in this path at an elevated temperature, typically around 80 degrees Farenheit (80 F...1238 Aug 1 1236 1237 52 1074 1126 50 1033 1083 Sep 8 8 5W 862 7T 600 678 75 603 7r Oct 51 400 451 119 204 323 115 207 322 ov 64 123 287 187 71 258

  4. Development of naval diesel engine duty cycles for air exhaust emission environmental impact analysis. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Markle, S.P.

    1994-05-01

    A strategy for testing naval diesel engines for exhaust emissions was developed. A survey of existing international and national standard diesel engine duty cycles was conducted. All were found to be inadequate for testing and certification of engine exhaust emissions from naval diesel powered ships. Naval ship data covering 11,500 hours of engine operation of four U.S. Navy LSD 41 Class amphibious ships was analyzed to develop a 27 point class operating profile. A procedure combining ship hull form characteristics, ship propulsion plant parameters, and ship operating profile was detailed to derive an 11-Mode duty cycle representative for testing LSD 41 Class propulsion diesel engines. A similar procedure was followed for ship service diesel engines. Comparisons with industry accepted duty cycles were conducted using exhaust emission contour plots for the Colt-Pielstick PC-4B diesel engines. Results showed the 11-Mode LSD 41 Class Duty Cycle best predicted ship propulsion engine emissions compared to the 27 point operating profile propeller curve. The procedure was applied to T-AO 187 Class with similar results. The application of civilian industry standards to measure naval diesel ship propulsion engine exhaust emissions was found to be inadequate. Engine exhaust flow chemistry post turbocharger was investigated using the SANDIA Lab computer tool CHEMKIN. Results showed oxidation and reduction reactions within exhaust gases are quenched in the exhaust stack. Since the exhaust stream in the stack is unreactive, emission sampling may be performed where most convenient. A proposed emission measurement scheme for LSD 41 Class ships was presented.

  5. Life cycle air emissions impacts and ownership costs of light-duty vehicles using natural gas as a primary energy source.

    PubMed

    Luk, Jason M; Saville, Bradley A; MacLean, Heather L

    2015-04-21

    This paper aims to comprehensively distinguish among the merits of different vehicles using a common primary energy source. In this study, we consider compressed natural gas (CNG) use directly in conventional vehicles (CV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and natural gas-derived electricity (NG-e) use in plug-in battery electric vehicles (BEV). This study evaluates the incremental life cycle air emissions (climate change and human health) impacts and life cycle ownership costs of non-plug-in (CV and HEV) and plug-in light-duty vehicles. Replacing a gasoline CV with a CNG CV, or a CNG CV with a CNG HEV, can provide life cycle air emissions impact benefits without increasing ownership costs; however, the NG-e BEV will likely increase costs (90% confidence interval: $1000 to $31 000 incremental cost per vehicle lifetime). Furthermore, eliminating HEV tailpipe emissions via plug-in vehicles has an insignificant incremental benefit, due to high uncertainties, with emissions cost benefits between -$1000 and $2000. Vehicle criteria air contaminants are a relatively minor contributor to life cycle air emissions impacts because of strict vehicle emissions standards. Therefore, policies should focus on adoption of plug-in vehicles in nonattainment regions, because CNG vehicles are likely more cost-effective at providing overall life cycle air emissions impact benefits.

  6. Water loss control using pressure management: life-cycle energy and air emission effects.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad; Sturm, Reinhard

    2013-10-01

    Pressure management is one cost-effective and efficient strategy for controlling water distribution losses. This paper evaluates the life-cycle energy use and emissions for pressure management zones in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Halifax, Nova Scotia. It compares water savings using fixed-outlet and flow-modulated pressure control to performance without pressure control, considering the embedded electricity and chemical consumption in the lost water, manufacture of pipe and fittings to repair breaks caused by excess pressure, and pressure management. The resulting energy and emissions savings are significant. The Philadelphia and Halifax utilities both avoid approximately 130 million liters in water losses annually using flow-modulated pressure management. The conserved energy was 780 GJ and 1900 GJ while avoided greenhouse gas emissions were 50 Mg and 170 Mg a year by Philadelphia and Halifax, respectively. The life-cycle financial and environmental performance of pressure management systems compares favorably to the traditional demand management strategy of installing low-flow toilets. The energy savings may also translate to cost-effective greenhouse gas emission reductions depending on the energy mix used, an important advantage in areas where water and energy are constrained and/or expensive and greenhouse gas emissions are regulated as in California, for example.

  7. A Life-Cycle Cost Estimating Methodology for NASA-Developed Air Traffic Control Decision Support Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jianzhong Jay; Datta, Koushik; Landis, Michael R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a life-cycle cost (LCC) estimating methodology for air traffic control Decision Support Tools (DSTs) under development by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), using a combination of parametric, analogy, and expert opinion methods. There is no one standard methodology and technique that is used by NASA or by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for LCC estimation of prospective Decision Support Tools. Some of the frequently used methodologies include bottom-up, analogy, top-down, parametric, expert judgement, and Parkinson's Law. The developed LCC estimating methodology can be visualized as a three-dimensional matrix where the three axes represent coverage, estimation, and timing. This paper focuses on the three characteristics of this methodology that correspond to the three axes.

  8. CPC air-blown integrated gasification combined cycle project. Quarterly report, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The overall project cost and schedule. The combustion turbine commercial operation date is scheduled for 7/1/95 with the combined cycle commercial operation date of 7/1/96. A two year demonstration period will commence after IGCC commercial operation. Details of costs on a total project and DOE Envelope basis along with detailed schedule components were covered. Major cost variances to date were discussed. The major variances this year relate to contracts which were anticipated to be finalized mid 1992 but which are not executed. These include GEESI, the ASU and key vessels. Some of these contracts are almost in place and others are scheduled for the first quarter 1993. Numerous project specifications, process flow diagrams, piping and instrument diagrams and other drawings have been reviewed and approved as part of the preliminary engineering process.

  9. Study of loading/air back-pulse cleaning cycles on the performance of ceramic membrane filters

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, Charles; Alderman, Steven; Parsons, Michael; Hogoncamp, Kristina; Alderman, Steven

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The most commonly identified threats to conventional glass fiber HEPA filter performance are moisture and rapid blinding of filters by smoke. Regenerable filter media composed of ceramics or sintered metal can be utilized as pre-filters to protect the more vulnerable glass fiber HEPA filters in the event of upset conditions. Additionally, used in a pre-filtering application, the use of these regenerable filters can potentially extend the lifetime of conventional units. A series of tests have been conducted using CeraMem ceramic membrane filters in an effort to evaluate their performance after repeated loading and air back pulse cleaning. This was done in an effort to access filter performance after repeated loading/cleaning cycles. The filters were loaded using a solid potassium chloride aerosol challenge. The filters were evaluated for pressure drop and filtering efficiency changes from one cleaning cycle to the next. Additionally, the particle size distribution of the aerosol penetrating the filters was measured. (authors)

  10. A Life Cycle Cost Analysis of the Proposed Replacement of Pope Air Force Base’s C-130E Fleet Using a Fleet Replacement Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    A LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS OF THE PROPOSED REPLACEMENT OF POPE AIR FORCE BASE’S C-130E FLEET USING A...Date 11 Mar 02 Report Type Final Dates Covered (from... to) Oct 2000 - Mar 2002 Title and Subtitle A Life Cycle Cost Analysis of the Proposed...a lack of spare parts, and structural problems, maintenance costs are rising at an exponential rate. Because of this, there may be a more cost

  11. Regionalized life cycle impact assessment of air pollution on the global scale: Damage to human health and vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Zelm, Rosalie; Preiss, Philipp; van Goethem, Thomas; Van Dingenen, Rita; Huijbregts, Mark

    2016-06-01

    We developed regionalized characterization factors (CFs) for human health damage from particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone, and for damage to vegetation from ozone, at the global scale. These factors can be used in the impact assessment phase of an environmental life cycle assessment. CFs express the overall damage of a certain pollutant per unit of emission of a precursor, i.e. primary PM2.5, nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH3), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). The global chemical transport model TM5 was used to calculate intake fractions of PM2.5 and ozone for 56 world regions covering the whole globe. Furthermore, region-specific effect and damage factors were derived, using mortality rates, background concentrations and years of life lost. The emission-weighted world average CF for primary PM2.5 emissions is 629 yr kton-1, varying up to 3 orders of magnitude over the regions. Larger CFs were obtained for emissions in central Asia and Europe, and smaller factors in Australia and South America. The world average CFs for PM2.5 from secondary aerosols, i.e. NOx, NH3, and SO2, is 67.2 to 183.4 yr kton-1. We found that the CFs for ozone human health damage are 2-4 orders of magnitude lower compared to the CFs for damage due to primary PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursor emissions. Human health damage due to the priority air pollutants considered in this study was 1.7·10-2 yr capita-1 worldwide in year 2010, with primary PM2.5 emissions as the main contributor (62%). The emission-weighted world average CF for ecosystem damage due to ozone was 2.5 km2 yr kton-1 for NMVOCs and 8.7 m2 yr kg-1 for NOx emissions, varying 2-3 orders of magnitude over the regions. Ecosystem damage due to the priority air pollutants considered in this study was 1.6·10-4 km2 capita-1 worldwide in 2010, with NOx as the main contributor (72%). The spatial range in CFs stresses the importance of including spatial variation in life cycle impact assessment of

  12. Mercury isotopes in a forested ecosystem: Implications for air-surface exchange dynamics and the global mercury cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, Jason D.; Blum, Joel D.; Zak, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Forests mediate the biogeochemical cycling of mercury (Hg) between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems; however, there remain many gaps in our understanding of these processes. Our objectives in this study were to characterize Hg isotopic composition within forests, and use natural abundance stable Hg isotopes to track sources and reveal mechanisms underlying the cycling of Hg. We quantified the stable Hg isotopic composition of foliage, forest floor, mineral soil, precipitation, and total gaseous mercury (THg(g)) in the atmosphere and in evasion from soil, in 10-year-old aspen forests at the Rhinelander FACE experiment in northeastern Wisconsin, USA. The effect of increased atmospheric CO2 and O3 concentrations on Hg isotopic composition was small relative to differences among forest ecosystem components. Precipitation samples had δ202Hg values of -0.74 to 0.06‰ and ∆199Hg values of 0.16 to 0.82‰. Atmospheric THg(g) had δ202Hg values of 0.48 to 0.93‰ and ∆199Hg values of -0.21 to -0.15‰. Uptake of THg(g) by foliage resulted in a large (-2.89‰) shift in δ202Hg values; foliage displayed δ202Hg values of -2.53 to -1.89‰ and ∆199Hg values of -0.37 to -0.23‰. Forest floor samples had δ202Hg values of -1.88 to -1.22‰ and ∆199Hg values of -0.22 to -0.14‰. Mercury isotopes distinguished geogenic sources of Hg and atmospheric derived sources of Hg in soil, and showed that precipitation Hg only accounted for ~16% of atmospheric Hg inputs. The isotopic composition of Hg evasion from the forest floor was similar to atmospheric THg(g); however, there were systematic differences in δ202Hg values and MIF of even isotopes (∆200Hg and ∆204Hg). Mercury evasion from the forest floor may have arisen from air-surface exchange of atmospheric THg(g), but was not the emission of legacy Hg from soils, nor re-emission of wet-deposition. This implies that there was net atmospheric THg(g) deposition to the forest soils. Furthermore, MDF of

  13. 20131101-1130_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Thibedeau, Joe

    2013-12-02

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 01 Nov to 30 Nov 2013.

  14. 20140101-0131_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Thibedeau, Joe

    2014-02-03

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 01 Jan to 31 Jan 2014.

  15. 20140501-0531_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Thibedeau, Joe

    2014-06-02

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 01 May to 31 May 2014.

  16. 20140201-0228_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Thibedeau, Joe

    2014-03-03

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 01 Feb to 28 Feb 2014.

  17. 20140301-0331_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Thibedeau, Joe

    2014-04-07

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 01 Mar to 31 Mar 2014.

  18. 20131201-1231_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Thibedeau, Joe

    2014-01-08

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 01 Dec to 31 Dec 2013.

  19. 20131001-1031_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Thibedeau, Joe

    2013-11-05

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 1 Oct 2013 to 31 Oct 2013.

  20. 20140701-0731_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Thibedeau, Joe

    2014-07-31

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 01 July to 31 July 2014.

  1. 20140601-0630_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Thibedeau, Joe

    2014-06-30

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 01 June to 30 June 2014.

  2. 20130501-20130531_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Vanderhoff, Alex

    2013-06-18

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from May 2013

  3. 20130901-0930_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Thibedeau, Joe

    2013-10-25

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 1 September 2013 to 30 September 2013.

  4. 20130801-0831_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Vanderhoff, Alex

    2013-09-10

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 8/1/13 to 8/31/13.

  5. Diurnal HO2 cycles at clean air and urban sites in the troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hard, T. M.; Chan, C. Y.; Mehrabzadeh, A. A.; O'Brien, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    HO2 concentrations at two Oregon sites were determined for continuous periods of 36 to 48 hours, using fluorescence assay with gas expansion. At the sea level coastal site, NNW winds prevailed during daytime, and a point measurement of very low total nonmethane hydrocarbon concentration indicated the presence of remote tropospheric air of oceanic origin. At the urban site, HO2 was determined during moderately low ozone pollution levels. At both sites, maximum daily (HO2) was in the range of 1-2 x 10 exp 8/cu cm under clear-sky conditions, with an estimated overall uncertainty of 40 percent. HO2 was detected by continuous low-pressure sampling with flowing chemical conversion to HO, which was detected by laser-excited fluorescence. The instrumental response to HO2 was calibrated by the self-decay of HO2 at atmospheric pressure. Interference in the measured daytime HO2 concentrations by RO2 was estimated at less than 20 percent.

  6. Organics in the atmosphere: From air pollution to biogeochemical cycles and climate (Vilhelm Bjerknes Medal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanakidou, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Organics are key players in the biosphere-atmosphere-climate interactions. They have also a significant anthropogenic component due to primary emissions or interactions with pollution. The organic pool in the atmosphere is a complex mixture of compounds of variable reactivity and properties, variable content in C, H, O, N and other elements depending on their origin and their history in the atmosphere. Multiphase atmospheric chemistry is known to produce organic acids with high oxygen content, like oxalic acid. This water soluble organic bi-acid is used as indicator for cloud processing and can form complexes with atmospheric Iron, affecting Iron solubility. Organics are also carriers of other nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus. They also interact with solar radiation and with atmospheric water impacting on climate. In line with this vision for the role of organics in the atmosphere, we present results from a global 3-dimensional chemistry-transport model on the role of gaseous and particulate organics in atmospheric chemistry, accounting for multiphase chemistry and aerosol ageing in the atmosphere as well as nutrients emissions, atmospheric transport and deposition. Historical simulations and projections highlight the human impact on air quality and atmospheric deposition to the oceans. The results are put in the context of climate change. Uncertainties and implications of our findings for biogeochemical and climate modeling are discussed.

  7. Very-High-Cycle-Fatigue of in-service air-engine blades, compressor and turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanyavskiy, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    In-service Very-High-Cycle-Fatigue (VHCF) regime of compressor vane and turbine rotor blades of the Al-based alloy VD-17 and superalloy GS6K, respectively, was considered. Surface crack origination occurred at the lifetime more than 1500 hours for vanes and after 550 hours for turbine blades. Performed fractographic investigations have shown that subsurface crack origination in vanes took place inspite of corrosion pittings on the blade surface. This material behavior reflected lifetime limit that was reached by the criterion VHCF. In superalloy GS6K subsurface fatigue cracking took place with the appearance of flat facet. This phenomenon was discussed and compared with specimens cracking of the same superalloy but prepared by the powder technology. In turbine blades VHCF regime appeared because of resonance of blades under the influenced gas stream. Both cases of compressor-vanes and turbine blades in-service cracking were discussed with crack growth period and stress equivalent estimations. Recommendations to continue aircrafts airworthiness were made for in-service blades.

  8. Modeled Seasonal Variations of Firn Density Induced by Steady State Surface Air Temperature Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jun, Li; Zwally, H. Jay; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Seasonal variations of firn density in ice-sheet firn layers have been attributed to variations in deposition processes or other processes within the upper firn. A recent high-resolution (mm scale) density profile, measured along a 181 m core from Antarctica, showed small-scale density variations with a clear seasonal cycle that apparently was not-related to seasonal variations in deposition or known near-surface processes (Gerland and others 1999). A recent model of surface elevation changes (Zwally and Li, submitted) produced a seasonal variation in firn densification, and explained the seasonal surface elevation changes observed by satellite radar altimeters. In this study, we apply our 1-D time-dependent numerical model of firn densification that includes a temperature-dependent formulation of firn densification based on laboratory measurements of grain growth. The model is driven by a steady-state seasonal surface temperature and a constant accumulation rate appropriate for the measured Antarctic ice core. The modeled seasonal variations in firn density show that the layers of snow deposited during spring to mid-summer with the highest temperature history compress to the highest density, and the layers deposited during later summer to autumn with the lowest temperature history compress to the lowest density. The initial amplitude of the seasonal difference of about 0.13 reduces to about 0.09 in five years and asymptotically to 0.92 at depth, which is consistent with the core measurements.

  9. Solar cycle signal in air temperature in North America - Amplitude, gradient, phase and distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    The considered investigation was motivated by three factors. One is related to an extension of single-channel MESA to multi-channel by Strand (1977), Morf et al. (1978), and Jones (1978). MESA is a high-resolution signal processing and spectrum analysis technique due to Burg (1975). The considered developments resulted in the discovery of the 11-year solar cycle signal in the change of the length of day by Currie (1980, 1981). They also led Currie (1981) to study the phase spectrum of the 11-year term in height H of sea level. The investigation tries to clarify the phase relations among the involved parameters. The second factor is connected with an application of the linear time domain technique used by Currie (1981) to temperature records to obtain more accurate information regarding the signal amplitude. The third factor of motivation is related to increases in the number of stations available for an analysis, the greater average length of the records, and the more accurate data set.

  10. Air pollutants and toxic emissions of various mileage motorcycles for ECE driving cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Huang, Pei-Hsiu; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2017-03-01

    Motorcycles were selected to determine their fuel consumption and exhaust emissions following ECE driving cycles. Exhaust constituents including CO2, CO, NOx, total hydrocarbons (THC) and hydrocarbon species (27 paraffins, 9 olefins, 16 aromatics and 15 carbonyls) were investigated for this work. The age of 10- 90% of the selected motorcycles ranged from 2.5 to 12.4 years, and their mileage ranged from 5400 to 39,300 km. CO emission ranged from 1.4 to 6.4 g/km (median value: 2.98 g/km), THC from 0.41 to 1.54 g/km (median value: 0.98 g/km), NOx from 0.16 to 0.28 g/km (median value: 0.21 g/km), CO2 from 58.9 to 62.2 g/km (median value: 60.5 g/km) and fuel consumption from 30.7 to 36.4 km/L (median value: 33.4 km/L), corresponding to the percentage cumulative data from 10 to 90% of the selected motorcycles. Results indicated that the motorcycle exhaust emission and fuel consumption depended on their mileage and ages. An increase in mileage of 1000 km resulted in an increase of 103 mg for CO emission and 14.7 mg for hydrocarbon emission and a reduction of 1.52 mg NOx emission and 0.11 km per liter fuel consumption. For various VOC groups, a mileage increase of 1000 km corresponding to the increased exhaust emission of paraffins was 6.71 mg, olefins 1.90 mg, aromatics 7.04 mg, carbonyls 0.283 mg and 67 VOC species 15.9 mg. Fuel consumption and emissions of CO and hydrocarbon increased in motorcycles over the guaranteed mileage of 15,000 km.

  11. Cycling of Lead Through Soil, Air, and Household Dust in El Paso, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingitore, N. E.; Clague, J.; Amaya, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    Elimination of leaded gasoline in the US is associated with a dramatic overall decrease in ambient lead in the environment and blood lead levels in our population. However, Pb is such a potent neurotoxin for children during the formative growth years that legislation for additional reduction of airborne lead levels is under consideration. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of a suite of samples of local (El Paso) soil, airborne particulate matter, and household dust reveals that lead humate is the dominant Pb species in these diverse environmental materials. Lead humate is a stable complex of Pb with the humus component of soil, a product of interaction between the humus and such introduced contaminant lead species as lead oxide, lead sulfate, etc. Because lead humate forms only in soil, we conclude that the source of the majority of the lead in El Paso's airborne particulate matter and household dust is local soils. Analysis of lead isotopes in selected samples is consistent with this conclusion. Re-entrainment of low-density (relative to most Pb species) humus soil particles is the apparent pathway from soil to air. Deposition of airborne particulate matter and pedal traction are the presumed mechanisms for transfer to household interiors. Reduction of airborne lead in El Paso by reducing input from its dominant local source may require extensive soil remediation, a tedious and expensive prospect. X-Ray absorption spectroscopy experiments were conducted at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory on beam lines 7-3, 10-2, and 11-2. Spectra were collected at the Pb L-III absorption edge in fluorescence mode using a 13-element or a 30-element Ge solid-state detector. This publication was made possible by grant numbers 1RO1-ES11367 and 1 S11 ES013339-04 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), NIH. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NIEHS, NIH. Partial

  12. Machine Shop Grinding Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, James

    This curriculum manual is one in a series of machine shop curriculum manuals intended for use in full-time secondary and postsecondary classes, as well as part-time adult classes. The curriculum can also be adapted to open-entry, open-exit programs. Its purpose is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the…

  13. Multi-scale approach to Euro-Atlantic climatic cycles based on phenological time series, air temperatures and circulation indexes.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Luigi; Zavatti, Franco

    2017-03-24

    The spectral periods in North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) were analyzed and has been verified how they imprint a time series of European temperature anomalies (ETA), two European temperature time series and some phenological series (dates of cherry flowering and grapevine harvest). Such work had as reference scenario the linear causal chain MCTP (Macroscale Circulation→Temperature→Phenology of crops) that links oceanic and atmospheric circulation to surface air temperature which in its turn determines the earliness of appearance of phenological phases of plants. Results show that in the three segments of the MCTP causal chain are present cycles with the following central period in years (the % of the 12 analyzed time series interested by these cycles are in brackets): 65 (58%), 24 (58%), 20.5 (58%), 13.5 (50%), 11.5 (58%), 7.7 (75%), 5.5 (58%), 4.1 (58%), 3 (50%), 2.4 (67%). A comparison with short term spectral peaks of the four El Niño regions (nino1+2, nino3, nino3.4 and nino4) show that 10 of the 12 series are imprinted by periods around 2.3-2.4yr while 50-58% of the series are imprinted by El Niño periods of 4-4.2, 3.8-3.9, 3-3.1years. The analysis highlights the links among physical and biological variables of the climate system at scales that range from macro to microscale whose knowledge is crucial to reach a suitable understanding of the ecosystem behavior. The spectral analysis was also applied to a time series of spring - summer precipitation in order to evaluate the presence of peaks common with other 12 selected series with result substantially negative which brings us to rule out the existence of a linear causal chain MCPP (Macroscale Circulation→Precipitation→Phenology).

  14. Air exposure behavior of the semiterrestrial crab Neohelice granulata allows tolerance to severe hypoxia but not prevent oxidative damage due to hypoxia-reoxygenation cycle.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Tábata Martins; Geihs, Márcio Alberto; Nery, Luiz Eduardo Maia; Maciel, Fábio Everton

    2015-11-01

    The air exposure behavior of the semi-terrestrial crab Neohelice granulata during severe hypoxia was studied. This study also verified whether this behavior mitigates possible oxidative damage, namely lipoperoxidation, caused by hypoxia and reoxygenation cycles. The lethal time for 50% of the crabs subjected to severe hypoxia (0.5 mgO2 · L(-1)) with free access to air was compared to that of crabs subjected to severe hypoxia without access to air. Crabs were placed in aquaria divided into three zones: water (when the animal was fully submersed), land (when the animal was completely emerged) and intermediate (when the animal was in contact with both environments) zones. Then the crabs were held in this condition for 270 min, and the time spent in each zone was recorded. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) damage to the walking leg muscles was determined for the following four experimental conditions: a--normoxic water with free access to air; b--hypoxic water without access to air; c--hypoxic water followed by normoxic water without air access; and d--hypoxic water with free access to air. When exposed to hypoxic water, N. granulata spent significantly more time on land, 135.3 ± 17.7 min, whereas control animals (exposed to normoxic water) spent more time submerged, 187.4 ± 20.2 min. By this behavior, N. granulata was able to maintain a 100% survival rate when exposed to severe hypoxia. However, N. granulata must still return to water after periods of air exposure (~ 14 min), causing a sequence of hypoxia/reoxygenation events. Despite increasing the survival rate, hypoxia with air access does not decrease the lipid peroxidation damage caused by the hypoxia and reoxygenation cycle experienced by these crabs.

  15. The Role of Distribution Infrastructure and Equipment in the Life-cycle Air Emissions of Liquid Transportation Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strogen, Bret Michael

    Production of fuel ethanol in the United States has increased ten-fold since 1993, largely as a result of government programs motivated by goals to improve domestic energy security, economic development, and environmental impacts. Over the next decade, the growth of and eventually the total production of second generation cellulosic biofuels is projected to exceed first generation (e.g., corn-based) biofuels, which will require continued expansion of infrastructure for producing and distributing ethanol and perhaps other biofuels. In addition to identifying potential differences in tailpipe emissions from vehicles operating with ethanol-blended or ethanol-free gasoline, environmental comparison of ethanol to petroleum fuels requires a comprehensive accounting of life-cycle environmental effects. Hundreds of published studies evaluate the life-cycle emissions from biofuels and petroleum, but the operation and maintenance of storage, handling, and distribution infrastructure and equipment for fuels and fuel feedstocks had not been adequately addressed. Little attention has been paid to estimating and minimizing emissions from these complex systems, presumably because they are believed to contribute a small fraction of total emissions for petroleum and first generation biofuels. This research aims to quantify the environmental impacts associated with the major components of fuel distribution infrastructure, and the impacts that will be introduced by expanding the parallel infrastructure needed to accommodate more biofuels in our existing systems. First, the components used in handling, storing, and transporting feedstocks and fuels are physically characterized by typical operating throughput, utilization, and lifespan. US-specific life-cycle GHG emission and water withdrawal factors are developed for each major distribution chain activity by applying a hybrid life-cycle assessment methodology to the manufacturing, construction, maintenance and operation of each

  16. Life cycle air quality impacts of conventional and alternative light-duty transportation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tessum, Christopher W; Hill, Jason D; Marshall, Julian D

    2014-12-30

    Commonly considered strategies for reducing the environmental impact of light-duty transportation include using alternative fuels and improving vehicle fuel economy. We evaluate the air quality-related human health impacts of 10 such options, including the use of liquid biofuels, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) in internal combustion engines; the use of electricity from a range of conventional and renewable sources to power electric vehicles (EVs); and the use of hybrid EV technology. Our approach combines spatially, temporally, and chemically detailed life cycle emission inventories; comprehensive, fine-scale state-of-the-science chemical transport modeling; and exposure, concentration-response, and economic health impact modeling for ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). We find that powering vehicles with corn ethanol or with coal-based or "grid average" electricity increases monetized environmental health impacts by 80% or more relative to using conventional gasoline. Conversely, EVs powered by low-emitting electricity from natural gas, wind, water, or solar power reduce environmental health impacts by 50% or more. Consideration of potential climate change impacts alongside the human health outcomes described here further reinforces the environmental preferability of EVs powered by low-emitting electricity relative to gasoline vehicles.

  17. Life cycle air quality impacts of conventional and alternative light-duty transportation in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jason D.; Marshall, Julian D.

    2014-01-01

    Commonly considered strategies for reducing the environmental impact of light-duty transportation include using alternative fuels and improving vehicle fuel economy. We evaluate the air quality-related human health impacts of 10 such options, including the use of liquid biofuels, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) in internal combustion engines; the use of electricity from a range of conventional and renewable sources to power electric vehicles (EVs); and the use of hybrid EV technology. Our approach combines spatially, temporally, and chemically detailed life cycle emission inventories; comprehensive, fine-scale state-of-the-science chemical transport modeling; and exposure, concentration–response, and economic health impact modeling for ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). We find that powering vehicles with corn ethanol or with coal-based or “grid average” electricity increases monetized environmental health impacts by 80% or more relative to using conventional gasoline. Conversely, EVs powered by low-emitting electricity from natural gas, wind, water, or solar power reduce environmental health impacts by 50% or more. Consideration of potential climate change impacts alongside the human health outcomes described here further reinforces the environmental preferability of EVs powered by low-emitting electricity relative to gasoline vehicles. PMID:25512510

  18. Luni-solar 18.6- and solar cycle 10 - 11-year signals in USA air temperature records.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, R. G.

    1993-02-01

    Spectrum analysis of 1197 USA air temperature records yields evidence for two peaks with periods 18.8±1.7 and 10.4±0.5 years. Tests by the t-statistic show that both are significant at confidence levels of 99.9 per cent, and both account for 23 per cent of total variance in the raw data. They are identified as the luni-solar 18.6 year Mn and solar cycle Sc 10 - 11 year signals in climate, induced by the twelfth largest constituent tide acting on the Earth and a variation of 10 to 11 years in the Sun's luminosity of the order of 0.1 per cent. Amplitude and phase of Mn wavetrains are highly non-stationary with respect to both time and geography; in particular, abrupt 180° phase changes in wave polarity are often observed. Amplitude and phase of the Sc waves are also highly non-stationary.

  19. Novel strategy to mitigate cathode catalyst degradation during air/air startup cycling via the atmospheric resistive switching mechanism of a hydrogen anode with a platinum catalyst supported on tantalum-doped titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shintani, Haruhiko; Kojima, Yuya; Kakinuma, Katsuyoshi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Uchida, Makoto

    2015-10-01

    We propose a new strategy for alleviating the reverse current phenomenon using a unique "atmospheric resistive switching mechanism" (ARSM) of a metal oxide semiconductor support, such that the electrical resistivity changes depending on the gas atmosphere. The membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) using Ta-doped TiO2-supported platinum (Pt/Ta-TiO2) as the anode catalyst showed approximately one order of magnitude greater resistance in air than in hydrogen. The overpotential of the hydrogen oxidation reaction was negligible up to at least 1.5 A cm-2. The losses of electrochemically active surface area and carbon corrosion of the cathode catalyst during air/air startup cycling were significantly suppressed by the use of the Pt/Ta-TiO2 anode. The decrease in the degradation is attributed to a reduction of the reverse current due to a low oxygen reduction reaction rate at the anode, which showed high resistivity in air. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the ARSM in mitigating cathode catalyst degradation during air/air startup cycling.

  20. Diamond machine tool face lapping machine

    DOEpatents

    Yetter, H.H.

    1985-05-06

    An apparatus for shaping, sharpening and polishing diamond-tipped single-point machine tools. The isolation of a rotating grinding wheel from its driving apparatus using an air bearing and causing the tool to be shaped, polished or sharpened to be moved across the surface of the grinding wheel so that it does not remain at one radius for more than a single rotation of the grinding wheel has been found to readily result in machine tools of a quality which can only be obtained by the most tedious and costly processing procedures, and previously unattainable by simple lapping techniques.

  1. The neuroergonomic evaluation of human machine interface design in air traffic control using behavioral and EGG/ERP measures.

    PubMed

    Giraudet, L; Imbert, J-P; Bérenger, M; Tremblay, S; Causse, M

    2015-11-01

    The Air Traffic Control (ATC) environment is complex and safety-critical. Whilst exchanging information with pilots, controllers must also be alert to visual notifications displayed on the radar screen (e.g., warning which indicates a loss of minimum separation between aircraft). Under the assumption that attentional resources are shared between vision and hearing, the visual interface design may also impact the ability to process these auditory stimuli. Using a simulated ATC task, we compared the behavioral and neural responses to two different visual notification designs--the operational alarm that involves blinking colored "ALRT" displayed around the label of the notified plane ("Color-Blink"), and the more salient alarm involving the same blinking text plus four moving yellow chevrons ("Box-Animation"). Participants performed a concurrent auditory task with the requirement to react to rare pitch tones. P300 from the occurrence of the tones was taken as an indicator of remaining attentional resources. Participants who were presented with the more salient visual design showed better accuracy than the group with the suboptimal operational design. On a physiological level, auditory P300 amplitude in the former group was greater than that observed in the latter group. One potential explanation is that the enhanced visual design freed up attentional resources which, in turn, improved the cerebral processing of the auditory stimuli. These results suggest that P300 amplitude can be used as a valid estimation of the efficiency of interface designs, and of cognitive load more generally.

  2. Performance Optimization of an Air-Standard Irreversible Dual-Atkinson Cycle Engine Based on the Ecological Coefficient of Performance Criterion

    PubMed Central

    Gonca, Guven; Sahin, Bahri

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an ecological performance analysis and optimization for an air-standard irreversible Dual-Atkinson cycle (DAC) based on the ecological coefficient of performance (ECOP) criterion which includes internal irreversibilities, heat leak, and finite-rate of heat transfer. A comprehensive numerical analysis has been realized so as to investigate the global and optimal performances of the cycle. The results obtained based on the ECOP criterion are compared with a different ecological function which is named as the ecologic objective-function and with the maximum power output conditions. The results have been attained introducing the compression ratio, cut-off ratio, pressure ratio, Atkinson cycle ratio, source temperature ratio, and internal irreversibility parameter. The change of cycle performance with respect to these parameters is investigated and graphically presented. PMID:25170525

  3. A novel hybrid model for air quality index forecasting based on two-phase decomposition technique and modified extreme learning machine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Deyun; Wei, Shuai; Luo, Hongyuan; Yue, Chenqiang; Grunder, Olivier

    2017-02-15

    The randomness, non-stationarity and irregularity of air quality index (AQI) series bring the difficulty of AQI forecasting. To enhance forecast accuracy, a novel hybrid forecasting model combining two-phase decomposition technique and extreme learning machine (ELM) optimized by differential evolution (DE) algorithm is developed for AQI forecasting in this paper. In phase I, the complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition (CEEMD) is utilized to decompose the AQI series into a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) with different frequencies; in phase II, in order to further handle the high frequency IMFs which will increase the forecast difficulty, variational mode decomposition (VMD) is employed to decompose the high frequency IMFs into a number of variational modes (VMs). Then, the ELM model optimized by DE algorithm is applied to forecast all the IMFs and VMs. Finally, the forecast value of each high frequency IMF is obtained through adding up the forecast results of all corresponding VMs, and the forecast series of AQI is obtained by aggregating the forecast results of all IMFs. To verify and validate the proposed model, two daily AQI series from July 1, 2014 to June 30, 2016 collected from Beijing and Shanghai located in China are taken as the test cases to conduct the empirical study. The experimental results show that the proposed hybrid model based on two-phase decomposition technique is remarkably superior to all other considered models for its higher forecast accuracy.

  4. Effects of thermal cycling and thermal aging on the hermeticity and strength of silver-copper oxide air-brazed seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott Weil, K.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Darsell, Jens T.; Xia, Gordon G.; Hardy, John S.

    Thermal cycle and exposure tests were conducted on ceramic-to-metal joints prepared by a new sealing technique. Known as reactive air brazing, this joining method is currently being considered for use in sealing various high-temperature solid-state electrochemical devices, including planar solid oxide fuel cells (pSOFC). In order to simulate a typical pSOFC application, test specimens were prepared by joining ceramic anode/electrolyte bilayers to metal washers, of the same composition as the common frame materials employed in pSOFC stacks, using a filler metal composed of 4 mol% CuO in silver. The brazed samples were exposure tested at 750 °C for 200, 400, and 800 h in both simulated fuel and air environments and thermally cycled at rapid rate (75 °C min -1) between room temperature and 750 °C for as many as 50 cycles. Subsequent joint strength testing and microstructural analysis indicated that the samples exposure tested in air displayed little degradation with respect to strength, hermeticity, or microstructure out to 800 h of exposure. Those tested in fuel showed no change in rupture strength or loss in hermeticity after 800 h of high-temperature exposure, but did undergo microstructural change due to the dissolution of hydrogen into the silver-based braze material. Air-brazed specimens subjected to rapid thermal cycling exhibited no loss in joint strength or hermeticity, but displayed initial signs of seal delamination along the braze-electrolyte interface after 50 cycles.

  5. Life-cycle assessment of greenhouse gas and air emissions of electric vehicles: A comparison between China and the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Hong; Cai, Hao; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Fei; He, Kebin

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air pollutants (NOx, SO2, PM10, and PM2.5) of electric vehicles (EVs) in China and the United States (U.S.), two of the largest potential markets for EVs in the world. Six of the most economically developed and populated regions in China and the U.S. were selected. The results showed that EV fuel-cycle emissions depend substantially on the carbon intensity and cleanness of the electricity mix, and vary significantly across the regions studied. In those regions with a low share of coal-based electricity (e.g., California), EVs can reduce GHG and air pollutant emissions (except for PM) significantly compared with conventional vehicles. However, in the Chinese regions and selected U.S. Midwestern states where coal dominates in the generation mix, EVs can reduce GHG emissions but increase the total and urban emissions of air pollutants. In 2025, EVs will offer greater reductions in GHG and air pollutant emissions because emissions from power plants will be better controlled; EVs in the Chinese regions examined, however, may still increase SO2 and PM emissions. Reductions of 60-85% in GHGs and air pollutants could be achieved were EVs charged with 80% renewable electricity or the electricity generated from the best available technologies of coal-fired power plants, which are futuristic power generation scenarios.

  6. The Cross-Validation of the United States Air Force Submaximal Cycle Ergometer Test to Estimate Aerobic Capacity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    and Febiger, 199’. 2. Arts, F.JP., H. Kuipers , A.E. Jeukendrup, et al. A short cycle ergometry test to predict workload and maximal oxygen uptake. Int...133Description of Monark Cycle Ergometer Calibration Monark Cycle Ergometer calibration is achieved by first turning the resistance belt to zero on the free

  7. Protein thin film machines.

    PubMed

    Federici, Stefania; Oliviero, Giulio; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly; Bergese, Paolo

    2010-12-01

    We report the first example of microcantilever beams that are reversibly driven by protein thin film machines fueled by cycling the salt concentration of the surrounding solution. We also show that upon the same salinity stimulus the drive can be completely reversed in its direction by introducing a surface coating ligand. Experimental results are throughout discussed within a general yet simple thermodynamic model.

  8. Database machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiefel, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    The functions and performance characteristics of data base machines (DBM), including machines currently being studied in research laboratories and those currently offered on a commerical basis are discussed. The cost/benefit considerations that must be recognized in selecting a DBM are discussed, as well as the future outlook for such machines.

  9. A Novel Thermal Management Approach for Radial Foil Air Bearings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Rossum (1). Since their discovery, foil bearings have been commonly used as rotor supports in air cycle machines (ACM’s) that are part of an...engines (6, 7). With air as the lubricant, foil bearings can successfully support high speed rotors in extreme temperature environments without the...low enough, can lead to rotor instability. On the other hand, a heavier preload will create higher start-up torque and lift-off speed requirements

  10. A high-fidelity multiphysics model for the new solid oxide iron-air redox battery. part I: Bridging mass transport and charge transfer with redox cycle kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xinfang; Zhao, Xuan; Huang, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    A high-fidelity two-dimensional axial symmetrical multi-physics model is described in this paper as an effort to simulate the cycle performance of a recently discovered solid oxide metal-air redox battery (SOMARB). The model collectively considers mass transport, charge transfer and chemical redox cycle kinetics occurring across the components of the battery, and is validated by experimental data obtained from independent research. In particular, the redox kinetics at the energy storage unit is well represented by Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) and Shrinking Core models. The results explicitly show that the reduction of Fe3O4 during the charging cycle limits the overall performance. Distributions of electrode potential, overpotential, Nernst potential, and H2/H2O-concentration across various components of the battery are also systematically investigated.

  11. A high-fidelity multiphysics model for the new solid oxide iron-air redox battery part I: Bridging mass transport and charge transfer with redox cycle kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, XF; Zhao, X; Huang, K

    2015-04-15

    A high-fidelity two-dimensional axial symmetrical multi-physics model is described in this paper as an effort to simulate the cycle performance of a recently discovered solid oxide metal-air redox battery (SOMARB). The model collectively considers mass transport, charge transfer and chemical redox cycle kinetics occurring across the components of the battery, and is validated by experimental data obtained from independent research. In particular, the redox kinetics at the energy storage unit is well represented by Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JIVIAK) and Shrinking Core models. The results explicitly show that the reduction of Fe3O4 during the charging cycle limits the overall performance. Distributions of electrode potential, overpotential, Nernst potential, and H-2/H2O-concentration across various components of the battery are also systematically investigated. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Autonomous quantum thermodynamic machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonner, Friedemann; Mahler, Günter

    2005-12-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a quantum system consisting of a single spin coupled to an oscillator and sandwiched between two thermal baths at different temperatures. By means of an adequately designed Lindblad equation, it is shown that this device can function as a thermodynamic machine exhibiting Carnot-type cycles. For the present model, this means that when run as a heat engine, coherent motion of the oscillator is amplified. Contrary to the quantum computer, such a machine has a quantum as well as a classical limit. Away from the classical limit, it asymptotically approaches a stationary transport scenario.

  13. The comparison of cold-water immersion and cold air therapy on maximal cycling performance and recovery markers following strength exercises

    PubMed Central

    Hayter, Kane J.; Schumann, Moritz; Deakin, Glen B.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of cold-water immersion (CWI) and cold air therapy (CAT) on maximal cycling performance (i.e. anaerobic power) and markers of muscle damage following a strength training session. Twenty endurance-trained but strength-untrained male (n = 10) and female (n = 10) participants were randomised into either: CWI (15 min in 14 °C water to iliac crest) or CAT (15 min in 14 °C air) immediately following strength training (i.e. 3 sets of leg press, leg extensions and leg curls at 6 repetition maximum, respectively). Creatine kinase, muscle soreness and fatigue, isometric knee extensor and flexor torque and cycling anaerobic power were measured prior to, immediately after and at 24 (T24), 48 (T48) and 72 (T72) h post-strength exercises. No significant differences were found between treatments for any of the measured variables (p > 0.05). However, trends suggested recovery was greater in CWI than CAT for cycling anaerobic power at T24 (10% ± 2%, ES = 0.90), T48 (8% ± 2%, ES = 0.64) and T72 (8% ± 7%, ES = 0.76). The findings suggest the combination of hydrostatic pressure and cold temperature may be favourable for recovery from strength training rather than cold temperature alone. PMID:27069791

  14. The U.S. Machine Tool Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    tool industry production cycles. The industry can improve its competitive posture by expanding from regional markets into the global market , increasing...indus- try by modifying or abolishing laws which disincentivize investment and pose barriers to entry into foreign markets . 1993 Executive Research...built on a machine tool or on a machine made by a machine tool.’ Losman & Liang, 1990 The machine tool industry has seen a decline in the U.S. market

  15. Axial gap rotating electrical machine

    DOEpatents

    None

    2016-02-23

    Direct drive rotating electrical machines with axial air gaps are disclosed. In these machines, a rotor ring and stator ring define an axial air gap between them. Sets of gap-maintaining rolling supports bear between the rotor ring and the stator ring at their peripheries to maintain the axial air gap. Also disclosed are wind turbines using these generators, and structures and methods for mounting direct drive rotating electrical generators to the hubs of wind turbines. In particular, the rotor ring of the generator may be carried directly by the hub of a wind turbine to rotate relative to a shaft without being mounted directly to the shaft.

  16. Electric machine

    DOEpatents

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  17. The Bateman Flotation Machine

    SciTech Connect

    Bezuidenhout, G.

    1995-12-31

    The newly developed Bateman Flotation Machine has proven its versatility in roughing and cleaning flotation circuits. This mechanical flotation machine has the dual performance capability of suspending solids and dispersing air at relatively low power inputs without compromising these two important fundamentals. This new development has been successfully marketed to a wide cross section of concentrator mineral processes. The mechanical design of the flotation mechanism has been optimized to reduce operational costs and to lower manufacturing costs. Production process environments were utilized for verification of the scale-up of each cell volume size rated mechanism. These thorough investigations produced performance data which could be accurately quoted. This paper is a historical account of the Batement Flotation Machine. Technical details of the development are covered with descriptions of the operational applications.

  18. The Air Force Processes for Approving Air Force Life Cycle Management Center Single-Award Indefinite-Delivery Indefinite-Quantity Contracts Need Improvement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-29

    Improperly‑ Approved D&F Contract Value FA8540-14-D-0001 Deputy Assistant Secretary (Contracting) August 15, 2011 Yes FA8505-11-D-0006 Deputy...Assistant Secretary (Contracting) September 6, 2011 Yes FA8519-14-D-00021 Military Deputy, Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Air Force...Acquisition) September 2, 2014 No $68,900,414 FA8528-14-D-0015 Senior Procurement Executive April 1, 2014 Yes FA8528-14-D-0023 Senior Procurement

  19. A Life Cycle Assessment Case Study of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation with Humidity Swing Direct Air Capture of CO2 versus MEA-Based Postcombustion Capture.

    PubMed

    van der Giesen, Coen; Meinrenken, Christoph J; Kleijn, René; Sprecher, Benjamin; Lackner, Klaus S; Kramer, Gert Jan

    2017-01-17

    Most carbon capture and storage (CCS) envisions capturing CO2 from flue gas. Direct air capture (DAC) of CO2 has hitherto been deemed unviable because of the higher energy associated with capture at low atmospheric concentrations. We present a Life Cycle Assessment of coal-fired electricity generation that compares monoethanolamine (MEA)-based postcombustion capture (PCC) of CO2 with distributed, humidity-swing-based direct air capture (HS-DAC). Given suitable temperature, humidity, wind, and water availability, HS-DAC can be largely passive. Comparing energy requirements of HS-DAC and MEA-PCC, we find that the parasitic load of HS-DAC is less than twice that of MEA-PCC (60-72 kJ/mol versus 33-46 kJ/mol, respectively). We also compare other environmental impacts as a function of net greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation: To achieve the same 73% mitigation as MEA-PCC, HS-DAC would increase nine other environmental impacts by on average 38%, whereas MEA-PCC would increase them by 31%. Powering distributed HS-DAC with photovoltaics (instead of coal) while including recapture of all background GHG, reduces this increase to 18%, hypothetically enabling coal-based electricity with net-zero life-cycle GHG. We conclude that, in suitable geographies, HS-DAC can complement MEA-PCC to enable CO2 capture independent of time and location of emissions and recapture background GHG from fossil-based electricity beyond flue stack emissions.

  20. CPAP Machines: Tips for Avoiding 10 Common Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... for obstructive sleep apnea. It includes a small machine that supplies a constant and steady air pressure, ... this by using a "ramp" feature on the machine. This feature allows you to start with low ...

  1. FEATURE B. MACHINE GUN POSITION WITH LEWIS MOUNT, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE B. MACHINE GUN POSITION WITH LEWIS MOUNT, VIEW FACING NORTHWEST (with scale stick). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Battery-Machine Gun Positions, South of Point Cruz Road & west of Coral Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  2. FEATURE C. MACHINE GUN POSITION WITH REMNANT OF MOUNT, VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE C. MACHINE GUN POSITION WITH REMNANT OF MOUNT, VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Battery-Machine Gun Positions, South of Point Cruz Road & west of Coral Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  3. FEATURE B. MACHINE GUN POSITION WITH LEWIS MOUNT, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE B. MACHINE GUN POSITION WITH LEWIS MOUNT, VIEW FACING NORTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Battery-Machine Gun Positions, South of Point Cruz Road & west of Coral Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  4. RuO2 nanoparticles decorated MnOOH/C as effective bifunctional electrocatalysts for lithium-air battery cathodes with long-cycling stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gil-Pyo; Lim, Dongwook; Park, Inyeong; Park, Hyelee; Shim, Sang Eun; Baeck, Sung-Hyeon

    2016-08-01

    Manganite (MnOOH) is one of the most effective electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), and RuO2 nanoparticles exhibit high activity for oxygen evolution reaction (OER). We herein report a facile means of producing well dispersed RuO2/MnOOH on Ketjen black (RuO2/MnOOH/C) as a bifunctional catalyst for lithium-air (Li-air) batteries. RuO2/MnOOH/C was simply synthesized using a hydrothermal/precipitation based method, and was used as a cathode for a Li-air battery using a Swagelok-type cell. The importance of dispersing active catalysts on a carbon support was clearly demonstrated by textural, charge-discharge voltammetric, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) analyses, comparing results with a catalyst produced by physically mixing RuO2/MnOOH with carbon (RuO2/MnOOH + C). RuO2/MnOOH/C showed low overpotential and stable cycleability up to 170th cycles with 1000 mAh g-1 of charge-discharge capacity, which was attributed to its enhanced active surface area and low charge-transfer resistance. The results obtained suggest that this strategy can be widely applied to bifunctional electrocatalysis, such as secondary batteries and regenerative fuel cell (RFC).

  5. Low-cycle fatigue of Type 347 stainless steel and Hastelloy alloy X in hydrogen gas and in air at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaske, C. E.; Rice, R. C.; Buchheit, R. D.; Roach, D. B.; Porfilio, T. L.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to assess the low-cycle fatigue resistance of two alloys, Type 347 stainless steel and Hastelloy Alloy X, that were under consideration for use in nuclear-powered rocket vehicles. Constant-amplitude, strain-controlled fatigue tests were conducted under compressive strain cycling at a constant strain rate of 0.001/sec and at total axial strain ranges of 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 %, in both laboratory-air and low-pressure hydrogen-gas environments at temperatures from 538 to 871 C. Specimens were obtained from three heats of Type 347 stainless steel bar and two heats of Hastelloy Alloy X. The tensile properties of each heat were determined at 21, 538, 649, and 760 C. The continuous cycling fatigue resistance was determined for each heat at temperatures of 538, 760, and 871 C. The Type 347 stainless steel exhibited equal or superior fatigue resistance to the Hastelloy Alloy X at all conditions of this study.

  6. Production cost and air emissions impacts of coal cycling in power systems with large-scale wind penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oates, David Luke; Jaramillo, Paulina

    2013-06-01

    Wind power introduces variability into electric power systems. Due to the physical characteristics of wind, most of this variability occurs at inter-hour time-scales and coal units are therefore technically capable of balancing wind. Operators of coal-fired units have raised concerns that additional cycling will be prohibitively costly. Using PJM bid-data, we observe that coal operators are likely systematically under-bidding their startup costs. We then consider the effects of a 20% wind penetration scenario in the coal-heavy PJM West area, both when coal units bid business as usual startup costs, and when they bid costs accounting for the elevated wear and tear that occurs during cycling. We conclude that while 20% wind leads to increased coal cycling and reduced coal capacity factors under business as usual startup costs, including full startup costs shifts the burden of balancing wind onto more flexible units. This shift has benefits for CO2, NOX, and SO2 emissions as well as for the profitability of coal plants, as calculated by our dispatch model.

  7. Thirteen years of air pollution hourly monitoring in a large city: potential sources, trends, cycles and effects of car-free days.

    PubMed

    Masiol, Mauro; Agostinelli, Claudio; Formenton, Gianni; Tarabotti, Enzo; Pavoni, Bruno

    2014-10-01

    Thirteen air pollutant concentrations were measured hourly for 13 years (2000-2013) at an urban background site of a large city in the eastern Po Valley (Italy) and results were chemometrically analysed. The pollutant list includes CO, NO, NO2, NOx, O3, SO2, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-, m- and p-xylenes and PM10, all known or suspected of having adverse effects on human health. The hourly data were statistically processed to detect the long-term trends in relation to the changes in the emission scenarios occurred in the last decade. The most probable emission sources and atmospheric photochemical processes were investigated by analyzing the seasonal, weekly, diurnal cycles of pollutants and the lagged correlations amongst pollutants. The role of micro-meteorological factors upon the air quality was assessed by analyzing the relationships with key weather parameters, while the location of the potential sources was studied by matching atmospheric circulation and pollution data through bivariate polar plots and conditional probability functions. In addition, a new statistical procedure is presented and tested to analyze the periods when common mitigation measures were adopted in the city (e.g., the total stop of traffic and car-free days) and to evaluate their real effect upon the air quality. By providing direct information on the levels and trends of key pollutants, this study finally enables some general considerations about air pollution in an important hotspot of Southern Europe, the eastern Po Valley, where the levels of some key pollutants are still far from meeting the EC limit and target values. It may help policy-makers to take successful mitigation measures.

  8. Scaling of Carbon Cycle Processes in a Mountain Ecosystem Using Isotopes of Respired Carbon Dioxide in Nocturnal Cold-air Drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, B. J.; Barnard, H.; Conklin, D.; Hauck, M.; Kayler, Z.; Mix, A. C.; Phillips, C.; Pypker, T.; Sulzman, E.; Unsworth, M.

    2006-12-01

    Nocturnal air drainage in mountain ecosystems offers a unique opportunity for scaling of carbon cycle processes in complex terrain using stable isotopes. We have found that more than half of ecosystem-respired CO2 can be transferred advectively from a small (100 ha) watershed at night, and the range of CO2 concentrations in the air collected from a 37 m tower situated at the base of the watershed is sufficient for Keeling plot analysis to determine the carbon isotope composition of ecosystem-respired CO2, or δ13CR-eco. We now seek to determine, 1) What is the spatial "footprint" of δ13CR- eco measurements, and how does this footprint vary over time? 2) What is the relationship between δ13CR-eco and measurements of isofluxes from soils and foliage across a range of specific sites in the watershed? 3) What is the relationship between δ13CR-eco and carbon cycle processes in the watershed? To answer these questions we conducted extensive measurements of atmospheric processes, augmented by experimental releases of an inert gas (SF6) in collaboration with Dr. Brian Lamb, Washington State University. We installed and instrumented eight plots along a ridge-to-ridge transect; we are continuously measuring above- and belowground microclimate in all plots and in a subset of plots we are continuously measuring sapflow and periodically measuring soil and leaf respiration and their isotopic composition. Atmospheric analyses indicated that air collected for Keeling plot analysis represented a well-mixed sample of all or nearly all of the watershed, and for several hours of most nights this footprint was stable. Respiratory fluxes and isofluxes from both soils and foliage varied both temporally and spatially; the variation among plots was often greater than the temporal variation of a particular plot over the growing season. Scaled to the ecosystem level, respiratory fluxes from foliage exceeded soil fluxes by as much as a factor of two, and fluxes from the south-facing slope

  9. Anaesthesia Machine: Checklist, Hazards, Scavenging

    PubMed Central

    Goneppanavar, Umesh; Prabhu, Manjunath

    2013-01-01

    From a simple pneumatic device of the early 20th century, the anaesthesia machine has evolved to incorporate various mechanical, electrical and electronic components to be more appropriately called anaesthesia workstation. Modern machines have overcome many drawbacks associated with the older machines. However, addition of several mechanical, electronic and electric components has contributed to recurrence of some of the older problems such as leak or obstruction attributable to newer gadgets and development of newer problems. No single checklist can satisfactorily test the integrity and safety of all existing anaesthesia machines due to their complex nature as well as variations in design among manufacturers. Human factors have contributed to greater complications than machine faults. Therefore, better understanding of the basics of anaesthesia machine and checking each component of the machine for proper functioning prior to use is essential to minimise these hazards. Clear documentation of regular and appropriate servicing of the anaesthesia machine, its components and their satisfactory functioning following servicing and repair is also equally important. Trace anaesthetic gases polluting the theatre atmosphere can have several adverse effects on the health of theatre personnel. Therefore, safe disposal of these gases away from the workplace with efficiently functioning scavenging system is necessary. Other ways of minimising atmospheric pollution such as gas delivery equipment with negligible leaks, low flow anaesthesia, minimal leak around the airway equipment (facemask, tracheal tube, laryngeal mask airway, etc.) more than 15 air changes/hour and total intravenous anaesthesia should also be considered. PMID:24249887

  10. Anaesthesia machine: checklist, hazards, scavenging.

    PubMed

    Goneppanavar, Umesh; Prabhu, Manjunath

    2013-09-01

    From a simple pneumatic device of the early 20(th) century, the anaesthesia machine has evolved to incorporate various mechanical, electrical and electronic components to be more appropriately called anaesthesia workstation. Modern machines have overcome many drawbacks associated with the older machines. However, addition of several mechanical, electronic and electric components has contributed to recurrence of some of the older problems such as leak or obstruction attributable to newer gadgets and development of newer problems. No single checklist can satisfactorily test the integrity and safety of all existing anaesthesia machines due to their complex nature as well as variations in design among manufacturers. Human factors have contributed to greater complications than machine faults. Therefore, better understanding of the basics of anaesthesia machine and checking each component of the machine for proper functioning prior to use is essential to minimise these hazards. Clear documentation of regular and appropriate servicing of the anaesthesia machine, its components and their satisfactory functioning following servicing and repair is also equally important. Trace anaesthetic gases polluting the theatre atmosphere can have several adverse effects on the health of theatre personnel. Therefore, safe disposal of these gases away from the workplace with efficiently functioning scavenging system is necessary. Other ways of minimising atmospheric pollution such as gas delivery equipment with negligible leaks, low flow anaesthesia, minimal leak around the airway equipment (facemask, tracheal tube, laryngeal mask airway, etc.) more than 15 air changes/hour and total intravenous anaesthesia should also be considered.

  11. Environmental Analysis of the Air Bending Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellens, Karel; Dewulf, Wim; Duflou, Joost R.

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a data collection effort, allowing to assess the overall environmental impact of the air bending process using the CO2PE!-Methodology. First the different modes of the air bending process are investigated, including both productive and non-productive modes. In particular consumption of electric power is recorded for the different modes. Subsequently, time studies allow determining the importance of productive and nonproductive modes of the involved process. The study demonstrates that the influence of standby losses can be substantial. In addition to life cycle analysis, in depth process analysis also provides insight in achievable environmental impact reducing measures towards machine tool builders and eco-design recommendations for product developers. The energy consumption of three different machine tool architectures are analysed and compared within this paper.

  12. Southern Ocean abyssal oxygenation linked to the air-sea partitioning of carbon throughout the last glacial cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaccard, S.; Galbraith, E. D.; Martinez-Garcia, A.; Anderson, R. F.

    2015-12-01

    Although no single mechanism can account for the full amplitude of past atmospheric CO2 variability over glacial interglacial cycles, a build-up of biologically-stored carbon in the deep ocean has emerged as a central mechanism for low CO2 during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). However, the mechanisms for which this deeply sequestered carbon was released, and the relative importance it played in the history of atmospheric CO2 prior to the LGM, remain subjects of debate. Here, we present new redox-sensitive trace metal records from the Antarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean that provide an unprecedented reconstruction of transient changes in deep ocean oxygenation and, by inference, respired carbon storage throughout the last glacial cycle. Our results show that respired carbon was removed from the abyssal Southern Ocean during the northern hemisphere cold phases of the deglaciation, when atmospheric CO2 rose rapidly, due to a combination of dwindling iron fertilization by dust and enhanced deep ocean ventilation. Furthermore, our new records show that the correlation between atmospheric CO2 and abyssal Southern Ocean oxygenation was maintained throughout most of the prior 80 kyrs, consistent with a unifying role of the Southern Ocean through a coupled control on deep ocean circulation and iron fertilization.

  13. Strain-cycling fatigue behavior of ten structural metals tested in liquid helium (4 K), in liquid nitrogen (78 K), and in ambient air (300 K)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nachtigall, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Strain-cycling fatigue behavior of 10 different structural alloys and metals was investigated in liquid helium (4 K), in liquid nitrogen (78 K), and in ambient air (300 K). At high cyclic lives, fatigue resistance increased with decreasing temperature for all the materials investigated. At low cyclic lives, fatigue resistance generally decreased with decreasing temperature for the materials investigated. Only for Inconel 718 did fatigue resistance increase with decreasing temperature over the entire life range investigated. Comparison of the experimental fatigue behavior with that predicted by the Manson method of universal slopes showed that the fatigue behavior of these materials can be predicted for cryogenic temperatures by using material tensile properties obtained at those same temperatures.

  14. 129Xe nuclear magnetic resonance study of pitch-based activated carbon modified by air oxidation/pyrolysis cycles: a new approach to probe the micropore size.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Konstantin V; Py, Xavier; d'Espinose de Lacaillerie, Jean-Baptiste; Lapina, Olga B; Fraissard, Jacques

    2006-02-23

    (129)Xe NMR has been used to study a series of homologous activated carbons obtained from a KOH-activated pitch-based carbon molecular sieve modified by air oxidation/pyrolysis cycles. A clear correlation between the pore size of microporous carbons and the (129)Xe NMR of adsorbed xenon is proposed for the first time. The virial coefficient delta(Xe)(-)(Xe) arising from binary xenon collisions varied linearly with the micropore size and appeared to be a better probe of the microporosity than the chemical shift extrapolated to zero pressure. This correlation was explained by the fact that the xenon collision frequency increases with increasing micropore size. The chemical shift has been shown to vary very little with temperature (less than 9 ppm) for xenon trapped inside narrow and wide micropores. This is indicative of a smooth xenon-surface interaction potential.

  15. Evaluation of an Absorption Heat Pump to Mitigate Plant Capacity Reduction Due to Ambient Temperature Rise for an Air-Cooled Ammonia and Water Cycle: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Bharathan, D.; Nix, G.

    2001-08-06

    Air-cooled geothermal plants suffer substantial decreases in generating capacity at increased ambient temperatures. As the ambient temperature rises by 50 F above a design value of 50 F, at low brine-resource temperatures, the decrease in generating capacity can be more than 50%. This decrease is caused primarily by increased condenser pressure. Using mixed-working fluids has recently drawn considerable attention for use in power cycles. Such cycles are more readily amenable to use of absorption ''heat pumps.'' For a system that uses ammonia and water as the mixed-working fluid, this paper evaluates using an absorption heat pump to reduce condenser backpressure. At high ambient temperatures, part of the turbine exhaust vapor is absorbed into a circulating mixed stream in an absorber in series with the main condenser. This steam is pumped up to a higher pressure and heated to strip the excess vapor, which is recondensed using an additional air-cooled condenser. The operating conditions are chosen to reconstitute this condensate back to the same concentration as drawn from the original system. We analyzed two power plants of nominal 1-megawatt capacity. The design resource temperatures were 250 F and 300 F. Ambient temperature was allowed to rise from a design value of 50 F to 100 F. The analyses indicate that using an absorption heat pump is feasible. For the 300 F resource, an increased brine flow of 30% resulted in a net power increase of 21%. For the 250 F resource, the increase was smaller. However, these results are highly plant- and equipment-specific because evaluations must be carried out at off-design conditions for the condenser. Such studies should be carried out for specific power plants that suffer most from increased ambient temperatures.

  16. Superconducting Electric Machines for Ship Propulsion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-14

    ship propulsion applications. These concepts evolved from previous work at MIT on superconducting AC machines. The superconducting machines considered were: (1) multipole, low-speed motors, (2) torque compensated motors, (3) high-speed generator, (4) rotating air-gap armature induction motor, (5) thyristor switched AC motors. The first four machine types were studied theoretically while experimental models were constructed of the last two. Preliminary designs were completed...of the five mahcines for an appropriate ship ... propulsion application. In

  17. Nontraditional Machining Guide, 26 Newcomers for Production

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    100 c/5 CO (- oo USM MILLED ANNEALED SHOT PEENED AS ROLLED CHM GROUND EDM 107 CYCLES Fatigue Endurance Strength of 5Al-2iV Titanium ...Discharge Sawing 46 EDWC- Electrical Discharge Wire Cutting 48 LBM - Laser Beam Machining 50 LBT - Laser Beam Torch 52 PBM - Plasma Beam...Discharge Machining EDS - Electrical Discharge Sawing EDWC - Electrical Discharge Wire Cutting LBM - Laser Beam Machining LBT - Laser Beam Torch

  18. M.I.T. Stirling-cycle heat transfer apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Joseph L., Jr.; Lienhard, John H.; Tziranis, Alexander K.; Ho, Yung

    1992-01-01

    The design and construction of a two-cylinder apparatus to measure heat transfer under conditions of oscillating pressure and oscillating flow such as found in Stirling-cycle machines are described. The apparatus consists of two large single-stage air compressors joined by a rigid drive shaft between the two crack shafts, and is powered by a 25-hp variable speed DC motor. The apparatus is capable of measuring heat transfer while velocity and pressure change over the range of dimensionless parameters normally found in Stirling cycle machines. It allows each parameter to be varied independently and easily. Instrumentation for the apparatus is adequate for measurement of pressure, time, gas and wall temperature, wall heat flux, and gas velocity. It yields preliminary data which show that the apparatus and data acquisition are operating satisfactorily and produce reasonable results.

  19. Wacky Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fendrich, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Collectors everywhere know that local antique shops and flea markets are treasure troves just waiting to be plundered. Science teachers might take a hint from these hobbyists, for the next community yard sale might be a repository of old, quirky items that are just the things to get students thinking about simple machines. By introducing some…

  20. Pulsed, Hydraulic Coal-Mining Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    In proposed coal-cutting machine, piston forces water through nozzle, expelling pulsed jet that cuts into coal face. Spring-loaded piston reciprocates at end of travel to refill water chamber. Machine a onecylinder, two-cycle, internal-combustion engine, fueled by gasoline, diesel fuel, or hydrogen. Fuel converted more directly into mechanical energy of water jet.

  1. Factors Regulating the Seasonal Cycle of Inter-continental Air Pollution Transport between Asia, the United States and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauzerall, D. L.; Horowitz, L.; Kim, N.

    2002-12-01

    This talk will demonstrate the interdependency of air quality in the northern hemisphere on the emissions and subsequent transport of pollutants from each of the major industrialized continental regions. We examine the contribution that emissions from continental regions in the northern hemisphere make to the composition of the remote troposphere. We also examine the processes that control the concentration of reactive pollutants in continental boundary layers over the United States, Europe and East Asia and export from these boundary layers to the global troposphere. We use the MOZART-2 (Model of Ozone and Related Tracers, version 2) global chemical tracer model with tagged CO from fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions from each region. In conjunction with CO measurements from the Climate Monitoring and Diagnostic Lab (CMDL), we examine the influence that each regions' emissions have on remote surface locations in the northern hemisphere. We find that the remote troposphere of the northern hemisphere contains a mélange of CO emitted from different continental regions the contributions of which vary seasonally as a function of emissions, meteorology and atmospheric lifetime. To examine factors regulating the concentration distributions of O3, CO, NOx, PAN and HNO3 over the United States, Europe and Asia and their export to the global troposphere, we quantify and compare the seasonal contributions of chemistry, advection, convection and deposition to boundary layer concentrations of each chemical species and examine the horizontal and vertical fluxes of each species out of each regions boundary layer to the global troposphere.

  2. Seasonal cycle and temperature dependence of pinene oxidation products, dicarboxylic acids and nitrophenols in fine and coarse air particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Müller, L.; Winterhalter, R.; Moortgat, G. K.; Hoffmann, T.; Pöschl, U.

    2010-05-01

    Filter samples of fine and coarse air particulate matter (PM) collected over a period of one year in central Europe (Mainz, Germany) were analyzed for water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs), including the α- and β-pinene oxidation products pinic acid, pinonic acid and 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (3-MBTCA), as well as a variety of dicarboxylic acids and nitrophenols. Seasonal variations and other characteristic features in fine, coarse, and total PM (TSP) are discussed with regard to aerosol sources and sinks in comparison to data from other studies and regions. The ratios of adipic acid and phthalic acid to azelaic acid indicate that the investigated samples were mainly influenced by biogenic sources. A strong Arrhenius-type correlation was found between the 3-MBTCA concentration and inverse temperature (R2=0.79, n=52, Ea=126±10 kJ mol-1, temperature range 275-300 K). Model calculations suggest that the temperature dependence observed for 3-MBTCA can be explained by enhanced photochemical production due to an increase of hydroxyl radical (OH) concentration with increasing temperature, whereas the influence of gas-particle partitioning appears to play a minor role. The results indicate that the OH-initiated oxidation of pinonic acid is the rate-limiting step in the formation of 3-MBTCA, and that 3-MBTCA may be a suitable tracer for the chemical aging of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) by OH radicals. An Arrhenius-type temperature dependence was also observed for the concentration of pinic acid (R2=0.60, n=56, Ea=84±9 kJ mol-1); it can be tentatively explained by the temperature dependence of biogenic pinene emission as the rate-limiting step of pinic acid formation.

  3. Seasonal cycle and temperature dependence of pinene oxidation products, dicarboxylic acids and nitrophenols in fine and coarse air particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. Y.; Müller, L.; Winterhalter, R.; Moortgat, G. K.; Hoffmann, T.; Pöschl, U.

    2010-08-01

    Filter samples of fine and coarse air particulate matter (PM) collected over a period of one year in central Europe (Mainz, Germany) were analyzed for water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs), including the α- and β-pinene oxidation products pinic acid, pinonic acid and 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (3-MBTCA), as well as a variety of dicarboxylic acids and nitrophenols. Seasonal variations and other characteristic features in fine, coarse, and total PM (TSP) are discussed with regard to aerosol sources and sinks in comparison to data from other studies and regions. The ratios of adipic acid and phthalic acid to azelaic acid indicate that the investigated aerosol samples were mainly influenced by biogenic sources. A strong Arrhenius-type correlation was found between the 3-MBTCA concentration and inverse temperature (R2 = 0.79, n = 52, Ea = 126 ± 10 kJ mol-1, temperature range 275-300 K). Model calculations suggest that the temperature dependence observed for 3-MBTCA can be explained by enhanced photochemical production due to an increase of hydroxyl radical (OH) concentration with increasing temperature, whereas the influence of gas-particle partitioning appears to play a minor role. The results indicate that the OH-initiated oxidation of pinonic acid is the rate-limiting step in the formation of 3-MBTCA, and that 3-MBTCA may be a suitable tracer for the chemical aging of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) by OH radicals. An Arrhenius-type temperature dependence was also observed for the concentration of pinic acid (R2 = 0.60, n = 56, Ea = 84 ± 9 kJ mol-1); it can be tentatively explained by the temperature dependence of biogenic pinene emission as the rate-limiting step of pinic acid formation.

  4. Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Achim; Mahidadia, Ashesh

    The purpose of this chapter is to present fundamental ideas and techniques of machine learning suitable for the field of this book, i.e., for automated scientific discovery. The chapter focuses on those symbolic machine learning methods, which produce results that are suitable to be interpreted and understood by humans. This is particularly important in the context of automated scientific discovery as the scientific theories to be produced by machines are usually meant to be interpreted by humans. This chapter contains some of the most influential ideas and concepts in machine learning research to give the reader a basic insight into the field. After the introduction in Sect. 1, general ideas of how learning problems can be framed are given in Sect. 2. The section provides useful perspectives to better understand what learning algorithms actually do. Section 3 presents the Version space model which is an early learning algorithm as well as a conceptual framework, that provides important insight into the general mechanisms behind most learning algorithms. In section 4, a family of learning algorithms, the AQ family for learning classification rules is presented. The AQ family belongs to the early approaches in machine learning. The next, Sect. 5 presents the basic principles of decision tree learners. Decision tree learners belong to the most influential class of inductive learning algorithms today. Finally, a more recent group of learning systems are presented in Sect. 6, which learn relational concepts within the framework of logic programming. This is a particularly interesting group of learning systems since the framework allows also to incorporate background knowledge which may assist in generalisation. Section 7 discusses Association Rules - a technique that comes from the related field of Data mining. Section 8 presents the basic idea of the Naive Bayesian Classifier. While this is a very popular learning technique, the learning result is not well suited for

  5. Estimating the Mean Annual Surface Air Temperature at Armagh Observatory, Northern Ireland, and the Global Land-Ocean Temperature Index for Sunspot Cycle 24, the Current Ongoing Sunspot Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    As noted by Gray et al., Sir William Herschel was the first to suggest a possible close connection between the Sun and the Earth’s climate. The Sun, being the source of energy that impacts and drives the Earth’s climate system, displays a variety of changes over both short and long term time scales, the most obvious examples being the somewhat regular waxing and waning of sunspots with time (i.e., the sunspot cycle (SC)), first described by Samuel Heinrich Schwabe, a German apothecary and amateur astronomer who observed the Sun from Dessau, Germany, and the now well established variation of the Sun’s irradiance over the SC. Other factors related to the SC have been linked to changes in climate as well. Some of these other factors include the role of cosmic rays and the solar wind (i.e., the geomagnetic cycle) on climate, as well as the apparent close association between trends in global and northern hemispheric temperature and the length of the SC, although some investigators have described the inferred association between climate and, in particular, SC length as now being weak. More recently, Solheim et al. have reported on the relation between SC length and the average temperature in the same and immediately following SC for a number of meteorological stations in Norway and in the North Atlantic region. They noted that while they found no significant trend (correlation) between SC length and the average temperature when measured for the same cycle, in contrast, they found a significant negative trend when SC length was compared with the following cycle’s average temperature. From this observation, they suggested that average northern hemispheric temperature during the present ongoing SC (SC24) will be lower by about 0.9 °C than was seen in SC23 (spanning 1996–2007, based on yearly averages of sunspot number (SSN), and onset for SC24 occurring in 2008). The purpose of this Technical Publication (TP) is to examine the annual variations of the Armagh

  6. Charging machine

    DOEpatents

    Medlin, John B.

    1976-05-25

    A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine.

  7. Research and Application of an Air Quality Early Warning System Based on a Modified Least Squares Support Vector Machine and a Cloud Model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianzhou; Niu, Tong; Wang, Rui

    2017-03-02

    The worsening atmospheric pollution increases the necessity of air quality early warning systems (EWSs). Despite the fact that a massive amount of investigation about EWS in theory and practicality has been conducted by numerous researchers, studies concerning the quantification of uncertain information and comprehensive evaluation are still lacking, which impedes further development in the area. In this paper, firstly a comprehensive warning system is proposed, which consists of two vital indispensable modules, namely effective forecasting and scientific evaluation, respectively. For the forecasting module, a novel hybrid model combining the theory of data preprocessing and numerical optimization is first developed to implement effective forecasting for air pollutant concentration. Especially, in order to further enhance the accuracy and robustness of the warning system, interval forecasting is implemented to quantify the uncertainties generated by forecasts, which can provide significant risk signals by using point forecasting for decision-makers. For the evaluation module, a cloud model, based on probability and fuzzy set theory, is developed to perform comprehensive evaluations of air quality, which can realize the transformation between qualitative concept and quantitative data. To verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the warning system, extensive simulations based on air pollutants data from Dalian in China were effectively implemented, which illustrate that the warning system is not only remarkably high-performance, but also widely applicable.

  8. Research and Application of an Air Quality Early Warning System Based on a Modified Least Squares Support Vector Machine and a Cloud Model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianzhou; Niu, Tong; Wang, Rui

    2017-01-01

    The worsening atmospheric pollution increases the necessity of air quality early warning systems (EWSs). Despite the fact that a massive amount of investigation about EWS in theory and practicality has been conducted by numerous researchers, studies concerning the quantification of uncertain information and comprehensive evaluation are still lacking, which impedes further development in the area. In this paper, firstly a comprehensive warning system is proposed, which consists of two vital indispensable modules, namely effective forecasting and scientific evaluation, respectively. For the forecasting module, a novel hybrid model combining the theory of data preprocessing and numerical optimization is first developed to implement effective forecasting for air pollutant concentration. Especially, in order to further enhance the accuracy and robustness of the warning system, interval forecasting is implemented to quantify the uncertainties generated by forecasts, which can provide significant risk signals by using point forecasting for decision-makers. For the evaluation module, a cloud model, based on probability and fuzzy set theory, is developed to perform comprehensive evaluations of air quality, which can realize the transformation between qualitative concept and quantitative data. To verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the warning system, extensive simulations based on air pollutants data from Dalian in China were effectively implemented, which illustrate that the warning system is not only remarkably high-performance, but also widely applicable. PMID:28257122

  9. Comparison of Anthropogenic CO2, NOx, and CO Emissions: Exploiting a Synergy Between Air Quality and Carbon Cycle Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, M. L.; Gurney, K. R.; Gregg, J. S.; Murtishaw, S.; Knox, S.; Andres, R. J.; Sieb, B.

    2005-05-01

    Studies of biospheric CO2 exchange at the regional to continental scale would be facilitated by spatiotemporally resolved estimates of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and other human activities. However, current estimates of fossil CO2 emissions do not provide sufficient temporal or spatial resolution for regional-scale investigations. The US-EPA National Emission Inventory (NEI) for criteria pollutants (e.g., NOx and CO) was developed for control of regional air quality and currently provides high resolution emissions estimates that are based, in part on, estimates of fuel consumption. Here we investigate the applicability of estimating CO2 emissions from either 1) NEI estimates of NOx or CO emissions, or 2) underlying information on fuel use contained within NEI. First, we calculate monthly sums of NOx and CO emissions separately for mobile, distributed area, and point sources for the 48 continental United States. We compare the aggregate NOx and CO emissions with monthly sums of each states CO2 emissions computed from sales of petroleum, natural gas, and coal as reported by the US Energy Information Agency (EIA). We then compute linear regressions to estimate CO:CO2 and NOx:CO2 emissions ratios and quantify the fraction of variance in CO2 captured by NOx and CO. Although the categories in the two data sets do not overlap perfectly, we find that in the cases where a close correspondence between fuel type and use is expected (e.g., petroleum and mobile sources), variations in NOx and CO explain approximately 80% of the variation in CO2 emissions. Second, we employ the Consolidated Community Emissions Processing Tool (CONCEPT) framework to extract estimates of fuel use or other proxy variables and estimate CO2 directly from the information contained in the NEI, and compare with the EIA estimates of CO2 emissions, and with NEI estimates of NOx and CO emissions as above. Finally, we discuss these results with consideration of previous atmospheric

  10. Comparison of Anthropogenic CO2, NOx, and CO Emissions: Exploiting a Synergy Between Air Quality and Carbon Cycle Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, M. L.; Gurney, K. R.; Gregg, J. S.; Murtishaw, S.; Knox, S.; Andres, R. J.; Sieb, B.

    2006-12-01

    Studies of biospheric CO2 exchange at the regional to continental scale would be facilitated by spatiotemporally resolved estimates of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and other human activities. However, current estimates of fossil CO2 emissions do not provide sufficient temporal or spatial resolution for regional-scale investigations. The US-EPA National Emission Inventory (NEI) for criteria pollutants (e.g., NOx and CO) was developed for control of regional air quality and currently provides high resolution emissions estimates that are based, in part on, estimates of fuel consumption. Here we investigate the applicability of estimating CO2 emissions from either 1) NEI estimates of NOx or CO emissions, or 2) underlying information on fuel use contained within NEI. First, we calculate monthly sums of NOx and CO emissions separately for mobile, distributed area, and point sources for the 48 continental United States. We compare the aggregate NOx and CO emissions with monthly sums of each states CO2 emissions computed from sales of petroleum, natural gas, and coal as reported by the US Energy Information Agency (EIA). We then compute linear regressions to estimate CO:CO2 and NOx:CO2 emissions ratios and quantify the fraction of variance in CO2 captured by NOx and CO. Although the categories in the two data sets do not overlap perfectly, we find that in the cases where a close correspondence between fuel type and use is expected (e.g., petroleum and mobile sources), variations in NOx and CO explain approximately 80% of the variation in CO2 emissions. Second, we employ the Consolidated Community Emissions Processing Tool (CONCEPT) framework to extract estimates of fuel use or other proxy variables and estimate CO2 directly from the information contained in the NEI, and compare with the EIA estimates of CO2 emissions, and with NEI estimates of NOx and CO emissions as above. Finally, we discuss these results with consideration of previous atmospheric

  11. Induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Whitney H.

    1980-01-01

    A polyphase rotary induction machine for use as a motor or generator utilizing a single rotor assembly having two series connected sets of rotor windings, a first stator winding disposed around the first rotor winding and means for controlling the current induced in one set of the rotor windings compared to the current induced in the other set of the rotor windings. The rotor windings may be wound rotor windings or squirrel cage windings.

  12. Machine vision

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, D.

    1989-06-01

    To keep up with the speeds of modern production lines, most machine vision applications require very powerful computers (often parallel-processing machines), which process millions of points of data in real time. The human brain performs approximately 100 billion logical floating-point operations each second. That is 400 times the speed of a Cray-1 supercomputer. The right software must be developed for parallel-processing computers. The NSF has awarded Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (Troy, N.Y.) a $2 million grant for parallel- and image-processing software research. Over the last 15 years, Rensselaer has been conducting image-processing research, including work with high-definition TV (HDTV) and image coding and understanding. A similar NSF grant has been awarded to Michigan State University (East Lansing, Mich.) Neural networks are supposed to emulate human learning patterns. These networks and their hardware implementations (neurocomputers) show a great deal of promise for machine vision systems because they allow the systems to understand the use sensory data input more effectively. Neurocomputers excel at pattern-recognition tasks when input data are fuzzy or the vision algorithm is not optimal and is difficult to ascertain.

  13. Seasonal cycle and interannual variability of the total CH4 mixing ratios in West Siberia: Results from AIRS/AMSU and chemistry transport models for 2003-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagutin, Anatoly; Mordvin, Egor

    Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas. It has much higher global warming potential comparing to carbon dioxide on per mass emitted basis. Atmospheric methane also plays an important role in atmospheric ozone chemistry and is the main source of water vapor in the stratosphere. The recent increase of CH4 in 2007-2008, after a nearly stable period of about one decade, is attributed to the increased emissions from tropical and Arctic wetlands. However, many uncertainties regarding natural and anthropogenic methane emissions still exist. For example, the total CH4 emissions from wetlands in West Siberia are estimated to be in the range from 1.6 to 20 Tg/year. The main causes leading to such large uncertainties are significant spatial and temporal variation of CH4 emissions and the sparseness of ground observational networks. The purpose of this study is to investigate the seasonal cycle and interannual variability of the total CH4 mixing ratios (CH4-Tot) in West Siberia for 2003-2013 using the AIRS/AMSU-Aqua measurements and the results from chemistry transport models MOZART4 and ACTM-CCSR/NIES/FRCGC. The key feature of the proposed approach is chemistry transport model-based regression equation linking CH4-Tot with mid-upper tropospheric CH4 (in the layer from 50 to 250 hPa below the tropopause), the tropopause height and the surface temperature. The observational information in our approach comes from the AIRS/AMSU measurements. Comparison of the retrieved CH4-Tot with the measurements of CH4 from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) have shown that the model captures observed seasonal cycles and interannual variability at mid-latitude sites. The spatial and temporal distributions of CH4-Tot in West Siberia for 2003-2013 are presented. Analysis of deseasonalized time-series indicates that the total CH4 mixing ratios increases about 4 ppbv/yr from 2007. This work was supported in part by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant No 13

  14. Occurrence of molecular abnormalities of cell cycle in L132 cells after in vitro short-term exposure to air pollution PM(2.5).

    PubMed

    Abbas, Imane; Garçon, Guillaume; Saint-Georges, Françoise; Billet, Sylvain; Verdin, Anthony; Gosset, Pierre; Mulliez, Philippe; Shirali, Pirouz

    2010-12-05

    To improve the knowledge of the underlying mechanisms implying in air pollution Particulate Matter (PM)-induced lung toxicity in humans, we were interested in the sequential occurrence of molecular abnormalities from TP53-RB gene signaling pathway activation in the L132 target human lung epithelial cell model. The most toxicologically relevant physical and chemical characteristics of air pollution PM(2.5) collected in Dunkerque, a French highly-industrialized sea-side city, were determined. L132 cells were exposed during 24, 48 and 72h to Dunkerque City's PM(2.5) (i.e. Lethal Concentration (LC)(10)=18.84μgPM/mL or 5.02μgPM/cm(2); LC(50)=75.36μgPM/mL or 20.10μgPM/cm(2)), TiO(2) and desorbed PM (i.e. dPM; EqLC(10)=15.42μg/mL or 4.11μgPM/cm(2); EqLC(50)=61.71μg/mL or 16.46μgPM/cm(2)), benzene (7μM) or Benzo[a]Pyrene (B[a]P; 1μM). Dunkerque City's PM(2.5) altered the gene expression and/or the protein concentration of several key cell cycle controllers from TP53-RB gene signaling pathway (i.e. P53; BCL2; P21; cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 1; retinoblastoma protein) in L132 cells, thereby leading to the occurrence of cell proliferation and apoptosis together. The activation of the critical cell cycle controllers under study might be related to PM-induced oxidative stress, through the possible involvement of covalent metals in redox systems, the metabolic activation of organic chemicals by enzyme-catalyzed reactions, and phagocytosis. Taken together, these results might ask the critical question whether there is a balance or, in contrast, rather an imbalance between the cell proliferation and the apoptosis occurring in PM-exposed L132 cells, with possible consequences in term of PM-induced lung tumorgenesis.

  15. Washing machine usage in remote aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, C R

    1998-10-01

    The use of washing machines was investigated in two remote Aboriginal communities in the Anangu Pitjantjatjara homelands. The aim was to look both at machine reliability and to investigate the health aspect of washing clothes. A total of 39 machines were inspected for wear and component reliability every three months over a one-year period. Of these, 10 machines were monitored in detail for water consumption, hours of use and cycles of operation. The machines monitored were Speed Queen model EA2011 (7 kg washing load) commercial units. The field survey results suggested a high rate of operation of the machines with an average of around 1,100 washing cycles per year (range 150 and 2,300 cycles per year). The results were compared with available figures for the average Australian household. A literature survey, to ascertain the health outcomes relating to washing clothes and bedding, confirmed that washing machines are efficient at removal of bacteria from clothes and bedding but suggested that recontamination of clothing after washing often negated the prior removal. High temperature washing (> 60 degrees C) appeared to be advantageous from a health perspective. With regards to larger organisms, while dust mites and body lice transmission between people would probably be decreased by washing clothes, scabies appeared to be mainly transmitted by body contact and thus transmission would be only marginally decreased by the use of washing machines.

  16. TEMPO machine

    SciTech Connect

    Rohwein, G.J.; Lancaster, K.T.; Lawson, R.N.

    1986-06-01

    TEMPO is a transformer powered megavolt pulse generator with an output pulse of 100 ns duration. The machine was designed for burst mode operation at pulse repetition rates up to 10 Hz with minimum pulse-to-pulse voltage variations. To meet the requirement for pulse duration a nd a 20-..omega.. output impedance within reasonable size constraints, the pulse forming transmission line was designed as two parallel water-insulated, strip-type Blumleins. Stray capacitance and electric fields along the edges of the line elements were controlled by lining the tank with plastic sheet.

  17. Investigating Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using live plants and cigarette smoke to demonstrate the effects of air pollution on a living organism. Procedures include growth of the test plants in glass bottles, and construction and operation of smoking machine. (CS)

  18. Life cycle inventory analysis of regenerative thermal oxidation of air emissions from oriented strand board facilities in Minnesota - a perspective of global climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, W.J.

    1997-12-31

    Life cycle inventory analysis has been applied to the prospective operation of regenerative thermal oxidation (RTO) technology at oriented strand board plants at Bemidji (Line 1) and Cook, Minnesota. The net system destruction of VOC`s and carbon monoxide, and at Cook a small quantity of particulate, has a very high environmental price in terms of energy and water use, global warming potential, sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions, solids discharged to water, and solid waste deposited in landfills. The benefit of VOC destruction is identified as minor in terms of ground level ozone at best and possibly slightly detrimental. Recognition of environmental tradeoffs associated with proposed system changes is critical to sound decision-making. There are more conventional ways to address carbon monoxide emissions than combustion in RTO`s. In an environment in which global warming is a concern, fuel supplemental combustion for environmental control does not appear warranted. Consideration of non-combustion approaches to address air emission issues at the two operations is recommended. 1 ref., 5 tabs.

  19. Cloning and expression of StAR during gonadal cycle and hCG-induced oocyte maturation of air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasulu, G; Sridevi, P; Sahoo, P K; Swapna, I; Ge, W; Kirubagaran, R; Dutta-Gupta, A; Senthilkumaran, B

    2009-09-01

    Complementary DNAs encoding steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) have been isolated from different fish species, yet the relevance of StAR during gonadal cycle and more importantly in final oocyte maturation has not been assessed so far. A cDNA encoding StAR was isolated from the ovarian follicles of air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Catfish StAR exhibited 55 to 72% identity at nucleotide level with other vertebrate orthologs. RT-PCR analysis of tissue distribution pattern demonstrated the presence of StAR mRNA in various tissues including gonads, kidney, liver, brain and intestine of catfish. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed high expression of StAR mRNA in the pre-spawning phase of ovary while it was low in preparatory, spawning and regressed phases. In testis, maximum expression was noticed during the preparatory phase. During human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-induced oocyte maturation, both in vitro and in vivo, StAR mRNA levels were augmented by 2 h and then declined gradually to reach basal levels by 12 h as that of saline-treated controls. Taken together, high level of expression during hCG-induced oocyte maturation vis-à-vis in spawning suggests a role for StAR, in addition to the steroidogenic enzyme genes in final oocyte maturation.

  20. Selective Ion Transporting Polymerized Ionic Liquid Membrane Separator for Enhancing Cycle Stability and Durability in Secondary Zinc-Air Battery Systems.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ho Jung; Chi, Won Seok; Kwon, Ohchan; Lee, Jin Goo; Kim, Jong Hak; Shul, Yong-Gun

    2016-10-05

    Rechargeable secondary zinc-air batteries with superior cyclic stability were developed using commercial polypropylene (PP) membrane coated with polymerized ionic liquid as separators. The anionic exchange polymer was synthesized copolymerizing 1-[(4-ethenylphenyl)methyl]-3-butylimidazolium hydroxide (EBIH) and butyl methacrylate (BMA) monomers by free radical polymerization for both functionality and structural integrity. The ionic liquid induced copolymer was coated on a commercially available PP membrane (Celguard 5550). The coat allows anionic transfer through the separator and minimizes the migration of zincate ions to the cathode compartment, which reduces electrolyte conductivity and may deteriorate catalytic activity by the formation of zinc oxide on the surface of the catalyst layer. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) data revealed the copolymer-coated separator showed less zinc element in the cathode, indicating lower zinc crossover through the membrane. Ion coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) analysis confirmed over 96% of zincate ion crossover was reduced. In our charge/discharge setup, the constructed cell with the ionic liquid induced copolymer casted separator exhibited drastically improved durability as the battery life increased more than 281% compared to the pure commercial PP membrane. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) during the cycle process elucidated the premature failure of cells due to the zinc crossover for the untreated cell and revealed a substantial importance must be placed in zincate control.

  1. Evaluation of 11 terrestrial carbon-nitrogen cycle models against observations from two temperate Free-Air CO2 Enrichment studies.

    PubMed

    Zaehle, Sönke; Medlyn, Belinda E; De Kauwe, Martin G; Walker, Anthony P; Dietze, Michael C; Hickler, Thomas; Luo, Yiqi; Wang, Ying-Ping; El-Masri, Bassil; Thornton, Peter; Jain, Atul; Wang, Shusen; Warlind, David; Weng, Ensheng; Parton, William; Iversen, Colleen M; Gallet-Budynek, Anne; McCarthy, Heather; Finzi, Adrien; Hanson, Paul J; Prentice, I Colin; Oren, Ram; Norby, Richard J

    2014-05-01

    We analysed the responses of 11 ecosystem models to elevated atmospheric [CO2 ] (eCO2 ) at two temperate forest ecosystems (Duke and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments) to test alternative representations of carbon (C)-nitrogen (N) cycle processes. We decomposed the model responses into component processes affecting the response to eCO2 and confronted these with observations from the FACE experiments. Most of the models reproduced the observed initial enhancement of net primary production (NPP) at both sites, but none was able to simulate both the sustained 10-yr enhancement at Duke and the declining response at ORNL: models generally showed signs of progressive N limitation as a result of lower than observed plant N uptake. Nonetheless, many models showed qualitative agreement with observed component processes. The results suggest that improved representation of above-ground-below-ground interactions and better constraints on plant stoichiometry are important for a predictive understanding of eCO2 effects. Improved accuracy of soil organic matter inventories is pivotal to reduce uncertainty in the observed C-N budgets. The two FACE experiments are insufficient to fully constrain terrestrial responses to eCO2 , given the complexity of factors leading to the observed diverging trends, and the consequential inability of the models to explain these trends. Nevertheless, the ecosystem models were able to capture important features of the experiments, lending some support to their projections.

  2. Application of support vector machine method for the analysis of absorption spectra of exhaled air of patients with broncho-pulmonary diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukreeva, Ekaterina B.; Bulanova, Anna A.; Kistenev, Yury V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Tuzikov, Sergei A.; Yumov, Evgeny L.

    2014-11-01

    The results of the joint use of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and chemometrics methods in gas analysis of exhaled air of patients with respiratory diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and lung cancer) are presented. The absorption spectra of exhaled breath of all volunteers were measured, the classification methods of the scans of the absorption spectra were applied, the sensitivity/specificity of the classification results were determined. It were obtained a result of nosological in pairs classification for all investigated volunteers, indices of sensitivity and specificity.

  3. Safety improvements in high pressure thermal machines

    SciTech Connect

    Otters, J.L.

    1988-02-09

    In a thermal machine of the type including a machine body having a main axis extending between a thermal end and a work end, a working fluid at relatively high pressure in a working fluid chamber defined in the body and a displacer element reciprocable within the chamber for subjecting the fluid to a thermodynamic cycle in cooperation with a reciprocable work piston, the improvement is described comprising outer shell means enclosing the machine body for maintaining a substantially sealed atmosphere about the machine body, and diffuser means arranged between the machine body and the outer shell means for diffusing a shock wave traveling towards the outer shell means resulting from explosive failure of the machine body and for shielding the outer shell means against fragments projected upon such failure.

  4. Foam-Mixing-And-Dispensing Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chong, Keith Y.; Toombs, Gordon R.; Jackson, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    Time-and-money-saving machine produces consistent, homogeneously mixed foam, enhancing production efficiency. Automatically mixes and dispenses polyurethane foam in quantities specified by weight. Consists of cart-mounted, air-driven proportioning unit; air-activated mechanical mixing gun; programmable timer/counter, and controller.

  5. Parallel machines: Parallel machine languages

    SciTech Connect

    Iannucci, R.A. )

    1990-01-01

    This book presents a framework for understanding the tradeoffs between the conventional view and the dataflow view with the objective of discovering the critical hardware structures which must be present in any scalable, general-purpose parallel computer to effectively tolerate latency and synchronization costs. The author presents an approach to scalable general purpose parallel computation. Linguistic Concerns, Compiling Issues, Intermediate Language Issues, and hardware/technological constraints are presented as a combined approach to architectural Develoement. This book presents the notion of a parallel machine language.

  6. Transfer rates of enteric microorganisms in recycled water during machine clothes washing.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Joanne; Sinclair, Martha; Leder, Karin

    2009-03-01

    Approximately 15% of overall Australian household water usage is in the laundry; hence, a significant reduction in household drinking water demand could be achieved if potable-quality water used for clothes washing is replaced with recycled water. To investigate the microbiological safety of using recycled water in washing machines, bacteriophages MS-2 and PRD-1, Escherichia coli, and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were used in a series of experiments to investigate the transfer efficiency of enteric microorganisms from washing machine water to objects including hands, environmental surfaces, air, and fabric swatches. By determining the transference efficiency, it is possible to estimate the numbers of microorganisms that the user will be exposed to if recycled water with various levels of residual microorganisms is used in washing machines. Results, expressed as transfer rates to a given surface area per object, showed that the mean transfer efficiency of E. coli, bacteriophages MS-2 and PRD-1, and C. parvum oocysts from seeded water to fabric swatches ranged from 0.001% to 0.090%. Greatest exposure to microorganisms occurred through direct contact of hands with seeded water and via hand contact with contaminated fabric swatches. No microorganisms were detected in the air samples during the washing machine spin cycle, and transfer rates of bacteriophages from water to environmental surfaces were 100-fold less than from water directly to hands. Findings from this study provide relevant information that can be used to refine regulations governing recycled water and to allay public concerns about the use of recycled water.

  7. Minimal universal quantum heat machine.

    PubMed

    Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D; Alicki, R; Kurizki, G

    2013-01-01

    In traditional thermodynamics the Carnot cycle yields the ideal performance bound of heat engines and refrigerators. We propose and analyze a minimal model of a heat machine that can play a similar role in quantum regimes. The minimal model consists of a single two-level system with periodically modulated energy splitting that is permanently, weakly, coupled to two spectrally separated heat baths at different temperatures. The equation of motion allows us to compute the stationary power and heat currents in the machine consistent with the second law of thermodynamics. This dual-purpose machine can act as either an engine or a refrigerator (heat pump) depending on the modulation rate. In both modes of operation, the maximal Carnot efficiency is reached at zero power. We study the conditions for finite-time optimal performance for several variants of the model. Possible realizations of the model are discussed.

  8. High-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of a Nicalon(tm)/Si-N-C Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verrilli, Michael J.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Kantzos, Peter T.

    1999-01-01

    Elevated temperature, high-cycle fatigue behavior of a woven SiC/Si-N-C ceramic matrix composite system was investigated at 910 C. High frequency (100 Hz) fatigue tests were conducted in air on specimens machined from the composite system, A power-law type fatigue life relationship adequately characterized the high-cycle fatigue data generated in the study. Post failure fractographic and metallographic studies were performed to document the fatigue crack initiation regions and damage mechanisms in the composite system. Fatigue cracks initiated primarily from the corners of the specimens and propagated along the 90 degree fiber tows.

  9. Synoptic evaluation of carbon cycling in Beaufort Sea during summer: contrasting river inputs, ecosystem metabolism and air-sea CO2 fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forest, A.; Coupel, P.; Else, B.; Nahavandian, S.; Lansard, B.; Raimbault, P.; Papakyriakou, T.; Gratton, Y.; Fortier, L.; Tremblay, J.-É.; Babin, M.

    2013-10-01

    The accelerated decline in Arctic sea ice combined with an ongoing trend toward a more dynamic atmosphere is modifying carbon cycling in the Arctic Ocean. A critical issue is to understand how net community production (NCP; the balance between gross primary production and community respiration) responds to changes and modulates air-sea CO2 fluxes. Using data collected as part of the ArcticNet-Malina 2009 expedition in southeastern Beaufort Sea (Arctic Ocean), we synthesize information on sea ice, wind, river, water column properties, metabolism of the planktonic food web, organic carbon fluxes and pools, as well as air-sea CO2 exchange, with the aim of identifying indices of ecosystem response to environmental changes. Data were analyzed to develop a non-steady-state carbon budget and an assessment of NCP against air-sea CO2 fluxes. The mean atmospheric forcing was a mild upwelling-favorable wind (~5 km h-1) blowing from the N-E and a decaying ice cover (<80% concentration) was observed beyond the shelf, the latter being fully exposed to the atmosphere. We detected some areas where the surface mixed layer was net autotrophic owing to high rates of primary production (PP), but the ecosystem was overall net heterotrophic. The region acted nonetheless as a sink for atmospheric CO2 with a mean uptake rate of -2.0 ± 3.3 mmol C m-2d-1. We attribute this discrepancy to: (1) elevated PP rates (>600 mg C m-2d-1) over the shelf prior to our survey, (2) freshwater dilution by river runoff and ice melt, and (3) the presence of cold surface waters offshore. Only the Mackenzie River delta and localized shelf areas directly affected by upwelling were identified as substantial sources of CO2 to the atmosphere (>10mmol C m-2d-1). Although generally <100 mg C m-2d-1, daily PP rates cumulated to a total PP of ~437.6 × 103 t C, which was roughly twice higher than the organic carbon delivery by river inputs (~241.2 × 103 t C). Subsurface PP represented 37.4% of total PP for the

  10. Machine musicianship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Robert

    2002-05-01

    The training of musicians begins by teaching basic musical concepts, a collection of knowledge commonly known as musicianship. Computer programs designed to implement musical skills (e.g., to make sense of what they hear, perform music expressively, or compose convincing pieces) can similarly benefit from access to a fundamental level of musicianship. Recent research in music cognition, artificial intelligence, and music theory has produced a repertoire of techniques that can make the behavior of computer programs more musical. Many of these were presented in a recently published book/CD-ROM entitled Machine Musicianship. For use in interactive music systems, we are interested in those which are fast enough to run in real time and that need only make reference to the material as it appears in sequence. This talk will review several applications that are able to identify the tonal center of musical material during performance. Beyond this specific task, the design of real-time algorithmic listening through the concurrent operation of several connected analyzers is examined. The presentation includes discussion of a library of C++ objects that can be combined to perform interactive listening and a demonstration of their capability.

  11. Critical Machine Based Scheduling -A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivek, P.; Saravanan, R.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Pugazhenthi, R.

    2017-03-01

    This article aims to identify the natural occurrence of the critical machines in scheduling. The exciting scheduling in the real time manufacturing environment is focused on considering equal weight-age of all the machines, but very few researchers were considered the real time constraint(s) like processor/ machine/ workstation availability, etc.,. This article explores the gap between the theory and practices by identifying the critical machine in scheduling and helps the researcher to find the suitable problem in their case study environment. Through the literature survey, it is evident that, in scheduling the occurrence of the critical machine is in nature. The critical machine is found in various names and gives a various range of weight-age based on the particular manufacturing environment and it plays a vital role in scheduling which includes one or more circumstances of occurrence in the production environment. Very few researchers were reported that in manufacturing environment, the critical machine occurrence is in nature, but most of the researchers were focused to optimize the manufacturing environment by only reducing the cycle time. In real-time manufacturing environment, the scheduling of critical machine(s) was keenly monitored and some weight-age was considered.

  12. MODIFY: A Machine-Independent Maintenance Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    PROGRAM THESIS AFIT/GCS/MA/81D-5 Nancy J. Murphy Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited AppMVCed --IF I’U C - ’TDiglributkcn Unlimited AFIT/GCS...MA/81D-5 MODIFY: A MACHINE-INDEPENDENT MAINTENANCE PROGRAM THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of...Machine-Dependent Requirements . . . . . . . . 34 Processing Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Program Description . . . . . . . . 40 IV. Conclusions

  13. Flotation machine

    SciTech Connect

    Zlobin, M.N.; Permyakov, G.P.; Nemarov, A.A.; Metsik, V.M.; Medetsky, J.V.; Taraban, N.T.

    1993-08-10

    A flotation machine is described for beneficiating minerals comprising: a vertical cylindrical chamber for circulating a flotation pulp; a downwardly tapered bottom connected to said vertical cylindrical chamber; feed pipe means for feeding the flotation pulp carrying mineral particles of fine fraction, particles of the useful ingredient of the fine fraction being capable of floating up from the volume of said aerated pulp; discharge pipe means connected to the tapered bottom near its lowest point for discharging gangue; an annular trough for collecting froth concentrate at the top of said chamber; a group of frustoconical shells each having bases of different diameters and a tapered surface secured axially in said chamber and spaced equidistantly from one another height wise of said chamber; aerator means for aerating the flotation pulp secured to the walls of said chamber and communicating therewith to provide aerated water into said chamber; means for feeding mineral particles of coarse fraction, particles of the useful ingredient of the coarse fraction being capable of floating in the froth layer of the flotation pulp, in the form of a hydrocyclone having a cylindrical casing positioned axially over said chamber and a downwardly tapering outlet directed downwardly to feed the coarse particles to said chamber; feed pipe means for feeding the flotation pulp carrying mineral particles of coarse fraction positioned tangentially at said cylindrical casing of the hydrocyclone; and evacuation means for evacuating the liquid phase of the flotation pulp positioned tangentially at said casing of the hydrocyclone over said feed pipe means and connected to said feed pipe means for feeding the flotation pulp carrying mineral particles of the fine fraction.

  14. Development of New Air-Cooled Heat Pump Chiller 'Compact Cube'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ookoshi, Yasushi; Ito, Takuya; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Kato, Yohei; Ochiai, Yasutaka; Tanaka, Kosuke; Uji, Yoshihiro; Nakayama, Hiroshi

    Further improvement of the performance is requested to air-cooled heat pump chiller from the viewpoint of the global warming prevention. Smaller unit is needed to facilitate the renewal from absorption chiller to air-cooled heat pump chiller. To meet such needs, we developed compact new air-cooled heat pump chiller with high efficiency, 'Compact cube'. The developed machine is side-flow type with U-shaped fin and tube heat exchangers. With this structure, the uniform air velocity, high packed density of the heat exchangers, and the unit miniaturization have been implemented. The refrigeration cycle with two-evaporating temperature has also been implemented. The cooling COP of this cycle is 2% higher compared with conventional one-evaporating temperature cycle because of the rise of average evaporating temperature. In a new model, a new control system, which controls both capacity of compressors and air flow rate corresponding to heat load, has been implemented. As a result, the developed machine achieved IPLV(Integrated Part load Value) to 6.2(MCHV-P1800AE) which is 29% better than the conventional unit.

  15. Laboratory Test of Vending Machine with Advanced Defrosting Technology and Integrated Accumulatory/Expander Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Bryne, M E; Domitrovic, R E; Mei, V C; Chen, F C; Fransson, J H.M.

    2000-10-01

    The manufacturer delivered an off-the-shelf soft drink vending machine for testing to ORNL. The machine was tested for baseline performance and it was found that the cold air passage was not properly designed. An inadequate cold air supply to the product resulted in recirculation of the evaporator air and heavy frost accumulation on the evaporator coil.

  16. [Machine for washing hospital laboratory vessels].

    PubMed

    Smotriaev, V M; Solov'ev, A A; Shvedov, Iu A; Zakharov, A G

    1977-01-01

    To improve washing laboratory vessels a selection of effective detergents was made and the technology of washing has been worked out. These data formed a groundwork for the construction of the washing machine, model BII-200, whose pilot unit has passed technical and medical tests and is recommended for batch production. The capacity of the machine with the use of the synthetic detergent "Trias" (per cycle): 252 test tubes, 96 microscope slides, 30 Petri dishes. The duration of the washing cycle is 27 min.

  17. Fuel cell and advanced turbine power cycle

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.J.

    1995-10-19

    Solar Turbines, Incorporated (Solar) has a vested interest in the integration of gas turbines and high temperature fuel cells and in particular, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Solar has identified a parallel path approach to the technology developments needed for future products. The primary approach is to move away from the simple cycle industrial machines of the past and develop as a first step more efficient recuperated engines. This move was prompted by the recognition that the simple cycle machines were rapidly approaching their efficiency limits. Improving the efficiency of simple cycle machines is and will become increasingly more costly. Each efficiency increment will be progressively more costly than the previous step.

  18. Synoptic evaluation of carbon cycling in the Beaufort Sea during summer: contrasting river inputs, ecosystem metabolism and air-sea CO2 fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forest, A.; Coupel, P.; Else, B.; Nahavandian, S.; Lansard, B.; Raimbault, P.; Papakyriakou, T.; Gratton, Y.; Fortier, L.; Tremblay, J.-É.; Babin, M.

    2014-05-01

    The accelerated decline in Arctic sea ice and an ongoing trend toward more energetic atmospheric and oceanic forcings are modifying carbon cycling in the Arctic Ocean. A critical issue is to understand how net community production (NCP; the balance between gross primary production and community respiration) responds to changes and modulates air-sea CO2 fluxes. Using data collected as part of the ArcticNet-Malina 2009 expedition in the southeastern Beaufort Sea (Arctic Ocean), we synthesize information on sea ice, wind, river, water column properties, metabolism of the planktonic food web, organic carbon fluxes and pools, as well as air-sea CO2 exchange, with the aim of documenting the ecosystem response to environmental changes. Data were analyzed to develop a non-steady-state carbon budget and an assessment of NCP against air-sea CO2 fluxes. During the field campaign, the mean wind field was a mild upwelling-favorable wind (~ 5 km h-1) from the NE. A decaying ice cover (< 80% concentration) was observed beyond the shelf, the latter being fully exposed to the atmosphere. We detected some areas where the surface mixed layer was net autotrophic owing to high rates of primary production (PP), but the ecosystem was overall net heterotrophic. The region acted nonetheless as a sink for atmospheric CO2, with an uptake rate of -2.0 ± 3.3 mmol C m-2 d-1 (mean ± standard deviation associated with spatial variability). We attribute this discrepancy to (1) elevated PP rates (> 600 mg C m-2 d-1) over the shelf prior to our survey, (2) freshwater dilution by river runoff and ice melt, and (3) the presence of cold surface waters offshore. Only the Mackenzie River delta and localized shelf areas directly affected by upwelling were identified as substantial sources of CO2 to the atmosphere (> 10 mmol C m-2 d-1). Daily PP rates were generally < 100 mg C m-2 d-1 and cumulated to a total PP of ~ 437.6 × 103 t C for the region over a 35-day period. This amount was about twice the

  19. Study on High Efficient Absorption Refrigerator Using Multi-effect Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Naoyuki; Irie, Tomoyoshi; Saito, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Sunao

    Double effect chillers are commonly used as cooling machines for air condition. Great efforts have been making to improve the efficiency for a long time, and now the COP is very near to the limitation of double effect cycles. Triple effect cycles are expected for the next step beyond double effect cycles, but have some problems of high temperature and high pressure in the high stage generator. High temperature of absorbent causes corrosion problem and high vapor pressure over atmospheric pressure causes the restriction of legal regulation. This paper deals with many types of triple effect cycles. The temperature and dew point of the high stage generator are analyzed, several types are selected for low dew point, and one of them is more analyzed in detail.

  20. 75 FR 34673 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... Pollutants: Air Emission Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning Machines: State of Rhode Island... applies to organic solvent cleaning machines in Rhode Island, except for continuous web cleaning machines... General Definitions Rule in place of the Halogenated Solvent NESHAP for organic solvent cleaning...

  1. 75 FR 34647 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... Pollutants: Air Emission Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning Machines: State of Rhode Island... it applies to organic solvent cleaning machines in Rhode Island, except continuous web cleaning machines, with respect to which the Halogenated Solvent NESHAP shall continue to apply. EPA has...

  2. Energy and economic performance analysis of an open cycle solar desiccant dehumidification air-conditioning system for application in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yutong; Lu, Lin; Yang, Hongxing

    2010-12-15

    In this article, a transient simulation model and the EnergyPlus were used to study the energy performance and economical feasibility for integrating a solar liquid desiccant dehumidification system with a conventional vapor compression air-conditioning system for the weather condition of Hong Kong. The vapor compression system capacity in the solar assisted air-conditioning system can be reduced to 19 kW from original 28 kW of a conventional air-conditioning system as a case study due to the solar desiccant cooling. The economical performance of the solar desiccant dehumidification system is compared with that of the conventional air-conditioning system. The results show that the energy saving potentials due to incorporation of the solar desiccant dehumidification system in a traditional air-conditioning system is significant for the hot wet weather in Hong Kong due to higher COP resulted from higher supply chilled water temperature from chiller plants. The annual operation energy savings for the hybrid system is 6760 kWh and the payback period of the hybrid system is around 7 years. The study shows that the solar assisted air-conditioning is a viable technology for utilizations in subtropical areas. (author)

  3. Conceptual Study of Permanent Magnet Machine Ship Propulsion Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-01

    thyristors and can be either water or air cooled. The machine-cycloconverter, many-phase or parallel three-phase connection design offers a drive system with characteristics well matched to a ship propulsion system.

  4. Stirling machine operating experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Brad; Dudenhoefer, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that Stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and were not expected to operate for any lengthy period of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered.

  5. Women, Men, and Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Form, William; McMillen, David Byron

    1983-01-01

    Data from the first national study of technological change show that proportionately more women than men operate machines, are more exposed to machines that have alienating effects, and suffer more from the negative effects of technological change. (Author/SSH)

  6. Evaluation of rotor-bearing system dynamic response to unbalance. [air conditioning equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, R. E.; Ozimek, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    The vibration environment within air conditioner rotating machinery referred to as an air cycle machine (ACM) was investigated to effectively increase ACM reliability. To assist in the selection of design changes which would result in improved ACM performance, various design modifications were incorporated into a baseline ACM configuration. For each design change, testing was conducted with the best balance achieveable (baseline) and with various degrees of unbalance. Relationships between unbalance (within the context of design changes) and the parameters associated with design goals were established. The results of rotor dynamics tests used to establish these relationships are presented.

  7. The Iowa wave machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daffron, John D.; Greenslade, Thomas B.; Stille, Dale

    2010-03-01

    Wave machines are a staple of demonstration lectures, and a good pair of wave machines can make the idea of transverse and longitudinal waves clearly evident to students. The demonstration apparatus collection of the University of Iowa contains examples of transverse and longitudinal wave machines that will be of interest to readers of The Physics Teacher. These machines probably date from about 1925 and may have been locally produced. You too can build them.

  8. Development of synchronous machines with HTS rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kummeth, P.; Frank, M.; Nick, W.; Nerowski, G.; Neumueller, H.-W.

    2005-10-01

    Optimized design of synchronous machines can be achieved by use of HTS tape conductors. The introduction of an iron-free air-core stator winding and replacement of the rotor's copper windings by Bi-2223 tapes allows to develop very compact HTS machines with less than half the weight and volume, higher efficiency and excellent operational behavior compared to conventional devices. In consequence these rotating machines with HTS rotors become very attractive for ship drives, power generation and industrial applications. A 400 kW synchronous HTS machine was designed, manufactured and tested at Siemens. Main goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of basic concepts. Development of a 4 MVA synchronous HTS generator is currently under way.

  9. Cable-Twisting Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurnett, S.

    1982-01-01

    New cable-twisting machine is smaller and faster than many production units. Is useful mainly in production of short-run special cables. Already-twisted cable can be fed along axis of machine. Faster operation than typical industrial cable-twisting machines possible by using smaller spools of wire.

  10. Apprentice Machine Theory Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational-Technical Schools.

    This volume contains outlines for 16 courses in machine theory that are designed for machine tool apprentices. Addressed in the individual course outlines are the following topics: basic concepts; lathes; milling machines; drills, saws, and shapers; heat treatment and metallurgy; grinders; quality control; hydraulics and pneumatics;…

  11. Creating unorganised machines from memristors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Gerard; Bull, Larry; Costello, Ben De Lacy; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2012-09-01

    There is growing interest in memristive devices following their recent nanoscale fabrication. This paper describes initial consideration of the implementation of artificial intelligence within predominantly memristive hardware. In particular, versions of Alan Turing's discrete dynamical network formalism — the unorganised machine — are used as the knowledge representation scheme and a population-based search technique is used to design appropriate networks. Issues including memristor count and global network synchrony are compared for two memristive logic implementations (NAND and IMP) on a well-known simulated robotics benchmark task. It is shown that IMP networks are harder to design than NAND, but are simpler to implement and require fewer processor cycles.

  12. Radiator debris removing apparatus and work machine using same

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Kevin L.; Elliott, Dwight E.

    2008-09-02

    A radiator assembly includes a finned radiator core and a debris removing apparatus having a compressed air inlet and at least one compressed air outlet configured to direct compressed air through the radiator core. A work machine such as a wheel loader includes a radiator and a debris removing apparatus coupled with on-board compressed air and having at least one pressurized gas outlet configured to direct a gas toward the face of the radiator.

  13. Clamping in Boltzmann machines.

    PubMed

    Livesey, M

    1991-01-01

    A certain assumption that appears in the proof of correctness of the standard Boltzmann machine learning procedure is investigated. The assumption, called the clamping assumption, concerns the behavior of a Boltzmann machine when some of its units are clamped to a fixed state. It is argued that the clamping assumption is essentially an assertion of the time reversibility of a certain Markov chain underlying the behavior of the Boltzmann machine. As such, the clamping assumption is generally false, though it is certainly true of the Boltzmann machines themselves. The author also considers how the concept of the Boltzmann machine may be generalized while retaining the validity of the clamping assumption.

  14. Size reduction machine

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, V.

    1999-12-15

    The Size Reduction Machine (SRM) is a mobile platform capable of shearing various shapes and types of metal components at a variety of elevations. This shearing activity can be performed without direct physical movement and placement of the shear head by the operator. The base unit is manually moved and roughly aligned to each cut location. The base contains the electronics: hydraulic pumps, servos, and actuators needed to move the shear-positioning arm. The movable arm allows the shear head to have six axes of movement and to cut to within 4 inches of a wall surface. The unit has a slick electrostatic capture coating to assist in external decontamination. Internal contamination of the unit is controlled by a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter on the cooling inlet fan. The unit is compact enough to access areas through a 36-inch standard door opening. This paper is an Innovative Technology Summary Report designed to provide potential users with the information they need to quickly determine if a technology would apply to a particular environmental management problem. They also are designed for readers who may recommend that a technology be considered by prospective users.

  15. Daylighting Strategies for U. S. Air Force Office Facilities: Economic Analysis of Building Energy Performance and Life-Cycle Cost Modeling with Monte Carlo Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-26

    approximately $15-23 billion annually in energy consumption. Our research findings show that electrochromic windows have the lowest energy consumption...make emerging daylighitng technology, such as electrochromic windows, viable. Finally, we demonstrate the robustness of probabilistic life-cycle... Electrochromic Windows ...........................................................................................35 Windows and Daylighting

  16. Spin Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Dick

    2005-01-01

    Laundry equipment is an investment, and the investment should be protected. To keep laundry equipment working at an optimum level, schools must maintain their machines. This article offers preventive-maintenance tips for washing machines and dryers. To prevent faucets from binding up, close and reopen the water faucets. This also is a great way to…

  17. Turbine-type wind machine

    SciTech Connect

    McVey, P. W.

    1984-12-04

    A wind machine which includes turbine assemblies arranged in superposed relationship and wherein the turbine assemblies may vary in size and number in accordance with power requirements, together with a plurality of deflector panels or sails associated with the turbine unit of each assembly for directing the wind to selected areas of the driving vanes of each turbine unit and at the same time shielding from the wind other areas of driving vanes which would tend to interfere with desired rotation of the turbine unit. The deflector panels or sails also accurately controlling the volume of air which bypasses each panel or sail to thereby prevent ''stacking'' or turbulence adjacent the driving vanes of the turbine unit. The panels also being arranged to recapture the major portion of the bypassed air and direct it back into the turbine unit which increases efficiency of operation.

  18. Nightfall: Machine Autonomy in Air-to-Air Combat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    pro- cessing.9 The principle of “first look, first kill” belongs to the aircraft with the most processing power and the best software to leverage it...F-22 processing power is on the order of 5 billion decimal operations per second.10 Modern graphics processing units can execute digital sig- nal... processing for radar applications at 10 to 100 times that speed and are available as affordable commercial off-the-shelf hardware.11 FQ-X uses arrays

  19. Machine for applying a two component resin to a roadway surface

    DOEpatents

    Huszagh, Donald W.

    1985-01-01

    A portable machine for spraying two component resins onto a roadway, the machine having a pneumatic control system, including apparatus for purging the machine of mixed resin with air and then removing remaining resin with solvent. Interlocks prevent contamination of solvent and resin, and mixed resin can be purged in the event of a power failure.

  20. Machine for applying a two component resin to a roadway surface

    DOEpatents

    Huszagh, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    A portable machine for spraying two component resins onto a roadway, the machine having a pneumatic control system, including means for purging the machine of mixed resin with air and then removing remaining resin with solvent. Interlocks prevent contamination of solvent and resin, and mixed resin can be purged in the event of a power failure.

  1. Perspex machine: VII. The universal perspex machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2006-01-01

    The perspex machine arose from the unification of projective geometry with the Turing machine. It uses a total arithmetic, called transreal arithmetic, that contains real arithmetic and allows division by zero. Transreal arithmetic is redefined here. The new arithmetic has both a positive and a negative infinity which lie at the extremes of the number line, and a number nullity that lies off the number line. We prove that nullity, 0/0, is a number. Hence a number may have one of four signs: negative, zero, positive, or nullity. It is, therefore, impossible to encode the sign of a number in one bit, as floating-point arithmetic attempts to do, resulting in the difficulty of having both positive and negative zeros and NaNs. Transrational arithmetic is consistent with Cantor arithmetic. In an extension to real arithmetic, the product of zero, an infinity, or nullity with its reciprocal is nullity, not unity. This avoids the usual contradictions that follow from allowing division by zero. Transreal arithmetic has a fixed algebraic structure and does not admit options as IEEE, floating-point arithmetic does. Most significantly, nullity has a simple semantics that is related to zero. Zero means "no value" and nullity means "no information." We argue that nullity is as useful to a manufactured computer as zero is to a human computer. The perspex machine is intended to offer one solution to the mind-body problem by showing how the computable aspects of mind and, perhaps, the whole of mind relates to the geometrical aspects of body and, perhaps, the whole of body. We review some of Turing's writings and show that he held the view that his machine has spatial properties. In particular, that it has the property of being a 7D lattice of compact spaces. Thus, we read Turing as believing that his machine relates computation to geometrical bodies. We simplify the perspex machine by substituting an augmented Euclidean geometry for projective geometry. This leads to a general

  2. Falling Liquid Films in Absorption Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Toshihiko

    The absorption machines of the lithium bromide-water type have recently been established as heat source equipments for residential and industrial use, which include refrigerating machines, heat pumps, and heat transformers. Several advanced cycle machines have also been proposed and tested. All of the absorption machines consist fundamentally of four kinds of heat exchangers, i.e. evaporator, absorber, generator, and condenser. The horizontal or vertical falling film system is usually applied to these heat exchangers, since the pressure drop which causes an undesirable change in the fluid temperature is relatively small in either system. The horizontal system is popular for the present, while the vertical system is going to be developed promisingly. This may save an installation space and also fit a plan for the Lorentz cycle. The purpose of this paper is to survey the available information for increasing heat and mass transfer rates in the heat exchangers of absorption machines. Emphasis is placed on the hydrodynamic characteristics of falling liquid films in absorbers and generators. The following topics are covered in this paper: 1. Characteristics of thin liquid films over horizontal tubes 2. Characteristics of wavy thin liquid films flowing down the vertical or inclined wall surface 3. Effect of the artificial surface roughness on the heat and mass transfer rates 4. Enhancement in the heat and mass transfer rates by the Marangoni convection 5. Conditions of film breakdown and the minimum wetting rates.

  3. Transfer Rates of Enteric Microorganisms in Recycled Water during Machine Clothes Washing▿

    PubMed Central

    O'Toole, Joanne; Sinclair, Martha; Leder, Karin

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 15% of overall Australian household water usage is in the laundry; hence, a significant reduction in household drinking water demand could be achieved if potable-quality water used for clothes washing is replaced with recycled water. To investigate the microbiological safety of using recycled water in washing machines, bacteriophages MS-2 and PRD-1, Escherichia coli, and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were used in a series of experiments to investigate the transfer efficiency of enteric microorganisms from washing machine water to objects including hands, environmental surfaces, air, and fabric swatches. By determining the transference efficiency, it is possible to estimate the numbers of microorganisms that the user will be exposed to if recycled water with various levels of residual microorganisms is used in washing machines. Results, expressed as transfer rates to a given surface area per object, showed that the mean transfer efficiency of E. coli, bacteriophages MS-2 and PRD-1, and C. parvum oocysts from seeded water to fabric swatches ranged from 0.001% to 0.090%. Greatest exposure to microorganisms occurred through direct contact of hands with seeded water and via hand contact with contaminated fabric swatches. No microorganisms were detected in the air samples during the washing machine spin cycle, and transfer rates of bacteriophages from water to environmental surfaces were 100-fold less than from water directly to hands. Findings from this study provide relevant information that can be used to refine regulations governing recycled water and to allay public concerns about the use of recycled water. PMID:19124592

  4. Media-Augmented Exercise Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, T.

    2002-01-01

    Cardio-vascular exercise has been used to mitigate the muscle and cardiac atrophy associated with adaptation to micro-gravity environments. Several hours per day may be required. In confined spaces and long duration missions this kind of exercise is inevitably repetitive and rapidly becomes uninteresting. At the same time, there are pressures to accomplish as much as possible given the cost- per-hour for humans occupying orbiting or interplanetary. Media augmentation provides a the means to overlap activities in time by supplementing the exercise with social, recreational, training or collaborative activities and thereby reducing time pressures. In addition, the machine functions as an interface to a wide range of digital environments allowing for spatial variety in an otherwise confined environment. We hypothesize that the adoption of media augmented exercise machines will have a positive effect on psycho-social well-being on long duration missions. By organizing and supplementing exercise machines, data acquisition hardware, computers and displays into an interacting system this proposal increases functionality with limited additional mass. This paper reviews preliminary work on a project to augment exercise equipment in a manner that addresses these issues and at the same time opens possibilities for additional benefits. A testbed augmented exercise machine uses a specialty built cycle trainer as both input to a virtual environment and as an output device from it using spatialized sound, and visual displays, vibration transducers and variable resistance. The resulting interactivity increases a sense of engagement in the exercise, provides a rich experience of the digital environments. Activities in the virtual environment and accompanying physiological and psychological indicators may be correlated to track and evaluate the health of the crew.

  5. Machine tool locator

    DOEpatents

    Hanlon, John A.; Gill, Timothy J.

    2001-01-01

    Machine tools can be accurately measured and positioned on manufacturing machines within very small tolerances by use of an autocollimator on a 3-axis mount on a manufacturing machine and positioned so as to focus on a reference tooling ball or a machine tool, a digital camera connected to the viewing end of the autocollimator, and a marker and measure generator for receiving digital images from the camera, then displaying or measuring distances between the projection reticle and the reference reticle on the monitoring screen, and relating the distances to the actual position of the autocollimator relative to the reference tooling ball. The images and measurements are used to set the position of the machine tool and to measure the size and shape of the machine tool tip, and examine cutting edge wear. patent

  6. Self-Calibrating Surface Measuring Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenleaf, Allen H.

    1983-04-01

    A new kind of surface-measuring machine has been developed under government contract at Itek Optical Systems, a Division of Itek Corporation, to assist in the fabrication of large, highly aspheric optical elements. The machine uses four steerable distance-measuring interferometers at the corners of a tetrahedron to measure the positions of a retroreflective target placed at various locations against the surface being measured. Using four interferometers gives redundant information so that, from a set of measurement data, the dimensions of the machine as well as the coordinates of the measurement points can be determined. The machine is, therefore, self-calibrating and does not require a structure made to high accuracy. A wood-structured prototype of this machine was made whose key components are a simple form of air bearing steering mirror, a wide-angle cat's eye retroreflector used as the movable target, and tracking sensors and servos to provide automatic tracking of the cat's eye by the four laser beams. The data are taken and analyzed by computer. The output is given in terms of error relative to an equation of the desired surface. In tests of this machine, measurements of a 0.7 m diameter mirror blank have been made with an accuracy on the order of 0.2µm rms.

  7. Agent Based Computing Machine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-09

    coordinates as in cellular automata systems. But using biology as a model suggests that the most general systems must provide for partial, but constrained...17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF 118. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF 20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRA REPORT THIS PAGE ABSTRACT...system called an "agent based computing" machine (ABC Machine). The ABC Machine is motivated by cellular biochemistry and it is based upon a concept

  8. In vitro short-term exposure to air pollution PM2.5-0.3 induced cell cycle alterations and genetic instability in a human lung cell coculture model.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Imane; Verdin, Anthony; Escande, Fabienne; Saint-Georges, Françoise; Cazier, Fabrice; Mulliez, Philippe; Courcot, Dominique; Shirali, Pirouz; Gosset, Pierre; Garçon, Guillaume

    2016-05-01

    Although its adverse health effects of air pollution particulate matter (PM2.5) are well-documented and often related to oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory response, recent evidence support the role of the remodeling of the airway epithelium involving the regulation of cell death processes. Hence, the overarching goals of the present study were to use an in vitro coculture model, based on human AM and L132 cells to study the possible alteration of TP53-RB gene signaling pathways (i.e. cell cycle phases, gene expression of TP53, BCL2, BAX, P21, CCND1, and RB, and protein concentrations of their active forms), and genetic instability (i.e. LOH and/or MSI) in the PM2.5-0.3-exposed coculture model. PM2.5-0.3 exposure of human AM from the coculture model induced marked cell cycle alterations after 24h, as shown by increased numbers of L132 cells in subG1 and S+G2 cell cycle phases, indicating apoptosis and proliferation. Accordingly, activation of the TP53-RB gene signaling pathways after the coculture model exposure to PM2.5-0.3 was reported in the L132 cells. Exposure of human AM from the coculture model to PM2.5-0.3 resulted in MS alterations in 3p chromosome multiple critical regions in L132 cell population. Hence, in vitro short-term exposure of the coculture model to PM2.5-0.3 induced cell cycle alterations relying on the sequential occurrence of molecular abnormalities from TP53-RB gene signaling pathway activation and genetic instability.

  9. Laser Machining of Melt Infiltrated Ceramic Matrix Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarmon, D. C.; Ojard, G.; Brewer, D.

    2012-01-01

    As interest grows in considering the use of ceramic matrix composites for critical components, the effects of different machining techniques, and the resulting machined surfaces, on strength need to be understood. This work presents the characterization of a Melt Infiltrated SiC/SiC composite material system machined by different methods. While a range of machining approaches were initially considered, only diamond grinding and laser machining were investigated on a series of tensile coupons. The coupons were tested for residual tensile strength, after a stressed steam exposure cycle. The data clearly differentiated the laser machined coupons as having better capability for the samples tested. These results, along with micro-structural characterization, will be presented.

  10. Perspex machine II: visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2004-12-01

    We review the perspex machine and improve it by reducing its halting conditions to one condition. We also introduce a data structure, called the "access column," that can accelerate a wide class of perspex programs. We show how the perspex can be visualised as a tetrahedron, artificial neuron, computer program, and as a geometrical transformation. We discuss the temporal properties of the perspex machine, dissolve the famous time travel paradox, and present a hypothetical time machine. Finally, we discuss some mental properties and show how the perspex machine solves the mind-body problem and, specifically, how it provides one physical explanation for the occurrence of paradigm shifts.

  11. Perspex machine II: visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2005-01-01

    We review the perspex machine and improve it by reducing its halting conditions to one condition. We also introduce a data structure, called the "access column," that can accelerate a wide class of perspex programs. We show how the perspex can be visualised as a tetrahedron, artificial neuron, computer program, and as a geometrical transformation. We discuss the temporal properties of the perspex machine, dissolve the famous time travel paradox, and present a hypothetical time machine. Finally, we discuss some mental properties and show how the perspex machine solves the mind-body problem and, specifically, how it provides one physical explanation for the occurrence of paradigm shifts.

  12. Progress in machine consciousness.

    PubMed

    Gamez, David

    2008-09-01

    This paper is a review of the work that has been carried out on machine consciousness. A clear overview of this diverse field is achieved by breaking machine consciousness down into four different areas, which are used to understand its aims, discuss its relationship with other subjects and outline the work that has been carried out so far. The criticisms that have been made against machine consciousness are also covered, along with its potential benefits, and the work that has been done on analysing systems for signs of consciousness. Some of the social and ethical issues raised by machine consciousness are examined at the end of the paper.

  13. Chaotic Boltzmann machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hideyuki; Imura, Jun-Ichi; Horio, Yoshihiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-04-01

    The chaotic Boltzmann machine proposed in this paper is a chaotic pseudo-billiard system that works as a Boltzmann machine. Chaotic Boltzmann machines are shown numerically to have computing abilities comparable to conventional (stochastic) Boltzmann machines. Since no randomness is required, efficient hardware implementation is expected. Moreover, the ferromagnetic phase transition of the Ising model is shown to be characterised by the largest Lyapunov exponent of the proposed system. In general, a method to relate probabilistic models to nonlinear dynamics by derandomising Gibbs sampling is presented.

  14. Chaotic Boltzmann machines.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hideyuki; Imura, Jun-ichi; Horio, Yoshihiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The chaotic Boltzmann machine proposed in this paper is a chaotic pseudo-billiard system that works as a Boltzmann machine. Chaotic Boltzmann machines are shown numerically to have computing abilities comparable to conventional (stochastic) Boltzmann machines. Since no randomness is required, efficient hardware implementation is expected. Moreover, the ferromagnetic phase transition of the Ising model is shown to be characterised by the largest Lyapunov exponent of the proposed system. In general, a method to relate probabilistic models to nonlinear dynamics by derandomising Gibbs sampling is presented.

  15. Permitting Considerations for Installation of Inlet Air Foggers on Simple Cycle Combustion Turbines at the Duke Power Lincoln Combustion Turbine Facility

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  16. Properties and Cycle Performance of Refrigerant Blends Operating Near and Above the Refrigerant Critical Point, Task 2: Air Conditioner System Study

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr A. Domanski; W. Vance Payne

    2002-10-31

    The main goal of this project was to investigate and compare the performance of an R410A air conditioner to that of an R22 air conditioner, with specific interest in performance at high ambient temperatures at which the condenser of the R410A system may be operating above the refrigerant's critical point. Part 1 of this project consisted of conducting comprehensive measurements of thermophysical for refrigerant R125 and refrigerant blends R410A and R507A and developing new equation of state formulations and mixture models for predicting thermophysical properties of HFC refrigerant blends. Part 2 of this project conducted performance measurements of split-system, 3-ton R22 and R410A residential air conditioners in the 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C) outdoor temperature range and development of a system performance model. The performance data was used in preparing a beta version of EVAP-COND, a windows-based simulation package for predicting performance of finned-tube evaporators and condensers. The modeling portion of this project also included the formulation of a model for an air-conditioner equipped with a thermal expansion valve (TXV). Capacity and energy efficiency ratio (EER) were measured and compared. The R22 system's performance was measured over the outdoor ambient temperature range of 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C). The same test range was planned for the R410A system. However, the compressor's safety system cut off the compressor at the 135.0 F (57.2 C) test temperature. The highest measurement on this system was at 130.0 F (54.4 C). Subsequently, a custom-manufactured R410A compressor with a disabled safety system and a more powerful motor was installed and performance was measured at outdoor temperatures up to 155.0 F (68.3 C). Both systems had similar capacity and EER performance at 82.0 F (27.8 C). The capacity and EER degradation of both systems were nearly linearly dependent with rising ambient outdoor ambient test temperatures. The performance

  17. NASA Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM): Effects of tropical rainfall on upper ocean dynamics, air-sea coupling and hydrologic cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagerloef, Gary; Busalacchi, Antonio J.; Liu, W. Timothy; Lukas, Roger B.; Niiler, Pern P.; Swift, Calvin T.

    1995-01-01

    This was a Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) modeling, analysis and applications research project. Our broad scientific goals addressed three of the seven TRMM Priority Science Questions, specifically: What is the monthly average rainfall over the tropical ocean areas of about 10(exp 5) sq km, and how does this rain and its variability affect the structure and circulation of the tropical oceans? What is the relationship between precipitation and changes in the boundary conditions at the Earth's surface (e.g., sea surface temperature, soil properties, vegetation)? How can improved documentation of rainfall improve understanding of the hydrological cycle in the tropics?

  18. Design features and results from fatigue reliability research machines.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, V. R.; Kececioglu, D.; Mcconnell, J. B.

    1971-01-01

    The design, fabrication, development, operation, calibration and results from reversed bending combined with steady torque fatigue research machines are presented. Fifteen-centimeter long, notched, SAE 4340 steel specimens are subjected to various combinations of these stresses and cycled to failure. Failure occurs when the crack in the notch passes through the specimen automatically shutting down the test machine. These cycles-to-failure data are statistically analyzed to develop a probabilistic S-N diagram. These diagrams have many uses; a rotating component design example given in the literature shows that minimum size and weight for a specified number of cycles and reliability can be calculated using these diagrams.

  19. Life Cycle Assessment of Residential Heating and Cooling Systems in Minnesota A comprehensive analysis on life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and cost-effectiveness of ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems compared to the conventional gas furnace and air conditioner system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mo

    Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) technologies for residential heating and cooling are often suggested as an effective means to curb energy consumption, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and lower homeowners' heating and cooling costs. As such, numerous federal, state and utility-based incentives, most often in the forms of financial incentives, installation rebates, and loan programs, have been made available for these technologies. While GSHP technology for space heating and cooling is well understood, with widespread implementation across the U.S., research specific to the environmental and economic performance of these systems in cold climates, such as Minnesota, is limited. In this study, a comparative environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted of typical residential HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) systems in Minnesota to investigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for delivering 20 years of residential heating and cooling—maintaining indoor temperatures of 68°F (20°C) and 75°F (24°C) in Minnesota-specific heating and cooling seasons, respectively. Eight residential GSHP design scenarios (i.e. horizontal loop field, vertical loop field, high coefficient of performance, low coefficient of performance, hybrid natural gas heat back-up) and one conventional natural gas furnace and air conditioner system are assessed for GHG and life cycle economic costs. Life cycle GHG emissions were found to range between 1.09 × 105 kg CO2 eq. and 1.86 × 10 5 kg CO2 eq. Six of the eight GSHP technology scenarios had fewer carbon impacts than the conventional system. Only in cases of horizontal low-efficiency GSHP and hybrid, do results suggest increased GHGs. Life cycle costs and present value analyses suggest GSHP technologies can be cost competitive over their 20-year life, but that policy incentives may be required to reduce the high up-front capital costs of GSHPs and relatively long payback periods of more than 20 years. In addition

  20. Drum cutter mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Oberste-beulmann, K.; Schupphaus, H.

    1980-02-19

    A drum cutter mining machine includes a machine frame with a winch having a drive wheel to engage a rack or chain which extends along the path of travel by the mining machine to propel the machine along a mine face. The mining machine is made up of discrete units which include a machine body and machine housings joined to opposite sides of the machine body. The winch is either coupled through a drive train with a feed drive motor or coupled to the drive motor for cutter drums. The machine housings each support a pivot shaft coupled by an arm to a drum cutter. One of these housings includes a removable end cover and a recess adapted to receive a support housing for a spur gear system used to transmit torque from a feed drive motor to a reduction gear system which is, in turn, coupled to the drive wheel of the winch. In one embodiment, a removable end cover on the machine housing provides access to the feed drive motor. The feed drive motor is arranged so that the rotational axis of its drive output shaft extends transversely to the stow side of the machine frame. In another embodiment, the reduction gear system is arranged at one side of the pivot shaft for the cutter drum while the drive motor therefor is arranged at the other side of the pivot shaft and coupled thereto through the spur gear system. In a further embodiment, the reduction gear system is disposed between the feed motor and the pivot shaft.

  1. 14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  2. BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE MAKES BOTH MOLD HALVES INDIVIDUALLY WHICH ARE LATER ROTATED, ASSEMBLED, AND LOWERED TO POURING CONVEYORS BY ASSISTING MACHINES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  3. THE TEACHING MACHINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLEIN, CHARLES; WAYNE, ELLIS

    THE ROLE OF THE TEACHING MACHINE IS COMPARED WITH THE ROLE OF THE PROGRAMED TEXTBOOK. THE TEACHING MACHINE IS USED FOR INDIVIDUAL INSTRUCTION, CONTAINS AND PRESENTS PROGRAM CONTENT IN STEPS, PROVIDES A MEANS WHEREBY THE STUDENT MAY RESPOND TO THE PROGRAM, PROVIDES THE STUDENT WITH IMMEDIATE INFORMATION OF SOME KIND CONCERNING HIS RESPONSE THAT CAN…

  4. Semantics via Machine Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culhane, P. T.

    1977-01-01

    Recent experiments in machine translation have given the semantic elements of collocation in Russian more objective criteria. Soviet linguists in search of semantic relationships have attempted to devise a semantic synthesis for construction of a basic language for machine translation. One such effort is summarized. (CHK)

  5. The Hooey Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarnati, James T.; Tice, Craig J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes how students can make and use Hooey Machines to learn how mechanical energy can be transferred from one object to another within a system. The Hooey Machine is made using a pencil, eight thumbtacks, one pushpin, tape, scissors, graph paper, and a plastic lid. (PR)

  6. Machining heavy plastic sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalkup, O. M.

    1967-01-01

    Machining technique produces consistently satisfactory plane-parallel optical surfaces for pressure windows, made of plexiglass, required to support a photographic study of liquid rocket combustion processes. The surfaces are machined and polished to the required tolerances and show no degradation from stress relaxation over periods as long as 6 months.

  7. Technique for Machining Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Process for machining glass with conventional carbide tools requires a small quantity of a lubricant for aluminum applied to area of glass to be machined. A carbide tool is then placed against workpiece with light pressure. Tool is raised periodically to clear work of glass dust and particles. Additional lubricant is applied as it is displaced.

  8. Compound taper milling machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, N. R.

    1969-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive milling machine tapers panels from a common apex to a uniform height at panel edge regardless of the panel perimeter configuration. The machine consists of an adjustable angled beam upon which the milling tool moves back and forth above a rotatable table upon which the workpiece is held.

  9. Stirling machine operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, B.; Dudenhoefer, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy operating lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and are not expected to operate for lengthy periods of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered. The record in this paper is not complete, due to the reluctance of some organizations to release operational data and because several organizations were not contacted. The authors intend to repeat this assessment in three years, hoping for even greater participation.

  10. Machine Translation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajis, Katie

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics and capabilities of existing machine translation systems were examined and procurement recommendations were developed. Four systems, SYSTRAN, GLOBALINK, PC TRANSLATOR, and STYLUS, were determined to meet the NASA requirements for a machine translation system. Initially, four language pairs were selected for implementation. These are Russian-English, French-English, German-English, and Japanese-English.

  11. Simple Machines Made Simple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Andre, Ralph E.

    Simple machines have become a lost point of study in elementary schools as teachers continue to have more material to cover. This manual provides hands-on, cooperative learning activities for grades three through eight concerning the six simple machines: wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw, pulley, wedge, and lever. Most activities can be…

  12. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

  13. Observations of the 18.6-year cycle of air pressure and a theoretical model to explain certain aspects of this signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, D. P.; Currie, R. G.

    1993-07-01

    Evidence from barometric data in Japan, USSR, southern Europe, southern Africa, and South America shows that air pressure variations with period near 18.6-years can attain amplitudes as high as 0.9 mb, and are identified as induced by the luni-solar constituent tide M n (M for moon and n for nodal). Luni-solar waveforms commonly exhibit modulation effects due to the superposition of a longer period component with 180° changes in phase. Thus, the waveform amplitudes can be highly nonstationary. Pressure gradients at this period over subcontinental distances show that the amplitudes imply nonequilibrium conditions. A theoretical coupling mechanism between E-W and N-S wind systems and the Coriolis force is envoked to explain the sub-continental extent and the, sometimes abrupt, amplitude changes of the pressure systems over small distances.

  14. High-temperature low-cycle fatigue and tensile properties of Hastelloy X and alloy 617 in air and HTGR-helium

    SciTech Connect

    Strizak, J.P.; Brinkman, C.R.; Rittenhouse, P.L.

    1981-01-01

    Results of strain controlled fatigue and tensile tests are presented for two nickel base solution hardened alloys which are reference structural alloys for use in several high temperature gas cooled reactor concepts. These alloys, Hastelloy X Inconel 617, were tested at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 871/sup 0/C in air and impure helium. Materials were tested in the solution annealed as well as in the pre-aged condition where aging consisted of isothermal exposure at one of several temperatures for periods of up to 20,000 h. Comparisons are also given between the strain controlled fatigue lives of these alloys and several other commonly used alloys all tested at 538/sup 0/C.

  15. Filières nucléaires et gestion du plutonium et des actinides mineurs la recherche de la flexibilité du cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Jean-Baptiste

    2002-10-01

    Transuranics management concerns all NPP types, because of the specifications for a sustainable development. Multiple recycling is mandatory. Neutronic abundance can be obtained in fast spectrum, or by adding external neutrons or (temporarily) with additional 235U. The LWRs can control the plutonium inventory and significantly reduce the amount of transuranics transferred to the geological repository, thanks to the use of innovative nuclear fuel in a limited part of the NPP fleet. HTR adapted to transuranics burning can help. In the future, in addition to the liquid metal FBR, a strategy based on a gas cooled technological line and advanced fuel opens a second path towards fast spectra. Strategies for defining the optimal mix of reactor types in the nuclear fleet at a given time and demonstrating the fuel cycle flexibility are under study. To cite this article: J.-B. Thomas, C. R. Physique 3 (2002) 783-796.

  16. Menstrual Cycle

    MedlinePlus

    ... receive Pregnancy email updates Enter email Submit The menstrual cycle Day 1 starts with the first day of ... drop around Day 25 . This signals the next menstrual cycle to begin. The egg will break apart and ...

  17. Non-photic, non-thermic circadecadal solar cycle interaction with cardiovascular circannual and circasemiannual variation in heated air-conditioned habitat.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Cornélissen, Germaine; Katinas, George; Sothern, Robert B; Halberg, Franz; Watanabe, Misako; Watanabe, Fumihiko; Otsuka, Kuniaki

    2003-10-01

    In order to re-examine the extent to which secular circulatory variation can be resolved into possibly accountable, if not yet predictable behavior, the 15-year record of blood pressure and heart rate of an adult male cardiologist (Y.W.) is reanalyzed. Gliding spectral windows with an interval of 4 years progressively displaced throughout the data series examine monthly means from August 1987 to August 2002. A circannual variation is only intermittent and appears to drift for years. A circasemiannual variation is consistent and prominent, yet only for a fraction of the record examined. By contrast to the circadian rhythm in blood pressure and heart rate, which is reliably detectable in most subjects in clinical health, the circannual variation in the human circulation is inconsistent and hence should be monitored, as in this case for its assessment as one goes, a conclusion that also applies to the circasemiannual variation, prominent for years but not detected thereafter. The results prompt the search for interactions between the photic, thermic and societal effects of the seasons that, if solely pertinent, should yield a consistent 1-year spectral component. That non-photic effects may also play an important role may point to modulation by solar cycle stage and solar cycle number, perhaps mediated by the solar wind. This conclusion is extended in proof to the role played by the most recently discovered transannual component in human blood pressure and heart rate, which is a probable further signature of the solar wind. The beating of the transannual and circannual components documented on another data series may contribute to the lack of a consistent 1-year synchronized circannual variation in this case and many others.

  18. Introduction to machine learning.

    PubMed

    Baştanlar, Yalin; Ozuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning approaches for this application area. In this chapter, we first review the fundamental concepts of machine learning such as feature assessment, unsupervised versus supervised learning and types of classification. Then, we point out the main issues of designing machine learning experiments and their performance evaluation. Finally, we introduce some supervised learning methods.

  19. Estimates of Embodied Global Energy and Air-Emission Intensities of Japanese Products for Building a Japanese Input–Output Life Cycle Assessment Database with a Global System Boundary

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    To build a life cycle assessment (LCA) database of Japanese products embracing their global supply chains in a manner requiring lower time and labor burdens, this study estimates the intensity of embodied global environmental burden for commodities produced in Japan. The intensity of embodied global environmental burden is a measure of the environmental burden generated globally by unit production of the commodity and can be used as life cycle inventory data in LCA. The calculation employs an input–output LCA method with a global link input–output model that defines a global system boundary grounded in a simplified multiregional input–output framework. As results, the intensities of embodied global environmental burden for 406 Japanese commodities are determined in terms of energy consumption, greenhouse-gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, perfluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, and their summation), and air-pollutant emissions (nitrogen oxide and sulfur oxide). The uncertainties in the intensities of embodied global environmental burden attributable to the simplified structure of the global link input–output model are quantified using Monte Carlo simulation. In addition, by analyzing the structure of the embodied global greenhouse-gas intensities we characterize Japanese commodities in the context of LCA embracing global supply chains. PMID:22881452

  20. Estimates of embodied global energy and air-emission intensities of Japanese products for building a Japanese input-output life cycle assessment database with a global system boundary.

    PubMed

    Nansai, Keisuke; Kondo, Yasushi; Kagawa, Shigemi; Suh, Sangwon; Nakajima, Kenichi; Inaba, Rokuta; Tohno, Susumu

    2012-08-21

    To build a life cycle assessment (LCA) database of Japanese products embracing their global supply chains in a manner requiring lower time and labor burdens, this study estimates the intensity of embodied global environmental burden for commodities produced in Japan. The intensity of embodied global environmental burden is a measure of the environmental burden generated globally by unit production of the commodity and can be used as life cycle inventory data in LCA. The calculation employs an input-output LCA method with a global link input-output model that defines a global system boundary grounded in a simplified multiregional input-output framework. As results, the intensities of embodied global environmental burden for 406 Japanese commodities are determined in terms of energy consumption, greenhouse-gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, perfluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, and their summation), and air-pollutant emissions (nitrogen oxide and sulfur oxide). The uncertainties in the intensities of embodied global environmental burden attributable to the simplified structure of the global link input-output model are quantified using Monte Carlo simulation. In addition, by analyzing the structure of the embodied global greenhouse-gas intensities we characterize Japanese commodities in the context of LCA embracing global supply chains.

  1. Sensitivity analysis of an Ocean Carbon Cycle Model in the North Atlantic: an investigation of parameters affecting the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production and export of detritus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, V.; Kettle, H.; Merchant, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    The sensitivity of the biological parameters in a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) model in the calculation of the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production and detrital export is analysed. The NPZD model is the Hadley Centre Ocean Carbon Cycle model (HadOCC) from the UK Met Office, used in the Hadley Centre Coupled Model 3 (HadCM3) and FAst Met Office and Universities Simulator (FAMOUS) GCMs. Here, HadOCC is coupled to the 1-D General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) and forced with European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting meteorology to undertake a sensitivity analysis of its twenty biological parameters. Analyses are performed at three sites in the EuroSITES European Ocean Observatory Network: the Central Irminger Sea (60° N 40° W), the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (49° N 16° W) and the European Station for Time series in the Ocean Canary Islands (29° N 15° W) to assess variability in parameter sensitivities at different locations in the North Atlantic Ocean. Reasonable changes to the values of key parameters are shown to have a large effect on the calculation of the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production, and export of biological detritus to the deep ocean. Changes in the values of key parameters have a greater effect in more productive regions than in less productive areas. We perform the analysis using one-at-a-time perturbations and using a statistical emulator, and compare results. The most sensitive parameters are generic to many NPZD ocean ecosystem models. The air-sea CO2 flux is most influenced by variation in the parameters that control phytoplankton growth, detrital sinking and carbonate production by phytoplankton (the rain ratio). Primary production is most sensitive to the parameters that define the shape of the photosythesis-irradiance curve. Export production is most sensitive to the parameters that control the rate of detrital sinking and the remineralisation of detritus.

  2. Real-time, adaptive machine learning for non-stationary, near chaotic gasoline engine combustion time series.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Adam; Bohac, Stanislav V

    2015-10-01

    Fuel efficient Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine combustion timing predictions must contend with non-linear chemistry, non-linear physics, period doubling bifurcation(s), turbulent mixing, model parameters that can drift day-to-day, and air-fuel mixture state information that cannot typically be resolved on a cycle-to-cycle basis, especially during transients. In previous work, an abstract cycle-to-cycle mapping function coupled with ϵ-Support Vector Regression was shown to predict experimentally observed cycle-to-cycle combustion timing over a wide range of engine conditions, despite some of the aforementioned difficulties. The main limitation of the previous approach was that a partially acasual randomly sampled training dataset was used to train proof of concept offline predictions. The objective of this paper is to address this limitation by proposing a new online adaptive Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) extension named Weighted Ring-ELM. This extension enables fully causal combustion timing predictions at randomly chosen engine set points, and is shown to achieve results that are as good as or better than the previous offline method. The broader objective of this approach is to enable a new class of real-time model predictive control strategies for high variability HCCI and, ultimately, to bring HCCI's low engine-out NOx and reduced CO2 emissions to production engines.

  3. Effectiveness of Inspiratory Termination Synchrony with Automatic Cycling During Noninvasive Pressure Support Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuqing; Cheng, Kewen; Zhou, Xin

    2016-05-20

    BACKGROUND Pressure support ventilation (PSV) is a standard method for non-invasive home ventilation. A bench study was designed to compare the effectiveness of patient-ventilator inspiratory termination synchronization with automated and conventional triggering in various respiratory mechanics models. MATERIAL AND METHODS Two ventilators, the Respironics V60 and Curative Flexo ST 30, connected to a Hans Rudolph Series 1101 lung simulator, were evaluated using settings that simulate lung mechanics in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), or normal lungs. Ventilators were operated with automated (Auto-Trak) or conventional high-, moderate-, and low-sensitivity flow-cycling software algorithms, 5 cmH2O or 15 cmH2O pressure support, 5 cmH2O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), and an air leak of 25-28 L/min. RESULTS Both ventilators adapted to the system leak without requiring adjustment of triggering settings. In all simulated lung conditions, automated cycling resulted in shorter triggering delay times (<100 ms) and lower triggering pressure-time product (PTPt) values. Tidal volumes (VT) increased with lower conventional cycling sensitivity level. In the COPD model, automated cycling had higher leak volumes and shorter cycling delay times than in conventional cycling. Asynchronous events were rare. Inspiratory time (Tinsp), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and cycling off delay time (Cdelay) increased as a result of reduction in conventional cycling sensitivity level. In the ARDS and normal adult lung models, premature cycling was frequent at the high-sensitive cycling level. CONCLUSIONS Overall, the Auto-Trak protocol showed better patient-machine cycling synchronization than conventional triggering. This was evident by shorter triggering time delays and lower PTPt.

  4. Hypothermic Machine Perfusion Preservation of the DCD Kidney: Machine Effects.

    PubMed

    Lindell, Susanne L; Muir, Heather; Brassil, John; Mangino, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Kidneys from DCD donors represent a significant pool, but preservation problems exist. The study objective was to test the importance of machine type for hypothermic preservation of DCD kidneys. Methods. Adult Beagle dog kidneys underwent 45 minutes of warm in situ ischemia followed by hypothermic perfusion for 24 hours (Belzer-MPS Solution) on either an ORS LifePort or a Waters RM3 using standard perfusion protocols. Kidneys were then autotransplanted, and renal function was assessed over 7 days following contralateral nephrectomy. Results. Renal vascular resistance was not different between the two pumps. After 24 hours, the oxygen partial pressure and oxygen delivery in the LifePort perfusate were significantly lower than those in the RM3 but not low enough to change lactate production. TheLifePort ran significantly colder than RM3 (2° versus 5°C). The arterial pressure waveform of the RM3 was qualitatively different from the waveform of the LifePort. Preservation injury after transplantation was not different between the devices. When the LifePort was changed to nonpulsatile flow, kidneys displayed significantly greater preservation injury compared to RM3. Conclusions. Both LifePort and RM3 can be used for hypothermic machine perfusion preservation of DCD kidneys with equal outcomes as long as the duty cycle remains pulsatile.

  5. Technique for monitoring ozone precursor hydrocarbons in air at photochemical assessment monitoring stations: Sorbent preconcentration, closed-cycle cooler cryofocusing, and GC-FID analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Karen D.; Adams, Jeffrey R.; Hunter Daughtrey, E.; McClenny, William A.; Yoong, Matthias J.; Pardee, Michael A.

    An automated gas chromatograph (autoGC) system that may be used to collect and analyze both polar and nonpolar volatile organic compounds in ambient air has been evaluated. This system combines the use of dual multiadsorbent traps for sampling 57 min h -1 at ambient temperature, a dry helium purge to remove residual water from the sorbents, thermal desorption of analytes onto a Stirling-cooled trap for refocusing, and GC-flame ionization detection (FID). Method detection limits (MDLs), linearity, cleanliness, precision, and accuracy of the autoGC were determined for a set of 57 ozone precursor hydrocarbons. For most of the compounds tested, MDLs were less than 0.40 ppbv, the FID response was linear over the 5-40-ppbv range, and the trap-to-trap precision was ± 10%. This autoGC was found to be a reliable system that would be suitable for use in field sites such as the Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations network, which is being implemented in the United States of America.

  6. Human-Machine Teams: The Social Frontier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Charlene Stokes, Ph.D. Air Force Research Laboratory Human-Machine Teams: The Social Frontier American Psychological Association (APA...studies fusing social psychology and team research and theory in an HMT context – lab and applied studies. Impact: The largely unconscious, social...of social psychological processes/theory and team research/understanding for optimization of autonomy/HMT. • Traditional focus is on the

  7. Stage-by-Stage and Parallel Flow Path Compressor Modeling for a Variable Cycle Engine, NASA Advanced Air Vehicles Program - Commercial Supersonic Technology Project - AeroServoElasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Cheng, Larry

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers the development of stage-by-stage and parallel flow path compressor modeling approaches for a Variable Cycle Engine. The stage-by-stage compressor modeling approach is an extension of a technique for lumped volume dynamics and performance characteristic modeling. It was developed to improve the accuracy of axial compressor dynamics over lumped volume dynamics modeling. The stage-by-stage compressor model presented here is formulated into a parallel flow path model that includes both axial and rotational dynamics. This is done to enable the study of compressor and propulsion system dynamic performance under flow distortion conditions. The approaches utilized here are generic and should be applicable for the modeling of any axial flow compressor design accurate time domain simulations. The objective of this work is as follows. Given the parameters describing the conditions of atmospheric disturbances, and utilizing the derived formulations, directly compute the transfer function poles and zeros describing these disturbances for acoustic velocity, temperature, pressure, and density. Time domain simulations of representative atmospheric turbulence can then be developed by utilizing these computed transfer functions together with the disturbance frequencies of interest.

  8. Machine Learning and Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. PMID:22465077

  9. The Basic Anaesthesia Machine

    PubMed Central

    Gurudatt, CL

    2013-01-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia. PMID:24249876

  10. The basic anaesthesia machine.

    PubMed

    Gurudatt, Cl

    2013-09-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia.

  11. 30 CFR 77.412 - Compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.412 Compressed air systems. (a) Compressors and compressed-air receivers... used at connections to machines of high-pressure hose lines of 1-inch inside diameter or larger,...

  12. 30 CFR 77.412 - Compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.412 Compressed air systems. (a) Compressors and compressed-air receivers... used at connections to machines of high-pressure hose lines of 1-inch inside diameter or larger,...

  13. An autonomous agent for on-machine acceptance of machined components

    SciTech Connect

    Panceerella, C.M.; Hazelton, A.J.; Frost, H.R.

    1995-12-31

    In recent years, manufacturers of high precision mechanical parts have been required to produce increasingly complex designs, in smaller lot sizes, with improved quality. These requirements demand lower process costs, shorter development cycles and more accurate manufacturing technologies. To meet these demands, manufacturers are attempting to both improve process quality and provide better CAD/CAM integration. The technique of on-machine acceptance provides one mechanism for improving the part inspection and verification process. This approach allows one machine and one process capability model to be used for both fabrication and inspection, reducing capital cost and overall cycle time. However, the on-machine acceptance technique possesses greater potential than as simply an alternative mechanism for verifying part geometry. If the inspection capability information generated by on-machine acceptance processes can be made available to designers, it can be used to create a design-for-inspectability environment and help realize the benefits of concurrent 2048 engineering. This paper proposes a novel architecture which integrates on-machine acceptance with an agent-based concurrent design environment, for reducing both the cost and production time for high quality, small lot size, mechanical parts. This work has focused on the production of stainless steel pressure vessels at the Integrated Manufacturing Technology Laboratory (IMTL) manufacturing cell, located at Sandia National Laboratories, California.

  14. Walking machine driven by a light beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizawa, Toru; Hayashi, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Otani, Yukitoshi

    2001-10-01

    Optically driven small machines have such features as easily miniaturized in fabrication and as controlled by optical energy supplied in wireless. We report an optically controlled machine which moves like a catepillar on the basis of photo-thermal effect. This miniaturized machine fundamentally consists of two parts: a body made of shape memory alloys and springs and feet made of magnets and temperature-sensitive ferrites. Th effect can stick to the carbon steel floor due to magnetic force balance caused by projected beam, and the body repeats stretching and shrinking using deformation of shape memory alloys caused by switching on and off of projected beam. A prototype is fabricated in trial with a size of 35 mm by 12 mm. As an experimental result, it proved that they could move at the speed of 8.7 mm per cycle on a ceiling as well as on a horizontal floor and it could climb a slope as steep as 50 degree. To improve the ability of this prototype, we newly developed a smaller machine with the total length of 20 mm by 15 mm and the weight of 1.1 g. Because of lighter weight of this machine, it could climb any slope including a vertical wall.

  15. Machine Tool Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  16. Quantum Boltzmann Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulchytskyy, Bohdan; Andriyash, Evgeny; Amin, Mohammed; Melko, Roger

    The field of machine learning has been revolutionized by the recent improvements in the training of deep networks. Their architecture is based on a set of stacked layers of simpler modules. One of the most successful building blocks, known as a restricted Boltzmann machine, is an energetic model based on the classical Ising Hamiltonian. In our work, we investigate the benefits of quantum effects on the learning capacity of Boltzmann machines by extending its underlying Hamiltonian with a transverse field. For this purpose, we employ exact and stochastic training procedures on data sets with physical origins.

  17. Bacillus anthracis aerosolization associated with a contaminated mail sorting machine.

    PubMed

    Dull, Peter M; Wilson, Kathy E; Kournikakis, Bill; Whitney, Ellen A S; Boulet, Camille A; Ho, Jim Y W; Ogston, Jim; Spence, Mel R; McKenzie, Megan M; Phelan, Maureen A; Popovic, Tanja; Ashford, David

    2002-10-01

    On October 12, 2001, two envelopes containing Bacillus anthracis spores passed through a sorting machine in a postal facility in Washington, D.C. When anthrax infection was identified in postal workers 9 days later, the facility was closed. To determine if exposure to airborne B. anthracis spores continued to occur, we performed air sampling around the contaminated sorter. One CFU of B. anthracis was isolated from 990 L of air sampled before the machine was activated. Six CFUs were isolated during machine activation and processing of clean dummy mail. These data indicate that an employee working near this machine might inhale approximately 30 B. anthracis-containing particles during an 8-h work shift. What risk this may have represented to postal workers is not known, but this estimate is approximately 20-fold less than a previous estimate of sub-5 micro m B. anthracis-containing particles routinely inhaled by asymptomatic, unvaccinated workers in a goat-hair mill.

  18. Linear positioning laser calibration setup of CNC machine tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Xiulin; Yang, Congjing

    2002-10-01

    The linear positioning laser calibration setup of CNC machine tools is capable of executing machine tool laser calibraiotn and backlash compensation. Using this setup, hole locations on CNC machien tools will be correct and machien tool geometry will be evaluated and adjusted. Machien tool laser calibration and backlash compensation is a simple and straightforward process. First the setup is to 'find' the stroke limits of the axis. Then the laser head is then brought into correct alignment. Second is to move the machine axis to the other extreme, the laser head is now aligned, using rotation and elevation adjustments. Finally the machine is moved to the start position and final alignment is verified. The stroke of the machine, and the machine compensation interval dictate the amount of data required for each axis. These factors determine the amount of time required for a through compensation of the linear positioning accuracy. The Laser Calibrator System monitors the material temperature and the air density; this takes into consideration machine thermal growth and laser beam frequency. This linear positioning laser calibration setup can be used on CNC machine tools, CNC lathes, horizontal centers and vertical machining centers.

  19. 16. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to south (90mm lens). Note the large segmental-arched doorway to move locomotives in and out of Machine Shop. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  20. Tunnel boring machine

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, L. L.

    1985-07-09

    A tunnel boring machine for controlled boring of a curvilinear tunnel including a rotating cutter wheel mounted on the forward end of a thrust cylinder assembly having a central longitudinal axis aligned with the cutter wheel axis of rotation; the thrust cylinder assembly comprising a cylinder barrel and an extendable and retractable thrust arm received therein. An anchoring assembly is pivotally attached to the rear end of the cylinder barrel for anchoring the machine during a cutting stroke and providing a rear end pivot axis during curved cutting strokes. A pair of laterally extending, extendable and retractable arms are fixedly mounted at a forward portion of the cylinder barrel for providing lateral displacement in a laterally curved cutting mode and for anchoring the machine between cutting strokes and during straight line boring. Forward and rear transverse displacement and support assemblies are provided to facilitate cutting in a transversely curved cutting mode and to facilitate machine movement between cutting strokes.

  1. Molecular Machines: Nanoscale gadgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Garibay, Miguel A.

    2008-06-01

    Meeting their biological counterparts halfway, artificial molecular machines embedded in liquid crystals, crystalline solids and mesoporous materials are poised to meet the demands of the next generation of functional materials.

  2. Augmentation of machine structure to improve its diagnosability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsieh, L.

    1973-01-01

    Two methods of augmenting the structure of a sequential machine so that it is diagnosable are presented. The checkable (checking sequences) and repeated symbol distinguishing sequences (RDS) are discussed. It was found that as few as twice the number of outputs of the given machine is sufficient for constructing a state-output augmentation with RDS. Techniques for minimizing the number of states in resolving convergences and in resolving equivalent and nonreduced cycles are developed.

  3. Doubly fed induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Skeist, S. Merrill; Baker, Richard H.

    2005-10-11

    An electro-mechanical energy conversion system coupled between an energy source and an energy load including an energy converter device having a doubly fed induction machine coupled between the energy source and the energy load to convert the energy from the energy source and to transfer the converted energy to the energy load and an energy transfer multiplexer coupled to the energy converter device to control the flow of power or energy through the doubly fed induction machine.

  4. Maraging Steel Machining Improvements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-23

    APR 2007 2. REPORT TYPE Technical, Success Story 3. DATES COVERED 01-12-2006 to 23-04-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Maraging Steel Machining...consumers of cobalt-strengthened maraging steel . An increase in production requires them to reduce the machining time of certain operations producing... maraging steel ; Success Stories 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 1 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 1 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE

  5. Sealing intersecting vane machines

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Jedd N.; Chomyszak, Stephen M.

    2005-06-07

    The invention provides a toroidal intersecting vane machine incorporating intersecting rotors to form primary and secondary chambers whose porting configurations minimize friction and maximize efficiency. Specifically, it is an object of the invention to provide a toroidal intersecting vane machine that greatly reduces the frictional losses through intersecting surfaces without the need for external gearing by modifying the width of one or both tracks at the point of intermeshing. The inventions described herein relate to these improvements.

  6. Sealing intersecting vane machines

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Jedd N.; Chomyszak, Stephen M.

    2007-06-05

    The invention provides a toroidal intersecting vane machine incorporating intersecting rotors to form primary and secondary chambers whose porting configurations minimize friction and maximize efficiency. Specifically, it is an object of the invention to provide a toroidal intersecting vane machine that greatly reduces the frictional losses through intersecting surfaces without the need for external gearing by modifying the width of one or both tracks at the point of intermeshing. The inventions described herein relate to these improvements.

  7. Human-machine interactions

    DOEpatents

    Forsythe, J. Chris; Xavier, Patrick G.; Abbott, Robert G.; Brannon, Nathan G.; Bernard, Michael L.; Speed, Ann E.

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  8. Metalworking and machining fluids

    DOEpatents

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  9. Factors affecting the bacteriological contamination of commercial washing machines.

    PubMed

    Legnani, P P; Leoni, E

    1997-10-01

    Wash water from self-service washing machines in three commercial launderettes of Bologna (Italy) were examined to verify which factors affect their bacterial contamination and to determine which procedures in the laundering process have the most significant effects on the removal of bacteria. Four washing formulas were compared: a delicates cycle (programmed temperature 25-30 degrees C; actual temperature: 28-31 degrees C); a whites cycle (programmed temperature: 80-90 degrees C; actual temperature: 50-57.5 degrees C); a delicates cycle with the addition of an oxygen-based bleach safe for delicate fabrics and a whites cycle with the addition of an oxygen-based bleach. Bacterial contamination of washing machines was higher in the launderette most heavely used, and, furthermore, it was in relation with the washing temperature and the use of bleaches. The low temperature laundering cycle (20-30 degrees C) did not guarantee elimination of bacterial content from either the inside of the washing machine or from the fabric being washed. Washing with water at a higher temperature, of about 55 degrees C, or adding an oxygen-based bleach to the low temperature cycle did ensure a significant reduction in bacterial recovery from water samples and fabrics, but did not prevent bacteria such as P. aeruginosa from surviving inside the washing machine. Only the addition of bleaches to the hot water program ensured the almost total elimination of bacteria and also guaranteed their elimination from protected parts of the drum.

  10. Combined cycle plants: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow (review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ol'khovskii, G. G.

    2016-07-01

    Gas turbine plants (GTP) for a long time have been developed by means of increasing the initial gas temperature and improvement of the turbo-machines aerodynamics and the efficiency of the critical components air cooling within the framework of a simple thermodynamic cycle. The application of watercooling systems that were used in experimental turbines and studied approximately 50 years ago revealed the fundamental difficulties that prevented the practical implementation of such systems in the industrial GTPs. The steam cooling researches have developed more substantially. The 300 MW power GTPs with a closedloop steam cooling, connected in parallel with the intermediate steam heating line in the steam cycle of the combined cycle plant (CCP) have been built, tested, and put into operation. The designs and cycle arrangements of such GTPs and entire combined cycle steam plants have become substantially more complicated without significant economic benefits. As a result, the steam cooling of gas turbines has not become widespread. The cycles—complicated by the intermediate air cooling under compression and reheat of the combustion products under expansion and their heat recovery to raise the combustion chamber entry temperature of the air—were used, in particular, in the domestic power GTPs with a moderate (700-800°C) initial gas turbine entry temperature. At the temperatures being reached to date (1300-1450°C), only one company, Alstom, applies in their 240-300 MW GTPs the recycled fuel cycle under expansion of gases in the turbine. Although these GTPs are reliable, there are no significant advantages in terms of their economy. To make a forecast of the further improvement of power GTPs, a brief review and assessment of the water cooling and steam cooling of hot components and complication of the GTP cycle by the recycling of fuel under expansion of gases in the turbine has been made. It is quite likely in the long term to reach the efficiency for the

  11. Could a machine think

    SciTech Connect

    Churchland, P.M.; Churchland, P.S. )

    1990-01-01

    There are many reasons for saying yes. One of the earliest and deepest reason lay in two important results in computational theory. The first was Church's thesis, which states that every effectively computable function is recursively computable. The second important result was Alan M. Turing's demonstration that any recursively computable function can be computed in finite time by a maximally simple sort of symbol-manipulating machine that has come to be called a universal Turing machine. This machine is guided by a set of recursively applicable rules that are sensitive to the identity, order and arrangement of the elementary symbols it encounters as input. The authors reject the Turing test as a sufficient condition for conscious intelligence. They base their position of the specific behavioral failures of the classical SM machines and on the specific virtues of machines with a more brain-like architecture. These contrasts show that certain computational strategies have vast and decisive advantages over others where typical cognitive tasks are concerned, advantages that are empirically inescapable. Clearly, the brain is making systematic use of these computational advantage. But it need not be the only physical system capable of doing so. Artificial intelligence, in a nonbiological but massively parallel machine, remain a compelling and discernible prospect.

  12. The Knife Machine. Module 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the knife machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the knife machine (a single needle or multi-needle machine which sews and cuts at the same time). These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective,…

  13. Non-traditional machining techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Day, Robert D; Fierro, Frank; Garcia, Felix P; Hatch, Douglass J; Randolph, Randall B; Reardon, Patrick T; Rivera, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    During the course of machining targets for various experiments it sometimes becomes necessary to adapt fixtures or machines, which are designed for one function, to another function. When adapting a machine or fixture is not adequate, it may be necessary to acquire a machine specifically designed to produce the component required. In addition to the above scenarios, the features of a component may dictate that multi-step machining processes are necessary to produce the component. This paper discusses the machining of four components where adaptation, specialized machine design, or multi-step processes were necessary to produce the components.

  14. High-Compression-Ratio; Atkinson-Cycle Engine Using Low-Pressure Direct Injection and Pneumatic-Electronic Valve Actuation Enabled by Ionization Current and Foward-Backward Mass Air Flow Sensor Feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Harold Schock; Farhad Jaberi; Ahmed Naguib; Guoming Zhu; David Hung

    2007-12-31

    This report describes the work completed over a two and one half year effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The goal was to demonstrate the technology needed to produce a highly efficient engine enabled by several technologies which were to be developed in the course of the work. The technologies included: (1) A low-pressure direct injection system; (2) A mass air flow sensor which would measure the net airflow into the engine on a per cycle basis; (3) A feedback control system enabled by measuring ionization current signals from the spark plug gap; and (4) An infinitely variable cam actuation system based on a pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation These developments were supplemented by the use of advanced large eddy simulations as well as evaluations of fuel air mixing using the KIVA and WAVE models. The simulations were accompanied by experimental verification when possible. In this effort a solid base has been established for continued development of the advanced engine concepts originally proposed. Due to problems with the valve actuation system a complete demonstration of the engine concept originally proposed was not possible. Some of the highlights that were accomplished during this effort are: (1) A forward-backward mass air flow sensor has been developed and a patent application for the device has been submitted. We are optimistic that this technology will have a particular application in variable valve timing direct injection systems for IC engines. (2) The biggest effort on this project has involved the development of the pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation system. This system was originally purchased from Cargine, a Swedish supplier and is in the development stage. To date we have not been able to use the actuators to control the exhaust valves, although the actuators have been successfully employed to control the intake valves. The reason for this is the additional complication associated with variable back pressure on the exhaust valves when

  15. Modeling the weekly cycle of NOx and CO emissions and their impacts on O3 in the Los Angeles-South Coast Air Basin during the CalNex 2010 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.-W.; McDonald, B. C.; Baidar, S.; Brown, S. S.; Dube, B.; Ferrare, R. A.; Frost, G. J.; Harley, R. A.; Holloway, J. S.; Lee, H.-J.; McKeen, S. A.; Neuman, J. A.; Nowak, J. B.; Oetjen, H.; Ortega, I.; Pollack, I. B.; Roberts, J. M.; Ryerson, T. B.; Scarino, A. J.; Senff, C. J.; Thalman, R.; Trainer, M.; Volkamer, R.; Wagner, N.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Waxman, E.; Young, C. J.

    2016-02-01

    We developed a new nitrogen oxide (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission inventory for the Los Angeles-South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) expanding the Fuel-based Inventory for motor-Vehicle Emissions and applied it in regional chemical transport modeling focused on the California Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) 2010 field campaign. The weekday NOx emission over the SoCAB in 2010 is 620 t d-1, while the weekend emission is 410 t d-1. The NOx emission decrease on weekends is caused by reduced diesel truck activities. Weekday and weekend CO emissions over this region are similar: 2340 and 2180 t d-1, respectively. Previous studies reported large discrepancies between the airborne observations of NOx and CO mixing ratios and the model simulations for CalNex based on the available bottom-up emission inventories. Utilizing the newly developed emission inventory in this study, the simulated NOx and CO mixing ratios agree with the observations from the airborne and the ground-based in situ and remote sensing instruments during the field study. The simulations also reproduce the weekly cycles of these chemical species. Both the observations and the model simulations indicate that decreased NOx on weekends leads to enhanced photochemistry and increase of O3 and Ox (=O3 + NO2) in the basin. The emission inventory developed in this study can be extended to different years and other urban regions in the U.S. to study the long-term trends in O3 and its precursors with regional chemical transport models.

  16. Dual-rotor, radial-flux, toroidally-wound, permanent-magnet machine

    DOEpatents

    Qu, Ronghai; Lipo, Thomas A.

    2005-08-02

    The present invention provides a novel dual-rotor, radial-flux, toroidally-wound, permanent-magnet machine. The present invention improves electrical machine torque density and efficiency. At least one concentric surface-mounted permanent magnet dual-rotor is located inside and outside of a torus-shaped stator with back-to-back windings, respectively. The machine substantially improves machine efficiency by reducing the end windings and boosts the torque density by at least doubling the air gap and optimizing the machine aspect ratio.

  17. Air Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  18. Superconducting PM undiffused machines with stationary superconducting coils

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.; Schwenterly, S. William

    2004-03-02

    A superconducting PM machine has a stator, a rotor and a stationary excitation source without the need of a ferromagnetic frame which is cryogenically cooled for operation in the superconducting state. PM material is placed between poles on the rotor to prevent leakage or diffusion of secondary flux before reaching the main air gap, or to divert PM flux where it is desired to weaken flux in the main air gap. The PM material provides hop-along capability for the machine in the event of a fault condition.

  19. Implementation of Tritium in the Lmdz-Iso General Circulation Model: First Promising Results for the Study of the Relationships Between Stratospheric Air Inputs into the Lower Troposphere in Polar Regions, Water Cycle and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauquoin, A.; Jean Baptiste, P.; Risi, C. M.; Fourre, E.; Landais, A.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the links between climate and water cycle is essential in the current context of global warming. The water isotopic composition, quantified as δD, δ18O or δ17O, has a great potential to trace the organization of present-day hydrological cycle. When recorded in various archives as tree rings, sediments, ice cores, they have also been largely used to reconstruct the past evolution of climate and water. The Antarctic cap is extremely sensitive to climate change. Moreover, this region is under the influence of exchanges between the troposphere and the stratosphere because of the presence of the polar vortex. Tritium (3H) has been shown to be an appropriate tracer for the intrusion of stratospheric air masses into the lower troposphere. Natural tritium is mainly produced by the interaction of cosmic radiations with the upper atmosphere. This tritium enters the hydrological cycle in the form of tritiated water molecules (HTO) and has a radioactive half-life of 4500±8 days. In an approach combining data and model, we have first implemented tritium in the coupled Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique Zoom (LMDZ) Atmospheric General Circulation Model developed at IPSL [Risi et al., 2010]: LMDZ-iso. The implementation of natural tritium uses the same model architecture as for the other water isotopes, after a correct description of associated cosmogenic production terms [Masarik and Beer, 2009]. The model is used in a configuration dedicated to the simulation of the stratosphere, with 39 layers. In this presentation, we will focus on the modeling of spatial and temporal natural variations of tritium content in precipitation. The model is validated against a compilation of available data for natural tritium. We show that the continental and latitudinal effects are well reproduced by the model and that simulated seasonal variations of the tritium content of precipitation are coherent with our current knowledge of troposphere-stratosphere exchanges. Masarik

  20. Extreme ultraviolet lithography machine

    DOEpatents

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Haney, Steven J.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    2000-01-01

    An extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) machine or system for producing integrated circuit (IC) components, such as transistors, formed on a substrate. The EUVL machine utilizes a laser plasma point source directed via an optical arrangement onto a mask or reticle which is reflected by a multiple mirror system onto the substrate or target. The EUVL machine operates in the 10-14 nm wavelength soft x-ray photon. Basically the EUV machine includes an evacuated source chamber, an evacuated main or project chamber interconnected by a transport tube arrangement, wherein a laser beam is directed into a plasma generator which produces an illumination beam which is directed by optics from the source chamber through the connecting tube, into the projection chamber, and onto the reticle or mask, from which a patterned beam is reflected by optics in a projection optics (PO) box mounted in the main or projection chamber onto the substrate. In one embodiment of a EUVL machine, nine optical components are utilized, with four of the optical components located in the PO box. The main or projection chamber includes vibration isolators for the PO box and a vibration isolator mounting for the substrate, with the main or projection chamber being mounted on a support structure and being isolated.

  1. The Bearingless Electrical Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bichsel, J.

    1992-01-01

    Electromagnetic bearings allow the suspension of solids. For rotary applications, the most important physical effect is the force of a magnetic circuit to a high permeable armature, called the MAXWELL force. Contrary to the commonly used MAXWELL bearings, the bearingless electrical machine will take advantage of the reaction force of a conductor carrying a current in a magnetic field. This kind of force, called Lorentz force, generates the torque in direct current, asynchronous and synchronous machines. The magnetic field, which already exists in electrical machines and helps to build up the torque, can also be used for the suspension of the rotor. Besides the normal winding of the stator, a special winding was added, which generates forces for levitation. So a radial bearing, which is integrated directly in the active part of the machine, and the motor use the laminated core simultaneously. The winding was constructed for the levitating forces in a special way so that commercially available standard ac inverters for drives can be used. Besides wholly magnetic suspended machines, there is a wide range of applications for normal drives with ball bearings. Resonances of the rotor, especially critical speeds, can be damped actively.

  2. Cycle Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Steven A.

    2012-03-20

    1. The Cycle Analysis code is an Microsoft Excel code that performs many different types of thermodynamic cycle analysis for power producing systems. The code will calculate the temperature and pressure and all other thermodynamic properties at the inlet and outlet of each component. The code also calculates the power that is produced, the efficiency, and the heat transported in the heater, gas chiller and recuperators. The code provides a schematic of the loop and provides the temperature and pressure at each location in the loop. The code also provides a T-S (temperature-entropy) diagram of the loop and often it provides an pressure enthalpy plot as well. 2. This version of the code concentrates on supercritical CO2 power cycles, but by simply changing the name of the working fluid many other types of fluids can be analyzed. The Cycle Analysis code provided here contains 18 different types of power cycles. Each cycle is contained in one worksheet or tab that the user can select. The user can change the yellow highlighted regions to perform different thermodynamic cycle analysis.

  3. The Use of Machine Aids in Dynamic Multi-Task Environments: A Comparison of an Optimal Model to Human Behavior.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    advantage . Unproductive machines, however, were used far more frequently than indicated by the optimal model. Increasing the cost of using machines was...found to have a greater inhibiting effect on their use than did de-creasing machine productivity. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAQE(Vhm’ Date Bnb .,e@V...and the method used to deal with it. The cognitive interface is like the storm front between a warm air mass and a cold air mass. Both are described as

  4. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  5. Airbreathing combined cycle engine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohde, John

    1992-01-01

    The Air Force and NASA share a common interest in developing advanced propulsion systems for commercial and military aerospace vehicles which require efficient acceleration and cruise operation in the Mach 4 to 6 flight regime. The principle engine of interest is the turboramjet; however, other combined cycles such as the turboscramjet, air turborocket, supercharged ejector ramjet, ejector ramjet, and air liquefaction based propulsion are also of interest. Over the past months careful planning and program implementation have resulted in a number of development efforts that will lead to a broad technology base for those combined cycle propulsion systems. Individual development programs are underway in thermal management, controls materials, endothermic hydrocarbon fuels, air intake systems, nozzle exhaust systems, gas turbines and ramjet ramburners.

  6. Micro-machined resonator

    DOEpatents

    Godshall, N.A.; Koehler, D.R.; Liang, A.Y.; Smith, B.K.

    1993-03-30

    A micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micro-machinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrode through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

  7. Micro-machined resonator

    DOEpatents

    Godshall, Ned A.; Koehler, Dale R.; Liang, Alan Y.; Smith, Bradley K.

    1993-01-01

    A micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micro-machinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrode through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

  8. Brown coal preparation machines

    SciTech Connect

    Bleckmann, H.; Sitte, W.; Kellerwessel, H.

    1981-05-01

    Lignite usually requires comminuting and screening before being used as a fuel in power plants. Reduction machines normally used for coarse crushing bituminous coal, such as jaw crushers, roll crushers, and impact crushers, are not generally suitable for lignite as they require a brittle feed and large grain size. In contrast to these requirements, lignite can be easily compressed and has a small grain size. Therefore, special crusher types have been developed for the coarse reduction of lignite. These machines resemble roll crushers but subject the feed to shearing and tearing forces rather than to compressive stress. It is often necessary to screen the lignite to remove the undersize or to limit the maximum particle size before the next comminution process. Screening the lignite is a particularly difficult operation due to the high water content and the presence of clay minerals which tend to clog the screening machines. These problems can be overcome with multi-roll sizers.

  9. Fast and stable electrical discharge machining (EDM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianyang; Zhou, Ming; Xu, Xiaoyi; Yang, Jianwei; Zeng, Xiangwei; Xu, Donghui

    2016-05-01

    In order to improve EDM performances, the most important issue is to develop a highly stable control system. As a serious defect in EDM adaptive control system by minimum-variance control law, the occasional instability deterred its full applications in industries. This paper focuses on stabilizing EDM process by establishing a new minimum-variance and pole-placement coupled control law. Based on real-time estimation of EDM process model parameters, this adaptive control system directly controls electrode discharging cycle not only to follow a specified gap state for fast machining but also to track the dynamical response of a reference model for stabilizing EDM process. Confirmation experiment demonstrates that this control system can timely adjust electrode discharging cycle in terms of different machining situations quantified as a series of varied gap states to maintain a stable and fast fabrication. The adaptive control system by this newly developed control law exhibits its superior machining ability and capability of stabilizing sparking process to those of the adaptive control system by minimum-variance control law. The adaptive system has actually theoretically and technically solved the stability issue puzzled EDM circle for decades.

  10. Machining in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Graylan

    2003-01-01

    A CNC mill was flown aboard NASA's KC-135 ``Weightless Wonder'' microgravity research aircraft to investigate the effect of gravity on the machining process and to demonstrate the feasibility and functionality of a CNC mill in a weightless environment, such as aboard the International Space Station. The experiment hypothesis was that the surface roughness of milling cuts made in microgravity would be of higher quality than cuts made in a gravitational environment due to increased chip removal. The technical problems associated with microgravity machining (such as the chip removal and collection process), and the engineering solutions to these problems were also evaluated in this experiment.

  11. New photolithography stepping machine

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, L.; Klingmann, J.; Markle, D.

    1995-03-08

    A joint development project to design a new photolithography steeping machine capable of 150 nanometer overlay accuracy was completed by Ultratech Stepper and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The principal result of the project is a next-generation product that will strengthen the US position in step-and-repeat photolithography. The significant challenges addressed and solved in the project are the subject of this report. Design methods and new devices that have broader application to precision machine design are presented in greater detail while project specific information serves primarily as background and motivation.

  12. Intersecting vane machines

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, H. Sterling; Chomyszak, Stephen M.

    2007-01-16

    The invention provides a toroidal intersecting vane machine incorporating intersecting rotors to form primary and secondary chambers whose porting configurations minimize friction and maximize efficiency. Specifically, it is an object of the invention to provide a toroidal intersecting vane machine that greatly reduces the frictional losses through meshing surfaces without the need for external gearing by modifying the function of one or the other of the rotors from that of "fluid moving" to that of "valving" thereby reducing the pressure loads and associated inefficiencies at the interface of the meshing surfaces. The inventions described herein relate to these improvements.

  13. Paradigms for machine learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlimmer, Jeffrey C.; Langley, Pat

    1991-01-01

    Five paradigms are described for machine learning: connectionist (neural network) methods, genetic algorithms and classifier systems, empirical methods for inducing rules and decision trees, analytic learning methods, and case-based approaches. Some dimensions are considered along with these paradigms vary in their approach to learning, and the basic methods are reviewed that are used within each framework, together with open research issues. It is argued that the similarities among the paradigms are more important than their differences, and that future work should attempt to bridge the existing boundaries. Finally, some recent developments in the field of machine learning are discussed, and their impact on both research and applications is examined.

  14. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

    DOEpatents

    Strand, Oliver T.; Lowry, Mark E.

    1999-01-01

    The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectonic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems.

  15. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

    DOEpatents

    Strand, O.T.; Lowry, M.E.

    1999-01-05

    The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectronic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems. 26 figs.

  16. Precision Robotic Assembly Machine

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

  17. Cycling injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, G. C.

    1993-01-01

    Bicycle-related injuries have increased as cycling has become more popular. Most injuries to recreational riders are associated with overuse or improper fit of the bicycle. Injuries to racers often result from high speeds, which predispose riders to muscle strains, collisions, and falls. Cyclists contact bicycles at the pedals, seat, and handlebars. Each is associated with particular cycling injuries. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8471908

  18. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Videos Games Experiments For Teachers Home ... Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Indoor Air Pollution The Basics We ...

  19. Quantification of uncertainty in machining operations for on-machine acceptance.

    SciTech Connect

    Claudet, Andre A.; Tran, Hy D.; Su, Jiann-Chemg

    2008-09-01

    Manufactured parts are designed with acceptance tolerances, i.e. deviations from ideal design conditions, due to unavoidable errors in the manufacturing process. It is necessary to measure and evaluate the manufactured part, compared to the nominal design, to determine whether the part meets design specifications. The scope of this research project is dimensional acceptance of machined parts; specifically, parts machined using numerically controlled (NC, or also CNC for Computer Numerically Controlled) machines. In the design/build/accept cycle, the designer will specify both a nominal value, and an acceptable tolerance. As part of the typical design/build/accept business practice, it is required to verify that the part did meet acceptable values prior to acceptance. Manufacturing cost must include not only raw materials and added labor, but also the cost of ensuring conformance to specifications. Ensuring conformance is a substantial portion of the cost of manufacturing. In this project, the costs of measurements were approximately 50% of the cost of the machined part. In production, cost of measurement would be smaller, but still a substantial proportion of manufacturing cost. The results of this research project will point to a science-based approach to reducing the cost of ensuring conformance to specifications. The approach that we take is to determine, a priori, how well a CNC machine can manufacture a particular geometry from stock. Based on the knowledge of the manufacturing process, we are then able to decide features which need further measurements from features which can be accepted 'as is' from the CNC. By calibration of the machine tool, and establishing a machining accuracy ratio, we can validate the ability of CNC to fabricate to a particular level of tolerance. This will eliminate the costs of checking for conformance for relatively large tolerances.

  20. 12. Photocopied August 1978. CHANNELING MACHINES, NOVEMBER 1898. THESE MACHINES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopied August 1978. CHANNELING MACHINES, NOVEMBER 1898. THESE MACHINES BLOCKED OUT SECTIONS IN THE ROCK CUT IN PREPARATION FOR DRILLING AND BLASTING. (17) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  1. BRASS FOUNDRY MACHINE ROOM USED TO MACHINE CAST BRONZE PIECES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRASS FOUNDRY MACHINE ROOM USED TO MACHINE CAST BRONZE PIECES FOR VALVES AND PREPARE BRONZE VALVE BODIES FOR ASSEMBLY. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Brass Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  2. 14. Machine in north 1922 section of Building 59. Machine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Machine in north 1922 section of Building 59. Machine is 24' Jointer made by Oliver Machinery Co. Camera pointed E. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Pattern Shop, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  3. 42. MACHINE SHOP Machine shop area with small parts bins ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. MACHINE SHOP Machine shop area with small parts bins on the right and pipe storage racks on the left. Remains of the power drive system are suspended from the ceiling. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  4. Systems Analyses of Advanced Brayton Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    A.D. Rao; D.J. Francuz; J.D. Maclay; J. Brouwer; A. Verma; M. Li; G.S. Samuelsen

    2008-09-30

    The main objective is to identify and assess advanced improvements to the Brayton Cycle (such as but not limited to firing temperature, pressure ratio, combustion techniques, intercooling, fuel or combustion air augmentation, enhanced blade cooling schemes) that will lead to significant performance improvements in coal based power systems. This assessment is conducted in the context of conceptual design studies (systems studies) that advance state-of-art Brayton cycles and result in coal based efficiencies equivalent to 65% + on natural gas basis (LHV), or approximately an 8% reduction in heat rate of an IGCC plant utilizing the H class steam cooled gas turbine. H class gas turbines are commercially offered by General Electric and Mitsubishi for natural gas based combined cycle applications with 60% efficiency (LHV) and it is expected that such machine will be offered for syngas applications within the next 10 years. The studies are being sufficiently detailed so that third parties will be able to validate portions or all of the studies. The designs and system studies are based on plants for near zero emissions (including CO{sub 2}). Also included in this program is the performance evaluation of other advanced technologies such as advanced compression concepts and the fuel cell based combined cycle. The objective of the fuel cell based combined cycle task is to identify the desired performance characteristics and design basis for a gas turbine that will be integrated with an SOFC in Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) applications. The goal is the conceptualization of near zero emission (including CO{sub 2} capture) integrated gasification power plants producing electricity as the principle product. The capability of such plants to coproduce H{sub 2} is qualitatively addressed. Since a total systems solution is critical to establishing a plant configuration worthy of a comprehensive market interest, a baseline IGCC plant scheme is developed and used to study

  5. Machine speech and speaking about machines

    SciTech Connect

    Nye, A.

    1996-12-31

    Current philosophy of language prides itself on scientific status. It boasts of being no longer contaminated with queer mental entities or idealist essences. It theorizes language as programmable variants of formal semantic systems, reimaginable either as the properly epiphenomenal machine functions of computer science or the properly material neural networks of physiology. Whether or not such models properly capture the physical workings of a living human brain is a question that scientists will have to answer. I, as a philosopher, come at the problem from another direction. Does contemporary philosophical semantics, in its dominant truth-theoretic and related versions, capture actual living human thought as it is experienced, or does it instead reflect, regardless of (perhaps dubious) scientific credentials, pathology of thought, a pathology with a disturbing social history.

  6. Quantum thermal machines driven by vacuum forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terças, Hugo; Ribeiro, Sofia; Pezzutto, Marco; Omar, Yasser

    2017-02-01

    We propose a quantum thermal machine composed of two nanomechanical resonators (two membranes suspended over a trench in a substrate) placed a few μ m from each other. The quantum thermodynamical cycle is powered by the Casimir interaction between the resonators and the working fluid is the polariton resulting from the mixture of the flexural (out-of-plane) vibrations. With the help of piezoelectric cells, we select and sweep the polariton frequency cyclically. We calculate the performance of the proposed quantum thermal machines and show that high efficiencies are achieved thanks to (i) the strong coupling between the resonators and (ii) the large difference between the membrane stiffnesses. Our findings can be of particular importance for applications in nanomechanical technologies where a sensitive control of temperature is needed.

  7. Quantum thermal machines driven by vacuum forces.

    PubMed

    Terças, Hugo; Ribeiro, Sofia; Pezzutto, Marco; Omar, Yasser

    2017-02-01

    We propose a quantum thermal machine composed of two nanomechanical resonators (two membranes suspended over a trench in a substrate) placed a few μm from each other. The quantum thermodynamical cycle is powered by the Casimir interaction between the resonators and the working fluid is the polariton resulting from the mixture of the flexural (out-of-plane) vibrations. With the help of piezoelectric cells, we select and sweep the polariton frequency cyclically. We calculate the performance of the proposed quantum thermal machines and show that high efficiencies are achieved thanks to (i) the strong coupling between the resonators and (ii) the large difference between the membrane stiffnesses. Our findings can be of particular importance for applications in nanomechanical technologies where a sensitive control of temperature is needed.

  8. Small quantum networks operating as quantum thermodynamic machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrich, M. J.; Michel, M.; Mahler, G.

    2006-12-01

    We show that a 3-qubit system as studied for quantum information purposes can alternatively be used as a thermodynamic machine when externally driven in finite time and interfaced between two split baths. The spins are arranged in a chain where the working spin in the middle exercises Carnot cycles the area of which defines the exchanged work. The cycle orientation (sign of the exchanged work) flips as the difference of bath temperatures goes through a critical value.

  9. Machine Aids to Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkmann, Karl-Heinz

    1981-01-01

    Describes the TEAM Program System of the Siemens Language Services Department, particularly the main features of its terminology data bank. Discusses criteria to which stored terminology must conform and methods of data bank utilization. Concludes by summarizing the consequences that machine-aided translation development has had for the…

  10. Biomimetic machine vision system.

    PubMed

    Harman, William M; Barrett, Steven F; Wright, Cameron H G; Wilcox, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Real-time application of digital imaging for use in machine vision systems has proven to be prohibitive when used within control systems that employ low-power single processors without compromising the scope of vision or resolution of captured images. Development of a real-time machine analog vision system is the focus of research taking place at the University of Wyoming. This new vision system is based upon the biological vision system of the common house fly. Development of a single sensor is accomplished, representing a single facet of the fly's eye. This new sensor is then incorporated into an array of sensors capable of detecting objects and tracking motion in 2-D space. This system "preprocesses" incoming image data resulting in minimal data processing to determine the location of a target object. Due to the nature of the sensors in the array, hyperacuity is achieved thereby eliminating resolutions issues found in digital vision systems. In this paper, we will discuss the biological traits of the fly eye and the specific traits that led to the development of this machine vision system. We will also discuss the process of developing an analog based sensor that mimics the characteristics of interest in the biological vision system. This paper will conclude with a discussion of how an array of these sensors can be applied toward solving real-world machine vision issues.

  11. The Art Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vertelney, Harry; Grossberger, Lucia

    1983-01-01

    Introduces educators to possibilities of computer graphics using an inexpensive computer system which takes advantage of existing equipment (35mm camera, super 8 movie camera, VHS video cassette recorder). The concept of the "art machine" is explained, highlighting input and output devices (X-Y plotter, graphic tablets, video…

  12. Cybernetic anthropomorphic machine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    Functional descriptions are provided for a number of cybernetic man machine systems that augment the capacity of normal human beings in the areas of strength, reach or physical size, and environmental interaction, and that are also applicable to aiding the neurologically handicapped. Teleoperators, computer control, exoskeletal devices, quadruped vehicles, space maintenance systems, and communications equipment are considered.

  13. Copy Machine Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Jean

    1984-01-01

    Images created with copy machines make children feel successful, as their work acquires the authority of being printed. Students can learn advanced processes like electrostatic image-making and can get involved in projects like making collages. They acquire an appreciation of design and of two-dimensional composition. (CS)

  14. Working with Simple Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, John W.

    2006-01-01

    A set of examples is provided that illustrate the use of work as applied to simple machines. The ramp, pulley, lever and hydraulic press are common experiences in the life of a student, and their theoretical analysis therefore makes the abstract concept of work more real. The mechanical advantage of each of these systems is also discussed so that…

  15. Introduction to Exploring Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early Childhood Today, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Young children are fascinated by how things "work." They are at a stage of development where they want to experiment with the many ways to use an object or take things apart and put them back together. In the process of exploring tools and machines, children use the scientific method and problem-solving skills. They observe how things work, wonder…

  16. Support vector machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garay, Michael J.; Mazzoni, Dominic; Davies, Roger; Wagstaff, Kiri

    2004-01-01

    Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are a type of supervised learning algorith,, other examples of which are Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Decision Trees, and Naive Bayesian Classifiers. Supervised learning algorithms are used to classify objects labled by a 'supervisor' - typically a human 'expert.'.

  17. Laser machining of explosives

    DOEpatents

    Perry, Michael D.; Stuart, Brent C.; Banks, Paul S.; Myers, Booth R.; Sefcik, Joseph A.

    2000-01-01

    The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

  18. Performance limits of multilevel and multipartite quantum heat machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedenzu, Wolfgang; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, David; Kurizki, Gershon

    2015-10-01

    We present the general theory of a quantum heat machine based on an N -level system (working medium) whose N -1 excited levels are degenerate, a prerequisite for steady-state interlevel coherence. Our goal is to find out the extent to which coherence in the working medium is an asset for heat machines. The performance bounds of such a machine are common to (reciprocating) cycles that consist of consecutive strokes and continuous cycles wherein the periodically driven system is constantly coupled to cold and hot heat baths. Intriguingly, we find that the machine's performance strongly depends on the relative orientations of the transition-dipole vectors in the system. Perfectly aligned (parallel) transition dipoles allow for steady-state coherence effects, but also give rise to dark states, which hinder steady-state thermalization and thus reduce the machine's performance. Similar thermodynamic properties hold for N two-level atoms conforming to the Dicke model. We conclude that level degeneracy, but not necessarily coherence, is a thermodynamic resource, equally enhancing the heat currents and the power output of the heat machine. By contrast, the efficiency remains unaltered by this degeneracy and adheres to the Carnot bound.

  19. 8. VIEW OF THE MACHINE SHOP. BY 1966, THE MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF THE MACHINE SHOP. BY 1966, THE MACHINE SHOP HANDLED PRIMARILY STAINLESS STEEL COMPONENTS, WHICH WERE SENT TO THE MACHINE SHOP TO BE FORMED INTO THEIR FINAL SHAPES. (7/24/70) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  20. Problem of technological inheritance in machine engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenstein, Valery; Rakhimyanov, Kharis; Heifetz, Mikhail; Kleptzov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This article demonstrates the importance of the research study with regard to the technological inheritance of the properties, which characterize the surface layer, at different stages of a part's life cycle. It looks back at the major achievements and gives the findings relating to the technological inheritance of the parameters of the surface layer strength and quality as well as to how they affect the performance properties of machine parts. It demonstrates that high rates of machine engineering development, occurrence of new materials and more complicated machine operation environment require a shorter period for design-to-manufacture facility by reducing experiments and increasing design work. That, in its turn, generates the necessity in more complex but also more accurate models of metal behavior under stressing. It is especially critical for strengthening treatment. Among them are the models developed within the mechanics of technological inheritance. It is assumed that at the stages of a part's life cycle deformation accumulates on a continuous basis and the plasticity reserve of the metal, which the surface layer is made of, depletes. The research study of technological inheritance and the discovery of physical patterns of the evolution and degradation of the structures in a thin surface layer, which occur during machining and operational stressing of parts made from existing and unique including nanopatterned metals, is a crucial scientific challenge. This leads to the acquisition of new knowledge in the plasticity of state-of-the-art metals in the conditions of complex non monotonous stressing and to the development of efficient integrated and combined methods of technological impact.

  1. Vapor Compression Cycle Design Program (CYCLE_D)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 49 NIST Vapor Compression Cycle Design Program (CYCLE_D) (PC database for purchase)   The CYCLE_D database package simulates the vapor compression refrigeration cycles. It is fully compatible with REFPROP 9.0 and covers the 62 single-compound refrigerants . Fluids can be used in mixtures comprising up to five components.

  2. Hinged Shields for Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lallande, J. B.; Poland, W. W.; Tull, S.

    1985-01-01

    Flaps guard against flying chips, but fold away for tool setup. Clear plastic shield in position to intercept flying chips from machine tool and retracted to give operator access to workpiece. Machine shops readily make such shields for own use.

  3. Hybrid solar central receiver for combined cycle power plant

    DOEpatents

    Bharathan, Desikan; Bohn, Mark S.; Williams, Thomas A.

    1995-01-01

    A hybrid combined cycle power plant including a solar central receiver for receiving solar radiation and converting it to thermal energy. The power plant includes a molten salt heat transfer medium for transferring the thermal energy to an air heater. The air heater uses the thermal energy to preheat the air from the compressor of the gas cycle. The exhaust gases from the gas cycle are directed to a steam turbine for additional energy production.

  4. Hybrid solar central receiver for combined cycle power plant

    DOEpatents

    Bharathan, D.; Bohn, M.S.; Williams, T.A.

    1995-05-23

    A hybrid combined cycle power plant is described including a solar central receiver for receiving solar radiation and converting it to thermal energy. The power plant includes a molten salt heat transfer medium for transferring the thermal energy to an air heater. The air heater uses the thermal energy to preheat the air from the compressor of the gas cycle. The exhaust gases from the gas cycle are directed to a steam turbine for additional energy production. 1 figure.

  5. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  6. Automatically-Programed Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, L.; Clerman, N.

    1985-01-01

    Software produces cutter location files for numerically-controlled machine tools. APT, acronym for Automatically Programed Tools, is among most widely used software systems for computerized machine tools. APT developed for explicit purpose of providing effective software system for programing NC machine tools. APT system includes specification of APT programing language and language processor, which executes APT statements and generates NC machine-tool motions specified by APT statements.

  7. Performance Characteristics of Absorption Hybrid Cycle Introduced Compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyoki, Shigeki; Kotani, Yuji; Uemura, Tadashi

    In this paper, four kinds of absorption hybrid cycle which introduced the compressor in the absorption cycle were proposed. As basic cycle of absorption refrigerating machine, the following were chosen: two kinds of single-stage absorption refrigerating machine and two kinds of double effect absorption refrigerating machine. As a working medium-absorbent system, NH3-H2O system, C2H5NH2-H2O system and C2H5NH2-H2O-LiBr system were adopted. Using these three kinds of working medium-absorbent system, the performance characteristics of four kinds of absorption hybrid cycle were simulated. And the performance characteristics of these cycles were compared.

  8. Fast, Continuous Audiogram Estimation using Machine Learning

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xinyu D.; Wallace, Brittany M.; Gardner, Jacob R.; Ledbetter, Noah M.; Weinberger, Kilian Q.; Barbour, Dennis L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Pure-tone audiometry has been a staple of hearing assessments for decades. Many different procedures have been proposed for measuring thresholds with pure tones by systematically manipulating intensity one frequency at a time until a discrete threshold function is determined. The authors have developed a novel nonparametric approach for estimating a continuous threshold audiogram using Bayesian estimation and machine learning classification. The objective of this study is to assess the accuracy and reliability of this new method relative to a commonly used threshold measurement technique. Design The authors performed air conduction pure-tone audiometry on 21 participants between the ages of 18 and 90 years with varying degrees of hearing ability. Two repetitions of automated machine learning audiogram estimation and 1 repetition of conventional modified Hughson-Westlake ascending-descending audiogram estimation were acquired by an audiologist. The estimated hearing thresholds of these two techniques were compared at standard audiogram frequencies (i.e., 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 kHz). Results The two threshold estimate methods delivered very similar estimates at standard audiogram frequencies. Specifically, the mean absolute difference between estimates was 4.16 ± 3.76 dB HL. The mean absolute difference between repeated measurements of the new machine learning procedure was 4.51 ± 4.45 dB HL. These values compare favorably to those of other threshold audiogram estimation procedures. Furthermore, the machine learning method generated threshold estimates from significantly fewer samples than the modified Hughson-Westlake procedure while returning a continuous threshold estimate as a function of frequency. Conclusions The new machine learning audiogram estimation technique produces continuous threshold audiogram estimates accurately, reliably, and efficiently, making it a strong candidate for widespread application in clinical and research audiometry. PMID

  9. Control systems improvements in a precision coordinate measuring machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, S. S.; Babelay, E. F., Jr.; Igou, R. E.; Woodard, L. M.; Green, W. L.

    1981-09-01

    A conventional, manually driven Moore No. 3 coordinate measuring machine at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is being upgraded to provide a continuous-path numerical control capability and simultaneously serve as a vehicle for testing new machine slide-control concepts. Besides new lead screw drive motors, an NC machine control unit, and a closed-loop servo system, the machine has also been equipped with vibration isolation, air-bearing slideways, and laser interferometric position feedback. The present conventional slide servo system will be replaced with a digital servo system wherein various feedback and compensation techniques can be realized through the use of a high speed, dedicated digital processor. The improvements to data are described with emphasis on identification and compensation of the slide control systems.

  10. Refractory insulation of hot end in stirling type thermal machines

    SciTech Connect

    Otters, J.L.

    1988-02-02

    A thermal machine is described comprising: a machine body comprised of axial body sections, the body having two opposite ends; means compressing the body between the opposite ends for holding the body sections in axially assembled relationship; a cylindrical displacer chamber in the body having a hot end and a cold end and containing a working fluid, a displacer reciprocable within the displacer chamber for displacing the fluid between the hot and cold ends thereby to subject the fluid to a thermodynamic cycle in cooperation with a compressor piston; refractory insulation means at least partly defining the displacer chamber and held in axial compression between a upper body sections associated with a thermal end of the machine body and lower body sections associated with a work end of the machine body, and means radially compressing the refractory insulation for pre-loading the refractory insulation means against tensile force exerted thereon by the working fluid.

  11. Isomap based supporting vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, W. N.

    2015-12-01

    This research presents a new isomap based supporting vector machine method. Isomap is a dimension reduction method which is able to analyze nonlinear relationship of data on manifolds. Accordingly, support vector machine is established on the isomap manifold to classify given and predict unknown data. A case study of the isomap based supporting vector machine for environmental planning problems is conducted.

  12. Interferometer systems in machine industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rzepka, Janusz; Pienkowski, Janusz; Sambor, Slawomir; Budzyn, Grzegorz

    2003-10-01

    In the report the arrangements of laser interferometers for machine history are presented; the laser interferometer LSP30 for investigation of geometry of machine tools, the setup for inspection of ball screw and laser liner for CNC machine. Outstanding feature of the interferometers is the stabilization system of laser frequency using surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid cells (SSFLC).

  13. Machine Shop Fundamentals: Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Michael G.; And Others

    These instructional materials were developed and designed for secondary and adult limited English proficient students enrolled in machine tool technology courses. Part 1 includes 24 lessons covering introduction, safety and shop rules, basic machine tools, basic machine operations, measurement, basic blueprint reading, layout, and bench tools.…

  14. 40 CFR 86.1333-2010 - Transient test cycle generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate... cycles. The heavy-duty transient engine cycles for Otto-cycle and diesel engines are listed in appendix...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1333-2010 - Transient test cycle generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate... cycles. The heavy-duty transient engine cycles for Otto-cycle and diesel engines are listed in appendix...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1333-2010 - Transient test cycle generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate... cycles. The heavy-duty transient engine cycles for Otto-cycle and diesel engines are listed in appendix...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1333-2010 - Transient test cycle generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate... cycles. The heavy-duty transient engine cycles for Otto-cycle and diesel engines are listed in appendix...

  18. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, Robert; McConnell, Elizabeth

    2016-06-29

    Machining methods across many industries generally require multiple operations to machine and process advanced materials, features with micron precision, and complex shapes. The resulting multiple machining platforms can significantly affect manufacturing cycle time and the precision of the final parts, with a resultant increase in cost and energy consumption. Ultrafast lasers represent a transformative and disruptive technology that removes material with micron precision and in a single step manufacturing process. Such precision results from athermal ablation without modification or damage to the remaining material which is the key differentiator between ultrafast laser technologies and traditional laser technologies or mechanical processes. Athermal ablation without modification or damage to the material eliminates post-processing or multiple manufacturing steps. Combined with the appropriate technology to control the motion of the work piece, ultrafast lasers are excellent candidates to provide breakthrough machining capability for difficult-to-machine materials. At the project onset in early 2012, the project team recognized that substantial effort was necessary to improve the application of ultrafast laser and precise motion control technologies (for micromachining difficult-to-machine materials) to further the aggregate throughput and yield improvements over conventional machining methods. The project described in this report advanced these leading-edge technologies thru the development and verification of two platforms: a hybrid enhanced laser chassis and a multi-application testbed.

  19. Engineered Surface Properties of Porous Tungsten from Cryogenic Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoop, Julius Malte

    Porous tungsten is used to manufacture dispenser cathodes due to it refractory properties. Surface porosity is critical to functional performance of dispenser cathodes because it allows for an impregnated ceramic compound to migrate to the emitting surface, lowering its work function. Likewise, surface roughness is important because it is necessary to ensure uniform wetting of the molten impregnate during high temperature service. Current industry practice to achieve surface roughness and surface porosity requirements involves the use of a plastic infiltrant during machining. After machining, the infiltrant is baked and the cathode pellet is impregnated. In this context, cryogenic machining is investigated as a substitutionary process for the current plastic infiltration process. Along with significant reductions in cycle time and resource use, surface quality of cryogenically machined un-infiltrated (as-sintered) porous tungsten has been shown to significantly outperform dry machining. The present study is focused on examining the relationship between machining parameters and cooling condition on the as-machined surface integrity of porous tungsten. The effects of cryogenic pre-cooling, rake angle, cutting speed, depth of cut and feed are all taken into consideration with respect to machining-induced surface morphology. Cermet and Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) cutting tools are used to develop high performance cryogenic machining of porous tungsten. Dry and pre-heated machining were investigated as a means to allow for ductile mode machining, yet severe tool-wear and undesirable smearing limited the feasibility of these approaches. By using modified PCD cutting tools, high speed machining of porous tungsten at cutting speeds up to 400 m/min is achieved for the first time. Beyond a critical speed, brittle fracture and built-up edge are eliminated as the result of a brittle to ductile transition. A model of critical chip thickness ( hc ) effects based on cutting

  20. The Rehbinder effect in iron during giga-cycle fatigue loading

    SciTech Connect

    Bannikov, M. V. Naimark, O. B.

    2015-10-27

    The influence of the adsorptive strength reduction effect (the Rehbinder effect) on the fatigue life of pure iron under the giga-cycle loading regime was investigated. Specimens were loaded by an ultrasonic testing machine with a frequency of 20 kHz in air and in contact with eutectic alloy of gallium with tin and indium. A significant (by several orders of magnitude) worsening of the life-time of iron in contact with a molten metal as compared with tests in air was established. The liquid metal penetrates into the material to a depth of 200 μm to the center of a fatigue crack. The mechanism of the fatigue crack initiation in the giga-cycle regime of loading in contact with a surfactant is differing: the crack is formed on the surface of the specimen rather than within it as is the case for air. Based on the electron and optical microscopy data for the fracture surface, it can be concluded that exactly the change in the crack initiation mechanism reduces the fatigue life of iron in contact with a liquid metal because the initiated crack propagates regardless of the surfactant.

  1. Flexible Security Configuration for Virtual Machines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    5b. GRANT NUMBER FA8750-07-2-0036 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) Sandra Rueda , Yogesh Sreenivasan, and Trent Jaeger 5d. PROJECT...work is copyrighted. This work was funded in whole or in part by Department of the Air Force contract number FA8750-07-2- 0036. The U.S. Government...Virtual Machines Sandra Rueda , Yogesh Sreenivasan, Trent Jaeger Systems and Internet Infrastructure Security Laboratory Department of Computer Science and

  2. Optimization of line configuration and balancing for flexible machining lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuemei; Li, Aiping; Chen, Zurui

    2016-05-01

    Line configuration and balancing is to select the type of line and allot a given set of operations as well as machines to a sequence of workstations to realize high-efficiency production. Most of the current researches for machining line configuration and balancing problems are related to dedicated transfer lines with dedicated machine workstations. With growing trends towards great product variety and fluctuations in market demand, dedicated transfer lines are being replaced with flexible machining line composed of identical CNC machines. This paper deals with the line configuration and balancing problem for flexible machining lines. The objective is to assign operations to workstations and find the sequence of execution, specify the number of machines in each workstation while minimizing the line cycle time and total number of machines. This problem is subject to precedence, clustering, accessibility and capacity constraints among the features, operations, setups and workstations. The mathematical model and heuristic algorithm based on feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory are presented to find an optimal solution. The feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory are used to establish constraint model. A heuristic operations sequencing and assignment algorithm is given. An industrial case study is carried out, and multiple optimal solutions in different line configurations are obtained. The case studying results show that the solutions with shorter cycle time and higher line balancing rate demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. This research proposes a heuristic line configuration and balancing algorithm based on feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory which is able to provide better solutions while achieving an improvement in computing time.

  3. Menu Cycles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Alfred; Almony, John

    The curriculum guide for commercial foods instruction is designed to aid the teacher in communicating the importance of menu cycles in commercial food production. It also provides information about the necessary steps in getting food from the raw form to the finished product, and then to the consumer. In addition to providing information on how to…

  4. A Boltzmann machine for the organization of intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moed, Michael C.; Saridis, George N.

    1989-01-01

    In the present technological society, there is a major need to build machines that would execute intelligent tasks operating in uncertain environments with minimum interaction with a human operator. Although some designers have built smart robots, utilizing heuristic ideas, there is no systematic approach to design such machines in an engineering manner. Recently, cross-disciplinary research from the fields of computers, systems AI and information theory has served to set the foundations of the emerging area of the design of intelligent machines. Since 1977 Saridis has been developing an approach, defined as Hierarchical Intelligent Control, designed to organize, coordinate and execute anthropomorphic tasks by a machine with minimum interaction with a human operator. This approach utilizes analytical (probabilistic) models to describe and control the various functions of the intelligent machine structured by the intuitively defined principle of Increasing Precision with Decreasing Intelligence (IPDI) (Saridis 1979). This principle, even though resembles the managerial structure of organizational systems (Levis 1988), has been derived on an analytic basis by Saridis (1988). The purpose is to derive analytically a Boltzmann machine suitable for optimal connection of nodes in a neural net (Fahlman, Hinton, Sejnowski, 1985). Then this machine will serve to search for the optimal design of the organization level of an intelligent machine. In order to accomplish this, some mathematical theory of the intelligent machines will be first outlined. Then some definitions of the variables associated with the principle, like machine intelligence, machine knowledge, and precision will be made (Saridis, Valavanis 1988). Then a procedure to establish the Boltzmann machine on an analytic basis will be presented and illustrated by an example in designing the organization level of an Intelligent Machine. A new search technique, the Modified Genetic Algorithm, is presented and proved

  5. Variable Cycle Intake for Reverse Core Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suciu, Gabriel L (Inventor); Chandler, Jesse M (Inventor); Staubach, Joseph B (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A gas generator for a reverse core engine propulsion system has a variable cycle intake for the gas generator, which variable cycle intake includes a duct system. The duct system is configured for being selectively disposed in a first position and a second position, wherein free stream air is fed to the gas generator when in the first position, and fan stream air is fed to the gas generator when in the second position.

  6. Engineering molecular machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erman, Burak

    2016-04-01

    Biological molecular motors use chemical energy, mostly in the form of ATP hydrolysis, and convert it to mechanical energy. Correlated thermal fluctuations are essential for the function of a molecular machine and it is the hydrolysis of ATP that modifies the correlated fluctuations of the system. Correlations are consequences of the molecular architecture of the protein. The idea that synthetic molecular machines may be constructed by designing the proper molecular architecture is challenging. In their paper, Sarkar et al (2016 New J. Phys. 18 043006) propose a synthetic molecular motor based on the coarse grained elastic network model of proteins and show by numerical simulations that motor function is realized, ranging from deterministic to thermal, depending on temperature. This work opens up a new range of possibilities of molecular architecture based engine design.

  7. Machining fiber-reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komanduri, Ranga

    1993-04-01

    Compared to high tool wear and high costs of tooling of fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs), noncontact material-removal processes offer attractive alternative. Noncontact machining methods can also minimize dust, noise, and extensive plastic deformation and consequent heat generation associated with conventional machining of FRCs, espacially those with an epoxy matrix. The paper describes the principles involved in and the details of machining of FRCs by laser machining, water jet-cutting and abrasive water jet-cutting, and electrical discharge machining of composites, as well as the limitations of each method.

  8. Safety features in anaesthesia machine.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanyam, M; Mohan, S

    2013-09-01

    Anaesthesia is one of the few sub-specialties of medicine, which has quickly adapted technology to improve patient safety. This application of technology can be seen in patient monitoring, advances in anaesthesia machines, intubating devices, ultrasound for visualisation of nerves and vessels, etc., Anaesthesia machines have come a long way in the last 100 years, the improvements being driven both by patient safety as well as functionality and economy of use. Incorporation of safety features in anaesthesia machines and ensuring that a proper check of the machine is done before use on a patient ensures patient safety. This review will trace all the present safety features in the machine and their evolution.

  9. Quantum Virtual Machine (QVM)

    SciTech Connect

    McCaskey, Alexander J.

    2016-11-18

    There is a lack of state-of-the-art HPC simulation tools for simulating general quantum computing. Furthermore, there are no real software tools that integrate current quantum computers into existing classical HPC workflows. This product, the Quantum Virtual Machine (QVM), solves this problem by providing an extensible framework for pluggable virtual, or physical, quantum processing units (QPUs). It enables the execution of low level quantum assembly codes and returns the results of such executions.

  10. Swinging Atwood's Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tufillaro, Nicholas B.; Abbott, Tyler A.; Griffiths, David J.

    1984-10-01

    We examine the motion of an Atwood's Machine in which one of the masses is allowed to swing in a plane. Computer studies reveal a rich variety of trajectories. The orbits are classified (bounded, periodic, singular, and terminating), and formulas for the critical mass ratios are developed. Perturbative techniques yield good approximations to the computer-generated trajectories. The model constitutes a simple example of a nonlinear dynamical system with two degrees of freedom.

  11. Making Atwood's machine ``work''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Gordon O.

    2001-03-01

    PASCO scientific's Smart Pulley™, a lightweight, low-friction pulley and a photogate, begs to be used as an Atwood's machine to determine the acceleration of gravity, g. Unfortunately ignoring the mass and friction of the pulley results in poor values of g. In this paper a procedure is outlined that includes the effects of the pulley's inertia and friction. As a result, the value of g may be determined to an accuracy of 0.1%.

  12. Machine Learning in Medicine.

    PubMed

    Deo, Rahul C

    2015-11-17

    Spurred by advances in processing power, memory, storage, and an unprecedented wealth of data, computers are being asked to tackle increasingly complex learning tasks, often with astonishing success. Computers have now mastered a popular variant of poker, learned the laws of physics from experimental data, and become experts in video games - tasks that would have been deemed impossible not too long ago. In parallel, the number of companies centered on applying complex data analysis to varying industries has exploded, and it is thus unsurprising that some analytic companies are turning attention to problems in health care. The purpose of this review is to explore what problems in medicine might benefit from such learning approaches and use examples from the literature to introduce basic concepts in machine learning. It is important to note that seemingly large enough medical data sets and adequate learning algorithms have been available for many decades, and yet, although there are thousands of papers applying machine learning algorithms to medical data, very few have contributed meaningfully to clinical care. This lack of impact stands in stark contrast to the enormous relevance of machine learning to many other industries. Thus, part of my effort will be to identify what obstacles there may be to changing the practice of medicine through statistical learning approaches, and discuss how these might be overcome.

  13. Universal Memcomputing Machines.

    PubMed

    Traversa, Fabio Lorenzo; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2015-11-01

    We introduce the notion of universal memcomputing machines (UMMs): a class of brain-inspired general-purpose computing machines based on systems with memory, whereby processing and storing of information occur on the same physical location. We analytically prove that the memory properties of UMMs endow them with universal computing power (they are Turing-complete), intrinsic parallelism, functional polymorphism, and information overhead, namely, their collective states can support exponential data compression directly in memory. We also demonstrate that a UMM has the same computational power as a nondeterministic Turing machine, namely, it can solve nondeterministic polynomial (NP)-complete problems in polynomial time. However, by virtue of its information overhead, a UMM needs only an amount of memory cells (memprocessors) that grows polynomially with the problem size. As an example, we provide the polynomial-time solution of the subset-sum problem and a simple hardware implementation of the same. Even though these results do not prove the statement NP = P within the Turing paradigm, the practical realization of these UMMs would represent a paradigm shift from the present von Neumann architectures, bringing us closer to brain-like neural computation.

  14. Architectures for intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saridis, George N.

    1991-01-01

    The theory of intelligent machines has been recently reformulated to incorporate new architectures that are using neural and Petri nets. The analytic functions of an intelligent machine are implemented by intelligent controls, using entropy as a measure. The resulting hierarchical control structure is based on the principle of increasing precision with decreasing intelligence. Each of the three levels of the intelligent control is using different architectures, in order to satisfy the requirements of the principle: the organization level is moduled after a Boltzmann machine for abstract reasoning, task planning and decision making; the coordination level is composed of a number of Petri net transducers supervised, for command exchange, by a dispatcher, which also serves as an interface to the organization level; the execution level, include the sensory, planning for navigation and control hardware which interacts one-to-one with the appropriate coordinators, while a VME bus provides a channel for database exchange among the several devices. This system is currently implemented on a robotic transporter, designed for space construction at the CIRSSE laboratories at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. The progress of its development is reported.

  15. Design of a Simplified Closed Brayton Cycle for a Space Reactor Application

    SciTech Connect

    Guimaraes, Lamartine N. F.; Camillo, Giannino Ponchio; Placco, Guilherme Moreira

    2009-03-16

    The Nuclear Energy Division (ENU) of the Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv) has started a preliminary design study for a Closed Brayton Cycle Loop (CBCL) aimed at a space reactor application. The main objectives of the study are: 1) to establish a starting concept for the CBCL components specifications, and 2) to build a demonstrative simulator of CBCL. This preliminary design study is been developed around the NOELLE 60290 turbo machine. The actual nuclear reactor study is being conducted independently. Because of that, a conventional heat source is being used for the CBCL, in this preliminary design phase. This paper describes details of the CBCL mechanical design and the steady state simulator of the CBCL operating with NOELLE 60290 turbo machine. In principle, several gases are being considered as working fluid, as for instance: air, helium, nitrogen, CO2 and gas mixtures such as helium and xenon. However, for this first application pure helium will be used as working fluid. Simplified models of heat and mass transfer were developed to simulate thermal components. A new graphical interface was developed for the simulator to display the thermal process variables in steady state and to keep track of the modifications being implemented at the NOELLE 60290 turbo machine in order to build the CBCL. A set of new results are being produced. These new results help to establish the hot and cold source geometry allowing for price estimating costs for building the actual device. These fresh new results will be presented and discussed.

  16. A Preliminary and Simplified Closed Brayton Cycle Modeling for a Space Reactor Application

    SciTech Connect

    Guimaraes, Lamartine Nogueira Frutuoso; Camillo, Giannino Ponchio

    2008-01-21

    The Nuclear Energy Division (ENU) of the Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv) has started a preliminary design study for a Closed Brayton Cycle Loop (CBCL) aimed at a space reactor application. The main objectives of the study are: 1) to establish a starting concept for the CBCL components specifications, and 2) to build a demonstrative simulator of CBCL. This preliminary design study is developing the CBCL around the NOELLE 60290 turbo machine. The actual nuclear reactor study is being conducted independently. Because of that, a conventional heat source is being used for the CBCL, in this preliminary design phase. This paper describes the steady state simulator of the CBCL operating with NOELLE 60290 turbo machine. In principle, several gases are being considered as working fluid, as for instance: air, helium, nitrogen, CO{sub 2} and gas mixtures such as helium and xenon. However, for this first application pure helium will be used as working fluid. Simplified models of heat and mass transfer were developed to simulate thermal components. Future efforts will focus on implementing a graphical interface to display the thermal process variables in steady state and to keep track of the modifications being implemented at the NOELLE 60290 turbo machine in order to build the CBCL.

  17. CNC electrical discharge machining centers

    SciTech Connect

    Jaggars, S.R.

    1991-10-01

    Computer numerical control (CNC) electrical discharge machining (EDM) centers were investigated to evaluate the application and cost effectiveness of establishing this capability at Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). In line with this investigation, metal samples were designed, prepared, and machined on an existing 15-year-old EDM machine and on two current technology CNC EDM machining centers at outside vendors. The results were recorded and evaluated. The study revealed that CNC EDM centers are a capability that should be established at KCD. From the information gained, a machine specification was written and a shop was purchased and installed in the Engineering Shop. The older machine was exchanged for a new model. Additional machines were installed in the Tool Design and Fabrication and Precision Microfinishing departments. The Engineering Shop machine will be principally used for the following purposes: producing deep cavities in small corner radii, machining simulated casting models, machining difficult-to-machine materials, and polishing difficult-to-hand polish mold cavities. 2 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Analytical investigation of machining chatter by considering the nonlinearity of process damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Keivan

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, the well-established problem of self-excited vibrations in machining is revisited to include the nonlinearity of process damping at the tool and workpiece interface. Machining dynamics is modeled using a time-delayed system with nonlinear damping, and the method of averaging is used to obtain the amplitude of the resulting limit cycles. As a result, an analytical relationship is presented to establish the stability charts corresponding with arbitrary limit cycles in machining systems. The presented analytical solutions are verified using experiments and numerical solutions.

  19. Towards active microfluidics: Interface turbulence in thin liquid films with floating molecular machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, Sergio; Mikhailov, Alexander S.

    2009-06-01

    Thin liquid films with floating active protein machines are considered. Cyclic mechanical motions within the machines, representing microscopic swimmers, lead to molecular propulsion forces applied to the air-liquid interface. We show that when the rate of energy supply to the machines exceeds a threshold, the flat interface becomes linearly unstable. As a result of this instability, the regime of interface turbulence, characterized by irregular traveling waves and propagating machine clusters, is established. Numerical investigations of this nonlinear regime are performed. Conditions for the experimental observation of the instability are discussed.

  20. Heat exchanger design for hot air ericsson-brayton piston engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ďurčanský, P.; Lenhard, R.; Jandačka, J.

    2014-03-01

    One of the solutions without negative consequences for the increasing energy consumption in the world may be use of alternative energy sources in micro-cogeneration. Currently it is looking for different solutions and there are many possible ways. Cogeneration is known for long time and is widely used. But the installations are often large and the installed output is more suitable for cities or industry companies. When we will speak about decentralization, the small machines have to be used. The article deals with the principle of hot-air engines, their use in combined heat and electricity production from biomass and with heat exchangers as primary energy transforming element. In the article is hot air engine presented as a heat engine that allows the conversion of heat into mechanical energy while heat supply can be external. In the contribution are compared cycles of hot-air engine. Then are compared suitable heat exchangers for use with hot air Ericsson-Brayton engine. In the final part is proposal of heat exchanger for use in closed Ericsson-Brayton cycle.

  1. HEAT exchanger design for hot air Ericsson-Brayton piston engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ďurčanský, Peter; Lenhard, Richard; Jandačka, Jozef

    2013-10-01

    One of the solutions without negative consequences for the increasing energy consumption in the world may be use of alternative energy sources in micro-cogeneration. Currently it is looking for different solutions and there are many possible ways. Cogeneration is known for long time and is widely used. But the installations are often large and the installed output is more suitable for cities or industry companies. When we will speak about decentralization, the small machines have to be used. The article deals with the principle of hot-air engines, their use in combined heat and electricity production from biomass and with heat exchangers as primary energy transforming element. In the article is hot air engine presented as a heat engine that allows the conversion of heat into mechanical energy while heat supply can be external. In the contribution are compared cycles of hot-air engine. Then are compared suitable heat exchangers for use with hot air Ericsson-Brayton engine. In the final part is proposal of heat exchanger for use in closed Ericsson-Brayton cycle.

  2. Space Shuttle ET Friction Stir Weld Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Jack M.

    2003-01-01

    NASA and Lockheed-Martin approached the FSW machine vendor community with a specification for longitudinal barrel production FSW weld machines and a shorter travel process development machine in June of 2000. This specification was based on three years of FSW process development on the Space Shuttle External Tank alloys, AL2 195-T8M4 and AL22 19-T87. The primary motivations for changing the ET longitudinal welds from the existing variable polarity Plasma Arc plasma weld process included: (1) Significantly reduced weld defect rates and related reduction in cycle time and uncertainty; (2) Many fewer process variables to control (5 vs. 17); (3) Fewer manufacturing steps; (4) Lower residual stresses and distortion; (5) Improved weld strengths, particularly at cryogenic temperatures; (6) Fewer hazards to production personnel. General Tool was the successful bidder. The equipment is at this writing installed and welding flight hardware. This paper is a means of sharing with the rest of the FSW community the unique features developed to assure NASA/L-M of successful production welds.

  3. Microcompartments and Protein Machines in Prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Saier, Milton H.

    2013-01-01

    The prokaryotic cell was once thought of as a “bag of enzymes” with little or no intracellular compartmentalization. In this view, most reactions essential for life occurred as a consequence of random molecular collisions involving substrates, cofactors and cytoplasmic enzymes. Our current conception of a prokaryote is far from this view. We now consider a bacterium or an archaeon as a highly structured, non-random collection of functional membrane-embedded and proteinaceous molecular machines, each of which serves a specialized function. In this article we shall present an overview of such microcompartments including (i) the bacterial cytoskeleton and the apparati allowing DNA segregation during cells division, (ii) energy transduction apparati involving light-driven proton pumping and ion gradient-driven ATP synthesis, (iii) prokaryotic motility and taxis machines that mediate cell movements in response to gradients of chemicals and physical forces, (iv) machines of protein folding, secretion and degradation, (v) metabolasomes carrying out specific chemical reactions, (vi) 24 hour clocks allowing bacteria to coordinate their metabolic activities with the daily solar cycle and (vii) proteinaceous membrane compartmentalized structures such as sulfur granules and gas vacuoles. Membrane-bounded prokaryotic organelles were considered in a recent JMMB written symposium concerned with membraneous compartmentalization in bacteria [Saier and Bogdanov, 2013]. By contrast, in this symposium, we focus on proteinaceous microcompartments. These two symposia, taken together, provide the interested reader with an objective view of the remarkable complexity of what was once thought of as a simple non-compartmentalized cell. PMID:23920489

  4. Oil-Free Rotor Support Technologies for Long Life, Closed Cycle Brayton Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucero, John M.; DellaCorte, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study is to provide technological support to ensure successful life and operation of a 50-300 kW dynamic power conversion system specifically with response to the rotor support system. By utilizing technical expertise in tribology, bearings, rotordynamic, solid lubricant coatings and extensive test facilities, valuable input for mission success is provided. A discussion of the history of closed cycle Brayton turboalternators (TA) will be included. This includes the 2 kW Mini-Brayton Rotating Unit (Mini-BRU), the 10kW Brayton Rotating Unit (BRU) and the 125 kW turboalternator-compressor (TAC) designed in mid 1970's. Also included is the development of air-cycle machines and terrestrial oil-free gas turbine power systems in the form of microturbines, specifically Capstone microturbines. A short discussion of the self-acting compliant surface hydrodynamic fluid film bearings, or foil bearings, will follow, including a short history of the load capacity advances, the NASA coatings advancements as well as design model advances. Successes in terrestrial based machines will be noted and NASA tribology and bearing research test facilities will be described. Finally, implementation of a four step integration process will be included in the discussion.

  5. Air. Ag Ed Environmental Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulloch, Rodney W.

    The document is a student resource unit to be used in teaching high school vocational agriculture students about air. The following natural processes are described: carbon dioxide cycle, nitrogen cycle, gravity and atmosphere, energy of the sun, greenhouse effect, atmospheric circulation, and precipitation. Sources of air pollution are discussed.…

  6. 15. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to northeast (90mm lens). The arched cutouts in the bottom chords of the roof trusses were necessary to provide clearance for the smokestacks of steam locomotives, and also mark the location of the former inspection pit in the floor (now filled in and covered by a new concrete floor). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  7. Will machines ever think

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence research has come under fire for failing to fulfill its promises. A growing number of AI researchers are reexamining the bases of AI research and are challenging the assumption that intelligent behavior can be fully explained as manipulation of symbols by algorithms. Three recent books -- Mind over Machine (H. Dreyfus and S. Dreyfus), Understanding Computers and Cognition (T. Winograd and F. Flores), and Brains, Behavior, and Robots (J. Albus) -- explore alternatives and open the door to new architectures that may be able to learn skills.

  8. Miniaturized machine moving in a pipe using photothermal effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizawa, Toru; Usui, Tomohiko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Hayashi, Daisuke

    2002-10-01

    Optically driven small machines have such features as easily miniaturized in fabricaiont and as controlled by optical energy which is supplied in wireless. We reported an optically controled machine which moves like a caterpillar on the basis of photo-thermal effect. It constis of two parts; a body and feet. The feet can stick to the floor due to magnetic force and therefore it has such ability as ascending a slope, and ultimately it succeeded in climbing the vertical wall and moved underneath the ceiliing. A lot of applications are expected to this kind of machine. However, if the prupose is restircted to the movement inside the pipe, the structure can be more simplified. This time we propose a miniaturized machine which moves like a mole or an earthworm. It mainly consists of a shape-memory alloy and a spring, and nylon wires are attacehd at the head and tail. When the machine moves in the pipe, these wires cause difference in friction force bewteen the forward movement and the backward movement. Stretching and contracting are brought by photon-thermal effect of the body part constising of the alloy and spring. This machine is placed in a vinyl tube and controled by a light beam outside from a halogen lamp. In room tempertuare the alloy is kept stretched by the spring, but when the beam is projected ontothe body from outside, it contracts to the original size becasue photo-thermal effect brings much larger force than the stretching force due to the spring. Then the wires at the head prevent moving back and the wires at the tail easily slip. This fact brings forward movement of the machine. At this moment 25 seconds are necessary for one cycle of movement and the moving speed is 2.6 mm/cycle.

  9. VOC emissions from wet toner photocopy machines

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, J.L.; Howard, C.L.; Leto, B.J.

    1997-12-31

    Indoor air pollution in office buildings affects millions of American workers every day. Potential sources of office indoor air pollution are photocopiers which emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during operation. A photocopier`s toner and dispersant contain heavy-treated naphtha, a mixture consisting primarily of decane, which is known to be toxic to humans. An experimental study was completed to characterize VOC emissions from a photocopier located on campus at the University of Texas at Austin. Experiments were completed to estimate the air turnover rate in the room, the VOC concentration in the room during photocopier operation, and a typical daily concentration profile. Based on these experiments, two emissions models were developed: (1) a mass balance on VOC concentration in the room, and (2) a mass balance on the amount of toner and dispersant used per copy. Room ventilation rate was determined to be approximately 1.5 air exchanges per hour. Photocopier emission rates were measured to be from 2 g/min to 9 g/min based on VOC concentration in the room, and were calculated to be 5.4 g/min based on toner and dispersant consumption. These high emission rates of potentially harmful VOCs indicate a need for implementation of measures to protect the health of those utilizing wet toner photocopy machines on a regular basis.

  10. Combined rankine and vapor compression cycles

    DOEpatents

    Radcliff, Thomas D.; Biederman, Bruce P.; Brasz, Joost J.

    2005-04-19

    An organic rankine cycle system is combined with a vapor compression cycle system with the turbine generator of the organic rankine cycle generating the power necessary to operate the motor of the refrigerant compressor. The vapor compression cycle is applied with its evaporator cooling the inlet air into a gas turbine, and the organic rankine cycle is applied to receive heat from a gas turbine exhaust to heat its boiler within one embodiment, a common condenser is used for the organic rankine cycle and the vapor compression cycle, with a common refrigerant, R-245a being circulated within both systems. In another embodiment, the turbine driven generator has a common shaft connected to the compressor to thereby eliminate the need for a separate motor to drive the compressor. In another embodiment, an organic rankine cycle system is applied to an internal combustion engine to cool the fluids thereof, and the turbo charged air is cooled first by the organic rankine cycle system and then by an air conditioner prior to passing into the intake of the engine.

  11. Learning thermodynamics with Boltzmann machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torlai, Giacomo; Melko, Roger G.

    2016-10-01

    A Boltzmann machine is a stochastic neural network that has been extensively used in the layers of deep architectures for modern machine learning applications. In this paper, we develop a Boltzmann machine that is capable of modeling thermodynamic observables for physical systems in thermal equilibrium. Through unsupervised learning, we train the Boltzmann machine on data sets constructed with spin configurations importance sampled from the partition function of an Ising Hamiltonian at different temperatures using Monte Carlo (MC) methods. The trained Boltzmann machine is then used to generate spin states, for which we compare thermodynamic observables to those computed by direct MC sampling. We demonstrate that the Boltzmann machine can faithfully reproduce the observables of the physical system. Further, we observe that the number of neurons required to obtain accurate results increases as the system is brought close to criticality.

  12. Homopolar machine for reversible energy storage and transfer systems

    DOEpatents

    Stillwagon, Roy E.

    1981-01-01

    A homopolar machine designed to operate as a generator and motor in reversibly storing and transferring energy between the machine and a magnetic load coil for a thermo-nuclear reactor. The machine rotor comprises hollow thin-walled cylinders or sleeves which form the basis of the system by utilizing substantially all of the rotor mass as a conductor thus making it possible to transfer substantially all the rotor kinetic energy electrically to the load coil in a highly economical and efficient manner. The rotor is divided into multiple separate cylinders or sleeves of modular design, connected in series and arranged to rotate in opposite directions but maintain the supply of current in a single direction to the machine terminals. A stator concentrically disposed around the sleeves consists of a hollow cylinder having a number of excitation coils each located radially outward from the ends of adjacent sleeves. Current collected at an end of each sleeve by sleeve slip rings and brushes is transferred through terminals to the magnetic load coil. Thereafter, electrical energy returned from the coil then flows through the machine which causes the sleeves to motor up to the desired speed in preparation for repetition of the cycle. To eliminate drag on the rotor between current pulses, the brush rigging is designed to lift brushes from all slip rings in the machine.

  13. Homopolar machine for reversible energy storage and transfer systems

    DOEpatents

    Stillwagon, Roy E.

    1978-01-01

    A homopolar machine designed to operate as a generator and motor in reversibly storing and transferring energy between the machine and a magnetic load coil for a thermo-nuclear reactor. The machine rotor comprises hollow thin-walled cylinders or sleeves which form the basis of the system by utilizing substantially all of the rotor mass as a conductor thus making it possible to transfer substantially all the rotor kinetic energy electrically to the load coil in a highly economical and efficient manner. The rotor is divided into multiple separate cylinders or sleeves of modular design, connected in series and arranged to rotate in opposite directions but maintain the supply of current in a single direction to the machine terminals. A stator concentrically disposed around the sleeves consists of a hollow cylinder having a number of excitation coils each located radially outward from the ends of adjacent sleeves. Current collected at an end of each sleeve by sleeve slip rings and brushes is transferred through terminals to the magnetic load coil. Thereafter, electrical energy returned from the coil then flows through the machine which causes the sleeves to motor up to the desired speed in preparation for repetition of the cycle. To eliminate drag on the rotor between current pulses, the brush rigging is designed to lift brushes from all slip rings in the machine.

  14. Multiple man-machine interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, L.; Cook, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    The multiple man machine interfaces inherent in military pilot training, their social implications, and the issue of possible negative feedback were explored. Modern technology has produced machines which can see, hear, and touch with greater accuracy and precision than human beings. Consequently, the military pilot is more a systems manager, often doing battle against a target he never sees. It is concluded that unquantifiable human activity requires motivation that is not intrinsic in a machine.

  15. Experimental investigation of machining parameter under MQL milling of SS304

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatade, Vivek T.; Patil, Vikas T.; Kuppan, P.; Balan, A. S. S.; Oyyaravelu, R.

    2016-09-01

    Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) or near dry machining has been recognized by many researchers and industrialist in order to move one step ahead towards the green manufacturing. MQL assisted machining reduces the harmful environmental impact caused by flood coolant and machining cost. In this paper an attempt has been made to study the impact of oxygen as a carrier gas in MQL during end milling of austenitic stainless steel grade SS304. Also, the machining performance under conventional MQL with air and dry machining have been studied. The evaluation was done on tool wear, surface roughness and cutting forces under two distinct cutting speeds i.e. 75 m/min and 100 m/min. Investigation brings to light that presence of oxygen is susceptible in the case of machining of SS304, it provides extra protective oxide layer near the tool chip interface. Consequently, increased tool life, reduced surface roughness and cutting forces when compared to conventional MQL assisted milling.

  16. Interaction with Machine Improvisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assayag, Gerard; Bloch, George; Cont, Arshia; Dubnov, Shlomo

    We describe two multi-agent architectures for an improvisation oriented musician-machine interaction systems that learn in real time from human performers. The improvisation kernel is based on sequence modeling and statistical learning. We present two frameworks of interaction with this kernel. In the first, the stylistic interaction is guided by a human operator in front of an interactive computer environment. In the second framework, the stylistic interaction is delegated to machine intelligence and therefore, knowledge propagation and decision are taken care of by the computer alone. The first framework involves a hybrid architecture using two popular composition/performance environments, Max and OpenMusic, that are put to work and communicate together, each one handling the process at a different time/memory scale. The second framework shares the same representational schemes with the first but uses an Active Learning architecture based on collaborative, competitive and memory-based learning to handle stylistic interactions. Both systems are capable of processing real-time audio/video as well as MIDI. After discussing the general cognitive background of improvisation practices, the statistical modelling tools and the concurrent agent architecture are presented. Then, an Active Learning scheme is described and considered in terms of using different improvisation regimes for improvisation planning. Finally, we provide more details about the different system implementations and describe several performances with the system.

  17. Stacked Extreme Learning Machines.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hongming; Huang, Guang-Bin; Lin, Zhiping; Wang, Han; Soh, Yeng Chai

    2015-09-01

    Extreme learning machine (ELM) has recently attracted many researchers' interest due to its very fast learning speed, good generalization ability, and ease of implementation. It provides a unified solution that can be used directly to solve regression, binary, and multiclass classification problems. In this paper, we propose a stacked ELMs (S-ELMs) that is specially designed for solving large and complex data problems. The S-ELMs divides a single large ELM network into multiple stacked small ELMs which are serially connected. The S-ELMs can approximate a very large ELM network with small memory requirement. To further improve the testing accuracy on big data problems, the ELM autoencoder can be implemented during each iteration of the S-ELMs algorithm. The simulation results show that the S-ELMs even with random hidden nodes can achieve similar testing accuracy to support vector machine (SVM) while having low memory requirements. With the help of ELM autoencoder, the S-ELMs can achieve much better testing accuracy than SVM and slightly better accuracy than deep belief network (DBN) with much faster training speed.

  18. Earth boring machine

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M. E.

    1985-11-19

    An earth boring machine for boring straight and level elongated holes through rock-laden earth. The machine includes a stationary elongated frame upon which a first slide is carried. A second slide is carried on the first slide. An elongated auger guiding sleeve is carried adjacent one end of the first slide and has a cutting edge on a remote end thereof. A power-driven auger assembly is carried on the second slide and includes an auger which extends within the guiding sleeve. A cutting tool is carried on the end of the auger adjacent a remote end of the guiding sleeve. An hydraulic cylinder is provided for advancing the first sleeve for driving the cutting edge of the guiding sleeve into the earth while the power driven auger removes the earth as the guiding sleeve is advanced. Another set of hydraulic cylinders are provided for advancing the second slide on the first slide causing the cutting tool to extend out beyond the remote end of the guiding sleeve for cutting through obstructions in the earth when the cutting edge of the guiding sleeve is prevented from moving forward.

  19. Smart Test Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Vern Wedeven, president of Wedeven Associates, developed the WAM4, a computer-aided "smart" test machine for simulating stress on equipment, based on his bearing lubrication expertise gained while working for Lewis Research Center. During his NASA years from the 1970s into the early 1980s, Wedeven initiated an "Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Tribology," an effort that involved NASA, six universities, and several university professors. The NASA-sponsored work provided foundation for Wedeven in 1983 to form his own company. Several versions of the smart test machine, the WAM1, WAM2, and WAM3, have proceeded the current version, WAM4. This computer-controlled device can provide detailed glimpses at gear and bearing points of contact. WAM4 can yield a three-dimensional view of machinery as an operator adds "what-if" thermal and lubrication conditions, contact stress, and surface motion. Along with NASA, a number of firms, including Pratt & Whitney, Caterpillar Tractor, Exxon, and Chevron have approached Wedeven for help on resolving lubrication problems.

  20. Organic rankine cycle waste heat applications

    DOEpatents

    Brasz, Joost J.; Biederman, Bruce P.

    2007-02-13

    A machine designed as a centrifugal compressor is applied as an organic rankine cycle turbine by operating the machine in reverse. In order to accommodate the higher pressures when operating as a turbine, a suitable refrigerant is chosen such that the pressures and temperatures are maintained within established limits. Such an adaptation of existing, relatively inexpensive equipment to an application that may be otherwise uneconomical, allows for the convenient and economical use of energy that would be otherwise lost by waste heat to the atmosphere.

  1. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT FOR PC BLEND 2 AIRCRAFT RADOME DEPAINTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the life cycle assessment on a potential replacement solvent blend for aircraft radome depainting at the Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center at Tinker Air Force Base. The life cycle assessment is composed of three separate but interrelated components: life cy...

  2. Microstructure-Sensitive Modeling of High Cycle Fatigue (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    SUBJECT TERMS microplasticity , microstructure-sensitive modeling, high cycle fatigue, fatigue variability 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...3Air Force Research Laboratory Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 Keywords: Microplasticity , microstructure-sensitive modeling, high cycle...cyclic microplasticity ) plays a key role in modeling fatigue resistance. Unlike effective properties such as elastic stiffness, fatigue is

  3. Externally fired combined cycle demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Orozco, N.J.; Young, S.; LaHaye, P.G.; Strom-Olsen, J.; Seger, J.L.; Pickup, H.

    1995-11-01

    Externally Fired Combined Cycles (EFCCs) can increase the amount of electricity produced from ash bearing fuels up to 40%, with overall powerplant efficiencies in excess of 45%. Achieving such high efficiencies requires high temperature-high pressure air heaters capable of driving modern gas turbines from gas streams containing the products of coal combustion. A pilot plant has been constructed in Kennebunk, Maine to provide proof of concept and evaluation of system components. Tests using pulverized Western Pennsylvania bituminous coal have been carried out since April, 1995. The ceramic air heater extracts energy from the products of coal combustion to power a gas turbine. This air heater has operated at gas inlet temperatures over 1,095 C and pressures over 7.0 atm without damage to the ceramic tube string components. Stable gas turbine operation has been achieved with energy input from the air heater and a supplementary gas fired combustor. Efforts are underway to fire the cycle on coal only, and to increase the duration of the test runs. Air heater improvements are being implemented and evaluated. These improvements include installation of a second pass of ceramic tubes and evaluation of corrosion resistant coatings on the ceramic tubes.

  4. Standardized Curriculum for Machine Tool Operation/Machine Shop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized vocational education course titles and core contents for two courses in Mississippi are provided: machine tool operation/machine shop I and II. The first course contains the following units: (1) orientation; (2) shop safety; (3) shop math; (4) measuring tools and instruments; (5) hand and bench tools; (6) blueprint reading; (7)…

  5. Machine Shop Milling Machines. Oklahoma Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, James

    This curriculum guide provides instructional materials designed to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the machine trades at the machine-operator level. The curriculum is designed for use in full-time secondary and postsecondary classes and part-time adult classes. It can also be adapted to open-entry,…

  6. Production Machine Shop Employment Competencies. Part Four: The Milling Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishart, Gus; Werner, Claire

    Competencies for production machine shop are provided for the fourth of four topic areas: the milling machine. Each competency appears in a one-page format. It is presented as a goal statement followed by one or more "indicator" statements, which are performance objectives describing an ability that, upon attainment, will establish…

  7. Nozzle Extension for Safety Air Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumbrun, H. N.; Croom, Delwin R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    New nozzle-extension design overcomes problems and incorporates original commercial nozzle, retaining intrinsic safety features. Components include extension tube, length of which made to suit application; adaptor fitting, and nozzle adaptor repinned to maintain original safety features. Design moves conical airstream to end of extension to blow machine chips away from operator. Nozzle-extension modification allows safe and efficient operation of machine tools while maintaining integrity of orginial safety-air-gun design.

  8. An Updated Equilibrium Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Emeric

    2008-01-01

    A device that can demonstrate equilibrium, kinetic, and thermodynamic concepts is described. The device consists of a leaf blower attached to a plastic container divided into two chambers by a barrier of variable size and form. Styrofoam balls can be exchanged across the barrier when the leaf blower is turned on and various air pressures are…

  9. Temporal solitons in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, A. A.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    Analysis of the group-velocity dispersion (GVD) of atmospheric air with a model that includes the entire manifold of infrared transitions in air reveals a remarkably broad and continuous anomalous-GVD region in the high-frequency wing of the carbon dioxide rovibrational band from approximately 3.5 to 4.2 μm where atmospheric air is still highly transparent and where high-peak-power sources of ultrashort midinfrared pulses are available. Within this range, anomalous dispersion acting jointly with optical nonlinearity of atmospheric air is shown to give rise to a unique three-dimensional dynamics with well-resolved soliton features in the time domain, enabling a highly efficient whole-beam soliton self-compression of such pulses to few-cycle pulse widths.

  10. Visual human+machine learning.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Raphael; Waser, Jürgen; Gröller, Meister Eduard

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we describe a novel method to integrate interactive visual analysis and machine learning to support the insight generation of the user. The suggested approach combines the vast search and processing power of the computer with the superior reasoning and pattern recognition capabilities of the human user. An evolutionary search algorithm has been adapted to assist in the fuzzy logic formalization of hypotheses that aim at explaining features inside multivariate, volumetric data. Up to now, users solely rely on their knowledge and expertise when looking for explanatory theories. However, it often remains unclear whether the selected attribute ranges represent the real explanation for the feature of interest. Other selections hidden in the large number of data variables could potentially lead to similar features. Moreover, as simulation complexity grows, users are confronted with huge multidimensional data sets making it almost impossible to find meaningful hypotheses at all. We propose an interactive cycle of knowledge-based analysis and automatic hypothesis generation. Starting from initial hypotheses, created with linking and brushing, the user steers a heuristic search algorithm to look for alternative or related hypotheses. The results are analyzed in information visualization views that are linked to the volume rendering. Individual properties as well as global aggregates are visually presented to provide insight into the most relevant aspects of the generated hypotheses. This novel approach becomes computationally feasible due to a GPU implementation of the time-critical parts in the algorithm. A thorough evaluation of search times and noise sensitivity as well as a case study on data from the automotive domain substantiate the usefulness of the suggested approach.

  11. [Microbial geochemical calcium cycle].

    PubMed

    Zavarzin, G A

    2002-01-01

    The participation of microorganisms in the geochemical calcium cycle is the most important factor maintaining neutral conditions on the Earth. This cycle has profound influence on the fate of inorganic carbon, and, thereby, on the removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. The major part of calcium deposits was formed in the Precambrian, when prokaryotic biosphere predominated. After that, calcium recycling based on biogenic deposition by skeletal organisms became the main process. Among prokaryotes, only a few representatives, e.g., cyanobacteria, exhibit a special calcium function. The geochemical calcium cycle is made possible by the universal features of bacteria involved in biologically mediated reactions and is determined by the activities of microbial communities. In the prokaryotic system, the calcium cycle begins with the leaching of igneous rock predominantly through the action of the community of organotrophic organisms. The release of carbon dioxide to the soil air by organotrophic aerobes leads to leaching with carbonic acid and soda salinization. Under anoxic conditions, of major importance is the organic acid production by primary anaerobes (fermentative microorganisms). Calcium carbonate is precipitated by secondary anaerobes (sulfate reducers) and to a smaller degree by methanogens. The role of the cyanobacterial community in carbonate deposition is exposed by stromatolites, which are the most common organo-sedimentary Precambrian structures. Deposition of carbonates in cyanobacterial mats as a consequence of photoassimilation of CO2 does not appear to be a significant process. It is argued that carbonates were deposited at the boundary between the "soda continent", which emerged as a result of subaerial leaching with carbonic acid, and the ocean containing Ca2+. Such ecotones provided favorable conditions for the development of the benthic cyanobacterial community, which was a precursor of stromatolites.

  12. The Potential to Machine Superconductors with Electrochemical Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leese, Rebecca J.; Ivanov, Atanas; Babu-Nadendla, Hari

    2016-01-01

    Superconductors (SCs), such as gadolinium barium copper oxide, are brittle ceramics which are very difficult to machine conventionally due to the easy propagation of cracks. The cracks formed during conventional machining destroy the superconductive properties of the material. As a result a new method to machine ceramic SCs is needed. In this paper, polarization experiments were conducted in various nonaqueous salt electrolytes to determine whether electrochemical machining (ECM) is a suitable method for machining gadolinium barium copper oxide with silver inclusions (GdBCO-Ag) for the first time. Sodium chloride in formic acid proved to be the best electrolyte for this application with higher dissolution rates and achieving a better surface finish. It was noted that GdBCO-Ag dissolved at higher rates in NaCl in formic acid than in other salt-solvent systems.

  13. Machine performance assessment and enhancement for a hexapod machine

    SciTech Connect

    Mou, J.I.; King, C.

    1998-03-19

    The focus of this study is to develop a sensor fused process modeling and control methodology to model, assess, and then enhance the performance of a hexapod machine for precision product realization. Deterministic modeling technique was used to derive models for machine performance assessment and enhancement. Sensor fusion methodology was adopted to identify the parameters of the derived models. Empirical models and computational algorithms were also derived and implemented to model, assess, and then enhance the machine performance. The developed sensor fusion algorithms can be implemented on a PC-based open architecture controller to receive information from various sensors, assess the status of the process, determine the proper action, and deliver the command to actuators for task execution. This will enhance a hexapod machine`s capability to produce workpieces within the imposed dimensional tolerances.

  14. Machining of uranium and uranium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, T.O.

    1981-12-14

    Uranium and uranium alloys can be readily machined by conventional methods in the standard machine shop when proper safety and operating techniques are used. Material properties that affect machining processes and recommended machining parameters are discussed. Safety procedures and precautions necessary in machining uranium and uranium alloys are also covered. 30 figures.

  15. Profile machining apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, A. J.

    1985-02-26

    The disclosure relates to a profile forming apparatus and in particular a cam grinding machine in which a cam to be ground is mounted for rotation about the axis of the cam shaft in a work-table and a drive motor rotates the cam about its axis at a speed controlled by a predetermined programme. The work-table is mounted for rocking movement about an axis parallel to the cam shaft axis to move towards and away from the rotating grinding wheel which grinds cam surfaces spaced apart along the camshaft. The work-table is driven positively about its axis by a reversible drive motor in accordance with a further programme to rock the camshaft towards and away from the axis of the grinding wheel as the camshaft rotates and thereby determine the shape and dimensions of the profile to which the cam is ground.

  16. Quantum adiabatic machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudenz, Kristen L.; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2013-05-01

    We develop an approach to machine learning and anomaly detection via quantum adiabatic evolution. This approach consists of two quantum phases, with some amount of classical preprocessing to set up the quantum problems. In the training phase we identify an optimal set of weak classifiers, to form a single strong classifier. In the testing phase we adiabatically evolve one or more strong classifiers on a superposition of inputs in order to find certain anomalous elements in the classification space. Both the training and testing phases are executed via quantum adiabatic evolution. All quantum processing is strictly limited to two-qubit interactions so as to ensure physical feasibility. We apply and illustrate this approach in detail to the problem of software verification and validation, with a specific example of the learning phase applied to a problem of interest in flight control systems. Beyond this example, the algorithm can be used to attack a broad class of anomaly detection problems.

  17. An Experimental LISP Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lun, Wang

    1987-04-01

    This paper presents a multi-microprocessor LISP machine whose goal is to exploit the inherent parallelism in the LISP programs fully. The base architecture is a MIMD architecture based on a hybrid model for combinating data driven, demand driven and VoN Neumann process schemes. The basic evaluation strategy is data driven. Lazy evaluation mechanism is introduced to avoid unnecessary and unsafe computations. An experimental system with the four processor elements has been built in HIT, China. The system consists of a Z80 microcomputer and three TP8O1s interconnected through three buses. Each processor evaluates a part of programs asynchronously. The shared memory is divided into two parts: list cell area and enviroment area, each of which has the indepen-dent common bus to avoid the bus bottleneck.

  18. Extremal quantum cloning machines

    SciTech Connect

    Chiribella, G.; D'Ariano, G. M.; Perinotti, P.; Cerf, N.J.

    2005-10-15

    We investigate the problem of cloning a set of states that is invariant under the action of an irreducible group representation. We then characterize the cloners that are extremal in the convex set of group covariant cloning machines, among which one can restrict the search for optimal cloners. For a set of states that is invariant under the discrete Weyl-Heisenberg group, we show that all extremal cloners can be unitarily realized using the so-called double-Bell states, whence providing a general proof of the popular ansatz used in the literature for finding optimal cloners in a variety of settings. Our result can also be generalized to continuous-variable optimal cloning in infinite dimensions, where the covariance group is the customary Weyl-Heisenberg group of displacement000.

  19. MEMS electrostatic influence machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phu Le, Cuong; Halvorsen, Einar

    2016-11-01

    This paper analyses the possibility of MEMS electrostatic influence machines using electromechanical switches like the historical predecessors did two centuries ago. We find that a generator design relying entirely on standard silicon-on-insulator(SOI) micromachining is conceivable and analyze its performance by simulations. The concept appears preferable over comparable diode circuits due to its higher maximum energy, faster charging and low precharging voltage. A full electromechanical lumped-model including parasitic capacitances of the switches is built to capture the dynamic of the generator. Simulation results show that the output voltage can be exponentially bootstrapped from a very low precharging voltage so that otherwise inadequately small voltage differences or charge imbalances can be made useful.

  20. The laser micro-machining system for diamond anvil cell experiments and general precision machining applications at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team.

    PubMed

    Hrubiak, Rostislav; Sinogeikin, Stanislav; Rod, Eric; Shen, Guoyin

    2015-07-01

    We have designed and constructed a new system for micro-machining parts and sample assemblies used for diamond anvil cells and general user operations at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team, sector 16 of the Advanced Photon Source. The new micro-machining system uses a pulsed laser of 400 ps pulse duration, ablating various materials without thermal melting, thus leaving a clean edge. With optics designed for a tight focus, the system can machine holes any size larger than 3 μm in diameter. Unlike a standard electrical discharge machining drill, the new laser system allows micro-machining of non-conductive materials such as: amorphous boron and silicon carbide gaskets, diamond, oxides, and other materials including organic materials such as polyimide films (i.e., Kapton). An important feature of the new system is the use of gas-tight or gas-flow environmental chambers which allow the laser micro-machining to be done in a controlled (e.g., inert gas) atmosphere to prevent oxidation and other chemical reactions in air sensitive materials. The gas-tight workpiece enclosure is also useful for machining materials with known health risks (e.g., beryllium). Specialized control software with a graphical interface enables micro-machining of custom 2D and 3D shapes. The laser-machining system was designed in a Class 1 laser enclosure, i.e., it includes laser safety interlocks and computer controls and allows for routine operation. Though initially designed mainly for machining of the diamond anvil cell gaskets, the laser-machining system has since found many other micro-machining applications, several of which are presented here.