Science.gov

Sample records for air delivery systems

  1. Thermodynamic Vent System Applied as Propellant Delivery System for Air Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Responding to a request from the Air Force, NASA Lewis Research Center engineers designed a combination pressure control and propellant delivery system based on thermodynamic vent system (TVS) technology. The Air Force is designing a new type of orbit transfer vehicle that uses energy from sunlight to both propel and power the vehicle. Because this vehicle uses propellant at a substantially slower rate than higher-energy rockets, it needed the Lewis-developed TVS technology for long-duration storage of cryogen propellants. Lewis engineers, in conjunction with industry partners, showed how this TVS technology could also be used to deliver propellant to the thruster. The Air Force has now begun the ground test demonstration phase. After successful completion of ground testing, the Air Force plans to use this technology in a space flight as early as 1999.

  2. [The effect of air within the infusion syringe on drug delivery of syringe pump infusion systems] .

    PubMed

    Schulz, G; Fischer, J; Neff, T; Bänziger, O; Weiss, M

    2000-12-01

    Application of highly concentrated short-acting vasoactive drugs in the critically ill patient requires precisely working syringe pump systems for continuous intravenous drug delivery. We performed a bench study to investigate the consequences of small amounts of air entrapped within a 50-ml infusion syringe. In particular we studied the effect of entrapped air on drug delivery after moderate vertical displacement of the pump by 50 cm (e.g. in preparation for transport) and the effect on the time required to trigger the pressure alarm after occlusion of the infusion line. At a flow rate of 1 ml/h, lowering the syringe pump prolonged the zero-drug delivery time from (mean +/- SD) 4.1 +/- 0.8 min (without air) to 6.2 +/- 0.9 (with 1 ml air) and to 13.1 +/- 0.9 min (with 2 ml of air, p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Entrapping of 2 ml of air within the syringe resulted in a 2.6-fold prolongation of the occlusion alarm time after accidental occlusion of the infusion line and a 3-fold increase of the resulting infusion bolus after occlusion. Enclosed air within infusion syringes considerably affects the syringe compliance. It increases the susceptibility of constant drug delivery to vertical displacement of syringe pumps and impairs the occlusion alarm function. Therefore, any air in syringe of infusion pump systems should be carefully removed. To avoid infusion boluses of short-acting vasoactive drugs after accidental occlusions, the occluded infusion line should be released to ambient pressure first.

  3. Evaluation of an extended duct air delivery system for spaces conditioned by rooftop units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennett, Ryan

    Traditional air delivery to high-bay buildings involves ceiling level supply and return ducts that create an almost-uniform temperature in the space. Problems with this system include potential recirculation of supply air and higher-than-necessary return air temperatures. A new air delivery strategy was investigated that involves changing the height of conventional supply and return ducts to have control over thermal stratification in the space. A full-scale experiment using ten vertical temperature profiles was conducted in a manufacturing facility over one year. The experimental data was utilized to validated CFD and EnergyPlus models. CFD simulation results show that supplying air directly to the occupied zone increases stratification while holding thermal comfort constant during the cooling operation. The building energy simulation identified how return air temperature offset, set point offset, and stratification influence the building's energy consumption. A utility bill analysis for cooling shows 28.8% HVAC energy savings while the building energy simulation shows 19.3-37.4% HVAC energy savings.

  4. Whole house particle removal and clean air delivery rates for in-duct and portable ventilation systems.

    PubMed

    Macintosh, David L; Myatt, Theodore A; Ludwig, Jerry F; Baker, Brian J; Suh, Helen H; Spengler, John D

    2008-11-01

    A novel method for determining whole house particle removal and clean air delivery rates attributable to central and portable ventilation/air cleaning systems is described. The method is used to characterize total and air-cleaner-specific particle removal rates during operation of four in-duct air cleaners and two portable air-cleaning devices in a fully instrumented test home. Operation of in-duct and portable air cleaners typically increased particle removal rates over the baseline rates determined in the absence of operating a central fan or an indoor air cleaner. Removal rates of 0.3- to 0.5-microm particles ranged from 1.5 hr(-1) during operation of an in-duct, 5-in. pleated media filter to 7.2 hr(-1) for an in-duct electrostatic air cleaner in comparison to a baseline rate of 0 hr(-1) when the air handler was operating without a filter. Removal rates for total particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) mass concentrations were 0.5 hr(-1) under baseline conditions, 0.5 hr(-1) during operation of three portable ionic air cleaners, 1 hr(-1) for an in-duct 1-in. media filter, 2.4 hr(-1) for a single high-efficiency particle arrestance (HEPA) portable air cleaner, 4.6 hr(-1) for an in-duct 5-in. media filter, 4.7 hr(-1) during operation of five portable HEPA filters, 6.1 hr(-1) for a conventional in-duct electronic air cleaner, and 7.5 hr(-1) for a high efficiency in-duct electrostatic air cleaner. Corresponding whole house clean air delivery rates for PM2.5 attributable to the air cleaner independent of losses within the central ventilation system ranged from 2 m3/min for the conventional media filter to 32 m3/min for the high efficiency in-duct electrostatic device. Except for the portable ionic air cleaner, the devices considered here increased particle removal indoors over baseline deposition rates.

  5. Weather in the Cockpit: Priorities, Sources, Delivery, and Needs in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    discomfort. Extreme turbulence could cause physical injuries to pilot/ passengers who are not wearing seat belts. Clear Air Turbulence (CAT) CAT... passengers who are not wearing seat belts. Generally caused by wind shear in the atmosphere where no clouds are present. Mountain Waves Fast...ways in which our analyses could inform the design of information systems. NextGen, in its mature state, envisions pilots having control over

  6. Systems and Components Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Systems and Components - Fuel Delivery System, Water Delivery System, Derrick Crane System, and Crane System Details - Marshall Space Flight Center, F-1 Engine Static Test Stand, On Route 565 between Huntsville and Decatur, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  7. Venous Air Embolism during Surgery, Especially Cesarean Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang Seok; Liu, Jia; Kwon, Ja-Young; Shin, Seo Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Venous air embolism (VAE) is the entrapment of air or medical gases into the venous system causing symptoms and signs of pulmonary vessel obstruction. The incidence of VAE during cesarean delivery ranges from 10 to 97% depending on surgical position or diagnostic tools, with a potential for life-threatening events. We reviewed extensive literatures regarding VAE in detail and herein described VAE during surgery including cesarean delivery from background and history to treatment and prevention. It is intended that present work will improve the understanding of VAE during surgery. PMID:18955777

  8. Educational Telecommunications Delivery Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, John A., Ed.; Biedenbach, Joseph M., Ed.

    This monograph is a single volume reference manual providing an overall review of the current status and likely near future application of six major educational telecommunications delivery technologies. The introduction provides an overview to the usage and potential for these systems in the context of the major educational issues involved. Each…

  9. Colloidal drug delivery systems in vaccine delivery.

    PubMed

    Beg, Sarwar; Samad, Abdus; Nazish, Iram; Sultana, Ruksar; Rahman, Mahfoozur; Ahmad, Md Zaki; Akbar, Md

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines play a vital role in the field of community medicine to combat against several diseases of human existence. Vaccines primarily trigger the acquired immune system to develop long-lasting immunity against pathogens. Conventional approaches for vaccine delivery lacks potential to target a particular antigen to develop acquired immunity by specific antibodies. Recent advancements in vaccine delivery showed that inclusion of adjuvants in vaccine formulations or delivery of them in a carrier helps in achieving desired targeting ability, reducing the immunogenicity and significant augmentation in the immune response. Colloidal carriers (liposomes, niosomes, microspheres, proteosomes, virosomes and virus like particles (VLPs), antigen cochleates, dendrimers and carbon nanotubes) have been widely explored for vaccine delivery. Further, surface engineering of these carriers with ligands, functional moieties and monoclonal antibodies tend to enhance the immune recognition potential of vaccines by differentiation of antigen specific memory T-cells. The current review, therefore, provides an updated account on the recent advancements in various colloidal delivery systems in vaccine delivery, outlining the mechanism of immune response initiated by them along with potential applications and marketed instances in an explicit manner.

  10. Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Rahamatullah; Raj Singh, Thakur Raghu; Garland, Martin James; Woolfson, A David; Donnelly, Ryan F.

    2011-01-01

    Mucoadhesion is commonly defined as the adhesion between two materials, at least one of which is a mucosal surface. Over the past few decades, mucosal drug delivery has received a great deal of attention. Mucoadhesive dosage forms may be designed to enable prolonged retention at the site of application, providing a controlled rate of drug release for improved therapeutic outcome. Application of dosage forms to mucosal surfaces may be of benefit to drug molecules not amenable to the oral route, such as those that undergo acid degradation or extensive first-pass metabolism. The mucoadhesive ability of a dosage form is dependent upon a variety of factors, including the nature of the mucosal tissue and the physicochemical properties of the polymeric formulation. This review article aims to provide an overview of the various aspects of mucoadhesion, mucoadhesive materials, factors affecting mucoadhesion, evaluating methods, and finally various mucoadhesive drug delivery systems (buccal, nasal, ocular, gastro, vaginal, and rectal). PMID:21430958

  11. Nanovehicular Intracellular Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    PROKOP, ALES; DAVIDSON, JEFFREY M.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of principles and barriers relevant to intracellular drug and gene transport, accumulation and retention (collectively called as drug delivery) by means of nanovehicles (NV). The aim is to deliver a cargo to a particular intracellular site, if possible, to exert a local action. Some of the principles discussed in this article apply to noncolloidal drugs that are not permeable to the plasma membrane or to the blood–brain barrier. NV are defined as a wide range of nanosized particles leading to colloidal objects which are capable of entering cells and tissues and delivering a cargo intracelullarly. Different localization and targeting means are discussed. Limited discussion on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics is also presented. NVs are contrasted to micro-delivery and current nanotechnologies which are already in commercial use. Newer developments in NV technologies are outlined and future applications are stressed. We also briefly review the existing modeling tools and approaches to quantitatively describe the behavior of targeted NV within the vascular and tumor compartments, an area of particular importance. While we list “elementary” phenomena related to different level of complexity of delivery to cancer, we also stress importance of multi-scale modeling and bottom-up systems biology approach. PMID:18200527

  12. Delivery systems for brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    de la Puente, Pilar; Azab, Abdel Kareem

    2014-10-28

    Brachytherapy is described as the short distance treatment of cancer with a radioactive isotope placed on, in, or near the lesions or tumor to be treated. The main advantage of brachytherapy compared with external beam radiation (EBR) is the improved localized delivery of dose to the target volume of interest, thus normal tissue irradiation is reduced. The precise and targeted nature of brachytherapy provides a number of key benefits for the effective treatment of cancer such as efficacy, minimized risk of side effects, short treatment times, and cost-effectiveness. Brachytherapy devices have yielded promising results in preclinical and clinical studies. However, brachytherapy can only be used in localized and relatively small tumors. Although the introduction of new delivery devices allows the treatment of more complex tumor sites, with wider range of dose rate for improving treatment efficacy and reduction of side effects, a better understanding about the safety, efficacy, and accuracy of these systems is required, and further development of new techniques is warranted. Therefore, this review focuses on the delivery devices for brachytherapy and their application in prostate, breast, brain, and other tumor sites.

  13. Novel antigen delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Trovato, Maria; Berardinis, Piergiuseppe De

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines represent the most relevant contribution of immunology to human health. However, despite the remarkable success achieved in the past years, many vaccines are still missing in order to fight important human pathologies and to prevent emerging and re-emerging diseases. For these pathogens the known strategies for making vaccines have been unsuccessful and thus, new avenues should be investigated to overcome the failure of clinical trials and other important issues including safety concerns related to live vaccines or viral vectors, the weak immunogenicity of subunit vaccines and side effects associated with the use of adjuvants. A major hurdle of developing successful and effective vaccines is to design antigen delivery systems in such a way that optimizes antigen presentation and induces broad protective immune responses. Recent advances in vector delivery technologies, immunology, vaccinology and system biology, have led to a deeper understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which vaccines should stimulate both arms of the adaptive immune responses, offering new strategies of vaccinations. This review is an update of current strategies with respect to live attenuated and inactivated vaccines, DNA vaccines, viral vectors, lipid-based carrier systems such as liposomes and virosomes as well as polymeric nanoparticle vaccines and virus-like particles. In addition, this article will describe our work on a versatile and immunogenic delivery system which we have studied in the past decade and which is derived from a non-pathogenic prokaryotic organism: the “E2 scaffold” of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from Geobacillus stearothermophilus. PMID:26279977

  14. Secondary fuel delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Parker, David M.; Cai, Weidong; Garan, Daniel W.; Harris, Arthur J.

    2010-02-23

    A secondary fuel delivery system for delivering a secondary stream of fuel and/or diluent to a secondary combustion zone located in the transition piece of a combustion engine, downstream of the engine primary combustion region is disclosed. The system includes a manifold formed integral to, and surrounding a portion of, the transition piece, a manifold inlet port, and a collection of injection nozzles. A flowsleeve augments fuel/diluent flow velocity and improves the system cooling effectiveness. Passive cooling elements, including effusion cooling holes located within the transition boundary and thermal-stress-dissipating gaps that resist thermal stress accumulation, provide supplemental heat dissipation in key areas. The system delivers a secondary fuel/diluent mixture to a secondary combustion zone located along the length of the transition piece, while reducing the impact of elevated vibration levels found within the transition piece and avoiding the heat dissipation difficulties often associated with traditional vibration reduction methods.

  15. 36 CFR 2.17 - Aircraft and air delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft and air delivery. 2... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Operating or using aircraft on lands or waters other than at locations designated pursuant...

  16. 36 CFR 1002.17 - Aircraft and air delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft and air delivery... USE AND RECREATION § 1002.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) Delivering or retrieving a person or... business of the Federal government, or emergency rescues in accordance with the directions of the...

  17. 36 CFR 2.17 - Aircraft and air delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft and air delivery. 2... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Operating or using aircraft on lands or waters other than at locations designated pursuant...

  18. 36 CFR 1002.17 - Aircraft and air delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft and air delivery... USE AND RECREATION § 1002.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) Delivering or retrieving a person or... business of the Federal government, or emergency rescues in accordance with the directions of the...

  19. 36 CFR 1002.17 - Aircraft and air delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Aircraft and air delivery... USE AND RECREATION § 1002.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) Delivering or retrieving a person or... business of the Federal government, or emergency rescues in accordance with the directions of the...

  20. 36 CFR 1002.17 - Aircraft and air delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft and air delivery... USE AND RECREATION § 1002.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) Delivering or retrieving a person or... business of the Federal government, or emergency rescues in accordance with the directions of the...

  1. 36 CFR 2.17 - Aircraft and air delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft and air delivery. 2... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Operating or using aircraft on lands or waters other than at locations designated pursuant...

  2. 36 CFR 2.17 - Aircraft and air delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft and air delivery. 2... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Operating or using aircraft on lands or waters other than at locations designated pursuant...

  3. 36 CFR 1002.17 - Aircraft and air delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft and air delivery... USE AND RECREATION § 1002.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) Delivering or retrieving a person or... in paragraph (c)(3) of this section, the owners of a downed aircraft shall remove the aircraft...

  4. 36 CFR 2.17 - Aircraft and air delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft and air delivery. 2... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Operating or using aircraft on lands or waters other than at locations designated pursuant...

  5. Air Quality System (AQS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements include both criteria air pollutants and hazardous air pollutants.

  6. Polymers for Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Liechty, William B.; Kryscio, David R.; Slaughter, Brandon V.; Peppas, Nicholas A.

    2012-01-01

    Polymers have played an integral role in the advancement of drug delivery technology by providing controlled release of therapeutic agents in constant doses over long periods, cyclic dosage, and tunable release of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. From early beginnings using off-the-shelf materials, the field has grown tremendously, driven in part by the innovations of chemical engineers. Modern advances in drug delivery are now predicated upon the rational design of polymers tailored for specific cargo and engineered to exert distinct biological functions. In this review, we highlight the fundamental drug delivery systems and their mathematical foundations and discuss the physiological barriers to drug delivery. We review the origins and applications of stimuli-responsive polymer systems and polymer therapeutics such as polymer-protein and polymer-drug conjugates. The latest developments in polymers capable of molecular recognition or directing intracellular delivery are surveyed to illustrate areas of research advancing the frontiers of drug delivery. PMID:22432577

  7. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Walley, Susan C; Jenssen, Brian P

    2015-11-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are rapidly growing in popularity among youth. ENDS are handheld devices that produce an aerosolized mixture from a solution typically containing concentrated nicotine, flavoring chemicals, and propylene glycol to be inhaled by the user. ENDS are marketed under a variety of names, most commonly electronic cigarettes and e-cigarettes. In 2014, more youth reported using ENDS than any other tobacco product. ENDS pose health risks to both users and nonusers. Nicotine, the major psychoactive ingredient in ENDS solutions, is both highly addictive and toxic. In addition to nicotine, other toxicants, carcinogens, and metal particles have been detected in solutions and aerosols of ENDS. Nonusers are involuntarily exposed to the emissions of these devices with secondhand and thirdhand aerosol. The concentrated and often flavored nicotine in ENDS solutions poses a poisoning risk for young children. Reports of acute nicotine toxicity from US poison control centers have been increasing, with at least 1 child death reported from unintentional exposure to a nicotine-containing ENDS solution. With flavors, design, and marketing that appeal to youth, ENDS threaten to renormalize and glamorize nicotine and tobacco product use. There is a critical need for ENDS regulation, legislative action, and counter promotion to protect youth. ENDS have the potential to addict a new generation of youth to nicotine and reverse more than 50 years of progress in tobacco control.

  8. Transcutaneous antigen delivery system

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Young; Shin, Meong-Cheol; Yang, Victor C.

    2013-01-01

    Transcutaneous immunization refers to the topical application of antigens onto the epidermis. Transcutaneous immunization targeting the Langerhans cells of the skin has received much attention due to its safe, needle-free, and noninvasive antigen delivery. The skin has important immunological functions with unique roles for antigen-presenting cells such as epidermal Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells. In recent years, novel vaccine delivery strategies have continually been developed; however, transcutaneous immunization has not yet been fully exploited due to the penetration barrier represented by the stratum corneum, which inhibits the transport of antigens and adjuvants. Herein we review recent achievements in transcutaneous immunization, focusing on the various strategies for the enhancement of antigen delivery and vaccination efficacy. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(1): 17-24] PMID:23351379

  9. Radiation delivery system and method

    DOEpatents

    Sorensen, Scott A.; Robison, Thomas W.; Taylor, Craig M. V.

    2002-01-01

    A radiation delivery system and method are described. The system includes a treatment configuration such as a stent, balloon catheter, wire, ribbon, or the like, a portion of which is covered with a gold layer. Chemisorbed to the gold layer is a radiation-emitting self-assembled monolayer or a radiation-emitting polymer. The radiation delivery system is compatible with medical catheter-based technologies to provide a therapeutic dose of radiation to a lesion following an angioplasty procedure.

  10. Fluid delivery control system

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, Brian D.; Johnson, Kris William; Algrain, Marcelo C.; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2006-06-06

    A method of controlling the delivery of fluid to an engine includes receiving a fuel flow rate signal. An electric pump is arranged to deliver fluid to the engine. The speed of the electric pump is controlled based on the fuel flow rate signal.

  11. Adenosine-Associated Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kazemzadeh-Narbat, Mehdi; Annabi, Nasim; Tamayol, Ali; Oklu, Rahmi; Ghanem, Amyl; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine is a naturally occurring purine nucleoside in every cell. Many critical treatments such as modulating irregular heartbeat (arrhythmias), regulation of central nervous system (CNS) activity, and inhibiting seizural episodes can be carried out using adenosine. Despite the significant potential therapeutic impact of adenosine and its derivatives, the severe side effects caused by their systemic administration have significantly limited their clinical use. In addition, due to adenosine’s extremely short half-life in human blood (less than 10 s), there is an unmet need for sustained delivery systems to enhance efficacy and reduce side effects. In this paper, various adenosine delivery techniques, including encapsulation into biodegradable polymers, cell-based delivery, implantable biomaterials, and mechanical-based delivery systems, are critically reviewed and the existing challenges are highlighted. PMID:26453156

  12. Novel central nervous system drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Jocelyn; Abdi, Nabiha; Lu, Xiaofan; Maheshwari, Oshin; Taghibiglou, Changiz

    2014-05-01

    For decades, biomedical and pharmaceutical researchers have worked to devise new and more effective therapeutics to treat diseases affecting the central nervous system. The blood-brain barrier effectively protects the brain, but poses a profound challenge to drug delivery across this barrier. Many traditional drugs cannot cross the blood-brain barrier in appreciable concentrations, with less than 1% of most drugs reaching the central nervous system, leading to a lack of available treatments for many central nervous system diseases, such as stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, and brain tumors. Due to the ineffective nature of most treatments for central nervous system disorders, the development of novel drug delivery systems is an area of great interest and active research. Multiple novel strategies show promise for effective central nervous system drug delivery, giving potential for more effective and safer therapies in the future. This review outlines several novel drug delivery techniques, including intranasal drug delivery, nanoparticles, drug modifications, convection-enhanced infusion, and ultrasound-mediated drug delivery. It also assesses possible clinical applications, limitations, and examples of current clinical and preclinical research for each of these drug delivery approaches. Improved central nervous system drug delivery is extremely important and will allow for improved treatment of central nervous system diseases, causing improved therapies for those who are affected by central nervous system diseases.

  13. The Flying Newsboy: A Small Daily Attempts Air Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Elizabeth A.

    For 10 months in 1929-30, subscribers to "The McCook (Nebraska) Daily Gazette" (a daily newspaper serving 33 towns in southwestern Nebraska and northwestern Kansas) received their newspapers via air delivery with "The Newsboy," a Curtis Robin cabin monoplane. In an age when over-the-road travel was difficult and air travel was…

  14. Delivery System, 2003-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This workshop guide for financial aid administrators provides training in the federal student financial aid delivery system. An introduction enables the participant to share some information about his or her responsibilities and to reflect on the relevance of the training to the job. Session 1, "Application Systems," identifies methods of applying…

  15. Software Build and Delivery Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robey, Robert W.

    2016-07-10

    This presentation deals with the hierarchy of software build and delivery systems. One of the goals is to maximize the success rate of new users and developers when first trying your software. First impressions are important. Early successes are important. This also reduces critical documentation costs. This is a presentation focused on computer science and goes into detail about code documentation.

  16. Optimizing Consulting Delivery Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spottswood, Curran

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes a study of several types of consulting groups in the Bell System and describes characteristics which are associated with high-impact consulting. A strategy which is designed for internal consulting organizations to maximize the likelihood of both initial success and long-term survival of the group is proposed. (Author/MER)

  17. Sterile Product Packaging and Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Akers, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Both conventional and more advanced product container and delivery systems are the focus of this brief article. Six different product container systems will be discussed, plus advances in primary packaging for special delivery systems and needle technology.

  18. Insulin Delivery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    When Programmable Implantable Medication System (PIMS) is implanted in human body, it delivers precise programmed amounts of insulin over long periods of time. Mini-Med Technologies has been refining the Technologies since initial development at APL. The size of a hockey puck, and encased in titanium shell, PIMS holds about 2 1/2 teaspoons of insulin at a programmed basal rate. If a change in measured blood sugar level dictates a different dose, the patient can vary the amount of insulin delivered by holding a small radio transceiver over the implanted system and dialing in a specific program held in the PIMS computer memory. Insulin refills are accomplished approximately 4 times a year by hypodermic needle.

  19. Air conditioning system

    DOEpatents

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  20. Air Delivery and Marine Corps Logistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-17

    to ground-based logistics, the evolution of ground-based vehicles to counter the threat, and the lift capacity of air and ground vehicles organic to...UAS------------------------------------------- A4 Figure 11. Bo.eing A160 Hummingbird Vertical Lift UAS------------------------------------------- A4...Vertical Takeoff and Landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (VTUAV). VTUAVs like the Boeing A160 Hummingbird , Bell Helicopter Eagle Eye, and the Northrop

  1. Mucoadhesive vaginal drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Acartürk, Füsun

    2009-11-01

    Vaginal delivery is an important route of drug administration for both local and systemic diseases. The vaginal route has some advantages due to its large surface area, rich blood supply, avoidance of the first-pass effect, relatively high permeability to many drugs and self-insertion. The traditional commercial preparations, such as creams, foams, gels, irrigations and tablets, are known to reside in the vaginal cavity for a relatively short period of time owing to the self-cleaning action of the vaginal tract, and often require multiple daily doses to ensure the desired therapeutic effect. The vaginal route appears to be highly appropriate for bioadhesive drug delivery systems in order to retain drugs for treating largely local conditions, or for use in contraception. In particular, protection against sexually-transmitted diseases is critical. To prolong the residence time in the vaginal cavity, bioadhesive therapeutic systems have been developed in the form of semi-solid and solid dosage forms. The most commonly used mucoadhesive polymers that are capable of forming hydrogels are synthetic polyacrylates, polycarbophil, chitosan, cellulose derivatives (hydroxyethycellulose, hydroxy-propylcellulose and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose), hyaluronic acid derivatives, pectin, tragacanth, carrageenan and sodium alginate. The present article is a comprehensive review of the patents related to mucoadhesive vaginal drug delivery systems.

  2. Feasibility Study: Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems with Fan Coil Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; Backman, C.

    2012-07-01

    The primary objectives of this study are to estimate potential energy savings relative to conventional ducted air distribution, and to identify equipment requirements, costs, and barriers with a focus on ductless hydronic delivery systems that utilize water-to-air terminal units in each zone. Results indicate that annual heating and cooling energy use can be reduced by up to 27% assuming replacement of the conventional 13 SEER heat pump and coil with a similarly rated air-to-water heat pump.

  3. Air cushion landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boghami, K. M.; Captain, K. M.; Fish, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    Static and dynamic performance of air cushion landing system is simulated in computer program that treats four primary ACLS subsystems: fan, feeding system, trunk, and cushion. Configuration of systems is sufficiently general to represent variety of practical designs.

  4. Plasma-activated air mediates plasmid DNA delivery in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Edelblute, Chelsea M; Heller, Loree C; Malik, Muhammad A; Bulysheva, Anna; Heller, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Plasma-activated air (PAA) provides a noncontact DNA transfer platform. In the current study, PAA was used for the delivery of plasmid DNA in a 3D human skin model, as well as in vivo. Delivery of plasmid DNA encoding luciferase to recellularized dermal constructs was enhanced, resulting in a fourfold increase in luciferase expression over 120 hours compared to injection only (P < 0.05). Delivery of plasmid DNA encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was confirmed in the epidermal layers of the construct. In vivo experiments were performed in BALB/c mice, with skin as the delivery target. PAA exposure significantly enhanced luciferase expression levels 460-fold in exposed sites compared to levels obtained from the injection of plasmid DNA alone (P < 0.001). Expression levels were enhanced when the plasma reactor was positioned more distant from the injection site. Delivery of plasmid DNA encoding GFP to mouse skin was confirmed by immunostaining, where a 3-minute exposure at a 10 mm distance displayed delivery distribution deep within the dermal layers compared to an exposure at 3 mm where GFP expression was localized within the epidermis. Our findings suggest PAA-mediated delivery warrants further exploration as an alternative approach for DNA transfer for skin targets. PMID:27110584

  5. [Site-specific drug delivery systems. I. Colon targeted delivery].

    PubMed

    Szente, Virág; Zelkó, Romána

    2007-01-01

    Colon specific drug delivery has gained increased importance not just for the delivery of the drugs for the treatment of local diseases associated with the colon like Chron's disease, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, cancer or infections, but also for the potential it holds for the systemic delivery of proteins (e.g. insulin) and therapeutic peptides. These systems enable the protection of healthy tissues from the side effects of drugs and the drug intake of targeted cells, as well. The formulation of colon specific drug delivery systems is of great impact in the case of diseases having circadian rhythm (midnight gerd). Such circadian rhythm release drug delivery systems are designed to provide a plasma concentration--time profile, which varies according to physiological need at different times during the dosing period, i.e., mimicking the circadian rhythm and severity/manifestation of gastric acid secretion (and/or midnight gerd). In general four primary approaches have been proposed for colon targeted delivery namely pH-dependent systems, time dependent systems, colonic microflora activated systems and prodrugs.

  6. High efficiency air cycle air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rannenberg, G. C.

    1985-11-19

    An air cycle air conditioning system is provided with regenerative heat exchangers upstream and downstream of an expansion turbine. A closedloop liquid circulatory system serially connects the two regenerative heat exchangers for regeneration without the bulk associated with air-to-air heat exchange. The liquid circulatory system may also provide heat transport to a remote sink heat exchanger and from a remote load as well as heat exchange within the sink heat exchanger and load for enhanced compactness and efficiency.

  7. Implantable drug-delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Blackshear, P J

    1979-12-01

    Implantable drug-delivery systems are being developed to release drugs to the bloodstream continuously as well as free patients from being hospitalized to receive intravenous infusions or frequent injections. One technique is implantation of a pellet in the subcutaneous tissue so the pellet may be released by erosion. Drugs are also diffused through silicone rubber capsules but only polyacrylamide is able to release large molecules. Contraceptive rings containing progesterone and placed in the uterus or vagina and implanted silicone-rubber capsules use these principles. Disadvantages to the subcutaneous delivery of drugs include: 1) release of the drug in subcutaneous tissue rather than in the bloodstream directly; 2) entry into the circulatory system is controlled by surrounding blood supplies which vary with fat; 3) diffusion may be difficult due to dense layers of fibrous tissue; and 4) drug amounts cannot be readily regulated. The Ommaya reservoir uses a container with a self-sealing membrane implanted in the scalp and connected to a cerebral ventricle to treat forms of leukemia and fungal meningitis. Another development is an implantable disk-shaped infusion pump with 2 compartments, the outer one containing a propellant and the inner chamber containing the drug, holds 45 milliliters and releases about 1 milliliter/day. In the future these systems may release drugs in response to biochemical feedback or deliver a drug to 1 specific area.

  8. Delivery systems and adjuvants for oral vaccines.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Ed C; O'Hagan, D T

    2006-11-01

    The oral route is the ideal means of delivering prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines, offering significant advantages over systemic delivery. Most notably, oral delivery is associated with simple administration and improved safety. In addition, unlike systemic immunisation, oral delivery can induce mucosal immune responses. However, the oral route of vaccine delivery is the most difficult because of the numerous barriers posed by the gastrointestinal tract. To facilitate effective immunisation with peptide and protein vaccines, antigens must be protected, uptake enhanced and the innate immune response activated. Numerous delivery systems and adjuvants have been evaluated for oral vaccine delivery, including live vectors, inert particles and bacterial toxins. Although developments in oral vaccines have been disappointing so far, in terms of the generation of products, the availability of a range of novel delivery systems offers much greater hope for the future development of improved oral vaccines.

  9. Status of Statewide Career Information Delivery Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Wynonia L.

    Intended as a resource document as well as a status report on all the statewide career information delivery systems (CIDS) in operation, this report examines the status of 39 statewide information systems. (Career information delivery systems are computer-based systems that provide national, state, and local information to individuals who are in…

  10. Culture systems: air quality.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Poor laboratory air quality is a known hazard to the culture of human gametes and embryos. Embryologists and chemists have employed analytical methods for identifying and measuring bulk and select air pollutants to assess the risk they pose to the embryo culture system. However, contaminant concentrations that result in gamete or embryotoxicity are poorly defined. Combating the ill effects of poor air quality requires an understanding of how toxicants can infiltrate the laboratory, the incubator, and ultimately the culture media. A further understanding of site-specific air quality can then lead to the consideration of laboratory design and management strategies that can minimize the deleterious effects that air contamination may have on early embryonic development in vitro.

  11. Rapid Data Delivery System (RDDS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cress, Jill J.; Goplen, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    Since the start of the active 2000 summer fire season, the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center (RMGSC) has been actively engaged in providing crucial and timely support to Federal, State, and local natural hazards monitoring, analysis, response, and recovery activities. As part of this support, RMGSC has developed the Rapid Data Delivery System (RDDS) to provide emergency and incident response teams with timely access to geospatial data. The RDDS meets these needs by combining a simple web-enabled data viewer for the selection and preview of vector and raster geospatial data with an easy to use data ordering form. The RDDS viewer also incorporates geospatial locations for current natural hazard incidents, including wildfires, earthquakes, hurricanes, and volcanoes, allowing incident responders to quickly focus on their area of interest for data selection.

  12. Microfabricated injectable drug delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter A.; Wang, Amy W.

    2002-01-01

    A microfabricated, fully integrated drug delivery system capable of secreting controlled dosages of multiple drugs over long periods of time (up to a year). The device includes a long and narrow shaped implant with a sharp leading edge for implantation under the skin of a human in a manner analogous to a sliver. The implant includes: 1) one or more micromachined, integrated, zero power, high and constant pressure generating osmotic engine; 2) low power addressable one-shot shape memory polymer (SMP) valves for switching on the osmotic engine, and for opening drug outlet ports; 3) microfabricated polymer pistons for isolating the pressure source from drug-filled microchannels; 4) multiple drug/multiple dosage capacity, and 5) anisotropically-etched, atomically-sharp silicon leading edge for penetrating the skin during implantation. The device includes an externally mounted controller for controlling on-board electronics which activates the SMP microvalves, etc. of the implant.

  13. Air heating system

    DOEpatents

    Primeau, John J.

    1983-03-01

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  14. Electronic Delivery Systems: A Selection Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallesen, Peter J.; Haley, Paul; Jones, Edward S.; Moore, Bobbie; Widlake, Dina E.; Medsker, Karen L.

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of electronic learning delivery systems focuses on a delivery system selection model that is designed for use by performance improvement professionals who are choosing between satellite networks, teleconferencing, Internet/Intranet networks, desktop multimedia, electronic performance support systems, transportable audio/video, and the…

  15. Intelligent hydrogels for drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    He, Liumin; Zuo, Qinhua; Xie, Shasha; Huang, Yuexin; Xue, Wei

    2011-09-01

    Intelligent hydrogel, also known as smart hydrogels, are materials with great potential for development in drug delivery system. Intelligent hydrogel also has the ability to perceive as a signal structure change and stimulation. The review introduces the temperature-, pH-, electric signal-, biochemical molecule-, light- and pressure- sensitive hydrogels. Finally, we described the application of intelligent hydrogel in drug delivery system and the recent patents involved for hydrogel in drug delivery.

  16. Fiber coupled optical spark delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Yalin, Azer; Willson, Bryan; Defoort, Morgan

    2008-08-12

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, the spark delivery system including a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. In addition, the laser delivery assembly includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. In accordance with embodiments of the present invention, the assembly may be used to create a spark in a combustion engine. In accordance with other embodiments of the present invention, a method of using the spark delivery system is provided. In addition, a method of choosing an appropriate fiber for creating a spark using a laser beam is also presented.

  17. Air injection system diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Kotzan, J.M.; Labus, G.E.

    1992-05-19

    This patent describes a method for diagnosing failures in an air control system that controls a quantity of air admitted into an exhaust path of an internal combustion engine. It comprises sensing the oxygen content of the exhaust gas of the engine at predetermined time intervals at a first predetermined point in the exhaust path of the engine, the oxygen content normally oscillating between a rich oxygen condition and a lean oxygen condition in the absence of air injected into the exhaust path above the first predetermined point; injecting a quantity of air into the exhaust path of the engine at a second predetermined point in the exhaust port, the second predetermined point being above the first predetermined point; counting the number of intervals at which the sensed oxygen content indicates a rich oxygen condition over a predetermined period of time; comparing the counted number of rich oxygen intervals to a predetermined threshold value, the threshold value being greater than a counted number of rich oxygen intervals over the predetermined period of time resulting from the normal oscillations between rich and lean oxygen conditions in the absence of air injected into the exhaust path; indicating the existence of a fault in the air control system when the number of rich oxygen intervals does not exceed the predetermined threshold value.

  18. Enterprise networks. Strategies for integrated delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Siwicki, B

    1997-02-01

    More integrated delivery systems are making progress toward building computer networks that link all their care delivery sites so they can efficiently and economically coordinate care. A growing number of these systems are turning to intranets--private computer networks that use Internet-derived protocols and technologies--to move information that's essential to managing scare health care resources.

  19. Development of the Choctaw Health Delivery System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Binh N.

    The Choctaw Tribe is the first and only tribe to develop a health delivery system to take over an existing Indian Health Service inpatient facility. The takeover was accomplished in January 1984 under the Indian Self-Determination Act through a contract with the Indian Health Service. The Choctaw Health Delivery System includes a 35-bed general…

  20. Dental Compressed Air Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    I AL-TR-IWI-0uuu AD-A249 954 DENTAL COMPRESSED AIMYTM R Curtis D. Weyrmuch, Mejor, USAP, D Samuel P.Dvs iueatclpi SF.O N AEROSPACE MwaEDIN mwr~ComA G...FUNDING NUMBERS Dental Compressed Air Systems PE - 87714F PR - 7350 TA - 22 D. Weyrauch WU - XX Samuel P. Davis George W. Gaines 7. PERFORMING...words) The purpose of this report is to update guidelines on dental compressed air systems (DCA). Much of the information was obtained from a survey

  1. Viral and nonviral delivery systems for gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Nayerossadat, Nouri; Maedeh, Talebi; Ali, Palizban Abas

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy is the process of introducing foreign genomic materials into host cells to elicit a therapeutic benefit. Although initially the main focus of gene therapy was on special genetic disorders, now diverse diseases with different patterns of inheritance and acquired diseases are targets of gene therapy. There are 2 major categories of gene therapy, including germline gene therapy and somatic gene therapy. Although germline gene therapy may have great potential, because it is currently ethically forbidden, it cannot be used; however, to date human gene therapy has been limited to somatic cells. Although numerous viral and nonviral gene delivery systems have been developed in the last 3 decades, no delivery system has been designed that can be applied in gene therapy of all kinds of cell types in vitro and in vivo with no limitation and side effects. In this review we explain about the history of gene therapy, all types of gene delivery systems for germline (nuclei, egg cells, embryonic stem cells, pronuclear, microinjection, sperm cells) and somatic cells by viral [retroviral, adenoviral, adeno association, helper-dependent adenoviral systems, hybrid adenoviral systems, herpes simplex, pox virus, lentivirus, Epstein–Barr virus)] and nonviral systems (physical: Naked DNA, DNA bombardant, electroporation, hydrodynamic, ultrasound, magnetofection) and (chemical: Cationic lipids, different cationic polymers, lipid polymers). In addition to the above-mentioned, advantages, disadvantages, and practical use of each system are discussed. PMID:23210086

  2. Drug delivery systems: An updated review

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Gaurav; Tiwari, Ruchi; Sriwastawa, Birendra; Bhati, L; Pandey, S; Pandey, P; Bannerjee, Saurabh K

    2012-01-01

    Drug delivery is the method or process of administering a pharmaceutical compound to achieve a therapeutic effect in humans or animals. For the treatment of human diseases, nasal and pulmonary routes of drug delivery are gaining increasing importance. These routes provide promising alternatives to parenteral drug delivery particularly for peptide and protein therapeutics. For this purpose, several drug delivery systems have been formulated and are being investigated for nasal and pulmonary delivery. These include liposomes, proliposomes, microspheres, gels, prodrugs, cyclodextrins, among others. Nanoparticles composed of biodegradable polymers show assurance in fulfilling the stringent requirements placed on these delivery systems, such as ability to be transferred into an aerosol, stability against forces generated during aerosolization, biocompatibility, targeting of specific sites or cell populations in the lung, release of the drug in a predetermined manner, and degradation within an acceptable period of time. PMID:23071954

  3. Air Vehicles Technology Integration Program (AVTIP). Delivery Order 0020: Prediction of Manufacturing Tolerances for Laminar Flow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    AFRL-VA-WP-TR-2005-3060 AIR VEHICLES TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION PROGRAM (AVTIP) Delivery Order 0020 : Prediction Of... Technology Integration Program (AVTIP) 5b. GRANT NUMBER Delivery Order 0020 : Prediction Of Manufacturing Tolerances For Laminar Flow 5c. PROGRAM

  4. Starch Applications for Delivery Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jason

    2013-03-01

    Starch is one of the most abundant and economical renewable biopolymers in nature. Starch molecules are high molecular weight polymers of D-glucose linked by α-(1,4) and α-(1,6) glycosidic bonds, forming linear (amylose) and branched (amylopectin) structures. Octenyl succinic anhydride modified starches (OSA-starch) are designed by carefully choosing a proper starch source, path and degree of modification. This enables emulsion and micro-encapsulation delivery systems for oil based flavors, micronutrients, fragrance, and pharmaceutical actives. A large percentage of flavors are encapsulated by spray drying in today's industry due to its high throughput. However, spray drying encapsulation faces constant challenges with retention of volatile compounds, oxidation of sensitive compound, and manufacturing yield. Specialty OSA-starches were developed suitable for the complex dynamics in spray drying and to provide high encapsulation efficiency and high microcapsule quality. The OSA starch surface activity, low viscosity and film forming capability contribute to high volatile retention and low active oxidation. OSA starches exhibit superior performance, especially in high solids and high oil load encapsulations compared with other hydrocolloids. The submission is based on research and development of Ingredion

  5. Fiber laser coupled optical spark delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Yalin, Azer; Willson, Bryan; Defoort, Morgan; Joshi, Sachin; Reynolds, Adam

    2008-03-04

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, and includes a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. The laser delivery assembly further includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. Other embodiments use a fiber laser to generate a spark. Embodiments of the present invention may be used to create a spark in an engine. Yet other embodiments include collecting light from the spark or a flame resulting from the spark and conveying the light for diagnostics. Methods of using the spark delivery systems and diagnostic systems are provided.

  6. Multi-channel gas-delivery system

    SciTech Connect

    Rozenzon, Yan; Trujillo, Robert T.; Beese, Steven C.

    2016-09-13

    One embodiment of the present invention provides a gas-delivery system for delivering reaction gas to a reactor chamber. The gas-delivery system includes a main gas-inlet port for receiving reaction gases and a gas-delivery plate that includes a plurality of gas channels. A gas channel includes a plurality of gas holes for allowing the reaction gases to enter the reactor chamber from the gas channel. The gas-delivery system further includes a plurality of sub-gas lines coupling together the main gas-inlet port and the gas-delivery plate, and a respective sub-gas line is configured to deliver a portion of the received reaction gases to a corresponding gas channel.

  7. Organized Athletics as a Leisure Delivery System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Thomas R.; Mendell, Ron

    1980-01-01

    Athletic programs are leisure time delivery systems for the athletes, spectators, and the local community as long as scholarships and extensive media coverage are not involved. College administration should make sure that sports and athletics do not become a delivery sytem for public relations and finance. (CJ)

  8. New delivery systems and propellants.

    PubMed

    Dolovich, M

    1999-01-01

    The removal of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) propellants from industrial and household products has been agreed to by over 165 countries of which more than 135 are developing countries. The timetable for this process is outlined in the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer document and in several subsequent amendments. Pressured metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) for medical use have been granted temporary exemptions until replacement formulations, providing the same medication via the same route, and with the same efficacy and safety profiles, are approved for human use. Hydrofluoroalkanes (HFAs) are the alternative propellants for CFCs-12 and -114. Their potential for damage to the ozone layer is nonexistent, and while they are greenhouse gases, their global warming potential is a fraction (one-tenth) of that of CFCs. Replacement formulations for almost all inhalant respiratory medications have been or are being produced and tested; in Canada, it is anticipated that the transition to these HFA or CFC-free pMDIs will be complete by the year 2005. Initially, an HFA pMDI was to be equivalent to the CFC pMDI being replaced, in terms of aerosol properties and effective clinical dose. However, this will not necessarily be the situation, particularly for some corticosteroid products. Currently, only one CFC-free formulation is available in Canada - Airomir, a HFA salbutamol pMDI. This paper discusses the in vitro aerosol characteristics, in vivo deposition and clinical data for several HFA pMDIs for which there are data available in the literature. Alternative delivery systems to the pMDI, namely, dry powder inhalers and nebulizers, are briefly reviewed.

  9. Air System Information Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  10. Drug delivery systems from nose to brain.

    PubMed

    Misra, Ambikanandan; Kher, Gitanjali

    2012-09-01

    The treatment of brain disorders is particularly challenging due to the presence of a variety of formidable obstacles to deliver drugs selectively and effectively to the brain. Blood-brain-barrier (BBB) constitutes the major obstacle to the uptake of drugs into the brain following systemic administration. Intranasal delivery offers a non-invasive and convenient method to bypass the BBB and delivery of therapeutics directly to the brain. The review discusses the potential of intranasal route to deliver drugs to the brain, the mechanisms and pathways of direct nose to brain drug transport, the various factors influencing transnasal drug absorption, the conventional and novel intranasal drug delivery systems, the various intranasal drug delivery techniques and devices, and examples of brain drug transport that have been feasible in treating various brain disorders. Moreover, products on the market, investigational drugs, and the author's perceptions about the prospect of intranasal delivery for treating brain disorders are also been discussed.

  11. Alternative delivery systems in rural areas.

    PubMed Central

    Christianson, J B

    1989-01-01

    Alternative delivery systems, such as HMOs, PPOs, and primary care case-management programs, have a long history in rural America despite significant impediments to their development. However, little is known about the effect of these systems on rural communities and their medical care delivery systems. Existing studies, which focus on rural HMOs, are qualitative in nature and generally are directed at identifying factors that facilitate or retard HMO development. Despite their limitations, the studies do raise a variety of issues deserving of quantitative analysis. Research is now needed that (1) investigates the effect of rural alternative delivery systems on the cost and quality of care received by rural residents, (2) assesses the effectiveness of different mechanisms used by these systems to contain costs, (3) estimates the effect of alternative delivery systems on rural providers, (4) determines the extent to which the presence or absence of alternative delivery systems influences physician decisions to locate in rural areas, (5) identifies factors that are important in consumer decisions to enroll or not enroll in a rural alternative delivery system, and (6) analyzes the diffusion patterns of these systems in rural areas. PMID:2645250

  12. Radiation sterilization of new drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Abuhanoğlu, Gürhan; Ozer, A Yekta

    2014-06-01

    Radiation sterilization has now become a commonly used method for sterilization of several active ingredients in drugs or drug delivery systems containing these substances. In this context, many applications have been performed on the human products that are required to be sterile, as well as on pharmaceutical products prepared to be developed. The new drug delivery systems designed to deliver the medication to the target tissue or organ, such as microspheres, nanospheres, microemulsion, and liposomal systems, have been sterilized by gamma (γ) and beta (β) rays, and more recently, by e-beam sterilization. In this review, the sterilization of new drug delivery systems was discussed other than conventional drug delivery systems by γ irradiation.

  13. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development

    SciTech Connect

    Handrock, J.L.; Wally, K.; Raber, T.N.

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. The purpose of this project is to develop a platform for the engineering evaluation of hydrogen storage and delivery systems with an added focus on lightweight hydride utilization. Hybrid vehicles represent the primary application area of interest, with secondary interests including such items as existing vehicles and stationary uses. The near term goal is the demonstration of an internal combustion engine/storage/delivery subsystem. The long term goal is optimization of storage technologies for both vehicular and industrial stationary uses. In this project an integrated approach is being used to couple system operating characteristics to hardware development. A model has been developed which integrates engine and storage material characteristics into the design of hydride storage and delivery systems. By specifying engine operating parameters, as well as a variety of storage/delivery design features, hydride bed sizing calculations are completed. The model allows engineering trade-off studies to be completed on various hydride material/delivery system configurations. A more generalized model is also being developed to allow the performance characteristics of various hydrogen storage and delivery systems to be compared (liquid, activated carbon, etc.). Many of the features of the hydride storage model are applicable to the development of this more generalized model.

  14. Air-storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, T.J.

    1981-10-01

    The air storage system, the critical component making CAES technically and economically feasible, is described in three of its forms. All have geological containments and reflect economics of scale requiring fairly large plant ratings and storage capacities. All three systems also are based on good precedent experience and there are a number of willing bidders in the engineering and construction field attesting to the readiness of the technology. The salient features of each storage system type are summarized. Hard rock caverns have the widest siting opportunity in a variety of geology, are well within construction capability in good quality rock with maximum control of system design through engineering, have the highest cost of the storage system options study and the potential for longest time to startup, are difficult and expensive to expand for increased storage or plant rating. The salt-solutioned cavern has limited siting opportunities, is a very economical storage system, and storage increase is possible through cavern additions.

  15. Designing Bioactive Delivery Systems for Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Hillary E.

    2010-01-01

    The direct infusion of macromolecules into defect sites generally does not impart adequate physiological responses. Without the protection of delivery systems, inductive molecules may likely redistribute away from their desired locale and are vulnerable to degradation. In order to achieve efficacy, large doses supplied at interval time periods are necessary, often at great expense and ensuing detrimental side effects. The selection of a delivery system plays an important role in the rate of re-growth and functionality of regenerating tissue: not only do the release kinetics of inductive molecules and their consequent bioactivities need to be considered, but also how the delivery system interacts and integrates with its surrounding host environment. In the current review, we describe the means of release of macromolecules from hydrogels, polymeric microspheres, and porous scaffolds along with the selection and utilization of bioactive delivery systems in a variety of tissue-engineering strategies. PMID:20676773

  16. WEDDS: The WITS Encrypted Data Delivery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, J.; Backes, P.

    1999-01-01

    WEDDS, the WITS Encrypted Data Delivery System, is a framework for supporting distributed mission operations by automatically transferring sensitive mission data in a secure and efficient manner to and from remote mission participants over the internet.

  17. Air-storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, T. J.

    1981-10-01

    The air storage system, the critical component making compressed air energy storage technically economically feasible, is described in three of its forms. All have geological containments and reflect economics of scale requiring fairly large plant ratings and storage capacities. All three systems also are based on good precedent experience and there are a number of willing bidders in the engineering and construction field attesting to the readiness of the technology. The salient features of each storage system type are summarized. Hard rock caverns have the widest siting opportunity with a variety of geology, are well within construction capability in good quality rock with maximum control of system design through engineering, and have the highest cost of the storage system options study. They have the potential for longest time to startup and are difficult and expensive to expand for increased storage or plant rating. The salt-solutioned cavern has limited siting opportunities, is a very economical storage system, and storage increase is possible through cavern additions.

  18. Cyclodextrins in delivery systems: Applications

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Gaurav; Tiwari, Ruchi; Rai, Awani K.

    2010-01-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) are a family of cyclic oligosaccharides with a hydrophilic outer surface and a lipophilic central cavity. CD molecules are relatively large with a number of hydrogen donors and acceptors and, thus in general, they do not permeate lipophilic membranes. In the pharmaceutical industry, CDs have mainly been used as complexing agents to increase aqueous solubility of poorly soluble drugs and to increase their bioavailability and stability. CDs are used in pharmaceutical applications for numerous purposes, including improving the bioavailability of drugs. Current CD-based therapeutics is described and possible future applications are discussed. CD-containing polymers are reviewed and their use in drug delivery is presented. Of specific interest is the use of CD-containing polymers to provide unique capabilities for the delivery of nucleic acids. Studies in both humans and animals have shown that CDs can be used to improve drug delivery from almost any type of drug formulation. Currently, there are approximately 30 different pharmaceutical products worldwide containing drug/CD complexes in the market. PMID:21814436

  19. Planetary Regolith Delivery Systems for ISRU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantovani, James G.; Townsend, Ivan I., III

    2012-01-01

    The challenges associated with collecting regolith on a planetary surface and delivering it to an in-situ resource utilization system differ significantly from similar activities conducted on Earth. Since system maintenance on a planetary body can be difficult or impossible to do, high reliability and service life are expected of a regolith delivery system. Mission costs impose upper limits on power and mass. The regolith delivery system must provide a leak-tight interface between the near-vacuum planetary surface and the pressurized ISRU system. Regolith delivery in amounts ranging from a few grams to tens of kilograms may be required. Finally, the spent regolith must be removed from the ISRU chamber and returned to the planetary environment via dust tolerant valves capable of operating and sealing over a large temperature range. This paper will describe pneumatic and auger regolith transfer systems that have already been field tested for ISRU, and discuss other systems that await future field testing.

  20. Future Air Force systems.

    PubMed

    Tremaine, S A

    1986-10-01

    Planning for the future is under way in earnest at the Aeronautical Systems Division (ASD) at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It has been statistically established that it takes from 14-16 years from the generation of a new system idea to enter into engineering development. With this unpleasing, but realistic, schedule in mind, ASD has, during the last 3 years, been initiating long-term planning projects that are pre-starts for new system ideas. They are generated from throughout the Air Force and are locally managed and funded. Through this process, which spans from 12-14 months, specific and revolutionary new ideas for the systems of the future are generated. This article addresses more than a dozen specific new ideas in work at ASD today. These ideas range from a need to replace the C-130 type aircraft after the year 2000 to planning a follow-on to the B-18 well into the 21st century. Among other specific projects are investigation into an immortal fighter intended to be free of reliability and maintenance demands for an especially long period of operation, a new training system and advanced trainer to replace the T-38, a transatmospheric vehicle that could operate in the 100,000-500,000 foot flight region (30,480-152,400 m), and a new means of defending against hostile cruise missile launchers and cruise missiles. Other ideas are also addressed. The article concludes with emphasis on systems that can operate hypersonically in and out of the known atmosphere and greater use of airbreathing propulsion systems operating between Mach 3 and Mach 6.

  1. History of Polymeric Gene Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Wagner, Ernst

    2017-04-01

    As an option for genetic disease treatment and an alternative for traditional cancer chemotherapy, gene therapy achieves significant attention. Nucleic acid delivery, however, remains a main challenge in human gene therapy. Polymer-based delivery systems offer a safer and promising route for therapeutic gene delivery. Over the past five decades, various cationic polymers have been optimized for increasingly effective nucleic acid transfer. This resulted in a chemical evolution of cationic polymers from the first-generation polycations towards bioinspired multifunctional sequence-defined polymers and nanocomposites. With the increasing of knowledge in molecular biological processes and rapid progress of macromolecular chemistry, further improvement of polymeric nucleic acid delivery systems will provide effective tool for gene-based therapy in the near future.

  2. Goals for Postsecondary Instructional Delivery Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Stuart E.; Valentine, Carol A.

    Extrapolating from the trends in postsecondary instructional delivery systems identified by Brown, Lewis and Harcleroad, this report attempts to identify how these trends might be implemented in Oregon. Separating the systems into technology-centered and people-centered, the report proposes future applications of dial access systems, self learning…

  3. Air Storage System Energy Transfer (ASSET) plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stys, Z. S.

    1983-09-01

    The design features and performance capabilities of Air Storage System Energy Transfer (ASSET) plants for transferring off-peak utility electricity to on-peak hours are described. The plant operations involve compressing ambient air with an axial flow compressor and depositing it in an underground reservoir at 70 bar pressure. Released during a peaking cycle, the pressure is reduced to 43 bar, the air is heated to 550 C, passed through an expander after a turbine, and passed through a low pressure combustion chamber to be heated to 850 C. A West German plant built in 1978 to supply over 300 MW continuous power for up to two hours is detailed, noting its availability factor of nearly 98 percent and power delivery cost of $230/kW installed. A plant being constructed in Illinois will use limestone caverns as the air storage tank.

  4. Air Mobile Utility Distribution Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    WATER PIPES, AIR TRANSPORTABLE EQUIPMENT, POLYVINYL CHLORIDE, GLASS REINFORCED PLASTICS , FUEL HOSES, HOSES....PIPES, *PIPING SYSTEMS, INSULATION, FABRICATION, CORROSION INHIBITION, FEASIBILITY STUDIES, AIR FORCE FACILITIES, POLYURETHANE RESINS, PLASTICS

  5. Intelligent, self-powered, drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Patra, Debabrata; Sengupta, Samudra; Duan, Wentao; Zhang, Hua; Pavlick, Ryan; Sen, Ayusman

    2013-02-21

    Self-propelled nano/micromotors and pumps are considered to be next generation drug delivery systems since the carriers can either propel themselves ("motor"-based drug delivery) or be delivered ("pump"-based drug delivery) to the target in response to specific biomarkers. Recently, there has been significant advancement towards developing nano/microtransporters into proof-of-concept tools for biomedical applications. This review encompasses the progress made to date on the design of synthetic nano/micromotors and pumps with respect to transportation and delivery of cargo at specific locations. Looking ahead, it is possible to imagine a day when intelligent machines navigate through the human body and perform challenging tasks.

  6. Liposomes as Advanced Delivery Systems for Nutraceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Shade, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    Liposomes are delivery vehicles for transporting substances into the body effectively via facilitating absorption directly in the mouth or by preventing breakdown by stomach acid. Since the 1970s, liposomes have been investigated as potential drug delivery systems because of their biocompatibility and ability to incorporate both hydrophilic and hydrophobic therapeutic agents. Despite early promise, it was decades later, in the late 1990s to the present, that liposome technologies could create successful commercial products. Oral deliveries are recently emerging as availability of quality phospholipids and reliable homogenization and sizing equipment have become routinely available. Nutritional industry use of liposomes will grow rapidly in the next 5–10 y. High-quality products with more complex mixtures of pure compounds and complex botanical mixtures will offer clinicians less-invasive options for dosing and delivery of these actives. PMID:27053934

  7. Educational Power Tools: New Instructional Delivery Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    1991-01-01

    New instructional delivery systems are needed to individualize instruction, relieve the teacher's burden as sole information provider, and meet the challenge of student diversity. Microcomputers, optical memory devices, videodiscs, and hypermedia programs are being combined to create integrated learning systems, multimedia work stations, and other…

  8. Renewable energy delivery systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Howard Andrew

    2013-12-10

    A system, method and/or apparatus for the delivery of energy at a site, at least a portion of the energy being delivered by at least one or more of a plurality of renewable energy technologies, the system and method including calculating the load required by the site for the period; calculating the amount of renewable energy for the period, including obtaining a capacity and a percentage of the period for the renewable energy to be delivered; comparing the total load to the renewable energy available; and, implementing one or both of additional and alternative renewable energy sources for delivery of energy to the site.

  9. Air Quality System (AQS) Metadata

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency compiles air quality monitoring data in the Air Quality System (AQS). Ambient air concentrations are measured at a national network of more than 4,000 monitoring stations and are reported by state, local, and tribal

  10. Deep Space Systems Technology Program Future Deliveries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salvo, Christopher G.; Keuneke, Matthew S.

    2000-01-01

    NASA is in a period of frequent launches of low cost deep space missions with challenging performance needs. The modest budgets of these missions make it impossible for each to develop its own technology, therefore, efficient and effective development and insertion of technology for these missions must be approached at a higher level than has been done in the past. The Deep Space Systems Technology Program (DSST), often referred to as X2000, has been formed to address this need. The program is divided into a series of "Deliveries" that develop and demonstrate a set of spacecraft system capabilities with broad applicability for use by multiple missions. The First Delivery Project, to be completed in 2001, will provide a one MRAD-tolerant flight computer, power switching electronics, efficient radioisotope power source, and a transponder with services at 8.4 GHz and 32 GHz bands. Plans call for a Second Delivery in late 2003 to enable complete deep space systems in the 10 to 50 kg class, and a Third Delivery built around Systems on a Chip (extreme levels of electronic and microsystems integration) around 2006. Formulation of Future Deliveries (past the First Delivery) is ongoing and includes plans for such developments as highly miniaturized digital/analog/power electronics, optical communications, multifunctional structures, miniature lightweight propulsion, advanced thermal control techniques, highly efficient radioisotope power sources, and a unified flight ground software architecture to support the needs of future highly intelligent space systems. All developments are targeted at broad applicability and reuse, and will be commercialized within the US.

  11. Brain drug delivery systems for neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Garbayo, E; Ansorena, E; Blanco-Prieto, M J

    2012-09-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders (NDs) are rapidly increasing as population ages. However, successful treatments for NDs have so far been limited and drug delivery to the brain remains one of the major challenges to overcome. There has recently been growing interest in the development of drug delivery systems (DDS) for local or systemic brain administration. DDS are able to improve the pharmacological and therapeutic properties of conventional drugs and reduce their side effects. The present review provides a concise overview of the recent advances made in the field of brain drug delivery for treating neurodegenerative disorders. Examples include polymeric micro and nanoparticles, lipidic nanoparticles, pegylated liposomes, microemulsions and nanogels that have been tested in experimental models of Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease. Overall, the results reviewed here show that DDS have great potential for NDs treatment.

  12. Waste Feed Delivery Transfer System Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    JULYK, L.J.

    2000-05-05

    This document provides a documented basis for the required design pressure rating and pump pressure capacity of the Hanford Site waste-transfer system in support of the waste feed delivery to the privatization contractor for vitrification. The scope of the analysis includes the 200 East Area double-shell tank waste transfer pipeline system and the associated transfer system pumps for a11 Phase 1B and Phase 2 waste transfers from AN, AP, AW, AY, and A2 Tank Farms.

  13. Air core Bragg fibers for delivery of near-infrared laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelínek, Michal; Frank, Milan; Kubeček, Václav; Matějec, Vlastimil; Kašík, Ivan; Podrazký, Ondřej

    2014-12-01

    Optical fibers designed for high power laser radiation delivery represent important tools in medicine, solar systems, or industry. For such purposes several different types of glass optical fibers such as silica, sapphire, or chalcogenide ones as well as hollow-glass fibers, photonic crystal fibers and Bragg fibers have been investigated. Air-core Bragg fibers or photonic crystal fibers offer us the possibility of light transmission in a low dispersive material - air having a high damage threshold and small non-linear coefficient. However, preforms for drawing Bragg fibers can be fabricated by MCVD method similarly as preforms of standard silica fibers. In this paper we present fundamental characteristics of laboratory-designed and fabricated Bragg fibers with air cores intended for delivery of laser radiation at a wavelength range from 0.9 to 1.5 μm. Bragg fibers with different air core diameters of 5, 45 and 73 mm were prepared. The fiber core was surrounded by three pairs of circular Bragg layers. Each pair was composed of one layer with a high and one layer with a low refractive index with a contrast up to 0.03. Several laser sources emitting at 0.975, 1.06, and 1.55 μm were used as radiation sources. Attenuation coefficients, overall transmissions, bending losses, and spatial profiles of output beams from fibers were determined at these wavelengths. The lowest attenuation coefficient of 70 dB/km was determined for the 45 μm and 73 mm air-core fiber when radiation from a laser was launched into the fibers by using optical lenses. However, multimodal transmission has been observed in such condition. It has also been found that bending losses of such fibers are negligible for bending diameters higher than 15 mm.

  14. Lipid-Based Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Hina; Bala, Rajni; Arora, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    The principle objective of formulation of lipid-based drugs is to enhance their bioavailability. The use of lipids in drug delivery is no more a new trend now but is still the promising concept. Lipid-based drug delivery systems (LBDDS) are one of the emerging technologies designed to address challenges like the solubility and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Lipid-based formulations can be tailored to meet a wide range of product requirements dictated by disease indication, route of administration, cost consideration, product stability, toxicity, and efficacy. These formulations are also a commercially viable strategy to formulate pharmaceuticals, for topical, oral, pulmonary, or parenteral delivery. In addition, lipid-based formulations have been shown to reduce the toxicity of various drugs by changing the biodistribution of the drug away from sensitive organs. However, the number of applications for lipid-based formulations has expanded as the nature and type of active drugs under investigation have become more varied. This paper mainly focuses on novel lipid-based formulations, namely, emulsions, vesicular systems, and lipid particulate systems and their subcategories as well as on their prominent applications in pharmaceutical drug delivery. PMID:26556202

  15. Integrated delivery systems focus on service delivery after capitation efforts stall.

    PubMed

    2005-03-01

    Integrated delivery systems focus on service delivery after capitation efforts stall. Integrated delivery systems are going through changes that are focusing the provider organizations more on delivering care than managing risk, says Dean C. Coddington, one of the leading researchers into capitated organizations and a senior consultant with McManis Consulting in Denver.

  16. Air Vehicle Technology Integration Program (AVTIP). Delivery Order 0054: Opportune Landing Site (OLS) Critical Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    AFRL-RB-WP-TR-2009-3118 AIR VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION PROGRAM (AVTIP) Delivery Order 0054: Opportune Landing Site (OLS) Critical...VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION PROGRAM (AVTIP) Delivery Order 0054: Opportune Landing Site (OLS) Critical Experiment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER F33615-00

  17. Chitosan Microspheres in Novel Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Analava; Dey, Baishakhi

    2011-01-01

    The main aim in the drug therapy of any disease is to attain the desired therapeutic concentration of the drug in plasma or at the site of action and maintain it for the entire duration of treatment. A drug on being used in conventional dosage forms leads to unavoidable fluctuations in the drug concentration leading to under medication or overmedication and increased frequency of dose administration as well as poor patient compliance. To minimize drug degradation and loss, to prevent harmful side effects and to increase drug bioavailability various drug delivery and drug targeting systems are currently under development. Handling the treatment of severe disease conditions has necessitated the development of innovative ideas to modify drug delivery techniques. Drug targeting means delivery of the drug-loaded system to the site of interest. Drug carrier systems include polymers, micelles, microcapsules, liposomes and lipoproteins to name some. Different polymer carriers exert different effects on drug delivery. Synthetic polymers are usually non-biocompatible, non-biodegradable and expensive. Natural polymers such as chitin and chitosan are devoid of such problems. Chitosan comes from the deacetylation of chitin, a natural biopolymer originating from crustacean shells. Chitosan is a biocompatible, biodegradable, and nontoxic natural polymer with excellent film-forming ability. Being of cationic character, chitosan is able to react with polyanions giving rise to polyelectrolyte complexes. Hence chitosan has become a promising natural polymer for the preparation of microspheres/nanospheres and microcapsules. The techniques employed to microencapsulate with chitosan include ionotropic gelation, spray drying, emulsion phase separation, simple and complex coacervation. This review focuses on the preparation, characterization of chitosan microspheres and their role in novel drug delivery systems. PMID:22707817

  18. Calibrator for microflow delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinozzi, Franco; Bini, Fabiano; Cappa, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    An apparatus for calibrating the fluid flow rate down to 3×10-2ml/h is proposed, based on the volumetric pump working principle. Constant flow rate is assured by means of the constant speed at which the plunger of a laboratory syringe is moved. To test effectiveness of the system, a flow sensor, composed by a differential pressure transducer and a needle was calibrated and afterward utilized for characterizing a clinical drug infusion device. The proposed apparatus showed a full scale (FS) uncertainty approximately equal to 3.5% over a range of 6 ml/h. The calibration range starts at 3×10-2ml/h with a 1 ml syringe and at 3×10-3ml/h with a 0.1 ml syringe. The minimum detectable signal (evaluated at 6 dB SNR) was equal to about 1.4×10-2ml/h by using a syringe of 1 ml. The outcomes of the adopted procedure allowed a characterization of the performance of an infusion pump, without the need of the usual but somewhat cumbersome gravimetric calibration standard. Moreover, some issues about the expected resolution and uncertainty, depending on the characteristics of the system, is also reported.

  19. Biomaterials for Nanoparticle Vaccine Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Sahdev, Preety; Ochyl, Lukasz J.; Moon, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Subunit vaccination benefits from improved safety over attenuated or inactivated vaccines, but their limited capability to elicit long-lasting, concerted cellular and humoral immune responses is a major challenge. Recent studies have demonstrated that antigen delivery via nanoparticle formulations significantly improve immunogenicity of vaccines due to either intrinsic immunostimulatory properties of the materials or by co-entrapment of molecular adjuvants such as Toll-like receptor agonists. These studies have collectively shown that nanoparticles designed to mimic biophysical and biochemical cues of pathogens offer new exciting opportunities to enhance activation of innate immunity and elicit potent cellular and humoral immunity with minimal cytotoxicity. In this review, we present key research advances that were made within the last 5 years in the field of nanoparticle vaccine delivery systems. In particular, we focus on the impact of biomaterials composition, size, and surface charge of nanoparticles on modulation of particle biodistribution, delivery of antigens and immunostimulatory molecules, trafficking and targeting of antigen presenting cells, and overall immune responses in systemic and mucosal tissues. This review describes recent progresses in the design of nanoparticle vaccine delivery carriers, including liposomes, lipid-based particles, micelles and nanostructures composed of natural or synthetic polymers, and lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles. PMID:24848341

  20. Liposomal drug delivery systems--clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Parveen; Goyal, Kumud; Vijaya Kumar, Sengodan Gurusamy; Singh, Ajit; Katare, Om Prakash; Mishra, Dina Nath

    2005-03-01

    Liposomes have been widely investigated since 1970 as drug carriers for improving the delivery of therapeutic agents to specific sites in the body. As a result, numerous improvements have been made, thus making this technology potentially useful for the treatment of certain diseases in the clinics. The success of liposomes as drug carriers has been reflected in a number of liposome-based formulations, which are commercially available or are currently undergoing clinical trials. The current pharmaceutical preparations of liposome-based therapeutic systems mainly result from our understanding of lipid-drug interactions and liposome disposition mechanisms. The insight gained from clinical use of liposome drug delivery systems can now be integrated to design liposomes that can be targeted on tissues, cells or intracellular compartments with or without expression of target recognition molecules on liposome membranes. This review is mainly focused on the diseases that have attracted most attention with respect to liposomal drug delivery and have therefore yielded most progress, namely cancer, antibacterial and antifungal disorders. In addition, increased gene transfer efficiencies could be obtained by appropriate selection of the gene transfer vector and mode of delivery.

  1. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development: Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Handrock, J.L.; Malinowski, M.E.; Wally, K.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. This project is part of the Field Work Proposal entitled Hydrogen Utilization in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). The goal of the Hydrogen Storage and Delivery System Development Project is to expand the state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage and delivery system design and development. At the foundation of this activity is the development of both analytical and experimental evaluation platforms. These tools provide the basis for an integrated approach for coupling hydrogen storage and delivery technology to the operating characteristics of potential hydrogen energy use applications. Analytical models have been developed for internal combustion engine (ICE) hybrid and fuel cell driven vehicles. The dependence of hydride storage system weight and energy use efficiency on engine brake efficiency and exhaust temperature for ICE hybrid vehicle applications is examined. Results show that while storage system weight decreases with increasing engine brake efficiency energy use efficiency remains relatively unchanged. The development, capability, and use of a newly developed fuel cell vehicle hydride storage system model will also be discussed. As an example of model use power distribution and control for a simulated driving cycle is presented. An experimental test facility, the Hydride Bed Testing Laboratory (HBTL) has been designed and fabricated. The development of this facility and its use in storage system development will be reviewed. These two capabilities (analytical and experimental) form the basis of an integrated approach to storage system design and development. The initial focus of these activities has been on hydride utilization for vehicular applications.

  2. Advanced air revitalization system testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Hallick, T. M.; Schubert, F. H.

    1983-01-01

    A previously developed experimental air revitalization system was tested cyclically and parametrically. One-button startup without manual interventions; extension by 1350 hours of tests with the system; capability for varying process air carbon dioxide partial pressure and humidity and coolant source for simulation of realistic space vehicle interfaces; dynamic system performance response on the interaction of the electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator, the Sabatier carbon dioxide reduction subsystem, and the static feed water electrolysis oxygen generation subsystem, the carbon dioxide concentrator module with unitized core technology for the liquid cooled cell; and a preliminary design for a regenerative air revitalization system for the space station are discussed.

  3. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air presure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  4. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1980-01-01

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  5. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development: Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Handrock, J.L.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. This project is part of the Field Work Proposal entitled Hydrogen Utilization in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). The goal of the Hydrogen Storage and Delivery System Development Project is to expand the state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage and delivery system design and development. At the foundation of this activity is the development of both analytical and experimental evaluation platforms. These tools provide the basis for an integrated approach for coupling hydrogen storage and delivery technology to the operating characteristics of potential hydrogen energy use applications. Results of the analytical model development portion of this project will be discussed. Analytical models have been developed for internal combustion engine (ICE) hybrid and fuel cell driven vehicles. The dependence of hydride storage system weight and energy use efficiency on engine brake efficiency and exhaust temperature for ICE hybrid vehicle applications is examined. Results show that while storage system weight decreases with increasing engine brake efficiency energy use efficiency remains relatively unchanged. The development, capability, and use of a recently developed fuel cell vehicle storage system model will also be discussed. As an example of model use, power distribution and control for a simulated driving cycle is presented. Model calibration results of fuel cell fluid inlet and exit temperatures at various fuel cell idle speeds, assumed fuel cell heat capacities, and ambient temperatures are presented. The model predicts general increases in temperature with fuel cell power and differences between inlet and exit temperatures, but under predicts absolute temperature values, especially at higher power levels.

  6. Chitosan magnetic nanoparticles for drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Assa, Farnaz; Jafarizadeh-Malmiri, Hoda; Ajamein, Hossein; Vaghari, Hamideh; Anarjan, Navideh; Ahmadi, Omid; Berenjian, Aydin

    2016-06-01

    The potential of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in drug delivery systems (DDSs) is mainly related to its magnetic core and surface coating. These coatings can eliminate or minimize their aggregation under physiological conditions. Also, they can provide functional groups for bioconjugation to anticancer drugs and/or targeted ligands. Chitosan, as a derivative of chitin, is an attractive natural biopolymer from renewable resources with the presence of reactive amino and hydroxyl functional groups in its structure. Chitosan nanoparticles (NPs), due to their huge surface to volume ratio as compared to the chitosan in its bulk form, have outstanding physico-chemical, antimicrobial and biological properties. These unique properties make chitosan NPs a promising biopolymer for the application of DDSs. In this review, the current state and challenges for the application magnetic chitosan NPs in drug delivery systems were investigated. The present review also revisits the limitations and commercial impediments to provide insight for future works.

  7. Transdermal testosterone delivery: comparison between scrotal and nonscrotal delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Lin, S; Xing, Q F; Chien, Y W

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the bioequivalence of two testosterone transdermal delivery systems (T-TDSs). Testoderm, designed to deliver testosterone through scrotal skin, and Androderm, designed for nonscrotal permeation. In vitro permeation and release kinetics as well as in vivo pharmacokinetics in the castrated Yucatan miniature swine (minipigs) model of both T-TDSs were studied side by side under the same experimental conditions. In vitro skin permeation kinetics studies demonstrated that testosterone permeates through minipig dorsal skin at zero-order kinetics from both T-TDSs. The nonscrotal T-TDS, however, has a permeation rate which is approximately 13 times higher than that for the scrotal T-TDS. The release of testosterone from the nonscrotal T-TDS showed a biphasic release profile between cumulative amount released and time, whereas a monophasic release profile between cumulative amount released and square root of time was observed for the scrotal T-TDS. Pharmacokinetic analysis of plasma testosterone profiles in minipigs indicated a significant difference (p < 0.001) in daily dose of testosterone delivered (1.20 versus 4.83 mg/day), maximum concentration (Cmax) (54.2 versus 218.0 ng/dl), and area under concentration-time curve (AUC0-28)[665 versus 3208 (ng/dl) x hr] between these T-TDSs. However, there is no difference in time to reach Cmax mean residence time, and daily-delivered-dose-normalized Cmax and AUC0-28. The difference in pharmacokinetic profiles resulted from the difference in daily doses delivered, which could be attributed remarkably to the difference in permeation rate (approximately 13-fold) between the nonscrotal and scrotal T-TDSs.

  8. Demonstrated delivery/employment systems for unattended ground sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Robert R.; Bendowski, Michael A.; McFeaters, Ryan C.

    1997-07-01

    This paper describes the payload delivery system developed and proven to deploy an electronic warfare device to specific, predetermined locations on the battlefield. Initially called the Artillery Delivered Expendable Jammer (AD/EXJAM), it is now designated the Air Delivered-Ground (Deployed) Expendable Jammer (AD-G/EXJAM). The initial units were demonstrated from 155 MM artillery; the later units, from UAV's, helicopters and slow moving, fixed wing aircraft. While these two delivery systems were originally designed specifically for the EXJAM system, the concept is directly applicable to unattended ground sensors that require unmanned remote emplacement. Keys to the success of the jammer included design, development and field testing of power supplies, antennas, deployment systems and packaging to allow payloads to withstand high-g impact and other severe environments typically encountered. The artillery deployed systems were designed to be `wooden' rounds needing no special handling and storing. These systems treat the payload as independent elements which are self-ejected from a fired M483A1 or M864 round and are completely automatic upon hitting the ground. The more recent payloads can be delivered from UAV's and include remote control capabilities, increased operating life and increased power output. The present payload is packaged into a cylindrical shape, approximately six inches in diameter and 6.5 inches long and are contained within a carrier, attached to an Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) or any other air vehicle. Upon reaching the dispensing point, the release command can be issue by either the UAV or a separate ground control unit in RF contact with the carrier. The carrier then begins a timed dispensing sequence that has been selected for optimum payload emplacement in the target area. New developments include a design and subsystem demonstration of a tactical munitions dispenser variant of the deployment system. Operational characteristics of any specific

  9. A Feasibility Study. Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems with Fan Coil Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; Backman, C.

    2012-07-01

    The primary objectives of this study are to estimate potential energy savings relative to conventional ducted air distribution, and to identify equipment requirements, costs, and barriers with a focus on ductless hydronic delivery systems that utilize water-to-air terminal units in each zone. Results indicate that annual heating and cooling energy use can be reduced by up to 27% assuming replacement of the conventional 13 SEER heat pump and coil with a similarly rated air-to-water heat pump.

  10. Air Vehicle Technology Integration Program (AVTIP). Delivery Order 0004: Advanced Sol-Gel Adhesion Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    AFRL-ML-WP-TR-2003-4173 AIR VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION PROGRAM (AVTIP) Delivery Order 0004: Advanced Sol-Gel Adhesion Processes Kay Y...2001 – 03/31/2002 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER F33615-00-D-3052 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE AIR VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION PROGRAM

  11. Air Pollution Surveillance Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George B.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes atmospheric data monitoring as part of total airpollution control effort. Summarizes types of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants and their sources; contrast between urban and rural environmental air quality; instrumentation to identify pollutants; and anticipated new non-wet chemical physical and physiochemical techniques tor cetection…

  12. Drug delivery system and breast cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colone, Marisa; Kaliappan, Subramanian; Calcabrini, Annarica; Tortora, Mariarosaria; Cavalieri, Francesca; Stringaro, Annarita

    2016-06-01

    Recently, nanomedicine has received increasing attention for its ability to improve the efficacy of cancer therapeutics. Nanosized polymer therapeutic agents offer the advantage of prolonged circulation in the blood stream, targeting to specific sites, improved efficacy and reduced side effects. In this way, local, controlled delivery of the drug will be achieved with the advantage of a high concentration of drug release at the target site while keeping the systemic concentration of the drug low, thus reducing side effects due to bioaccumulation. Various drug delivery systems such as nanoparticles, liposomes, microparticles and implants have been demonstrated to significantly enhance the preventive/therapeutic efficacy of many drugs by increasing their bioavailability and targetability. As these carriers significantly increase the therapeutic effect of drugs, their administration would become less cost effective in the near future. The purpose of our research work is to develop a delivery system for breast cancer cells using a microvector of drugs. These results highlight the potential uses of these responsive platforms suited for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. At the request of all authors of the paper an updated version was published on 12 July 2016. The manuscript was prepared and submitted without Dr. Francesca Cavalieri's contribution and her name was added without her consent. Her name has been removed in the updated and re-published article.

  13. 42 CFR 457.490 - Delivery and utilization control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delivery and utilization control systems. 457.490... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.490 Delivery and utilization control systems. A... control systems. A State must— (a) Describe the methods of delivery of child health assistance...

  14. 42 CFR 457.490 - Delivery and utilization control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delivery and utilization control systems. 457.490... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.490 Delivery and utilization control systems. A... control systems. A State must— (a) Describe the methods of delivery of child health assistance...

  15. Recent Trends of Polymer Mediated Liposomal Gene Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Soo; George Priya Doss, C.; Yagihara, Shin; Kim, Do-Young

    2014-01-01

    Advancement in the gene delivery system have resulted in clinical successes in gene therapy for patients with several genetic diseases, such as immunodeficiency diseases, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) blindness, thalassemia, and many more. Among various delivery systems, liposomal mediated gene delivery route is offering great promises for gene therapy. This review is an attempt to depict a portrait about the polymer based liposomal gene delivery systems and their future applications. Herein, we have discussed in detail the characteristics of liposome, importance of polymer for liposome formulation, gene delivery, and future direction of liposome based gene delivery as a whole. PMID:25250340

  16. Ultrasound-mediated nail drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Abadi, Danielle; Zderic, Vesna

    2011-12-01

    A novel ultrasound-mediated drug delivery system has been developed for treatment of a nail fungal disorder (onychomycosis) by improving delivery to the nail bed using ultrasound to increase the permeability of the nail. The slip-in device consists of ultrasound transducers and drug delivery compartments above each toenail. The device is connected to a computer, where a software interface allows users to select their preferred course of treatment. In in vitro testing, canine nails were exposed to 3 energy levels (acoustic power of 1.2 W and exposure durations of 30, 60, and 120 seconds). A stereo -microscope was used to determine how much of a drug-mimicking compound was delivered through the nail layers by measuring brightness on the cross section of each nail tested at each condition, where brightness level decreases coincide with increases in permeability. Each of the 3 energy levels tested showed statistical significance when compared to the control (P < .05) with a permeability factor of 1.3 after 30 seconds of exposure, 1.3 after 60 seconds, and 1.5 after 120 seconds, where a permeability factor of 1 shows no increase in permeability. Current treatments for onychomycosis include systemic, topical, and surgical. Even when used all together, these treatments typically take a long time to result in nail healing, thus making this ultrasound-mediated device a promising alternative.

  17. Application of proteins in burst delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, E.; Weiland, L. M.; Meng, W. S.

    2010-09-01

    Biological proteins embedded in either a biological or an engineered membrane will actively maintain electrochemical balance across that membrane. In this study two applications will be examined. First a system of governing equations will be calibrated for a biological endosome. The endocytosis predictions presented then serve to validate the model. In addition, these predictions introduce new insights into endosome burst, which is of interest for advancing DNA vaccine delivery. The calibrated model is subsequently adapted to an analogous engineering scenario for targeted payload delivery. In the presence of a specific external stimulus, burst release of an arbitrary payload encased in a vesicle akin to an endosome is explored. Control of the process through manipulation of vesicle size, stimulus, and transporters is presented. A case is made for application of proteins as building blocks in the design of targeted response materials.

  18. Cold air systems: Sleeping giant

    SciTech Connect

    MacCracken, C.D. )

    1994-04-01

    This article describes how cold air systems help owners increase the profits from their buildings by reducing electric costs and improving indoor air quality through lower relative humidity levels. Cold air distribution involves energy savings, cost savings, space savings, greater comfort, cleaner air, thermal storage, tighter ducting, coil redesign, lower relative humidities, retrofitting, and improved indoor air quality (IAQ). It opens a door for architects, engineers, owners, builders, environmentalists, retrofitters, designers, occupants, and manufacturers. Three things have held up cold air's usage: multiple fan-powered boxes that ate up the energy savings of primary fans. Cold air room diffusers that provided inadequate comfort. Condensation from ducts, boxes, and diffusers. Such problems have been largely eliminated through research and development by utilities and manufacturers. New cold air diffusers no longer need fan powered boxes. It has also been found that condensation is not a concern so long as the ducts are located in air conditioned space, such as drop ceilings or central risers, where relative humidity falls quickly during morning startup.

  19. Stimuli-Responsive Polymeric Systems for Controlled Protein and Peptide Delivery: Future Implications for Ocular Delivery.

    PubMed

    Mahlumba, Pakama; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness

    2016-07-30

    Therapeutic proteins and peptides have become notable in the drug delivery arena for their compatibility with the human body as well as their high potency. However, their biocompatibility and high potency does not negate the existence of challenges resulting from physicochemical properties of proteins and peptides, including large size, short half-life, capability to provoke immune responses and susceptibility to degradation. Various delivery routes and delivery systems have been utilized to improve bioavailability, patient acceptability and reduce biodegradation. The ocular route remains of great interest, particularly for responsive delivery of macromolecules due to the anatomy and physiology of the eye that makes it a sensitive and complex environment. Research in this field is slowly gaining attention as this could be the breakthrough in ocular drug delivery of macromolecules. This work reviews stimuli-responsive polymeric delivery systems, their use in the delivery of therapeutic proteins and peptides as well as examples of proteins and peptides used in the treatment of ocular disorders. Stimuli reviewed include pH, temperature, enzymes, light, ultrasound and magnetic field. In addition, it discusses the current progress in responsive ocular drug delivery. Furthermore, it explores future prospects in the use of stimuli-responsive polymers for ocular delivery of proteins and peptides. Stimuli-responsive polymers offer great potential in improving the delivery of ocular therapeutics, therefore there is a need to consider them in order to guarantee a local, sustained and ideal delivery of ocular proteins and peptides, evading tissue invasion and systemic side-effects.

  20. Alaskan Air Defense and Early Warning Systems Clear Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Alaskan Air Defense and Early Warning Systems - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  1. Microemulsions based transdermal drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Vadlamudi, Harini C; Narendran, Hyndavi; Nagaswaram, Tejeswari; Yaga, Gowri; Thanniru, Jyotsna; Yalavarthi, Prasanna R

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of microemulsions by Jack H Schulman, there has been huge progress made in applying microemulsion systems in plethora of research and industrial process. Microemulsions are optically isotropic systems consisting of water, oil and amphiphile. These systems are beneficial due to their thermodynamic stability, optical clarity, ease of preparation, higher diffusion and absorption rates. Moreover, it has been reported that the ingredients of microemulsion can effectively overcome the diffusion barrier and penetrate through the stratum corneum of the skin. Hence it becomes promising for both transdermal and dermal drug delivery. However, low viscosity of microemulsion restrains its applicability in pharmaceutical industry. To overcome the above drawback, the low viscous microemulsions were added to viscous gel bases to potentiate its applications as topical drug delivery systems so that various drug related toxic effects and erratic drug absorption can be avoided. The present review deals with the microemulsions, various techniques involved in the development of organic nanoparticles. The review emphasized on microemulsion based systems such as hydrogels and organogels. The physicochemical characteristics, mechanical properties, rheological and stability principles involved in microemulsion based viscous gels were also explored.

  2. Drug Delivery Systems for Platinum Drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Vien T.; Scarano, Wei; Stenzel, Martina H.

    2013-09-01

    Since the discovery of cisplatin, drugs based on platinum, have made a significant impact on the treatment of various cancers. The administration of platinum drugs is however accompanied by significant side effects. This chapter discusses the types of drug delivery systems that have been developed in order to enable the targeted delivery while maintaining controlled temporal supply of the drug. The sizes of carriers range from nanometer to micrometer sized particles. The most common types of drug carriers are micelles, liposomes, nanoparticles, and dendrimers, but also a few microspheres have been developed. Most striking aspect of the delivery of platinum drugs is the possibility of physical encapsulation but also the binding of the drug to the polymer carrier coordinate covalent bond. Since platinum drugs have typically two permanent and two leaving ligands, the polymer can be part of either ligand. As the leaving ligand, the platinum drug is released often as cisplatin. If the polymer provides the functionality for the permanent ligand, a new macromolecular drug has been formed. In addition to the attachment of pt(II) drugs, recent offorts are devoted to the conjugation via the Pt((IV) prodrug.

  3. 42 CFR 457.490 - Delivery and utilization control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.490 Delivery and utilization control systems. A... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Delivery and utilization control systems. 457.490... targeted low-income children, including a description of the proposed methods of delivery and...

  4. 42 CFR 457.490 - Delivery and utilization control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.490 Delivery and utilization control systems. A... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Delivery and utilization control systems. 457.490... targeted low-income children, including a description of the proposed methods of delivery and...

  5. 42 CFR 457.490 - Delivery and utilization control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.490 Delivery and utilization control systems. A... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Delivery and utilization control systems. 457.490... targeted low-income children, including a description of the proposed methods of delivery and...

  6. Modeling the Delivery Physiology of Distributed Learning Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paquette, Gilbert; Rosca, Ioan

    2003-01-01

    Discusses instructional delivery models and their physiology in distributed learning systems. Highlights include building delivery models; types of delivery models, including distributed classroom, self-training on the Web, online training, communities of practice, and performance support systems; and actors (users) involved, including experts,…

  7. Liposomes as delivery systems for antineoplastic drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Luis Alberto

    2014-11-01

    Liposome drug formulations are defined as pharmaceutical products containing active drug substances encapsulated within the lipid bilayer or in the interior aqueous space of the liposomes. The main importance of this drug delivery system is based on its drastic reduction in systemic dose and concomitant systemic toxicity that in comparison with the free drug, results in an improvement of patient compliance and in a more effective treatment. There are several therapeutic drugs that are potential candidates to be encapsulated into liposomes; particular interest has been focused in therapeutic and antineoplastic drugs, which are characterized for its low therapeutic index and high systemic toxicity. The use of liposomes as drug carriers has been extensively justified and the importance of the development of different formulations or techniques to encapsulate therapeutic drugs has an enormous value in benefit of patients affected by neoplastic diseases.

  8. Fuel delivery system including heat exchanger means

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffinberry, G. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A fuel delivery system is presented wherein first and second heat exchanger means are each adapted to provide the transfer of heat between the fuel and a second fluid such as lubricating oil associated with the gas turbine engine. Valve means are included which are operative in a first mode to provide for flow of the second fluid through both first and second heat exchange means and further operative in a second mode for bypassing the second fluid around the second heat exchanger means.

  9. Mucoadhesive drug delivery system: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Boddupalli, Bindu M.; Mohammed, Zulkar N. K.; Nath, Ravinder A.; Banji, David

    2010-01-01

    Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems interact with the mucus layer covering the mucosal epithelial surface, and mucin molecules and increase the residence time of the dosage form at the site of absorption. The drugs which have local action or those which have maximum absorption in gastrointestinal tract (GIT) require increased duration of stay in GIT. Thus, mucoadhesive dosage forms are advantageous in increasing the drug plasma concentrations and also therapeutic activity. In this regard, this review covers the areas of mechanisms and theories of mucoadhesion, factors influencing the mucoadhesive devices and also various mucoadhesive dosage forms. PMID:22247877

  10. In Situ Forming Polymeric Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Madan, M.; Bajaj, A.; Lewis, S.; Udupa, N.; Baig, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    In situ forming polymeric formulations are drug delivery systems that are in sol form before administration in the body, but once administered, undergo gelation in situ, to form a gel. The formation of gels depends on factors like temperature modulation, pH change, presence of ions and ultra violet irradiation, from which the drug gets released in a sustained and controlled manner. Various polymers that are used for the formulation of in situ gels include gellan gum, alginic acid, xyloglucan, pectin, chitosan, poly(DL-lactic acid), poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) and poly-caprolactone. The choice of solvents like water, dimethylsulphoxide, N-methyl pyrrolidone, triacetin and 2-pyrrolidone for these formulations depends on the solubility of polymer used. Mainly in situ gels are administered by oral, ocular, rectal, vaginal, injectable and intraperitoneal routes. The in situ gel forming polymeric formulations offer several advantages like sustained and prolonged action in comparison to conventional drug delivery systems. The article presents a detailed review of these types of polymeric systems, their evaluation, advancements and their commercial formulations. From a manufacturing point of view, the production of such devices is less complex and thus lowers the investment and manufacturing cost. PMID:20490289

  11. IceBreaker: Mars Drill and Sample Delivery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellerowicz, B. L.; Paulsen, G. L.; Zacny, K.; McKay, C.; Glass, B. J.; Dave, A.; Davila, A. F.; Marinova, M.

    2012-12-01

    We report on the development and testing of a one meter class prototype Mars drill and cuttings sample delivery system. The IceBreaker drill consists of a rotary-percussive drill head, a sampling auger with a bit at the end having an integrated temperature sensor, a Z-stage for advancing the auger into the ground, and a sam-pling station for moving the augered ice shavings or soil cuttings into a sample cup. The drill is deployed from a 3 Degree of Freedom (DOF) robotic arm. The drill demonstrated drilling in ice-cemented ground, ice, and rocks at the 1-1-100-100 level; that is the drill reached 1 meter in 1 hour with 100 Watts of power and 100 Newton Weight on Bit. This cor-responds to an average energy of 100 Whr. The drill has been extensively tested in the Mars chamber to a depth of 1 meter, as well as in the Antarctic and the Arctic Mars analog sites. We also tested three sample delivery systems: 1) 4 DOF arm with a custom soil scoop at the end; 2) Pneumatic based, and 3) Drill based enabled by the 3 (DOF) drill deployment boom. In all approaches there is an air-gap between the sterilized drill (which penetrates subsurface) and the sample transfer hardware (which is not going to be sterilized). The air gap satisfies the planetary protection requirements. The scoop acquires cuttings sample once they are augered to the surface, and drops them into an in-strument inlet port. The system has been tested in the Mars chamber and in the Arctic. The pneumatic sample delivery system uses compressed gas to move the sample captured inside a small chamber inte-grated with the auger, directly into the instrument. The system was tested in the Mars chamber. In the third approach the drill auger captures the sample on its flutes, the 3 DOF boom positions the tip of the auger above the instrument, and then the auger discharges the sample into an instrument. This approach was tested in the labolatory (at STP). The above drilling and sample delivery tests have shown that drilling

  12. Air support facilities. [interface between air and surface transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Airports are discussed in terms of the interface between the ground and air for transportation systems. The classification systems, design, facilities, administration, and operations of airports are described.

  13. Online Mapping Systems for Climate Data Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, S. T.; Nicholson, C. M.; Bergantino, A. R.

    2009-12-01

    Online, map-based applications have experienced an explosion in popularity over the past decade. The success of these systems is largely due to their ability to provide a spatial framework data exploration, and for the visual context (e.g., satellite images) they offer. Here we detail the development of a new online mapping system for Wyoming that will serve as a portal for the delivery of weather, climate, and water-related data for users across the state. While capitalizing on the success of previous online mapping efforts, this new system also highlights the potential for additional applications and functionality. Known as the Wyoming Internet Map Server (WyoIMS), the system brings together real-time observations and summary products from multiple federal agencies (NOAA-NWS, NRCS, USGS) to provide “one-stop-shopping” for key climatic datasets. Likewise this system is providing a platform for data delivery, archiving, and QC/QA as part of a new statewide hydroclimatic monitoring network. Moving beyond the simple transfer of data, this system also allows users to access information from resources that include state libraries and various databases that contain information related to climate and water resources. Users can, for example, select individual counties, watersheds, irrigation districts, or municipalities and download a wide range of documents and reports specific to those locations. On the whole, WyoIMS has become a catalyst for the development of new climate-related products, and a foundation for decision support with applications in water resources, wildlife management, and agriculture.

  14. Silk Electrogel Based Gastroretentive Drug Delivery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qianrui

    Gastric cancer has become a global pandemic and there is imperative to develop efficient therapies. Oral dosing strategy is the preferred route to deliver drugs for treating the disease. Recent studies suggested silk electro hydrogel, which is pH sensitive and reversible, has potential as a vehicle to deliver the drug in the stomach environment. The aim of this study is to establish in vitro electrogelation e-gel based silk gel as a gastroretentive drug delivery system. We successfully extended the duration of silk e-gel in artificial gastric juice by mixing silk solution with glycerol at different ratios before the electrogelation. Structural analysis indicated the extended duration was due to the change of beta sheet content. The glycerol mixed silk e-gel had good doxorubicin loading capability and could release doxorubicin in a sustained-release profile. Doxorubicin loaded silk e-gels were applied to human gastric cancer cells. Significant cell viability decrease was observed. We believe that with further characterization as well as functional analysis, the silk e-gel system has the potential to become an effective vehicle for gastric drug delivery applications.

  15. [Studies on market of drug delivery system product and drug delivery system of compound Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Feng, Yi; Xu, De-Sheng; Hong, Yan-Long; Zhang, Ning; Ma, Yue-Ming

    2006-10-01

    Based on the progress in the world market of drug delivery system (DDS) product and the research profile of DDS of compound Chinese Medicine, The article puts forward a new method of studies on DDS of compound Chinese Medicine. It is expected that the theory of compatibility of compound Chinese Medicine can be shown and its role can be exerted to the largest extent with the application of pharmaceutics technology to change the mode of drug delivery of activated components of compound Chinese Medicine.

  16. Turbomachine injection nozzle including a coolant delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Zuo, Baifang [Simpsonville, SC

    2012-02-14

    An injection nozzle for a turbomachine includes a main body having a first end portion that extends to a second end portion defining an exterior wall having an outer surface. A plurality of fluid delivery tubes extend through the main body. Each of the plurality of fluid delivery tubes includes a first fluid inlet for receiving a first fluid, a second fluid inlet for receiving a second fluid and an outlet. The injection nozzle further includes a coolant delivery system arranged within the main body. The coolant delivery system guides a coolant along at least one of a portion of the exterior wall and around the plurality of fluid delivery tubes.

  17. Fluid Delivery System For Capillary Electrophoretic Applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qingbo; Liu, Changsheng; Kane, Thomas E.; Kernan, John R.; Sonnenschein, Bernard; Sharer, Michael V.

    2002-04-23

    An automated electrophoretic system is disclosed. The system employs a capillary cartridge having a plurality of capillary tubes. The cartridge has a first array of capillary ends projecting from one side of a plate. The first array of capillary ends are spaced apart in substantially the same manner as the wells of a microtitre tray of standard size. This allows one to simultaneously perform capillary electrophoresis on samples present in each of the wells of the tray. The system includes a stacked, dual carrousel arrangement to eliminate cross-contamination resulting from reuse of the same buffer tray on consecutive executions from electrophoresis. The system also has a gel delivery module containing a gel syringe/a stepper motor or a high pressure chamber with a pump to quickly and uniformly deliver gel through the capillary tubes. The system further includes a multi-wavelength beam generator to generate a laser beam which produces a beam with a wide range of wavelengths. An off-line capillary reconditioner thoroughly cleans a capillary cartridge to enable simultaneous execution of electrophoresis with another capillary cartridge. The streamlined nature of the off-line capillary reconditioner offers the advantage of increased system throughput with a minimal increase in system cost.

  18. A telemedicine health care delivery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Jay H.

    1991-01-01

    The Interactive Telemedicine Systems (ITS) system was specifically developed to address the ever widening gap between our medical care expertise and our medical care delivery system. The frustrating reality is that as our knowledge of how to diagnose and treat medical conditions has continued to advance, the system to deliver that care has remained in an embryonic stage. This has resulted in millions of people being denied their most basic health care needs. Telemedicine utilizes an interactive video system integrated with biomedical telemetry that allows a physician at a base station specialty medical complex or teaching hospital to examine and treat a patient at multiple satellite locations, such as rural hospitals, ambulatory health centers, correctional institutions, facilities caring for the elderly, community hospital emergency departments, or international health facilities. Based on the interactive nature of the system design, the consulting physician at the base station can do a complete history and physical examination, as if the patient at the satellite site was sitting in the physician's office. This system is described.

  19. Light-sensitive intelligent drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Bromberg, Lev; Concheiro, Angel

    2009-01-01

    Drug delivery systems (DDS) capable of releasing an active molecule at the appropriate site and at a rate that adjusts in response to the progression of the disease or to certain functions/biorhythms of the organism are particularly appealing. Biocompatible materials sensitive to certain physiological variables or external physicochemical stimuli (intelligent materials) can be used for achieving this aim. Light-responsiveness is receiving increasing attention owing to the possibility of developing materials sensitive to innocuous electromagnetic radiation (mainly in the UV, visible and near-infrared range), which can be applied on demand at well delimited sites of the body. Some light-responsive DDS are of a single use (i.e. the light triggers an irreversible structural change that provokes the delivery of the entire dose) while others able to undergo reversible structural changes when cycles of light/dark are applied, behave as multi-switchable carriers (releasing the drug in a pulsatile manner). In this review, the mechanisms used to develop polymeric micelles, gels, liposomes and nanocomposites with light-sensitiveness are analyzed. Examples of the capability of some polymeric, lipidic and inorganic structures to regulate the release of small solutes and biomacromolecules are presented and the potential of light-sensitive carriers as functional components of intelligent DDS is discussed.

  20. Phospholipid nanodisc engineering for drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Tatsuya

    2012-06-01

    Biocompatible mesoscale nanoparticles (5-100 nm in diameter) are attractive tools for drug delivery. Among them are several types of liposomes and polymer micelles already in clinical trial or use. Generally, biocompatibility of such particles is achieved by coating them with polyethylene glycol (PEG). Without PEG coating, particles are quickly trapped in the reticuloendothelial system when intravenously administered. However, recent studies have revealed several potential problems with PEG coating, including antigenicity and restriction of cellular uptake. This has motivated the development of alternative drug and gene delivery vehicles, including chemically and genetically engineered high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-like nanodiscs or "bicelles". HDL is a naturally occurring mesoscale nanoparticle that normally ferries cholesterol around in the body. Its initial "nascent" form is thought to be a simple 10 nm disc of phospholipids in a bilayer, and can be easily synthesized in vitro by mixing recombinant apoA-I proteins with various phospholipids. In this review, the use of synthetic HDL-like phospholipid nanodiscs as biocompatible drug carriers is summarized, focussing on manufacturing, size-control, drug loading and cell targeting.

  1. Electronic nicotine delivery systems: a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Etter, Jean-François; Bullen, Chris; Flouris, Andreas D; Laugesen, Murray; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2011-05-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, also called electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes) are marketed to deliver nicotine and sometimes other substances by inhalation. Some tobacco smokers report that they used ENDS as a smoking cessation aid. Whether sold as tobacco products or drug delivery devices, these products need to be regulated, and thus far, across countries and states, there has been a wide range of regulatory responses ranging from no regulation to complete bans. The empirical basis for these regulatory decisions is uncertain, and more research on ENDS must be conducted in order to ensure that the decisions of regulators, health care providers and consumers are based on science. However, there is a dearth of scientific research on these products, including safety, abuse liability and efficacy for smoking cessation. The authors, who cover a broad range of scientific expertise, from basic science to public health, suggest research priorities for non-clinical, clinical and public health studies. They conclude that the first priority is to characterize the safety profile of these products, including in long-term users. If these products are demonstrated to be safe, their efficacy as smoking cessation aids should then be tested in appropriately designed trials. Until these studies are conducted, continued marketing constitutes an uncontrolled experiment and the primary outcome measure, poorly assessed, is user health. Potentially, this research effort, contributing to the safety and efficacy of new smoking cessation devices and to the withdrawal of dangerous products, could save many lives.

  2. Electronic nicotine delivery systems: a research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Etter, Jean-François; Bullen, Chris; Flouris, Andreas D; Laugesen, Murray; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, also called electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes) are marketed to deliver nicotine and sometimes other substances by inhalation. Some tobacco smokers report that they used ENDS as a smoking cessation aid. Whether sold as tobacco products or drug delivery devices, these products need to be regulated, and thus far, across countries and states, there has been a wide range of regulatory responses ranging from no regulation to complete bans. The empirical basis for these regulatory decisions is uncertain, and more research on ENDS must be conducted in order to ensure that the decisions of regulators, health care providers and consumers are based on science. However, there is a dearth of scientific research on these products, including safety, abuse liability and efficacy for smoking cessation. The authors, who cover a broad range of scientific expertise, from basic science to public health, suggest research priorities for non-clinical, clinical and public health studies. They conclude that the first priority is to characterize the safety profile of these products, including in long-term users. If these products are demonstrated to be safe, their efficacy as smoking cessation aids should then be tested in appropriately designed trials. Until these studies are conducted, continued marketing constitutes an uncontrolled experiment and the primary outcome measure, poorly assessed, is user health. Potentially, this research effort, contributing to the safety and efficacy of new smoking cessation devices and to the withdrawal of dangerous products, could save many lives. PMID:21415064

  3. Leadership Dynamics Promoting Systemic Reform for Inclusive Service Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a multicase study of two systems of schools striving to reform service delivery systems for students with special needs. Considering these systems as institutional actors, the study examines what promotes the understanding and implementation of special education service delivery within a system of schools in a manner that…

  4. Oral Dispersible System: A New Approach in Drug Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, P. A.; Khan, J. A.; Khan, A.; Safiullah, S.

    2016-01-01

    Dosage form is a mean used for the delivery of drug to a living body. In order to get the desired effect the drug should be delivered to its site of action at such rate and concentration to achieve the maximum therapeutic effect and minimum adverse effect. Since oral route is still widely accepted route but having a common drawback of difficulty in swallowing of tablets and capsules. Therefore a lot of research has been done on novel drug delivery systems. This review is about oral dispersible tablets a novel approach in drug delivery systems that are now a day's more focused in formulation world, and laid a new path that, helped the patients to build their compliance level with the therapy, also reduced the cost and ease the administration especially in case of pediatrics and geriatrics. Quick absorption, rapid onset of action and reduction in drug loss properties are the basic advantages of this dosage form. PMID:27168675

  5. Magnus air turbine system

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, Thomas F.

    1982-01-01

    A Magnus effect windmill for generating electrical power is disclosed. A large nacelle-hub mounted pivotally (in Azimuth) atop a support tower carries, in the example disclosed, three elongated barrels arranged in a vertical plane and extending symmetrically radially outwardly from the nacelle. The system provides spin energy to the barrels by internal mechanical coupling in the proper sense to cause, in reaction to an incident wind, a rotational torque of a predetermined sense on the hub. The rotating hub carries a set of power take-off rollers which ride on a stationary circular track in the nacelle. Shafts carry the power, given to the rollers by the wind driven hub, to a central collector or accumulator gear assembly whose output is divided to drive the spin mechanism for the Magnus barrels and the main electric generator. A planetary gear assembly is interposed between the collector gears and the spin mechanism functioning as a differential which is also connected to an auxiliary electric motor whereby power to the spin mechanism may selectively be provided by the motor. Generally, the motor provides initial spin to the barrels for start-up after which the motor is braked and the spin mechanism is driven as though by a fixed ratio coupling from the rotor hub. During high wind or other unusual conditions, the auxiliary motor may be unbraked and excess spin power may be used to operate the motor as a generator of additional electrical output. Interposed between the collector gears of the rotating hub and the main electric generator is a novel variable speed drive-fly wheel system which is driven by the variable speed of the wind driven rotor and which, in turn, drives the main electric generator at constant angular speed. Reference is made to the complete specification for disclosure of other novel aspects of the system such as, for example, the aerodynamic and structural aspects of the novel Magnus barrels as well as novel gearing and other power coupling

  6. Air Vehicle Technology Integration Program (AVTIP). Delivery Order 0020: Prediction of Manufacturing Tolerances for Laminar Flow, Task 6

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    AFRL-VA-WP-TR-2007-3086 AIR VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION PROGRAM (AVTIP) Delivery Order 0020: Prediction of Manufacturing Tolerances for...NUMBER F33615-00-D-3054-0020 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE AIR VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION PROGRAM (AVTIP) Delivery Order 0020

  7. Air-traffic surveillance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdoran, P. F.

    1979-01-01

    Passive ground-based radio-interferometry systems (RILS) monitor local air traffic by determining aircraft position in planes defined by surveillance area. Similar RILS arrangements are used to determine aircraft positions in three dimensions when combined with azimuth and range information obtained by radar. Information helps determine three-dimensional aircraft position without expensive encoding altimeters.

  8. Biomedical Imaging in Implantable Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Haoyan; Hernandez, Christopher; Goss, Monika; Gawlik, Anna; Exner, Agata A.

    2015-01-01

    Implantable drug delivery systems (DDS) provide a platform for sustained release of therapeutic agents over a period of weeks to months and sometimes years. Such strategies are typically used clinically to increase patient compliance by replacing frequent administration of drugs such as contraceptives and hormones to maintain plasma concentration within the therapeutic window. Implantable or injectable systems have also been investigated as a means of local drug administration which favors high drug concentration at a site of interest, such as a tumor, while reducing systemic drug exposure to minimize unwanted side effects. Significant advances in the field of local DDS have led to increasingly sophisticated technology with new challenges including quantification of local and systemic pharmacokinetics and implant-body interactions. Because many of these sought-after parameters are highly dependent on the tissue properties at the implantation site, and rarely represented adequately with in vitro models, new nondestructive techniques that can be used to study implants in situ are highly desirable. Versatile imaging tools can meet this need and provide quantitative data on morphological and functional aspects of implantable systems. The focus of this review article is an overview of current biomedical imaging techniques, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound imaging, optical imaging, X-ray and computed tomography (CT), and their application in evaluation of implantable DDS. PMID:25418857

  9. Herbal Excipients in Novel Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Shirwaikar, A.; Shirwaikar, Annie; Prabu, S. Lakshmana; Kumar, G. Aravind

    2008-01-01

    The use of natural excipients to deliver the bioactive agents has been hampered by the synthetic materials. However advantages offered by these natural excipients are their being non-toxic, less expensive and freely available. The performance of the excipients partly determines the quality of the medicines. The traditional concept of the excipients as any component other than the active substance has undergone a substantial evolution from an inert and cheap vehicle to an essential constituent of the formulation. Excipients are any component other than the active substance(s) intentionally added to formulation of a dosage form. This article gives an overview of herbal excipients which are used in conventional dosage forms as well as novel drug delivery systems. PMID:20046764

  10. A multiportal compensator system for IMRT delivery.

    PubMed

    Yoda, Kiyoshi; Aoki, Yukimasa

    2003-05-01

    We have developed a multiportal compensator system for IMRT delivery, comprising a rotational compensator mount for a linac head, cylindrical compensator enclosures positioned in the mount, a vacuum-formed thermoplastic sheet with heavy alloy granules inside the enclosure, and a vacuum thermoforming device. The mount rotates like a revolver by a stepping motor, thus allowing automatic multiportal IMRT without exchanging compensators by human operators during treatment. The thermoforming device has servo-motor-driven 10 x 10 metal rod elements to actualize an arbitrary intensity profile. The thermoplastic sheet is preheated by a built-in biplanar heater and then it is placed over the rod elements. Subsequently, vacuum forming is performed through corner cutouts of the rod elements. After forced cooling down, the heavy alloy granules are fed into the formed sheet. Preliminary experiment using solid water phantoms and an x-ray film has shown that the intensity profile on the film agrees reasonably well with the desired profile.

  11. LNG delivery system for gas powered vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Nesser, T.A.; Hedegard, K.W.

    1992-07-07

    This patent describes a natural gas delivery system. It comprises a first vehicle mounted tank for storing liquid natural gas and natural gas vapor; a second vehicle mounted tank for storing liquid natural gas and natural gas vapor; a use line connected to the first and second tanks for receiving natural gas from the first and second tanks and delivering natural gas vapor to the use device on the vehicle and means for pressurizing the natural gas in the use line; means for selecting one of the first or second tanks to deliver natural gas to the use line; and means for overriding the selecting means to deliver natural gas vapor to the use line from either of the tanks in response to detecting a pressure rise therein which exceeds a preselected maximum.

  12. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin J. (Inventor); Weimer, Carl S. (Inventor); Nelson, Loren D. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air outside a moving aircraft are presented. In one embodiment, a system includes a laser for generating laser energy. The system also includes one or more transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. Subsequently, each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines one or more air parameters based on the scattered laser radiation. Such air parameters may include air speed, air pressure, air temperature and aircraft orientation angle, such as yaw, angle of attack and sideslip.

  13. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-yu (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air outside a moving aircraft are presented. In one embodiment, a system includes a laser for generating laser energy. The system also includes one or more transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. Subsequently, each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines one or more air parameters based on the scattered laser radiation. Such air parameters may include air speed, air pressure, air temperature and aircraft orientation angle, such as yaw, angle of attack and sideslip.

  14. Implantable microchip: the futuristic controlled drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Sutradhar, Kumar Bishwajit; Sumi, Chandra Datta

    2016-01-01

    There is no doubt that controlled and pulsatile drug delivery system is an important challenge in medicine over the conventional drug delivery system in case of therapeutic efficacy. However, the conventional drug delivery systems often offer a limited by their inability to drug delivery which consists of systemic toxicity, narrow therapeutic window, complex dosing schedule for long term treatment etc. Therefore, there has been a search for the drug delivery system that exhibit broad enhancing activity for more drugs with less complication. More recently, some elegant study has noted that, a new type of micro-electrochemical system or MEMS-based drug delivery systems called microchip has been improved to overcome the problems related to conventional drug delivery. Moreover, micro-fabrication technology has enabled to develop the implantable controlled released microchip devices with improved drug administration and patient compliance. In this article, we have presented an overview of the investigations on the feasibility and application of microchip as an advanced drug delivery system. Commercial manufacturing materials and methods, related other research works and current advancement of the microchips for controlled drug delivery have also been summarized.

  15. Ocular drug delivery systems: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ashaben; Cholkar, Kishore; Agrahari, Vibhuti; Mitra, Ashim K

    2014-01-01

    The major challenge faced by today’s pharmacologist and formulation scientist is ocular drug delivery. Topical eye drop is the most convenient and patient compliant route of drug administration, especially for the treatment of anterior segment diseases. Delivery of drugs to the targeted ocular tissues is restricted by various precorneal, dynamic and static ocular barriers. Also, therapeutic drug levels are not maintained for longer duration in target tissues. In the past two decades, ocular drug delivery research acceleratedly advanced towards developing a novel, safe and patient compliant formulation and drug delivery devices/techniques, which may surpass these barriers and maintain drug levels in tissues. Anterior segment drug delivery advances are witnessed by modulation of conventional topical solutions with permeation and viscosity enhancers. Also, it includes development of conventional topical formulations such as suspensions, emulsions and ointments. Various nanoformulations have also been introduced for anterior segment ocular drug delivery. On the other hand, for posterior ocular delivery, research has been immensely focused towards development of drug releasing devices and nanoformulations for treating chronic vitreoretinal diseases. These novel devices and/or formulations may help to surpass ocular barriers and associated side effects with conventional topical drops. Also, these novel devices and/or formulations are easy to formulate, no/negligibly irritating, possess high precorneal residence time, sustain the drug release, and enhance ocular bioavailability of therapeutics. An update of current research advancement in ocular drug delivery necessitates and helps drug delivery scientists to modulate their think process and develop novel and safe drug delivery strategies. Current review intends to summarize the existing conventional formulations for ocular delivery and their advancements followed by current nanotechnology based formulation developments

  16. Flying-qualities criteria for wings-level-turn maneuvering during an air-to-ground weapon delivery task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammonds, R. I.; Bunnell, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    A moving base simulator experiment demonstrated that a wings-level-turn control mode improved flying qualities for air to ground weapon delivery compared with those of a conventionally controlled aircraft. Evaluations of criteria for dynamic response for this system have shown that pilot ratings correlate well on the basis of equivalent time constant of the initial response. Ranges of this time constant, as well as digital system transport delays and lateral acceleration control authorities that encompassed level 1 through 3 handling qualities, were determined.

  17. Flying-qualities criteria for wings-level-turn maneuvering during an air-to-ground weapon delivery task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammonds, R. I.; Bunnell, J. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A moving-base simulator experiment conducted at Ames Research Center demonstrated that a wings-level-turn control mode improved flying qualities for air-to-ground weapons delivery compared with those of a conventional aircraft. Evaluations of criteria for dynamic response for this system have shown that pilot ratings correlate well on the basis of equivalent time constant of the initial response. Ranges of this time constant, as well as digital-system transport delays and lateral-acceleration control authorities that encompassed Level I through Level III handling qualities, were determined.

  18. Micro injector sample delivery system for charged molecules

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, James C.; Balch, Joseph W.

    1999-11-09

    A micro injector sample delivery system for charged molecules. The injector is used for collecting and delivering controlled amounts of charged molecule samples for subsequent analysis. The injector delivery system can be scaled to large numbers (>96) for sample delivery to massively parallel high throughput analysis systems. The essence of the injector system is an electric field controllable loading tip including a section of porous material. By applying the appropriate polarity bias potential to the injector tip, charged molecules will migrate into porous material, and by reversing the polarity bias potential the molecules are ejected or forced away from the tip. The invention has application for uptake of charged biological molecules (e.g. proteins, nucleic acids, polymers, etc.) for delivery to analytical systems, and can be used in automated sample delivery systems.

  19. Reservoir-Based Drug Delivery Systems Utilizing Microtechnology

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Cynthia L.; Santini, John T.; Langer, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This review covers reservoir-based drug delivery systems that incorporate microtechnology, with an emphasis on oral, dermal, and implantable systems. Key features of each technology are highlighted such as working principles, fabrication methods, dimensional constraints, and performance criteria. Reservoir-based systems include a subset of microfabricated drug delivery systems and provide unique advantages. Reservoirs, whether external to the body or implanted, provide a well-controlled environment for a drug formulation, allowing increased drug stability and prolonged delivery times. Reservoir systems have the flexibility to accommodate various delivery schemes, including zero order, pulsatile, and on demand dosing, as opposed to a standard sustained release profile. Furthermore, the development of reservoir-based systems for targeted delivery for difficult to treat applications (e.g., ocular) has resulted in potential platforms for patient therapy. PMID:22465783

  20. New Delivery Systems for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Patten, James J.

    This paper presents an historical perspective on the development of educational delivery systems, and then turns to the challenges of the information age and the issues of developing new delivery systems in this challenging environment. The paper discusses the fragility of power sources and of the networked world; technological weaknesses; freedom…

  1. Guidelines for Psychological Practice in Health Care Delivery Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Psychologists practice in an increasingly diverse range of health care delivery systems. The following guidelines are intended to assist psychologists, other health care providers, administrators in health care delivery systems, and the public to conceptualize the roles and responsibilities of psychologists in these diverse contexts. These…

  2. Vesicular system: Versatile carrier for transdermal delivery of bioactives.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deependra; Pradhan, Madhulika; Nag, Mukesh; Singh, Manju Rawat

    2015-01-01

    The transdermal route of drug delivery has gained immense interest for pharmaceutical researchers. The major hurdle for diffusion of drugs and bioactives through transdermal route is the stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the skin. Currently, various approaches such as physical approach, chemical approach, and delivery carriers have been used to augment the transdermal delivery of bioactives. This review provides a brief overview of mechanism of drug transport across skin, different lipid vesicular systems, with special emphasis on lipid vesicular systems including transfersomes, liposomes, niosomes, ethosomes, virosomes, and pharmacosomes and their application for the delivery of different bioactives.

  3. Air Sampling System Evaluation Template

    SciTech Connect

    Blunt, Brent

    2000-05-09

    The ASSET1.0 software provides a template with which a user can evaluate an Air Sampling System against the latest version of ANSI N13.1 "Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities". The software uses the ANSI N13.1 PIC levels to establish basic design criteria for the existing or proposed sampling system. The software looks at such criteria as PIC level, type of radionuclide emissions, physical state of the radionuclide, nozzle entrance effects, particulate transmission effects, system and component accuracy and precision evaluations, and basic system operations to provide a detailed look at the subsystems of a monitoring and sampling system/program. A GAP evaluation can then be completed which leads to identification of design and operational flaws in the proposed systems. Corrective measures can then be limited to the GAPs.

  4. Biopolymers as transdermal drug delivery systems in dermatology therapy.

    PubMed

    Basavaraj, K H; Johnsy, George; Navya, M A; Rashmi, R; Siddaramaiah

    2010-01-01

    The skin is considered a complex organ for drug delivery because of its structure. Drug delivery systems are designed for the controlled release of drugs through the skin into the systemic circulation, maintaining consistent efficacy and reducing the dose of the drugs and their related side effects. Transdermal drug delivery represents one of the most rapidly advancing areas of novel drug delivery. The excellent impervious nature of the skin is the greatest challenge that must be overcome for successful drug delivery. Today, polymers have been proven to be successful for long-term drug delivery applications as no single polymer can satisfy all of the requirements. Biopolymers in the field of dermal application are rare and the mechanisms that affect skin absorption are almost unknown. Biopolymers are widely used as drug delivery systems, but as such the use of biopolymers as drug delivery systems in dermatologic therapy is still in progress. Commonly used biopolymers include hydrocolloids, alginates, hydrogels, polyurethane, collagen, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), chitosan, proteins and peptides, pectin, siRNAs, and hyaluronic acid. These new and exciting methods for drug delivery are already increasing the number and quality of dermal and transdermal therapies. This article reviews current research on biopolymers and focuses on their potential as drug carriers, particularly in relation to the dermatologic aspects of their use.

  5. Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-Based Delivery Systems for Biotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Hyejung; Zhang, Miqin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION)-based carrier systems have many advantages over other nanoparticle-based systems. They are biocompatible, biodegradable, facilely tunable, and superparamagnetic and thus controllable by an external magnetic field. These attributes enable their broad biomedical applications. In particular, magnetically-driven carriers are drawing considerable interest as an emerging therapeutic delivery system because of their superior delivery efficiency. Area covered This article reviews the recent advances in use of SPION-based carrier systems to improve the delivery efficiency and target specificity of biotherapeutics. We examine various formulations of SPION-based delivery systems, including SPION micelles, clusters, hydrogels, liposomes, and micro/nanospheres, as well as their specific applications in delivery of biotherapeutics. Expert opinion Recently, biotherapeutics including therapeutic cells, proteins and genes have been studied as alternative treatments to various diseases. Despite the advantages of high target specificity and low adverse effects, clinical translation of biotherapeutics has been hindered by the poor stability and low delivery efficiency compared to chemical drugs. Accordingly, biotherapeutic delivery systems that can overcome these limitations are actively pursued. SPION-based materials can be ideal candidates for developing such delivery systems because of their excellent biocompatibility and superparamagnetism that enables long-term accumulation/retention at target sites by utilization of a suitable magnet. In addition, synthesis technologies for production of finely-tuned, homogeneous SPIONs have been well developed, which may promise their rapid clinical translation. PMID:23199200

  6. CLIPS: An expert system tool for delivery and training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary; Culbert, Chris; Savely, Robert T.; Lopez, Frank

    1987-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) is a forward chaining rule-based language. The requirements necessary for an expert system tool which is used for development, delivery, and training are examined. Because of its high portability, low cost, and ease of integration with external systems, CLIPS has great potential as an expert system tool for delivery and training. In addition, its representation flexibility, debugging aids, and performance, along with its other strengths, make it a viable alternative for expert system development.

  7. An air quality sensing system for cool air storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngoy, T. J.; Joubert, T.-H.

    2016-02-01

    Cooling and ventilation systems play an important role in human occupied spaces. However, cooling using reversible air conditioners systems pollutes the environment and consumes a significant amount of energy. With global warming that experiences our environment, the large consumption of electrical energy and the operating instructions for reversible air conditioners, there is a need to find alternatives to those cooling systems. Hence this research project aims to investigate an air storage system, a microsystem reversible ventilation system using natural atmospheric air (renewable energy) for cooling at low consumption of energy. For the variation of the temperature range of comfort due to thermal heat produces by occupants, equipment and environment, an optimal transient automatic regulation of air flow as to be design in order to maintain the temperature of comfort in occupied spaces during peak hours.

  8. Marine Origin Polysaccharides in Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Matias J.; Costa, Rui R.; Mano, João F.

    2016-01-01

    Oceans are a vast source of natural substances. In them, we find various compounds with wide biotechnological and biomedical applicabilities. The exploitation of the sea as a renewable source of biocompounds can have a positive impact on the development of new systems and devices for biomedical applications. Marine polysaccharides are among the most abundant materials in the seas, which contributes to a decrease of the extraction costs, besides their solubility behavior in aqueous solvents and extraction media, and their interaction with other biocompounds. Polysaccharides such as alginate, carrageenan and fucoidan can be extracted from algae, whereas chitosan and hyaluronan can be obtained from animal sources. Most marine polysaccharides have important biological properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as adhesive and antimicrobial actions. Moreover, they can be modified in order to allow processing them into various shapes and sizes and may exhibit response dependence to external stimuli, such as pH and temperature. Due to these properties, these biomaterials have been studied as raw material for the construction of carrier devices for drugs, including particles, capsules and hydrogels. The devices are designed to achieve a controlled release of therapeutic agents in an attempt to fight against serious diseases, and to be used in advanced therapies, such as gene delivery or regenerative medicine. PMID:26861358

  9. Marine Origin Polysaccharides in Drug Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Matias J; Costa, Rui R; Mano, João F

    2016-02-05

    Oceans are a vast source of natural substances. In them, we find various compounds with wide biotechnological and biomedical applicabilities. The exploitation of the sea as a renewable source of biocompounds can have a positive impact on the development of new systems and devices for biomedical applications. Marine polysaccharides are among the most abundant materials in the seas, which contributes to a decrease of the extraction costs, besides their solubility behavior in aqueous solvents and extraction media, and their interaction with other biocompounds. Polysaccharides such as alginate, carrageenan and fucoidan can be extracted from algae, whereas chitosan and hyaluronan can be obtained from animal sources. Most marine polysaccharides have important biological properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as adhesive and antimicrobial actions. Moreover, they can be modified in order to allow processing them into various shapes and sizes and may exhibit response dependence to external stimuli, such as pH and temperature. Due to these properties, these biomaterials have been studied as raw material for the construction of carrier devices for drugs, including particles, capsules and hydrogels. The devices are designed to achieve a controlled release of therapeutic agents in an attempt to fight against serious diseases, and to be used in advanced therapies, such as gene delivery or regenerative medicine.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of formulated tenoxicam transdermal delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taekyung; Kang, Eunyoung; Chun, Inkoo; Gwak, Hyesun

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of developing a new tenoxicam transdermal delivery system (TDS), the pharmacokinetics of tenoxicam from various formulated TDS were evaluated and compared with values following oral administration of tenoxicam and with application of a piroxicam plaster (Trast) marketed in Korea. Based on previous in-vitro study results, a mixture of diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DGME) and propylene glycol monolaurate (PGML) (40:60) was used as a vehicle, and caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, oleic acid or linoleic acid (each at 3%) was added as an enhancer. Triethanolamine (5%) was used as a solubilizer, and Duro-Tak 87-2510 as a pressure-sensitive adhesive. Among these fatty acids used for the formulation of tenoxicam TDS, caprylic acid showed the greatest enhancing effect; the area under the plasma concentration-time profile (AUC) decreased in the order of caprylic acid>linoleic acid>or=oleic acid>lauric acid>capric acid. Compared with oral administration, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) was significantly lower, and time to reach Cmax (Tmax) delayed with all formulated tenoxicam TDS. All formulated TDS resulted in a lower AUC than with the oral formulation, except for TDS containing caprylic acid, although the difference was statistically significant only with capric acid. The AUC for all the formulated tenoxicam TDS was significantly higher than that of the piroxicam plaster; TDS with caprylic acid increased AUC 8.53-fold compared with the piroxicam plaster. Even though the Tmax of tenoxicam TDS was not significantly different from that of the piroxicam plaster, Cmax was higher; formulations containing caprylic acid and linoleic acid increased Cmax by 7.39- and 8.76-fold, respectively. In conclusion, a formulation containing 1.5 mL DGME-PGML (40:60) with 3% caprylic acid and 5% triethanolamine mixed with 6 g Duro-Tak 87-2510 could be a good candidate for developing a new tenoxicam TDS to maintain a comparable extent of absorption

  11. Recent advancements in erythrocytes, platelets, and albumin as delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Peipei; Wang, Ruju; Wang, Xiaohui; Ouyang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, nanomaterial-based drug delivery systems have been applied to enhance the efficacy of therapeutics and to alleviate negative effects through the controlled delivery of targeting and releasing agents. However, few drug carriers can achieve high targeting efficacy, even when targeting modalities and surface markers are introduced. Immunological problems have also limited their wide applications. Biological drug delivery systems, such as erythrocytes, platelets, and albumin, have been extensively investigated because of their unique properties. In this review, erythrocytes, platelets, and albumin are described as efficient drug delivery systems. Their properties, applications, advantages, and limitations in disease treatment are explained. This review confirms that these systems can be used to facilitate a specific, biocompatible, and smart drug delivery. PMID:27274282

  12. Formulation and Application of Biodegradable Nanoparticles Based Biopharmaceutical Delivery - An Efficient Delivery System.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Sarkar, Biplab; Sharma, Ashish Ranjan; Gupta, Priya; Sharma, Garima; Lee, Sang-Soo; Chakraborty, Chiranjib

    2016-01-01

    Biodegradable polymer based drug delivery has emerged as a promising and successful clinical tool for specific targeting and controlled drug release delivery system. Various other unique advantages associated with this delivery system include prolonged circulation, biocompatibility, degradation in nontoxic by-products etc. Till date, various biopharmaceutical agents have been successfully encapsulated within biodegradable polymers and used in clinics. However, before the clinical implementation of such nanocarriers different parameters have to be considered which influence the success of these nanocarriers such as drug release profile, size of nanocarrier, degradation mechanism, toxicity profile, type of polymer used, appropriate synthesis method, selection of mode of delivery etc. The following review focuses on such considerations to explore the area of designing and development of biodegradable polymeric nanosystems which when encapsulated with biopharmaceutical agents can be efficient for clinical application.

  13. The LITA Drill and Sample Delivery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, G.; Yoon, S.; Zacny, K.; Wettergreeng, D.; Cabrol, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Life in the Atacama (LITA) project has a goal of demonstrating autonomous roving, sample acquisition, delivery and analysis operations in Atacama, Chile. To enable the sample handling requirement, Honeybee Robotics developed a rover-deployed, rotary-percussive, autonomous drill, called the LITA Drill, capable of penetrating to ~80 cm in various formations, capturing and delivering subsurface samples to a 20 cup carousel. The carousel has a built-in capability to press the samples within each cup, and position target cups underneath instruments for analysis. The drill and sample delivery system had to have mass and power requirements consistent with a flight system. The drill weighs 12 kg and uses less than 100 watt of power to penetrate ~80 cm. The LITA Drill auger has been designed with two distinct stages. The lower part has deep and gently sloping flutes for retaining powdered sample, while the upper section has shallow and steep flutes for preventing borehole collapse and for efficient movement of cuttings and fall back material out of the hole. The drill uses the so called 'bite-sampling' approach that is samples are taken in short, 5-10 cm bites. To take the first bite, the drill is lowered onto the ground and upon drilling of the first bite it is then retracted into an auger tube. The auger with the auger tube are then lifted off the ground and positioned next to the carousel. To deposit the sample, the auger is rotated and retracted above the auger tube. The cuttings retained on the flutes are either gravity fed or are brushed off by a passive side brush into the cup. After the sample from the first bite has been deposited, the drill is lowered back into the same hole to take the next bite. This process is repeated until a target depth is reached. The bite sampling is analogous to peck drilling in the machining process where a bit is periodically retracted to clear chips. If there is some fall back into the hole once the auger has cleared the hole, this

  14. Characterization of particulate drug delivery systems for oral delivery of Peptide and protein drugs.

    PubMed

    Christophersen, Philip Carsten; Fano, Mathias; Saaby, Lasse; Yang, Mingshi; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Mu, Huiling

    2015-01-01

    Oral drug delivery is a preferred route because of good patient compliance. However, most peptide/ protein drugs are delivered via parenteral routes because of the absorption barriers in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract such as enzymatic degradation by proteases and low permeability acrossthe biological membranes. To overcome these barriers, different formulation strategies for oral delivery of biomacromolecules have been proposed, including lipid based formulations and polymer-based particulate drug delivery systems (DDS). The aim of this review is to summarize the existing knowledge about oral delivery of peptide/protein drugs and to provide an overview of formulationand characterization strategies. For a better understanding of the challenges in oral delivery of peptide/protein drugs, the composition of GI fluids and the digestion processes of different kinds of excipients in the GI tract are summarized. Additionally, the paper provides an overview of recent studies on characterization of solid drug carriers for peptide/protein drugs, drug distribution in particles, drug release and stability in simulated GI fluids, as well as the absorption of peptide/protein drugs in cell-based models. The use of biorelevant media when applicable can increase the knowledge about the quality of DDS for oral protein delivery. Hopefully, the knowledge provided in this review will aid the establishment of improved biorelevant models capable of forecasting the performance of particulate DDS for oral peptide/protein delivery.

  15. Optical diagnostics integrated with laser spark delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Yalin, Azer; Willson, Bryan; Defoort, Morgan; Joshi, Sachin; Reynolds, Adam

    2008-09-02

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, and includes a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. The laser delivery assembly further includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. Other embodiments use a fiber laser to generate a spark. Embodiments of the present invention may be used to create a spark in an engine. Yet other embodiments include collecting light from the spark or a flame resulting from the spark and conveying the light for diagnostics. Methods of using the spark delivery systems and diagnostic systems are provided.

  16. Vented spikes improve delivery from intravenous bags with no air headspace.

    PubMed

    Galush, William J; Horst, Travis A

    2015-07-01

    Flexible plastic bags are the container of choice for most intravenous (i.v.) infusions. Under certain circumstances, however, the air-liquid interface present in these i.v. bags can lead to physical instability of protein biopharmaceuticals, resulting in product aggregation. In principle, the air headspace present in the bags can be removed to increase drug stability, but experiments described here show that this can result in incomplete draining of solution from the bag using gravity delivery, or generation of negative pressure in the bag when an infusion pump is used. It is expected that these issues could lead to incomplete delivery of medication to patients or pump-related problems, respectively. However, here it is shown that contrary to the standard pharmacy practice of using nonvented spikes with i.v. bags, the use of vented spikes with i.v. bags that lack air headspace allows complete delivery of the dose solution without impacting the physical stability of a protein-based drug.

  17. Potential of nanoparticulate drug delivery systems by intranasal administration.

    PubMed

    Ali, Javed; Ali, Mushir; Baboota, Sanjula; Sahani, Jasjeet Kaur; Ramassamy, Charles; Dao, Lé; Bhavna

    2010-05-01

    Due to number of problems related with oral, parenteral, rectal and other routes of drug administration, the interest of pharmaceutical scientists has increased towards exploring the possibilities of intranasal delivery of various drugs. Nasal drug delivery system is commonly known for the treatment of local ailments like cold, cough, rhinitis, etc. Efforts have been made to deliver various drugs, especially peptides and proteins, through nasal route for systemic use; utilizing the principles and concepts of various nanoparticulate drug delivery systems using various polymers and absorption promoters. The incorporation of drugs into nanoparticles might be a promising approach, since colloidal formulations have been shown to protect them from the degrading milieu in the nasal cavity and facilitate their transport across the mucosal barriers. The use of nanoparticles for vaccine delivery provides beneficial effect, by achieving good immune responses. This could be due to the fact that small particles can be transported preferentially by the lymphoid tissue of the nasal cavity (NALT). The brain gets benefited through the intranasal delivery as direct olfactory transport bypasses the blood brain barrier and nanoparticles are taken up and conveyed along cell processes of olfactory neurons through the cribriform plate to synaptic junctions with neurons of the olfactory bulb. The intranasal delivery is aimed at optimizing drug bioavailability for systemic drugs, as absorption decreases with increasing molecular weight, and for drugs, which are susceptible to enzymatic degradation such as proteins and polypeptides. This review discusses the potential benefits of using nanoparticles for nasal delivery of drugs and vaccines for brain, systemic and topical delivery. The article aims at giving an insight into nasal cavity, consideration of factors affecting and strategies to improve drug absorption through nasal route, pharmaceutical dosage forms and delivery systems with

  18. A Molecular Communication System Model for Particulate Drug Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Chahibi, Youssef; Pierobon, Massimiliano; Song, Sang Ok; Akyildiz, Ian F

    2013-12-01

    The goal of a drug delivery system (DDS) is to convey a drug where the medication is needed, while, at the same time, preventing the drug from affecting other healthy parts of the body. Drugs composed of micro- or nano-sized particles (particulate DDS) that are able to cross barriers which prevent large particles from escaping the bloodstream are used in the most advanced solutions. Molecular communication (MC) is used as an abstraction of the propagation of drug particles in the body. MC is a new paradigm in communication research where the exchange of information is achieved through the propagation of molecules. Here, the transmitter is the drug injection, the receiver is the drug delivery, and the channel is realized by the transport of drug particles, thus enabling the analysis and design of a particulate DDS using communication tools. This is achieved by modeling the MC channel as two separate contributions, namely, the cardiovascular network model and the drug propagation network. The cardiovascular network model allows to analytically compute the blood velocity profile in every location of the cardiovascular system given the flow input by the heart. The drug propagation network model allows the analytical expression of the drug delivery rate at the targeted site given the drug injection rate. Numerical results are also presented to assess the flexibility and accuracy of the developed model. The study of novel optimization techniques for a more effective and less invasive drug delivery will be aided by this model, while paving the way for novel communication techniques for Intrabody communication networks.

  19. Strategy Guideline. Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, Arlan

    2013-06-01

    This guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  20. Designing and assessing a sustainable networked delivery (SND) system: hybrid business-to-consumer book delivery case study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junbeum; Xu, Ming; Kahhat, Ramzy; Allenby, Braden; Williams, Eric

    2009-01-01

    We attempted to design and assess an example of a sustainable networked delivery (SND) system: a hybrid business-to-consumer book delivery system. This system is intended to reduce costs, achieve significant reductions in energy consumption, and reduce environmental emissions of critical local pollutants and greenhouse gases. The energy consumption and concomitant emissions of this delivery system compared with existing alternative delivery systems were estimated. We found that regarding energy consumption, an emerging hybrid delivery system which is a sustainable networked delivery system (SND) would consume 47 and 7 times less than the traditional networked delivery system (TND) and e-commerce networked delivery system (END). Regarding concomitant emissions, in the case of CO2, the SND system produced 32 and 7 times fewer emissions than the TND and END systems. Also the SND system offer meaningful economic benefit such as the costs of delivery and packaging, to the online retailer, grocery, and consumer. Our research results show that the SND system has a lot of possibilities to save local transportation energy consumption and delivery costs, and reduce environmental emissions in delivery system.

  1. Developing a Commercial Air Ultrasonic Ceramic Transducer to Transdermal Insulin Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Jabbari, Nasrollah; Asghari, Mohammad Hossein; Ahmadian, Hassan; Mikaili, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    The application of low-frequency ultrasound for transdermal delivery of insulin is of particular public interest due to the increasing problem of diabetes. The purpose of this research was to develop an air ultrasonic ceramic transducer for transdermal insulin delivery and evaluate the possibility of applying a new portable and low-cost device for transdermal insulin delivery. Twenty-four rats were divided into four groups with six rats in each group: one control group and three experimental groups. Control group (C) did not receive any ultrasound exposure or insulin (untreated group). The second group (T1) was treated with subcutaneous insulin (Humulin® R, rDNA U-100, Eli Lilly and Co., Indianapolis, IN) injection (0.25 U/Kg). The third group (T2) topically received insulin, and the fourth group (T3) received insulin with ultrasound waves. All the rats were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of ketamin hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride. Blood samples were collected after anesthesia to obtain a baseline glucose level. Additional blood samples were taken every 15 min in the whole 90 min experiment. In order for comparison the changes in blood glucose levels” to “ In order to compare the changes in blood glucose levels. The statistical multiple comparison (two-sided Tukey) test showed a significant difference between transdermal insulin delivery group (T2) and subcutaneous insulin injection group (T1) during 90 min experiment (P = 0.018). In addition, the difference between transdermal insulin delivery group (T2) and ultrasonic transdermal insulin delivery group (T3) was significant (P = 0.001). Results of this study demonstrated that the produced low-frequency ultrasound from this device enhanced the transdermal delivery of insulin across hairless rat skin. PMID:26120571

  2. Developing a Commercial Air Ultrasonic Ceramic Transducer to Transdermal Insulin Delivery.

    PubMed

    Jabbari, Nasrollah; Asghari, Mohammad Hossein; Ahmadian, Hassan; Mikaili, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    The application of low-frequency ultrasound for transdermal delivery of insulin is of particular public interest due to the increasing problem of diabetes. The purpose of this research was to develop an air ultrasonic ceramic transducer for transdermal insulin delivery and evaluate the possibility of applying a new portable and low-cost device for transdermal insulin delivery. Twenty-four rats were divided into four groups with six rats in each group: one control group and three experimental groups. Control group (C) did not receive any ultrasound exposure or insulin (untreated group). The second group (T1) was treated with subcutaneous insulin (Humulin(®) R, rDNA U-100, Eli Lilly and Co., Indianapolis, IN) injection (0.25 U/Kg). The third group (T2) topically received insulin, and the fourth group (T3) received insulin with ultrasound waves. All the rats were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of ketamin hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride. Blood samples were collected after anesthesia to obtain a baseline glucose level. Additional blood samples were taken every 15 min in the whole 90 min experiment. In order for comparison the changes in blood glucose levels" to " In order to compare the changes in blood glucose levels. The statistical multiple comparison (two-sided Tukey) test showed a significant difference between transdermal insulin delivery group (T2) and subcutaneous insulin injection group (T1) during 90 min experiment (P = 0.018). In addition, the difference between transdermal insulin delivery group (T2) and ultrasonic transdermal insulin delivery group (T3) was significant (P = 0.001). Results of this study demonstrated that the produced low-frequency ultrasound from this device enhanced the transdermal delivery of insulin across hairless rat skin.

  3. Thiolated polymers as mucoadhesive drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Sarah; Cummins, Wayne; O' Donovan, Orla; Hughes, Helen; Owens, Eleanor

    2017-03-30

    Mucoadhesion is the process of binding a material to the mucosal layer of the body. Utilising both natural and synthetic polymers, mucoadhesive drug delivery is a method of controlled drug release which allows for intimate contact between the polymer and a target tissue. It has the potential to increase bioavailability, decrease potential side effects and offer protection to more sensitive drugs such as proteins and peptide based drugs. The thiolation of polymers has, in the last number of years, come to the fore of mucoadhesive drug delivery, markedly improving mucoadhesion due to the introduction of free thiol groups onto the polymer backbone while also offering a more cohesive polymeric matrix for the slower and more controlled release of drug. This review explores the concept of mucoadhesion and the recent advances in both the polymers and the methods of thiolation used in the synthesis of mucoadhesive drug delivery devices.

  4. Nanotechnologies in delivery of mRNA therapeutics using nonviral vector-based delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Guan, S; Rosenecker, J

    2017-02-02

    Because of its safe and effective protein expression profile, in vitro transcribed messenger RNA (IVT-mRNA) represents a promising candidate in the development of novel therapeutics for genetic diseases, vaccines or gene editing strategies, especially when its inherent shortcomings (for example, instability and immunogenicity) have been partially addressed via structural modifications. However, numerous unsolved technical difficulties in successful in vivo delivery of IVT-mRNA have greatly hindered the applications of IVT-mRNA in clinical development. Recent advances in nanotechnology and material science have yielded many promising nonviral delivery systems, some of which were able to efficiently facilitate targeted in vivo delivery of IVT-mRNA in safe and noninvasive manners. The diversity and flexibility of these delivery systems highlight the recent progress of IVT-mRNA-based therapy using nonviral vectors. In this review, we summarize recent advances of existing and emerging nonviral vector-based nanotechnologies for IVT-mRNA delivery and briefly summarize the interesting but rarely discussed applications on simultaneous delivery of IVT-mRNA with DNA.Gene Therapy advance online publication, 2 February 2017; doi:10.1038/gt.2017.5.

  5. Delivery system for molten salt oxidation of solid waste

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, William A.; Squire, Dwight V.; Robinson, Jeffrey A.; House, Palmer A.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is a delivery system for safety injecting solid waste particles, including mixed wastes, into a molten salt bath for destruction by the process of molten salt oxidation. The delivery system includes a feeder system and an injector that allow the solid waste stream to be accurately metered, evenly dispersed in the oxidant gas, and maintained at a temperature below incineration temperature while entering the molten salt reactor.

  6. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  7. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  8. Convection-enhanced delivery to the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Lonser, Russell R; Sarntinoranont, Malisa; Morrison, Paul F; Oldfield, Edward H

    2015-03-01

    Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is a bulk flow-driven process. Its properties permit direct, homogeneous, targeted perfusion of CNS regions with putative therapeutics while bypassing the blood-brain barrier. Development of surrogate imaging tracers that are co-infused during drug delivery now permit accurate, noninvasive real-time tracking of convective infusate flow in nervous system tissues. The potential advantages of CED in the CNS over other currently available drug delivery techniques, including systemic delivery, intrathecal and/or intraventricular distribution, and polymer implantation, have led to its application in research studies and clinical trials. The authors review the biophysical principles of convective flow and the technology, properties, and clinical applications of convective delivery in the CNS.

  9. Biomimetics in drug delivery systems: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Sheikhpour, Mojgan; Barani, Leila; Kasaeian, Alibakhsh

    2017-03-18

    Today, the advanced drug delivery systems have been focused on targeted drug delivery fields. The novel drug delivery is involved with the improvement of the capacity of drug loading in drug carriers, cellular uptake of drug carriers, and the sustained release of drugs within target cells. In this review, six groups of therapeutic drug carriers including biomimetic hydrogels, biomimetic micelles, biomimetic liposomes, biomimetic dendrimers, biomimetic polymeric carriers and biomimetic nanostructures, are studied. The subject takes advantage of the biomimetic methods of productions or the biomimetic techniques for the surface modifications, similar to what accrues in natural cells. Moreover, the effects of these biomimetic approaches for promoting the drug efficiency in targeted drug delivery are visible. The study demonstrates that the fabrication of biomimetic nanocomposite drug carriers could noticeably promote the efficiency of drugs in targeted drug delivery systems.

  10. Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, A.

    2013-06-01

    This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  11. Drug delivery systems for brain tumor therapy.

    PubMed

    Rautioa, Jarkko; Chikhale, Prashant J

    2004-01-01

    Brain tumors are one of the most lethal forms of cancer. They are extremely difficult to treat. Although, the rate of brain tumor incidence is relatively low, the field clearly lacks therapeutic strategies capable of overcoming barriers for effective delivery of drugs to brain tumors. Clinical failure of many potentially effective therapeutics for the treatment of brain tumors is usually not due to a lack of drug potency, but rather can be attributed to shortcomings in the methods by which a drug is delivered to the brain and into brain tumors. In response to the lack of efficacy of conventional drug delivery methods, extensive efforts have been made to develop novel strategies to overcome the obstacles for brain tumor drug delivery. The challenge is to design therapeutic strategies that deliver drugs to brain tumors in a safe and effective manner. This review provides some insight into several potential techniques that have been developed to improve drug delivery to brain tumors, and it should be helpful to clinicians and research scientists as well.

  12. CHAPTER 11. DELIVERY AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water delivery through canals or pipelines usually implies that several farms must somehow share access to the water in terms of flow rate, duration of access, and the return time to access the flow again, called an irrigation schedule, which can be rigid or flexible regarding the rate, duration and...

  13. Information Delivery Systems: The Future Is Here.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Penelope Grenoble

    1993-01-01

    Looks at developments in information delivery (including new interactive media formats, vastly increased channel capacity for standard cable television, and the development of wireless cable and other distribution technologies) that are revolutionizing the communications industry. Raises questions about the role technical communicators are being…

  14. Microneedles As a Delivery System for Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Li, Hui; Shi, De; Liu, Zhenguo; Yuan, Weien

    2016-01-01

    Gene delivery systems can be divided to two major types: vector-based (either viral vector or non-viral vector) and physical delivery technologies. Many physical carriers, such as electroporation, gene gun, ultrasound start to be proved to have the potential to enable gene therapy. A relatively new physical delivery technology for gene delivery consists of microneedles (MNs), which has been studied in many fields and for many molecule types and indications. Microneedles can penetrate the stratum corneum, which is the main barrier for drug delivery through the skin with ease of administration and without significant pain. Many different kinds of MNs, such as metal MNs, coated MNs, dissolving MNs have turned out to be promising in gene delivery. In this review, we discussed the potential as well as the challenges of utilizing MNs to deliver nucleic acids for gene therapy. We also proposed that a combination of MNs and other gene delivery approaches may lead to a better delivery system for gene therapy. PMID:27303298

  15. Iontophoresis: A Potential Emergence of a Transdermal Drug Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Dhote, Vinod; Bhatnagar, Punit; Mishra, Pradyumna K.; Mahajan, Suresh C.; Mishra, Dinesh K.

    2012-01-01

    The delivery of drugs into systemic circulation via skin has generated much attention during the last decade. Transdermal therapeutic systems propound controlled release of active ingredients through the skin and into the systemic circulation in a predictive manner. Drugs administered through these systems escape first-pass metabolism and maintain a steady state scenario similar to a continuous intravenous infusion for up to several days. However, the excellent impervious nature of the skin offers the greatest challenge for successful delivery of drug molecules by utilizing the concepts of iontophoresis. The present review deals with the principles and the recent innovations in the field of iontophoretic drug delivery system together with factors affecting the system. This delivery system utilizes electric current as a driving force for permeation of ionic and non-ionic medications. The rationale behind using this technique is to reversibly alter the barrier properties of skin, which could possibly improve the penetration of drugs such as proteins, peptides and other macromolecules to increase the systemic delivery of high molecular weight compounds with controlled input kinetics and minimum inter-subject variability. Although iontophoresis seems to be an ideal candidate to overcome the limitations associated with the delivery of ionic drugs, further extrapolation of this technique is imperative for translational utility and mass human application. PMID:22396901

  16. Rationale for the selection of an aerosol delivery system for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Yvonne K; Anchordoquy, Thomas J; Lengsfeld, Corinne S

    2006-01-01

    Genetic therapeutics show great promise toward the treatment of illnesses associated with the lungs; however, current methods of delivery such as jet and ultrasonic nebulization decrease the activity and effectiveness of these treatments. Extremely low transfection rates exhibited by non-complexed plasmid DNA in these nebulizers have been primarily attributed to poor translocation and loss of molecular integrity as a consequence of shear-induced degradation. Current research focusing on methods to increase transfection rates via the pulmonary delivery route has largely concentrated on the incorporation of carbon dioxide in the air stream to increase breath depth as well as the addition of cationic agents that condense DNA into compact, ordered complexes. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of several classic as well as the latest atomization devices on the structure of non-complexed DNA. Various sizes of plasmid and cosmid DNA were processed through an electrostatic spray, ultrasonic nebulizer, vibrating mesh nebulizer, and jet nebulizer. Results varied dramatically based upon atomization device as well as DNA size. This may explain the inefficiency experienced by genetic therapeutics during pulmonary delivery. More importantly, this suggests that the selection of an atomization device should consider DNA size in order to achieve optimal gene delivery to the lungs.

  17. Perspectives on Dual Targeting Delivery Systems for Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Huile

    2017-03-01

    Brain tumor remains one of the most serious threats to human beings. Different from peripheral tumors, drug delivery to brain tumor is largely restricted by the blood brain barrier (BBB). To fully conquer this barrier and specifically deliver drugs to brain tumor, dual targeting delivery systems were explored, which are functionalized with two active targeting ligands: one to the BBB and the other to the brain tumor. The development of dual targeting delivery system is still in its early stage, and attentions need to be paid to issues and concerns that remain unresolved in future studies.

  18. Design and Biological Evaluation of Delivery Systems Containing Bisphosphonates

    PubMed Central

    Aderibigbe, Blessing; Aderibigbe, Isiaka; Popoola, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Bisphosphonates have found application in the treatment of reoccurrence of bone diseases, breast cancer, etc. They have also been found to exhibit antimicrobial, anticancer and antimalarial activities. However, they suffer from pharmacological deficiencies such as toxicity, poor bioavailability and low intestinal adsorption. These shortcomings have resulted in several researchers developing delivery systems that can enhance their overall therapeutic effectiveness. This review provides a detailed overview of the published studies on delivery systems designed for the delivery of bisphosphonates and the corresponding in vitro/in vivo results. PMID:28035945

  19. Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.

  20. Activated air produced by shielded sliding discharge plasma mediates plasmid DNA delivery to mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Edelblute, Chelsea M; Heller, Loree C; Malik, Muhammad A; Heller, Richard

    2015-12-01

    Cold plasma is emerging as a potential method for medical applications. The current study assessed the efficacy of a novel cold plasma reactor based on shielded sliding discharge producing cathode-directed streamers generated in ambient air for the delivery of plasmid DNA. Experiments were performed with mouse melanoma cells (B16F10) and human keratinocyte cells (HaCaT) inoculated with plasmid DNA encoding luciferase. Quantitative results measured over a 72-h period displayed luciferase expression levels as high as 5-fold greater in cells exposed to plasma-activated air (PAA) than levels obtained from the inoculation of plasmid DNA alone (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). No effect on cell viability was observed. Delivery of plasmid encoding GFP to HaCaT cells seeded on polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds was confirmed by immunostaining. The use of cold plasma for DNA delivery is attractive as it provides a non-viral, non-invasive method where the electrode or the plasma itself never directly contacts the exposed site. The current device design provides localized DNA transfer using a novel technology. Our report suggests PAA warrants further exploration as an alternative or supplemental approach for DNA transfer.

  1. Velocity Estimate Following Air Data System Failure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    12 Figure 2.2. Pitot Tube...that relay pitot -static information from the aircraft’s air data system and inertial measurement information from the Inertial Navigation System...Air data systems receive total and static pressure inputs from a pitot -static system. A typical pitot tube, as shown below, receives total pressure

  2. Inspection program improves bulk cement system delivery

    SciTech Connect

    O'Bannion, T. ); Guidroz, B.; Morris, G. )

    1993-12-20

    A recently implemented survey of pneumatically operated bulk cement-handling equipment offshore has improved bulk cement deliverability on several Gulf of Mexico rigs. The 30-point survey helps ensure an adequate rate of bulk cement delivery throughout the cement job. The inspection survey was developed because the source of many cement job failures was a lack of adequate, steady delivery of bulk cement to the cementing unit during the job. The job failures caused by flow interruptions, plugging of tools by chunks of set cement, and erratic flow resulted in poor primary cement jobs, many of which required remedial cementing jobs. A better-controlled flow of cement may help prevent these types of failure, thereby reducing the number of remedial cement operations. The paper describes the inspection procedures.

  3. [Air quality control systems: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)].

    PubMed

    Bellucci Sessa, R; Riccio, G

    2004-01-01

    After a brief illustration of the principal layout schemes of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), the first part of this paper summarizes the standards, both voluntary and compulsory, regulating HVAC facilities design and installation with regard to the question of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). The paper then examines the problem of ventilation systems maintenance and the essential hygienistic requirements in whose absence HVAC facilities may become a risk factor for people working or living in the building. Lastly, the paper deals with HVAC design strategies and methods, which aim not only to satisfy comfort and air quality requirements, but also to ensure easy and effective maintenance procedures.

  4. Micromachined therapeutic delivery systems: from concept to clinic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Tejal A.

    2001-05-01

    Microfabrication techniques which permit the creation of therapeutic delivery systems that possess a combination of structural, mechanical, and perhaps electronic features may surmount challenges associated with conventional delivery of therapy. In this review, delivery concepts are presented which capitalize on the strengths of microfabrication. Possible applications include micromachined silicon membranes to create implantable biocapsules for the immunoisolation of pancreatic islet cells--as a possible treatment for diabetes--and sustained release of injectable drugs needed over long time periods. Asymmetrical, drug- loaded microfabricated particles with specific ligands linked to the surface are proposed for improving oral bioavailability of peptide (and perhaps protein) drugs.

  5. Promoting Quality of Program Delivery via an Internet Message Delivery System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Dana C.; Dusenbury, Linda; Pankratz, Melinda M.; Hansen, William B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents results from a study that evaluated an online message system designed to improve the delivery of prevention programs. We conducted a quasi-experimental study with 32 agencies and schools that implemented substance use prevention programs and examined differences between the comparison and intervention groups. We also examined…

  6. Targeted Delivery Systems for Molecular Therapy in Skeletal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Lei; Liu, Jin; Li, Fangfei; Wang, Luyao; Li, Defang; Guo, Baosheng; He, Xiaojuan; Jiang, Feng; Liang, Chao; Liu, Biao; Badshah, Shaikh Atik; He, Bing; Lu, Jun; Lu, Cheng; Lu, Aiping; Zhang, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in the integral components of bone, including bone matrix, bone mineral and bone cells, give rise to complex disturbances of skeletal development, growth and homeostasis. Non-specific drug delivery using high-dose systemic administration may decrease therapeutic efficacy of drugs and increase the risk of toxic effects in non-skeletal tissues, which remain clinical challenges in the treatment of skeletal disorders. Thus, targeted delivery systems are urgently needed to achieve higher drug delivery efficiency, improve therapeutic efficacy in the targeted cells/tissues, and minimize toxicities in non-targeted cells/tissues. In this review, we summarize recent progress in the application of different targeting moieties and nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery in skeletal disorders, and also discuss the advantages, challenges and perspectives in their clinical translation. PMID:27011176

  7. Hydrogel-Based Controlled Delivery Systems for Articular Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Madry, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Delivery of bioactive factors is a very valuable strategy for articular cartilage repair. Nevertheless, the direct supply of such biomolecules is limited by several factors including rapid degradation, the need for supraphysiological doses, the occurrence of immune and inflammatory responses, and the possibility of dissemination to nontarget sites that may impair their therapeutic action and raise undesired effects. The use of controlled delivery systems has the potential of overcoming these hurdles by promoting the temporal and spatial presentation of such factors in a defined target. Hydrogels are promising materials to develop delivery systems for cartilage repair as they can be easily loaded with bioactive molecules controlling their release only where required. This review exposes the most recent technologies on the design of hydrogels as controlled delivery platforms of bioactive molecules for cartilage repair. PMID:27642587

  8. Drug delivery system based on chronobiology--A review.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Asim Sattwa; Biswas, Nikhil; Karim, Kazi Masud; Guha, Arijit; Chatterjee, Sugata; Behera, Mamata; Kuotsu, Ketousetuo

    2010-11-01

    With the advancement in the field of chronobiology, modern drug delivery approaches have been elevated to a new concept of chronopharmacology i.e. the ability to deliver the therapeutic agent to a patient in a staggered profile. However the major drawback in the development of such delivery system that matches the circadian rhythm requires the availability of precise technology (pulsatile drug delivery). The increasing research interest surrounding this delivery system has widened the areas of pharmaceutics in particular with many more sub-disciplines expected to coexist in the near future. This review on chronopharmaceutics gives a comprehensive emphasis on potential disease targets, revisits the existing technologies in hand and also addresses the theoretical approaches to emerging discipline such as genetic engineering and target based specific molecules. With the biological prospective approaches in delivering drugs it is well understood that safer and more realistic approaches in the therapy of diseases will be achieved in the days to come.

  9. 'Smart' non-viral delivery systems for targeted delivery of RNAi to the lungs.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Joanne M; Hibbitts, Alan; Barlow, James; Kelly, Ciara; Sivadas, Neeraj; Cryan, Sally-Ann

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of RNAi offers a potentially exciting new therapeutic paradigm for respiratory diseases. However, effective delivery remains a key requirement for their translation into the clinic and has been a major factor in the limited clinical success seen to date. Inhalation offers tissue-specific targeting of the RNAi to treat respiratory diseases and a diminished risk of off-target effects. In order to deliver RNAi directly to the respiratory tract via inhalation, 'smart' non-viral carriers are required to protect the RNAi during delivery/aerosolization and enhance cell-specific uptake to target cells. Here, we review the state-of-the-art in therapeutic aerosol bioengineering, and specifically non-viral siRNA delivery platforms, for delivery via inhalation. This includes developments in inhaler device engineering and particle engineering, including manufacturing methods and excipients used in therapeutic aerosol bioengineering that underpin the development of smart, cell type-specific delivery systems to target siRNA to respiratory epithelial cells and/or alveolar macrophages.

  10. Flexible Wing Base Micro Aerial Vehicles: Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) for Surveillance and Remote Sensor Delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ifju, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) will be developed for tracking individuals, locating terrorist threats, and delivering remote sensors, for surveillance and chemical/biological agent detection. The tasks are: (1) Develop robust MAV platform capable of carrying sensor payload. (2) Develop fully autonomous capabilities for delivery of sensors to remote and distant locations. The current capabilities and accomplishments are: (1) Operational electric (inaudible) 6-inch MAVs with novel flexible wing, providing superior aerodynamic efficiency and control. (2) Vision-based flight stability and control (from on-board cameras).

  11. Compensating for the impact of non-stationary spherical air cavities on IMRT dose delivery in transverse magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Bol, G H; Lagendijk, J J W; Raaymakers, B W

    2015-01-21

    With the development of the 1.5 T MRI linear accelerator and the clinical introduction of the 0.35 T ViewRay™ system, delivering intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in a transverse magnetic field becomes increasingly important. When delivering dose in the presence of a transverse magnetic field, one of the most prominent phenomena occurs around air cavities: the electron return effect (ERE). For stationary, spherical air cavities which are centrally located in the phantom, the ERE can be compensated by using opposing beams configurations in combination with IMRT. In this paper we investigate the effects of non-stationary spherical air cavities, centrally located within the target in a phantom containing no organs at risk, on IMRT dose delivery in 0.35 T and 1.5 T transverse magnetic fields by using Monte Carlo simulations. We show that IMRT can be used for compensating ERE around those air cavities, except for intrafraction appearing or disappearing air cavities. For these cases, gating or plan re-optimization should be used. We also analyzed the option of using IMRT plans optimized at 0 T to be delivered in the presence of 0.35 T and 1.5 T magnetic field. When delivering dose at 0.35 T, IMRT plans optimized at 0 T and 0.35 T perform equally well regarding ERE compensation. Within a 1.5 T environment, the 1.5 T optimized plans perform slightly better for the static and random intra- and interfraction air cavity movement cases than the 0 T optimized plans. For non-stationary spherical air cavities with a baseline shift (intra- and interfraction) the 0 T optimized plans perform better. These observations show the intrinsic ERE compensation by equidistant and opposing beam configurations for spherical air cavities within the target area. IMRT gives some additional compensation, but only in case of correct positioning of the air cavity according to the IMRT compensation. For intrafraction appearing or disappearing air cavities this correct positioning is absent

  12. Enterotoxin Vaccine Delivery System With Bioadherence. Phase 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-12-05

    Microencapsulation 33 Bioadhesive Biodegradable 16. PRICE CODE Perorally Controlled Delivery 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19. SECURITY...this magnitude requires a delivery system configured with a bioadhesive polymer that integrates the surface of the microcapsules and the mucosa. SBIR...integrates the surface of the microcapsules and the mucosa. SBIR Phase I Program efforts focused on the development of the most feasible method(s) for

  13. Gastroretentive drug delivery systems for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shan; Lv, Yan; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Wang, Bing; Lv, Guo-Jun; Ma, Xiao-Jun

    2014-07-28

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common pathogenic bacterial infections and is found in the stomachs of approximately half of the world's population. It is the primary known cause of gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer disease and gastric cancer. However, combined drug therapy as the general treatment in the clinic, the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, adverse reactions and poor patient compliance are major obstacles to the eradication of H. pylori. Oral site-specific drug delivery systems that could increase the longevity of the treatment agent at the target site might improve the therapeutic effect and avoid side effects. Gastroretentive drug delivery systems potentially prolong the gastric retention time and controlled/sustained release of a drug, thereby increasing the concentration of the drug at the application site, potentially improving its bioavailability and reducing the necessary dosage. Recommended gastroretentive drug delivery systems for enhancing local drug delivery include floating systems, bioadhesive systems and expandable systems. In this review, we summarize the important physiological parameters of the gastrointestinal tract that affect the gastric residence time. We then focus on various aspects useful in the development of gastroretentive drug delivery systems, including current trends and the progress of novel forms, especially with respect to their application for the treatment of H. pylori infections.

  14. Gastroretentive drug delivery systems for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shan; Lv, Yan; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Wang, Bing; Lv, Guo-Jun; Ma, Xiao-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common pathogenic bacterial infections and is found in the stomachs of approximately half of the world’s population. It is the primary known cause of gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer disease and gastric cancer. However, combined drug therapy as the general treatment in the clinic, the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, adverse reactions and poor patient compliance are major obstacles to the eradication of H. pylori. Oral site-specific drug delivery systems that could increase the longevity of the treatment agent at the target site might improve the therapeutic effect and avoid side effects. Gastroretentive drug delivery systems potentially prolong the gastric retention time and controlled/sustained release of a drug, thereby increasing the concentration of the drug at the application site, potentially improving its bioavailability and reducing the necessary dosage. Recommended gastroretentive drug delivery systems for enhancing local drug delivery include floating systems, bioadhesive systems and expandable systems. In this review, we summarize the important physiological parameters of the gastrointestinal tract that affect the gastric residence time. We then focus on various aspects useful in the development of gastroretentive drug delivery systems, including current trends and the progress of novel forms, especially with respect to their application for the treatment of H. pylori infections. PMID:25071326

  15. The Impact of Virginia's Career Information Delivery System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snipes, Juanita K.; McDaniels, Carl

    1984-01-01

    Reported the impact of Virginia's Vital Information for Education and Work (VIEW) System, which is modeled on the Michigan Occupational Information System (MOIS). Suggested that a statewide career information delivery system could serve as an impetus for generating excitement and new activities in local guidance programs. (LLL)

  16. SpaceX Dragon Air Circulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, Brenda; Piatrovich, Siarhei; Prina, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    The Dragon capsule is a reusable vehicle being developed by Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) that will provide commercial cargo transportation to the International Space Station (ISS). Dragon is designed to be a habitable module while it is berthed to ISS. As such, the Dragon Environmental Control System (ECS) consists of pressure control and pressure equalization, air sampling, fire detection, illumination, and an air circulation system. The air circulation system prevents pockets of stagnant air in Dragon that can be hazardous to the ISS crew. In addition, through the inter-module duct, the air circulation system provides fresh air from ISS into Dragon. To utilize the maximum volume of Dragon for cargo packaging, the Dragon ECS air circulation system is designed around cargo rack optimization. At the same time, the air circulation system is designed to meet the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) inter-module and intra-module ventilation requirements and acoustic requirements. A flight like configuration of the Dragon capsule including the air circulation system was recently assembled for testing to assess the design for inter-module and intra-module ventilation and acoustics. The testing included the Dragon capsule, and flight configuration in the pressure section with cargo racks, lockers, all of the air circulation components, and acoustic treatment. The air circulation test was also used to verify the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the Dragon capsule. The CFD model included the same Dragon internal geometry that was assembled for the test. This paper will describe the Dragon air circulation system design which has been verified by testing the system and with CFD analysis.

  17. Preliminary analysis of hub and spoke air freight distribution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A brief analysis is made of the hub and spoke air freight distribution system which would employ less than 15 hub centers world wide with very large advanced distributed-load freighters providing the line-haul delivery between hubs. This system is compared to a more conventional network using conventionally-designed long-haul freighters which travel between numerous major airports. The analysis calculates all of the transportation costs, including handling charges and pickup and delivery costs. The results show that the economics of the hub/spoke system are severely compromised by the extensive use of feeder aircraft to deliver cargo into and from the large freighter terminals. Not only are the higher costs for the smaller feeder airplanes disadvantageous, but their use implies an additional exchange of cargo between modes compared to truck delivery. The conventional system uses far fewer feeder airplanes, and in many cases, none at all. When feeder aircraft are eliminated from the hub/spoke system, however, that system is universally more economical than any conventional system employing smaller line-haul aircraft.

  18. Economics of water injected air screw compressor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venu Madhav, K.; Kovačević, A.

    2015-08-01

    There is a growing need for compressed air free of entrained oil to be used in industry. In many cases it can be supplied by oil flooded screw compressors with multi stage filtration systems, or by oil free screw compressors. However, if water injected screw compressors can be made to operate reliably, they could be more efficient and therefore cheaper to operate. Unfortunately, to date, such machines have proved to be insufficiently reliable and not cost effective. This paper describes an investigation carried out to determine the current limitations of water injected screw compressor systems and how these could be overcome in the 15-315 kW power range and delivery pressures of 6-10 bar. Modern rotor profiles and approach to sealing and cooling allow reasonably inexpensive air end design. The prototype of the water injected screw compressor air system was built and tested for performance and reliability. The water injected compressor system was compared with the oil injected and oil free compressor systems of the equivalent size including the economic analysis based on the lifecycle costs. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that water injected screw compressor systems could be designed to deliver clean air free of oil contamination with a better user value proposition than the oil injected or oil free screw compressor systems over the considered range of operations.

  19. Air ion exposure system for plants.

    PubMed

    Morrow, R C; Tibbitts, T W

    1987-02-01

    A system was developed for subjecting plants to elevated air ion levels. This system consisted of a rectangular Plexiglas chamber lined with a Faraday cage. Air ions were generated by corona discharge from frayed stainless steel fibers placed at one end of the chamber. This source was capable of producing varying levels of either positive or negative air ions. During plant exposures, environmental conditions were controlled by operating the unit in a growth chamber.

  20. Air ion exposure system for plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, R. C.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1987-01-01

    A system was developed for subjecting plants to elevated air ion levels. This system consisted of a rectangular Plexiglas chamber lined with a Faraday cage. Air ions were generated by corona discharge from frayed stainless steel fibers placed at one end of the chamber. This source was capable of producing varying levels of either positive or negative air ions. During plant exposures, environmental conditions were controlled by operating the unit in a growth chamber.

  1. MAST Propellant and Delivery System Design Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadeem, Uzair; Mc Cleskey, Carey M.

    2015-01-01

    A Mars Aerospace Taxi (MAST) concept and propellant storage and delivery case study is undergoing investigation by NASA's Element Design and Architectural Impact (EDAI) design and analysis forum. The MAST lander concept envisions landing with its ascent propellant storage tanks empty and supplying these reusable Mars landers with propellant that is generated and transferred while on the Mars surface. The report provides an overview of the data derived from modeling between different methods of propellant line routing (or "lining") and differentiate the resulting design and operations complexity of fluid and gaseous paths based on a given set of fluid sources and destinations. The EDAI team desires a rough-order-magnitude algorithm for estimating the lining characteristics (i.e., the plumbing mass and complexity) associated different numbers of vehicle propellant sources and destinations. This paper explored the feasibility of preparing a mathematically sound algorithm for this purpose, and offers a method for the EDAI team to implement.

  2. Supramolecular hydrogels as drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Saboktakin, Mohammad Reza; Tabatabaei, Roya Mahdavi

    2015-04-01

    Drug delivery from a hydrogel carrier implanted under the kidney capsule is an innovative way to induce kidney tissue regeneration and/or prevent kidney inflammation or fibrosis. We report here on the development of supramolecular hydrogels for this application. Chain-extended hydrogelators containing hydrogen bonding units in the main chain, and bifunctional hydrogelators end-functionalized with hydrogen bonding moieties, were made. The influence of these hydrogels on the renal cortex when implanted under the kidney capsule was studied. The overall tissue response to these hydrogels was found to be mild, and minimal damage to the cortex was observed, using the infiltration of macrophages, formation of myofibroblasts, and the deposition of collagen III as relevant read-out parameters. Differences in tissue response to these hydrogels could be related to the different physico-chemical properties of the three hydrogels.

  3. Technology for an Efficient Delivery System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    Delivery Sytm ial e 06 ;Jul 787- May A979 191 nI VWM A WMM.. 1V~W dB E R 7. A 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) w.~ in DU KribsN130, rAiO OF 9. PERFORMING...digital storage, development of high-resolution 1,000 scan-line discs which could store approximately 15,000 typed 81" x 11" documents, and develop...reversed to approximate the layout of a typical 81" x 11" typed page. Phil ps personnel have discussed experimentation with a 1,200 line format, which

  4. Hydrocolloid-based nutraceutical delivery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Janaswamy, Srinivas; Youngren, Susanne R.

    2012-07-11

    Nutraceuticals are important due to their inherent health benefits. However, utilization and consumption are limited by their poor water solubility and instability at normal processing and storage conditions. Herein, we propose an elegant and novel approach for the delivery of nutraceuticals in their active form using hydrocolloid matrices that are inexpensive and non-toxic with generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status. Iota-carrageenan and curcumin have been chosen as models of hydrocolloid and nutraceutical compounds, respectively. The iota-carrageenan network maintains a stable organization after encapsulating curcumin molecules, protects them from melting and then releases them in a sustained manner. These findings lay a strong foundation for developing value-added functional and medicinal foods.

  5. Coacervate delivery systems for proteins and small molecule drugs

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Noah R; Wang, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    Coacervates represent an exciting new class of drug delivery vehicles, developed in the past decade as carriers of small molecule drugs and proteins. This review summarizes several well-described coacervate systems, including Elastin-like peptides for delivery of anti-cancer therapeutics,Heparin-based coacervates with synthetic polycations for controlled growth factor delivery,Carboxymethyl chitosan aggregates for oral drug delivery,Mussel adhesive protein and hyaluronic acid coacervates. Coacervates present advantages in their simple assembly and easy incorporation into tissue engineering scaffolds or as adjuncts to cell therapies. They are also amenable to functionalization such as for targeting or for enhancing the bioactivity of their cargo. These new drug carriers are anticipated to have broad applications and noteworthy impact in the near future. PMID:25138695

  6. Recent advances of cocktail chemotherapy by combination drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Hu, Quanyin; Sun, Wujin; Wang, Chao; Gu, Zhen

    2016-03-01

    Combination chemotherapy is widely exploited for enhanced cancer treatment in the clinic. However, the traditional cocktail administration of combination regimens often suffers from varying pharmacokinetics among different drugs. The emergence of nanotechnology offers an unparalleled opportunity for developing advanced combination drug delivery strategies with the ability to encapsulate various drugs simultaneously and unify the pharmacokinetics of each drug. This review surveys the most recent advances in combination delivery of multiple small molecule chemotherapeutics using nanocarriers. The mechanisms underlying combination chemotherapy, including the synergistic, additive and potentiation effects, are also discussed with typical examples. We further highlight the sequential and site-specific co-delivery strategies, which provide new guidelines for development of programmable combination drug delivery systems. Clinical outlook and challenges are also discussed in the end.

  7. Recent Advances of Cocktail Chemotherapy by Combination Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Quanyin; Sun, Wujin; Wang, Chao; Gu, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Combination chemotherapy is widely exploited for enhanced cancer treatment in clinic. However, the traditional cocktail administration of combination regimens often suffers from varying pharmacokinetics among different drugs. The emergence of nanotechnology offers an unparalleled opportunity for developing advanced combination drug delivery strategies with the ability to encapsulate various drugs simultaneously and unify the pharmacokinetics of each drug. This review surveys the most recent advances in combination delivery of multiple small molecule chemotherapeutics using nanocarriers. The mechanisms underlying combination chemotherapy, including the synergistic, additive and potentiation effects, are also discussed with typical examples. We further highlight the sequential and site-specific co-delivery strategies, which provide new guidelines for development of programmable combination drug delivery systems. Clinical outlook and challenges are also discussed in the end. PMID:26546751

  8. Drug Delivery Systems for Imaging and Therapy of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gunay, Mine Silindir; Ozer, A. Yekta; Chalon, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although a variety of therapeutic approaches are available for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, challenges limit effective therapy. Among these challenges are delivery of drugs through the blood brain barier to the target brain tissue and the side effects observed during long term administration of antiparkinsonian drugs. The use of drug delivery systems such as liposomes, niosomes, micelles, nanoparticles, nanocapsules, gold nanoparticles, microspheres, microcapsules, nanobubbles, microbubbles and dendrimers is being investigated for diagnosis and therapy. Methods: This review focuses on formulation, development and advantages of nanosized drug delivery systems which can penetrate the central nervous system for the therapy and/or diagnosis of PD, and highlights future nanotechnological approaches. Results: It is esential to deliver a sufficient amount of either therapeutic or radiocontrast agents to the brain in order to provide the best possible efficacy or imaging without undesired degradation of the agent. Current treatments focus on motor symptoms, but these treatments generally do not deal with modifying the course of Parkinson’s disease. Beyond pharmacological therapy, the identification of abnormal proteins such as α-synuclein, parkin or leucine-rich repeat serine/threonine protein kinase 2 could represent promising alternative targets for molecular imaging and therapy of Parkinson's disease. Conclusion: Nanotechnology and nanosized drug delivery systems are being investigated intensely and could have potential effect for Parkinson’s disease. The improvement of drug delivery systems could dramatically enhance the effectiveness of Parkinson’s Disease therapy and reduce its side effects. PMID:26714584

  9. Dendrimeric Systems and Their Applications in Ocular Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Burçin; Bozdağ Pehlivan, Sibel; Ünlü, Nurşen

    2013-01-01

    Ophthalmic drug delivery is one of the most attractive and challenging research area for pharmaceutical scientists and ophthalmologists. Absorption of an ophthalmic drug in conventional dosage forms is seriously limited by physiological conditions. The use of nonionic or ionic biodegradable polymers in aqueous solutions and colloidal dosage forms such as liposomes, nanoparticles, nanocapsules, microspheres, microcapsules, microemulsions, and dendrimers has been studied to overcome the problems mentioned above. Dendrimers are a new class of polymeric materials. The unique nanostructured architecture of dendrimers has been studied to examine their role in delivery of therapeutics and imaging agents. Dendrimers can enhance drug's water solubility, bioavailability, and biocompatibility and can be applied for different routes of drug administration successfully. Permeability enhancer properties of dendrimers were also reported. The use of dendrimers can also reduce toxicity versus activity and following an appropriate application route they allow the delivery of the drug to the targeted site and provide desired pharmacokinetic parameters. Therefore, dendrimeric drug delivery systems are of interest in ocular drug delivery. In this review, the limitations related to eye's unique structure, the advantages of dendrimers, and the potential applications of dendrimeric systems to ophthalmology including imaging, drug, peptide, and gene delivery will be discussed. PMID:24396306

  10. Strategies for Enhanced Drug Delivery to the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Dwibhashyam, V. S. N. M.; Nagappa, A. N.

    2008-01-01

    Treating central nervous system diseases is very challenging because of the presence of a variety of formidable obstacles that impede drug delivery. Physiological barriers like the blood-brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier as well as various efflux transporter proteins make the entry of drugs into the central nervous system very difficult. The present review provides a brief account of the blood brain barrier, the P-glycoprotein efflux and various strategies for enhancing drug delivery to the central nervous system. PMID:20046703

  11. Integrating C-17 Direct Delivery Airlift into Traditional Air Force Doctrine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    logistics response time, develop seamless logistic systems, and streamline the logistics infrastructure ( Zorich , 1996:2). The Air Force is moving from...and maintenance capability ( Zorich , 1996:2). Lean Logistics strives to produce a system in which logistics information and material flows freely...Air Mobility Warfare Center, March 1997. Zorich , David R. "Lean Logistics: Logistics of Tomorrow Today," A Special Report on Logistics for the 21st

  12. Solar Hot-Air System --Memphis, Tennessee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Solar collectors using air as collection medium provide space heating for four-building office complex in Memphis. 98 page report furnishes details on installation, including: description of system; system startup and acceptance-test results; technical data on collector; installation manuals for collectors, air handler and heat-storage unit.

  13. Systemic delivery to central nervous system by engineered PLGA nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Qiang; Wang, Long; Deng, Gang; Liu, Junhui; Chen, Qianxue; Chen, Zhibiao

    2016-01-01

    Neurological disorders are an important global public health problem, but pharmaceutical treatments are limited due to drug access to the central nervous system being restricted by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) are one of the most promising drug and gene delivery systems for crossing the BBB. While these systems offer great promise, PLGA NPs also have some intrinsic drawbacks and require further engineering for clinical and research applications. Multiple strategies have been developed for using PLGA NPs to deliver compounds across the BBB. We classify these strategies into three categories according to the adaptations made to the PLGA NPs (1) to facilitate travel from the injection site (pre-transcytosis strategies); (2) to enhance passage across the brain endothelial cells (BBB transcytosis strategies) and (3) to achieve targeting of the impaired nervous system cells (post-transcytosis strategies). PLGA NPs modified according to these three strategies are denoted first, second, and third generation NPs, respectively. We believe that fusing these three strategies to engineer multifunctional PLGA NPs is the only way to achieve translational applications. PMID:27158367

  14. Rooftop Unitary Air Conditioner with Integral Dedicated Outdoor Air System

    SciTech Connect

    Tiax Llc

    2006-02-28

    Energy use of rooftop and other unitary air-conditioners in commercial applications accounts for about 1 quad (10{sup 15} Btu) of primary energy use annually in the U.S. [Reference 7]. The realization that this cooling equipment accounts for the majority of commercial building cooled floorspace and the majority also of commercial building energy use has spurred development of improved-efficiency equipment as well as development of stricter standards addressing efficiency levels. Another key market driver affecting design of rooftop air-conditioning equipment has been concern regarding comfort and the control of humidity. Trends for increases in outdoor air ventilation rates in certain applications, and the increasing concern about indoor air quality problems associated with humidity levels and moisture in buildings points to a need for improved dehumidification capability in air-conditioning equipment of all types. In many cases addressing this issue exacerbates energy efficiency, and vice versa. The integrated dedicated outdoor air system configuration developed in this project addresses both energy and comfort/humidity issues.

  15. Niosomes: a controlled and novel drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Rajera, Rampal; Nagpal, Kalpana; Singh, Shailendra Kumar; Mishra, Dina Nath

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade formulation of vesicles as a tool to improve drug delivery, has created a lot of interest amongst the scientist working in the area of drug delivery systems. Vesicular system such as liposomes, niosomes, transferosomes, pharmacosomes and ethosomes provide an alternative to improve the drug delivery. Niosomes play an important role owing to their nonionic properties, in such drug delivery system. Design and development of novel drug delivery system (NDDS) has two prerequisites. First, it should deliver the drug in accordance with a predetermined rate and second it should release therapeutically effective amount of drug at the site of action. Conventional dosage forms are unable to meet these requisites. Niosomes are essentially non-ionic surfactant based multilamellar or unilamellar vesicles in which an aqueous solution of solute is entirely enclosed by a membrane resulting from the organization of surfactant macromolecules as bilayer. Niosomes are formed on hydration of non-ionic surfactant film which eventually hydrates imbibing or encapsulating the hydrating aqueous solution. The main aim of development of niosomes is to control the release of drug in a sustained way, modification of distribution profile of drug and for targeting the drug to the specific body site. This paper deals with composition, characterization/evaluation, merits, demerits and applications of niosomes.

  16. Improving oral healthcare delivery systems through workforce innovations: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Elizabeth A; Finocchio, Len

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the purpose, rationale and key elements of the special issue, Improving Oral Healthcare Delivery Systems through Workforce Innovations. The purpose of the special issue is to further develop ideas presented at the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) workshop, Sufficiency of the U.S. Oral Health Workforce in the Coming Decade. Using the IOM discussions as their starting point, the authors evaluate oral health care delivery system performance for specific populations' needs and explore the roles that the workforce can play in improving the care delivery model. The contributing articles provide a broad framework for stimulating and evaluating innovation and change in the oral health care delivery system. The articles in this special issue point to many deficits in the current oral health care delivery system and provide compelling arguments and proposals for improvements. The issues presented and solutions recommended are not entirely new, but add to a growing body of work that is of critical importance given the context of wider health care reform.

  17. From Print to Nonprint Materials: Library Information Delivery Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Miriam A.

    1988-01-01

    Discussion of advanced technology and its effects on libraries and information delivery systems describes online information systems and CD-ROMs at the Georgia Institute of Technology Library; explains the changes in information services from supply-oriented to demand-driven, and considers nonprint materials and their effect on the publishing…

  18. Engaging Faculty in Telecommunications-Based Instructional Delivery Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swalec, John J.

    In the design and development of telecommunications-based instructional delivery systems, attention to faculty involvement and training is often overlooked until the system is operational. The Waubonsee Telecommunications Instructional Consortium (TIC), in Illinois, is one network that benefited from early faculty input. Even before the first…

  19. Carrier-Based Drug Delivery System for Treatment of Acne

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Amber; Kumar Sonker, Avinesh

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 95% of the population suffers at some point in their lifetime from acne vulgaris. Acne is a multifactorial disease of the pilosebaceous unit. This inflammatory skin disorder is most common in adolescents but also affects neonates, prepubescent children, and adults. Topical conventional systems are associated with various side effects. Novel drug delivery systems have been used to reduce the side effect of drugs commonly used in the topical treatment of acne. Topical treatment of acne with active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) makes direct contact with the target site before entering the systemic circulation which reduces the systemic side effect of the parenteral or oral administration of drug. The objective of the present review is to discuss the conventional delivery systems available for acne, their drawbacks, and limitations. The advantages, disadvantages, and outcome of using various carrier-based delivery systems like liposomes, niosomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, and so forth, are explained. This paper emphasizes approaches to overcome the drawbacks and limitations associated with the conventional system and the advances and application that are poised to further enhance the efficacy of topical acne formulations, offering the possibility of simplified dosing regimen that may improve treatment outcomes using novel delivery system. PMID:24688376

  20. Futures of Service Delivery Systems for Handicapped Individuals. No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, Donald J.; Wiegerink, Ronald

    Seventeen issues relating to service delivery systems for the handicapped are discussed, including the following: integration of human service systems; meshinq of planning, service, research, and training; installing a monitoring, evaluation, and feedback activity into the planning process; evaluating public education programs; coordinating…

  1. Optical air data systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Loren M. (Inventor); Tang, Shoou-yu (Inventor); Acott, Phillip E. (Inventor); Spaeth, Lisa G. (Inventor); O'Brien, Martin (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing air includes at least one, and in some embodiments three, transceivers for projecting the laser energy as laser radiation to the air. The transceivers are scanned or aligned along several different axes. Each transceiver receives laser energy as it is backscattered from the air. A computer processes signals from the transceivers to distinguish molecular scattered laser radiation from aerosol scattered laser radiation and determines air temperatures, wind speeds, and wind directions based on the scattered laser radiation. Applications of the system to wind power site evaluation, wind turbine control, traffic safety, general meteorological monitoring and airport safety are presented.

  2. Tactical Integrated Air Defense System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-09

    and integrated. The discussion in %,hapter II sunmmarlies the effective. ness of their integration experiences. 4 Any evaluation of current air...require- ments. Therefore, to serve as a baseline for evaluating the present IAD capabilities of the United States, Chapter III contains an analysis...of the present Soviet tactical air threat. Given the historical background and operational requirements for IAD, an evaluation of the present United

  3. Preparation of drug delivery systems using supercritical fluid technology.

    PubMed

    Kompella, U B; Koushik, K

    2001-01-01

    Small changes in temperature and pressure near the critical region induce dramatic changes in the density and solubility of supercritical fluids, thereby facilitating the use of environmentally benign agents such as CO2 for their solvent and antisolvent properties in processing a wide variety of materials. While supercritical fluid technologies have been in commercial use in the food and chromatography industries for several years, only recently has this technology made inroads in the formulation of drug delivery systems. This review summarizes some of the recent applications of supercritical fluid technology in the preparation of drug delivery systems. Drugs containing polymeric particles, plain drug particles, solute-containing liposomes, and inclusion complexes of drug and carrier have been formulated using this technology. Also, polymer separation using this technology is enabling the selection of a pure fraction of a polymer, thereby allowing a more precise control of drug release from polymeric delivery systems.

  4. The influence of microwave radiation on transdermal delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Moseley, H; Johnston, S; Allen, A

    1990-03-01

    It has been alleged that the exposure of a transdermal delivery system to leakage of microwave radiation from a domestic microwave oven can result in the user receiving a second-degree burn in the area of the patch. Several transdermal delivery systems were exposed to microwave radiation from an Electro Medical Supplies Microtron 200 microwave diathermy unit. Temperature rises of up to 2.2 degrees C were recorded at a maximum power density of 800 W/m2. These temperature rises were considered insignificant compared to that required to produce a burn. The exposure of transdermal delivery systems to a microwave diathermy field or lower level leakage radiation from a microwave oven is unlikely to cause direct thermal injury to the wearer.

  5. Bioengineered Silk Gene Delivery System for Nuclear Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Yigit, Sezin; Tokareva, Olena; Varone, Antonio; Georgakoudi, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Gene delivery research has gained momentum with the use of lipophilic vectors that mimic viral systems to increase transfection efficiency. However, maintaining cell viability with these systems remains a major challenge. Therefore biocompatible and nontoxic biopolymers that are designed by combining non-immunological viral mimicking components with suitable carriers have been explored to address these limitations. In the present study recombinant DNA technology was used to design a multi-functional gene delivery system for nuclear targeting, while also supporting cell viability. Spider dragline silk recombinant proteins were modified with DNA condensing units and the proton sponge endosomal escape pathway was utilized for enhanced delivery. Short-term transfection efficiency in a COS-7 cell line (adherent kidney cells isolated from African green monkey) was enhanced compared to lipofectamine and polyethyleneimine (PEI), as was cell viability with these recombinant bio-polyplexes. Endosomal escape and consequent nuclear targeting were shown with fluorescence microscopy. PMID:24889658

  6. Importance of dual delivery systems for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Farokhi, Mehdi; Mottaghitalab, Fatemeh; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Ou, Keng-Liang; Mao, Chuanbin; Hosseinkhani, Hossein

    2016-03-10

    Bone formation is a complex process that requires concerted function of multiple growth factors. For this, it is essential to design a delivery system with the ability to load multiple growth factors in order to mimic the natural microenvironment for bone tissue formation. However, the short half-lives of growth factors, their relatively large size, slow tissue penetration, and high toxicity suggest that conventional routes of administration are unlikely to be effective. Therefore, it seems that using multiple bioactive factors in different delivery systems can develop new strategies for improving bone tissue regeneration. Combination of these factors along with biomaterials that permit tunable release profiles would help to achieve truly spatiotemporal regulation during delivery. This review summarizes the various dual-control release systems that are used for bone tissue engineering.

  7. Microscale Symmetrical Electroporator Array as a Versatile Molecular Delivery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Mengxing; Hill, Winfield; Lee, Jung Hyun; Hur, Soojung Claire

    2017-03-01

    Successful developments of new therapeutic strategies often rely on the ability to deliver exogenous molecules into cytosol. We have developed a versatile on-chip vortex-assisted electroporation system, engineered to conduct sequential intracellular delivery of multiple molecules into various cell types at low voltage in a dosage-controlled manner. Micro-patterned planar electrodes permit substantial reduction in operational voltages and seamless integration with an existing microfluidic technology. Equipped with real-time process visualization functionality, the system enables on-chip optimization of electroporation parameters for cells with varying properties. Moreover, the system’s dosage control and multi-molecular delivery capabilities facilitate intracellular delivery of various molecules as a single agent or in combination and its utility in biological research has been demonstrated by conducting RNA interference assays. We envision the system to be a powerful tool, aiding a wide range of applications, requiring single-cell level co-administrations of multiple molecules with controlled dosages.

  8. A clinical perspective on mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Gilhotra, Ritu M; Ikram, Mohd; Srivastava, Sunny; Gilhotra, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesion can be defined as a state in which two components, of which one is of biological origin, are held together for extended periods of time by the help of interfacial forces. Among the various transmucosal routes, buccal mucosa has excellent accessibility and relatively immobile mucosa, hence suitable for administration of retentive dosage form. The objective of this paper is to review the works done so far in the field of mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems (MBDDS), with a clinical perspective. Starting with a brief introduction of the mucoadhesive drug delivery systems, oral mucosa, and the theories of mucoadhesion, this article then proceeds to cover the works done so far in the field of MBDDS, categorizing them on the basis of ailments they are meant to cure. Additionally, we focus on the various patents, recent advancements, and challenges as well as the future prospects for mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems. PMID:24683406

  9. Oral Drug Delivery Systems Comprising Altered Geometric Configurations for Controlled Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Moodley, Kovanya; Pillay, Viness; Choonara, Yahya E.; du Toit, Lisa C.; Ndesendo, Valence M. K.; Kumar, Pradeep; Cooppan, Shivaan; Bawa, Priya

    2012-01-01

    Recent pharmaceutical research has focused on controlled drug delivery having an advantage over conventional methods. Adequate controlled plasma drug levels, reduced side effects as well as improved patient compliance are some of the benefits that these systems may offer. Controlled delivery systems that can provide zero-order drug delivery have the potential for maximizing efficacy while minimizing dose frequency and toxicity. Thus, zero-order drug release is ideal in a large area of drug delivery which has therefore led to the development of various technologies with such drug release patterns. Systems such as multilayered tablets and other geometrically altered devices have been created to perform this function. One of the principles of multilayered tablets involves creating a constant surface area for release. Polymeric materials play an important role in the functioning of these systems. Technologies developed to date include among others: Geomatrix® multilayered tablets, which utilizes specific polymers that may act as barriers to control drug release; Procise®, which has a core with an aperture that can be modified to achieve various types of drug release; core-in-cup tablets, where the core matrix is coated on one surface while the circumference forms a cup around it; donut-shaped devices, which possess a centrally-placed aperture hole and Dome Matrix® as well as “release modules assemblage”, which can offer alternating drug release patterns. This review discusses the novel altered geometric system technologies that have been developed to provide controlled drug release, also focusing on polymers that have been employed in such developments. PMID:22312236

  10. Efficiency of compressed-air systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The current state of knowledge in American industry concerning the energy efficient design and operation of industrial compressed air systems and system components is examined. Since there is no standard reference for designers and operators of compressed air systems which provides guidelines for maximizing the energy efficiency of these systems, a major product of this contract was the preparation of a guidebook for this purpose.

  11. Hydrazone linkages in pH responsive drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Sonawane, Sandeep J; Kalhapure, Rahul S; Govender, Thirumala

    2017-03-01

    Stimuli-responsive polymeric drug delivery systems using various triggers to release the drug at the sites have become a major focus area. Among various stimuli-responsive materials, pH-responsiveness has been studied extensively. The materials used for fabricating pH-responsive drug delivery systems include a specific chemical functionality in their structure that can respond to changes in the pH of the surrounding environment. Various chemical functionalities, for example, acetal, amine, ortho ester, amine and hydrazone, have been used to design materials that are capable of releasing their payload at the acidic pH conditions of the tumor or infection sites. Hydrazone linkages are significant synthons for numerous transformations and have gained importance in pharmaceutical sciences due to their various biological and clinical applications. These linkages have been employed in various drug delivery vehicles, such as linear polymers, star shaped polymers, dendrimers, micelles, liposomes and inorganic nanoparticles, for pH-responsive drug delivery. This review paper focuses on the synthesis and characterization methods of hydrazone bond containing materials and their applications in pH-responsive drug delivery systems. It provides detailed suggestions as guidelines to materials and formulation scientists for designing biocompatible pH-responsive materials with hydrazone linkages and identifying future studies.

  12. Liposomal drug delivery systems: from concept to clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Allen, Theresa M; Cullis, Pieter R

    2013-01-01

    The first closed bilayer phospholipid systems, called liposomes, were described in 1965 and soon were proposed as drug delivery systems. The pioneering work of countless liposome researchers over almost 5 decades led to the development of important technical advances such as remote drug loading, extrusion for homogeneous size, long-circulating (PEGylated) liposomes, triggered release liposomes, liposomes containing nucleic acid polymers, ligand-targeted liposomes and liposomes containing combinations of drugs. These advances have led to numerous clinical trials in such diverse areas as the delivery of anti-cancer, anti-fungal and antibiotic drugs, the delivery of gene medicines, and the delivery of anesthetics and anti-inflammatory drugs. A number of liposomes (lipidic nanoparticles) are on the market, and many more are in the pipeline. Lipidic nanoparticles are the first nanomedicine delivery system to make the transition from concept to clinical application, and they are now an established technology platform with considerable clinical acceptance. We can look forward to many more clinical products in the future.

  13. Programmable nanomedicine: synergistic and sequential drug delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacardo, Dennis B.; Ligler, Frances S.; Gu, Zhen

    2015-02-01

    Recent developments in nanomedicine for the cancer therapy have enabled programmable delivery of therapeutics by exploiting the stimuli-responsive properties of nanocarriers. These therapeutic systems were designed with the relevant chemical and physical properties that respond to different triggers for enhanced anticancer efficacy, including the reduced development of drug-resistance, lower therapeutic dose, site-specific transport, and spatiotemporally controlled release. This minireview discusses the current advances in programmable nanocarriers for cancer therapy with particular emphasis on synergistic and sequential drug delivery systems.

  14. Adamantane in Drug Delivery Systems and Surface Recognition.

    PubMed

    Štimac, Adela; Šekutor, Marina; Mlinarić-Majerski, Kata; Frkanec, Leo; Frkanec, Ruža

    2017-02-16

    The adamantane moiety is widely applied in design and synthesis of new drug delivery systems and in surface recognition studies. This review focuses on liposomes, cyclodextrins, and dendrimers based on or incorporating adamantane derivatives. Our recent concept of adamantane as an anchor in the lipid bilayer of liposomes has promising applications in the field of targeted drug delivery and surface recognition. The results reported here encourage the development of novel adamantane-based structures and self-assembled supramolecular systems for basic chemical investigations as well as for biomedical application.

  15. The Air Program Information Management System (APIMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-02

    Technology November 2, 2011 The Air Program Information Management System (APIMS) Frank Castaneda, III, P.E. APIMS Program Manager AFCEE/TDNQ APIMS...NOV 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Air Program Information Management System (APIMS... Information   Management   System : Sustainability of  Enterprise air quality management system • Aspects and Impacts to Process • Auditing and Measurement

  16. Fluid-bed air-supply system

    DOEpatents

    Atabay, Keramettin

    1979-01-01

    The air-supply system for a fluidized-bed furnace includes two air conduits for the same combustion zone. The conduits feed separate sets of holes in a distributor plate through which fluidizing air flows to reach the bed. During normal operation, only one conduit and set of holes is used, but the second conduit and set of holes is employed during start-up.

  17. A High Performance Sample Delivery System for Closed-Path Eddy Covariance Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nottrott, Anders; Leggett, Graham; Alstad, Karrin; Wahl, Edward

    2016-04-01

    The Picarro G2311-f Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer (CRDS) measures CO2, CH4 and water vapor at high frequency with parts-per-billion (ppb) sensitivity for eddy covariance, gradient, eddy accumulation measurements. In flux mode, the analyzer measures the concentration of all three species at 10 Hz with a cavity gas exchange time of 5 Hz. We developed an enhanced pneumatic sample delivery system for drawing air from the atmosphere into the cavity. The new sample delivery system maintains a 5 Hz gas exchange time, and allows for longer sample intake lines to be configured in tall tower applications (> 250 ft line at sea level). We quantified the system performance in terms of vacuum pump head room and 10-90% concentration step response for several intake line lengths at various elevations. Sample eddy covariance data are shown from an alfalfa field in Northern California, USA.

  18. Designing a fiber-optic beam delivery system

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, B.V. |; Leong, K.H.; Sanders, P.G.

    1997-03-01

    One of the advantages offered by visible and NIR lasers over CO and CO{sub 2} lasers is that they can be delivered through optical fibers. Fiber-optic beam delivery is ideal when the beam must be delivered along a complex path or processing requires complicated manipulation of the beam delivery optics. Harnessing the power of a high-power laser requires that knowledgeable and prudent choices be made when selecting the laser and its beam delivery system. The purpose of this paper is to discuss a variety of issues important when designing a beam delivery system-data obtained with high power Nd:YAG lasers will be used as illustrative examples. (1) Multimode optical fibers are used for high-power applications. The fiber imposes, to varying degrees, a structure on the beam that is different from the laser output. Fibers degrade the beam quality, although the degree of degradation is dependent on the fiber length, diameter and type. Smaller fibers tend to produce less degradation to beam quality, but the minimum usable fiber size is limited by the quality of the laser beam, focusing optic and the numerical aperture of the fiber. (2) The performance of the beam delivery system is ultimately determined by the quality of the optics. Therefore, well-corrected optics are required to realize the best possible performance. Tests with both homogeneous and GRADIUM{trademark} lenses provide insights into evaluating the benefits offered by improvements in the output optics from gradient-index, aspheric and multi-element lens systems. Additionally, these tests illustrate the origins of variable focused spot size and position with increasing laser power. (3) The physical hardware used in the beam delivery system will have several characteristics which enhance its functionality and ease of use, in addition to facilitating the use of advanced diagnostics and monitoring techniques.

  19. Cyclosporine Amicellar delivery system for dry eyes

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Han; Cha, Kwang-Ho; Cho, Wonkyung; Park, Junsung; Park, Hee Jun; Sun, Bo Kyung; Hyun, Sang-Min; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Background The objectives of this study were to develop stable cyclosporine A (CsA) ophthalmic micelle solutions for dry-eye syndrome and evaluate their physicochemical properties and therapeutic efficacy. Materials and methods CsA-micelle solutions (MS-CsA) were created by a simple method with Cremophor EL, ethanol, and phosphate buffer. We investigated the particle size, pH, and osmolarity. In addition, long-term physical and chemical stability for MS-CsA was observed. To confirm the therapeutic efficacy, tear production in dry eye-induced rabbits was evaluated using the Schirmer tear test (STT). When compared to a commercial product, Restasis, MS-CsA demonstrated improvement in goblet-cell density and conjunctival epithelial morphology, as demonstrated in histological hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results MS-CsA had a smaller particle size (average diameter 14–18 nm) and a narrow size distribution. Physicochemical parameters, such as particle size, pH, osmolarity, and remaining CsA concentration were all within the expected range of 60 days. STT scores significantly improved in MS-CsA treated groups (P<0.05) in comparison to those of the Restasis-treated group. The number of goblet cells for rabbit conjunctivas after the administration of MS-CsA was 94.83±8.38, a significantly higher result than the 65.17±11.51 seen with Restasis. The conjunctival epithelial morphology of dry eye-induced rabbits thinned with loss of goblet cells. However, after 5 days of treatment with drug formulations, rabbit conjunctivas recovered epithelia and showed a relative increase in the number of goblet cells. Conclusion The results of this study indicate the potential use of a novel MS for the ophthalmic delivery of CsA in treating dry eyes. PMID:27382280

  20. Drug delivery systems improve pharmaceutical profile and facilitate medication adherence.

    PubMed

    Wertheimer, Albert I; Santella, Thomas M; Finestone, Albert J; Levy, Richard A

    2005-01-01

    Innovations in dosage forms and dose delivery systems across a wide range of medications offer substantial clinical advantages, including reduced dosing frequency and improved patient adherence; minimized fluctuation of drug concentrations and maintenance of blood levels within a desired range; localized drug delivery; and the potential for reduced adverse effects and increased safety. The advent of new large-molecule drugs for previously untreatable or only partially treatable diseases is stimulating the development of suitable delivery systems for these agents. Although advanced formulations may be more expensive than conventional dosage forms, they often have a more favorable pharmacologic profile and can be cost-effective. Inclusion of these dosage forms on drug formulary lists may help patients remain on therapy and reduce the economic and social burden of care.

  1. Micro and Nanoparticle Drug Delivery Systems for Preventing Allotransplant Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, James D.; Acharya, Abhinav P.; Little, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of advances in transplant immunology, tissue damage caused by acute allograft rejection remains the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the transplant recipient. Moreover, the long-term sequelae of lifelong immunosuppression leaves patients at risk for developing a host of other deleterious conditions. Controlled drug delivery using micro- and nanoparticles (MNPs) is an effective way to deliver higher local doses of a given drug to specific tissues and cells while mitigating systemic effects. Herein, we review several descriptions of MNP immunotherapies aimed at prolonging allograft survival. We also discuss developments in the field of biomimetic drug delivery that use MNP constructs to induce and recruit our bodies' own suppressive immune cells. Finally, we comment on the regulatory pathway associated with these drug delivery systems. Collectively, it is our hope the studies described in this review will help to usher in a new era of immunotherapy in organ transplantation. PMID:25937032

  2. A framework for describing health care delivery organizations and systems.

    PubMed

    Piña, Ileana L; Cohen, Perry D; Larson, David B; Marion, Lucy N; Sills, Marion R; Solberg, Leif I; Zerzan, Judy

    2015-04-01

    Describing, evaluating, and conducting research on the questions raised by comparative effectiveness research and characterizing care delivery organizations of all kinds, from independent individual provider units to large integrated health systems, has become imperative. Recognizing this challenge, the Delivery Systems Committee, a subgroup of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Effective Health Care Stakeholders Group, which represents a wide diversity of perspectives on health care, created a draft framework with domains and elements that may be useful in characterizing various sizes and types of care delivery organizations and may contribute to key outcomes of interest. The framework may serve as the door to further studies in areas in which clear definitions and descriptions are lacking.

  3. Lipid-based systemic delivery of siRNA

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Yu-Cheng; Mozumdar, Subho; Huang, Leaf

    2011-01-01

    RNAi technology has brought a new category of treatments for various diseases including genetic diseases, viral diseases, and cancer. Despite the great versatility of RNAi that can down regulate almost any protein in the cells, the delicate and precise machinery used for silencing is the same. The major challenge indeed for RNAi-based therapy is the delivery system. In this review, we start with the uniqueness and mechanism of RNAi machinery and the utility of RNAi in therapeutics. Then we discuss the challenges in systemic siRNA delivery by dividing them into two categories--kinetic and physical barriers. At the end, we discuss different strategies to overcome these barriers, especially focusing on the step of endosome escape. Toxicity issues and current successful examples for lipid-based delivery are also included in the review. PMID:19328215

  4. Dummies versus air puffs: efficient stimulus delivery for low-volatile odors.

    PubMed

    Brandstaetter, Andreas Simon; Rössler, Wolfgang; Kleineidam, Christoph Johannes

    2010-05-01

    Aiming to unravel how animals perceive odors, a variety of neurophysiological techniques are used today. For olfactory stimulation, odors are commonly incorporated into a constant airstream that carries odor molecules to the receptor organ (air-delivered stimulation). Such odor delivery works well for odors of high volatility (naturally effective over long distances) but less or not at all for low-volatile odors (usually only received at short range). We developed a new odor stimulation technique especially suited for low-volatile odors and compared it with conventional air-delivered stimulation using 2 neurophysiological approaches. Odor-loaded dummies were moved into close vicinity of the receptor organs on the antenna of the Florida carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus (dummy-delivered stimulation). Neuronal activity was monitored either at receptor neuron level using electroantennography or in the first olfactory neuropile, the antennal lobes, using calcium imaging. We tested 3 odors of different volatility: C. floridanus' highly volatile alarm pheromone undecane, its low-volatile trail pheromone nerolic acid, and an even less volatile, behaviorally active C23 alkene, cis-9-tricosene. For low-volatile odors, dummy-delivered stimulation was particularly efficient. We conclude that dummy-delivered stimulation is advantageous compared to the commonly used air-delivered stimulation when studying an animal's detection and processing of low-volatile odors.

  5. Porous Inorganic Drug Delivery Systems-a Review.

    PubMed

    Sayed, E; Haj-Ahmad, R; Ruparelia, K; Arshad, M S; Chang, M-W; Ahmad, Z

    2017-02-28

    Innovative methods and materials have been developed to overcome limitations associated with current drug delivery systems. Significant developments have led to the use of a variety of materials (as excipients) such as inorganic and metallic structures, marking a transition from conventional polymers. Inorganic materials, especially those possessing significant porosity, are emerging as good candidates for the delivery of a range of drugs (antibiotics, anticancer and anti-inflammatories), providing several advantages in formulation and engineering (encapsulation of drug in amorphous form, controlled delivery and improved targeting). This review focuses on key selected developments in porous drug delivery systems. The review provides a short broad overview of porous polymeric materials for drug delivery before focusing on porous inorganic materials (e.g. Santa Barbara Amorphous (SBA) and Mobil Composition of Matter (MCM)) and their utilisation in drug dosage form development. Methods for their preparation and drug loading thereafter are detailed. Several examples of porous inorganic materials, drugs used and outcomes are discussed providing the reader with an understanding of advances in the field and realistic opportunities.

  6. Smart surface-enhanced Raman scattering traceable drug delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Tang, Yonghong; Dai, Sheng; Kleitz, Freddy; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2016-06-01

    A novel smart nanoparticle-based system has been developed for tracking intracellular drug delivery through surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). This new drug delivery system (DDS) shows targeted cytotoxicity towards cancer cells via pH-cleavable covalent carboxylic hydrazone links and the SERS tracing capability based on gold@silica nanocarriers. Doxorubicin, as a model anticancer drug, was employed to compare SERS with conventional fluorescence tracing approaches. It is evident that SERS demonstrates higher sensitivity and resolution, revealing intracellular details, as the strengths of the original Raman signals can be amplified by SERS. Importantly, non-destructive SERS will provide the designed DDS with great autonomy and potential to study the dynamic procedures of non-fluorescent drug delivery into living cells.A novel smart nanoparticle-based system has been developed for tracking intracellular drug delivery through surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). This new drug delivery system (DDS) shows targeted cytotoxicity towards cancer cells via pH-cleavable covalent carboxylic hydrazone links and the SERS tracing capability based on gold@silica nanocarriers. Doxorubicin, as a model anticancer drug, was employed to compare SERS with conventional fluorescence tracing approaches. It is evident that SERS demonstrates higher sensitivity and resolution, revealing intracellular details, as the strengths of the original Raman signals can be amplified by SERS. Importantly, non-destructive SERS will provide the designed DDS with great autonomy and potential to study the dynamic procedures of non-fluorescent drug delivery into living cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03869g

  7. Air-water flow in subsurface systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, A.; Mishra, P.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater traces its roots to tackle challenges of safe and reliable drinking water and food production. When the groundwater level rises, air pressure in the unsaturated Vadose zone increases, forcing air to escape from the ground surface. Abnormally high and low subsurface air pressure can be generated when the groundwater system, rainfall, and sea level fluctuation are favorably combined [Jiao and Li, 2004]. Through this process, contamination in the form of volatile gases may diffuse from the ground surface into residential areas, or possibly move into groundwater from industrial waste sites. It is therefore crucial to understand the combined effects of air-water flow in groundwater system. Here we investigate theoretically and experimentally the effects of air and water flow in groundwater system.

  8. Nanostructured lipid carriers system: recent advances in drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Md Asif; Md, Shadab; Sahni, Jasjeet Kaur; Baboota, Sanjula; Dang, Shweta; Ali, Javed

    2012-12-01

    Nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) is second generation smarter drug carrier system having solid matrix at room temperature. This carrier system is made up of physiological, biodegradable and biocompatible lipid materials and surfactants and is accepted by regulatory authorities for application in different drug delivery systems. The availability of many products in the market in short span of time reveals the success story of this delivery system. Since the introduction of the first product, around 30 NLC preparations are commercially available. NLC exhibit superior advantages over other colloidal carriers viz., nanoemulsions, polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, SLN etc. and thus, have been explored to more extent in pharmaceutical technology. The whole set of unique advantages such as enhanced drug loading capacity, prevention of drug expulsion, leads to more flexibility for modulation of drug release and makes NLC versatile delivery system for various routes of administration. The present review gives insights on the definitions and characterization of NLC as colloidal carriers including the production techniques and suitable formulations. This review paper also highlights the importance of NLC in pharmaceutical applications for the various routes of drug delivery viz., topical, oral, pulmonary, ocular and parenteral administration and its future perspective as a pharmaceutical carrier.

  9. Current Multistage Drug Delivery Systems Based on the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Binlong; Dai, Wenbing; He, Bing; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xueqing; Wang, Yiguang; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    The development of traditional tumor-targeted drug delivery systems based on EPR effect and receptor-mediated endocytosis is very challenging probably because of the biological complexity of tumors as well as the limitations in the design of the functional nano-sized delivery systems. Recently, multistage drug delivery systems (Ms-DDS) triggered by various specific tumor microenvironment stimuli have emerged for tumor therapy and imaging. In response to the differences in the physiological blood circulation, tumor microenvironment, and intracellular environment, Ms-DDS can change their physicochemical properties (such as size, hydrophobicity, or zeta potential) to achieve deeper tumor penetration, enhanced cellular uptake, timely drug release, as well as effective endosomal escape. Based on these mechanisms, Ms-DDS could deliver maximum quantity of drugs to the therapeutic targets including tumor tissues, cells, and subcellular organelles and eventually exhibit the highest therapeutic efficacy. In this review, we expatiate on various responsive modes triggered by the tumor microenvironment stimuli, introduce recent advances in multistage nanoparticle systems, especially the multi-stimuli responsive delivery systems, and discuss their functions, effects, and prospects. PMID:28255348

  10. Transferosomes - A vesicular transdermal delivery system for enhanced drug permeation

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Reshmy; Jose, Shoma; Mukund, V. P. Biju; Vasudevan, Deepa T.

    2011-01-01

    Transdermal administration of drugs is generally limited by the barrier function of the skin. Vesicular systems are one of the most controversial methods for transdermal delivery of active substances. The interest in designing transdermal delivery systems was relaunched after the discovery of elastic vesicles like transferosomes, ethosomes, cubosomes, phytosomes, etc. This paper presents the composition, mechanisms of penetration, manufacturing and characterization methods of transferosomes as transdermal delivery systems of active substances. For a drug to be absorbed and distributed into organs and tissues and eliminated from the body, it must pass through one or more biological membranes/barriers at various locations. Such a movement of drug across the membrane is called as drug transport. For the drugs to be delivered to the body, they should cross the membranous barrier. The concept of these delivery systems was designed in an attempt to concentrate the drug in the tissues of interest, while reducing the amount of drug in the remaining tissues. Hence, surrounding tissues are not affected by the drug. In addition, loss of drug does not happen due to localization of drug, leading to get maximum efficacy of the medication. Therefore, the phospholipid based carrier systems are of considerable interest in this era. PMID:22171309

  11. Systemic and Local Drug Delivery for Treating Diseases of the Central Nervous System in Rodent Models

    PubMed Central

    Serwer, Laura; Hashizume, Rintaro; Ozawa, Tomoko; James, C. David

    2010-01-01

    Thorough preclinical testing of central nervous system (CNS) therapeutics includes a consideration of routes of administration and agent biodistribution in assessing therapeutic efficacy. Between the two major classifications of administration, local vs. systemic, systemic delivery approaches are often preferred due to ease of administration. However, systemic delivery may result in suboptimal drug concentration being achieved in the CNS, and lead to erroneous conclusions regarding agent efficacy. Local drug delivery methods are more invasive, but may be necessary to achieve therapeutic CNS drug levels. Here, we demonstrate proper technique for three routes of systemic drug delivery: intravenous injection, intraperitoneal injection, and oral gavage. In addition, we show a method for local delivery to the brain: convection-enhanced delivery (CED). The use of fluorescently-labeled compounds is included for in vivo imaging and verification of proper drug administration. The methods are presented using murine models, but can easily be adapted for use in rats. PMID:20736920

  12. AEROMETRIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (AIRS) - GRAPHICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) is a computer-based repository of information about airborne pollution in the United States and various World Health Organization (WHO) member countries. AIRS is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and runs on t...

  13. Air Systems Provide Life Support to Miners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    Through a Space Act Agreement with Johnson Space Center, Paragon Space Development Corporation, of Tucson, Arizona, developed the Commercial Crew Transport-Air Revitalization System, designed to provide clean air for crewmembers on short-duration space flights. The technology is now being used to help save miners' lives in the event of an underground disaster.

  14. Solar-powered hot-air system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Solar-powered air heater supplies part or all of space heating requirements of residential or commercial buildings and is interfaced with air to water heat exchanger to heat domestic hot water. System has potential application in drying agricultural products such as cotton, lumber, corn, grains, and peanuts.

  15. Formulation and evaluation of nano based drug delivery system for the buccal delivery of acyclovir.

    PubMed

    Al-Dhubiab, Bandar E; Nair, Anroop B; Kumria, Rachna; Attimarad, Mahesh; Harsha, Sree

    2015-12-01

    Oral bioavailability of acyclovir is limited, primarily because of low permeability across the gastrointestinal membrane. The purpose of this study is the prospective evaluation of buccal films impregnated with acyclovir loaded nanospheres as a drug delivery system to improve systemic bioavailability. Acyclovir polymeric nanospheres were prepared by double emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Nanospheres were embedded into buccoadhesive films (A1-A4) comprising of different concentrations of polymers (Eudragit RL 100, HPMC K15 and carbopol 974P). Films were characterized for physico-mechanical properties, mucoadhesive strength, hydration, drug release and ex vivo permeation. In vivo studies were carried out on rabbits to assess the pharmacokinetic profile of buccal film (A3) as compared to oral therapy. The prepared films demonstrated excellent physical properties, adequate hydration and buccoadhesive strength. In vitro drug release data inferred that the drug release was dependent on the composition of film. Ex vivo permeation studies indicated greater flux in film A3. In vivo studies revealed a significant enhancement in absorption of acyclovir (P<0.0001) with Cmax (~3 folds) and AUC0-α (~8 folds, P<0.0001) when compared to oral dosing. Moreover, the extended Tmax value (6h) signifies the potential of the prepared film to prolong acyclovir delivery. Given the promising results, the study concludes that the developed buccal film (A3) impregnated with acyclovir loaded nanospheres could be a promising approach for effective delivery of acyclovir.

  16. Evolution of implantable and insertable drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Kleiner, Lothar W; Wright, Jeremy C; Wang, Yunbing

    2014-05-10

    The paper describes the development of implantable and insertable drug delivery systems (IDDS) from their early stage in the 1960s until the current stage in the 2010s. It gives a detailed summary of non-degradable and biodegradable systems and their applications in different areas such as vascular disease treatment, birth control, cancer treatment, and eye disease treatment. It also describes the development of various implantable pump systems and some other atypical IDDS, the challenges and the future of IDDS.

  17. Mercury sorbent delivery system for flue gas

    DOEpatents

    Klunder; ,Edgar B.

    2009-02-24

    The invention presents a device for the removal of elemental mercury from flue gas streams utilizing a layer of activated carbon particles contained within the filter fabric of a filter bag for use in a flue gas scrubbing system.

  18. New Concept Firefighting Agent Delivery System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    the firing system to operate properly. The actuator cylinder was controlled by a solenoid-operated spread bore poppet valve (Ross Mod. 2773B7001). For...feet. This load and distance represented the limits of the launcher system, and major modifications were undertaken to replace the firing valve , fit...PROTOTYPE DEVELOPM ENT ........................................ 28 A. PULSED-GAS VALVE LAUNCHER................... 28 ix TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED

  19. Autonomous Aerial Payload Delivery System Blizzard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    known systems. Another technique to achieve a high touchdown accuracy is networking, enabling communication between multiple descending ADSs, UAV...Global System for Mobile ( Communications ) MCCC = mission C2 center PATCAD = Precision Airdrop Technology Conference and Demonstration SA = situational... high performance gimbal (seen in Fig.1 and shown in more details in Fig.2) featuring a full 360° un-obstructed field of view, direct drive

  20. NimbleTools: A Universally Designed Test Delivery System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Michael; Hoffmann, Thomas; Higgins, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Students with disabilities and special needs have faced challenges in accessing educational content, and in taking traditional pen-and-paper tests. How might technology improve the process, while making statewide tests truly accessible to all students? NimbleTools is the first computer-based test delivery system that incorporates principles of…

  1. Current HPLC Methods for Assay of Nano Drug Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Tekkeli, Serife Evrim Kepekci; Kiziltas, Mustafa Volkan

    2016-12-22

    In nano drug formulations the mechanism of release is a critical process to recognize controlled and targeted drug delivery systems. In order to gain high bioavailability and specificity from the drug to reach its therapeutic goal, the active substance must be loaded into the nanoparticles efficiently. Therefore, the amount in biological fluids or tissues and the remaining amount in nano carriers are very important parameters to understand the potential of the nano drug delivery systems. For this aim, suitable and validated quantitation methods are required to determine released drug concentrations from nano pharmaceutical formulations. HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) is one of the most common techniques used for determination of released drug content out of nano drug formulations, in different physical conditions, over different periods of time. Since there are many types of HPLC methods depending on detector and column types, it is a challenge for the researchers to choose a suitable method that is simple, fast and validated HPLC techniques for their nano drug delivery systems. This review's goal is to compare HPLC methods that are currently used in different nano drug delivery systems in order to provide detailed and useful information for researchers.

  2. A Study of Alternative Delivery Systems for Audio Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Pat A.

    The Newark Audio Instruction Project determined and evaluated the cost benefits and efficiency factors in using FM main channel and subchannel, the school intercom system, and audio cassettes for delivery of instructional programming for grades K-9, and developed a master plan for integrating radio/audio instruction into the curriculum. A…

  3. Second-generation legal issues in integrated delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Teske, J M

    1995-01-01

    The formation and operation of integrated healthcare delivery systems raise significant legal issues. Some of these issues, such as antitrust, tax-exempt status, and fraud and abuse, have been discussed extensively. However, other legal issues, such as those involving management of business risk, use of systemwide information management, and securing of tax-exempt financing, have not received much attention.

  4. Noncontact laser fiber delivery system for endoscopic medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, Nikolay A.; Griffin, Stephen E.

    1999-02-01

    The objective of the study was to design and to investigate laser fiber delivery system for treatment of obstructed human internal tubular organs using endoscopic techniques. This system eliminates the main disadvantages of both applied contact and non-contact probes, namely surface contamination with concomitant hydrothermal probe deterioration and large beam divergence with poor energy density, respectively. Proposed silica or sapphire probes produce quasi-collimated beam with specific outside diameter and power distribution. To provide comparative analysis of laser delivery systems' optical properties with non-contact endoscopic probes 'steady beam distance' (SBD) and 'steady beam ratio' (SBR) coefficients are proposed. The calculation results are presented in the form of the plots of the SBR - coefficients and SBDs for a 2.0 mm specific outside beam diameter versus laser wavelength, delivery fiber core diameter and its numerical aperture for both probe material. Additionally, the cross power distributions along the SBD were studied. Results obtained could provide a useful tool to designers of non-contact fiber delivery systems intended for a variety of medical applications, including endoscopic surgery with cw or pulse laser tissue irradiation, skin de-epithelialization, laser-induced fluorescence and photodynamic therapy.

  5. The 2006 ACTER Presidential Address: The Premier Educational Delivery System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Jack

    2007-01-01

    In this address, ACTER President Jack Elliot states that Career and Technical Education (CTE) is the premier educational delivery system in the world. It addresses all learning styles by employing pedagogical strategies that embrace all of the multiple intelligence areas and incorporate the current knowledge in brain-based research. He discusses…

  6. Brucella spp. lumazine synthase: a novel antigen delivery system.

    PubMed

    Sciutto, Edda; Toledo, Andrea; Cruz, Carmen; Rosas, Gabriela; Meneses, Gabriela; Laplagne, Diego; Ainciart, Natalia; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Fragoso, Gladis; Goldbaum, Fernando A

    2005-04-15

    Lumazine synthase from Brucella spp. (BLS) was evaluated as a protein carrier to improve antigen delivery of KETc1, one of the peptides of the anti-cysticercosis vaccine. KETc1 becomes antigenic, preserved its immunogenicity and its protective capacity when expressed as a recombinant chimeric protein using Brucella spp. lumazine synthase. KETc1 and BLS-KETc1 were not MHC H-2(d), H-2(k) nor H-2(b) haplotype-restricted albeit KETc1 is preferentially presented in the H-2(b) haplotype. These findings support that BLS is a potent new delivery system for the improvement of subunit vaccines.

  7. Drug Delivery Systems and Combination Therapy by Using Vinca Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chun-Ting; Huang, Yen-Wei; Yang, Chih-Hui; Huang, Keng-Shiang

    2015-01-01

    Developing new methods for chemotherapy drug delivery has become a topic of great concern. Vinca alkaloids are among the most widely used chemotherapy reagents for tumor therapy; however, their side effects are particularly problematic for many medical doctors. To reduce the toxicity and enhance the therapeutic efficiency of vinca alkaloids, many researchers have developed strategies such as using liposome-entrapped drugs, chemical- or peptide-modified drugs, polymeric packaging drugs, and chemotherapy drug combinations. This review mainly focuses on the development of a vinca alkaloid drug delivery system and the combination therapy. Five vinca alkaloids (eg, vincristine, vinblastine, vinorelbine, vindesine, and vinflunine) are reviewed. PMID:25877096

  8. Drug Delivery Systems, CNS Protection, and the Blood Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Ravi Kant

    2014-01-01

    Present review highlights various drug delivery systems used for delivery of pharmaceutical agents mainly antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, neuropeptides, and other therapeutic substances through the endothelial capillaries (BBB) for CNS therapeutics. In addition, the use of ultrasound in delivery of therapeutic agents/biomolecules such as proline rich peptides, prodrugs, radiopharmaceuticals, proteins, immunoglobulins, and chimeric peptides to the target sites in deep tissue locations inside tumor sites of brain has been explained. In addition, therapeutic applications of various types of nanoparticles such as chitosan based nanomers, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, niosomes, beta cyclodextrin carriers, cholesterol mediated cationic solid lipid nanoparticles, colloidal drug carriers, liposomes, and micelles have been discussed with their recent advancements. Emphasis has been given on the need of physiological and therapeutic optimization of existing drug delivery methods and their carriers to deliver therapeutic amount of drug into the brain for treatment of various neurological diseases and disorders. Further, strong recommendations are being made to develop nanosized drug carriers/vehicles and noninvasive therapeutic alternatives of conventional methods for better therapeutics of CNS related diseases. Hence, there is an urgent need to design nontoxic biocompatible drugs and develop noninvasive delivery methods to check posttreatment clinical fatalities in neuropatients which occur due to existing highly toxic invasive drugs and treatment methods. PMID:25136634

  9. The effects of air leaks on solar air heating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkin, R.; Cash, M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation to determine the effects of leakages in collector and duct work on the system performance of a typical single-family residence solar air heating system. Positive (leakage out) and negative (leakage in) pressure systems were examined. Collector and duct leakage rates were varied from 10 to 30 percent of the system flow rate. Within the range of leakage rates investigated, solar contribution to heated space and domestic hot water loads was found to be reduced up to 30 percent from the no-leak system contribution with duct leakage equally divided between supply and return duct; with supply duct leakage greater than return leakage a reduction of up to 35 percent was noted. The negative pressure system exhibited a reduction in solar contribution somewhat larger than the positive pressure system for the same leakage rates.

  10. Crystallization Methods for Preparation of Nanocrystals for Drug Delivery System.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Wang, Jingkang; Wang, Yongli; Yin, Qiuxiang; Glennon, Brian; Zhong, Jian; Ouyang, Jinbo; Huang, Xin; Hao, Hongxun

    2015-01-01

    Low water solubility of drug products causes delivery problems such as low bioavailability. The reduced particle size and increased surface area of nanocrystals lead to the increasing of the dissolution rate. The formulation of drug nanocrystals is a robust approach and has been widely applied to drug delivery system (DDS) due to the significant development of nanoscience and nanotechnology. It can be used to improve drug efficacy, provide targeted delivery and minimize side-effects. Crystallization is the main and efficient unit operation to produce nanocrystals. Both traditional crystallization methods such as reactive crystallization, anti-solvent crystallization and new crystallization methods such as supercritical fluid crystallization, high-gravity controlled precipitation can be used to produce nanocrystals. The current mini-review outlines the main crystallization methods addressed in literature. The advantages and disadvantages of each method were summarized and compared.

  11. Medicated chewing gum, a novel drug delivery system

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Rostami, Farnaz

    2015-01-01

    New formulations and technologies have been developed through oral drug delivery systems’ researches. Such researches display significance of oral route amongst patients. We’ve reviewed all the features associated with medicated chewing gum as a modern drug delivery by introducing the history, advantages and disadvantages, methods of manufacturing, composition differences, evaluation tests and examples of varieties of medicated chewing gums. Acceptance of medicated chewing gum has been augmented through years. The advantages and therapeutic benefits of chewing gum support its development as we can see new formulations with new drugs contained have been produced from past and are going to find a place in market by formulation of new medicated chewing gums. Potential applications of medicated chewing gums are highly widespread as they will be recognized in future. Nowadays standards for qualifying chewing gums are the same as tablets. Patient-centered studies include medicated chewing gums as a delivery system too which creates compliance for patients. PMID:26109999

  12. 3-dimensional (3D) fabricated polymer based drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Moulton, Simon E; Wallace, Gordon G

    2014-11-10

    Drug delivery from 3-dimensional (3D) structures is a rapidly growing area of research. It is essential to achieve structures wherein drug stability is ensured, the drug loading capacity is appropriate and the desired controlled release profile can be attained. Attention must also be paid to the development of appropriate fabrication machinery that allows 3D drug delivery systems (DDS) to be produced in a simple, reliable and reproducible manner. The range of fabrication methods currently being used to form 3D DDSs include electrospinning (solution and melt), wet-spinning and printing (3-dimensional). The use of these techniques enables production of DDSs from the macro-scale down to the nano-scale. This article reviews progress in these fabrication techniques to form DDSs that possess desirable drug delivery kinetics for a wide range of applications.

  13. Intranasal delivery of biologics to the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Lochhead, Jeffrey J; Thorne, Robert G

    2012-05-15

    Treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases is very difficult due to the blood-brain barrier's (BBB) ability to severely restrict entry of all but small, non-polar compounds. Intranasal administration is a non-invasive method of drug delivery which may bypass the BBB to allow therapeutic substances direct access to the CNS. Intranasal delivery of large molecular weight biologics such as proteins, gene vectors, and stem cells is a potentially useful strategy to treat a variety of diseases/disorders of the CNS including stroke, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, and psychiatric disorders. Here we give an overview of relevant nasal anatomy and physiology and discuss the pathways and mechanisms likely involved in drug transport from the nasal epithelium to the CNS. Finally we review both pre-clinical and clinical studies involving intranasal delivery of biologics to the CNS.

  14. Electrohydrodynamics: A facile technique to fabricate drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Syandan; Liao, I-Chien; Adler, Andrew; Leong, Kam W.

    2009-01-01

    Electrospinning and electrospraying are facile electrohydrodynamic fabrication methods that can generate drug delivery systems (DDS) through a one-step process. The nano-structured fiber and particle morphologies produced by these techniques offer tunable release kinetics applicable to diverse biomedical applications. Coaxial-electrospinning/electrospraying, a relatively new technique of fabricating core-shell fibers/particles have added to the versatility of these DDS by affording a near zero-order drug release kinetics, dampening of burst release, and applicability to a wider range of bioactive agents. Controllable electrospinning/spraying of fibers and particles and subsequent drug release from these chiefly polymeric vehicles depends on well-defined solution and process parameters. The additional drug delivery capability from electrospun fibers can further enhance the material’s functionality in tissue engineering applications. This review discusses the state-of-the-art of using electrohydrodynamic technique to generate nano-fiber/particles as drug delivery devices. PMID:19651167

  15. Delivery of 1.9μm laser radiation using air-core Bragg fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Milan; Jelínek, Michal; Kubeček, Václav; Podrazký, Ondřej; Kašík, Ivan; Matějec, Vlastimil

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we have investigated Bragg fibers for the 1.94 μm laser- radiation delivery generated by a thulium fiber laser with a maximal continuous output power 50W. For such investigation laboratory-designed and fabricated hollow-core Bragg fibers have been employed with different diameters of 5, 40, 56 and 73 μm surrounded by three pairs of circular Bragg layers. Fundamental optical characteristics such as overall transmittance, attenuation coefficient, bending losses, and delivered spatial beam profiles at the wavelength of 1.94 μm for all tested fibers are reported and summarized in this contribution. In the case of laser radiation delivery with the intensity of 65 kW/cm2, the lowest attenuation coefficient of 1.278 dB/m was determined for the Bragg fiber with the inner air-core diameter of 56 μm. Moreover, the bending losses for a small bend diameter of 15 mm reached 0.177 dB only. However delivered laser radiation was highly multimode character.

  16. Determination of the Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) of Photocatalytic Oxidation (PCO) Purifiers for Indoor Air Pollutants Using a Closed-Loop Reactor. Part I: Theoretical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Éric; Héquet, Valérie

    2017-03-06

    This study demonstrated that a laboratory-scale recirculation closed-loop reactor can be an efficient technique for the determination of the Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) of PhotoCatalytic Oxidation (PCO) air purification devices. The recirculation closed-loop reactor was modeled by associating equations related to two ideal reactors: one is a perfectly mixed reservoir and the other is a plug flow system corresponding to the PCO device itself. Based on the assumption that the ratio between the residence time in the PCO device and the residence time in the reservoir τP/τR tends to 0, the model highlights that a lab closed-loop reactor can be a suitable technique for the determination of the efficiency of PCO devices. Moreover, if the single-pass removal efficiency is lower than 5% of the treated flow rate, the decrease in the pollutant concentration over time can be characterized by a first-order decay model in which the time constant is proportional to the CADR. The limits of the model are examined and reported in terms of operating conditions (experiment duration, ratio of residence times, and flow rate ranges).

  17. Review of Innovative Sediment Delivery Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Alternative conveyor belt systems appear to be available from the growing hydraulic fracturing ( fracking , shale gas recovery) industry, which use...tons of aggregate material (with diameters up to 2 in.) per hour. This equates to roughly 150 cu yd per hr, de- pending on sand density. As fracking

  18. Chitosan nanoparticle based delivery systems for sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Prem Lal; Xiang, Xu; Heiden, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Development of technologies that improve food productivity without any adverse impact on the ecosystem is the need of hour. In this context, development of controlled delivery systems for slow and sustained release of agrochemicals or genetic materials is crucial. Chitosan has emerged as a valuable carrier for controlled delivery of agrochemicals and genetic materials because of its proven biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity, and adsorption abilities. The major advantages of encapsulating agrochemicals and genetic material in a chitosan matrix include its ability to function as a protective reservoir for the active ingredients, protecting the ingredients from the surrounding environment while they are in the chitosan domain, and then controlling their release, allowing them to serve as efficient gene delivery systems for plant transformation or controlled release of pesticides. Despite the great progress in the use of chitosan in the area of medical and pharmaceutical sciences, there is still a wide knowledge gap regarding the potential application of chitosan for encapsulation of active ingredients in agriculture. Hence, the present article describes the current status of chitosan nanoparticle-based delivery systems in agriculture, and to highlight challenges that need to be overcome.

  19. Interpenetrating Polymer Networks as Innovative Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lohani, Alka; Singh, Garima; Bhattacharya, Shiv Sankar; Verma, Anurag

    2014-01-01

    Polymers have always been valuable excipients in conventional dosage forms, also have shown excellent performance into the parenteral arena, and are now capable of offering advanced and sophisticated functions such as controlled drug release and drug targeting. Advances in polymer science have led to the development of several novel drug delivery systems. Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) have shown superior performances over the conventional individual polymers and, consequently, the ranges of applications have grown rapidly for such class of materials. The advanced properties of IPNs like swelling capacity, stability, biocompatibility, nontoxicity and biodegradability have attracted considerable attention in pharmaceutical field especially in delivering bioactive molecules to the target site. In the past few years various research reports on the IPN based delivery systems showed that these carriers have emerged as a novel carrier in controlled drug delivery. The present review encompasses IPNs, their types, method of synthesis, factors which affects the morphology of IPNs, extensively studied IPN based drug delivery systems, and some natural polymers widely used for IPNs. PMID:24949205

  20. Self emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) for phytoconstituents: a review.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, Neeraj; Mittal, Vineet; Kaushik, Deepak; Khatkar, Anurag; Raina, Mitali

    2015-01-01

    The self emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) is considered to be the novel technique for the delivery of lipophillic plant actives. The self emulsifying (SE) formulation significantly enhance the solubility and bioavailability of poorly aqueous soluble phytoconstituents. The self emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) can be developed for such plant actives to enhance the oral bioavailability using different excipients (lipid, surfactant, co solvent etc.) and their concentration is selected on the basis of pre formulation studies like phase equilibrium studies, solvent capacity of oil for drug and mutual miscibility of excipients. The present review focuses mainly on the development of SEDDS and effect of excipients on oral bioavailability and aqueous solubility of poorly water soluble phytoconstituents/ derived products. A recent list of patents issued for self emulsifying herbal formulation has also been included. The research data for various self emulsifying herbal formulation and patents issued were reviewed using different databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Google patents, Scopus and Web of Science. In a nutshell, we can say that SEDDS was established as a novel drug delivery system for herbals and with the advances in this technique, lots of patents on herbal SEDDS can be translated into the commercial products.

  1. Steerable/distance enhanced penetrometer delivery system

    SciTech Connect

    Amini, A.; Boyd, G.M.

    1996-12-31

    Characterization, monitoring, and remediation of many of the nation`s highly contaminated sites are high priority at DOE. Penetrometers are often used for rapid characterization of underground contamination (plumes). Because of their heavy weight, use of penetrometer trucks over shallow buried storage tanks is restricted and risky. To close this gap, UTD developed a new position location device for penetrometers, called POLO (POsition LOcator), which provides real- time position location without blocking downhole access for environmental sensors. UTD also developed a system to make penetrometers steerable and capable of deeper penetration. Products of this work is a Steerable Vibratory System, which a relatively lightweight rig capable of greater penetration than traditional penetrometers of the same weight.

  2. Direct current power delivery system and method

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Di; Garces, Luis Jose; Dai, Jian; Lai, Rixin

    2016-09-06

    A power transmission system includes a first unit for carrying out the steps of receiving high voltage direct current (HVDC) power from an HVDC power line, generating an alternating current (AC) component indicative of a status of the first unit, and adding the AC component to the HVDC power line. Further, the power transmission system includes a second unit for carrying out the steps of generating a direct current (DC) voltage to transfer the HVDC power on the HVDC power line, wherein the HVDC power line is coupled between the first unit and the second unit, detecting a presence or an absence of the added AC component in the HVDC power line, and determining the status of the first unit based on the added AC component.

  3. Fluid delivery manifolds and microfluidic systems

    DOEpatents

    Renzi, Ronald F.; Sommer, Gregory J.; Singh, Anup K.; Hatch, Anson V.; Claudnic, Mark R.; Wang, Ying-Chih; Van de Vreugde, James L.

    2017-02-28

    Embodiments of fluid distribution manifolds, cartridges, and microfluidic systems are described herein. Fluid distribution manifolds may include an insert member and a manifold base and may define a substantially closed channel within the manifold when the insert member is press-fit into the base. Cartridges described herein may allow for simultaneous electrical and fluidic interconnection with an electrical multiplex board and may be held in place using magnetic attraction.

  4. Applications of polymers in intraocular drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Alhalafi, Ali Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    We are entering a new era of ophthalmic pharmacology where new drugs are rapidly being developed for the treatment of anterior and posterior segment of the eye disease. The pharmacokinetics of drug delivery to the eye remains a very active area of ophthalmic research. Intraocular drug delivery systems allow the release of the drug, bypassing the blood-ocular barrier. The main advantage of these preparations is that they can release the drug over a long time with one single administration. These pharmaceutical systems are of great important in the treatment of the posterior segment diseases, and they can be prepared from biodegradable or nonbiodegradable polymers. Biodegradable polymers have the advantage of disappearing from the site of action after releasing the drug. The majority of intraocular devices are prepared from nonbiodegradable polymers, and they can release controlled amounts of drugs for months. Nonbiodegradable polymers include silicone, polyvinyl alcohol, and ethylene-vinyl acetate. The polymers usually employed to prepare nanoparticles for the topical ophthalmic route are poly (acrylic acid) derivatives (polyalquilcyanocrylates), albumin, poly-ε-caprolactone, and chitosan. Dendrimers are a recent class of polymeric materials with unique nanostructure which has been studied to discover their role in the delivery of therapeutics and imaging agents. Hydrogels are polymers that can swell in aqueous solvent system, and they hold the solvents in a swollen cross-linked gel for delivery. This review exhibits the current literature regarding applications of polymers in ophthalmic drug delivery systems including pharmacokinetics, advantages, disadvantages, and indications aimed to obtain successful eye therapy. Method of Literature Search: A systematic literature review was performed using PubMed databases into two steps. The first step was oriented to classification of intraocular polymers implants focusing on their advantages and disadvantages. The second

  5. Air quality and future energy system planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobral Mourao, Zenaida; Konadu, Dennis; Lupton, Rick

    2016-04-01

    Ambient air pollution has been linked to an increasing number of premature deaths throughout the world. Projected increases in demand for food, energy resources and manufactured products will likely contribute to exacerbate air pollution with an increasing impact on human health, agricultural productivity and climate change. Current events such as tampering emissions tests by VW car manufacturers, failure to comply with EU Air Quality directives and WHO guidelines by many EU countries, the problem of smog in Chinese cities and new industrial emissions regulations represent unique challenges but also opportunities for regulators, local authorities and industry. However current models and practices of energy and resource use do not consider ambient air impacts as an integral part of the planing process. Furthermore the analysis of drivers, sources and impacts of air pollution is often fragmented, difficult to understand and lacks effective visualization tools that bring all of these components together. This work aims to develop a model that links impacts of air quality on human health and ecosystems to current and future developments in the energy system, industrial and agricultural activity and patterns of land use. The model will be added to the ForeseerTM tool, which is an integrated resource analysis platform that has been developed at the University of Cambridge initially with funding from BP and more recently through the EPSRC funded Whole Systems Energy Modeling (WholeSEM) project. The basis of the tool is a set of linked physical models for energy, water and land, including the technologies that are used to transform these resources into final services such as housing, food, transport and household goods. The new air quality model will explore different feedback effects between energy, land and atmospheric systems with the overarching goal of supporting better communication about the drivers of air quality and to incorporate concerns about air quality into

  6. Achieving breakthrough performance in an integrated delivery system.

    PubMed

    Kelliher, M

    1995-01-01

    The challenges facing Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Massachusetts were considerable. Its products were largely indemnity-oriented. Its cost structure was high compared to the newer managed care industry. Its service culture was more internally directed than the competition. Its financing and payment systems were not well integrated into the delivery system. The ultimate challenge in the face of an increasingly competitive environment was to reengineer the company.

  7. Miniature Videoprobe Hockey Stick Delivery System

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, Lester R.; McMurry, Kyle M.

    1998-06-18

    The present invention is a miniature videoprobe system having a probe termination box, a strong back, and a videoprobe housing. The videoprobe system is able to obtain images from a restricted space at least as small as 0.125 inches while producing a high quality image. The strong back has a hockey stick shape with the probe termination box connecting to the top of the handle-like portion of the hockey stick and the videoprobe housing attaching to the opposite end or nose of the hockey stick shape. The videoprobe housing has a roughly arrowhead shape with two thin steel plates sandwiching the internal components there between. The internal components are connected in series to allow for a minor dimension of the videoprobe housing of 0.110 inches. The internal components include an optics train, a CCD chip, and an electronics package. An electrical signal is transmitted from the electronics package through wiring within an internal channel of the strong back to the probe termination box. The strong back has milled into it multiple internal channels for facilitating the transfer of information, items, or devices between the probe termination box and the videoprobe housing.

  8. HIV: challenging the health care delivery system.

    PubMed Central

    Levi, J; Kates, J

    2000-01-01

    HIV offers a lens through which the underlying problems of the US health care system can be examined. New treatments offer the potential of prolonged quality of life for people living with HIV if they have adequate access to health care. However, increasing numbers of new cases of HIV occur among individuals with poor access to health care. Restrictions on eligibility for Medicaid (and state-by-state variability) contribute to uneven access to the most important safety net source of HIV care financing, while relatively modest discretionary programs attempt to fill in the gap with an ever-increasing caseload. Many poor people with HIV are going without care, even though aggregate public spending on HIV-related care will total $7.7 billion in fiscal year 2000, an amount sufficient to cover the care costs of one half of those living with HIV. But inefficiencies and inequities in the system (both structural and geographic) require assessment of the steps that can be taken to create a more rational model of care financing for people living with HIV that could become a model for all chronic diseases. PMID:10897178

  9. Highly integrated system solutions for air conditioning.

    PubMed

    Bartz, Horst

    2002-08-01

    Starting with the air handling unit, new features concerning energy efficient air treatment in combination with optimisation of required space were presented. Strategic concepts for the supply of one or more operating suites with a modular based air handling system were discussed. The operating theatre ceiling itself, as a major part of the whole integrated system, is no longer a simple air outlet: additional functions have been added in so-called media-bridges, so that it has changed towards a medical apparatus serving as a daily tool for the physicians and the operating staff. Last and not least, the servicing of the whole system has become an integral part of the facility management with remote access to the main functions and controls. The results are understood to be the basis for a discussion with specialists from medical and hygienic disciplines as well as with technically orientated people representing the hospital and building-engineering.

  10. Brain-specific delivery of naproxen using different carrier systems.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Sheha; Mohammad, Alhawi

    2010-11-01

    Naproxen is one of the most potent NSAIDs and plays an important role in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Poor brain delivery of naproxen at therapeutic doses, in addition to its serious gastrointestinal side effects, has prompted research into the development of a specific carrier system that is capable of delivering naproxen to the brain at smaller doses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate two brain-specific carrier systems of naproxen. The first was the dihydropyridine/pyridinium redox system that utilized a lipophilic chemical delivery system coupled to the carboxylic acid group of naproxen through an ethanolamine linker. Secondly, an ascorbic acid system, which has reducing properties and acts as a biological carrier through sodium-dependent vitamin-C transporter, was used for brain-specific delivery of naproxen. The prepared prodrugs were stable in aqueous buffers (pH 1.2 and 7.4) and rapidly hydrolyzed in biological fluids. Bioavailability studies revealed that both prodrugs 10 and 17 were rapidly cleared from blood with half lives of about 1 h, which will likely decrease systemic adverse effects. The rapid clearance from the blood was accompanied by an increase in the prodrug concentration in the brain, which occurred as a result of the prodrug being more locked in compared to the parent drug naproxen.

  11. Systemic Analysis Approaches for Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Air transportation system designers have had only limited success using traditional operations research and parametric modeling approaches in their analyses of innovations. They need a systemic methodology for modeling of safety-critical infrastructure that is comprehensive, objective, and sufficiently concrete, yet simple enough to be used with reasonable investment. The methodology must also be amenable to quantitative analysis so issues of system safety and stability can be rigorously addressed. However, air transportation has proven itself an extensive, complex system whose behavior is difficult to describe, no less predict. There is a wide range of system analysis techniques available, but some are more appropriate for certain applications than others. Specifically in the area of complex system analysis, the literature suggests that both agent-based models and network analysis techniques may be useful. This paper discusses the theoretical basis for each approach in these applications, and explores their historic and potential further use for air transportation analysis.

  12. Magnetic nanoparticles as targeted delivery systems in oncology

    PubMed Central

    Prijic, Sara; Sersa, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    Background Many different types of nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles being just a category among them, offer exciting opportunities for technologies at the interfaces between chemistry, physics and biology. Some magnetic nanoparticles have already been utilized in clinical practice as contrast enhancing agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, their physicochemical properties are constantly being improved upon also for other biological applications, such as magnetically-guided delivery systems for different therapeutics. By exposure of magnetic nanoparticles with attached therapeutics to an external magnetic field with appropriate characteristics, they are concentrated and retained at the preferred site which enables the targeted delivery of therapeutics to the desired spot. Conclusions The idea of binding chemotherapeutics to magnetic nanoparticles has been around for 30 years, however, no magnetic nanoparticles as delivery systems have yet been approved for clinical practice. Recently, binding of nucleic acids to magnetic nanoparticles has been demonstrated as a successful non-viral transfection method of different cell lines in vitro. With the optimization of this method called magnetofection, it will hopefully become another form of gene delivery for the treatment of cancer. PMID:22933928

  13. Using DNA nanotechnology to produce a drug delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huyen La, Thi; Thu Thuy Nguyen, Thi; Phuc Pham, Van; Huyen Nguyen, Thi Minh; Huan Le, Quang

    2013-03-01

    Drug delivery to cancer cells in chemotherapy is one of the most advanced research topics. The effectiveness of the current cancer treatment drugs is limited because they are not capable of distinguishing between cancer cells and normal cells so that they kill not only cancer cells but also normal ones. To overcome this disadvantage by profiting from the differences in physical and chemical properties between cancer and normal cells, nanoparticles (NPs) delivering a drug are designed in a specific manner such that they can distinguish the cancer cells from the normal ones and are targeted only to the cancer cells. Currently, there are various drug delivery systems with many advantages, but sharing some common disadvantages such as difficulty with controlling the size, low encapsulation capacity and low stability. With the development and success of DNA nanotechnology, DNA strands are used to create effective drug delivery NPs with precisely controlled size and structure, safety and high stability. This article presents our study on drug encapsulation in DNA nanostructure which loaded docetaxel and curcumin in a desire to create a new and effective drug delivery system with high biological compatibility. Invited talk at the 6th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology, 30 October-2 November, 2012, Ha Long, Vietnam.

  14. Exosome mimetics: a novel class of drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Kooijmans, Sander A A; Vader, Pieter; van Dommelen, Susan M; van Solinge, Wouter W; Schiffelers, Raymond M

    2012-01-01

    The identification of extracellular phospholipid vesicles as conveyors of cellular information has created excitement in the field of drug delivery. Biological therapeutics, including short interfering RNA and recombinant proteins, are prone to degradation, have limited ability to cross biological membranes, and may elicit immune responses. Therefore, delivery systems for such drugs are under intensive investigation. Exploiting extracellular vesicles as carriers for biological therapeutics is a promising strategy to overcome these issues and to achieve efficient delivery to the cytosol of target cells. Exosomes are a well studied class of extracellular vesicles known to carry proteins and nucleic acids, making them especially suitable for such strategies. However, the considerable complexity and the related high chance of off-target effects of these carriers are major barriers for translation to the clinic. Given that it is well possible that not all components of exosomes are required for their proper functioning, an alternative strategy would be to mimic these vesicles synthetically. By assembly of liposomes harboring only crucial components of natural exosomes, functional exosome mimetics may be created. The low complexity and use of well characterized components strongly increase the pharmaceutical acceptability of such systems. However, exosomal components that would be required for the assembly of functional exosome mimetics remain to be identified. This review provides insights into the composition and functional properties of exosomes, and focuses on components which could be used to enhance the drug delivery properties of exosome mimetics.

  15. An emerging platform for drug delivery: aerogel based systems.

    PubMed

    Ulker, Zeynep; Erkey, Can

    2014-03-10

    Over the past few decades, advances in "aerogel science" have provoked an increasing interest for these materials in pharmaceutical sciences for drug delivery applications. Because of their high surface areas, high porosities and open pore structures which can be tuned and controlled by manipulation of synthesis conditions, nanostructured aerogels represent a promising class of materials for delivery of various drugs as well as enzymes and proteins. Along with biocompatible inorganic aerogels and biodegradable organic aerogels, more complex systems such as surface functionalized aerogels, composite aerogels and layered aerogels have also been under development and possess huge potential. Emphasis is given to the details of the aerogel synthesis and drug loading methods as well as the influence of synthesis parameters and loading methods on the adsorption and release of the drugs. Owing to their ability to increase the bioavailability of low solubility drugs, to improve both their stability and their release kinetics, there are an increasing number of research articles concerning aerogels in different drug delivery applications. This review presents an up to date overview of the advances in all kinds of aerogel based drug delivery systems which are currently under investigation.

  16. Emulsion forming drug delivery system for lipophilic drugs.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Jyoti; Nair, Anroop; Kumria, Rachna

    2012-01-01

    In the recent years, there is a growing interest in the lipid-based formulations for delivery of lipophilic drugs. Due to their potential as therapeutic agents, preferably these lipid soluble drugs are incorporated into inert lipid carriers such as oils, surfactant dispersions, emulsions, liposomes etc. Among them, emulsion forming drug delivery systems appear to be a unique and industrially feasible approach to overcome the problem of low oral bioavailability associated with the BCS class II drugs. Self-emulsifying formulations are ideally isotropic mixtures of oils, surfactants and co-solvents that emulsify to form fine oil in water emulsions when introduced in aqueous media. Fine oil droplets would pass rapidly from stomach and promote wide distribution of drug throughout the GI tract, thereby overcome the slow dissolution step typically observed with solid dosage forms. Recent advances in drug carrier technologies have promulgated the development of novel drug carriers such as control release self-emulsifying pellets, microspheres, tablets, capsules etc. that have boosted the use of "self-emulsification" in drug delivery. This article reviews the different types of formulations and excipients used in emulsion forming drug delivery system to enhance the bioavailability of lipophilic drugs.

  17. Dose error analysis for a scanned proton beam delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutrakon, G.; Wang, N.; Miller, D. W.; Yang, Y.

    2010-12-01

    All particle beam scanning systems are subject to dose delivery errors due to errors in position, energy and intensity of the delivered beam. In addition, finite scan speeds, beam spill non-uniformities, and delays in detector, detector electronics and magnet responses will all contribute errors in delivery. In this paper, we present dose errors for an 8 × 10 × 8 cm3 target of uniform water equivalent density with 8 cm spread out Bragg peak and a prescribed dose of 2 Gy. Lower doses are also analyzed and presented later in the paper. Beam energy errors and errors due to limitations of scanning system hardware have been included in the analysis. By using Gaussian shaped pencil beams derived from measurements in the research room of the James M Slater Proton Treatment and Research Center at Loma Linda, CA and executing treatment simulations multiple times, statistical dose errors have been calculated in each 2.5 mm cubic voxel in the target. These errors were calculated by delivering multiple treatments to the same volume and calculating the rms variation in delivered dose at each voxel in the target. The variations in dose were the result of random beam delivery errors such as proton energy, spot position and intensity fluctuations. The results show that with reasonable assumptions of random beam delivery errors, the spot scanning technique yielded an rms dose error in each voxel less than 2% or 3% of the 2 Gy prescribed dose. These calculated errors are within acceptable clinical limits for radiation therapy.

  18. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake... STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.57 Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem. The following requirements apply to vehicles with air brake and...

  19. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake... STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.57 Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem. The following requirements apply to vehicles with air brake and...

  20. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake... STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.57 Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem. The following requirements apply to vehicles with air brake and...

  1. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake... STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.57 Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem. The following requirements apply to vehicles with air brake and...

  2. A summary of porous tube plant nutrient delivery system investigations from 1985 to 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreschel, T. W.; Brown, C. S.; Piastuch, W. C.; Hinkle, C. R.; Sager, J. C.; Wheeler, R. M.; Knott, W. M.

    1992-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program is a research effort to evaluate biological processes at a one person scale to provide air, water, and food for humans in closed environments for space habitation. This program focuses currently on the use of conventional crop plants and the use of hydroponic systems to grow them. Because conventional hydroponic systems are dependent on gravity to conduct solution flow, they cannot be used in the microgravity of space. Thus, there is a need for a system that will deliver water and nutrients to plant roots under microgravity conditions. The Plant Space Biology Program is interested in investigating the effect that the space environment has on the growth and development of plants. Thus, there is also a need to have a standard nutrient delivery method for growing plants in space for research into plant responses to microgravity. The Porous Tube Plant Nutrient Delivery System (PTPNDS) utilizes a hydrophilic, microporous material to control water and nutrient delivery to plant roots. It has been designed and analyzed to support plant growth independent of gravity and plans are progressing to test it in microgravity. It has been used successfully to grow food crops to maturity in an earth-bound laboratory. This document includes a bibliography and summary reports from the growth trials performed utilizing the PTPNDS.

  3. Nursing Services Delivery Theory: an open system approach

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Raquel M; O’Brien-Pallas, Linda L

    2010-01-01

    meyer r.m. & o’brien-pallas l.l. (2010)Nursing services delivery theory: an open system approach. Journal of Advanced Nursing66(12), 2828–2838. Aim This paper is a discussion of the derivation of the Nursing Services Delivery Theory from the application of open system theory to large-scale organizations. Background The underlying mechanisms by which staffing indicators influence outcomes remain under-theorized and unmeasured, resulting in a ‘black box’ that masks the nature and organization of nursing work. Theory linking nursing work, staffing, work environments, and outcomes in different settings is urgently needed to inform management decisions about the allocation of nurse staffing resources in organizations. Data sources A search of CINAHL and Business Source Premier for the years 1980–2008 was conducted using the following terms: theory, models, organization, organizational structure, management, administration, nursing units, and nursing. Seminal works were included. Discussion The healthcare organization is conceptualized as an open system characterized by energy transformation, a dynamic steady state, negative entropy, event cycles, negative feedback, differentiation, integration and coordination, and equifinality. The Nursing Services Delivery Theory proposes that input, throughput, and output factors interact dynamically to influence the global work demands placed on nursing work groups at the point of care in production subsystems. Implications for nursing The Nursing Services Delivery Theory can be applied to varied settings, cultures, and countries and supports the study of multi-level phenomena and cross-level effects. Conclusion The Nursing Services Delivery Theory gives a relational structure for reconciling disparate streams of research related to nursing work, staffing, and work environments. The theory can guide future research and the management of nursing services in large-scale healthcare organizations. PMID:20831573

  4. Integrated delivery systems: mergers and acquisitions.

    PubMed

    Pinkerton, S

    1999-01-01

    Mergers and acquisitions are usually the way an IDS is built. The CNO and/or CNOs/DONs have an integral role in the resolution of the M/A process. During this time of significant change, during which there may even be chaos, the CNOs work to maintain stability so there is as little impact as possible on patient outcomes, a core responsibility of the CNOs. The CNOs should focus on identifying and working with the highly skilled individuals in the organization to get to the recovery stage of the M/A process, at which time a high-performing organization is achieved. To build this new organization or IDS, the old organizations of the M/A must be changed (Moss Kanter, 1994). The successful CNOs will manage the trade-offs and will become experts in collaboration. The CNO's goals are to maximize the quality of patient care, the professional satisfaction of the nurse, and the goals of achieving cost effectiveness for the system (Clifford, 1998), and keeping this focus through the M/A process will yield success.

  5. Advancing polymeric delivery systems amidst a nucleic acid therapy renaissance

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Paul A.; Pun, Suzie H.; Reineke, Theresa M.

    2013-01-01

    Nucleic acid therapeutics are attracting renewed interest due to recent clinical advances and product approvals. Most leading programs use chemical conjugates, or viral vectors in the case of gene therapy, while several use no delivery system at all. Polymer systems, which have been at the periphery of this renaissance, often involve greater molecular complexity than competing approaches, which must be justified by their advantages. Advanced analytical methods, along with biological tools for characterizing biotransformation and intracellular trafficking, are increasingly being applied to nucleic acid delivery systems including those based on polymers. These frontiers of investigation create the opportunity for an era where highly defined polymer compositions are optimized based on mechanistic insights in a way that has not been previously possible, offering the prospect of greater differentiation from alternatives. This will require integrated collaboration between polymer scientists and those from other disciplines. PMID:24683504

  6. The design and performance of the exubera pulmonary insulin delivery system.

    PubMed

    Harper, Nancy J; Gray, Steven; De Groot, Jennifer; Parker, Joann M; Sadrzadeh, Negar; Schuler, Carlos; Schumacher, Jacqueline D; Seshadri, Sangita; Smith, Adrian E; Steeno, Gregory S; Stevenson, Cynthia L; Taniere, Romain; Wang, May; Bennett, David B

    2007-06-01

    The Exubera system (Pfizer, New York, NY/Nektar Therapeutics, San Carlos, CA) is an integration of five major new technologies: protein formulation, powder processing, powder filling, drug packaging, and delivery device. The product provides a simple interface, where the patient interacts only with the delivery device and powder packaging. These components were designed together to assure repeatable dosing when used by a wide range of patients under real-world life-style and handling conditions. The device design is purely mechanical, using patient-generated compressed air as the energy source. Upon actuation, a sonic discharge of air through the novel release unit reproducibly extracts, de-agglomerates, and disperses the inhalation powder into a respirable aerosol. A clear holding chamber allows for patient feedback via dose visualization and separates aerosol cloud generation from the inspiratory effort. The Exubera product was tested under a wide range of typical use conditions and potential misuse scenarios and following long-term usage in clinical trials. These comprehensive characterization programs demonstrated robust aerosol and mechanical performance, confirming the design intent of the inhaler. These studies provide assurance of consistent and reliable dose delivery in a real-world use of the product.

  7. An Analysis of the Design-Build Delivery Approach in Air Force Military Construction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Budget projects awarded NLT 31 Mar 06. Congressional Insert Projects FY06 Congressional Insert projects awarded NLT 30 Sep 06 CWE/PA Ratio The sum of the...Pacific Air Forces (PACAF) (2004). Automated Civil Engineer System Project Management (ACES-PM) Desktop Reference Manual. Conifer CO: OLA

  8. Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Enthusiasm greeted the development of synthetic organic insecticides in the mid-twentieth century, only to see this give way to dismay and eventually scepticism and outright opposition by some. Regardless of how anyone feels about this issue, insecticides and other pesticides have become indispensable, which creates something of a dilemma. Possibly as a result of the shift in public attitude towards insecticides, genetic engineering of microbes was first met with scepticism and caution among scientists. Later, the development of genetically modified crop plants was met with an attitude that hardened into both acceptance and hard-core resistance. Transgenic insects, which came along at the dawn of the twenty-first century, encountered an entrenched opposition. Those of us responsible for studying the protection of crops have been affected more or less by these protagonist and antagonistic positions, and the experiences have often left one thoughtfully mystified as decisions are made by non-participants. Most of the issues boil down to concerns over delivery mechanisms. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry PMID:23852646

  9. Chitosan-based delivery systems for diclofenac delivery: preparation and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreve, Simina; Kacso, Irina; Bratu, Ioan; Indrea, Emil

    2009-08-01

    The preparation and characterization of novel materials for drug delivery has rapidly gained importance in development of innovative medicine. The paper concerns the uses of chitosan as an excipient in oral formulations and as a drug delivery vehicle for burnt painful injuries. The use of chitosan (CTS) as base in polyelectrolyte complex systems, to prepare liquid release systems as hydrogels and solid release systems as sponges is presented. In this paper the preparation of CTS hydrogels and sponges carrying diclofenac (DCF), as anti-inflammatory drug is reported. The immobilization of DCF in CTS is done by mixing the CTS hydrogel with the anti-inflammatory drug solutions. The concentration of anti-inflammatory drug in the CTS hydrogel generating the sponges was of 57 mg/l, 72 mg/l and 114 mg/l. The CTS sponges with anti-inflammatory drugs were prepared by freeze-drying at -610°C and 0,09 atm. The characterization of the hydrogels and sponges was done by infrared spectra (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS). The results indicated the formation of CTS-DCF intermediates. The DCF molecules are forming temporary chelates in CTS hydrogels and sponges and they are compatible with skin or some of biological fluids with satisfactory results.

  10. Chronopharmaceutical Drug Delivery Systems: Hurdles, Hype or Hope?⊗

    PubMed Central

    Youan, Bi-Botti C.

    2010-01-01

    The current advances in chronobiology and the knowledge gained from chronotherapy of selected diseases strongly suggest that “the one size fits all at all times” approach to drug delivery is no longer substantiated, at least for selected bioactive agents and disease therapy or prevention. Thus, there is a critical and urgent need for chronopharmaceutical research (e.g., design and evaluation of robust, spatially and temporally controlled drug delivery systems that would be clinically intended for chronotherapy by different routes of administration). This review provides a brief overview of current delivery system intended for chronotherapy. In theory, such an ideal “magic pill” preferably with affordable cost, would improve the safety, efficacy and patient compliance of old and new drugs. However, currently, there are three major hurdles for the successful transition of such system from laboratory to patient bedside. These include the challenges to identify adequate (i) rhythmic biomaterials and systems, (ii) rhythm engineering modeling, perhaps using system biology and (iii) regulatory guidance. PMID:20438781

  11. Nanoscale drug delivery systems and the blood–brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Alyautdin, Renad; Khalin, Igor; Nafeeza, Mohd Ismail; Haron, Muhammad Huzaimi; Kuznetsov, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    The protective properties of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) are conferred by the intricate architecture of its endothelium coupled with multiple specific transport systems expressed on the surface of endothelial cells (ECs) in the brain’s vasculature. When the stringent control of the BBB is disrupted, such as following EC damage, substances that are safe for peripheral tissues but toxic to neurons have easier access to the central nervous system (CNS). As a consequence, CNS disorders, including degenerative diseases, can occur independently of an individual’s age. Although the BBB is crucial in regulating the biochemical environment that is essential for maintaining neuronal integrity, it limits drug delivery to the CNS. This makes it difficult to deliver beneficial drugs across the BBB while preventing the passage of potential neurotoxins. Available options include transport of drugs across the ECs through traversing occludins and claudins in the tight junctions or by attaching drugs to one of the existing transport systems. Either way, access must specifically allow only the passage of a particular drug. In general, the BBB allows small molecules to enter the CNS; however, most drugs with the potential to treat neurological disorders other than infections have large structures. Several mechanisms, such as modifications of the built-in pumping-out system of drugs and utilization of nanocarriers and liposomes, are among the drug-delivery systems that have been tested; however, each has its limitations and constraints. This review comprehensively discusses the functional morphology of the BBB and the challenges that must be overcome by drug-delivery systems and elaborates on the potential targets, mechanisms, and formulations to improve drug delivery to the CNS. PMID:24550672

  12. Comparison of six oxygen delivery systems for COPD patients at rest and during exercise.

    PubMed

    Braun, S R; Spratt, G; Scott, G C; Ellersieck, M

    1992-09-01

    Five different oxygen-conserving devices were tested in each of ten oxygen-dependent patients with COPD who had met the NOTT criteria for continuous oxygen use. They were tested on room air, their prescribed continuous oxygen flow and then on each of the five devices. The devices which delivered a bolus of oxygen during early inspiration or increased oxygen delivery as the respiratory rate increased did better than those devices which delivered oxygen at a normal flow rate during inspiration or a fixed portion of inspiration. In at least one of the subjects each device was associated with desaturation to less than 80 percent during a 12-min walk. It is concluded that oxygen-conserving devices vary in their ability to maintain SaO2 levels during exercise. It is recommended that a home oxygen evaluation include measurement of an exercise SaO2 utilizing the prescribed oxygen delivery system.

  13. Food Delivery System with the Utilization of Vehicle Using Geographical Information System (GIS) and A Star Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siregar, B.; Gunawan, D.; Andayani, U.; Sari Lubis, Elita; Fahmi, F.

    2017-01-01

    Food delivery system is one kind of geographical information systems (GIS) that can be applied through digitation process. The main case in food delivery system is the way to determine the shortest path and food delivery vehicle movement tracking. Therefore, to make sure that the digitation process of food delivery system can be applied efficiently, it is needed to add shortest path determination facility and food delivery vehicle tracking. This research uses A Star (A*) algorithm for determining shortest path and location-based system (LBS) programming for moving food delivery vehicle object tracking. According to this research, it is generated the integrated system that can be used by food delivery driver, customer, and administrator in terms of simplifying the food delivery system. Through the application of shortest path and the tracking of moving vehicle, thus the application of food delivery system in the scope of geographical information system (GIS) can be executed.

  14. Porous tube plant nutrient delivery system development: A device for nutrient delivery in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreschel, T. W.; Brown, C. S.; Piastuch, W. C.; Hinkle, C. R.; Knott, W. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Porous Tube Plant Nutrient Delivery Systems or PTPNDS (U.S. Patent #4,926,585) has been under development for the past six years with the goal of providing a means for culturing plants in microgravity, specifically providing water and nutrients to the roots. Direct applications of the PTPNDS include plant space biology investigations on the Space Shuttle and plant research for life support in the Space Station Freedom. In the past, we investigated various configurations, the suitability of different porous materials, and the effects of pressure and pore size on plant growth. Current work is focused on characterizing the physical operation of the system, examining the effects of solution aeration, and developing prototype configurations for the Plant Growth Unit (PGU), the flight system for the Shuttle mid-deck. Future developments will involve testing on KC-135 parabolic flights, the design of flight hardware and testing aboard the Space Shuttle.

  15. Structural Technology Evaluation and Analysis Program (STEAP). Delivery Order 0049: Computational Prototyping of Micro Air Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    integration at the system level . To quantitatively assess MAV technology, a more detailed engineering description is needed. 2 Approved for public...descriptions. A fairly unique source of system- level FWMAV data is the NATO AVT Task Group 184, “Characterization of Bio-Inspired Micro Air Vehicle...control geometric description utilizes the same underlying geometric description in the aerodynamics analysis, but adds an abstract level of describing

  16. Clinical and Community Delivery Systems for Preventive Care

    PubMed Central

    Krist, Alex H.; Shenson, Douglas; Woolf, Steven H.; Bradley, Cathy; Liaw, Winston R.; Rothemich, Stephen F.; Slonim, Amy; Benson, William; Anderson, Lynda A.

    2015-01-01

    Although clinical preventive services (CPS)—screening tests, immunizations, health behavior counseling, and preventive medications—can save lives, Americans receive only half of recommended services. This "prevention gap," if closed, could substantially reduce morbidity and mortality. Opportunities to improve delivery of CPS exist in both clinical and community settings, but these activities are rarely coordinated across these settings, resulting in inefficiencies and attenuated benefits. Through a literature review, semi-structured interviews with 50 national experts, field observations of 53 successful programs, and a national stakeholder meeting, a framework to fully integrate CPS delivery across clinical and community care delivery systems was developed. The framework identifies the necessary participants, their role in care delivery, and the infrastructure, support, and policies necessary to ensure success. Essential stakeholders in integration include clinicians; community members and organizations; spanning personnel and infrastructure; national, state, and local leadership; and funders and purchasers. Spanning personnel and infrastructure are essential to bring clinicians and communities together and to help patients navigate across care settings. The specifics of clinical–community integrations vary depending on the services addressed and the local context. Although broad establishment of effective clinical–community integrations will require substantial changes, existing clinical and community models provide an important starting point. The key policies and elements of the framework are often already in place or easily identified. The larger challenge is for stakeholders to recognize how integration serves their mutual interests and how it can be financed and sustained over time. PMID:24050428

  17. Use of liposomes as injectable-drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Ostro, M J; Cullis, P R

    1989-08-01

    The formation of liposomes and their application as delivery systems for injectable drugs are described. Liposomes are microscopic vesicles composed of one or more lipid membranes surrounding discrete aqueous compartments. These vesicles can encapsulate water-soluble drugs in their aqueous spaces and lipid-soluble drugs within the membrane itself. Liposomes release their contents by interacting with cells in one of four ways: adsorption, endocytosis, lipid exchange, or fusion. Liposome-entrapped drugs are distributed within the body much differently than free drugs; when administered intravenously to healthy animals and humans, most of the injected vesicles accumulate in the liver, spleen, lungs, bone marrow, and lymph nodes. Liposomes also accumulate preferentially at the sites of inflammation and infection and in some solid tumors; however, the reason for this accumulation is not clear. Four major factors influence liposomes' in vivo behavior and biodistribution: (1) liposomes tend to leak if cholesterol is not included in the vesicle membrane, (2) small liposomes are cleared more slowly than large liposomes, (3) the half-life of a liposome increases as the lipid dose increases, and (4) charged liposomal systems are cleared more rapidly than uncharged systems. The most advanced application of liposome-based therapy is in the treatment of systemic fungal infections, especially with amphotericin B. Liposomes are also under investigation for treatment of neoplastic disorders. Liposomes' uses in cancer therapy include encapsulation of known antineoplastic agents such as doxorubicin and methotrexate, delivery of immune modulators such as N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine-D-isoglutamine, and encapsulation of new chemical entities that are synthesized with lipophilic segments tailored for insertion into lipid bilayers. Liposomal formulations of injectable antimicrobial agents and antineoplastic agents already are undergoing clinical testing, and most probably will receive

  18. Nanoengineered drug delivery systems for enhancing antibiotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Kalhapure, Rahul S; Suleman, Nadia; Mocktar, Chunderika; Seedat, Nasreen; Govender, Thirumala

    2015-03-01

    Formulation scientists are recognizing nanoengineered drug delivery systems as an effective strategy to overcome limitations associated with antibiotic drug therapy. Antibiotics encapsulated into nanodelivery systems will contribute to improved management of patients with various infectious diseases and to overcoming the serious global burden of antibiotic resistance. An extensive review of several antibiotic-loaded nanocarriers that have been formulated to target drugs to infectious sites, achieve controlled drug release profiles, and address formulation challenges, such as low-drug entrapment efficiencies, poor solubility and stability is presented in this paper. The physicochemical properties and the in vitro/in vivo performances of various antibiotic-loaded delivery systems, such as polymeric nanoparticles, micelles, dendrimers, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles, nanohybirds, nanofibers/scaffolds, nanosheets, nanoplexes, and nanotubes/horn/rods and nanoemulsions, are highlighted and evaluated. Future studies that will be essential to optimize formulation and commercialization of these antibiotic-loaded nanosystems are also identified. The review presented emphasizes the significant formulation progress achieved and potential that novel nanoengineered antibiotic drug delivery systems have for enhancing the treatment of patients with a range of infections.

  19. The Delivery System of Environmental Education at the Tertiary Level in the Asia-Pacific Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Masahisa; Bhandari, Bishnu; Abe, Osamu

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes the delivery system of environmental education at the tertiary level in relation to higher education attendance rate. Describes the characteristics of the delivery system in countries such as China, India, Australia, Japan, South Korea, and Indonesia. (Author/MM)

  20. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air systems used for cabin pressurization: (a) The cabin air system may not be subject to...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1109 - Turbocharger bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbocharger bleed air system. 23.1109... Induction System § 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system. The following applies to turbocharged bleed air systems used for cabin pressurization: (a) The cabin air system may not be subject to...

  2. Receptor-Mediated Drug Delivery Systems Targeting to Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shanshan; Meng, Ying; Li, Chengyi; Qian, Min; Huang, Rongqin

    2015-01-01

    Glioma has been considered to be the most frequent primary tumor within the central nervous system (CNS). The complexity of glioma, especially the existence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), makes the survival and prognosis of glioma remain poor even after a standard treatment based on surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. This provides a rationale for the development of some novel therapeutic strategies. Among them, receptor-mediated drug delivery is a specific pattern taking advantage of differential expression of receptors between tumors and normal tissues. The strategy can actively transport drugs, such as small molecular drugs, gene medicines, and therapeutic proteins to glioma while minimizing adverse reactions. This review will summarize recent progress on receptor-mediated drug delivery systems targeting to glioma, and conclude the challenges and prospects of receptor-mediated glioma-targeted therapy for future applications.

  3. Systemic delivery of recombinant proteins by genetically modified myoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, E.; Leiden, J.M. )

    1991-12-06

    The ability to stably deliver recombinant proteins to the systemic circulation would facilitate the treatment of a variety of acquired and inherited diseases. To explore the feasibility of the use of genetically engineered myoblasts as a recombinant protein delivery system, stable transfectants of the murine C2C12 myoblast cell line were produced that synthesize and secrete high levels of human growth hormone (hGH) in vitro. Mice injected with hGH-transfected myoblasts had significant levels of hGH in both muscle and serum that were stable for at least 3 weeks after injection. Histological examination of muscles injected with {beta}-galactosidase-expressing C2C12 myoblasts demonstrated that many of the injected cells had fused to form multinucleated myotubes. Thus, genetically engineered myoblasts can be used for the stable delivery of recombinant proteins into the circulation.

  4. Inhaled formulations and pulmonary drug delivery systems for respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi Tony; Leung, Sharon Shui Yee; Tang, Patricia; Parumasivam, Thaigarajan; Loh, Zhi Hui; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2015-05-01

    Respiratory infections represent a major global health problem. They are often treated by parenteral administrations of antimicrobials. Unfortunately, systemic therapies of high-dose antimicrobials can lead to severe adverse effects and this calls for a need to develop inhaled formulations that enable targeted drug delivery to the airways with minimal systemic drug exposure. Recent technological advances facilitate the development of inhaled anti-microbial therapies. The newer mesh nebulisers have achieved minimal drug residue, higher aerosolisation efficiencies and rapid administration compared to traditional jet nebulisers. Novel particle engineering and intelligent device design also make dry powder inhalers appealing for the delivery of high-dose antibiotics. In view of the fact that no new antibiotic entities against multi-drug resistant bacteria have come close to commercialisation, advanced formulation strategies are in high demand for combating respiratory 'super bugs'.

  5. Intelligent system design for bionanorobots in drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Mark; Biglarbegian, Mohammad; Neethirajan, Suresh

    A nanorobot is defined as any smart structure which is capable of actuation, sensing, manipulation, intelligence, and swarm behavior at the nanoscale. In this study, we designed an intelligent system using fuzzy logic for diagnosis and treatment of tumors inside the human body using bionanorobots. We utilize fuzzy logic and a combination of thermal, magnetic, optical, and chemical nanosensors to interpret the uncertainty associated with the sensory information. Two different fuzzy logic structures, for diagnosis (Mamdani structure) and for cure (Takagi-Sugeno structure), were developed to efficiently identify the tumors and treat them through delivery of effective dosages of a drug. Validation of the designed system with simulated conditions proved that the drug delivery of bionanorobots was robust to reasonable noise that may occur in the bionanorobot sensors during navigation, diagnosis, and curing of the cancer cells. Bionanorobots represent a great hope for successful cancer therapy in the near future.

  6. Advanced Overfire Air system and design

    SciTech Connect

    Gene berkau

    2004-07-30

    The objective of the proposed project is to design, install and optimize a prototype advanced tangential OFA air system on two mass feed stoker boilers that can burn coal, biomass and a mixture of these fuels. The results will be used to develop a generalized methodology for retrofit designs and optimization of advanced OFA air systems. The advanced OFA system will reduce particulate and NOx emissions and improve overall efficiency by reducing carbon in the ash and excess oxygen. The advanced OFA will also provide capabilities for carrying full load and improved load following and transitional operations.

  7. Determination of the Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) of Photocatalytic Oxidation (PCO) Purifiers for Indoor Air Pollutants Using a Closed-Loop Reactor. Part II: Experimental Results.

    PubMed

    Héquet, Valérie; Batault, Frédéric; Raillard, Cécile; Thévenet, Frédéric; Le Coq, Laurence; Dumont, Éric

    2017-03-06

    The performances of a laboratory PhotoCatalytic Oxidation (PCO) device were determined using a recirculation closed-loop pilot reactor. The closed-loop system was modeled by associating equations related to two ideal reactors: a perfectly mixed reservoir with a volume of VR = 0.42 m³ and a plug flow system corresponding to the PCO device with a volume of VP = 5.6 × 10(-3) m³. The PCO device was composed of a pleated photocatalytic filter (1100 cm²) and two 18-W UVA fluorescent tubes. The Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) of the apparatus was measured under different operating conditions. The influence of three operating parameters was investigated: (i) light irradiance I from 0.10 to 2.0 mW·cm(-2); (ii) air velocity v from 0.2 to 1.9 m·s(-1); and (iii) initial toluene concentration C₀ (200, 600, 1000 and 4700 ppbv). The results showed that the conditions needed to apply a first-order decay model to the experimental data (described in Part I) were fulfilled. The CADR values, ranging from 0.35 to 3.95 m³·h(-1), were mainly dependent on the light irradiance intensity. A square root influence of the light irradiance was observed. Although the CADR of the PCO device inserted in the closed-loop reactor did not theoretically depend on the flow rate (see Part I), the experimental results did not enable the confirmation of this prediction. The initial concentration was also a parameter influencing the CADR, as well as the toluene degradation rate. The maximum degradation rate rmax ranged from 342 to 4894 ppbv/h. Finally, this study evidenced that a recirculation closed-loop pilot could be used to develop a reliable standard test method to assess the effectiveness of PCO devices.

  8. Biodegradable block copolymers as injectable drug-delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Byeongmoon; Bae, You Han; Lee, Doo Sung; Kim, Sung Wan

    1997-08-01

    Polymers that display a physicochemical response to stimuli are widely explored as potential drug-delivery systems. Stimuli studied to date include chemical substances and changes in temperature, pH and electric field. Homopolymers or copolymers of N-isopropylacrylamide, and poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (known as poloxamers) are typical examples of thermosensitive polymers, but their use in drug delivery is problematic because they are toxic and non-biodegradable. Biodegradable polymers used for drug delivery to date have mostly been in the form of injectable microspheres or implant systems, which require complicated fabrication processes using organic solvents. Such systems have the disadvantage that the use of organic solvents can cause denaturation when protein drugs are to be encapsulated. Furthermore, the solid form requires surgical insertion, which often results in tissue irritation and damage. Here we report the synthesis of a thermosensitive, biodegradable hydrogel consisting of blocks of poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(L-lactic acid). Aqueous solutions of these copolymers exhibit temperature-dependent reversible gel-sol transitions. The hydrogel can be loaded with bioactive molecules in an aqueous phase at an elevated temperature (around 45 °C), where they form a sol. In this form, the polymer is injectable. On subcutaneous injection and subsequent rapid cooling to body temperature, the loaded copolymer forms a gel that can act as a sustained-release matrix for drugs.

  9. Novel targeted bladder drug-delivery systems: a review

    PubMed Central

    Zacchè, Martino Maria; Srikrishna, Sushma; Cardozo, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The objective of pharmaceutics is the development of drugs with increased efficacy and reduced side effects. Prolonged exposure of the diseased tissue to the drug is of crucial importance. Drug-delivery systems (DDSs) have been introduced to control rate, time, and place of release. Drugs can easily reach the bladder through a catheter, while systemically administered agents may undergo extensive metabolism. Continuous urine filling and subsequent washout hinder intravesical drug delivery (IDD). Moreover, the low permeability of the urothelium, also described as the bladder permeability barrier, poses a major challenge in the development of the IDD. DDSs increase bioavailability of drugs, therefore improving therapeutic effect and patient compliance. This review focuses on novel DDSs to treat bladder conditions such as overactive bladder, interstitial cystitis, bladder cancer, and recurrent urinary tract infections. The rationale and strategies for both systemic and local delivery methods are discussed, with emphasis on new formulations of well-known drugs (oxybutynin), nanocarriers, polymeric hydrogels, intravesical devices, encapsulated DDSs, and gene therapy. We give an overview of current and future prospects of DDSs for bladder disorders, including nanotechnology and gene therapy. PMID:26649286

  10. Microscale Symmetrical Electroporator Array as a Versatile Molecular Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Mengxing; Hill, Winfield; Lee, Jung Hyun; Hur, Soojung Claire

    2017-01-01

    Successful developments of new therapeutic strategies often rely on the ability to deliver exogenous molecules into cytosol. We have developed a versatile on-chip vortex-assisted electroporation system, engineered to conduct sequential intracellular delivery of multiple molecules into various cell types at low voltage in a dosage-controlled manner. Micro-patterned planar electrodes permit substantial reduction in operational voltages and seamless integration with an existing microfluidic technology. Equipped with real-time process visualization functionality, the system enables on-chip optimization of electroporation parameters for cells with varying properties. Moreover, the system’s dosage control and multi-molecular delivery capabilities facilitate intracellular delivery of various molecules as a single agent or in combination and its utility in biological research has been demonstrated by conducting RNA interference assays. We envision the system to be a powerful tool, aiding a wide range of applications, requiring single-cell level co-administrations of multiple molecules with controlled dosages. PMID:28317836

  11. Novel targeted bladder drug-delivery systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Zacchè, Martino Maria; Srikrishna, Sushma; Cardozo, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The objective of pharmaceutics is the development of drugs with increased efficacy and reduced side effects. Prolonged exposure of the diseased tissue to the drug is of crucial importance. Drug-delivery systems (DDSs) have been introduced to control rate, time, and place of release. Drugs can easily reach the bladder through a catheter, while systemically administered agents may undergo extensive metabolism. Continuous urine filling and subsequent washout hinder intravesical drug delivery (IDD). Moreover, the low permeability of the urothelium, also described as the bladder permeability barrier, poses a major challenge in the development of the IDD. DDSs increase bioavailability of drugs, therefore improving therapeutic effect and patient compliance. This review focuses on novel DDSs to treat bladder conditions such as overactive bladder, interstitial cystitis, bladder cancer, and recurrent urinary tract infections. The rationale and strategies for both systemic and local delivery methods are discussed, with emphasis on new formulations of well-known drugs (oxybutynin), nanocarriers, polymeric hydrogels, intravesical devices, encapsulated DDSs, and gene therapy. We give an overview of current and future prospects of DDSs for bladder disorders, including nanotechnology and gene therapy.

  12. Leishmaniasis: focus on the design of nanoparticulate vaccine delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Doroud, Delaram; Rafati, Sima

    2012-01-01

    Although mass vaccination of the entire population of an endemic area would be the most cost-effective tool to diminish Leishmania burden, an effective vaccine is not yet commercially available. Practically, vaccines have failed to achieve the required level of protection, possibly owing to the lack of an appropriate adjuvant and/or delivery system. Therefore, there is still an imperative demand for an improved, safe and efficient delivery system to enhance the immunogenicity of available vaccine candidates. Nanoparticles are proficient in boosting the quality and magnitude of immune responses in a predictable fashion. Herein, we discuss how nanoparticulate vaccine delivery systems can be used to induce appropriate immune responses against leishmaniasis by controlling physicochemical properties of the vaccine. Stability, production reproducibility, low cost per dose and low risk-benefit ratios are desirable characteristics of an ideal vaccine formulation and solid lipid nanoparticles may serve as one of the most promising practical strategies to help to achieve such a leishmanial vaccine, at least in canine species in the developing world.

  13. Peptide/protein vaccine delivery system based on PLGA particles

    PubMed Central

    Allahyari, Mojgan; Mohit, Elham

    2016-01-01

    abstract Due to the excellent safety profile of poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) particles in human, and their biodegradability, many studies have focused on the application of PLGA particles as a controlled-release vaccine delivery system. Antigenic proteins/peptides can be encapsulated into or adsorbed to the surface of PLGA particles. The gradual release of loaded antigens from PLGA particles is necessary for the induction of efficient immunity. Various factors can influence protein release rates from PLGA particles, which can be defined intrinsic features of the polymer, particle characteristics as well as protein and environmental related factors. The use of PLGA particles encapsulating antigens of different diseases such as hepatitis B, tuberculosis, chlamydia, malaria, leishmania, toxoplasma and allergy antigens will be described herein. The co-delivery of antigens and immunostimulants (IS) with PLGA particles can prevent the systemic adverse effects of immunopotentiators and activate both dendritic cells (DCs) and natural killer (NKs) cells, consequently enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of antigen-loaded PLGA particles. We will review co-delivery of different TLR ligands with antigens in various models, highlighting the specific strengths and weaknesses of the system. Strategies to enhance the immunotherapeutic effect of DC-based vaccine using PLGA particles can be designed to target DCs by functionalized PLGA particle encapsulating siRNAs of suppressive gene, and disease specific antigens. Finally, specific examples of cellular targeting where decorating the surface of PLGA particles target orally administrated vaccine to M-cells will be highlighted. PMID:26513024

  14. Overview on gastroretentive drug delivery systems for improving drug bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Carla M; Bettencourt, Catarina; Rossi, Alessandra; Buttini, Francesca; Barata, Pedro

    2016-08-20

    In recent decades, many efforts have been made in order to improve drug bioavailability after oral administration. Gastroretentive drug delivery systems are a good example; they emerged to enhance the bioavailability and effectiveness of drugs with a narrow absorption window in the upper gastrointestinal tract and/or to promote local activity in the stomach and duodenum. Several strategies are used to increase the gastric residence time, namely bioadhesive or mucoadhesive systems, expandable systems, high-density systems, floating systems, superporous hydrogels and magnetic systems. The present review highlights some of the drugs that can benefit from gastroretentive strategies, such as the factors that influence gastric retention time and the mechanism of action of gastroretentive systems, as well as their classification into single and multiple unit systems.

  15. The Integrated Air Transportation System Evaluation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, Earl R., III; Hees, Jing; Villani, James A.; Yackovetsky, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Throughout U.S. history, our nation has generally enjoyed exceptional economic growth, driven in part by transportation advancements. Looking forward 25 years, when the national highway and skyway systems are saturated, the nation faces new challenges in creating transportation-driven economic growth and wealth. To meet the national requirement for an improved air traffic management system, NASA developed the goal of tripling throughput over the next 20 years, in all weather conditions while maintaining safety. Analysis of the throughput goal has primarily focused on major airline operations, primarily through the hub and spoke system.However, many suggested concepts to increase throughput may operate outside the hub and spoke system. Examples of such concepts include the Small Aircraft Transportation System, civil tiltrotor, and improved rotorcraft. Proper assessment of the potential contribution of these technologies to the domestic air transportation system requires a modeling capability that includes the country's numerous smaller airports, acting as a fundamental component of the National Air space System, and the demand for such concepts and technologies. Under this task for NASA, the Logistics Management Institute developed higher fidelity demand models that capture the interdependence of short-haul air travel with other transportation modes and explicitly consider the costs of commercial air and other transport modes. To accomplish this work, we generated forecasts of the distribution of general aviation based aircraft and GA itinerant operations at each of nearly 3.000 airport based on changes in economic conditions and demographic trends. We also built modules that estimate the demand for travel by different modes, particularly auto, commercial air, and GA. We examined GA demand from two perspectives: top-down and bottom-up, described in detail.

  16. Intrauterine levonorgestrel delivery with frameless fibrous delivery system: review of clinical experience

    PubMed Central

    Wildemeersch, Dirk; Andrade, Amaury; Goldstuck, Norman D; Hasskamp, Thomas; Jackers, Geert

    2017-01-01

    The concept of using a frameless intrauterine device (IUD) instead of the conventional plastic framed IUD is not new. Frameless copper IUDs have been available since the late 1990s. They rely on an anchoring system to retain in the uterine cavity. The clinical experience with these IUDs suggests that frameless IUDs fit better as they are thin and, therefore, do not disturb or irritate the uterus. High tolerance and continuation rates have been achieved as complaints of pain are virtually nonexistent and the impact on menstrual blood loss is minimal. Conventional levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems (LNG-IUSs) are very popular as they significantly reduce menstrual bleeding and provide highly effective contraception. However, continuation of use remains problematic, particularly in young users. Total or partial expulsion and displacement of the LNG-IUS also occur too often due to spatial incompatibility within a small uterine cavity, as strong uterine contractions originate, attempting to get rid of the bothersome IUD/IUS. If not expelled, embedment ensues, often leading to chronic pain and early removal of the IUD/IUS. Several studies conducted recently have requested attention to the relationship between the LNG-IUS and the endometrial cavity. Some authors have proposed to measure the cavity width prior to inserting an IUD, as many uterine cavities are much smaller than the currently existing LNG-IUSs. A frameless fibrous drug delivery system fits, in principle, in all uterine cavities and may therefore be preferable to framed drug delivery systems. This review examines the clinical performance, acceptability, and potential of the frameless LNG-IUS (FibroPlant®) when used for contraception, treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding, dysmenorrhea, and endometrial suppression in women using estrogen replacement therapy, endometrial hyperplasia, and other gynecological conditions. The review concludes that FibroPlant LNG-IUS offers unique advantages in reducing

  17. Targeted multidrug delivery system to overcome chemoresistance in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yuan; Soroush, Fariborz; Tong, Zhaohui; Kiani, Mohammad F; Wang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapy has been widely used in breast cancer patients to reduce tumor size. However, most anticancer agents cannot differentiate between cancerous and normal cells, resulting in severe systemic toxicity. In addition, acquired drug resistance during the chemotherapy treatment further decreases treatment efficacy. With the proper treatment strategy, nanodrug carriers, such as liposomes/immunoliposomes, may be able to reduce undesired side effects of chemotherapy, to overcome the acquired multidrug resistance, and to further improve the treatment efficacy. In this study, a novel combinational targeted drug delivery system was developed by encapsulating antiangiogenesis drug bevacizumab into liposomes and encapsulating chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (DOX) into immunoliposomes where the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) antibody was used as a targeting ligand. This novel combinational system was tested in vitro using a HER2 positive and multidrug resistant breast cancer cell line (BT-474/MDR), and in vivo using a xenograft mouse tumor model. In vitro cell culture experiments show that immunoliposome delivery led to a high cell nucleus accumulation of DOX, whereas free DOX was observed mostly near the cell membrane and in cytoplasm due to the action of P-gp. Combining liposomal bevacizumab with immunoliposomal DOX achieved the best tumor growth inhibition and the lowest toxicity. Tumor size decreased steadily within a 60-day observation period indicating a potential synergistic effect between DOX and bevacizumab through the targeted delivery. Our findings clearly indicate that tumor growth was significantly delayed in the combinational liposomal drug delivery group. This novel combinational therapy has great potential for the treatment of patients with HER2/MDR double positive breast cancer. PMID:28176940

  18. 24 CFR 3280.715 - Circulating air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Circulating air systems. 3280.715... Systems § 3280.715 Circulating air systems. (a) Supply system. (1) Supply ducts and any dampers contained..., Class 1, or Class 2 air ducts. Class 2 air ducts shall be located at least 3 feet from the...

  19. Stimulus-responsive "smart" hydrogels as novel drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Soppimath, K S; Aminabhavi, T M; Dave, A M; Kumbar, S G; Rudzinski, W E

    2002-09-01

    Recently, there has been a great deal of research activity in the development of stimulus-responsive polymeric hydrogels. These hydrogels are responsive to external or internal stimuli and the response can be observed through abrupt changes in the physical nature of the network. This property can be favorable in many drug delivery applications. The external stimuli can be temperature, pH, ionic strength, ultrasonic sound, electric current, etc. A majority of the literature related to the development of stimulus-responsive drug delivery systems deals with temperature-sensitive poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (pNIPAAm) and its various derivatives. However, acrylic-based pH-sensitive systems with weakly acidic/basic functional groups have also been widely studied. Quite recently, glucose-sensitive hydrogels that are responsive to glucose concentration have been developed to monitor the release of insulin. The present article provides a brief introduction and recent developments in the area of stimulus-responsive hydrogels, particularly those that respond to temperature and pH, and their applications in drug delivery.

  20. Ex vivo investigation of magnetically targeted drug delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Y.; Fukui, S.; Fujimoto, S.; Mishima, F.; Takeda, S.; Izumi, Y.; Ohtani, S.; Fujitani, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2007-03-01

    In conventional systemic drug delivery the drug is administered by intravenous injection; it then travels to the heart from where it is pumped to all regions of the body. When the drug is aimed at a small target region, this method is extremely inefficient and leads to require much larger doses than those being necessary. In order to overcome this problem a number of targeted drug delivery methods are developed. One of these, magnetically targeted drug delivery system (MT-DDS) will be a promising way, which involves binding a drug to small biocompatible magnetic particles, injecting these into the blood stream and using a high gradient magnetic field to pull them out of suspension in the target region. In the present paper, we describe an ex vivo experimental work. It is also reported that navigation and accumulation test of the magnetic particles in the Y-shaped glass tube was performed in order to examine the threshold of the magnetic force for accumulation. It is found that accumulation of the magnetic particles was succeeded in the blood vessel when a permanent magnet was placed at the vicinity of the blood vessel. This result indicates the feasibility of the magnetically drug targeting in the blood vessel.

  1. Pulmonary administration of aerosolised fentanyl: pharmacokinetic analysis of systemic delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Laurence E; Woodhouse, Annie; Ward, M Elizabeth; Farr, Stephen J; Rubsamen, Reid A; Eltherington, Lorne G

    1998-01-01

    Aims Pulmonary drug delivery is a promising noninvasive method of systemic administration. Our aim was to determine whether a novel breath-actuated, microprocessor-controlled metered dose oral inhaler (SmartMist™, Aradigm Corporation) could deliver fentanyl in a way suitable for control of severe pain. Methods Aersolised pulmonary fentanyl base 100–300 μg was administered to healthy volunteers using SmartMist™ and the resultant plasma concentration-time data were compared with those from the same doses administered by intravenous (i.v.) injection in the same subjects. Results Plasma concentrations from SmartMist™ were similar to those from i.v. injection. Time-averaged bioavailability based upon nominal doses averaged 100%, and was >50% within 5 min of delivery. Fentanyl systemic pharmacokinetics were similar to those previously reported with no trends to dose-dependence from either route. Side-effects (e.g. sedation, lightheadedness) were the same from both routes. Conclusions Fentanyl delivery using SmartMist™ can provide analgetically relevant plasma drug concentrations. This, combined with its ease of noninvasive use and transportability, suggests a strong potential for field and domicilliary use, and for patient controlled analgesia without the need for i.v. cannulae. PMID:9690947

  2. New targets and delivery systems for antifungal therapy.

    PubMed

    Walsh, T J; Viviani, M A; Arathoon, E; Chiou, C; Ghannoum, M; Groll, A H; Odds, F C

    2000-01-01

    Development of new approaches for treatment of invasive fungal infections encompasses new delivery systems for approved and investigational compounds, as well as exploiting the cell membrane, cell wall and virulence factors as putative antifungal targets. Novel delivery systems consisting of cyclodextrins, cochleates, nanoparticles/nanospheres and long circulating ('stealth') liposomes, substantially modulate the pharmacokinetics of existing compounds, and may also be useful to enhance the delivery of antifungal agents to sites of infection. Further insights into the structure-activity relationship of the antifungal triazoles that target the biosynthesis of ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane have led to the development of highly potent broad spectrum agents, including posaconazole, ravuconazole and voriconazole. Similarly, a novel generation of cell-wall active semisynthetic echinocandin 1,3 beta-glucan inhibitors (caspofungin, FK463, and VER-002) has entered clinical development. These agents have potent and broad-spectrum activity against Candida spp, and potentially useful activity against Aspergillus spp. and Pneumocystis carinii. The ongoing convergence of the fields of molecular pathogenesis, antifungal pharmacology and vaccine development will afford the opportunity to develop novel targets to complement the existing antifungal armamentarium.

  3. A 400G optical wireless integration delivery system.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinying; Yu, Jianjun; Zhang, Junwen; Dong, Ze; Li, Fan; Chi, Nan

    2013-08-12

    We experimentally demonstrate a record 400G optical wireless integration system simultaneously delivering 2 × 112 Gb/s two-channel polarization-division-multiplexing 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (PDM-16QAM) signal at 37.5 GHz wireless carrier and 2 × 108 Gb/s two-channel PDM quadrature phase shift keying (PDM-QPSK) signal at 100 GHz wireless carrier, adopting two millimeter-wave (mm-wave) frequency bands, two orthogonal antenna polarizations, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), photonic mm-wave generation and advanced digital signal processing (DSP). In the case of no fiber transmission, the bit error ratios (BERs) for both the 112 Gb/s PDM-16QAM signal after 1.5 m wireless delivery at 37.5 GHz and the 108 Gb/s PDM-QPSK signal after 0.7 m wireless delivery at 100 GHz are below the pre-forward-error-correction (pre-FEC) threshold of 3.8 × 10(-3). To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a 400G optical wireless integration system in mm-wave frequency bands and also a capacity record of wireless delivery.

  4. An implantable thermoresponsive drug delivery system based on Peltier device.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rongbing; Gorelov, Alexander V; Aldabbagh, Fawaz; Carroll, William M; Rochev, Yury

    2013-04-15

    Locally dropping the temperature in vivo is the main obstacle to the clinical use of a thermoresponsive drug delivery system. In this paper, a Peltier electronic element is incorporated with a thermoresponsive thin film based drug delivery system to form a new drug delivery device which can regulate the release of rhodamine B in a water environment at 37 °C. Various current signals are used to control the temperature of the cold side of the Peltier device and the volume of water on top of the Peltier device affects the change in temperature. The pulsatile on-demand release profile of the model drug is obtained by turning the current signal on and off. The work has shown that the 2600 mAh power source is enough to power this device for 1.3 h. Furthermore, the excessive heat will not cause thermal damage in the body as it will be dissipated by the thermoregulation of the human body. Therefore, this simple novel device can be implanted and should work well in vivo.

  5. Recent advances in pulsatile oral drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Politis, Stavros N; Rekkas, Dimitrios M

    2013-08-01

    It is well established that several diseases exhibit circadian behavior, following the relevant rhythm of the physiological functions of the human body. Their study falls in the fields of chronobiology and chronotherapeutics, the latter being essentially the effort of timely matching the treatment with the disease expression, in order to maximize the therapeutic benefits and minimize side effects. Pulsatile drug delivery is one of the pillars of chronopharmaceutics, achieved through dosage form design that allows programmable release of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to follow the disease's time profile. Its major characteristic is the presence of lag phases, followed by drug release in a variety of rates, immediate, repeated or controlled. The scope of this review is to summarize the recent literature on pulsatile oral drug delivery systems and provide an overview of the ready to use solutions and early stage technologies, focusing on the awarded and pending patents in this technical field during the last few years.

  6. Potential and problems in ultrasound-responsive drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ying-Zheng; Du, Li-Na; Lu, Cui-Tao; Jin, Yi-Guang; Ge, Shu-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound is an important local stimulus for triggering drug release at the target tissue. Ultrasound-responsive drug delivery systems (URDDS) have become an important research focus in targeted therapy. URDDS include many different formulations, such as microbubbles, nanobubbles, nanodroplets, liposomes, emulsions, and micelles. Drugs that can be loaded into URDDS include small molecules, biomacromolecules, and inorganic substances. Fields of clinical application include anticancer therapy, treatment of ischemic myocardium, induction of an immune response, cartilage tissue engineering, transdermal drug delivery, treatment of Huntington’s disease, thrombolysis, and disruption of the blood–brain barrier. This review focuses on recent advances in URDDS, and discusses their formulations, clinical application, and problems, as well as a perspective on their potential use in the future. PMID:23637531

  7. Multifunctional, stimuli-sensitive nanoparticulate systems for drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2015-01-01

    The use of nanoparticulate pharmaceutical drug delivery systems (NDDSs) to enhance the in vivo effectiveness of drugs is now well established. The development of multifunctional and stimulus-sensitive NDDSs is an active area of current research. Such NDDSs can have long circulation times, target the site of the disease and enhance the intracellular delivery of a drug. This type of NDDS can also respond to local stimuli that are characteristic of the pathological site by, for example, releasing an entrapped drug or shedding a protective coating, thus facilitating the interaction between drug-loaded nanocarriers and target cells or tissues. In addition, imaging contrast moieties can be attached to these carriers to track their real-time biodistribution and accumulation in target cells or tissues. Here, I highlight recent developments with multifunctional and stimuli-sensitive NDDSs and their therapeutic potential for diseases including cancer, cardiovascular diseases and infectious diseases. PMID:25287120

  8. Development of a Production Ready Automated Wire Delivery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The current development effort is a Phase 3 research study entitled "A Production Ready Automated Wire Delivery System", contract number NAS8-39933, awarded to Nichols Research Corporation (NRC). The goals of this research study were to production harden the existing Automated Wire Delivery (AWDS) motion and sensor hardware and test the modified AWDS in a range of welding applications. In addition, the prototype AWDS controller would be moved to the VME bus platform by designing, fabricating and testing a single board VME bus AWDS controller. This effort was to provide an AWDS that could transition from the laboratory environment to production operations. The project was performed in two development steps. Step 1 modified and tested an improved MWG. Step 2 developed and tested the AWDS single board VME bus controller. Step 3 installed the Wire Pilot in a Weld Controller with the imbedded VME bus controller.

  9. Use of microwave in processing of drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Wong, T W

    2008-04-01

    Microwave has received a widespread application in pharmaceuticals and food processing, microbial sterilization, biomedical therapy, scientific and biomedical analysis, as well as, drug synthesis. This paper reviews the basis of application of microwave to prepare pharmaceutical dosage forms such as agglomerates, gel beads, microspheres, nanomatrix, solid dispersion, tablets and film coat. The microwave could induce drying, polymeric crosslinkages as well as drug-polymer interaction, and modify the structure of drug crystallites via its effects of heating and/or electromagnetic field on the dosage forms. The use of microwave opens a new approach to control the physicochemical properties and drug delivery profiles of pharmaceutical dosage forms without the need for excessive heat, lengthy process or toxic reactants. Alternatively, the microwave can be utilized to process excipients prior to their use in the formulation of drug delivery systems. The intended release characteristics of drugs in dosage forms can be met through modifying the physicochemical properties of excipients using the microwave.

  10. Potential applications of boron nitride nanotubes as drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Ciofani, Gianni

    2010-08-01

    In recent years, there has been an explosion of research in the 'bio-nano' field, with the discovery and introduction of ever more fascinating materials for applications as drug delivery systems, sensors, transducers, and so on. The author's group, for the first time in the literature, proposed boron nitride nanotubes as a valid alternative to carbon nanotubes and other kinds of inorganic materials, because of their improved chemical properties that theoretically guarantee better stability and compatibility in a biological context. In this paper, the bio-applications of boron nitride nanotubes that have emerged in the literature are summarized, with special attention given to their exploitation as safe drug delivery and targeting carriers. Finally, the possibility of combining their physical and chemical properties is approached, highlighting the features that render these innovative nanovectors unique and exceptional candidates for many bio-applications.

  11. [Delivery room resuscitation with room air and oxygen in newborns. State of art, recommendations].

    PubMed

    Lauterbach, Ryszard; Musialik-Swietlińska, Ewa; Swietliński, Janusz; Pawlik, Dorota; Bober, Klaudiusz

    2008-01-01

    The authors present and discuss the current data, concerning delivery room resuscitation with oxygen and room air in neonates. On the ground of the results obtained from literature and the Polish National Survey on Paediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care, 2007/2008 issue, the authors give the following proposals regarding optimal oxygen treatment: 1. there is a need for optimizing tissue oxygenation in order to prevent injury caused by radical oxygen species; 2. newborn resuscitation should be monitored by measuring the haemoglobin saturation - the values above 90%, found in resuscitated newborn within the first minutes of life may be dangerous and cause tissue injury; 3. starting the resuscitation with oxygen concentration lower than 40% and adjusting it according to the effects of the procedure - the less mature infant the lower oxygen concentration at the beginning of resuscitation; 4. heart rate >100/min and SatO2Hb between 70-80% within the first minutes of life should not be an indication for increasing oxygen concentration.

  12. Optimized Delivery System Achieves Enhanced Endomyocardial Stem Cell Retention

    PubMed Central

    Behfar, Atta; Latere, Jean-Pierre; Bartunek, Jozef; Homsy, Christian; Daro, Dorothee; Crespo-Diaz, Ruben J.; Stalboerger, Paul G.; Steenwinckel, Valerie; Seron, Aymeric; Redfield, Margaret M.; Terzic, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Background Regenerative cell-based therapies are associated with limited myocardial retention of delivered stem cells. The objective of this study is to develop an endocardial delivery system for enhanced cell retention. Methods and Results Stem cell retention was simulated in silico using one and three-dimensional models of tissue distortion and compliance associated with delivery. Needle designs, predicted to be optimal, were accordingly engineered using nitinol – a nickel and titanium alloy displaying shape memory and super-elasticity. Biocompatibility was tested with human mesenchymal stem cells. Experimental validation was performed with species-matched cells directly delivered into Langendorff-perfused porcine hearts or administered percutaneously into the endocardium of infarcted pigs. Cell retention was quantified by flow cytometry and real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction methodology. Models, computing optimal distribution of distortion calibrated to favor tissue compliance, predicted that a 75°-curved needle featuring small-to-large graded side holes would ensure the highest cell retention profile. In isolated hearts, the nitinol curved needle catheter (C-Cath) design ensured 3-fold superior stem cell retention compared to a standard needle. In the setting of chronic infarction, percutaneous delivery of stem cells with C-Cath yielded a 37.7±7.1% versus 10.0±2.8% retention achieved with a traditional needle, without impact on biocompatibility or safety. Conclusions Modeling guided development of a nitinol-based curved needle delivery system with incremental side holes achieved enhanced myocardial stem cell retention. PMID:24326777

  13. A clinician-driven home care delivery system.

    PubMed

    August, D A; Faubion, W C; Ryan, M L; Haggerty, R H; Wesley, J R

    1993-12-01

    The financial, entrepreneurial, administrative, and legal forces acting within the home care arena make it difficult for clinicians to develop and operate home care initiatives within an academic setting. HomeMed is a clinician-initiated and -directed home care delivery system wholly owned by the University of Michigan. The advantages of a clinician-directed system include: Assurance that clinical and patient-based factors are the primary determinants of strategic and procedural decisions; Responsiveness of the system to clinician needs; Maintenance of an important role for the referring physician in home care; Economical clinical research by facilitation of protocol therapy in ambulatory and home settings; Reduction of lengths of hospital stays through clinician initiatives; Incorporation of outcome analysis and other research programs into the mission of the system; Clinician commitment to success of the system; and Clinician input on revenue use. Potential disadvantages of a clinician-based system include: Entrepreneurial, financial, and legal naivete; Disconnection from institutional administrative and data management resources; and Inadequate clinician interest and commitment. The University of Michigan HomeMed experience demonstrates a model of clinician-initiated and -directed home care delivery that has been innovative, profitable, and clinically excellent, has engendered broad physician, nurse, pharmacist, and social worker enthusiasm, and has supported individual investigator clinical protocols as well as broad outcomes research initiatives. It is concluded that a clinician-initiated and -directed home care program is feasible and effective, and in some settings may be optimal.

  14. [A novel anticancer drug delivery system -DAC-70/CDDP].

    PubMed

    Sugitachi, Akio; Otsuka, Koki; Fujisawa, Kentaro; Itabashi, Tetsuya; Akiyama, Yuji; Sasaki, Akira; Ikeda, Kenichiro; Yoshida, Yasuo; Takamori, Yoshimori; Kurozumi, Seiji; Mori, Takatoshi; Wakabayashi, Go

    2007-11-01

    We devised a muco-adhesive anticancer drug delivery system using 70% deacetylated chitin (DAC-70) and cisplatin (CDDP) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The adhesive force between the system and human colonic mucosa was measured ex vivo, and a release profile of each drug was examined in vitro. Each system demonstrated a stronger muco-adhesive force at 37 degrees C than that of 25 degrees C. The CDDP-loaded system showed a sustained release of the drug while the 5-FU-loaded system exhibited an initial bursting of the agent. We presume that the release profile of CDDP and 5-FU is closely related to both degradability of the chitin and interactions between the chitin and each drug. The DAC-70/CDDP system would be clinically promising in loco-regional cancer chemotherapy.

  15. Combined air and water pollution control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  16. Secondary air injection system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ko-Jen; Walter, Darrell J.

    2014-08-19

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a secondary air injection system includes a first conduit in fluid communication with at least one first exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine and a second conduit in fluid communication with at least one second exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine, wherein the at least one first and second exhaust passages are in fluid communication with a turbocharger. The system also includes an air supply in fluid communication with the first and second conduits and a flow control device that controls fluid communication between the air supply and the first conduit and the second conduit and thereby controls fluid communication to the first and second exhaust passages of the internal combustion engine.

  17. Advanced Air Data Systems for Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    It is possible to get a crude estimate of wind speed and direction while driving a car at night in the rain, with the motion of the raindrop reflections in the headlights providing clues about the wind. The clues are difficult to interpret, though, because of the relative motions of ground, car, air, and raindrops. More subtle interpretation is possible if the rain is replaced by fog, because the tiny droplets would follow the swirling currents of air around an illuminated object, like, for example, a walking pedestrian. Microscopic particles in the air (aerosols) are better for helping make assessments of the wind, and reflective air molecules are best of all, providing the most refined measurements. It takes a bright light to penetrate fog, so it is easy to understand how other factors, like replacing the headlights with the intensity of a searchlight, can be advantageous. This is the basic principle behind a lidar system. While a radar system transmits a pulse of radiofrequency energy and interprets the received reflections, a lidar system works in a similar fashion, substituting a near-optical laser pulse. The technique allows the measurement of relative positions and velocities between the transmitter and the air, which allows measurements of relative wind and of air temperature (because temperature is associated with high-frequency random motions on a molecular level). NASA, as well as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), have interests in this advanced lidar technology, as much of their explorative research requires the ability to measure winds and turbulent regions within the atmosphere. Lidar also shows promise for providing warning of turbulent regions within the National Airspace System to allow commercial aircraft to avoid encounters with turbulence and thereby increase the safety of the traveling public. Both agencies currently employ lidar and optical sensing for a variety of weather-related research projects, such as analyzing

  18. Delivery performance of conventional aircraft by terminal-area, time-based air traffic control: A real-time simulation evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, Leonard; Houck, Jacob A.; Capron, William R.; Lohr, Gary W.

    1990-01-01

    A description and results are presented of a study to measure the performance and reaction of airline flight crews, in a full workload DC-9 cockpit, flying in a real-time simulation of an air traffic control (ATC) concept called Traffic Intelligence for the Management of Efficient Runway-scheduling (TIMER). Experimental objectives were to verify earlier fast-time TIMER time-delivery precision results and obtain data for the validation or refinement of existing computer models of pilot/airborne performance. Experimental data indicated a runway threshold, interarrival-time-error standard deviation in the range of 10.4 to 14.1 seconds. Other real-time system performance parameters measured include approach speeds, response time to controller turn instructions, bank angles employed, and ATC controller message delivery-time errors.

  19. Issues and challenges in developing ruminal drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Vandamme, Th F; Ellis, K J

    2004-06-23

    Ruminants have a specialised digestive system that contains anaerobic bacteria and protozoa capable of digesting the cellulosic materials that are so common in plant materials. In addition, their distinct digestive system can change the metabolism and mode of action of some nutrients, medicines or other bioactive materials when delivered orally or may provide opportunities for alternative oral dosing strategies. In particular, there is interest in administering a relatively large depot of some drugs into the rumen, which then provides for a prolonged and sustained release of small quantities of these drugs over time. Any strategy to develop a new ruminal drug delivery system must take into account the characteristics of the digestive system of ruminants and its specific bioactive application. For example, in the case of products to control parasitic infections, the development of the host's immunity against the nematodes, which can be acquired during the pasture season, must be considered; likewise, where pharmacologically active materials are used to manipulate a particular metabolic or biochemical process, one must always be aware of interactions with other processes, which might eventuate. This article reviews the necessary concepts, the issues and the challenges to construct ruminal drug delivery systems.

  20. Recent trends in vaccine delivery systems: A review

    PubMed Central

    Saroja, CH; Lakshmi, PK; Bhaskaran, Shyamala

    2011-01-01

    Vaccines are the preparations given to patients to evoke immune responses leading to the production of antibodies (humoral) or cell-mediated responses that will combat infectious agents or noninfectious conditions such as malignancies. Alarming safety profile of live vaccines, weak immunogenicity of sub-unit vaccines and immunization, failure due to poor patient compliance to booster doses which should potentiate prime doses are few strong reasons, which necessitated the development of new generation of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines to promote effective immunization. Attempts are being made to deliver vaccines through carriers as they control the spatial and temporal presentation of antigens to immune system thus leading to their sustained release and targeting. Hence, lower doses of weak immunogens can be effectively directed to stimulate immune responses and eliminate the need for the administration of prime and booster doses as a part of conventional vaccination regimen. This paper reviews carrier systems such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, dendrimers, micellar systems, ISCOMs, plant-derived viruses which are now being investigated and developed as vaccine delivery systems. This paper also describes various aspects of “needle-free technologies” used to administer the vaccine delivery systems through different routes into the human body. PMID:23071924

  1. Healthcare delivery systems: designing quality into health information systems.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Phil; Green, Rosamund; Winch, Graham

    2007-01-01

    To ensure that quality is 'engineered in' a holistic, integrated and quality approach is required, and Total Quality Management (TQM) principles are the obvious foundations for this. This paper describes a novel approach to viewing the operations of a healthcare provider where electronic means could be used to distribute information (including electronic fund settlements), building around the Full Service Provider core. Specifically, an approach called the "triple pair flow" model is used to provide a view of healthcare delivery that is integrated, yet detailed, and that combines the strategic enterprise view with a business process view.

  2. New serine-derived gemini surfactants as gene delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Ana M; Morais, Catarina M; Cruz, A Rita; Silva, Sandra G; do Vale, M Luísa; Marques, Eduardo F; de Lima, Maria C Pedroso; Jurado, Amália S

    2015-01-01

    Gemini surfactants have been extensively used for in vitro gene delivery. Amino acid-derived gemini surfactants combine the special aggregation properties characteristic of the gemini surfactants with high biocompatibility and biodegradability. In this work, novel serine-derived gemini surfactants, differing in alkyl chain lengths and in the linker group bridging the spacer to the headgroups (amine, amide and ester), were evaluated for their ability to mediate gene delivery either per se or in combination with helper lipids. Gemini surfactant-based DNA complexes were characterized in terms of hydrodynamic diameter, surface charge, stability in aqueous buffer and ability to protect DNA. Efficient formulations, able to transfect up to 50% of the cells without causing toxicity, were found at very low surfactant/DNA charge ratios (1/1-2/1). The most efficient complexes presented sizes suitable for intravenous administration and negative surface charge, a feature known to preclude potentially adverse interactions with serum components. This work brings forward a new family of gemini surfactants with great potential as gene delivery systems.

  3. Polymeric-based particulate systems for delivery of therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid; Rehman, Kanwal; Chen, Shuqing

    2016-01-01

    Polymeric-based particulate systems have been intensively developed to increase the short biological half-life and prevent enzymatic degradation of therapeutic proteins. These techniques demonstrate the useful characteristics for the delivery of therapeutic proteins and peptides to the targeted site of application and prevent the interaction of encapsulated drug with the normal cells. In this article, we have described the in depth of different pharmaceutical-based techniques that are currently being practiced for efficient delivery of therapeutic proteins and peptides. A comprehensive English literature was searched using different electronic search databases including PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, google scholar and library search. Different search terms and advanced search were made by combining all the search fields in abstract, keywords and/or titles. Findings of various studies that have been discussed in this article clearly indicate that polymeric-based techniques can significantly increase the therapeutic potentials of incorporated proteins with no known toxic effects. These techniques have shown to maintain the stability and retain biological activity of protein therapeutics. Hence it can be suggested that pharmaceutical-based techniques are promising drug carriers for efficient delivery of therapeutic proteins.

  4. New Delivery Systems for Local Anaesthetics—Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Shipton, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    Part 2 of this paper deals with the techniques for drug delivery of topical and injectable local anaesthetics. The various routes of local anaesthetic delivery (epidural, peripheral, wound catheters, intra-nasal, intra-vesical, intra-articular, intra-osseous) are explored. To enhance transdermal local anaesthetic permeation, additional methods to the use of an eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics and the use of controlled heat can be used. These methods include iontophoresis, electroporation, sonophoresis, and magnetophoresis. The potential clinical uses of topical local anaesthetics are elucidated. Iontophoresis, the active transportation of a drug into the skin using a constant low-voltage direct current is discussed. It is desirable to prolong local anaesthetic blockade by extending its sensory component only. The optimal release and safety of the encapsulated local anaesthetic agents still need to be determined. The use of different delivery systems should provide the clinician with both an extended range and choice in the degree of prolongation of action of each agent. PMID:22190921

  5. Carbon dioxide angiography: a simple and safe system of delivery.

    PubMed

    Cronin, P; Patel, J V; Kessel, D O; Robertson, I; McPherson, S J

    2005-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an established alternate angiographic contrast agent, which can be delivered by pump or hand injection. We describe a simple, safe and inexpensive hand injection system that delivers a known volume of CO2 at atmospheric pressure and prevents contamination with room air.

  6. 21. DETAIL OF AIR HANDLER 1 (MST AIRCONDITIONING SYSTEM) INTERIOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DETAIL OF AIR HANDLER 1 (MST AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM) INTERIOR, SOUTHEAST CORNER, STATION 30, SLC-3W MST - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. Potential applications for halloysite nanotubes based drug delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lin

    Drug delivery refers to approaches, formulations, technologies, and systems for transporting a drug in the body. The purpose is to enhance the drug efficacy and to reduce side reactions, which can significantly improve treatment outcomes. Halloysite is a naturally occurred alumino-silicate clay with a tubular structure. It is a biocompatible material with a big surface area which can be used for attachment of targeted molecules. Besides, loaded molecules can present a sustained release manner in solution. These properties make halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) a good option for drug delivery. In this study, a drug delivery system was built based on halloysite via three different fabrication methods: physical adsorption, vacuum loading and layer-by-layer coating. Methotrexate was used as the model drug. Factors that may affect performance in both drug loading and release were tested. Results showed that methotrexate could be incorporated within the HNTs system and released in a sustained manner. Layer-by-layer coating showed a better potential than the other two methods in both MTX loading and release. Besides, lower pH could greatly improve MTX loading and release while the increased number of polyelectrolytes bilayers had a limited impact. Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone malignancy in children and adolescents. Postoperative recurrence and metastasis has become one of the leading causes for patient death after surgical remove of the tumor mass. A strategy could be a sustained release of chemotherapeutics directly at the primary tumor sites where recurrence would mostly occur. Then, this HNTs based system was tested with osteosarcoma cells in vitro to show the potential of delivering chemotherapeutics in the treatment of osteosarcoma. Methotrexate was incorporated within HNTs with a layer-bylayer coating technique, and drug coated HNTs were filled into nylon-6 which is a common material for surgical sutures in industry. Results showed that (1) methotrexate

  8. Comparison of SAGS I vs. SAGS II delivery systems in emerging implantation technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despres, Joseph; Sweeney, Joseph

    2012-11-01

    The International Fire Code has classified Subatmospheric Gas Delivery Systems (SAGS) technologies into two main categories: SAGS Type I and SAGS Type II systems. SAGS Type I delivery systems both store and deliver gases at subatmospheric pressures. An example of this technology is ATMI's Safe Delivery Source (SDS®) adsorbent based cylinder. SAGS Type II delivery systems store fluids at high pressure and utilize mechanical devices internal to the cylinder to deliver the gas at subatmospheric pressures. Typical mechanical devices used to enable subatmospheric delivery are either set point regulators or mechanical capillary based systems. This paper focuses on how these delivery systems perform against the unique requirements of traditional beam line ion implantation as well as solar and flat panel applications. Specifically, data are provided showing the capability of these systems with respect to flow rate, residual gas left within the cylinder, and cylinder end-point flow and delivery pressure dynamics.

  9. G2 Autonomous Control for Cryogenic Delivery Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dito, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    The Independent System Health Management-Autonomous Control (ISHM-AC) application development for cryogenic delivery systems is intended to create an expert system that will require minimal operator involvement and ultimately allow for complete autonomy when fueling a space vehicle in the time prior to launch. The G2-Autonomous Control project is the development of a model, simulation, and ultimately a working application that will control and monitor the cryogenic fluid delivery to a rocket for testing purposes. To develop this application, the project is using the programming language/environment Gensym G2. The environment is an all-inclusive application that allows development, testing, modeling, and finally operation of the unique application through graphical and programmatic methods. We have learned G2 through training classes and subsequent application development, and are now in the process of building the application that will soon be used to test on cryogenic loading equipment here at the Kennedy Space Center Cryogenics Test Laboratory (CTL). The G2 ISHM-AC application will bring with it a safer and more efficient propellant loading system for the future launches at Kennedy Space Center and eventually mobile launches from all over the world.

  10. Air Conditioning System using Rankine Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, Shigemi; Yamaguchi, Hiroichi; Hattori, Hitoshi; Futamura, Motonori

    Natural gas is used as the energy source to cope with the recent situation of increasing demand for electricity especially in summer. In this paper, the performance of a Rankine cycle air conditioning system driven by natural gas was studied. The following results were obtained : (1) Basic equations of performance, refrigerant mass flow rate and expander volume were developed by using the values of heating efficiency, regeneration efficiency, expander efficiency and compressor efficiency. (2) R134a refrigerant has been considered to be suitable for the Rankine cycle air conditioning system, compared with other refrigerants. (3)A Rankine cycle cooling system using R134a refrigerant as a single working fluid was developed. System COP of 0.47 was attained at typical operating condition.

  11. Characterisation of zinc delivery from a nipple shield delivery system using a breastfeeding simulation apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Bruggraber, Sylvaine F. A.; Gerrard, Stephen E.; Kendall, Richard A.; Tuleu, Catherine; Slater, Nigel K. H.

    2017-01-01

    Zinc delivery from a nipple shield delivery system (NSDS), a novel platform for administering medicines to infants during breastfeeding, was characterised using a breastfeeding simulation apparatus. In this study, human milk at flow rates and pressures physiologically representative of breastfeeding passed through the NSDS loaded with zinc-containing rapidly disintegrating tablets, resulting in release of zinc into the milk. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry was used to detect the zinc released, using a method that does not require prior digestion of the samples and that could be applied in other zinc analysis studies in breast milk. Four different types of zinc-containing tablets with equal zinc load but varying excipient compositions were tested in the NSDS in vitro. Zinc release measured over 20 minutes ranged from 32–51% of the loaded dose. Total zinc release for sets tablets of the same composition but differing hardness were not significantly different from one another with P = 0.3598 and P = 0.1270 for two tested pairs using unpaired t tests with Welch’s correction. By the same test total zinc release from two sets of tablets having similar hardness but differing composition were also not significantly significant with P = 0.2634. Future zinc tablet composition and formulation optimisation could lead to zinc supplements and therapeutics with faster drug release, which could be administered with the NSDS during breastfeeding. The use of the NSDS to deliver zinc could then lead to treatment and prevention of some of the leading causes of child mortality, including diarrheal disease and pneumonia. PMID:28158283

  12. Characterisation of zinc delivery from a nipple shield delivery system using a breastfeeding simulation apparatus.

    PubMed

    Scheuerle, Rebekah L; Bruggraber, Sylvaine F A; Gerrard, Stephen E; Kendall, Richard A; Tuleu, Catherine; Slater, Nigel K H

    2017-01-01

    Zinc delivery from a nipple shield delivery system (NSDS), a novel platform for administering medicines to infants during breastfeeding, was characterised using a breastfeeding simulation apparatus. In this study, human milk at flow rates and pressures physiologically representative of breastfeeding passed through the NSDS loaded with zinc-containing rapidly disintegrating tablets, resulting in release of zinc into the milk. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry was used to detect the zinc released, using a method that does not require prior digestion of the samples and that could be applied in other zinc analysis studies in breast milk. Four different types of zinc-containing tablets with equal zinc load but varying excipient compositions were tested in the NSDS in vitro. Zinc release measured over 20 minutes ranged from 32-51% of the loaded dose. Total zinc release for sets tablets of the same composition but differing hardness were not significantly different from one another with P = 0.3598 and P = 0.1270 for two tested pairs using unpaired t tests with Welch's correction. By the same test total zinc release from two sets of tablets having similar hardness but differing composition were also not significantly significant with P = 0.2634. Future zinc tablet composition and formulation optimisation could lead to zinc supplements and therapeutics with faster drug release, which could be administered with the NSDS during breastfeeding. The use of the NSDS to deliver zinc could then lead to treatment and prevention of some of the leading causes of child mortality, including diarrheal disease and pneumonia.

  13. Comparative Effectiveness Topics from a Large, Integrated Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Danforth, Kim N; Patnode, Carrie D; Kapka, Tanya J; Butler, Melissa G; Collins, Bernadette; Compton-Phillips, Amy; Baxter, Raymond J; Weissberg, Jed; McGlynn, Elizabeth A; Whitlock, Evelyn P

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify high-priority comparative effectiveness questions directly relevant to care delivery in a large, US integrated health care system. Methods: In 2010, a total of 792 clinical and operational leaders in Kaiser Permanente were sent an electronic survey requesting nominations of comparative effectiveness research questions; most recipients (83%) had direct clinical roles. Nominated questions were divided into 18 surveys of related topics that included 9 to 23 questions for prioritization. The next year, 648 recipients were electronically sent 1 of the 18 surveys to prioritize nominated questions. Surveys were assigned to recipients on the basis of their nominations or specialty. High-priority questions were identified by comparing the frequency a question was selected to an “expected” frequency, calculated to account for the varying number of questions and respondents across prioritization surveys. High-priority questions were those selected more frequently than expected. Results: More than 320 research questions were nominated from 181 individuals. Questions most frequently addressed cardiovascular and peripheral vascular disease; obesity, diabetes, endocrinology, and metabolic disorders; or service delivery and systems-level questions. Ninety-five high-priority research questions were identified, encompassing a wide range of health questions that ranged from prevention and screening to treatment and quality of life. Many were complex questions from a systems perspective regarding how to deliver the best care. Conclusions: The 95 questions identified and prioritized by leaders on the front lines of health care delivery may inform the national discussion regarding comparative effectiveness research. Additionally, our experience provides insight in engaging real-world stakeholders in setting a health care research agenda. PMID:24361013

  14. Paclitaxel Nano-Delivery Systems: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ping; Mumper, Russell J.

    2013-01-01

    Paclitaxel is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs ever developed and is active against a broad range of cancers, such as lung, ovarian, and breast cancers. Due to its low water solubility, paclitaxel is formulated in a mixture of Cremophor EL and dehydrated ethanol (50:50, v/v) a combination known as Taxol. However, Taxol has some severe side effects related to Cremophor EL and ethanol. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of alternative Taxol formulations. The encapsulation of paclitaxel in biodegradable and non-toxic nano-delivery systems can protect the drug from degradation during circulation and in-turn protect the body from toxic side effects of the drug thereby lowering its toxicity, increasing its circulation half-life, exhibiting improved pharmacokinetic profiles, and demonstrating better patient compliance. Also, nanoparticle-based delivery systems can take advantage of the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect for passive tumor targeting, therefore, they are promising carriers to improve the therapeutic index and decrease the side effects of paclitaxel. To date, paclitaxel albumin-bound nanoparticles (Abraxane®) have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In addition, there are a number of novel paclitaxel nanoparticle formulations in clinical trials. In this comprehensive review, several types of developed paclitaxel nano-delivery systems will be covered and discussed, such as polymeric nanoparticles, lipid-based formulations, polymer conjugates, inorganic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, nanocrystals, and cyclodextrin nanoparticles. PMID:24163786

  15. Reliability review of the remote tool delivery system locomotor

    SciTech Connect

    Chesser, J.B.

    1999-04-01

    The locomotor being built by RedZone Robotics is designed to serve as a remote tool delivery (RID) system for waste retrieval, tank cleaning, viewing, and inspection inside the high-level waste tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2 at West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS). The RTD systm is to be deployed through a tank riser. The locomotor portion of the RTD system is designed to be inserted into the tank and is to be capable of moving around the tank by supporting itself and moving on the tank internal structural columns. The locomotor will serve as a mounting platform for a dexterous manipulator arm. The complete RTD system consists of the locomotor, dexterous manipulator arm, cameras, lights, cables, hoses, cable/hose management system, power supply, and operator control station.

  16. THE SUPERCONDUCTION MAGNETS OF THE ILC BEAM DELIVERY SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    PARKER,B.; ANEREELA, M.; ESCALLIE, J.; HE, P.; JAIN, A.; MARONE, A.; NOSOCHKOV, Y.; SERYI, A.

    2007-06-25

    The ILC Reference Design Report was completed early in February 2007. The Magnet Systems Group was formed to translate magnetic field requirements into magnet designs and cost estimates for the Reference Design. As presently configured, the ILC will have more than 13,000 magnetic elements of which more than 2300 will be based on superconducting technology. This paper will describe the major superconducting magnet needs for the ILC as presently determined by the Area Systems Groups, responsible for beam line design, working with the Magnet Systems Group. The superconducting magnet components include Main Linac quadrupoles, Positron Source undulators, Damping Ring wigglers, a complex array of Final Focus superconducting elements in the Beam Delivery System, and large superconducting solenoids in the e{sup +} and e{sup -} Sources, and the Ring to Main Linac lines.

  17. Demonstrations of Alternative Delivery Systems Under Medicare and Medicaid

    PubMed Central

    Galblum, Trudi W.; Trieger, Sidney

    1982-01-01

    The current Administration supports competition as one method of helping to contain escalating costs. Proponents of competition claim many advantages to its implementation, but their claims have yet to be widely tested. Over the past several years, however, the Health Care Financing Administration has supported a number of Medicare and Medicaid demonstrations to yield information on plan participation, marketing, and reimbursement under alternative delivery systems. Much of these data are applicable to the competitive plans being considered by the Administration and Congress. This paper discusses recent findings from these projects. PMID:10309599

  18. Power Delivery from an Actual Thermoelectric Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaibe, Hiromasa; Kajihara, Takeshi; Nagano, Kouji; Makino, Kazuya; Hachiuma, Hirokuni; Natsuume, Daisuke

    2014-06-01

    Similar to photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cells, thermoelectric generators (TEGs) supply direct-current (DC) power, essentially requiring DC/alternating current (AC) conversion for delivery as electricity into the grid network. Use of PVs is already well established through power conditioning systems (PCSs) that enable DC/AC conversion with maximum-power-point tracking, which enables commercial use by customers. From the economic, legal, and regulatory perspectives, a commercial PCS for PVs should also be available for TEGs, preferably as is or with just simple adjustment. Herein, we report use of a PV PCS with an actual TEG. The results are analyzed, and proper application for TEGs is proposed.

  19. The Superconducting Magnets of the ILC Beam Delivery System

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, B.; Anerella, M.; Escallier, J.; He, P.; Jain, A.; Marone, A.; Nosochkov, Y.; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2007-09-28

    The ILC Beam Delivery System (BDS) uses a variety of superconducting magnets to maximize luminosity and minimize background. Compact final focus quadrupoles with multifunction correction coils focus incoming beams to few nanometer spot sizes while focusing outgoing disrupted beams into a separate extraction beam line. Anti-solenoids mitigate effects from overlapping focusing and the detector solenoid field. Far from the interaction point (IP) strong octupoles help minimize IP backgrounds. A low-field but very large aperture dipole is integrated with the detector solenoid to reduce backgrounds from beamstrahlung pairs generated at the IP. Physics requirements and magnetic design solutions for the BDS superconducting magnets are reviewed in this paper.

  20. Instrumentation system upgrade supports mobile personalized healthcare delivery.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, Roger M; Helt, Wendy J; Kelt, Patrick V; Fausti, Stephen A

    2006-01-01

    Clinicians and patients need mobile tools to detect ototoxic change early and prevent hearing loss. We report on the development of an upgrade of our existing desktop-based clinical-audiological instrumentation into a mobile instrument platform which efficiently supports personalized ototoxicity monitoring on the hospital wards as well as clinic by a trained clinician. Our new wireless-enabled system also serves as the instrumentation platform for the next phase of our work which is remote healthcare delivery with patient-guided at-home ototoxicity monitoring using an evidence-based individualized SRO protocol.

  1. Fuel-air ratio controlled carburetion system

    SciTech Connect

    Abbey, H. G.

    1980-02-12

    An automatic control system is disclosed supplying a fuel-air mixture to an internal combustion engine including a variable-venturi carburetor. Air is fed into the input of the venturi, the air passing through the throat thereof whose effective area is adjusted by a mechanism operated by a servo motor. Fuel is fed into the input of the venturi from a fuel reservoir through a main path having a fixed orifice and an auxiliary path formed by a metering valve operated by an auxiliary fuel-control motor. The differential air pressure developed between the inlet of the venturi and the throat thereof is sensed to produce an airvelocity command signal that is applied to a controller adapted to compare the command signal with the servo motor set point to produce an output for governing the servo motor to cause it to seek a null point, thereby defining a closed process control loop. The intake manifold vacuum, which varies in degree as a function of load and speed conditions is sensed to govern the auxiliary fuel-control motor accordingly, is at the same time converted into an auxiliary signal which is applied to the controller in the closed loop to modulate the command signal in a manner establishing an optimum air-fuel ratio under the varying conditions of load and speed.

  2. The Development of Electronic Distance Education Delivery Systems in the United States. Recurring and Emerging Themes in History and Philosophy of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckland, Michael; Dye, Charles M.

    This paper presents a history of electronic distance education in the United States. Three broad categories of delivery systems are described: (1) over-the-air open circuit systems such as VHF-UHF stations, microwave, instructional television fixed service (ITFS), communications satellites, and educational radio and television; (2)…

  3. Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems, Part of Indoor Air Quality Design Tools for Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The main purposes of a Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning system are to help maintain good indoor air quality through adequate ventilation with filtration and provide thermal comfort. HVAC systems are among the largest energy consumers in schools.

  4. Current approaches for drug delivery to central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Sharif; Akaike, Toshihiro; Chowdhury, Ezharul Hoque

    2010-12-01

    Brain, the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate, plays the most vital role in every function of human body. However, many neurodegenerative diseases, cancer and infections of the brain become more prevalent as populations become older. In spite of the major advances in neuroscience, many potential therapeutics are still unable to reach the central nervous system (CNS) due to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) which is formed by the tight junctions within the capillary endothelium of the vertebrate brain. This results in the capillary wall behaving as a continuous lipid bilayer and preventing the passage of polar and lipid insoluble substances. Several approaches for delivering drugs to the CNS have been developed to enhance the capacity of therapeutic molecules to cross the BBB by modifying the drug itself, or by coupling it to a vector for receptor-mediated, carrier mediated or adsorption-mediated transcytosis. The current challenge is to develop drug delivery systems that ensure the safe and effective passage of drugs across the BBB. This review focuses on the strategies and approaches developed to enhance drug delivery to the CNS.

  5. Systems approaches to design of targeted therapeutic delivery.

    PubMed

    Myerson, Jacob W; Brenner, Jacob S; Greineder, Colin F; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2015-01-01

    Targeted drug delivery aims to improve therapeutic effects and enable mechanisms that are not feasible for untargeted agents (e.g., due to impermeable biological barriers). To achieve targeting, a drug or its carrier should possess properties providing specific accumulation from circulation at the desired site. There are several examples of systems-inspired approaches that have been applied to achieve this goal. First, proteomics analysis of plasma membrane fraction of the vascular endothelium has identified a series of target molecules and their ligands (e.g., antibodies) that deliver conjugated cargoes to well-defined vascular cells and subcellular compartments. Second, selection of ligands binding to cells of interest using phage display libraries in vitro and in vivo has provided peptides and polypeptides that bind to normal and pathologically altered cells. Finally, large-scale high-throughput combinatorial synthesis and selection of lipid- and polymer-based nanocarriers varying their chemical components has yielded a series of carriers accumulating in diverse organs and delivering RNA interference agents to diverse cells. Together, these approaches offer a basis for systems-based design and selection of targets, targeting molecules, and targeting vehicles. Current studies focus on expanding the arsenal of these and alternative targeting strategies, devising drug delivery systems capitalizing on these strategies and evaluation of their benefit/risk ratio in adequate animal models of human diseases. These efforts, combined with better understanding of mechanisms and unintended consequences of these targeted interventions, need to be ultimately translated into industrial development and the clinical domain.

  6. Liposomal Conjugates for Drug Delivery to the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Helm, Frieder; Fricker, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Treatments of central nervous system (CNS) diseases often fail due to the blood–brain barrier. Circumvention of this obstacle is crucial for any systemic treatment of such diseases to be effective. One approach to transfer drugs into the brain is the use of colloidal carrier systems—amongst others, liposomes. A prerequisite for successful drug delivery by colloidal carriers to the brain is the modification of their surface, making them invisible to the reticuloendothelial system (RES) and to target them to specific surface epitopes at the blood–brain barrier. This study characterizes liposomes conjugated with cationized bovine serum albumin (cBSA) as transport vectors in vitro in porcine brain capillary endothelial cells (PBCEC) and in vivo in rats using fluorescently labelled liposomes. Experiments with PBCEC showed that sterically stabilized (PEGylated) liposomes without protein as well as liposomes conjugated to native bovine serum albumin (BSA) were not taken up. In contrast, cBSA-liposomes were taken up and appeared to be concentrated in intracellular vesicles. Uptake occurred in a concentration and time dependent manner. Free BSA and free cBSA inhibited uptake. After intravenous application of cBSA-liposomes, confocal fluorescence microscopy of brain cryosections from male Wistar rats showed fluorescence associated with liposomes in brain capillary surrounding tissue after 3, 6 and 24 h, for liposomes with a diameter between 120 and 150 nm, suggesting successful brain delivery of cationized-albumin coupled liposomes. PMID:25835091

  7. Delivery of Probiotics in the Space Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, S. L.; Ott, C. M.; Douglas, G. L.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of probiotic bacteria to the space food system is expected to confer immunostimulatory benefits on crewmembers during spaceflight, counteracting the immune dysregulation that has been documented in spaceflight. Specifically, the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus has been shown to promote health benefits including antagonism towards and inhibition of virulence related gene expression in pathogens, mucosal stimulation of immune cells, and a reduction in the occurrence and duration of cold and flu-like symptoms. The optimum delivery system for probiotics has not been determined for spaceflight, where the food system is shelf stable and the lack of refrigeration prevents the use of traditional dairy delivery methods. This work proposes to determine whether L. acidophilus is more viable, and therefore more likely to confer immune benefit, when delivered in a capsule form or when delivered in nonfat dry milk powder with a resuscitation opportunity upon rehydration, following 0, 4, and 8 months of storage at -80degC, 4degC, and 22degC, and both prior to and after challenge with simulated gastric and intestinal juices. We hypothesize that the low moisture neutral dairy matrix provided by the nonfat dry milk, and the rehydration step prior to consumption, will extend probiotic viability and stress tolerance compared to a capsule during potential storage conditions in spaceflight and in simulated digestion conditions.

  8. Delivery of Probiotics in the Space Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, S. L.; Ott, C. M.; Douglas, G. L.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of probiotic bacteria to the space food system is expected to confer immunostimulatory benefits on crewmembers during spaceflight, counteracting the immune dysregulation that has been documented in spaceflight [1]. Specifically, the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus has been shown to promote health benefits including antagonism towards and inhibition of virulence related gene expression in pathogens, mucosal stimulation of immune cells, and a reduction in the occurrence and duration of cold and flu-like symptoms [2-5]. The optimum delivery system for probiotics has not been determined for spaceflight, where the food system is shelf stable and the lack of refrigeration prevents the use of traditional dairy delivery methods. This work proposes to determine whether L. acidophilus is more viable, and therefore more likely to confer immune benefit, when delivered in a capsule form or when delivered in nonfat dry milk powder with a resuscitation opportunity upon rehydration, following 0, 4, and 8 months of storage at -80degC, 4degC, and 22degC, and both prior to and after challenge with simulated gastric and intestinal juices. We hypothesize that the low moisture neutral dairy matrix provided by the nonfat dry milk, and the rehydration step prior to consumption, will extend probiotic viability and stress tolerance compared to a capsule during potential storage conditions in spaceflight and in simulated digestion conditions.

  9. Developing system for delivery of optical radiation in medicobiological researches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loschenov, Victor B.; Taraz, Majid

    2004-06-01

    Methods of optical diagnostics and methods of photodynamic therapy are actively used in medico-biological researches. The system for delivery of optical radiation is one of the key methods in these researches. Usually these systems use flexible optical fibers with diameters from 200 to 1000 micron. Two types of systems for delivery are subdivided, first for diagnostic researches, second for therapeutic procedures. Existing diagnostic catheters, which have most widely applied in medicine, have bifurcated with diameter of the tip equal 1.8 mm. These devices, which are called fiber-optical catheters, satisfy the majority endoscopes researches. However, till now the problem of optical-diagnostics inside tissue is not soled. Especially it is important at diagnostics of a mammary gland, livers, thyroid glands tumor, tumor of a brain and some other studies connected with punctures. In these cases, it is necessary that diameter of fiber-optical catheters be less than one millimeter. This work is devoted to the development of these catheters. Also in clinical procedures such as photodynamic therapy (PDT) and interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP), cylindrical light diffusing tips are rapidly becoming a popular device for the administration of the desired light dose for the illumination of hollow organs, such as bronchus, trachea and oesophagus. This work is devoted to the development of these catheters.

  10. Bionanocomposites containing magnetic graphite as potential systems for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Lígia N M; Alcântara, Ana C S; Darder, Margarita; Aranda, Pilar; Herrmann, Paulo S P; Araújo-Moreira, Fernando M; García-Hernández, Mar; Ruiz-Hitzky, Eduardo

    2014-12-30

    New magnetic bio-hybrid matrices for potential application in drug delivery are developed from the assembly of the biopolymer alginate and magnetic graphite nanoparticles. Ibuprofen (IBU) intercalated in a Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) was chosen as a model drug delivery system (DDS) to be incorporated as third component of the magnetic bionanocomposite DDS. For comparative purposes DDS based on the incorporation of pure IBU in the magnetic bio-hybrid matrices were also studied. All the resulting magnetic bionanocomposites were processed as beads and films and characterized by different techniques with the aim to elucidate the role of the magnetic graphite on the systems, as well as that of the inorganic brucite-like layers in the drug-loaded LDH. In this way, the influence of both inorganic components on the mechanical properties, the water uptake ability, and the kinetics of the drug release from these magnetic systems were determined. In addition, the possibility of modulating the levels of IBU release by stimulating the bionanocomposites with an external magnetic field was also evaluated in in vitro assays.

  11. Interactive mixture as a rapid drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chin Chiat; Ong, Charlene Li Ching; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Chan, Lai Wah; Wong, Tin Wui

    2008-02-01

    The effectiveness of an interactive mixture as a rapid drug delivery system is compared with that of a solid dispersion. The influences of drug load, particle size, and crystallinity of these test systems are investigated. The interactive mixtures and solid dispersions were prepared from polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 and hydrophobic nifedipine drug by means of physical mixing and melting methods, respectively. The formed products were subjected to drug particle size and crystallinity analyses, and dissolution tests. In comparison with the interactive mixtures, the solid dispersions with low drug load were more effective as a rapid drug delivery system, as the size of a given batch of drug particles was markedly reduced by the molten PEG 3350. The rate and extent of drug dissolution were mainly promoted by decreasing effective drug particle size. However, these were lower in the solid dispersions than in the interactive mixtures when a high load of fine drug particles was used as the starting material. This was attributed to drug coarsening during the preparation of the solid dispersion. Unlike solid dispersions, the interactive mixtures could accommodate a high load of fine drug particles without compromising its capacity to enhance the rate and extent of drug dissolution. The interactive mixture is appropriate for use to deliver a fine hydrophobic drug in a formulation requiring a high drug load.

  12. Versatile RNA Interference Nanoplatform for Systemic Delivery of RNAs

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Development of nontoxic, tumor-targetable, and potent in vivo RNA delivery systems remains an arduous challenge for clinical application of RNAi therapeutics. Herein, we report a versatile RNAi nanoplatform based on tumor-targeted and pH-responsive nanoformulas (NFs). The NF was engineered by combination of an artificial RNA receptor, Zn(II)-DPA, with a tumor-targetable and drug-loadable hyaluronic acid nanoparticle, which was further modified with a calcium phosphate (CaP) coating by in situ mineralization. The NF can encapsulate small-molecule drugs within its hydrophobic inner core and strongly secure various RNA molecules (siRNAs, miRNAs, and oligonucleotides) by utilizing Zn(II)-DPA and a robust CaP coating. We substantiated the versatility of the RNAi nanoplatform by demonstrating effective delivery of siRNA and miRNA for gene silencing or miRNA replacement into different human types of cancer cells in vitro and into tumor-bearing mice in vivo by intravenous administration. The therapeutic potential of NFs coloaded with an anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox) and multidrug resistance 1 gene target siRNA (siMDR) was also demonstrated in this study. NFs loaded with Dox and siMDR could successfully sensitize drug-resistant OVCAR8/ADR cells to Dox and suppress OVCAR8/ADR tumor cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. This gene/drug delivery system appears to be a highly effective nonviral method to deliver chemo- and RNAi therapeutics into host cells. PMID:24779637

  13. Evaluation of bioadhesive polymers as delivery systems for nose to brain delivery: in vitro characterisation studies.

    PubMed

    Charlton, S T; Davis, S S; Illum, L

    2007-04-02

    There is an increasing need for nasal drug delivery systems that could improve the efficiency of the direct nose to brain pathway especially for drugs for treatment of central nervous system disorders. Novel approaches that are able to combine active targeting of a formulation to the olfactory region with controlled release bioadhesive characteristics, for maintaining the drug on the absorption site are suggested. If necessary an absorption enhancer could be incorporated. Low methylated pectins have been shown to gel and be retained in the nasal cavity after deposition. Chitosan is known to be bioadhesive and also to work as an absorption enhancer. Consequently, two types of pectins, LM-5 and LM-12, together with chitosan G210, were selected for characterisation in terms of molecular weight, gelling ability and viscosity. Furthermore, studies on the in vitro release of model drugs from candidate formulations and the transport of drugs across MDCK1 cell monolayers in the presence of pectin and chitosan were also performed. Bioadhesive formulations providing controlled release with increased or decreased epithelial transport were developed. Due to their promising characteristics 3% LM-5, 1% LM-12 pectin and 1% chitosan G210 formulations were selected for further biological evaluation in animal models.

  14. Delivery of dietary triglycerides to Caenorhabditis elegans using lipid nanoparticles: Nanoemulsion-based delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Colmenares, Daniel; Sun, Quancai; Shen, Peiyi; Yue, Yiren; McClements, D Julian; Park, Yeonhwa

    2016-07-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful tool for studying food bioactives on specific biochemical pathways. However, many food bioactives are highly hydrophobic with extremely low water-solubilities, thereby making them difficult to study using C. elegans. The purpose of this study was to develop nanoemulsion-based systems to deliver hydrophobic molecules in a form that could be ingested by C. elegans. Optical microscopy showed that oil-in-water nanoemulsions with a range of particle diameters (40-500nm) could be ingested by C. elegans. The amount of lipid ingested depended on the size and concentration of the nanoparticles. Fatty acid analysis showed incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid and there was a significant reduction in the fat levels of C. elegans when they were incubated with nanoemulsions containing conjugated linoleic acid, which suggested that this hydrophobic lipid was successfully delivered to the nematodes. The incorporation of hydrophobic molecules into nanoemulsion based-delivery systems may therefore enable their activities to be studied using C. elegans.

  15. Systemic Delivery of Blood-Brain Barrier Targeted Polymeric Nanoparticles Enhances Delivery to Brain Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Saucier-Sawyer, Jennifer K.; Deng, Yang; Seo, Young-Eun; Cheng, Christopher J.; Zhang, Junwei; Quijano, Elias; Saltzman, W. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Delivery of therapeutic agents to the central nervous system is a significant challenge, hindering progress in the treatment of diseases such as glioblastoma. Due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), therapeutic agents do not readily transverse the brain endothelium to enter the parenchyma. Previous reports suggest that surface modification of polymer nanoparticles can improve their ability to cross the BBB, but it is unclear whether the observed enhancements in transport are large enough to enhance therapy. In this study, we synthesized two degradable polymer nanoparticle systems surface-modified with ligands previously suggested to improve BBB transport, and tested their ability to cross the BBB after intravenous injection in mice. All nanoparticle preparations were able to cross the BBB, although generally in low amounts (<0.5% of the injected dose), which was consistent with prior reports. One nanoparticle produced significantly higher brain uptake (~0.8% of the injected dose): a block copolymer of polylactic acid and hyperbranched polyglycerol, surface modified with adenosine (PLA-HPG-Ad). PLA-HPG-Ad nanoparticles provided controlled release of camptothecin, killing U87 glioma cells in culture. When administered intravenously in mice with intracranial U87 tumors, they failed to increase survival. These results suggest that enhancing nanoparticle transport across the BBB does not necessarily yield proportional pharmacological effects. PMID:26453169

  16. Noble gas storage and delivery system for ion propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, Dwight Douglas (Inventor); Ramos, Charlie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method and system for storing and delivering a noble gas for an ion propulsion system where an adsorbent bearing a noble gas is heated within a storage vessel to desorb the noble gas which is then flowed through a pressure reduction device to a thruster assembly. The pressure and flow is controlled using a flow restrictor and low wattage heater which heats an adsorbent bed containing the noble gas propellant at low pressures. Flow rates of 5-60 sccm can be controlled to within about 0.5% or less and the required input power is generally less than 50 W. This noble gas storage and delivery system and method can be used for earth orbit satellites, and lunar or planetary space missions.

  17. Diagnosing delivery problems in the White House Information Distribution System

    SciTech Connect

    Nahabedian, M.; Shrobe, H.

    1996-12-31

    As part of a collaboration with the White House Office of Media Affairs, members of the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory designed a system, called COMLINK, which distributes a daily stream of documents released by the Office of Media Affairs. Approximately 4000 direct subscribers receive information from this service but more than 100,000 people receive the information through redistribution channels. The information is distributed via Email and the World Wide Web. In such a large scale distribution scheme, there is a constant problem of subscriptions becoming invalid because the user`s Email account has terminated. This causes a backwash of hundreds of {open_quotes}bounced mail{close_quotes} messages per day which must be processed by the operators of the COMLINK system. To manage this annoying but necessary task, an expert system named BMES was developed to diagnose the failures of information delivery.

  18. Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CMAQ is a computational tool used for air quality management. It models air pollutants including ozone, particulate matter and other air toxics to help determine optimum air quality management scenarios.

  19. The use of gelatin in a multiple drug delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Abby W.

    The use of gelatin for growth factor delivery was investigated. Protein-gelatin interactions were characterized using the Biomolecular Interaction Detection (BIND) system. Acidic gelatin sheets and basic gelatin microspheres were fabricated and optimized for delivering transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2. The two delivery vehicles were then combined to produce two distinct release sequences and the effect of sequence on bone healing was determined. Using the BIND system, TGF-beta1 was found to interact more strongly with acidic gelatin than basic gelatin whereas BMP-2 only slightly favors basic gelatin over acidic gelatin. Acidic gelatin sheets were fabricated by a casting technique. These sheets successfully delivered TGF-beta1 to a rabbit ulna defect to encourage new bone formation. Basic gelatin microspheres were fabricated by the precision particle fabrication (PPF) method. Uniform drug distribution within the microspheres lead to controlled release of BMP-2 that induced bone formation within the thigh muscle of mice. The sheets and microspheres were combined to deliver both drugs either simultaneously or with a four-day delay to a rabbit calvarial defect. Both sequences encouraged more bone regeneration than empty defects by 8 weeks. Protein-gelatin interactions improved protein stability and lead to release through enzymatic degradation of the gelatin. Growth factors released either singly or in a dual system from gelatin successfully produced bone in vivo. However, single release systems require higher dosages to achieve similar healing results as observed in the dual release systems. No difference was observed between the dual release systems investigated.

  20. The development of a novel cricket bowling system: recreating spin and swing bowling deliveries at the elite level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, A. A.; Justham, L.

    2008-03-01

    During the game of cricket, bowlers create different deliveries by altering the manner in which they release the ball from their hand. The orientation of the seam, the speed at which the ball is released and the magnitude and direction of the spin combine to determine the motion of the ball through the air and its movement after impact with the wicket. These factors have to be considered if automatic training machines are to be capable of replicating elite bowling deliveries. The need for automotive systems for batting and fielding training at the elite level has arisen due to: (i) the capabilities of human bowlers are limited by the onset of fatigue and the risk of injury and (ii) a large number of accurate and repeatable deliveries to be ''programmable'' by coaches to ensure batsmen and fielders are tested to the limits of their abilities and a training benefit is achieved.

  1. Spatiotemporal drug delivery using laser-generated-focused ultrasound system

    PubMed Central

    Di, Jin; Kim, Jinwook; Hu, Quanyin; Jiang, Xiaoning; Gu, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Laser-generated-focused ultrasound (LGFU) holds promise for the high-precision ultrasound therapy owing to its tight focal spot, broad frequency band, and stable excitation with minimal ultrasound-induced heating. We here report the development of the LGFU as a stimulus for promoted drug release from microgels integrated with drug-loaded polymeric nanoparticles. The pulsed waves of ultrasound, generated by a carbon black/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-photoacoustic lens, were introduced to trigger the drug release from alginate microgels encapsulated with drug-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles. We demonstrated the antibacterial capability of this drug delivery system against Escherichia coli by the disk diffusion method, and antitumor efficacy toward the HeLa cell-derived tumor spheroids in vitro. This novel LGFU-responsive drug delivery system provides a simple and remote approach to precisely control the release of therapeutics in a spatiotemporal manner and potentially suppress detrimental effects to the surrounding tissue, such as thermal ablation. PMID:26299506

  2. Alginate Nanoparticles as a Promising Adjuvant and Vaccine Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Sarei, F.; Dounighi, N. Mohammadpour; Zolfagharian, H.; Khaki, P.; Bidhendi, S. Moradi

    2013-01-01

    During last decades, diphtheria has remained as a serious disease that still outbreaks and can occur worldwide. Recently, new vaccine delivery systems have been developed by using the biodegradable and biocompatible polymers such as alginate. Alginate nanoparticles as a carrier with adjuvant and prolong release properties that enhance the immunogenicity of vaccines. In this study diphtheria toxoid loaded nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation technique and characterized with respect to size, zeta potential, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, release profile, and immunogenicity. Appropriate parameters (calcium chloride and sodium alginate concentration, homogenization rate and homogenization time) redounded to the formation of suitable nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 70±0.5 nm. The loading studies of the nanoparticles resulted in high loading capacities (>90%) and subsequent release studies showed prolong profile. The stability and antigenicity of toxoid were evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and ouchterlony test and proved that the encapsulation process did not affect the antigenic integrity and activity. Guinea pigs immunized with the diphtheria toxoid-loaded alginate nanoparticles showed highest humoral immune response than conventional vaccine. It is concluded that, with regard to the desirable properties of nanoparticles and high immunogenicity, alginate nanoparticles could be considered as a new promising vaccine delivery and adjuvant system. PMID:24302799

  3. The Smart Drug Delivery System and Its Clinical Potential

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong; Yang, Fang; Xiong, Fei; Gu, Ning

    2016-01-01

    With the unprecedented progresses of biomedical nanotechnology during the past few decades, conventional drug delivery systems (DDSs) have been involved into smart DDSs with stimuli-responsive characteristics. Benefiting from the response to specific internal or external triggers, those well-defined nanoplatforms can increase the drug targeting efficacy, in the meantime, reduce side effects/toxicities of payloads, which are key factors for improving patient compliance. In academic field, variety of smart DDSs have been abundantly demonstrated for various intriguing systems, such as stimuli-responsive polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, metals/metal oxides, and exosomes. However, these nanoplatforms are lack of standardized manufacturing method, toxicity assessment experience, and clear relevance between the pre-clinical and clinical studies, resulting in the huge difficulties to obtain regulatory and ethics approval. Therefore, such relatively complex stimulus-sensitive nano-DDSs are not currently approved for clinical use. In this review, we highlight the recent advances of smart nanoplatforms for targeting drug delivery. Furthermore, the clinical translation obstacles faced by these smart nanoplatforms have been reviewed and discussed. We also present the future directions and perspectives of stimuli-sensitive DDS in clinical applications. PMID:27375781

  4. Hairy roots as a vaccine production and delivery system.

    PubMed

    Skarjinskaia, Marina; Ruby, Karen; Araujo, Adriana; Taylor, Karina; Gopalasamy-Raju, Vengadesan; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Chichester, Jessica A; Palmer, Gene A; de la Rosa, Patricia; Mett, Vadim; Ugulava, Natalia; Streatfield, Stephen J; Yusibov, Vidadi

    2013-01-01

    Prevention of infectious diseases by vaccination is often limited because of the lack of safe, effective, and accessible vaccines. Traditional vaccines are expensive and require special conditions for storage, distribution, and administration. Plants have potential for large-scale production of a variety of inexpensive and highly effective recombinant proteins for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, including subunit vaccines. There are several approaches for the production of vaccine antigens in plants, including transient expression systems based on Agrobacterium delivery of binary vectors or plant viral vectors, stable transgenic plants, and plant cell or tissue cultures. Axenic plant cultures maintained under defined physical and chemical conditions appear to be an attractive production platform when target proteins need to be synthesized in a fully controlled environment. Hairy root cultures meet the criteria for such a system. Hairy root cultures, generated from edible plants and producing target antigens, provide a potential approach for the development of vaccines for oral delivery. With this approach, there are no protein extraction and purification costs and the active biomolecule is protected by the plant cell wall during passage through the upper gastrointestinal tract. This allows for gradual release of antigen at mucosal surfaces in the gut. Lyophilized hairy root cultures expressing vaccine antigens can be stored at ambient temperature for extended periods of time, which should facilitate storage and distribution, ultimately allowing for large populations to be vaccinated.

  5. Cubic and Hexagonal Liquid Crystals as Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yulin; Ma, Ping; Gui, Shuangying

    2014-01-01

    Lipids have been widely used as main constituents in various drug delivery systems, such as liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, and lipid-based lyotropic liquid crystals. Among them, lipid-based lyotropic liquid crystals have highly ordered, thermodynamically stable internal nanostructure, thereby offering the potential as a sustained drug release matrix. The intricate nanostructures of the cubic phase and hexagonal phase have been shown to provide diffusion controlled release of active pharmaceutical ingredients with a wide range of molecular weights and polarities. In addition, the biodegradable and biocompatible nature of lipids demonstrates the minimum toxicity and thus they are used for various routes of administration. Therefore, the research on lipid-based lyotropic liquid crystalline phases has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. This review will provide an overview of the lipids used to prepare cubic phase and hexagonal phase at physiological temperature, as well as the influencing factors on the phase transition of liquid crystals. In particular, the most current research progresses on cubic and hexagonal phases as drug delivery systems will be discussed. PMID:24995330

  6. The application of delivery systems for DNA methyltransferase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sue Ping; Neilsen, Paul; Kumar, Raman; Abell, Andrew; Callen, David F

    2011-08-01

    DNA methylation, which often occurs at the cytosine residue of cytosine-guanine dinucleotides, is critical for the control of gene expression and mitotic inheritance in eukaryotes. DNA methylation silences gene expression either by directly hindering the access of transcription factors to the target DNA, or through recruitment of histone deacetylases to remodel the chromatin structure to an inactive state. Aberrant hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes is commonly associated with the development of cancer. A number of anti-cancer agents have been developed that function through demethylation, reversing regional hypermethylation to restore the expression of tumor suppressor genes. Azacitidine and decitabine are used in the clinic, but their applications are limited to myelodysplastic syndrome and other blood-related diseases. Despite the potency of these drugs, their broader clinical application is restricted by cytotoxicity, nonspecific targeting, structural instability, catabolism, and poor bioavailability. Further improvements in the delivery systems for these drugs could overcome the issues associated with inefficient bioavailability, whilst facilitating the administration of combinations of demethylating agents and histone deacetylase inhibitors to enhance efficacy. This review focuses on the current limitations of existing demethylating agents and highlights possible approaches using recent developments in drug delivery systems to improve the clinical potential of these drugs.

  7. Niosomes as Nano-Delivery Systems in the Pharmaceutical Field.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira-Coutinho, Cristal; Dos Santos, Elisabete P; Mansur, Claudia Regina E

    2016-01-01

    Nanosystems used in the pharmaceutical field aim to guarantee a controlled release and efficacy boost with dose reduction of the drug. The same active ingredient could be vehiculated in different concentrations in distinct nanosystems. Among these nanostructures, the vesicular ones present a versatile delivery system that could be applied to encapsulate lipophilic, amphiphilic, and hydrophilic compounds. Liposomes are the most well-known vesicular nanosystems; however, there are others, such as niosomes, that are composed of nonionic surfactants that are polymeric or conventional. Niosomes could be prepared using the thin film hydration method, in which the active ingredient is solubilized in organic solvent with the surfactant or in aqueous solution depending on its polarity. In addition, co-surfactants could be used to improve stabilization and vesicle integrity because they occupy regions in the interface where the mainly surfactant could not reach. Vesicular nanosystems could be characterized by different techniques, such as microscopy, dynamic light scattering, nuclear magnetic resonance, and others. These nanostructures could be applied to drugs (administered by different routes) or to gene and cosmetic delivery systems.

  8. Chitinosans as tableting excipients for modified release delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Rege, P R; Shukla, D J; Block, L H

    1999-04-20

    The term 'chitinosans' embraces the spectrum of acetylated poly(N-glucosamines) ranging from chitin to chitosan. Chitinosans (I), at acidic pH, have protonated amines which can interact with oppositely charged drug ions and, thereby, modify drug release from drug delivery systems. Tablets were compressed from a physical mixture containing salicylic acid (II) as the model drug, I, and magnesium stearate. Five commercial I compounds, varying in degree of deacetylation and molecular weight, were selected. Tablets were compressed at 5000, 10 000, and 15 000 psig using a Carver and a single punch tablet press. The differential scanning calorimetry thermograms provided evidence of I-II interaction in the powder blend. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the compression pressure did not significantly affect the crushing strength (CS) or the release profile of II from the I-matrix tablets (P?0.05). Furthermore, the ANOVA also indicated that the tablet press used during manufacture did not affect the above properties (P?0.05); however, the chitinosans significantly affected the CS as well as the release profile of II from I-matrix tablets (P<0.05). This study provides further evidence for the use of commercial I compounds as excipients for use in modified release drug delivery systems.

  9. Pulsatile Release of Parathyroid Hormone from an Implantable Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaohua; Pettway, Glenda J.; McCauley, Laurie K.; Ma, Peter X.

    2007-01-01

    Intermittent (pulsatile) administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) is known to improve bone micro-architecture, mineral density and strength. Therefore, daily injection of PTH has been clinically used for the treatment of osteoporosis. However, this regimen of administration is not convenient and is not a favorable choice of patients. In this study, an implantable delivery system has been developed to achieve pulsatile release of PTH. A well-defined cylindrical device was first fabricated with a biodegradable polymer, poly(lactic acid) (PLLA), using a reverse solid free form fabrication technique. Three-component polyanhydrides composed of sebacic acid, 1,3-bis(p-carboxyphenoxy) propane and poly(ethylene glycol) were synthesized and used as isolation layers. The polyanhydride isolation layers and PTH-loaded alginate layers were then stacked alternately within the delivery device. The gap between the stacked PTH-releasing core and the device frame was filled with PLLA to seal. Multi-pulse PTH release was achieved using the implantable device. The lag time between two adjacent pulses were modulated by the composition and the film thickness of the polyanhydride. The released PTH was demonstrated to be biologically active using an in vitro assay. Timed sequential release of multiple drugs has also been demonstrated. The implantable device holds promise for both systemic and local therapies. PMID:17576005

  10. The Smart Drug Delivery System and Its Clinical Potential.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Yang, Fang; Xiong, Fei; Gu, Ning

    2016-01-01

    With the unprecedented progresses of biomedical nanotechnology during the past few decades, conventional drug delivery systems (DDSs) have been involved into smart DDSs with stimuli-responsive characteristics. Benefiting from the response to specific internal or external triggers, those well-defined nanoplatforms can increase the drug targeting efficacy, in the meantime, reduce side effects/toxicities of payloads, which are key factors for improving patient compliance. In academic field, variety of smart DDSs have been abundantly demonstrated for various intriguing systems, such as stimuli-responsive polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, metals/metal oxides, and exosomes. However, these nanoplatforms are lack of standardized manufacturing method, toxicity assessment experience, and clear relevance between the pre-clinical and clinical studies, resulting in the huge difficulties to obtain regulatory and ethics approval. Therefore, such relatively complex stimulus-sensitive nano-DDSs are not currently approved for clinical use. In this review, we highlight the recent advances of smart nanoplatforms for targeting drug delivery. Furthermore, the clinical translation obstacles faced by these smart nanoplatforms have been reviewed and discussed. We also present the future directions and perspectives of stimuli-sensitive DDS in clinical applications.

  11. Gastroretentive drug delivery systems for therapeutic management of peptic ulcer.

    PubMed

    Garg, Tarun; Kumar, Animesh; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit K

    2014-01-01

    A peptic ulcer, stomach ulcer, or gastric ulcer, also known as peptic ulcer disease (PUD), is a very common chronic disorder of the stomach which is mainly caused by damage or impairment of the stomach lining. Various factors such as pepsin, gastric acid, H. pylori, NSAIDs, prostaglandins, mucus, bicarbonate, and blood flow to mucosa play an important role in causing peptic ulcers. In this review article, our main focus is on some important gastroretentive drug delivery systems (GRDDS) (floating, bioadhesive, high density, swellable, raft forming, superporous hydrogel, and magnetic systems) which will be helpful in gastroretention of different dosage forms for treatment of peptic ulcer. GRDDS provides a mean for controlled release of compounds that are absorbed by active transport in the upper intestine. It also enables controlled delivery for paracellularly absorbed drugs without a decrease in bioavailability. The above approaches are specific for targeting and leading to a marked improvement in the quality of life for a large number of patients. In the future, it is expected that they will become of growing significance, finally leading to improved efficiencies of various types of pharmacotherapies.

  12. Microparticulate based topical delivery system of clobetasol propionate.

    PubMed

    Badıllı, Ulya; Sen, Tangül; Tarımcı, Nilüfer

    2011-09-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, autoimmune skin disease affecting approximately 2% of the world's population. Clobetasol propionate which is a superpotent topical corticosteroid is widely used for topical treatment of psoriasis. Conventional dosage forms like creams and ointments are commonly prefered for the therapy. The purpose of this study was to develop a new topical delivery system in order to provide the prolonged release of clobetasol propionate and to reduce systemic absorption and side effects of the drug. Clobetasol propionate loaded-poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres were prepared by oil-in-water emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. Particle size analysis, morphological characterization, DSC and XRD analyses and in vitro drug release studies were performed on the microparticle formulations. Emulgel formulations were prepared as an alternative for topical delivery of clobetasol propionate. In vitro drug release studies were carried out from the emulgel formulations containing pure drug and drug-loaded microspheres. In addition, the same studies were performed to determine the drug release from the commercial cream product of clobetasol propionate. The release of clobetasol propionate from the emulgel formulations was significantly higher than the commercial product. In addition, the encapsulation of clobetasol propionate in the PLGA microspheres significantly delayed the drug release from the emulgel formulation. As a result, the decrease in the side effects of clobetasol propionate by the formulation containing PLGA microspheres is expected.

  13. Design of a Multiple Drug Delivery System Directed at Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Sundararaj, Sharath C.; Thomas, Mark V.; Peyyala, Rebecca; Dziubla, Thomas D.; Puleo, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease is highly prevalent, with 90% of the world population affected by either periodontitis or its preceding condition, gingivitis. These conditions are caused by bacterial biofilms on teeth, which stimulate a chronic inflammatory response that leads to loss of alveolar bone and, ultimately, the tooth. Current treatment methods for periodontitis address specific parts of the disease, with no individual treatment serving as a complete therapy. The present research sought to demonstrate development of a multiple drug delivery system for stepwise treatment of different stages of periodontal disease. More specifically, multilayered films were fabricated from an association polymer comprising cellulose acetate phthalate and Pluronic F-127 to achieve sequential release of drugs. The four types of drugs used were metronidazole, ketoprofen, doxycycline, and simvastatin to eliminate infection, inhibit inflammation, prevent tissue destruction, and aid bone regeneration, respectively. Different erosion times and adjustable sequential release profiles were achieved by modifying the number of layers or by inclusion of a slower-eroding polymer layer. Analysis of antibiotic and anti-inflammatory bioactivity showed that drugs released from the devices retained 100% bioactivity. The multilayered CAPP delivery system offers a versatile approach for releasing different drugs based on the pathogenesis of periodontitis and other conditions. PMID:23948165

  14. Power and Thermal Technologies for Air and Space-Scientific Research Program. Delivery Order 0012: High-Temperature Superconductor Performance Enhancement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    AFRL-RZ-WP-TR-2010-2167 POWER AND THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR AIR AND SPACE‒SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH PROGRAM Delivery Order 0012: High -Temperature...AND SUBTITLE POWER AND THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR AIR AND SPACE‒SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH PROGRAM Delivery Order 0012: High -Temperature Superconductor...electrically connect them to the substrate. 4) Develop improved measurement techniques and standards of measurement for properties of high temperature

  15. Carrier Mediated Systemic Delivery of Protein and Peptide Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Rahela; Othman, Iekhan; Chowdhury, Ezharul Hoque

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades proteins and peptide therapeutics have occupied an enormous fraction of pharmaceutical industry. Despite their high potential as therapeutics, the big challenge often encountered is the effective administration and bioavailability of protein therapeutics in vivo system. Peptide molecules are well known for their in vivo short half-lives. In addition, due to high molecular weight and susceptibility to enzymatic degradation, often it is not easy to administer peptides and proteins orally or through any other noninvasive routes. Conventional drug management system often demands for frequent and regular interval intravenous/subcutaneous administration, which decreases overall patient compliance and increases chances of side-effects related to dose-fluctuation in systemic circulation. A controlled mode of delivery system could address all these short-comings at a time. Therefore, long-acting sustained release formulations for both invasive and noninvasive routes are under rigorous study currently. Long-acting formulations through invasive routes can address patient compliance and dose-fluctuation issues by less frequent administration. Also, any new route of administration other than invasive routes will address cost-effectiveness of the therapeutic by lessening the need to deal with health professional and health care facility. Although a vast number of studies are dealing with novel drug delivery systems, till now only a handful of controlled release formulations for proteins and peptides have been approved by FDA. This study therefore focuses on current and perspective controlled release formulations of existing and novel protein/peptide therapeutics via conventional invasive routes as well as potential novel non-invasive routes of administration, e.g., oral, buccal, sublingual, nasal, ocular, rectal, vaginal and pulmonary.

  16. Comparative analysis of ascorbic acid in human milk and infant formula using varied milk delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Jimi; Rogers, Kristy; Brewer, Paul; Dickton, Darby; Pardini, Ron

    2008-01-01

    Background The expression of human milk for later use is on the rise. Bottle systems are used to deliver the expressed milk. Research has shown that storage of both human milk and artificial baby milk, or infant formula, leads to a loss of ascorbic acid (commonly called Vitamin C). As milk is removed from the bottle during feeding and replaced by ambient air, it is unknown if loss of ascorbic acid occurs during the course of a feeding. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the milk delivery system on levels of ascorbic acid in human milk and infant formula. The objectives are to 1) determine changes in ascorbic acid concentration during a 20 minute "feed," 2) determine if there is a difference in ascorbic acid concentration between delivery systems, and 3) evaluate if any differences are of clinical importance. Methods Commonly available bottles were used for comparison of bottle delivery systems. Mature human milk was standardized to 42 mg/L of ascorbic acid. Infant formula with iron and infant formula with docosahexanoic acid were used for the formula samples. Each sample was analyzed for ascorbic acid concentration at baseline (0), 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes. Each collection of samples was completed in triplicate. Samples were analyzed for ascorbic acid using normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Results Ascorbic acid concentration declined in all bottle systems during testing, Differences between the bottle systems were noted. Ascorbic acid concentrations declined to less than 40% of recommended daily intake for infants in 4 of the bottles systems at the 20 minute sampling. Conclusion The bottle systems used in this study had measurable decreases in the mean concentration of ascorbic acid. More research is needed to determine if the observed decreases are related to lower plasma ascorbic acid concentration in infants exclusively bottle fed. The decrease of ascorbic acid concentration observed in both human milk and infant

  17. 20 CFR 652.201 - What is the role of the State agency in the One-Stop delivery system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... One-Stop delivery system? 652.201 Section 652.201 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... Services in a One-Stop Delivery System Environment § 652.201 What is the role of the State agency in the One-Stop delivery system? (a) The role of the State agency in the One-Stop delivery system is...

  18. Heating, Ventilating, Air Conditioning and Dehumidifying Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    not be connected to other ventilating systems. Duct runs shall be as short as possible to avoid leakage of moisture. I b. Special Considerations. (1...For rectangular duct design, see the SMACNA -Low Pressure Duct Construction Standards. Under jnormal applications, a minimum duct size of 6 by 6 inches...prevent leakage of the moisture-laden discharge air into the intake duct , and the intake and discharge outlets shall be located to prevent any

  19. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction system. 23.1091 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1111 - Turbine engine bleed air system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbine engine bleed air system. 23.1111 Section 23.1111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction System § 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system. For turbine engine bleed air systems,...

  2. Preparation, characterization and drug delivery study of a novel nanobiopolymeric multidrug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Dadkhah Tehrani, Abbas; Parsamanesh, Masoumeh

    2017-04-01

    New nanocarrier for codelivery of curcumin and doxorubicin as the anticancer drugs was synthesized using biocompatible and biodegradable materials. Firstly, an inclusion complex of amylose (Am) and curcumin (CUR) was formed through entrapment of curcumin into the amylose helices. Then the surface of amylose-curcumin (Am-CUR) complex was modified by polycaprolactone (PCL) via esterification reaction between hydroxyl functional groups of amylose and carbonyl groups of PCL. Finally, poly citric acid (PCA) reacted with terminal hydroxyl groups of PCL by esterification reaction. Then, doxorubicin (DOX) reacted with the surface carboxylic acid functional groups of Am-CUR-PCL-PCA through noncovalent interactions to form Am-CUR-PCL-PCA-DOX as a multidrug delivery system. These new synthesized nanomaterials were characterized by spectroscopic measurement methods such as IR spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. FE-SEM analyses and DLS measurements showed that the hydrodynamic dimensions of Am-Cur-PCL-PCA were about 50nm. Due to the presence of ester bonds, the synthesized nanomaterials are pH sensitive. Furthermore, the resulting copolymer was completely water soluble because of the hydrophilic nature of poly citric acid part of copolymer and therefore successfully can be utilized in biomedical applications.

  3. Microneedle-based drug delivery systems: Microfabrication, drug delivery, and safety

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Ryan F.; Raj Singh, Thakur Raghu; Woolfson, A. David

    2010-01-01

    Many promising therapeutic agents are limited by their inability to reach the systemic circulation, due to the excellent barrier properties of biological membranes, such as the stratum corneum (SC) of the skin or the sclera/cornea of the eye and others. The outermost layer of the skin, the SC, is the principal barrier to topically-applied medications. The intact SC thus provides the main barrier to exogenous substances, including drugs. Only drugs with very specific physicochemical properties (molecular weight < 500 Da, adequate lipophilicity, and low melting point) can be successfully administered transdermally. Transdermal delivery of hydrophilic drugs and macromolecular agents of interest, including peptides, DNA, and small interfering RNA is problematic. Therefore, facilitation of drug penetration through the SC may involve by-pass or reversible disruption of SC molecular architecture. Microneedles (MNs), when used to puncture skin, will by-pass the SC and create transient aqueous transport pathways of micron dimensions and enhance the transdermal permeability. These micropores are orders of magnitude larger than molecular dimensions, and, therefore, should readily permit the transport of hydrophilic macromolecules. Various strategies have been employed by many research groups and pharmaceutical companies worldwide, for the fabrication of MNs. This review details various types of MNs, fabrication methods and, importantly, investigations of clinical safety of MN. PMID:20297904

  4. Encapsulation, protection, and release of hydrophilic active components: potential and limitations of colloidal delivery systems.

    PubMed

    McClements, David Julian

    2015-05-01

    There have been major advances in the development of edible colloidal delivery systems for hydrophobic bioactives in recent years. However, there are still many challenges associated with the development of effective delivery systems for hydrophilic bioactives. This review highlights the major challenges associated with developing colloidal delivery systems for hydrophilic bioactive components that can be utilized in foods, pharmaceuticals, and other products intended for oral ingestion. Special emphasis is given to the fundamental physicochemical phenomena associated with encapsulation, stabilization, and release of these bioactive components, such as solubility, partitioning, barriers, and mass transport processes. Delivery systems suitable for encapsulating hydrophilic bioactive components are then reviewed, including liposomes, multiple emulsions, solid fat particles, multiple emulsions, biopolymer particles, cubosomes, and biologically-derived systems. The advantages and limitations of each of these delivery systems are highlighted. This information should facilitate the rational selection of the most appropriate colloidal delivery systems for particular applications in the food and other industries.

  5. Spatial service delivery system for smart licensing & enforcement management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahap, N. A.; Ismail, N. M.; Nor, N. M.; Ahmad, N.; Omar, M. F.; Termizi, A. A. A.; Zainal, D.; Noordin, N. M.; Mansor, S.

    2016-06-01

    Spatial information has introduced a new sense of urgency for a better understanding of the public needs in term of what, when and where they need services and through which devices, platform or physical locations they need them. The objective of this project is to value- add existing license management process for business premises which comes under the responsibility of Local Authority (PBT). Manipulation of geospatial and tracing technology via mobile platform allows enforcement officers to work in real-time, use a standardized system, improve service delivery, and optimize operation management. This paper will augment the scope and capabilities of proposed concept namely, Smart Licensing/Enforcement Management (SLEm). It will review the current licensing and enforcement practice of selected PBT in comparison to the enhanced method. As a result, the new enhanced system is expected to offer a total solution for licensing/enforcement management whilst increasing efficiency and transparency for smart city management and governance.

  6. Managerial competence at senior levels of integrated delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Longest, B B

    1998-01-01

    The advent of integrated delivery systems (IDSs) in the healthcare industry has changed much about the work involved in running many healthcare organizations. As a result of these changes, senior healthcare managers in IDSs need different skills and knowledge (competencies) than managers of other healthcare systems. The work of managers is changed by the shift to more organizational integration in the healthcare industry because they become responsible for coordinated continuation of services, accountable for the overall health status of the populations they serve, and involved in more complex organizational structures. The article identifies six distinct managerial competencies--conceptual, technical managerial/clinical, interpersonal/collaborative, political, commercial, and governance--and describes how they relate to an IDS senior manager's successful work performance. The implications of these competencies are considered for practicing senior managers in IDSs, as well as those who aspire to such positions, and those who help educate them.

  7. Low Cost Air Combat Training System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Earl

    1987-10-01

    Air combat training has evolved into a highly sophisticated and expensive process. To effectively train fighter pilots in air-to-air combat, interaction between pilots is essential. This interaction can be accomplished using multiple low cost laser image projections of friend and/or foe aircraft controlled by pilots in a multiple dome configuration. A Laser Target Projector (LTP) produces a calligraphically written aircraft model comprised of up to 200 vectors which are updated at a 60 Hz rate. The resulting wire frame image imparts both position, velocity, distance and altitude information to the pilots. Using a laser light source guarantees high luminance levels and provides large depths of field. This large depth of field allows for unique packaging arrangements and cost saving attributes. The LTP has total dome coverage via a computer-controlled, servo-driven, gimb-alled two-axis assembly that projects the wire frame aircraft image onto the dome surface. To unburden the host computer, all dome-to-dome communication, real world-to-dome coordinate transformations and all geometry corrections are done by a special purpose high-speed computer called a Dome Master. Each dome has one Dome Master that can drive up to six LTP's. This paper will deal with the technical aspects of the design and development of the LTP and Dome Master as a low cost air combat training system.

  8. Ternary particles for effective vaccine delivery to the pulmonary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, Treniece La'shay

    Progress in the fields of molecular biology and genomics has provided great insight into the pathogenesis of disease and the defense mechanisms of the immune system. This knowledge has lead to the classification of an array of abnormal genes, for which, treatment relies on cellular expression of proteins. The utility of DNA-based vaccines hold great promise for the treatment of genetically based and infectious diseases, which ranges from hemophilia, cystic fibrosis, and HIV. Synthetic delivery systems consisting of cationic polymers, such as polyethylenimine (PEI), are capable of condensing DNA into compact structures, maximizing cellular uptake of DNA and yielding high levels of protein expression. To date, short term expression is a major obstacle in the development of gene therapies and has halted their expansion in clinical applications. This study intends to develop a sustained release vaccine delivery system using PLA-PEG block copolymers encapsulating PEI:DNA polyplexes. To enhance the effectiveness of such DNA-based vaccines, resident antigen presenting cells, macrophages and dendritic cells, will be targeted within the alveoli regions of the lungs. Porous microspheres will be engineered with aerodynamic properties capable of achieving deep lung deposition. A fabrication technique using concentric nozzles will be developed to produce porous microspheres. It was observed that modifications in the dispersed to continuous phase ratios have the largest influence on particle size distributions, release rates and encapsulation efficiency which ranged form 80--95% with fourteen days of release. Amphiphilic block copolymers were also used to fabricate porous microspheres. The confirmation of PEG within the biodegradable polymer backbone was found to have a tremendous impact on the microsphere morphology and encapsulation efficiency which varied from 50--90%. Porous microspheres were capable of providing sustained gene expression when tested in vitro using the

  9. Nanosized Drug Delivery Systems in Gastrointestinal Targeting: Interactions with Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Karavolos, Michail; Holban, Alina

    2016-01-01

    The new age of nanotechnology has signaled a stream of entrepreneurial possibilities in various areas, form industry to medicine. Drug delivery has benefited the most by introducing nanostructured systems in the transport and controlled release of therapeutic molecules at targeted sites associated with a particular disease. As many nanosized particles reach the gastrointestinal tract by various means, their interactions with the molecular components of this highly active niche are intensively investigated. The well-characterized antimicrobial activities of numerous nanoparticles are currently being considered as a reliable and efficient alternative to the eminent world crisis in antimicrobial drug discovery. The interactions of nanosystems present in the gastrointestinal route with host microbiota is unavoidable; hence, a major research initiative is needed to explore the mechanisms and effects of these nanomaterials on microbiota and the impact that microbiota may have in the outcome of therapies entailing drug delivery nanosystems through the gastrointestinal route. These coordinated studies will provide novel techniques to replace or act synergistically with current technologies and help develop new treatments for major diseases via the discovery of unique antimicrobial molecules. PMID:27690060

  10. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of formulated levodopa methyl ester nasal delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeon Hong; Kim, Kyung Hee; Yoon, In Kyung; Lee, Kyung Eun; Chun, In Koo; Rhie, Jeong Yeon; Gwak, Hye Sun

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic characteristics of levodopa (L-dopa) from nasal powder formulations using highly water-soluble levodopa methyl ester hydrochloride (LDME). In vivo pharmacokinetic studies were carried out with formulated LDME nasal powders. After oral and intravenous administration of L-dopa and carbidopa and intranasal administration LDME to the rat, L-dopa concentrations were determined in plasma and the brain using high-performance liquid chromatography. The absolute bioavailabilities of nasal preparations with and without Carbopol were 82.4 and 66.7 %, respectively, which were much higher than that of oral delivery (16.2 %). The drug-targeting efficiencies [area under the curve (AUC) in brain/AUC in plasma] of L-dopa in the nasal formulations (0.98-1.08) were much higher than that of oral preparation (0.69). These results suggest that LDME nasal powder formulations would be useful delivery systems of L-dopa to the brain.

  11. Sponges carrying self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Josef, Elinor; Bianco-Peled, Havazelet

    2013-12-15

    Self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) increase the solubility of lipophilic drugs. One barrier to their wide application is their liquid nature. We report on a new method to solidify SMEDDS-their incorporation in sponges made from a hydrophilic natural polymer. Using different freeze-drying schemes, sponges were prepared from alginate gels containing microemulsions. The sponges' structures were studied with scanning electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering. The oil droplets survived the drying process, and SMEDDS were present as 9 nm-sized objects in the dried sponges. The sponges were rehydrated in water, and evidence of the presence of SMEDDS in the rehydrated sponges was found. A model hydrophobic molecule, Nile red, was soluble in all dry and rehydrated sponges. SMEDDS containing Nile red were gradually released from the sponges, at a rate that depended on the drying method. The equilibrium water uptake of the sponges was also found to be influenced by the drying scheme. The combination of SMEDDS and sponges may be a way to overcome the disadvantages of each component separately, provide a solid dosage form for SMEDDS that can sustain the release of drugs and also enable utilization of hydrophilic sponges for the delivery of hydrophobic drugs.

  12. Strategic workforce planning for a multihospital, integrated delivery system.

    PubMed

    Datz, David; Hallberg, Colleen; Harris, Kathy; Harrison, Lisa; Samples, Patience

    2012-01-01

    Banner Health has long recognized the need to anticipate, beyond the immediate operational realities or even the annual budgeting projection exercises, the necessary workforce needs of the future. Thus, in 2011, Banner implemented a workforce planning model that included structures, processes, and tools for predicting workforce needs, with particular focus on identified critical systemwide practice areas. The model represents the incorporation of labor management tools and processes with more strategic, broad-view, long-term assessment and planning mechanisms. The sequential tying of the workforce planning lifecycle with the organization's strategy and financial planning process supports alignment of goals, objectives, and resource allocation. Collaboration among strategy, finance, human resources, and operations has provided us with the ability to identify critical position groups based on 3-year strategic priorities. By engaging leaders from across the organization, focusing on activities at facility, regional, and system levels, and building in mechanisms for accountability, we are now engaged in continuous evaluations of our delivery models, the competencies and preparations necessary for the staff to effectively function within those delivery models, and developing and implementing action plans designed to ensure adequate numbers of the staff whose competencies will be suited to the work expected of them.

  13. A novel gene delivery system for mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Brian; Duffy, Angela M; Gould Fogerite, Susan; Krause-Elsmore, Sara; Lu, Ruying; Shang, Gaofeng; Chen, Zi-Wei; Mannino, Raphael J; Bouchier-Hayes, David J; Harmey, Judith H

    2004-01-01

    Although gene therapy holds great promise for the treatment of both acquired and genetic diseases, its development has been limited by practical considerations. Non-viral efficacy of delivery remains quite poor. We are investigating the feasibility of a novel lipid-based delivery system, cochleates, to deliver transgenes to mammalian cells. Rhodamine-labelled empty cochleates were incubated with two cell-lines (4T1 adenocarcinoma and H36.12 macrophage hybridoma) and primary macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Cochleates containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression plasmid were incubated with 4T1 adenocarcinoma cells. Cellular uptake of labelled cochleates or transgene GFP expression were visualised with fluorescence microscopy. 4T1 and H36.12 lines showed 39% and 23.1% uptake of rhodamine-cochleates, respectively. Human monocyte-derived macrophages and mouse peritoneal macrophages had 48+/-5.38% and 51.46+/-15.6% uptake of rhodamine-cochleates in vitro. In vivo 25.69+/-0.127% of peritoneal macrophages were rhodamine-positive after intra-peritoneal injection of rhodamine-cochleates. 19.49+/-10.12% of 4T1 cells expressed GFP. Cochleates may therefore be an effective, non-toxic and non-immunogenic method to introduce transgenes in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Assessment of Advanced Logistics Delivery System (ALDS) Launch Systems Concepts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    roller coasters . They have also been included in preliminary EMALS / EARS launch system designs; however, ALDS launcher system accelerations and path...is based on a permanent magnet linear motor design incorporating high temperature superconducting materials in the rotor, stator windings, and...linear induction motor concept similar to the Electro- Magnetic Aircraft Launcher System (EMALS) that is currently under development for use as a

  15. Chronotherapeutic drug delivery systems: an approach to circadian rhythms diseases.

    PubMed

    Sunil, S A; Srikanth, M V; Rao, N Sreenivasa; Uhumwangho, M U; Latha, K; Murthy, K V Ramana

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of writing this review on chronotherapeutic drug delivery systems (ChrDDs) is to review the literatures with special focus on ChrDDs and the various dosage forms, techniques that are used to target the circadian rhythms (CR) of various diseases. Many functions of the human body vary considerably in a day. ChrDDs refers to a treatment method in which in vivo drug availability is timed to match circadian rhythms of disease in order to optimize therapeutic outcomes and minimize side effects. Several techniques have been developed but not many dosage forms for all the diseases are available in the market. ChrDDs are gaining importance in the field of pharmaceutical technology as these systems reduce dosing frequency, toxicity and deliver the drug that matches the CR of that particular disease when the symptoms are maximum to worse. Finally, the ultimate benefit goes to the patient due the compliance and convenience of the dosage form. Some diseases that follow circadian rhythms include cardiovascular diseases, asthma, arthritis, ulcers, diabetes etc. ChrDDs in the market were also discussed and the current technologies used to formulate were also stated. These technologies include Contin® , Chronotopic®, Pulsincaps®, Ceform®, Timerx®, Oros®, Codas®, Diffucaps®, Egalet®, Tablet in capsule device, Core-in-cup tablet technology. A coated drug-core tablet matrix, A bi-layered tablet, Multiparticulate-based chronotherapeutic drug delivery systems, Chronoset and Controlled release microchips.

  16. Systems approaches to design of targeted therapeutic delivery

    PubMed Central

    Myerson, Jacob W.; Brenner, Jacob S.; Greineder, Colin F.; Muzykantov, Vladimir R.

    2016-01-01

    Targeted drug delivery aims to improve therapeutic effects and enable mechanisms that are not feasible for untargeted agents (e.g., due to impermeable biological barriers). To achieve targeting, a drug or its carrier should possess properties providing specific accumulation from circulation at the desired site. There are several examples of systems-inspired approaches that have been applied to achieve this goal. First, proteomics analysis of plasma membrane fraction of the vascular endothelium has identified a series of target molecules and their ligands (e.g., antibodies) that deliver conjugated cargoes to well-defined vascular cells and subcellular compartments. Second, selection of ligands binding to cells of interest using phage display libraries in vitro and in vivo has provided peptides and polypeptides that bind to normal and pathologically altered cells. Finally, large-scale high-throughput combinatorial synthesis and selection of lipid- and polymer-based nanocarriers varying their chemical components has yielded a series of carriers accumulating in diverse organs and delivering RNA interference agents to diverse cells. Together, these approaches offer a basis for systems-based design and selection of targets, targeting molecules, and targeting vehicles. Current studies focus on expanding the arsenal of these and alternative targeting strategies, devising drug delivery systems capitalizing on these strategies and evaluation of their benefit/risk ratio in adequate animal models of human diseases. These efforts, combined with better understanding of mechanisms and unintended consequences of these targeted interventions, need to be ultimately translated into industrial development and the clinical domain. PMID:25946066

  17. Progress in Psoriasis Therapy via Novel Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Nitha; Ramya, Devi D; Vedha, Hari BN

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a lifelong condition which is caused by the negative signals produced by immune system, which leads to hyper proliferation and other inflammatory reactions on the skin. In this case, keratinocytes which are the outermost layer of skin possess shortened life cycle and results in the alteration of desquamation process where the cytokines will come out through lesions of affected patients and as a result, scaling marks appears on the skin. These conditions may negatively affect the patient’s quality of life and lead to psychosocial stress. Psoriasis can be categorized as mild, moderate and severe conditions. Mild psoriasis leads to the formation of rashes, and when it becomes moderate, the skin turns into scaly. In severe conditions, red patches may be present on skin surface and becomes itchy. Topical therapy continues to be one of the pillars for psoriasis management. Drug molecules with target effect on the skin tissues and other inflammations should be selected for the treatment of psoriasis. Most of the existing drugs lead to systemic intoxication and dryness when applied in higher dose. Different scientific approaches for topical delivery are being explored by researches including emollient, modified gelling system, transdermal delivery, spray, nanogels, hydrogels, micro/nano emulsion, liposomes, nano capsules etc. These topical dosage forms are evaluated for various physico chemical properties such as drug content, viscosity, pH, extrudability, spreadability, toxicity, irritancy, permeability and drug release mechanism. This review paper focus attention to the impact of these formulation approaches on various anti-psoriasis drugs for their successful treatment. PMID:25386329

  18. Roots Air Management System with Integrated Expander

    SciTech Connect

    Stretch, Dale; Wright, Brad; Fortini, Matt; Fink, Neal; Ramadan, Bassem; Eybergen, William

    2016-07-06

    PEM fuel cells remain an emerging technology in the vehicle market with several cost and reliability challenges that must be overcome in order to increase market penetration and acceptance. The DOE has identified the lack of a cost effective, reliable, and efficient air supply system that meets the operational requirements of a pressurized PEM 80kW fuel cell as one of the major technological barriers that must be overcome. This project leveraged Roots positive displacement development advancements and demonstrated an efficient and low cost fuel cell air management system. Eaton built upon its P-Series Roots positive displacement design and shifted the peak efficiency making it ideal for use on an 80kW PEM stack. Advantages to this solution include: • Lower speed of the Roots device eliminates complex air bearings present on other systems. • Broad efficiency map of Roots based systems provides an overall higher drive cycle fuel economy. • Core Roots technology has been developed and validated for other transportation applications. Eaton modified their novel R340 Twin Vortices Series (TVS) Roots-type supercharger for this application. The TVS delivers more power and better fuel economy in a smaller package as compared to other supercharger technologies. By properly matching the helix angle with the rotor’s physical aspect ratio, the supercharger’s peak efficiency can be moved to the operating range where it is most beneficial for the application. The compressor was designed to meet the 90 g/s flow at a pressure ratio of 2.5, similar in design to the P-Series 340. A net shape plastic expander housing with integrated motor and compressor was developed to significantly reduce the cost of the system. This integrated design reduced part count by incorporating an overhung expander and motor rotors into the design such that only four bearings and two shafts were utilized.

  19. Naltrexone: a review of existing sustained drug delivery systems and emerging nano-based systems.

    PubMed

    Goonoo, Nowsheen; Bhaw-Luximon, Archana; Ujoodha, Reetesh; Jhugroo, Anil; Hulse, Gary K; Jhurry, Dhanjay

    2014-06-10

    Narcotic antagonists such as naltrexone (NTX) have shown some efficiency in the treatment of both opiate addiction and alcohol dependence. A few review articles have focused on clinical findings and pharmacogenetics of NTX, advantages and limitations of sustained release systems as well as pharmacological studies of NTX depot formulations for the treatment of alcohol and opioid dependency. To date, three NTX implant systems have been developed and tested in humans. In this review, we summarize the latest clinical data on commercially available injectable and implantable NTX-sustained release systems and discuss their safety and tolerability aspects. Emphasis is also laid on recent developments in the area of nanodrug delivery such as NTX-loaded micelles and nanogels as well as related research avenues. Due to their ability to increase the therapeutic index and to improve the selectivity of drugs (targeted delivery), nanodrug delivery systems are considered as promising sustainable drug carriers for NTX in addressing opiate and alcohol dependence.

  20. Systemic gene delivery to the central nervous system using Adeno-associated virus.

    PubMed

    Bourdenx, Mathieu; Dutheil, Nathalie; Bezard, Erwan; Dehay, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene delivery has emerged as an effective and safe tool for both preclinical and clinical studies of neurological disorders. The recent discovery that several serotypes are able to cross the blood-brain barrier when administered systemically has been a real breakthrough in the field of neurodegenerative diseases. Widespread transgene expression after systemic injection could spark interest as a therapeutic approach. Such strategy will avoid invasive brain surgery and allow non-focal gene therapy promising for CNS diseases affecting large portion of the brain. Here, we will review the recent results achieved through different systemic routes of injection generated in the last decade using systemic AAV-mediated delivery and propose a brief assessment of their values. In particular, we emphasize how the methods used for virus engineering could improve brain transduction after peripheral delivery.

  1. Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low-Load Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Backman, C.; German, A.; Dakin, B.; Springer, D.

    2013-12-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  2. Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low-Load Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Backman, C.; German, A.; Dakin, B.; Springer, D.

    2013-12-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  3. Smart polymer based delivery systems for peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Al-Tahami, Khaled; Singh, Jagdish

    2007-01-01

    Biodegradable polymeric systems represent promising means for delivering many bioactive agents, including peptide and protein drugs. The importance of these systems grew with the advancement in the understanding of peptide and protein pharmacology as well as the ability to mass-produce these compounds. Some polymers undergo sol-gel transition once administered. In situ gel formation happens in response to one or a combination of two or more stimuli. These stimuli include UV-irradiation, pH change, temperature change, and solvent exchange. These smart polymeric systems have several advantages over conventional methods, such as ease of manufacturing, ease of administration, biodegradability, and the ability to alter release profiles of the incorporated agents. In the past few years, an increasing number of in situ gel-forming systems have been investigated and many patents for their use in various biomedical applications, including drug delivery, have been reported. In this article, we introduce the different strategies that have been developed and patented for the use of smart polymers in delivering peptide and protein drugs. The advantage, disadvantages, possibilities, and limitations of each of the smart polymer systems have been discussed.

  4. Novel nano drug delivery systems for hepatic tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yu; Liu, Jing; Ma, Hong; Bai, Jing; Qi, Chao

    2009-08-01

    The adriamycin and galactose was grafted to dextran. The novel nanopartcile drug delivery system (DDS) was prepared from the chemical modified polysaccharide by the dialysis. The content of the ADR moiety in the polymeric-drug conjugate was about 2 mol%. The size and morphology of prepared nanoparticles were characterized using dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscope. The results showed that the nanoparticles were spherical and their size was less than 200 nm. In vitro cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles was tested by the MTT assay. The nano DDS has similar cytotoxicity as free adriamycin for incubation with HepG2 cells. In contrast, for the incubation with Hela cells of the DDS, there was no signicant cytotoxicity change.

  5. Characterization of Release Mechanism in Polymeric Drug Delivery Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laplante, Arthur James; Plachy, Robin Marie; Aou, Kaoru; Ferguson, Jake; Hsu, Shaw Ling

    2006-03-01

    Our polymeric drug delivery system is based on our understanding of phase behavior of polymers [e.g poly(lactic acid)], low molecular drugs and various solvents used in processing. Clearly the different morphologies achieved, based on different phase separation kinetics, can affect drug release rates. Release of drugs, in most cases, involves the exchange between the extraction media and drug. We have characterized the transport behavior using a number of unique techniques. Reflectance infrared spectroscopy has given us a detailed description of the release rate of drugs into the extraction media. Surface plasmon resonance has shown the overall mass loss. UV-visible spectroscopy has yielded the concentration of drug in the solution. These measurements are compared to the release mechanism based on Fickian diffusion. The two step release rates observed can only be explained by taking into account differences in the morphological features of the phase separated films.

  6. Elastic vesicles as topical/transdermal drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Choi, M J; Maibach, H I

    2005-08-01

    Skin acts a major target as well as a principle barrier for topical/transdermal drug delivery. Despite the many advantages of this system, the major obstacle is the low diffusion rate of drugs across the stratum corneum. Several methods have been assessed to increase the permeation rate of drugs temporarily. One simple and convenient approach is application of drugs in formulation with elastic vesicles or skin enhancers. Elastic vesicles are classified with phospholipid (Transfersomes((R)) and ethosomes) and detergent-based types. Elastic vesicles were more efficient at delivering a low and high molecular weight drug to the skin in terms of quantity and depth. Their effectiveness strongly depends on their physicochemical properties: composition, duration and application volume, and entrapment efficiency and application methods. This review focuses on the effect of elastic liposomes for enhancing the drug penetration and defines the action mechanism of penetration into deeper skin.

  7. Pathogen-inspired drug delivery to the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Rebecca L; Cacaccio, Joseph; Wrabel, Eileen; Schwartz, Mary E; Coleman, Timothy P; Sirianni, Rachael W

    2014-01-01

    For as long as the human blood-brain barrier (BBB) has been evolving to exclude bloodborne agents from the central nervous system (CNS), pathogens have adopted a multitude of strategies to bypass it. Some pathogens, notably viruses and certain bacteria, enter the CNS in whole form, achieving direct physical passage through endothelial or neuronal cells to infect the brain. Other pathogens, including bacteria and multicellular eukaryotic organisms, secrete toxins that preferentially interact with specific cell types to exert a broad range of biological effects on peripheral and central neurons. In this review, we will discuss the directed mechanisms that viruses, bacteria, and the toxins secreted by higher order organisms use to enter the CNS. Our goal is to identify ligand-mediated strategies that could be used to improve the brain-specific delivery of engineered nanocarriers, including polymers, lipids, biologically sourced materials, and imaging agents. PMID:25610755

  8. Cell or Cell Membrane-Based Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Songwei; Wu, Tingting; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    Natural cells have been explored as drug carriers for a long period. They have received growing interest as a promising drug delivery system (DDS) until recently along with the development of biology and medical science. The synthetic materials, either organic or inorganic, are found to be with more or less immunogenicity and/or toxicity. The cells and extracellular vesicles (EVs), are endogenous and thought to be much safer and friendlier. Furthermore, in view of their host attributes, they may achieve different biological effects and/or targeting specificity, which can meet the needs of personalized medicine as the next generation of DDS. In this review, we summarized the recent progress in cell or cell membrane-based DDS and their fabrication processes, unique properties and applications, including the whole cells, EVs and cell membrane coated nanoparticles. We expect the continuing development of this cell or cell membrane-based DDS will promote their clinic applications. PMID:26000058

  9. Processing of Polymer Nanofibers Through Electrospinning as Drug Delivery Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenawy, E.; Abdel-Hay, F. I.; El-Newehy, M. H.; Wnek, G. E.

    The use of electrospun fibers as drug carriers could be promising in the future for biomedical applications, especially postoperative local chemotherapy. In this research, electrospun fibers were developed as a new system for the delivery of ketoprofen as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). The fibers were made either from polycaprolactone (PCL) as a biodegradable polymer or polyurethane (PU) as a non-biodegradable polymer, or from the blends of the two. The release of the ketoprofen was followed by UV—VIS spectroscopy in phosphate buffer of pH 7.4 at 37°C and 20°C. The results showed that the release rates from the polycaprolactone, polyurethane and their blend were similar. However, the blend of the polycaprolactone with polyurethane improved its visual mechanical properties. Release profiles from the electrospun mats were compared to cast films of the various formulations.

  10. Rapid cycling medical synchrotron and beam delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Peggs, Stephen G.; Brennan, J. Michael; Tuozzolo, Joseph E.; Zaltsman, Alexander

    2008-10-07

    A medical synchrotron which cycles rapidly in order to accelerate particles for delivery in a beam therapy system. The synchrotron generally includes a radiofrequency (RF) cavity for accelerating the particles as a beam and a plurality of combined function magnets arranged in a ring. Each of the combined function magnets performs two functions. The first function of the combined function magnet is to bend the particle beam along an orbital path around the ring. The second function of the combined function magnet is to focus or defocus the particle beam as it travels around the path. The radiofrequency (RF) cavity is a ferrite loaded cavity adapted for high speed frequency swings for rapid cycling acceleration of the particles.

  11. An overview of Ball Aerospace cryogen storage and delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquardt, J.; Keller, J.; Mills, G.; Schmidt, J.

    2015-12-01

    Starting on the Gemini program in the 1960s, Beech Aircraft (now Ball Aerospace) has been designing and manufacturing dewars for a variety of cryogens including liquid hydrogen and oxygen. These dewars flew on the Apollo, Skylab and Space Shuttle spacecraft providing fuel cell reactants resulting in over 150 manned spaceflights. Since Space Shuttle, Ball has also built the liquid hydrogen fuel tanks for the Boeing Phantom Eye unmanned aerial vehicle. Returning back to its fuel cell days, Ball has designed, built and tested a volume-constrained liquid hydrogen and oxygen tank system for reactant delivery to fuel cells on unmanned undersea vehicles (UUVs). Herein past history of Ball technology is described. Testing has been completed on the UUV specific design, which will be described.

  12. Loading, Release, Biodegradation, and Biocompatibility of a Nanovector Delivery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrai, Mauro; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2012-01-01

    A nanovector multistage system has been created to overcome or bypass sequential barriers within the human body, in order to deliver a therapeutic or imaging agent to a specific location. This innovation consists of a composition that includes two or more stages of particles, such that smaller, later-stage particles are contained in the larger, early-stage particles. An active agent, such as a therapeutic agent or imaging agent, is preferentially delivered and/or localized to a particular target site in the body of a subject. The multistage composition overcomes multiple biological barriers in the body. The multistage composition also allows for simultaneous delivery and localization at the same or different target sites of multiple active agents.

  13. A new approach in gastroretentive drug delivery system using cholestyramine.

    PubMed

    Umamaheshwari, R B; Jain, Subheet; Jain, N K

    2003-01-01

    We prepared cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB)-coated cholestyramine microcapsules as a intragastric floating drug delivery system endowed with floating ability due to the carbon dioxide generation when exposed to the gastric fluid. The microcapsules also have a mucoadhesive property. Ion-exchange resin particles can be loaded with bicarbonate followed by acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) and coated with CAB by emulsion solvent evaporation method. The drug concentration was monitored to maintain the floating property and minimum effective concentration. The effect of CAB: drug-resin ratio (2:1, 4:1, 6:1 w/w) on the particle size, floating time, and drug release was determined. Cholestyramine microcapsules were characterized for shape, surface characteristics, and size distribution; cholestyramine/acetohydroxamic acid interactions inside microcapsules were investigated by X-ray diffractometry. The buoyancy time of CAB-coated formulations was better than that of uncoated resin particles. Also, a longer floating time was observed with a higher polymer:drug resin complex ratio (6:1). With increasing coating thickness the particle size was increased but drug release rate was decreased. The drug release rate was higher in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) than in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). The in vivo mucoadhesion studies were performed with rhodamine-isothiocyanate (RITC) by fluorescent probe method. The amount of CAB-coated cholestyramine microcapsules that remained in the stomach was slightly lower than that of uncoated resin particles. Cholestyramine microcapsules were distributed throughout the stomach and exhibited prolonged gastric residence via mucoadhesion. These results suggest that CAB-coated microcapsules could be a floating as well as a mucoadhesive drug delivery system. Thus, it has promise in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori.

  14. Air Vehicle Technology Integration Program (AVTIP) Delivery Order 0015: Open Control Platform (OCP) Software Enabled Control (SEC) Hardware in the Loop Simulation - OCP Hardware Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    AFRL-VA-WP-TR-2006-3075 AIR VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION PROGRAM (AVTIP) Delivery Order 0015: Open Control Platform (OCP) Software Enabled...2001– 05/28/2004 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER F33615-00-D-3052-0015 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE AIR VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION PROGRAM

  15. Electrochemical air revitalization system optimization investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, R. R.; Schubert, F. H.; Hallick, T. M.

    1975-01-01

    A program to characterize a Breadboard of an Electrochemical Air Revitalization System (BEARS) was successfully completed. The BEARS is composed of three components: (1) a water vapor electrolysis module (WVEM) for O2 production and partial humidity control, (2) an electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator module (EDCM) for CO2 control, and (3) a power-sharing controller, designed to utilize the power produced by the EDCM to partially offset the WVEM power requirements. It is concluded from the results of this work that the concept of electrochemical air revitalization with power-sharing is a viable solution to the problem of providing a localized topping force for O2 generation, CO2 removal and partial humidity control aboard manned spacecraft. Continued development of the EARS concept is recommended, applying the operational experience and limits identified during the BEARS program to testing of a one-man capacity system and toward the development of advanced system controls to optimize EARS operation for given interfaces and requirements. Successful completion of this development will produce timely technology necessary to plan future advanced environmental control and life support system programs and experiments.

  16. Instructional Systems Development Model for Interactive Videodisc Training Delivery Systems. Volume I: Hardware, Software and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunderson, C. Victor; And Others

    Developed for use by army authors, this report provides information to assist in the step-by-step production of interactive videodisc training delivery systems (VTDS). The first of three volumes describes the hardware and software for VTDS, as well as videodisc authoring and production systems (VAPS). The range of capabilities of consumer-model…

  17. Jet delivery system for Raman scattering on bio-inorganic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzel, A.; Biebl, F.; Beyerlein, K. R.; Stanek, J.; Gumprecht, L.; Hoffmann, A.; Herres-Pawlis, S.; Bajt, S.; Chapman, H. N.; Grimm-Lebsanft, B.; Rukser, D.; Rübhausen, M.

    2016-11-01

    We present a micro-jet sample delivery system for Raman measurements. Compared to cuvette measurements, the observed Raman signal is enhanced by more than one order of magnitude and does not contain signal distortions from the liquid-glass interface. Furthermore, the signal stability of repeated measurements is enhanced due to reduced sample damage effects by constantly replenishing the sample. This allows the study of sensitive samples that can only be produced in low concentrations. Our setup consists of a controlled sample environment that can be either under vacuum or an exchange gas, which allows the study of samples that are unstable in air. Finally, by matching the effective source point of the Raman instrument with the diameter of the jet, controlled experiments using laser beams of different wavelengths are possible. We see future applications of our setup for resonance Raman and time-resolved Raman measurements of bioinorganic samples.

  18. Herpesvirus-mediated systemic delivery of nerve growth factor.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, D; Goins, W F; Kaplan, T J; Capuano, S V; Fradette, J; Murphey-Corb, M; Robbins, P D; Cohen, J B; Glorioso, J C

    2001-01-01

    Sustained systemic dissemination of therapeutic proteins from peripheral sites is an attractive prospect for gene therapy applications. Replication-defective genomic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) vectors were evaluated for their ability to express nerve growth factor (NGF) as a model gene product both locally and systemically. Intra-articular inoculation of NGF expression vectors in rabbits resulted in significant increases in joint lavage and blood plasma NGF that persisted for 1 year. A rhesus macaque injected intra-articularly displayed a comparable increase in plasma NGF for at least 6 months, at which time the serum NGF levels of this animal were sufficient to cause differentiation of PC12 cells in culture, but not to increase footpad epidermis innervation. Long-term reporter transgene expression was observed primarily in ligaments, a finding confirmed by direct inoculation of patellar ligament. Patellar ligament inoculation with a NGF vector resulted in elevated levels of circulating NGF similar to those observed following intra-articular vector delivery. These results represent the first demonstration of sustained systemic release of a transgene product using HSV vectors, raising the prospect of new applications for HSV-1 vectors in the treatment of systemic disease.

  19. The promise of air cargo: System aspects and vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The current operation of the air cargo system is reviewed. An assessment of the future of air cargo is provided by: (1) analyzing statistics and trends, (2) by noting system problems and inefficiencies, (3) by analyzing characteristics of 'air eligible' commodities, and (4) by showing the promise of new technology for future cargo aircraft with significant improvements in costs and efficiency. The following topics are discussed: (1) air cargo demand forecasts; (2) economics of air cargo transport; (3) the integrated air cargo system; (4) evolution of airfreighter design; and (5) the span distributed load concept.

  20. New developments and opportunities in oral mucosal drug delivery for local and systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Hearnden, Vanessa; Sankar, Vidya; Hull, Katrusha; Juras, Danica Vidović; Greenberg, Martin; Kerr, A Ross; Lockhart, Peter B; Patton, Lauren L; Porter, Stephen; Thornhill, Martin H

    2012-01-01

    The oral mucosa's accessibility, excellent blood supply, by-pass of hepatic first-pass metabolism, rapid repair and permeability profile make it an attractive site for local and systemic drug delivery. Technological advances in mucoadhesives, sustained drug release, permeability enhancers and drug delivery vectors are increasing the efficient delivery of drugs to treat oral and systemic diseases. When treating oral diseases, these advances result in enhanced therapeutic efficacy, reduced drug wastage and the prospect of using biological agents such as genes, peptides and antibodies. These technologies are also increasing the repertoire of drugs that can be delivered across the oral mucosa to treat systemic diseases. Trans-mucosal delivery is now a favoured route for non-parenteral administration of emergency drugs and agents where a rapid onset of action is required. Furthermore, advances in drug delivery technology are bringing forward the likelihood of transmucosal systemic delivery of biological agents.

  1. System-state and operating condition sensitive control method and apparatus for electric power delivery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, III, William Wesley (Inventor); Wilson, Thomas George (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a method and apparatus for determining a precise switching sequence for the power switching elements of electric power delivery systems of the on-off switching type and which enables extremely fast transient response, precise regulation and highly stable operation. The control utilizes the values of the power delivery system power handling network components, a desired output characteristic, a system timing parameter, and the externally imposed operating conditions to determine where steady state operations should be in order to yield desired output characteristics for the given system specifications. The actual state of the power delivery system is continuously monitored and compared to a state-space boundary which is derived from the desired equilibrium condition, and from the information obtained from this comparison, the system is moved to the desired equilibrium condition in one cycle of switching control. Since the controller continuously monitors the power delivery system's externally imposed operating conditions, a change in the conditions is immediately sensed and a new equilibrium condition is determined and achieved, again in a single cycle of switching control.

  2. Operating systems in the air transportation environment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Consideration of the problems facing air transport at present, and to be expected in the future. In the Northeast Corridor these problems involve community acceptance, airway and airport congestion and delays, passenger acceptance, noise reduction, and improvements in low-density short-haul economics. In the development of a superior short-haul operating system, terminal-configured vs cruise-configured vehicles are evaluated. CTOL, STOL, and VTOL aircraft of various types are discussed. In the field of noise abatement, it is shown that flight procedural techniques are capable of supplementing ?quiet engine' technology.

  3. Implications of nanoscale based drug delivery systems in delivery and targeting tubulin binding agent, noscapine in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Ramesh; Madan, Jitender; Singh, Prashant; Chandra, Ankush; Kumar, Pradeep; Tomar, Vartika; Dass, Sujata K

    2012-12-01

    Noscapine, a tubulin binding anticancer agent undergoing Phase I/II clinical trials, inhibits tumor growth in nude mice bearing human xenografts of breast, lung, ovarian, brain, and prostrate origin. The analogues of noscapine like 9-bromonoscapine (EM011) are 5 to 10-fold more active than parent compound, noscapine. Noscapinoids inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells that are resistant to paclitaxel and epothilone. Noscapine also potentiated the anticancer activity of doxorubicin in a synergistic manner against triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, physicochemical and pharmacokinetic (ED50˜300-600 mg/kg bodyweight) limitations of noscapine present hurdle in development of commercial anticancer formulations. Therefore, objectives of the present review are to summarize the chemotherapeutic potential of noscapine and implications of nanoscale based drug delivery systems in enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of noscapine in cancer cells. We have constructed noscapine-enveloped gelatin nanoparticles, NPs and poly (ethylene glycol) grafted gelatin NPs as well as inclusion complex of noscapine in β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and evaluated their physicochemical characteristics. The Fe3O4 NPs were also used to incorporate noscapine in its polymeric nanomatrix system where molecular weight of the polymer governed the encapsulation efficiency of drug. The enhanced noscapine delivery using μPAR-targeted optical-MR imaging trackable NPs offer a great potential for image directed targeted delivery of noscapine. Human Serum Albumin NPs (150-300 nm) as efficient noscapine drug delivery systems have also been developed for potential use in breast cancer.

  4. A Self-Powered Implantable Drug-Delivery System Using Biokinetic Energy.

    PubMed

    Song, Peiyi; Kuang, Shuangyang; Panwar, Nishtha; Yang, Guang; Tng, Danny Jian Hang; Tjin, Swee Chuan; Ng, Wun Jern; Majid, Maszenan Bin Abdul; Zhu, Guang; Yong, Ken-Tye; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-03-01

    The first triboelectric-nanogenerator (TENG)-based self-powered implantable drug-delivery system is presented. Pumping flow rates from 5.3 to 40 µL min(-1) under different rotating speeds of the TENG are realized. The implantable drug-delivery system can be powered with a TENG device rotated by human hand motion. Ex vivo trans-sclera drug delivery in porcine eyes is demonstrated by utilizing the biokinetic energies of human hands.

  5. A novel liposomal drug delivery system for PMMA bone cements

    PubMed Central

    Birchall, James C.; Evans, Samuel L.; Denyer, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The population in developed countries is ageing and the number of people experiencing joint‐related conditions, such as osteoarthritis, is expected to increase. Joint replacements are currently the most effective treatment for severe joint conditions and although many of these procedures are successful, infection developing after the procedure is still an issue, requiring complex and expensive revisions. Whilst incorporating a powdered antibiotic within the bone cement can reduce infection rates, the powder frequently agglomerates, resulting in poor antibiotic release characteristics and compromised mechanical performance of the cement. To overcome these issues, a novel delivery system consisting of antibiotic‐loaded nano‐sized liposomes was developed for inclusion into polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. This system was tested in a commercial cement (Palacos R) and consistently delivered a higher percentage (22%) of the incorporated antibiotic when compared to the powdered antibiotic cement (9%), meaning less antibiotic needs to be incorporated than with conventional cement. The novel system resulted in a controlled and gradual release of antibiotic over a longer, 30‐day period and enhanced the toughness, bending strength and Vickers hardness of the cement, without altering its polymerization or molecular structure. This new material has the potential to significantly reduce infections in cemented joint replacements leading to enhanced patient quality of life and reduced healthcare costs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1510–1524, 2016. PMID:26256271

  6. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A compressor used to supply breathing air to a diver must have— (a) A volume tank that is— (1) Built and stamped...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... indicate to the flight crew when it is not closed. (c) For turbine engine powered airplanes— (1) There must... § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories must supply the air required by that engine and auxiliary power unit and...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... indicate to the flight crew when it is not closed. (c) For turbine engine powered airplanes— (1) There must... § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories must supply the air required by that engine and auxiliary power unit and...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... indicate to the flight crew when it is not closed. (c) For turbine engine powered airplanes— (1) There must... § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories must supply the air required by that engine and auxiliary power unit and...

  10. Synthetic Tumor Networks for Screening Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakarpandian, Balabhaskar; Shen, Ming-Che; Nichols, Joseph B.; Garson, Charles J.; Mills, Ivy R.; Matar, Majed M.; Fewell, Jason G.; Pant, Kapil

    2015-01-01

    Tumor drug delivery is a complex phenomenon affected by several elements in addition to drug or delivery vehicle’s physico-chemical properties. A key factor is tumor microvasculature with complex effects including convective transport, high interstitial pressure and enhanced vascular permeability due to the presence of “leaky vessels”. Current in vitro models of the tumor microenvironment for evaluating drug delivery are oversimplified and, as a result, show poor correlation with in vivo performance. In this study, we report on the development of a novel microfluidic platform that models the tumor microenvironment more accurately, with physiologically and morphologically realistic microvasculature including endothelial cell lined leaky capillary vessels along with 3D solid tumors. Endothelial cells and 3D spheroids of cervical tumor cells were co-cultured in the networks. Drug vehicle screening was demonstrated using GFP gene delivery by different formulations of nanopolymers. The synthetic tumor network was successful in predicting in vivo delivery efficiencies of the drug vehicles. The developed assay will have critical applications both in basic research, where it can be used to develop next generation delivery vehicles, and in drug discovery where it can be used to study drug transport and delivery efficacy in realistic tumor microenvironment, thereby enabling drug compound and/or delivery vehicle screening. PMID:25599856

  11. 7 CFR 246.12 - Food delivery systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the delivery of health and nutrition education services to participants. (e) Retail food delivery... levels pharmacy vendors that supply only exempt infant formula and/or WIC-eligible medical foods, and non... that supply only exempt infant formula and/or WIC-eligible medical foods and non-profit...

  12. 7 CFR 246.12 - Food delivery systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the delivery of health and nutrition education services to participants. (e) Retail food delivery... levels pharmacy vendors that supply only exempt infant formula and/or WIC-eligible medical foods, and non... that supply only exempt infant formula and/or WIC-eligible medical foods and non-profit...

  13. Production of Electrospun Fast-Dissolving Drug Delivery Systems with Therapeutic Eutectic Systems Encapsulated in Gelatin.

    PubMed

    Mano, Francisca; Martins, Marta; Sá-Nogueira, Isabel; Barreiros, Susana; Borges, João Paulo; Reis, Rui L; Duarte, Ana Rita C; Paiva, Alexandre

    2017-02-24

    Fast-dissolving delivery systems (FDDS) have received increasing attention in the last years. Oral drug delivery is still the preferred route for the administration of pharmaceutical ingredients. Nevertheless, some patients, e.g. children or elderly people, have difficulties in swallowing solid tablets. In this work, gelatin membranes were produced by electrospinning, containing an encapsulated therapeutic deep-eutectic solvent (THEDES) composed by choline chloride/mandelic acid, in a 1:2 molar ratio. A gelatin solution (30% w/v) with 2% (v/v) of THEDES was used to produce electrospun fibers and the experimental parameters were optimized. Due to the high surface area of polymer fibers, this type of construct has wide applicability. With no cytotoxicity effect, and showing a fast-dissolving release profile in PBS, the gelatin fibers with encapsulated THEDES seem to have promising applications in the development of new drug delivery systems.

  14. Modulating Gold Nanoparticle in vivo Delivery for Photothermal Therapy Applications Using a T Cell Delivery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Laura Carpin

    This thesis reports new gold nanoparticle-based methods to treat chemotherapy-resistant and metastatic tumors that frequently evade conventional cancer therapies. Gold nanoparticles represent an innovative generation of diagnostic and treatment agents due to the ease with which they can be tuned to scatter or absorb a chosen wavelength of light. One area of intensive investigation in recent years is gold nanoparticle photothermal therapy (PTT), in which gold nanoparticles are used to heat and destroy cancer. This work demonstrates the utility of gold nanoparticle PTT against two categories of cancer that are currently a clinical challenge: trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer and metastatic cancer. In addition, this thesis presents a new method of gold nanoparticle delivery using T cells that increases gold nanoparticle tumor accumulation efficiency, a current challenge in the field of PTT. I ablated trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer in vitro for the first time using anti-HER2 labeled silica-gold nanoshells, demonstrating the potential utility of PTT against chemotherapy-resistant cancers. I next established for the first time the use of T cells as gold nanoparticle vehicles in vivo. When incubated with gold nanoparticles in culture, T cells can internalize up to 15000 nanoparticles per cell with no detrimental effects to T cell viability or function (e.g. migration and cytokine secretion). These AuNP-T cells can be systemically administered to tumor-bearing mice and deliver gold nanoparticles four times more efficiently than by injecting free nanoparticles. In addition, the biodistribution of AuNP-T cells correlates with the normal biodistribution of T cell carrier, suggesting the gold nanoparticle biodistribution can be modulated through the choice of nanoparticle vehicle. Finally, I apply gold nanoparticle PTT as an adjuvant treatment for T cell adoptive transfer immunotherapy (Hyperthermia-Enhanced Immunotherapy or HIT) of distant tumors in a melanoma mouse

  15. A noise delivery system for multi-animal multi-level whole body ototoxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, John E; Slagley, Jeremy M; Reboulet, James E

    2015-11-01

    The Naval Medical Research Unit Dayton (NAMRU-D) at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, in conjunction with the U.S. Air Force, studied ototoxic effects of JP-8 in rats. NAMRU-D used a multi-chamber whole body exposure facility for up to 96 test animals and 32 control animals at different exposure levels. The objective was to design a noise delivery system that could provide a white noise source one octave band wide, centered at 8 kHz frequency, delivered from outside the exposure chambers. Sound pressure levels were required to be within ±2 dB at all exposure points within each chamber and within ±2 dB over a 6-h run. Electrodynamic shakers were used to produce input noise in exposure chambers by inducing vibration in chamber plenums. Distribution of sound pressure levels across exposure points was controlled within a ±1.5dB prediction interval (α = 0.05) or better. Stability at a central reference point was controlled over 6-h runs within a ±1 dB prediction interval (α = 0.05) or better. The final system allowed NAMRU-D to deliver noise and whole-body aerosol exposures to multiple animals at different levels simultaneously and study the effects that ototoxins may have on hearing loss.

  16. 30 CFR 77.412 - Compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.412 Compressed air systems. (a) Compressors and compressed-air receivers... used at connections to machines of high-pressure hose lines of 1-inch inside diameter or larger,...

  17. 30 CFR 77.412 - Compressed air systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for Mechanical Equipment § 77.412 Compressed air systems. (a) Compressors and compressed-air receivers... used at connections to machines of high-pressure hose lines of 1-inch inside diameter or larger,...

  18. Management of Leaks in Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rawls, G

    2006-04-27

    A systematic approach to manage hydrogen leakage from components is presented. Methods to evaluate the quantity of hydrogen leakage and permeation from a system are provided by calculation and testing sensitivities. The following technology components of a leak management program are described: (1) Methods to evaluate hydrogen gas loss through leaks; (2) Methods to calculate opening areas of crack like defects; (3) Permeation of hydrogen through metallic piping; (4) Code requirements for acceptable flammability limits; (5) Methods to detect flammable gas; (6) Requirements for adequate ventilation in the vicinity of the hydrogen system; (7) Methods to calculate dilution air requirements for flammable gas mixtures; and (8) Concepts for reduced leakage component selection and permeation barriers.

  19. Systemic drug delivery systems for bone tissue regeneration- a mini review.

    PubMed

    Xinluan, Wang; Yuxiao, Lai; Helena, Ng HueiLeng; Zhijun, Yang; Ling, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal metabolic diseases such as osteoporosis have become the major public health problems worldwide in our aging society. Pharmaceutical therapy is one of the approaches to prevent and treat related medical conditions. Most of the clinically used anti-osteoporotic drugs are administered systemically and have demonstrated some side effects in non-skeletal tissues. One of the innovative approaches to prevent potential adverse effects is the development of bone-targeting drug delivery technologies that not only minimizes the systemic toxicity but also improves the pharmacokinetic profile and therapeutic efficacy of chemical drugs. This paper reviews the currently available bone targeting drug delivery systems with emphasis as bone-targeting moieties, including the bonesurface- site-specific (bone formation dominant or bone resorption dominant) and cell-specific moieties. In addition, the connections of drug-bone-targeting moieties-carrier are also summarized, and the newly developed liposomes and nanoparticles are discussed for their potential use and main challenges in delivering therapeutic agents to bone tissue. As a rapid-developing biotechnology, systemic bonetargeting delivery system is promising but still in its infancy where challenges are ahead of us, including the stability and the toxicity issues, especially to fulfill the regulatory requirement to realize bench-to-bedside translation. Newly developed biomaterials and technologies with potential for safer and more effective drug delivery require multidisciplinary collaborations with preclinical and clinical scientists that are essential to facilitate their clinical applications.

  20. Molecular Communication Modeling of Antibody-Mediated Drug Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Chahibi, Youssef; Akyildiz, Ian F; Balasubramaniam, Sasitharan; Koucheryavy, Yevgeni

    2015-07-01

    Antibody-mediated Drug Delivery Systems (ADDS) are emerging as one of the most encouraging therapeutic solutions for treating several diseases such as human cancers. ADDS use small molecules (antibodies) that propagate in the body and bind selectively to their corresponding receptors (antigens) expressed at the surface of the diseased cells. In this paper, the Molecular Communication (MC) paradigm, where information is conveyed through the concentration of molecules, is advocated for the engineering of ADDS and modeling their complex behavior, to provide a realistic model without the over-complication of system biology models, and the limitations of experimental approaches. The peculiarities of antibodies, including their anisotropic transport and complex electrochemical structure, are taken into account to develop an analytical model of the ADDS transport and antigen-binding kinetics. The end-to-end response of ADDS, from the drug injection to the drug absorption, is mathematically derived based on the geometry of the antibody molecule, the electrochemical structure of the antibody-antigen complex, and the physiology of the patient. The accuracy of the MC model is validated by finite-element (COMSOL) simulations. The implications of the complex interplay between the transport and kinetics parameters on the performance of ADDS are effectively captured by the proposed MC model. The MC model of ADDS will enable the discovery and optimization of drugs in a versatile, cost-efficient, and reliable manner.