Science.gov

Sample records for air emission estimates

  1. Locating and estimating air emissions from sources of epichlorohydrin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    To assist groups interested in inventorying air emissions of various potentially toxic substances, EPA is preparing a series of documents such as this to compile available information on sources and emissions of these substances. This document deals specifically with epichlorohydrin. Its intended audience includes Federal, State and local air pollution personnel and others interested in locating potential emitters of epichlorohydrin in making gross estimates of air emissions therefrom. This document presents information on 1) the types of sources that may emit epichlorohydrin; 2) process variations and release points that may be expected within these sources; and 3) available emissions information indicating the potential for epichlorohydrin release into the air from each operation.

  2. Estimation of glycol air emissions from aircraft deicing

    SciTech Connect

    McCready, D.

    1998-12-31

    Ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PG)-based fluids (collectively referred to as glycol) are recognized as effective in removing and preventing snow and ice contamination on aircraft before take-off. Although much work has been done to develop an understanding of the potential impact of spent fluid run-off to water bodies, little attention has been paid to the potential environmental impact, if any, due to air emissions. In order to determine potential impact from air emissions, it is necessary to develop a protocol for estimating the glycol emissions during deicing operations. This paper presents two approaches for estimating glycol air emissions from aircraft deicing fluids (ADF) and aircraft anti-icing fluids (AAF). The first simple approach is based on emission factors and the quantity of fluid applied. The second approach estimates emissions for a typical deicing event based on site-specific parameters. Sample calculations are presented. The predicted glycol evaporation rates are quite low. Calculated emissions from ethylene glycol-based fluids are lower than emissions from PG-based fluids. The calculated air emissions for a typical event are less than a pound for EG-based fluids. The emission rate from PG-based fluids can be two times greater.

  3. Emission estimates for air pollution transport models.

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, D. G.

    1998-10-09

    The results of studies of energy consumption and emission inventories in Asia are discussed. These data primarily reflect emissions from fuel combustion (both biofuels and fossil fuels) and were collected to determine emissions of acid-deposition precursors (SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}) and greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2} CO, CH{sub 4}, and NMHC) appropriate to RAINS-Asia regions. Current work is focusing on black carbon (soot), volatile organic compounds, and ammonia.

  4. Improved Estimates of Air Pollutant Emissions from Biorefinery

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Eric C. D.

    2015-11-13

    We have attempted to use detailed kinetic modeling approach for improved estimation of combustion air pollutant emissions from biorefinery. We have developed a preliminary detailed reaction mechanism for biomass combustion. Lignin is the only biomass component included in the current mechanism and methane is used as the biogas surrogate. The model is capable of predicting the combustion emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O, CH4) and criteria air pollutants (NO, NO2, CO). The results are yet to be compared with the experimental data. The current model is still in its early stages of development. Given the acknowledged complexity of biomass oxidation, as well as the components in the feed to the combustor, obviously the modeling approach and the chemistry set discussed here may undergo revision, extension, and further validation in the future.

  5. Urban scale air quality modelling using detailed traffic emissions estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrego, C.; Amorim, J. H.; Tchepel, O.; Dias, D.; Rafael, S.; Sá, E.; Pimentel, C.; Fontes, T.; Fernandes, P.; Pereira, S. R.; Bandeira, J. M.; Coelho, M. C.

    2016-04-01

    The atmospheric dispersion of NOx and PM10 was simulated with a second generation Gaussian model over a medium-size south-European city. Microscopic traffic models calibrated with GPS data were used to derive typical driving cycles for each road link, while instantaneous emissions were estimated applying a combined Vehicle Specific Power/Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (VSP/EMEP) methodology. Site-specific background concentrations were estimated using time series analysis and a low-pass filter applied to local observations. Air quality modelling results are compared against measurements at two locations for a 1 week period. 78% of the results are within a factor of two of the observations for 1-h average concentrations, increasing to 94% for daily averages. Correlation significantly improves when background is added, with an average of 0.89 for the 24 h record. The results highlight the potential of detailed traffic and instantaneous exhaust emissions estimates, together with filtered urban background, to provide accurate input data to Gaussian models applied at the urban scale.

  6. Estimation of monetary values of air pollutant emissions in various US areas

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.Q.; Santini, D.J.

    1994-08-17

    Two general methods of estimating monetary values of air pollutants are presented in this paper. The damage estimate method directly estimated, air pollutant by simulating air quality, identifying health and other welfare impacts damage values and valuing the identified impacts of air pollution, and valuing the identified impacts. Although the method is theoretically sound, many assumptions are involved in each of its estimation steps, and uncertainty exists in each step. The control cost estimate method estimates the marginal emission control cost, which represents the opportunity cost offset by emission reductions from some given control measures. Studies conducted to estimate emission values in US regions used either the damage estimate method or the control cost estimate method. Taking emission values estimated for some US air basins, this paper establishes regression relationships between emission values and total population and air pollutant concentrations. On the basis of the established relationships, both damage-based and control-cost-based emission values are estimated for 17 major US urban areas.

  7. Estimates of air emissions from asphalt storage tanks and truck loading

    SciTech Connect

    Trumbore, D.C.

    1999-12-31

    Title V of the 1990 Clean Air Act requires the accurate estimation of emissions from all US manufacturing processes, and places the burden of proof for that estimate on the process owner. This paper is published as a tool to assist in the estimation of air emission from hot asphalt storage tanks and asphalt truck loading operations. Data are presented on asphalt vapor pressure, vapor molecular weight, and the emission split between volatile organic compounds and particulate emissions that can be used with AP-42 calculation techniques to estimate air emissions from asphalt storage tanks and truck loading operations. Since current AP-42 techniques are not valid in asphalt tanks with active fume removal, a different technique for estimation of air emissions in those tanks, based on direct measurement of vapor space combustible gas content, is proposed. Likewise, since AP-42 does not address carbon monoxide or hydrogen sulfide emissions that are known to be present in asphalt operations, this paper proposes techniques for estimation of those emissions. Finally, data are presented on the effectiveness of fiber bed filters in reducing air emissions in asphalt operations.

  8. [Estimation of average traffic emission factor based on synchronized incremental traffic flow and air pollutant concentration].

    PubMed

    Li, Run-Kui; Zhao, Tong; Li, Zhi-Peng; Ding, Wen-Jun; Cui, Xiao-Yong; Xu, Qun; Song, Xian-Feng

    2014-04-01

    On-road vehicle emissions have become the main source of urban air pollution and attracted broad attentions. Vehicle emission factor is a basic parameter to reflect the status of vehicle emissions, but the measured emission factor is difficult to obtain, and the simulated emission factor is not localized in China. Based on the synchronized increments of traffic flow and concentration of air pollutants in the morning rush hour period, while meteorological condition and background air pollution concentration retain relatively stable, the relationship between the increase of traffic and the increase of air pollution concentration close to a road is established. Infinite line source Gaussian dispersion model was transformed for the inversion of average vehicle emission factors. A case study was conducted on a main road in Beijing. Traffic flow, meteorological data and carbon monoxide (CO) concentration were collected to estimate average vehicle emission factors of CO. The results were compared with simulated emission factors of COPERT4 model. Results showed that the average emission factors estimated by the proposed approach and COPERT4 in August were 2.0 g x km(-1) and 1.2 g x km(-1), respectively, and in December were 5.5 g x km(-1) and 5.2 g x km(-1), respectively. The emission factors from the proposed approach and COPERT4 showed close values and similar seasonal trends. The proposed method for average emission factor estimation eliminates the disturbance of background concentrations and potentially provides real-time access to vehicle fleet emission factors.

  9. Relationships between estimated flame retardant emissions and levels in indoor air and house dust.

    PubMed

    Liagkouridis, I; Cequier, E; Lazarov, B; Palm Cousins, A; Thomsen, C; Stranger, M; Cousins, I T

    2016-09-10

    A significant number of consumer goods and building materials can act as emission sources of flame retardants (FRs) in the indoor environment. We investigate the relationship between the emission source strength and the levels of 19 brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and seven organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in air and dust collected in 38 indoor microenvironments in Norway. We use modeling methods to back-calculate emission rates from indoor air and dust measurements and identify possible indications of an emission-to-dust pathway. Experimentally based emission estimates provide a satisfactory indication of the relative emission strength of indoor sources. Modeling results indicate an up to two orders of magnitude enhanced emission strength for OPFRs (median emission rates of 0.083 and 0.41 μg h(-1) for air-based and dust-based estimates) compared to BFRs (0.52 and 0.37 ng h(-1) median emission rates). A consistent emission-to-dust signal, defined as higher dust-based than air-based emission estimates, was identified for four of the seven OPFRs, but only for one of the 19 BFRs. It is concluded, however, that uncertainty in model input parameters could potentially lead to the false identification of an emission-to-dust signal.

  10. Landfill Air Emissions Estimation Model, Version 1. 1. User's manual. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pelt, W.R.; Bass, R.L.; Kuo, I.R.; Blackard, A.L.

    1991-04-01

    The document is a user's guide for the computer program, Landfill Air Emissions Estimation Model. It provides step-by-step guidance for using the program to estimate landfill air emissions. The purpose of the program is to aid local and state agencies in estimating landfill air emission rates for nonmethane organic compounds and individual air toxics. The program will also be helpful to landfill owners and operators affected by the upcoming New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) and Emission Guidelines for Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Air Emissions. The model is based on the Scholl Canyon Gas Generation Model, used in the development of the soon-to-be-proposed regulation for landfill air emissions. The Scholl Canyon Model is a first order decay equation that uses site-specific characteristics for estimating the gas generation rate. In the absence of site-specific data, the program provides conservative default values from the soon-to-be-proposed NSPS for new landfills and emission guidelines for existing landfills. These default values may be revised based on future information collected by the Agency.

  11. Locating and estimating air emissions from sources of perchloroethylene and trichloroethylene. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Most, C.C.

    1989-08-01

    To assist groups interested in inventorying air emissions of various potentially toxic substances, EPA is preparing a series of documents to compile available information on sources and emissions of these substances. This document deals specifically with perchloroethylene and trichloroethylene. Its intended audience includes Federal, State, and local air-pollution personnel and others in locating potential emitters of perchloroethylene and trichloroethylene and in making gross estimates of air emissions therefrom. The document presents information on the types of sources that may emit perchloroethylene and trichloroethylene, process variations and release points that may be expected within these sources, and available emissions information indicating the potential for trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene releases into the air from each operation.

  12. Increased estimates of air-pollution emissions from Brazilian sugar-cane ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, C.-C.; Campbell, J. E.; Mena-Carrasco, M.; Spak, S. N.; Carmichael, G. R.; Chen, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Accelerating biofuel production has been promoted as an opportunity to enhance energy security, offset greenhouse-gas emissions and support rural economies. However, large uncertainties remain in the impacts of biofuels on air quality and climate. Sugar-cane ethanol is one of the most widely used biofuels, and Brazil is its largest producer. Here we use a life-cycle approach to produce spatially and temporally explicit estimates of air-pollutant emissions over the whole life cycle of sugar-cane ethanol in Brazil. We show that even in regions where pre-harvest field burning has been eliminated on half the croplands, regional emissions of air pollutants continue to increase owing to the expansion of sugar-cane growing areas, and burning continues to be the dominant life-cycle stage for emissions. Comparison of our estimates of burning-phase emissions with satellite estimates of burning in São Paulo state suggests that sugar-cane field burning is not fully accounted for in satellite-based inventories, owing to the small spatial scale of individual fires. Accounting for this effect leads to revised regional estimates of burned area that are four times greater than some previous estimates. Our revised emissions maps thus suggest that biofuels may have larger impacts on regional climate forcing and human health than previously thought.

  13. The Impact of Satellite-derived Biomass Burning Emission Estimates on Air Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various methods to generate satellite-based biomass burning emission estimates have recently been developed for their use in air quality models. Each method has different assumptions, data sources, and algorithms. This paper compares three different satellite-based biomass burn...

  14. Atmospheric ammonia over China: emission estimates and impacts on air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin; Zhao, Yuanhong; Chen, Youfan; Henze, Daven

    2016-04-01

    Ammonia (NH3) in the atmosphere is an important precursor of inorganic aerosols, and its deposition through wet and dry processes can cause adverse effects on ecosystems. The ammonia emissions over China are particularly large due to intensive agricultural activities, yet our current estimates of Chinese ammonia emissions and associated consequences on air quality are subject to large errors. Here we use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint model to better quantify this issue. The TES satellite observations of ammonia concentrations and surface measurements of wet deposition fluxes are assimilated into the model to constrain the ammonia emissions over China. Optimized emissions show a strong seasonal variability with emissions in summer a factor of 3 higher than winter. We improve the bottom-up estimate of Chinese ammonia emissions from fertilizer use by using more practical feritilizer application rates for different crop types, which explains most of the discrepancies between our top-down estimates and prior emission estimates. We further use the GEOS-Chem adjoint at 0.25x0.3125 degree resolution to examine the sources contributing to the PM2.5 air pollution over North China. We show that wintertime PM2.5 over Beijing is largely contributed by residential and industrial sources, and ammonia emissions from agriculture activities. PM2.5 concentrations over North China are particularly sensitive to NH3 emissions in cold seasons due to strong nitrate formation. By converting shorted-lived nitric acid to aerosol nitrate, NH3 significantly promotes the regional transport influences of PM2.5 sources.

  15. Urban air quality management using emission inventory estimates for three Indian cities: Faridabad, Lucknow and Pune.

    PubMed

    Panwar, T S; Sharma, Sumit

    2012-10-01

    Urban air quality is an issue of major concern across many cities and towns in India. In particular, high levels of particulate matter (both suspended particulate matter (SPM) and respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM)) are responsible for non-compliance against air quality standards. This paper analyses the status of air quality in the 16 most polluted Indian cities identified for priority action by the Hon'ble Supreme Court of India. Each city has its own unique problems depending on the nature of activities being undertaken. Thus, three cities, Pune, Lucknow, and Faridabad, which represent a top-ten urban agglomerate (based on population), a predominantly residential city and an industrial town are chosen for detailed analyses of the air quality problem. The causal factors for poor air quality are determined and sectoral emission loads are estimated for each city adopting a uniform approach that facilitates comparative evaluation. These provide an estimate of the major contributors to air pollution with specific reference to particulate matter, which is a major pollutant of concern. For each of these cities, an air quality management plan is suggested that specifically accounts for the contributing factors in each city. Further, quantitative estimates of the likely improvements due to implementation of some of the specific measures are also provided. An overall comparative assessment of the air quality issues across different cities can provide useful insights in the development of the management plan for the remaining cities as well.

  16. Estimating Air Chemical Emissions from Research Activities Using Stack Measurement Data

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Duchsherer, Cheryl J.; Woodruff, Rodger K.; Larson, Timothy V.

    2013-02-15

    Current methods of estimating air emissions from research and development (R&D) activities use a wide range of release fractions or emission factors with bases ranging from empirical to semi-empirical. Although considered conservative, the uncertainties and confidence levels of the existing methods have not been reported. Chemical emissions were estimated from sampling data taken from four research facilities over ten years. The approach was to use a Monte Carlo technique to create distributions of annual emission estimates for target compounds detected in source test samples. Distributions were created for each year and building sampled for compounds with sufficient detection frequency to qualify for the analysis. The results using the Monte Carlo technique without applying a filter to remove negative emission values showed almost all distributions spanning zero, and forty percent of the distributions having a negative mean. This indicates that emissions are so low as to be indistinguishable from building background. Application of a filter to allow only positive values in the distribution provided a more realistic value for emissions and increased the distribution mean by an average of sixteen percent. Release fractions were calculated by dividing the emission estimates by a building chemical inventory quantity. Two variations were used for this quantity: chemical usage, and chemical usage plus one-half standing inventory. Filters were applied so that only release fraction values from zero to one were included in the resulting distributions. Release fractions had a wide range among chemicals and among data sets for different buildings and/or years for a given chemical. Regressions of release fractions to molecular weight and vapor pressure showed weak correlations. Similarly, regressions of mean emissions to chemical usage, chemical inventory, molecular weight and vapor pressure also gave weak correlations. These results highlight the difficulties in estimating

  17. Evaluating near highway air pollutant levels and estimating emission factors: Case study of Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nayeb Yazdi, Mohammad; Delavarrafiee, Maryam; Arhami, Mohammad

    2015-12-15

    A field sampling campaign was implemented to evaluate the variation in air pollutants levels near a highway in Tehran, Iran (Hemmat highway). The field measurements were used to estimate road link-based emission factors for average vehicle fleet. These factors were compared with results of an in tunnel measurement campaign (in Resalat tunnel). Roadside and in-tunnel measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and size-fractionated particulate matter (PM) were conducted during the field campaign. The concentration gradient diagrams showed exponential decay, which represented a substantial decay, more than 50-80%, in air pollutants level in a distance between 100 and 150meters (m) of the highway. The changes in particle size distribution by distancing from highway were also captured and evaluated. The results showed particle size distribution shifted to larger size particles by distancing from highway. The empirical emission factors were obtained by using the roadside and in tunnel measurements with a hypothetical box model, floating machine model, CALINE4, CT-EMFAC or COPERT. Average CO emission factors were estimated to be in a range of 4 to 12g/km, and those of PM10 were 0.1 to 0.2g/km, depending on traffic conditions. Variations of these emission factors under real working condition with speeds were determined.

  18. International trade and air pollution: estimating the economic costs of air emissions from waterborne commerce vessels in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Kevin P

    2005-10-01

    Although there is a burgeoning literature on the effects of international trade on the environment, relatively little work has been done on where trade most directly effects the environment: the transportation sector. This article shows how international trade is affecting air pollution emissions in the United States' shipping sector. Recent work has shown that cargo ships have been long overlooked regarding their contribution to air pollution. Indeed, ship emissions have recently been deemed "the last unregulated source of traditional air pollutants". Air pollution from ships has a number of significant local, national, and global environmental effects. Building on past studies, we examine the economic costs of this increasing and unregulated form of environmental damage. We find that total emissions from ships are largely increasing due to the increase in foreign commerce (or international trade). The economic costs of SO2 pollution range from dollars 697 million to dollars 3.9 billion during the period examined, or dollars 77 to dollars 435 million on an annual basis. The bulk of the cost is from foreign commerce, where the annual costs average to dollars 42 to dollars 241 million. For NOx emissions the costs are dollars 3.7 billion over the entire period or dollars 412 million per year. Because foreign trade is driving the growth in US shipping, we also estimate the effect of the Uruguay Round on emissions. Separating out the effects of global trade agreements reveals that the trade agreement-led emissions amounted to dollars 96 to dollars 542 million for SO2 between 1993 and 2001, or dollars 10 to dollars 60 million per year. For NOx they were dollars 745 million for the whole period or dollars 82 million per year. Without adequate policy responses, we predict that these trends and costs will continue into the future.

  19. Multi-model estimates of fire emissions and air quality degradation in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlier, M. E.; DeFries, R. S.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Voulgarakis, A.; Kinney, P. L.; Shindell, D. T.; Randerson, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Like fossil fuel pollution, fire emissions affect both climate change and air quality. In this study, we combine satellite-derived fire estimates and atmospheric modeling to quantify potential population exposure to particulate matter and ozone from fires in Southeast Asia from 1997 to 2007. This region has large interannual variability in fire activity due to El Niño-induced droughts and anthropogenic drivers. Though typically too wet to combust, increased sources of deforestation and degradation are enhancing the susceptibility of forests and underlying carbon-rich peat deposits to fire during drought, as documented in the extreme fires of the 1997-98 El Niño. Concerns of a positive feedback between fire activity and a warming climate would further increase the influence of fires on air quality degradation. Monthly fire emissions are estimated from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED version 3) and transported in two atmospheric models to assess population exposure. We show that during strong El Niño years, fires contribute to daily fine particulate matter and afternoon maximum ozone surface concentrations over 150 μg/m3 and 240 μg/m3, respectively. Exposure to these two types of pollutants increases mortality and hospital admissions from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, even at low concentrations. This fire pollutant burden corresponds to 200 added days per year exceeding the World Health Organization fine particulate matter guideline and exposes up to 50 million additional people to more than 25 days above the most extreme pollutant concentrations. Our results indicate that substantial health and economic co-benefits would result from reducing fires in locations where transported emissions lead to enhanced exposure to air pollution during high fire years.

  20. Air/Superfund national technical guidance study series, Volume 2. Estimation of baseline air emission at Superfund sites. Interim report(Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This volume is one in a series of manuals prepared for EPA to assist its Remedial Project Managers in the assessment of the air contaminant pathway and developing input data for risk assessment. The manual provides guidance on developing baseline-emission estimates from hazardous waste sites. Baseline-emission estimates (BEEs) are defined as emission rates estimated for a site in its undisturbed state. Specifically, the manual is intended to: Present a protocol for selecting the appropriate level of effort to characterize baseline air emissions; Assist site managers in designing an approach for BEEs; Describe useful technologies for developing site-specific baseline emission estimates (BEEs); Help site managers select the appropriate technologies for generating site-specific BEEs.

  1. The development of emissions estimates for the Arizona Hazardous Air Pollution Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, R.J.; Wolf, M.E.; Morrison, B.J.

    1996-12-31

    A series of emissions inventories have been developed to support the Arizona Hazardous Air Pollution (HAP) Research Program. This paper summarizes both the methodology and results of this inventory effort. To meet the objectives of the HAP Research Program, emissions inventories were prepared for four different geographic regions. Both Phoenix and Tucson were selected to represent urban-scale environments. The town of Payson was selected as a mountain community with residential wood combustion emissions, while Casa Grande was selected for its agricultural emissions, primarily pesticides. The emissions databases developed for these four regions consist of gridded and hourly emission files that were used in a three dimensional air quality grid model. The inventory databases contain HAP emissions for point, area, and mobile sources (both on-road motor vehicles and nonroad mobile sources). The overall area and mobile source inventory consists of over 150 individual source categories. Future year emission projections were prepared to simulate growth, as well as planned local, state, and federal control requirements that will influence HAP emissions in the four regions. Results of the inventory indicate that mobile sources are the dominant source category in all four regions, although semivolatile organic emissions from residential wood combustion and pesticides are important components of the Payson and Casa Grande inventories, respectively. Although significant growth and economic expansion is predicted for each region, overall emissions of the key HAP species are expected to decline.

  2. Estimating the climate and air quality benefits of aviation fuel and emissions reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorbian, Christopher S.; Wolfe, Philip J.; Waitz, Ian A.

    2011-05-01

    associated with CO 2 alone (all else being equal). For a non-CO 2 to CO 2 ratio based on economic damage costs, we find a central value of 1.8 at a 3% discount rate, with a range from 0.6 to 2.5 for the upper and lower bounds of scientific and scenario-based uncertainty. Since estimating the co-benefits in this way is an important requirement for cost-benefit analyses, we also provide estimates of the air quality benefits of aviation fuel burn reduction in a similar format. We find the marginal damage costs of aircraft emissions below 3000 feet to be of similar magnitude to the climate costs on a per unit fuel burn basis, or an order of magnitude smaller on a per flight basis since we take no account of the air quality impacts of emissions above 3000 feet where the majority of fuel is consumed for the fleet.

  3. Air Emissions Guide for Air Force Mobile Sources: Methods for Estimating Emissions of Air Pollutants for Mobile Sources at U.S. Air Force Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Management Practices BOOS Burners Out Of Service BSFC Brake-Specific Fuel Consumption Btu British Thermal Unit ºC Degrees Celsius CAA Clean Air Act CAAA...Vehicle Management Flight Vehicle Maintenance LNB Low NOX Burner LPG Liquid Petroleum Gas LTO Landing and Takeoff MAJCOM Major Command MB...OLVIMS On-line Vehicle Interactive Management System OTAG Office of Transportation Quality P2 Pollution Prevention PAH Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon

  4. Inverse Estimation of SO2 Emissions over China with Local Air Mass Factor Applied

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Wang, J.; Xu, X.; Henze, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) has significant impacts on human health as it forms sulfate aerosols in the atmosphere. Widespread uncertainty in the magnitude of SO2 emissions hinders efforts to address this issue. In this work we use Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) slant column SO2 observations as constraints to conduct inversion of SO2 emissions over China for April 2008. Local air mass factors are formulated as the integral of the relative vertical distribution of SO2 simulated from GEOS-Chem, weighted by scattering weights computed from VLIDORT. They are applied to convert slant column to vertical column GEOS-Chem SO2. After data assimilation SO2 emissions decrease in Sichuan Basin, South China, and most areas of North China. The posterior SO2 emissions are evaluated with in situ SO2 observation. Besides, we apply the posterior SO2 emissions of April 2008 to April 2009, and it leads to improved agreement of modeled SO2 to the OMI observations. This offers potential to update SO2 emissions in real time.

  5. Indirect estimation of emission factors for phosphate surface mining using air dispersion modeling.

    PubMed

    Tartakovsky, Dmitry; Stern, Eli; Broday, David M

    2016-06-15

    To date, phosphate surface mining suffers from lack of reliable emission factors. Due to complete absence of data to derive emissions factors, we developed a methodology for estimating them indirectly by studying a range of possible emission factors for surface phosphate mining operations and comparing AERMOD calculated concentrations to concentrations measured around the mine. We applied this approach for the Khneifiss phosphate mine, Syria, and the Al-Hassa and Al-Abyad phosphate mines, Jordan. The work accounts for numerous model unknowns and parameter uncertainties by applying prudent assumptions concerning the parameter values. Our results suggest that the net mining operations (bulldozing, grading and dragline) contribute rather little to ambient TSP concentrations in comparison to phosphate processing and transport. Based on our results, the common practice of deriving the emission rates for phosphate mining operations from the US EPA emission factors for surface coal mining or from the default emission factor of the EEA seems to be reasonable. Yet, since multiple factors affect dispersion from surface phosphate mines, a range of emission factors, rather than only a single value, was found to satisfy the model performance.

  6. Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zohner, Steven K

    2000-05-01

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  7. Top-down estimate of methane emissions in California using a mesoscale inverse modeling technique: The South Coast Air Basin

    DOE PAGES

    Cui, Yu Yan; Brioude, Jerome; McKeen, Stuart A.; ...

    2015-07-28

    Methane (CH4) is the primary component of natural gas and has a larger global warming potential than CO2. Some recent top-down studies based on observations showed CH4 emissions in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) were greater than those expected from population-apportioned bottom-up state inventories. In this study, we quantify CH4 emissions with an advanced mesoscale inverse modeling system at a resolution of 8 km × 8 km, using aircraft measurements in the SoCAB during the 2010 Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change campaign to constrain the inversion. To simulate atmospheric transport, we use the FLEXible PARTicle-Weather Research andmore » Forecasting (FLEXPART-WRF) Lagrangian particle dispersion model driven by three configurations of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model. We determine surface fluxes of CH4 using a Bayesian least squares method in a four-dimensional inversion. Simulated CH4 concentrations with the posterior emission inventory achieve much better correlations with the measurements (R2 = 0.7) than using the prior inventory (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Emission Inventory 2005, R2 = 0.5). The emission estimates for CH4 in the posterior, 46.3 ± 9.2 Mg CH4/h, are consistent with published observation-based estimates. Changes in the spatial distribution of CH4 emissions in the SoCAB between the prior and posterior inventories are discussed. Missing or underestimated emissions from dairies, the oil/gas system, and landfills in the SoCAB seem to explain the differences between the prior and posterior inventories. Furthermore, we estimate that dairies contributed 5.9 ± 1.7 Mg CH4/h and the two sectors of oil and gas industries (production and downstream) and landfills together contributed 39.6 ± 8.1 Mg CH4/h in the SoCAB.« less

  8. Top-down estimate of methane emissions in California using a mesoscale inverse modeling technique: The South Coast Air Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yu Yan; Brioude, Jerome; McKeen, Stuart A.; Angevine, Wayne M.; Kim, Si-Wan; Frost, Gregory J.; Ahmadov, Ravan; Peischl, Jeff; Bousserez, Nicolas; Liu, Zhen; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Wofsy, Steve C.; Santoni, Gregory W.; Kort, Eric A.; Fischer, Marc L.; Trainer, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Methane (CH4) is the primary component of natural gas and has a larger global warming potential than CO2. Recent top-down studies based on observations showed CH4 emissions in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) were greater than those expected from population-apportioned bottom-up state inventories. In this study, we quantify CH4 emissions with an advanced mesoscale inverse modeling system at a resolution of 8 km × 8 km, using aircraft measurements in the SoCAB during the 2010 Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change campaign to constrain the inversion. To simulate atmospheric transport, we use the FLEXible PARTicle-Weather Research and Forecasting (FLEXPART-WRF) Lagrangian particle dispersion model driven by three configurations of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model. We determine surface fluxes of CH4 using a Bayesian least squares method in a four-dimensional inversion. Simulated CH4 concentrations with the posterior emission inventory achieve much better correlations with the measurements (R2 = 0.7) than using the prior inventory (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Emission Inventory 2005, R2 = 0.5). The emission estimates for CH4 in the posterior, 46.3 ± 9.2 Mg CH4/h, are consistent with published observation-based estimates. Changes in the spatial distribution of CH4 emissions in the SoCAB between the prior and posterior inventories are discussed. Missing or underestimated emissions from dairies, the oil/gas system, and landfills in the SoCAB seem to explain the differences between the prior and posterior inventories. We estimate that dairies contributed 5.9 ± 1.7 Mg CH4/h and the two sectors of oil and gas industries (production and downstream) and landfills together contributed 39.6 ± 8.1 Mg CH4/h in the SoCAB.

  9. A regression approach for estimation of anthropogenic heat flux based on a bottom-up air pollutant emission database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; McKeen, Stuart A.; Sailor, David J.

    2014-10-01

    A statistical regression method is presented for estimating hourly anthropogenic heat flux (AHF) using an anthropogenic pollutant emission inventory for use in mesoscale meteorological and air-quality modeling. Based on bottom-up AHF estimated from detailed energy consumption data and anthropogenic pollutant emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the US National Emission Inventory year 2005 (NEI-2005), a robust regression relation between the AHF and the pollutant emissions is obtained for Houston. This relation is a combination of two power functions (Y = aXb) relating CO and NOx emissions to AHF, giving a determinant coefficient (R2) of 0.72. The AHF for Houston derived from the regression relation has high temporal (R = 0.91) and spatial (R = 0.83) correlations with the bottom-up AHF. Hourly AHF for the whole US in summer is estimated by applying the regression relation to the NEI-2005 summer pollutant emissions with a high spatial resolution of 4-km. The summer daily mean AHF range 10-40 W m-2 on a 4 × 4 km2 grid scale with maximum heat fluxes of 50-140 W m-2 for major US cities. The AHFs derived from the regression relations between the bottom-up AHF and either CO or NOx emissions show a small difference of less than 5% (4.7 W m-2) in city-scale daily mean AHF, and similar R2 statistics, compared to results from their combination. Thus, emissions of either species can be used to estimate AHF in the US cities. An hourly AHF inventory at 4 × 4 km2 resolution over the entire US based on the combined regression is derived and made publicly available for use in mesoscale numerical modeling.

  10. EARTH, WIND AND FIRE: BUILDING METEOROLOGICALLY-SENSITIVE BIOGENIC AND WILDLAND FIRE EMISSION ESTIMATES FOR AIR QUALITY MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission estimates are important for ensuring the accuracy of atmospheric chemical transport models. Estimates of biogenic and wildland fire emissions, because of their sensitivity to meteorological conditions, need to be carefully constructed and closely linked with a meteorolo...

  11. Top-down estimate of methane emissions in California using a mesoscale inverse modeling technique: The South Coast Air Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Yu Yan; Brioude, Jerome; McKeen, Stuart A.; Angevine, Wayne M.; Kim, Si -Wan; Frost, Gregory J.; Ahmadov, Ravan; Peischl, Jeff; Bousserez, Nicolas; Liu, Zhen; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Wofsy, Steve C.; Santoni, Gregory W.; Kort, Eric A.; Fischer, Marc L.; Trainer, Michael

    2015-07-28

    Methane (CH4) is the primary component of natural gas and has a larger global warming potential than CO2. Some recent top-down studies based on observations showed CH4 emissions in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) were greater than those expected from population-apportioned bottom-up state inventories. In this study, we quantify CH4 emissions with an advanced mesoscale inverse modeling system at a resolution of 8 km × 8 km, using aircraft measurements in the SoCAB during the 2010 Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change campaign to constrain the inversion. To simulate atmospheric transport, we use the FLEXible PARTicle-Weather Research and Forecasting (FLEXPART-WRF) Lagrangian particle dispersion model driven by three configurations of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model. We determine surface fluxes of CH4 using a Bayesian least squares method in a four-dimensional inversion. Simulated CH4 concentrations with the posterior emission inventory achieve much better correlations with the measurements (R2 = 0.7) than using the prior inventory (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Emission Inventory 2005, R2 = 0.5). The emission estimates for CH4 in the posterior, 46.3 ± 9.2 Mg CH4/h, are consistent with published observation-based estimates. Changes in the spatial distribution of CH4 emissions in the SoCAB between the prior and posterior inventories are discussed. Missing or underestimated emissions from dairies, the oil/gas system, and landfills in the SoCAB seem to explain the differences between the prior and posterior inventories. Furthermore, we estimate that dairies contributed 5.9 ± 1.7 Mg CH4/h and the two sectors of oil and gas industries (production and downstream) and landfills together contributed 39.6 ± 8.1 Mg CH4/h in the SoCAB.

  12. Air Emissions Factors and Quantification

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Emissions factors are used in developing air emissions inventories for air quality management decisions and in developing emissions control strategies. This area provides technical information on and support for the use of emissions factors.

  13. Development of an empirical model to estimate real-world fine particulate matter emission factors: the traffic air quality model.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ahmed S M; Jacko, Robert B; Palmer, George M

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to quantify the impact of traffic conditions, such as free flow and congestion, on local air quality. The Borman Expressway (I-80/94) in Northwest Indiana is considered a test bed for this research because of the high volume of class 9 truck traffic traveling on it, as well as the existing and continuing installation of the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) to improve traffic management along the highway stretch. An empirical traffic air quality (TAQ) model was developed to estimate the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emission factors (grams per kilometer) based solely on the measured traffic parameters, namely, average speed, average acceleration, and class 9 truck density. The TAQ model has shown better predictions that matched the measured emission factor values more than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-PART5 model. During congestion (defined as flow-speeds < 50 km/hr [30 mi/hr]), the TAQ model, on average, overpredicted the measured values only by a factor of 1.2, in comparison to a fourfold underprediction using the EPA-PART5 model. On the other hand, during free flow (defined as flow-speeds > 80 km/hr [50 mi/hr]), the TAQ model was conservative in that it overpredicted the measured values by 1.5-fold.

  14. Developing Real-Time Emissions Estimates for Enhanced Air Quality Forecasting

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exploring the relationship between ambient temperature, energy demand, and electric generating unit point source emissions and potential techniques for incorporating real-time information on the modulating effects of these variables using the Mid-Atlantic/Northeast Visibility Uni...

  15. ESTIMATION OF EMISSION ADJUSTMENTS FROM THE APPLICATION OF FOUR-DIMENSIONAL DATA ASSIMILATION TO PHOTOCHEMICAL AIR QUALITY MODELING. (R826372)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four-dimensional data assimilation applied to photochemical air quality modeling is used to suggest adjustments to the emissions inventory of the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area. In this approach, a three-dimensional air quality model, coupled with direct sensitivity analys...

  16. Assessing concentrations and health impacts of air quality management strategies: Framework for Rapid Emissions Scenario and Health impact ESTimation (FRESH-EST).

    PubMed

    Milando, Chad W; Martenies, Sheena E; Batterman, Stuart A

    2016-09-01

    In air quality management, reducing emissions from pollutant sources often forms the primary response to attaining air quality standards and guidelines. Despite the broad success of air quality management in the US, challenges remain. As examples: allocating emissions reductions among multiple sources is complex and can require many rounds of negotiation; health impacts associated with emissions, the ultimate driver for the standards, are not explicitly assessed; and long dispersion model run-times, which result from the increasing size and complexity of model inputs, limit the number of scenarios that can be evaluated, thus increasing the likelihood of missing an optimal strategy. A new modeling framework, called the "Framework for Rapid Emissions Scenario and Health impact ESTimation" (FRESH-EST), is presented to respond to these challenges. FRESH-EST estimates concentrations and health impacts of alternative emissions scenarios at the urban scale, providing efficient computations from emissions to health impacts at the Census block or other desired spatial scale. In addition, FRESH-EST can optimize emission reductions to meet specified environmental and health constraints, and a convenient user interface and graphical displays are provided to facilitate scenario evaluation. The new framework is demonstrated in an SO2 non-attainment area in southeast Michigan with two optimization strategies: the first minimizes emission reductions needed to achieve a target concentration; the second minimizes concentrations while holding constant the cumulative emissions across local sources (e.g., an emissions floor). The optimized strategies match outcomes in the proposed SO2 State Implementation Plan without the proposed stack parameter modifications or shutdowns. In addition, the lower health impacts estimated for these strategies suggest that FRESH-EST could be used to identify potentially more desirable pollution control alternatives in air quality management planning.

  17. Estimation of biogenic emissions with satellite-derived land use and land cover data for air quality modeling of Houston-Galveston ozone nonattainment area.

    PubMed

    Byun, Daewon W; Kim, Soontae; Czader, Beata; Nowak, David; Stetson, Stephen; Estes, Mark

    2005-06-01

    The Houston-Galveston Area (HGA) is one of the most severe ozone non-attainment regions in the US. To study the effectiveness of controlling anthropogenic emissions to mitigate regional ozone nonattainment problems, it is necessary to utilize adequate datasets describing the environmental conditions that influence the photochemical reactivity of the ambient atmosphere. Compared to the anthropogenic emissions from point and mobile sources, there are large uncertainties in the locations and amounts of biogenic emissions. For regional air quality modeling applications, biogenic emissions are not directly measured but are usually estimated with meteorological data such as photo-synthetically active solar radiation, surface temperature, land type, and vegetation database. In this paper, we characterize these meteorological input parameters and two different land use land cover datasets available for HGA: the conventional biogenic vegetation/land use data and satellite-derived high-resolution land cover data. We describe the procedures used for the estimation of biogenic emissions with the satellite derived land cover data and leaf mass density information. Air quality model simulations were performed using both the original and the new biogenic emissions estimates. The results showed that there were considerable uncertainties in biogenic emissions inputs. Subsequently, ozone predictions were affected up to 10 ppb, but the magnitudes and locations of peak ozone varied each day depending on the upwind or downwind positions of the biogenic emission sources relative to the anthropogenic NOx and VOC sources. Although the assessment had limitations such as heterogeneity in the spatial resolutions, the study highlighted the significance of biogenic emissions uncertainty on air quality predictions. However, the study did not allow extrapolation of the directional changes in air quality corresponding to the changes in LULC because the two datasets were based on vastly different

  18. Air pollution from gas flaring: new emission factor estimates and detection in a West African aerosol remote-sensing climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenzie, Rob; Fawole, Olusegun Gabriel; Levine, James; Cai, Xiaoming

    2016-04-01

    Gas flaring, the disposal of gas through stacks in an open-air flame, is a common feature in the processing of crude oil, especially in oil-rich regions of the world. Gas flaring is a prominent source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), CO, CO2, nitrogen oxides (NOx), SO2 (in "sour" gas only), and soot (black carbon), as well as the release of locally significant amounts of heat. The rates of emission of these pollutants from gas flaring depend on a number of factors including, but not limited to, fuel composition and quantity, stack geometry, flame/combustion characteristics, and prevailing meteorological conditions. Here, we derive new estimated emission factors (EFs) for carbon-containing pollutants (excluding PAH). The air pollution dispersion model, ADMS5, is used to simulate the dispersion of the pollutants from flaring stacks in the Niger delta. A seasonal variation of the dispersion pattern of the pollutant within a year is studied in relation to the movements of the West Africa Monsoon (WAM) and other prevailing meteorological factors. Further, we have clustered AERONET aerosol signals using trajectory analysis to identify dominant aerosol sources at the Ilorin site in West Africa (4.34 oE, 8.32 oN). A 10-year trajectory-based analysis was undertaken (2005-2015, excluding 2010). Of particular interest are air masses that have passed through the gas flaring region in the Niger Delta area en-route the AERONET site. 7-day back trajectories were calculated using the UK Universities Global Atmospheric Modelling Programme (UGAMP) trajectory model which is driven by analyses from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). From the back-trajectory calculations, dominant sources are identified, using literature classifications: desert dust (DD); Biomass burning (BB); and Urban-Industrial (UI). We use a combination of synoptic trajectories and aerosol optical properties to distinguish a fourth source

  19. Air Emissions Monitoring for Permits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Operating permits document how air pollution sources will demonstrate compliance with emission limits and also how air pollution sources will monitor, either periodically or continuously, their compliance with emission limits and all other requirements.

  20. Estimation of road vehicle exhaust emissions from 1992 to 2010 and comparison with air quality measurements in Genoa, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamboni, Giorgio; Capobianco, Massimo; Daminelli, Enrico

    An investigation into road transport exhaust emissions in the Genoa urban area was performed by comparing the quantities of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and particulate matter (PM) emitted by different vehicle categories with air quality measurements referred to the same pollutants. Exhaust emissions were evaluated by applying the PROGRESS (computer PROGramme for Road vehicle EmiSSions evaluation) code, developed by the Internal Combustion Engines Group of the University of Genoa, to eight different years (from 1992 to 2010), considering spark ignition and Diesel passenger cars and light duty vehicles, heavy duty vehicles and buses, motorcycles and mopeds. Changes in terms of vehicles number, mileage and total emissions are presented together with relative distributions among the various vehicle categories. By comparing 1992 and 2010 data, calculated trends show a 7% increase in the number of vehicles, with total mileage growing at a faster rate (approx. 22%); total emissions decrease considerably, by approximately 50% for NO x and PM, 70% for HC and 80% for CO, due to improvements in engines and fuels forced by the stricter European legislation and the fleet renewal, while primary NO 2 emission will be very close to 1992 level, after a decrease of about 18% in 2000. Air quality was analysed by selecting traffic and background measuring stations from the monitoring network managed by the Environmental Department of the Province of Genoa: average annual concentrations of considered pollutants from 1994 to 2007 were calculated in order to obtain the relative historical trends and compare them with European public health limits and with road vehicle emissions. Though an important reduction in pollutant concentrations has been achieved as a consequence of cleaner vehicles, some difficulties in complying with present and/or future NO 2 and PM 10 limits are also apparent, thus requiring suitable measures to be taken by the local

  1. Basic Information about Air Emissions Monitoring

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site is about types of air emissions monitoring and the Clean Air Act regulations, including Ambient Air Quality Monitoring, Stationary Source Emissions Monitoring, and Continuous Monitoring Systems.

  2. Air emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1994 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This report Presents the 1994 update of the Air Emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  3. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1998 Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Zohner

    1999-10-01

    This report presents the 1998 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradiological emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  4. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zohner, S.K.

    2000-05-30

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  5. Air emissions inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory -- 1995 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the 1995 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources. The air contaminants reported include nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, particulates, and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs).

  6. The magnitude and spatial range of current-use urban PCB and PBDE emissions estimated using a coupled multimedia and air transport model.

    PubMed

    Csiszar, Susan A; Diamond, Miriam L; Daggupaty, Sreerama M

    2014-01-21

    SO-MUM, a coupled atmospheric transport and multimedia urban model, was used to estimate spatially resolved (5 × 5 km(2)) air emissions and chemical fate based on measured air concentrations and chemical mass inventories within Toronto, Canada. Approximately 95% and 70% of Σ5PCBs (CB-28, -52, -101, -153, and -180) and Σ5PBDEs (BDE-28, -47, -100, -154, and -183) emissions of 17 (2-36) and 18 (3-42) kg y(-1), respectively, undergo atmospheric transport from the city, which is partly over Lake Ontario. The urban air plume was found to reach about 50 km for PCBs and PBDEs, in the direction of prevailing winds which is almost twice the distance of the wind-independent plume. The distance traveled by the plume is a function of prevailing wind velocity, the geographic distribution of the chemical inventory, and gas-particle partitioning. Soil wash-off of historically accumulated Σ5PCBs to surface water contributed ∼ 0.4 kg y(-1) (of mainly higher congeners) to near-shore Lake Ontario compared with volatilization of ∼ 6 kg y(-1) of mainly lighter congeners. Atmospheric emissions from primary sources followed by deposition to surface films and subsequent wash-off to surface water contributed ∼ 1 kg y(-1) and was the main route of Σ5PBDE loadings to near-shore Lake Ontario which acts as a net PBDE sink. Secondary emissions of PCBs and PBDEs from at least a ∼ 900,000 km(2) rural land area would be needed to produce the equivalent primary emissions as Toronto (∼ 640 km(2)). These results provide clear support for reducing inventories of these POPs.

  7. Aircraft Engine Emissions Estimator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-01

    altitude. The parameters used are listed in Table 5. The conditions are based on an annual average of 12 Air Force bases in the continental United States ...that represent a cross section of all United States Air Force bases. Taxi distances are assumed to be 4.0 km for both incoming and departing flights...climates in the United States . The morning conditions were chosen because the greatest potential for air pol lution problems occur then. 35 S r °"- M

  8. Statistical association between cancer incidence and major-cause mortality, and estimated residential exposure to air emissions from petroleum and chemical plants.

    PubMed Central

    Kaldor, J; Harris, J A; Glazer, E; Glaser, S; Neutra, R; Mayberry, R; Nelson, V; Robinson, L; Reed, D

    1984-01-01

    An ecologic study design was used to investigate the relationship between exposure to air emissions produced by the petroleum and chemical industries, and average annual cancer incidence and major cause mortality rates among whites in Contra Costa County, California. Estimates for the exposure to major industrial sources of sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen were used to subdivide the county by level of exposure to petroleum refinery and chemical plant emissions. Cancer incidence and major cause mortality rates were then calculated for whites in each of the exposure areas. In both males and females, residential exposure to petroleum and chemical air emissions was associated with an increased incidence of cancer of the buccal cavity and pharynx. In males, age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers of the stomach, lung, prostate and kidney and urinary organs were also associated with petroleum and chemical plant air emission exposures. In both sexes, we found a strong positive association between degree of residential exposure and death rates from cardiovascular disease and cancer, and a less strong positive association between exposure and death rates from cerebrovascular disease. There was also a positive association in men for deaths from cirrhosis of the liver. Although these observed associations occurred across areas of similar socioeconomic and broad occupational class, confounding variables and the "ecologic fallacy" must be considered as possible explanations. In particular, the stronger findings in men suggest an occupational explanation of the cancer incidence trends, and the effect observed in cirrhosis mortality suggests that lifestyle variables such as alcohol consumption were not adequately controlled for. While the public health implications of our findings remain unclear, the evidence presented is sufficient to warrant follow-up studies based on individual data in which possible biases can be more readily controlled. PMID:6734567

  9. Statistical association between cancer incidence and major-cause mortality, and estimated residential exposure to air emissions from petroleum and chemical plants.

    PubMed

    Kaldor, J; Harris, J A; Glazer, E; Glaser, S; Neutra, R; Mayberry, R; Nelson, V; Robinson, L; Reed, D

    1984-03-01

    An ecologic study design was used to investigate the relationship between exposure to air emissions produced by the petroleum and chemical industries, and average annual cancer incidence and major cause mortality rates among whites in Contra Costa County, California. Estimates for the exposure to major industrial sources of sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen were used to subdivide the county by level of exposure to petroleum refinery and chemical plant emissions. Cancer incidence and major cause mortality rates were then calculated for whites in each of the exposure areas. In both males and females, residential exposure to petroleum and chemical air emissions was associated with an increased incidence of cancer of the buccal cavity and pharynx. In males, age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers of the stomach, lung, prostate and kidney and urinary organs were also associated with petroleum and chemical plant air emission exposures. In both sexes, we found a strong positive association between degree of residential exposure and death rates from cardiovascular disease and cancer, and a less strong positive association between exposure and death rates from cerebrovascular disease. There was also a positive association in men for deaths from cirrhosis of the liver. Although these observed associations occurred across areas of similar socioeconomic and broad occupational class, confounding variables and the "ecologic fallacy" must be considered as possible explanations. In particular, the stronger findings in men suggest an occupational explanation of the cancer incidence trends, and the effect observed in cirrhosis mortality suggests that lifestyle variables such as alcohol consumption were not adequately controlled for. While the public health implications of our findings remain unclear, the evidence presented is sufficient to warrant follow-up studies based on individual data in which possible biases can be more readily controlled.

  10. Statistical association between cancer incidence and major-cause mortality, and estimated residential exposure to air emissions from petroleum and chemical plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kaldor, J.; Harris, J.A.; Glazer, E.; Glaser, S.; Neutra, R.; Mayberry, R.; Nelson, V.; Robinson, L.; Reed, D.

    1984-03-01

    An ecologic study design was used to investigate the relationship between exposure to air emissions produced by the petroleum and chemical industries, and average annual cancer incidence and major cause mortality rates among whites in Contra Costa County, California. Estimates for the exposure to major industrial sources of sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen were used to subdivide the county by level of exposure to petroleum refinery and chemical plant emissions. Cancer incidence and major cause mortality rates were then calculated for whites in each of the exposure areas. In both males and females, residential exposure to petroleum and chemical air emissions was associated with an increased incidence of cancer of the buccal cavity and pharynx. In males, age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers of the stomach, lung, prostate and kidney and urinary organs were also associated with petroleum and chemical plant air emission exposures. In both sexes, a strong positive association was found between degree of residential exposure and death rates from cardiovascular disease and cancer, and a less strong positive association between exposure and death rates from cerebrovascular disease. There was also a positive association in men for deaths from cirrhosis of the liver. Although these observed associations occurred across areas of similar socioeconomic and broad occupational class, confounding variables and the ecologic fallacy must be considered as possible explanations. In particular, the strong findings in men suggest an occupational explanation of the cancer incidence trends, and the effect observed in cirrhosis mortality suggests that lifestyle variables such as alcohol consumption were not adequately controlled for. 26 references, 1 figure, 6 tables.

  11. Global and regional emissions estimates of 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a, CH3CHF2) from in situ and air archive observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmonds, P. G.; Rigby, M.; Manning, A. J.; Lunt, M. F.; O'Doherty, S.; Young, D.; McCulloch, A.; Fraser, P. J.; Henne, S.; Vollmer, M. K.; Reimann, S.; Wenger, A.; Mühle, J.; Harth, C. M.; Salameh, P. K.; Arnold, T.; Weiss, R. F.; Krummel, P. B.; Steele, L. P.; Dunse, B. L.; Miller, B. R.; Lunder, C. R.; Hermansen, O.; Schmidbauer, N.; Saito, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Park, S.; Li, S.; Yao, B.; Zhou, L. X.; Arduini, J.; Maione, M.; Wang, R. H. J.; Prinn, R. G.

    2015-08-01

    High frequency, ground-based, in situ measurements from eleven globally-distributed sites covering 1994-2014, combined with measurements of archived air samples dating from 1978 onward and atmospheric transport models, have been used to estimate the growth of 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a, CH3CHF2) mole fractions in the atmosphere and the global emissions required to derive the observed growth. HFC-152a is a significant greenhouse gas but since it does not contain chlorine or bromine, HFC-152a makes no direct contribution to the destruction of stratospheric ozone and is therefore used as a substitute for the ozone depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). HFC-152a has exhibited substantial atmospheric growth since the first measurements reaching a maximum annualised global growth rate of 0.81 ± 0.05 ppt yr-1 in 2006, implying a substantial increase in emissions up to 2006. However, since 2007, the annualised rate of growth has slowed to 0.38 ± 0.04 ppt yr-1 in 2010 with a further decline to an average rate of change in 2013-2014 of -0.06 ± 0.05 ppt yr-1. The average Northern Hemisphere (NH) mixing ratio in 1994 was 1.2 ppt rising to a mixing ratio of 10.2 ppt in December 2014. Average annual mixing ratios in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) in 1994 and 2014 were 0.34 and 4.4 ppt, respectively. We estimate global emissions of HFC-152a have risen from 7.3 ± 5.6 Gg yr-1 in 1994 to a maximum of 54.4 ± 17.1 Gg yr-1 in 2011, declining to 52.5 ± 20.1 Gg yr-1 in 2014 or 7.2 ± 2.8 Tg-CO2 eq yr-1. Analysis of mixing ratio enhancements above regional background atmospheric levels suggests substantial emissions from North America, Asia and Europe. Global HFC emissions (so called "bottom up" emissions) reported by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are based on cumulative national emission data reported to the UNFCCC, which in turn are based on national consumption data. There appears to be a significant

  12. Global and regional emissions estimates of 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a, CH3CHF2) from in situ and air archive observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmonds, P. G.; Rigby, M.; Manning, A. J.; Lunt, M. F.; O'Doherty, S.; McCulloch, A.; Fraser, P. J.; Henne, S.; Vollmer, M. K.; Mühle, J.; Weiss, R. F.; Salameh, P. K.; Young, D.; Reimann, S.; Wenger, A.; Arnold, T.; Harth, C. M.; Krummel, P. B.; Steele, L. P.; Dunse, B. L.; Miller, B. R.; Lunder, C. R.; Hermansen, O.; Schmidbauer, N.; Saito, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Park, S.; Li, S.; Yao, B.; Zhou, L. X.; Arduini, J.; Maione, M.; Wang, R. H. J.; Ivy, D.; Prinn, R. G.

    2016-01-01

    High frequency, in situ observations from 11 globally distributed sites for the period 1994-2014 and archived air measurements dating from 1978 onward have been used to determine the global growth rate of 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a, CH3CHF2). These observations have been combined with a range of atmospheric transport models to derive global emission estimates in a top-down approach. HFC-152a is a greenhouse gas with a short atmospheric lifetime of about 1.5 years. Since it does not contain chlorine or bromine, HFC-152a makes no direct contribution to the destruction of stratospheric ozone and is therefore used as a substitute for the ozone depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). The concentration of HFC-152a has grown substantially since the first direct measurements in 1994, reaching a maximum annual global growth rate of 0.84 ± 0.05 ppt yr-1 in 2006, implying a substantial increase in emissions up to 2006. However, since 2007, the annual rate of growth has slowed to 0.38 ± 0.04 ppt yr-1 in 2010 with a further decline to an annual average rate of growth in 2013-2014 of -0.06 ± 0.05 ppt yr-1. The annual average Northern Hemisphere (NH) mole fraction in 1994 was 1.2 ppt rising to an annual average mole fraction of 10.1 ppt in 2014. Average annual mole fractions in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) in 1998 and 2014 were 0.84 and 4.5 ppt, respectively. We estimate global emissions of HFC-152a have risen from 7.3 ± 5.6 Gg yr-1 in 1994 to a maximum of 54.4 ± 17.1 Gg yr-1 in 2011, declining to 52.5 ± 20.1 Gg yr-1 in 2014 or 7.2 ± 2.8 Tg-CO2 eq yr-1. Analysis of mole fraction enhancements above regional background atmospheric levels suggests substantial emissions from North America, Asia, and Europe. Global HFC emissions (so called "bottom up" emissions) reported by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are based on cumulative national emission data reported to the UNFCCC, which in turn are based on

  13. The TRANSIMS Approach to Emission Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, M.J.; Smith, L.; Thayer, G.R.; Williams, M.D.

    1999-02-01

    Transportation systems play a significant role in urban air quality, energy consumption and carbon-dioxide emissions. Recently, it has been found that current systems for estimating emissions of pollutants from transportation devices lead to significant inaccuracies. Most of the existing emission modules use very aggregate representations of traveler behavior and attempt to estimate emissions on typical driving cycles. However, recent data suggests that typical driving cycles produce relatively low emissions with most emissions coming from off-cycle driving, cold-starts, malfunctioning vehicles, and evaporative emissions. TRANSIMS is a simulation system for the analysis of transportation options in metropolitan areas. It's major functional components are: (1) a population disaggregation module, (2) a travel planning module, (3) a regional microsimulation module, and (4) an environmental module. In addition to the major functional components, it includes a strong underpining of simulation science and an analyst's tool box. The purpose of the environmental module is to translate traveler behavior into consequent air quality. The environmental module uses information from the TRANSIMS planner and the microsimulation and it supports the analyst's toolbox. The TRANSIMS system holds the promise of a more complete description of the role of heterogeneity in transportation in emission estimation.

  14. Federal Air Pollutant Emission Regulations and Preliminary Estimates of Potential-to-Emit from Biorefineries, Pathway #2: Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-oil Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatt, Arpit; Zhang, Yimin; Heath, Garvin; Thomas, Mae; Renzaglia, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Biorefineries are subject to environmental laws, including complex air quality regulations that aim to protect and improve the quality of the air. These regulations govern the amount of certain types of air pollutants that can be emitted from different types of emission sources. To determine which federal air emission regulations potentially apply to the fast pyrolysis biorefinery, we first identified the types of regulated air pollutants emitted to the ambient environment by the biorefinery or from specific equipment. Once the regulated air pollutants are identified, we review the applicability criteria of each federal air regulation to determine whether the fast pyrolysis biorefinery or specific equipment is subject to it. We then estimate the potential-to-emit of pollutants likely to be emitted from the fast pyrolysis biorefinery to understand the air permitting requirements.

  15. Federal Air Pollutant Emission Regulations and Preliminary Estimates of Potential-to-Emit from Biorefineries. Pathway #1: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass-to-Sugars and Biological Conversion of Sugars-to-Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yimin; Bhatt, Arpit; Heath, Garvin; Thomas, Mae; Renzaglia, Jason

    2016-02-01

    Biorefineries are subject to environmental laws, including complex air quality regulations that aim to protect and improve the quality of the air. These regulations govern the amount of certain types of air pollutants that can be emitted from different types of emission sources. To determine which federal air emission regulations potentially apply to the sugars-to-hydrocarbon (HC) biorefinery, we first identified the types of regulated air pollutants emitted to the ambient environment by the biorefinery or from specific equipment. Once the regulated air pollutants are identified, we review the applicability criteria of each federal air regulation to determine whether the sugars-to-HC biorefinery or specific equipment is subject to it. We then estimate the potential-to-emit of pollutants likely to be emitted from the sugars-to-HC biorefinery to understand the air permitting requirements.

  16. Ports Primer: 7.2 Air Emissions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Near-port communities are often disproportionately impacted by air emissions due to port operations, goods movement operations and other industries that may be co-located with ports. Air emissions at ports also impact regional air quality.

  17. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, 1993 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the 1993 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to commence the preparation of the permit to operate application for the INEL, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL and provides emissions estimates for both mobile and stationary sources.

  18. METHODOLOGIES FOR ESTIMATING AIR EMISSIONS FROM THREE NON-TRADITIONAL SOURCE CATEGORIES: OIL SPILLS, PETROLEUM VESSEL LOADING & UNLOADING, AND COOLING TOWERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses part of EPA's program to identify and characterize emissions sources not currently accounted for by either the existing Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) or State Implementation Plan (sip) area source methodologies and to develop appropriate emis...

  19. Techniques for modeling hazardous air pollutant emissions from landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, R.J.; Vigil, S.A.; Melcer, H.

    1998-12-31

    The Environmental Protection Agency`s Landfill Air Estimation Model (LAEEM), combined with either the AP-42 or CAA landfill emission factors, provide a basis to predict air emissions, including hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), from municipal solid waste landfills. This paper presents alternative approaches for estimating HAP emissions from landfills. These approaches include analytical solutions and estimation techniques that account for convection, diffusion, and biodegradation of HAPs. Results from the modeling of a prototypical landfill are used as the basis for discussion with respect to LAEEM results

  20. Emission factors of air toxics from semiconductor manufacturing in Korea.

    PubMed

    Eom, Yun-Sung; Hong, Ji-Hyung; Lee, Suk-Jo; Lee, Eun-Jung; Cha, Jun-Seok; Lee, Dae-Gyun; Bang, Sun-Ae

    2006-11-01

    The development of local, accurate emission factors is very important for the estimation of reliable national emissions and air quality management. For that, this study is performed for pollutants released to the atmosphere with source-specific emission tests from the semiconductor manufacturing industry. The semiconductor manufacturing industry is one of the major sources of air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs); thus, understanding the emission characteristics of the emission source is a very important factor in the development of a control strategy. However, in Korea, there is a general lack of information available on air emissions from the semiconductor industry. The major emission sources of air toxics examined from the semiconductor manufacturing industry were wet chemical stations, coating applications, gaseous operations, photolithography, and miscellaneous devices in the wafer fabrication and semiconductor packaging processes. In this study, analyses of emission characteristics, and the estimations of emission data and factors for air toxics, such as acids, bases, heavy metals, and volatile organic compounds from the semiconductor manufacturing process have been performed. The concentration of hydrogen chloride from the packaging process was the highest among all of the processes. In addition, the emission factor of total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) for the packaging process was higher than that of the wafer fabrication process. Emission factors estimated in this study were compared with those of Taiwan for evaluation, and they were found to be of similar level in the case of TVOCs and fluorine compounds.

  1. INVERSE MODEL ESTIMATION AND EVALUATION OF SEASONAL NH 3 EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation topic is inverse modeling for estimate and evaluation of emissions. The case study presented is the need for seasonal estimates of NH3 emissions for air quality modeling. The inverse modeling application approach is first described, and then the NH

  2. Air Contamination by Mercury, Emissions and Transformations-a Review.

    PubMed

    Gworek, Barbara; Dmuchowski, Wojciech; Baczewska, Aneta H; Brągoszewska, Paulina; Bemowska-Kałabun, Olga; Wrzosek-Jakubowska, Justyna

    2017-01-01

    The present and future air contamination by mercury is and will continue to be a serious risk for human health. This publication presents a review of the literature dealing with the issues related to air contamination by mercury and its transformations as well as its natural and anthropogenic emissions. The assessment of mercury emissions into the air poses serious methodological problems. It is particularly difficult to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic emissions and re-emissions from lands and oceans, including past emissions. At present, the largest emission sources include fuel combustion, mainly that of coal, and "artisanal and small-scale gold mining" (ASGM). The distinctly highest emissions can be found in South and South-East Asia, accounting for 45% of the global emissions. The emissions of natural origin and re-emissions are estimated at 45-66% of the global emissions, with the largest part of emissions originating in the oceans. Forecasts on the future emission levels are not unambiguous; however, most forecasts do not provide for reductions in emissions. Ninety-five percent of mercury occurring in the air is Hg(0)-GEM, and its residence time in the air is estimated at 6 to 18 months. The residence times of its Hg(II)-GOM and that in Hgp-TPM are estimated at hours and days. The highest mercury concentrations in the air can be found in the areas of mercury mines and those of ASGM. Since 1980 when it reached its maximum, the global background mercury concentration in the air has remained at a relatively constant level.

  3. Estimation of exhaust and non-exhaust gaseous, particulate matter and air toxics emissions from on-road vehicles in Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagpure, Ajay Singh; Gurjar, B. R.; Kumar, Vivek; Kumar, Prashant

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of emissions from on-road vehicles in an Indian megacity, Delhi, have been performed by comparing exhaust emissions of gaseous, particulate matter and mobile source air toxics (MSATs), together with volatile organic compound (VOCs) and PM10 (particulate matter ≤10 μm) from non-exhaust vehicular sources, during the past (1991-2011) and future (2011-2020) scenarios. Results indicate that emissions of most of the pollutants from private vehicles (two wheelers and cars) have increased by 2- to 18-times in 2020 over the 1991 levels. Two wheelers found to be dominating the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO, 29-51%), hydrocarbons (HC, 45-73%), acetaldehyde (46-51%) and total poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, 37-42%). Conversely, private cars were found to be responsible for the majority of the carbon dioxide (CO2, 24-42%), 1,3-butadiene (72-89%), benzene (60-82%), formaldehyde (23-44%) and total aldehyde (27-52%) between 1991 and 2011. The heavy-duty commercial vehicles (HCVs) shows their accountability for most of the nitrogen oxide (NOx, 18-41%) and PM10 (33-43%) emissions during the years 1991-2011. In terms of PM10 emissions, vehicular exhaust contributed by 21-55%, followed by road dust (42-73%) and brake wear (3-5%) between 1991 and 2011. After 2002, non-exhaust emissions (e.g. road dust, brake wear and tyre wear) together indicate higher accountability (66-86%) for PM10 emission than the exhaust emissions (14-34%). The temporal trend of emissions of NOx and CO show reasonable agreement with available ambient air concentrations that were monitored at locations, significantly influenced by vehicular activity. Encouraging results were emerged, showing a good correlation coefficient for CO (0.94) and NOx (0.68).

  4. Projection of hazardous air pollutant emissions to future years.

    PubMed

    Strum, Madeleine; Cook, Rich; Thurman, James; Ensley, Darrell; Pope, Anne; Palma, Ted; Mason, Richard; Michaels, Harvey; Shedd, Stephen

    2006-08-01

    Projecting a hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emission inventory to future years can provide valuable information for air quality management activities such as prediction of program successes and helping to assess future priorities. We have projected the 1999 National Emission Inventory for HAPs to numerous future years up to 2020 using the following tools and data: the Emissions Modeling System for Hazardous Air Pollutants (EMS-HAP), the National Mobile Inventory Model (NMIM), emission reduction information resulting from national standards and economic growth data. This paper discusses these projection tools, the underlying data, limitations and the results. The results presented include total HAP emissions (sum of pollutants) and toxicity-weighted HAP emissions for cancer and respiratory noncancer effects. Weighting emissions by toxicity does not consider fate, transport, or location and behavior of receptor populations and can only be used to estimate relative risks of direct emissions. We show these projections, along with historical emission trends. The data show that stationary source programs under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and mobile source programs which reduce hydrocarbon and particulate matter emissions, as well as toxic emission performance standards for reformulated gasoline, have contributed to and are expected to continue to contribute to large declines in air toxics emissions, in spite of economic and population growth. We have also analyzed the particular HAPs that dominate the source sectors to better understand the historical and future year trends and the differences across sectors.

  5. 2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    David P. Fuehne

    2007-06-30

    This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

  6. IMPROVING BIOGENIC EMISSION ESTIMATES WITH SATELLITE IMAGERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will review how existing and future applications of satellite imagery can improve the accuracy of biogenic emission estimates. Existing applications of satellite imagery to biogenic emission estimates have focused on characterizing land cover. Vegetation dat...

  7. Noise Emission from Laboratory Air Blowers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossing, Thomas D.; Windham, Betty

    1978-01-01

    Product noise ratings for a number of laboratory air blowers are reported and several recommendations for reducing laboratory noise from air blowers are given. Relevant noise ratings and methods for measuring noise emission of appliances are discussed. (BB)

  8. DEVELOPING SEASONAL AMMONIA EMISSION ESTIMATES WITH AN INVERSE MODELING TECHNIQUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant uncertainty exists in magnitude and variability of ammonia (NH3) emissions, which are needed for air quality modeling of aerosols and deposition of nitrogen compounds. Approximately 85% of NH3 emissions are estimated to come from agricultural non-point sources. We sus...

  9. Estimating emissions from beef and dairy production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gaseous emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) can impair air, soil, and water quality. Estimates of the magnitude of emissions from CAFO are needed to quantify he impact of livestock production on the environment and human health and to develop management practices to mitigate...

  10. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea; Wahl, Linnea

    2008-06-13

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). The EPA regulates radionuclide emissions that may be released from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or that may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2007, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor stack or building emissions sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]), there were no diffuse emissions, and there were no unplanned emissions. Emissions from minor sources either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities received for use or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 3.0, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2007 is 1.2 x 10{sup -2} mrem/yr (1.2 x 10{sup -4} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) EPA dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 3.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (3.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2007.

  11. Developing seasonal ammonia emission estimates with an inverse modeling technique.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, A B; Dennis, R L; Roselle, S J; Pierce, T E; Bender, L E

    2001-11-21

    Significant uncertainty exists in magnitude and variability of ammonia (NH3) emissions, which are needed for air quality modeling of aerosols and deposition of nitrogen compounds. Approximately 85% of NH3 emissions are estimated to come from agricultural nonpoint sources. We suspect a strong seasonal pattern in NH 3 emissions; however, current NH3 emission inventories lack intra-annual variability. Annually averaged NH 3 emissions could significantly affect model-predicted concentrations and wet and dry deposition of nitrogen-containing compounds. We apply a Kalman filter inverse modeling technique to deduce monthly NH3 emissions for the eastern U.S. Final products of this research will include monthly emissions estimates from each season. Results for January and June 1990 are currently available and are presented here. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and ammonium (NH4+) wet concentration data from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) network are used. The inverse modeling technique estimates the emission adjustments that provide optimal modeled results with respect to wet NH4+ concentrations, observational data error, and emission uncertainty. Our results suggest that annual average NH 3 emissions estimates should be decreased by 64% for January 1990 and increased by 25% for June 1990. These results illustrate the strong differences that are anticipated for NH3 emissions.

  12. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea

    2010-06-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40CFR61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2009, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2009 is 7.0 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (7.0 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.5 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.5 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2009.

  13. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea

    2009-05-21

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2008, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources include more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2008 is 5.2 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (5.2 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2008.

  14. Fast Emission Estimates in China Constrained by Satellite Observations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijling, B.; van der A, R.

    2013-12-01

    Emission inventories of air pollutants are crucial information for policy makers and form important input data for air quality models. Unfortunately, bottom-up emission inventories, compiled from large quantities of statistical data, are easily outdated for an emerging economy such as China, where rapid economic growth changes emissions accordingly. Alternatively, top-down emission estimates from satellite observations of air constituents have important advantages of being spatial consistent, having high temporal resolution, and enabling emission updates shortly after the satellite data become available. Constraining emissions from concentration measurements is, however, computationally challenging. Within the GlobEmission project of the European Space Agency (ESA) a new algorithm has been developed, specifically designed for fast daily emission estimates of short-lived atmospheric species on a mesoscopic scale (0.25 × 0.25 degree) from satellite observations of column concentrations. The algorithm needs only one forward model run from a chemical transport model to calculate the sensitivity of concentration to emission, using trajectory analysis to account for transport away from the source. By using a Kalman filter in the inverse step, optimal use of the a priori knowledge and the newly observed data is made. We apply the algorithm for NOx emission estimates in East China, using the CHIMERE model together with tropospheric NO2 column retrievals of the OMI and GOME-2 satellite instruments. The observations are used to construct a monthly emission time series, which reveal important emission trends such as the emission reduction measures during the Beijing Olympic Games, and the impact and recovery from the global economic crisis. The algorithm is also able to detect emerging sources (e.g. new power plants) and improve emission information for areas where proxy data are not or badly known (e.g. shipping emissions). The new emission estimates result in a better

  15. Emission and Air Quality Modeling Tools for Near-Roadway Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission and air quality modeling tools are needed for estimating the impact of roadway emissions on air quality within a few hundred meters of major roadways. This paper reviews 9 emission and 21 air quality models, with a focus on operational tools that can be applied to the U...

  16. On-board gaseous emissions of LPG taxis and estimation of taxi fleet emissions.

    PubMed

    Lau, Jason; Hung, W T; Cheung, C S

    2011-11-15

    Instantaneous CO, NO, and HC emissions and exhaust flow rates from four LPG taxis, which adhered to Euro 2-4 emission standards, were measured using a sophisticated portable emission measurement system (PEMS). Instantaneous air/fuel ratios, emission rates, and emission factors at different operating modes were derived to explore the emission characteristics of these four taxis. Results show that gaseous emissions from these four taxis exceed emission standards, due to extended vehicle use and poor maintenance. NO emissions from newer taxis are lower whilst CO and HC emissions of the Euro 4 taxi are similar to those of Euro 2 taxis during idling and low speed travel. The taxis emit lower amounts of gaseous pollutants whilst idling and emit the highest amounts of CO and NO whilst accelerating. Large fluctuations in air/fuel ratios can be observed from the Euro 4 taxi during idling, indicating a malfunction of fuel supply control to the engine. Such fluctuations are not observed from the other taxis. This shows that a Euro 4 taxi is not necessarily cleaner than a Euro 3 taxi. Emission factors derived from on-board measurements are applied to estimate gaseous emissions from the taxi fleet; these results show that emissions are higher during peak hour traffic conditions. An estimate of the taxi fleet's emissions whilst the older taxis are replaced is also calculated. It can be seen that faster replacement of older taxis can lead to reductions in gaseous emissions from the taxi fleet. This study shows that the PEMS is an adequate tool for measuring emissions from LPG vehicles and that there is an urgent need to enforce emission standards on taxis. This study also shows that on-board measurements should be incorporated in the estimation of emissions from other vehicle types. This would result in better emission estimations under local traffic conditions.

  17. 2008 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2009-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2008. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  18. 2009 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2010-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2009. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  19. 2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2011-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  20. Carbon dioxide emissions from international air freight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howitt, Oliver J. A.; Carruthers, Michael A.; Smith, Inga J.; Rodger, Craig J.

    2011-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from international air transport were excluded from reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol, partly because of difficulties with quantifying and apportioning such emissions. Although there has been a great deal of recent research into calculating emissions from aeroplane operations globally, publicly available emissions factors for air freight emissions are scarce. This paper presents a methodology to calculate the amount of fuel burnt and the resulting CO 2 emissions from New Zealand's internationally air freighted imports and exports in 2007. This methodology could be applied to other nations and/or regions. Using data on fuel uplift, air freight and air craft movements, and assumptions on mean passenger loadings and the mass of passengers and air freight, CO 2 emissions factors of 0.82 kg CO 2 per t-km and 0.69 kg CO 2 per t-km for short-haul and long-haul journeys, respectively, were calculated. The total amount of fuel consumed for the international air transport of New Zealand's imports and exports was calculated to be 0.21 Mt and 0.17 Mt respectively, with corresponding CO 2 emissions of 0.67 Mt and 0.53 Mt.

  1. Ozone emissions from a "personal air purifier".

    PubMed

    Phillips, T J; Bloudoff, D P; Jenkins, P L; Stroud, K R

    1999-01-01

    Ozone emissions were measured above a "personal air purifier" (PAP) designed to be worn on a lapel, shirt pocket, or neck strap. The device is being marketed as a negative ion generator that purifies the air. However, it also produces ozone within the person's immediate breathing zone. In order to assess worst-case potential human exposure to ozone at the mouth and nose, we measured ozone concentrations in separate tests at 1, 3, 5, and 6 in. above each of two PAPs in a closed office. One PAP was new, and one had been used slightly for 3 months. Temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, room ozone concentration, and outdoor ozone concentration also were measured concurrently during the tests. Average ozone levels measured directly above the individual PAPs ranged from 65-71 ppb at 6 in. above the device to 268-389 ppb at 1 in. above the device. Ozone emission rates from the PAPs were estimated to be 1.7-1.9 microg/minute. When house dust was sprinkled on the top grid of the PAPs, one showed an initial peak of 522 ppb ozone at 1 in., and then returned to the 200-400 ppb range. Room ozone levels increased by only 0-5 ppb during the tests. Even when two PAPs were left operating over a weekend, room ozone levels did not noticeably increase beyond background room ozone levels. These results indicate that this "PAP," even without significant background ozone, can potentially elevate the user's exposures to ozone levels greater than the health-based air quality standards for outdoor air in California (0.09 ppm, 1-hour average) and the United States (0.08 ppm, 8-hour average).

  2. Observational constraints on biogenic VOC emission model estimates (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, A. B.

    2013-12-01

    Chemistry and transport models require accurate estimates of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions in order to simulate the atmospheric constituents controlling air quality and climate, such as ozone and particles, and so the uncertainties associated with BVOC estimates may be limiting the development of effective air quality and climate management strategies. BVOC emission models include driving variables and algorithms that span scales from the leaf level to entire landscapes. While considerable effort has been made to improve BVOC emission models in the past decades, there have been relatively few attempts to quantify the uncertainties associated with these estimates or to rigorously assess emission modeling approaches. This presentation will summarize the availability of observations that can be used to constrain BVOC emission models including flux measurements (leaf enclosure, above canopy tower, and aircraft platforms) and ambient concentrations of BVOC and their products. Results from studies targeting specific BVOC emission processes (e.g., the response of isoprene emission to drought and the response of monoterpene emissions to bark beetle attack) will be shown and the application of these observations for BVOC model evaluation will be discussed. In addition, the results from multi-scale BVOC emission studies (leaf enclosure, whole canopy flux tower, regional aircraft eddy covariance) will be presented and a approach for incorporating these observations into a community model testbed will be described and used to evaluate regional BVOC emission models.

  3. HFC-152a and HFC-134a emission estimates and characterization of CFCs, CFC replacements, and other halogenated solvents measured during the 2008 ARCTAS campaign (CARB phase) over the South Coast Air Basin of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, B.; Nissenson, P.; Meinardi, S.; Dabdub, D.; Sherwood Rowland, F.; Vancuren, R. A.; Pederson, J.; Diskin, G. S.; Blake, D. R.

    2011-03-01

    This work presents results from the NASA Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) study. Whole air samples were obtained on board research flights that flew over California during June 2008 and analyzed for selected volatile organic compounds, including several halogenated species. Samples collected over the South Coast Air Basin of California (SoCAB), which includes much of Los Angeles (LA) County, were compared with samples from inflow air masses over the Pacific Ocean. The levels of many halocarbon species were enhanced significantly over the SoCAB, including compounds regulated by the Montreal Protocol and subsequent amendments. Emissions estimates of HFC-152a (1,1-difluoroethane, CH3CHF2; 0.82 ± 0.11 Gg) and HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, CH2FCF3; 1.16 ± 0.22 Gg) in LA County for 2008 were obtained using the observed HFC:carbon monoxide (CO) enhancement ratio. Emission rates also were calculated for the SoCAB (1.60 ± 0.22 Gg yr-1 for HFC-152a and 2.12 ± 0.28 Gg yr-1 for HFC-134a) and then extrapolated to the United States (32 ± 4 Gg yr-1 for HFC-152a and 43 ± 6 Gg yr-1 for HFC-134a) using population data. In addition, emission rates of the two HFCs in LA County and SoCAB were calculated by a second method that utilizes air quality modeling. Emissions estimates obtained using both methods differ by less than 25% for the LA County and less than 45% for the SoCAB.

  4. A practical approach to estimate emission rates of indoor air pollutants due to the use of personal combustible products based on small-chamber studies.

    PubMed

    Szulejko, Jan E; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    As emission rates of airborne pollutants are commonly measured from combusting substances placed inside small chambers, those values need to be re-evaluated for the possible significance under practical conditions. Here, a simple numerical procedure is investigated to extrapolate the chamber-based emission rates of formaldehyde that can be released from various combustible sources including e-cigarettes, conventional cigarettes, or scented candles to their concentration levels in a small room with relatively poor ventilation. This simple procedure relies on a mass balance approach by considering the masses of pollutants emitted from source and lost through ventilation under the assumption that mixing occurs instantaneously in the room without chemical reactions or surface sorption. The results of our study provide valuable insights into re-evaluation procedure of chamber data to allow comparison between extrapolated and recommended values to judge the safe use of various combustible products in confined spaces. If two scented candles with a formaldehyde emission rate of 310 µg h(-1) each were lit for 4 h in a small 20 m(3) room with an air change rate of 0.5 h(-1), then the 4-h (candle lit) and 8-h (up to 8 h after candle lighting) TWA [FA] were determined to be 28.5 and 23.5 ppb, respectively. This is clearly above the 8-h NIOSH recommended exposure limit (REL) time weighted average of 16 ppb.

  5. Comparative estimation of soil and plant pollution in the impact area of air emissions from an aluminium plant after technogenic load reduction.

    PubMed

    Evdokimova, Galina A; Mozgova, Natalya P

    2015-01-01

    The work provides a comparative analysis of changes in soil properties in the last 10-13 years along the pollution gradient of air emissions from Kandalaksha aluminium plant in connection with the reduction of their volume. The content of the priority pollutant fluorine (F) in atmospheric precipitation and in the organic horizon of soil in the plant impact zone significantly decreased in 2011-2013 compared to 2001. The aluminium concentrations reduced only in immediate proximity to the plant (2 km). The fluorine, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) concentrations are higher in liquid phase compared to solid phase thus these elements can migrated to greater distances from the pollution source (up to 15-20 km). Silicon (Si), aluminium (Al), iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P) can be found only in solid phases and in fall-out within the 5 km. The acidity of soil litter reduced by 2 pH units in the proximity to the plot within the 2 km. The zone of maximum soil contamination decreased from 2.5 km to 1.5 km from the emission source, the zones of heavy and moderate pollution reduced by 5 km in connection with the reduction of pollutant emissions in the plant. A high correlation between the fluorine concentrations in vegetables and litter was found. Higher fluorine concentrations in the soil result in its accumulation in plants. Mosses accumulate fluorine most intensively.

  6. Estimation of automobile emissions and control strategies in India.

    PubMed

    Nesamani, K S

    2010-03-15

    Rapid, but unplanned urban development and the consequent urban sprawl coupled with economic growth have aggravated auto dependency in India over the last two decades. This has resulted in congestion and pollution in cities. The central and state governments have taken many ameliorative measures to reduce vehicular emissions. However, evolution of scientific methods for emission inventory is crucial. Therefore, an attempt has been made to estimate the emissions (running and start) from on-road vehicles in Chennai using IVE model in this paper. GPS was used to collect driving patterns. The estimated emissions from motor vehicles in Chennai in 2005 were 431, 119, 46, 7, 4575, 29, and 0.41 tons/days respectively for CO, VOC, NO(x), PM, CO(2,) CH(4) and N(2)O. It is observed from the results that air quality in Chennai has degraded. The estimation revealed that two and three-wheelers emitted about 64% of the total CO emissions and heavy-duty vehicles accounted for more than 60% and 36% of the NO(x) and PM emissions respectively. About 19% of total emissions were that of start emissions. It is also estimated that on-road transport contributes about 6637 tons/day CO(2) equivalent in Chennai. This paper has further examined various mitigation options to reduce vehicular emissions. The study has concluded that advanced vehicular technology and augmentation of public transit would have significant impact on reducing vehicular emissions.

  7. AIR EMISSIONS FROM SCRAP TIRE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  8. An Integrated Modelling Approach to Estimate Urban Traffic Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Aarshabh

    Vehicular emissions contribute significantly to poor air quality in urban areas. An integrated modelling approach is adopted to estimate microscale urban traffic emissions. The modelling framework consists of a traffic microsimulation model, a microscopic emissions model, and two dispersion models. This framework is applied to a traffic network in downtown Toronto to evaluate summer time morning peak traffic emissions during weekdays for carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide. The model predicted results are validated against sensor observations with a reasonably good fit. Availability of local estimates of ambient concentration is useful for accurate comparisons of total predicted concentrations with observed concentrations. Both predicted and observed concentrations are significantly smaller than the National Ambient Air Quality Objectives established by Environment Canada. Sensitivity analysis is performed on a set of input parameters and horizontal wind speed is found to be the most influential factor in pollutant dispersion.

  9. Ambient air quality measurements from a continuously moving mobile platform: Estimation of area-wide, fuel-based, mobile source emission factors using absolute principal component scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Timothy; Gould, Timothy; Riley, Erin A.; Austin, Elena; Fintzi, Jonathan; Sheppard, Lianne; Yost, Michael; Simpson, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    We have applied the absolute principal component scores (APCS) receptor model to on-road, background-adjusted measurements of NOx, CO, CO2, black carbon (BC), and particle number (PN) obtained from a continuously moving platform deployed over nine afternoon sampling periods in Seattle, WA. Two Varimax-rotated principal component features described 75% of the overall variance of the observations. A heavy-duty vehicle feature was correlated with black carbon and particle number, whereas a light-duty feature was correlated with CO and CO2. NOx had moderate correlation with both features. The bootstrapped APCS model predictions were used to estimate area-wide, average fuel-based emission factors and their respective 95% confidence limits. The average emission factors for NOx, CO, BC and PN (14.8, 18.9, 0.40 g/kg, and 4.3 × 1015 particles/kg for heavy duty vehicles, and 3.2, 22.4, 0.016 g/kg, and 0.19 × 1015 particles/kg for light-duty vehicles, respectively) are consistent with previous estimates based on remote sensing, vehicle chase studies, and recent dynamometer tests. Information on the spatial distribution of the concentrations contributed by these two vehicle categories relative to background during the sampling period was also obtained.

  10. Emission of pesticides into the air

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Den, Berg; Kubiak, R.; Benjey, W.G.; Majewski, M.S.; Yates, S.R.; Reeves, G.L.; Smelt, J.H.; Van Der Linden, A. M. A.

    1999-01-01

    During and after the application of a pesticide in agriculture, a substantial fraction of the dosage may enter the atmosphere and be transported over varying distances downwind of the target. The rate and extent of the emission during application, predominantly as spray particle drift, depends primarily on the application method (equipment and technique), the formulation and environmental conditions, whereas the emission after application depends primarily on the properties of the pesticide, soils, crops and environmental conditions. The fraction of the dosage that misses the target area may be high in some cases and more experimental data on this loss term are needed for various application types and weather conditions. Such data are necessary to test spray drift models, and for further model development and verification as well. Following application, the emission of soil fumigants and soil incorporated pesticides into the air can be measured and computed with reasonable accuracy, but further model development is needed to improve the reliability of the model predictions. For soil surface applied pesticides reliable measurement methods are available, but there is not yet a reliable model. Further model development is required which must be verified by field experiments. Few data are available on pesticide volatilization from plants and more field experiments are also needed to study the fate processes on the plants. Once this information is available, a model needs to be developed to predict the volatilization of pesticides from plants, which, again, should be verified with field measurements. For regional emission estimates, a link between data on the temporal and spatial pesticide use and a geographical information system for crops and soils with their characteristics is needed.

  11. Results of the air emission research study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air quality was monitored in beef mono-slope barns. The objectives of the study were 1) to gather baseline data for the levels of gas emissions and particulate matter from beef mono-slope facilities, 2) evaluate the effect of two different manure handling systems on air quality, and 3) provide infor...

  12. Air toxic emissions from snowmobiles in Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Shively, David; Mao, Huiting; Russo, Rachel S; Pape, Bruce; Mower, Richard N; Talbot, Robert; Sive, Barkley C

    2010-01-01

    A study on emissions associated with oversnow travel in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) was conducted for the time period of February 13-16, 2002 and February 12-16, 2003. Whole air and exhaust samples were characterized for 85 volatile organic compounds using gas chromatography. The toxics including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (p-, m-, and o-xylene), and n-hexane, which are major components of two-stroke engine exhaust, show large enhancements during sampling periods resulting from increased snowmobile traffic. Evaluation of the photochemical history of air masses sampled in YNP revealed that emissions of these air toxics were (i) recent, (ii) persistent throughout the region, and (iii) consistent with the two-stroke engine exhaust sample fingerprints. The annual fluxes were estimated to be 0.35, 1.12, 0.24, 1.45, and 0.36 Gg yr(-1) for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and n-hexane, respectively, from snowmobile usage in YNP. These results are comparable to the flux estimates of 0.23, 0.77, 0.17, and 0.70 Gg yr(-1) for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes, respectively, that were derived on the basis of (i) actual snowmobile counts in the Park and (ii) our ambient measurements conducted in 2003. Extrapolating these results, annual emissions from snowmobiles in the U.S. appear to be significantly higher than the values from the EPA National Emissions Inventory (1999). Snowmobile emissions represent a significant fraction ( approximately 14-21%) of air toxics with respect to EPA estimates of emissions by nonroad vehicles. Further investigation is warranted to more rigorously quantify the difference between our estimates and emission inventories.

  13. Incinerator air emissions: Inhalation exposure perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, H.W.

    1995-12-01

    Incineration is often proposed as the treatment of choice for processing diverse wastes, particularly hazardous wastes. Where such treatment is proposed, people are often fearful that it will adversely affect their health. Unfortunately, information presented to the public about incinerators often does not include any criteria or benchmarks for evaluating such facilities. This article describes a review of air emission data from regulatory trial burns in a large prototype incinerator, operated at design capacity by the US Army to destroy chemical warfare materials. It uses several sets of criteria to gauge the threat that these emissions pose to public health. Incinerator air emission levels are evaluated with respect to various toxicity screening levels and ambient air levels of the same pollutants. Also, emission levels of chlorinated dioxins and furans are compared with emission levels of two common combustion sources. Such comparisons can add to a community`s understanding of health risks associated with an incinerator. This article focuses only on the air exposure/inhalation pathway as related to human health. It does not address other potential human exposure pathways or the possible effects of emissions on the local ecology, both of which should also be examined during a complete analysis of any major new facility.

  14. Methods of valuing air pollution and estimated monetary values of air pollutants in various U.S. regions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.Q.; Santini, D.J.; Warinner, S.A.

    1994-12-01

    Air pollutant emission values are used to determine the social costs of various technologies that cause air pollution and to estimate the benefits of emission control technologies. In this report, the authors present two methods of estimating air pollutant emission values--the damage value method and the control cost method--and review 15 recent studies in which these methods were employed to estimate emission values. The reviewed studies derived emission values for only a limited number of areas; emission value estimates are needed for other US regions. Using the emission values estimated in the reviewed studies, they establish regression relationships between emission values, air pollutant concentrations, and total population exposed, and apply the established relationships to 17 US metropolitan areas to estimate damage-based and control-cost-based emission values for reactive organic gases, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter measuring less than 10 microns, sulfur oxides, and carbon monoxide in these areas. Their estimates show significant variations in emission values across the 17 regions.

  15. 2014 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David Patrick

    2015-07-21

    This report describes the emissions of airborne radionuclides from operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2014, and the resulting off-site dose from these emissions. This document fulfills the requirements established by the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H – Emissions of Radionuclides other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities, commonly referred to as the Radionuclide NESHAP or Rad-NESHAP. Compliance with this regulation and preparation of this document is the responsibility of LANL’s RadNESHAP compliance program, which is part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 6.

  16. Estimation of fugitive landfill methane emissions using surface emission monitoring and Genetic Algorithms optimization.

    PubMed

    Kormi, Tarek; Mhadhebi, Safa; Bel Hadj Ali, Nizar; Abichou, Tarek; Green, Roger

    2016-11-22

    As municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills can generate significant amounts of methane, there is considerable interest in quantifying fugitive methane emissions at such facilities. A variety of methods exist for the estimation of methane emissions from landfills. These methods are either based on analytical emission models or on measurements. This paper presents a method to estimate methane emissions using ambient air methane measurements obtained on the surface of a landfill. Genetic Algorithms based optimization combined with the standard Gaussian dispersion model is employed to identify locations as well as emission rates of potential emission sources throughout a municipal solid waste landfill. Four case studies are employed in order to evaluate the performance of the proposed methodology. It is shown that the proposed approach enables estimation of landfill methane emissions and localization of major emission hotspots in the studied landfills. The proposed source-locating-scheme could be seen as a cost effective method assisting landfill operators to reasonably estimate and locate major methane emissions.

  17. Recent Developments in the Quantification and Regulation of Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations.

    PubMed

    Heinzen, Tarah

    2015-03-01

    Animal feeding operations (AFOs) emit various air pollutants, including ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, methane, and nitrous oxide. Several of these pollutants are regulated under federal clean air statutes, yet AFOs have largely escaped regulation under these laws because of challenges in accurately estimating the rate and quantity of emissions from various types of livestock operations. Recent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) efforts to collect emissions data, develop an emissions model capable of estimating emissions at AFOs nationwide, and establish emissions estimating methodologies for certain key livestock air pollutants suffered from design flaws and omitted pollutants of concern. Moreover, this process seems to have stalled, delaying other regulatory reforms needed to increase transparency and increase regulation of these facilities. Until EPA establishes these methodologies, significant AFO pollution regulation under the Clean Air Act or emissions reporting statutes will be very difficult to achieve, and the public health and environmental impacts of these emissions will continue unabated.

  18. New Approaches for Estimating Motor Vehicle Emissions in Megacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marr, L. C.; Thornhill, D. A.; Herndon, S. C.; Onasch, T. B.; Wood, E. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Knighton, W. B.; Mazzoleni, C.; Zavala, M. A.; Molina, L. T.

    2007-12-01

    The rapid proliferation of megacities and their air quality problems is producing unprecedented air pollution health risks and management challenges. Quantifying motor vehicle emissions in the developing world's megacities, where vehicle ownership is skyrocketing, is critical for evaluating the cities' impacts on the atmosphere at urban, regional, and global scales. The main goal of this research is to quantify gasoline- and diesel-powered motor vehicle emissions within the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). We apply positive matrix factorization to fast measurements of gaseous and particulate pollutants made by the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory as it drove throughout the MCMA in 2006. We consider carbon dioxide; carbon monoxide; volatile organic compounds including benzene and formaldehyde; nitrogen oxides; ammonia; fine particulate matter; particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; and black carbon. Analysis of the video record confirms the apportionment of emissions to different engine types. From the derived source profiles, we calculate fuel-based fleet-average emission factors and then estimate the total motor vehicle emission inventory. The advantages of this method are that it can capture a representative sample of vehicles in a variety of on-road driving conditions and can separate emissions from gasoline versus diesel engines. The results of this research can be used to help assess the accuracy of emission inventories and to guide the development of strategies for reducing vehicle emissions.

  19. Emission inventory estimation of an intercity bus terminal.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhaowen; Li, Xiaoxia; Hao, Yanzhao; Deng, Shunxi; Gao, H Oliver

    2016-06-01

    Intercity bus terminals are hotspots of air pollution due to concentrated activities of diesel buses. In order to evaluate the bus terminals' impact on air quality, it is necessary to estimate the associated mobile emission inventories. Since the vehicles' operating condition at the bus terminal varies significantly, conventional calculation of the emissions based on average emission factors suffers the loss of accuracy. In this study, we examined a typical intercity bus terminal-the Southern City Bus Station of Xi'an, China-using a multi-scale emission model-(US EPA's MOVES model)-to quantity the vehicle emission inventory. A representative operating cycle for buses within the station is constructed. The emission inventory was then estimated using detailed inputs including vehicle ages, operating speeds, operating schedules, and operating mode distribution, as well as meteorological data (temperature and humidity). Five functional areas (bus yard, platforms, disembarking area, bus travel routes within the station, and bus entrance/exit routes) at the terminal were identified, and the bus operation cycle was established using the micro-trip cycle construction method. Results of our case study showed that switching to compressed natural gas (CNG) from diesel fuel could reduce PM2.5 and CO emissions by 85.64 and 6.21 %, respectively, in the microenvironment of the bus terminal. When CNG is used, tail pipe exhaust PM2.5 emission is significantly reduced, even less than brake wear PM2.5. The estimated bus operating cycles can also offer researchers and policy makers important information for emission evaluation in the planning and design of any typical intercity bus terminals of a similar scale.

  20. Using GIS to study the health impact of air emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Dent, A.L.; Fowler, D.A.; Kaplan, B.M.; Zarus, G.M.

    1999-07-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is a fast-developing technology with an ever-increasing number of applications. Air dispersion modeling is a well-established discipline that can produce results in a spatial context. The marriage of these two application is optimal because it leverages the predictive capacity of modeling with the data management, analysis, and display capabilities of GIS. In the public health arena, exposure estimation techniques are invaluable. The utilization of air emission data, such as US EPA Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data, and air dispersion modeling with GIS enable public health professionals to identify and define the potentially exposed population, estimate the health risk burden of that population, and determine correlations between point-based health outcome results with estimated health risk.

  1. Sequim Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-04-01

    This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and ashington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. This report meets the calendar year 2012 Sequim Site annual reporting requirement for its operations as a privately-owned facility as well as its federally-contracted status that began in October 2012. Compliance is indicated by comparing the estimated dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) with the 10 mrem/yr Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard. The MSL contains only sources classified as fugitive emissions. Despite the fact that the regulations are intended for application to point source emissions, fugitive emissions are included with regard to complying with the EPA standard. The dose to the Sequim Site MEI due to routine operations in 2012 was 9E-06 mrem (9E-08 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2012. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  2. Biofuels, vehicle emissions, and urban air quality.

    PubMed

    Wallington, Timothy J; Anderson, James E; Kurtz, Eric M; Tennison, Paul J

    2016-07-18

    Increased biofuel content in automotive fuels impacts vehicle tailpipe emissions via two mechanisms: fuel chemistry and engine calibration. Fuel chemistry effects are generally well recognized, while engine calibration effects are not. It is important that investigations of the impact of biofuels on vehicle emissions consider the impact of engine calibration effects and are conducted using vehicles designed to operate using such fuels. We report the results of emission measurements from a Ford F-350 fueled with either fossil diesel or a biodiesel surrogate (butyl nonanoate) and demonstrate the critical influence of engine calibration on NOx emissions. Using the production calibration the emissions of NOx were higher with the biodiesel fuel. Using an adjusted calibration (maintaining equivalent exhaust oxygen concentration to that of the fossil diesel at the same conditions by adjusting injected fuel quantities) the emissions of NOx were unchanged, or lower, with biodiesel fuel. For ethanol, a review of the literature data addressing the impact of ethanol blend levels (E0-E85) on emissions from gasoline light-duty vehicles in the U.S. is presented. The available data suggest that emissions of NOx, non-methane hydrocarbons, particulate matter (PM), and mobile source air toxics (compounds known, or suspected, to cause serious health impacts) from modern gasoline and diesel vehicles are not adversely affected by increased biofuel content over the range for which the vehicles are designed to operate. Future increases in biofuel content when accomplished in concert with changes in engine design and calibration for new vehicles should not result in problematic increases in emissions impacting urban air quality and may in fact facilitate future required emissions reductions. A systems perspective (fuel and vehicle) is needed to fully understand, and optimize, the benefits of biofuels when blended into gasoline and diesel.

  3. Urban air quality estimation study, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diamante, J. M.; Englar, T. S., Jr.; Jazwinski, A. H.

    1976-01-01

    Possibilities are explored for applying estimation theory to the analysis, interpretation, and use of air quality measurements in conjunction with simulation models to provide a cost effective method of obtaining reliable air quality estimates for wide urban areas. The physical phenomenology of real atmospheric plumes from elevated localized sources is discussed. A fluctuating plume dispersion model is derived. Individual plume parameter formulations are developed along with associated a priori information. Individual measurement models are developed.

  4. Estimation of vehicular emissions using dynamic emission factors: A case study of Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Dhirendra; Goyal, P.

    2014-12-01

    The estimation of vehicular emissions depends mainly on the values of emission factors, which are used for the development of a comprehensive emission inventory of vehicles. In this study the variations of emission factors as well as the emission rates have been studied in Delhi. The implementation of compressed natural gas (CNG), in the diesel and petrol, public vehicles in the year 2001 has changed the complete air quality scenario of Delhi. The dynamic emission factors of criteria pollutants viz. carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM10) for all types of vehicles have been developed after, which are based on the several factors such as regulated emission limits, number of vehicle deterioration, vehicle increment, vehicle age etc. These emission factors are found to be decreased continuously throughout the study years 2003-2012. The International Vehicle Emissions (IVE) model is used to estimate the emissions of criteria pollutants by utilizing a dataset available from field observations at different traffic intersections in Delhi. Thus the vehicular emissions, based on dynamic emission factors have been estimated for the years 2003-2012, which are found to be comparable with the monitored concentrations at different locations in Delhi. It is noticed that the total emissions of CO, NOx, and PM10 are increased by 45.63%, 68.88% and 17.92%, respectively up to the year 2012 and the emissions of NOx and PM10 are grown continuously with an annual average growth rate of 5.4% and 1.7% respectively.

  5. Estimate of mercury emissions to the atmosphere from petroleum.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, S M

    2001-12-15

    An estimate of the contribution of mercury to the atmospheric environment from petroleum processed in the United States is constructed from recent data. The estimate is based on a mass balance approach for mercury in crude oil, in refined products, and in waste streams (air, water, solid waste) from refineries. Although there are insufficient data at present to have a high degree of confidence in the mean amount and range of mercury concentrations in crude oil or in refined products, the framework of the estimate should assist direction for the acquisition of additional data. On the basis of selected data that put the estimated mean concentration of total mercury in crude oil close to 10 ppb, it is calculated that the total amount of mercury in U.S. petroleum processed yearly is slightly over 8000 kg/yr. Of this amount, approximately 6000 kg/yr is estimated to be emitted to the atmosphere from combustion of liquid hydrocarbon fuels, which represents about 10% of the U.S. yearly emission rate of atmospheric mercury from coal combustion. The material balance predicts that the amount of mercury in air emissions from all U.S. refineries is on the order of 1500 kg/yr based on the assumption that fugitive mercury emissions from refineries are negligible. Atmospheric emissions of mercury from fuel oil burned in the United States are estimated in the U.S. EPA Mercury Report to Congress to be approximately 10000 kg/yr, and this estimate may be in error on the high side by a factor of 3-10. If the mean amounts of mercury in U.S. distillate and residual fuel oils are in the range of 5-15 ppb, as suggested by more recent data, then U.S. fuel oil combustion should contribute no more that about 1000-3000 kg/yr (emission ratio = 1) of mercury to the atmospheric burden.

  6. Emissions and Air Quality Impacts of Freight Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickford, Erica

    the photochemically modeled WIFE inventory against satellite retrievals of NO2 from OMI showed better spatial agreement between WIFE and OMI compared to another diesel inventory (LADCO), however with larger bias and error, especially in urban areas. This preliminary analysis illustrates the utility of satellite data in evaluating air quality model performance, and constraining surface emissions estimates.

  7. Evaluation of an Odour Emission Factor (OEF) to estimate odour emissions from landfill surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucernoni, Federico; Tapparo, Federica; Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena

    2016-11-01

    Emission factors are fundamental tools for air quality management. Odour Emission Factors (OEFs) can be developed in analogy with the emission factors defined for other chemical compounds, which relate the quantity of a pollutant released to the atmosphere to a given associated activity. Landfills typically represent a common source of odour complaint; for this reason, the development of specific OEFs allowing the estimation of odour emissions from this kind of source would be of great interest both for the landfill design and management. This study proposes an up-to-date methodology for the development of an OEF for the estimation of odour emissions from landfills, thereby focusing on the odour emissions related to the emissions of landfill gas (LFG) from the exhausted landfill surface. The proposed approach is an "indirect" approach based on the quantification of the LFG emissions from methane concentration measurements carried out on an Italian landfill. The Odour Emission Rate (OER) is then obtained by multiplying the emitted gas flow rate by the LFG odour concentration. The odour concentration of the LFG emitted through the landfill surface was estimated by means of an ad hoc correlation investigated between methane concentration and odour concentration. The OEF for the estimation of odour emissions from landfill surfaces was computed, considering the landfill surface as the activity index, as the product between the mean specific LFG flux emitted through the surface resulting from the experimental campaigns, equal to 0.39 l/m2/h, and its odour concentration, which was estimated to be equal to 105‧000 eq. ouE/m3, thus giving an OEF of 0.011 ouE/m2/s. This value, which is considerably lower than those published in previous works, should be considered as an improved estimation based on the most recent developments of the research in the field of odour sampling on surface sources.

  8. Estimating Methane Emissions from Central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, C.; Fischer, M. L.; Andrews, A. E.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; MacDonald, C. P.; Nehrkorn, T.; Hirsch, A. I.

    2008-12-01

    A three-month time series of continuous CH4 mixing ratio measurements obtained from a tall-tower are applied in an inverse model to estimate regional surface emissions of CH4 in Central California. Simulated CH4 mixing ratios are calculated based on spatially resolved a priori CH4 emission estimates and simulated atmospheric transport. Atmospheric transport and surface influences (footprints) are computed using the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model driven by customized output from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. An uncertainty analysis is performed that propagates measurement and model errors through the inverse model to provide quantitative uncertainties in the estimated CH4 emissions. WRF-STILT predictions of daytime planetary boundary layer (PBL) heights are found to be over-estimated by a factor of 1.33 ± 0.13 (1s) through comparison with PBL heights estimated from a wind profiler located near the tower site for October, 2007. The inverse model estimates of CH4 emissions are performed in three ways. First, geometric linear regressions of modeled and measured CH4 mixing ratios obtains slopes of 0.95 ± 0.14 and 1.12 ± 0.12 for the October and Oct.-Dec., 2007 periods respectively, suggesting that total a priori CH4 emissions estimates are consistent with the atmospheric measurements and the transport model. Second, a Baysian inverse analysis of the Oct.-Dec., 2007 period obtains posterior scaling factors for CH4 suggesting that landfills and crop agriculuture are lower and livestock and petroleum emissions are higher than a priori estimates respectively. Third, a Baysian analysis of uncertainty, using 13 spatial sub-regions as basis functions, shows that the CH4 measurements significantly reduce posterior uncertainties in CH4 emissions relative the a priori assumptions for only the three sub-regions nearest the tower site. This suggests that a regional network of measurement sites will be necessary to provide high

  9. Community-LINE Source Model (C-LINE) to estimate roadway emissions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    C-LINE is a web-based model that estimates emissions and dispersion of toxic air pollutants for roadways in the U.S. This reduced-form air quality model examines what-if scenarios for changes in emissions such as traffic volume fleet mix and vehicle speed.

  10. 77 FR 14716 - Notice of Availability: Draft Documents Related to the Development of Emissions Estimating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... should be made for deliveries of boxed information. Instructions: Direct your data and information to... the EPA Science Advisory Board Staff Office titled, ``Animal Feeding Operations Air Emissions Estimating Methodologies from the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study'' asking the Science Advisory...

  11. Uncertainty in gridded CO2 emissions estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogue, Susannah; Marland, Eric; Andres, Robert J.; Marland, Gregg; Woodard, Dawn

    2016-05-01

    We are interested in the spatial distribution of fossil-fuel-related emissions of CO2 for both geochemical and geopolitical reasons, but it is important to understand the uncertainty that exists in spatially explicit emissions estimates. Working from one of the widely used gridded data sets of CO2 emissions, we examine the elements of uncertainty, focusing on gridded data for the United States at the scale of 1° latitude by 1° longitude. Uncertainty is introduced in the magnitude of total United States emissions, the magnitude and location of large point sources, the magnitude and distribution of non-point sources, and from the use of proxy data to characterize emissions. For the United States, we develop estimates of the contribution of each component of uncertainty. At 1° resolution, in most grid cells, the largest contribution to uncertainty comes from how well the distribution of the proxy (in this case population density) represents the distribution of emissions. In other grid cells, the magnitude and location of large point sources make the major contribution to uncertainty. Uncertainty in population density can be important where a large gradient in population density occurs near a grid cell boundary. Uncertainty is strongly scale-dependent with uncertainty increasing as grid size decreases. Uncertainty for our data set with 1° grid cells for the United States is typically on the order of ±150%, but this is perhaps not excessive in a data set where emissions per grid cell vary over 8 orders of magnitude.

  12. Atmospheric Sulfur Hexafluoride: Measurements and Emission Estimates from 1970 - 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigby, M. L.; Prinn, R. G.; Muhle, J.; Miller, B. R.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Krummel, P. B.; Steele, L. P.; Fraser, P. J.; Leist, M.; Weiss, R. F.; Harth, C. M.; O'Doherty, S. J.; Greally, B. R.; Simmonds, P. G.; Derek, N.; Vollmer, M. K.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Porter, L. W.

    2009-12-01

    We present an air history of atmospheric sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) from the early 1970s through 2008. During this period, concentrations of this extremely potent and long-lived greenhouse gas have increased by more than an order of magnitude, and its growth has accelerated in recent years. In this study, historical concentrations are determined from archived air samples measured on the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) ‘Medusa’ gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system. These data are combined with modern high-frequency measurements from the AGAGE and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in situ networks and ˜weekly samples from the NOAA flask network, to produce a unique time series with increasing global coverage spanning almost four decades. Using the three-dimensional chemical transport Model for Ozone and Related Tracers (MOZART v4.5) and a discrete Kalman filter, we derive estimates of the annual emission strength of SF6 on hemispheric scales from 1970 - 2004 and on continental scales from 2004 - 2008. Our emission estimates are compared to the recently compiled Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR v4), and emissions reported under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The cause of the recent growth rate increase is also investigated, indicating that the origin of the required emissions rise is likely to be South-East Asia.

  13. Estimation of air impacts for bioventing systems used at superfund sites. Air/Superfund National Technical Guidance Study Series

    SciTech Connect

    Dulaney, W.; Eklund, B.; Thompson, C.; Mischler, S.

    1993-04-01

    The report provides procedures for estimating the ambient air concentrations associated with bioventing. Bioventing is an insitu remediation process where oxygen is introduced to the contaminated subsurfaces to enhance biodegradation rates of the organic contaminants. Procedures are given to evaluate the effect of exhaust gas flow rate and contaminant concentration on the emission rates and on the ambient air concentrations at selected distances from the area. Health-based ambient air action levels are also provided for comparison to the estimated ambient concentrations.

  14. Impact of biogenic emissions on air quality over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagaris, Efthimios; Sotiropoulou, Rafaella-Eleni P.; Gounaris, Nikos; Andronopoulois, Spyros

    2013-04-01

    The impact of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions on air quality over Europe is assessed for a summer month (i.e., July, 2006) using Models-3 (i.e., CMAQ, MM5, SMOKE) modeling system. The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) v4.7 Modeling System with the Carbon Bond mechanism (CB05) is used for the regional air quality modeling. Meteorological fields are derived using the Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5). Emissions are processed by the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE v2.6) modeling system for converting the resolution of the emission inventory data to the resolution needed by the air quality model. TNO has provided a gridded anthropogenic emissions database for the year 2006 over Europe in a 0.1 × 0.1 degrees resolution. The Biogenic Emission Inventory System, version 3 (BEIS3) is used for processing biogenic source emissions. Gridded land use data in 1 km resolution provided by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the default summer and winter emission factors and meteorological fields are used to create hourly model-ready biogenic emissions estimates. Results suggest that biogenic emissions increase simulated daily maximum 8 hours ozone average (Max8hrO3) concentrations over Europe by 5.6% for July 2006. BVOC emissions increase Max8hrO3 concentrations more than 5ppbV in a big part of Europe while locally it is more than 10ppbV. Despite the general trend of reduction in PM2.5 concentrations (about -2% on average over Europe during July 2006) there are regions where PM2.5 concentrations are simulated higher due to BVOC emissions. This is related to the change in PM2.5 component concentrations: an increase in organic carbon concentration and a decrease in sulfate concentration are simulated (13.6% and -5.6% on average over Europe during July 2006, respectively) while changes in nitrate concentrations are noted regionally. This work was supported by the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) 2007-2013 grand No 09SYN-31-667.

  15. Improving ammonia emissions in air quality modelling for France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Meleux, Frédérik; Beekmann, Matthias; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Génermont, Sophie; Cellier, Pierre; Létinois, Laurent

    2014-08-01

    We have implemented a new module to improve the representation of ammonia emissions from agricultural activities in France with the objective to evaluate the impact of such emissions on the formation of particulate matter modelled with the air quality model CHIMERE. A novel method has been set up for the part of ammonia emissions originating from mineral fertilizer spreading. They are calculated using the one dimensional 1D mechanistic model “VOLT'AIR” which has been coupled with data on agricultural practices, meteorology and soil properties obtained at high spatial resolution (cantonal level). These emissions display high spatiotemporal variations depending on soil pH, rates and dates of fertilization and meteorological variables, especially soil temperature. The emissions from other agricultural sources (animal housing, manure storage and organic manure spreading) are calculated using the national spatialised inventory (INS) recently developed in France. The comparison of the total ammonia emissions estimated with the new approach VOLT'AIR_INS with the standard emissions provided by EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) used currently in the CHIMERE model shows significant differences in the spatiotemporal distributions. The implementation of new ammonia emissions in the CHIMERE model has a limited impact on ammonium nitrate aerosol concentrations which only increase at most by 10% on the average for the considered spring period but this impact can be more significant for specific pollution episodes. The comparison of modelled PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm) and ammonium nitrate aerosol with observations shows that the use of the new ammonia emission method slightly improves the spatiotemporal correlation in certain regions and reduces the negative bias on average by 1 μg m-3. The formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol depends not only on ammonia concentrations but also on nitric acid availability, which

  16. CONCEPTUAL DESIGNS FOR A NEW HIGHWAY VEHICLE EMISSIONS ESTIMATION METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses six conceptual designs for a new highway vehicle emissions estimation methodology and summarizes the recommendations of each design for improving the emissions and activity factors in the emissions estimation process. he complete design reports are included a...

  17. Estimated 2017 Refrigerant Emissions of 2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene (HFC-1234yf) in the United States Resulting from Automobile Air Conditioning

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to recent regulations and concern over climate change, the global automotive community is evaluating alternatives to the current refrigerant used in automobile air conditioning units, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, HFC-134a. One potential alternative is 2,3,3,3-tetrafluor...

  18. Nitrogen trifluoride global emissions estimated from updated atmospheric measurements

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Tim; Harth, Christina M.; Mühle, Jens; Manning, Alistair J.; Salameh, Peter K.; Kim, Jooil; Ivy, Diane J.; Steele, L. Paul; Petrenko, Vasilii V.; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.; Baggenstos, Daniel; Weiss, Ray F.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) has potential to make a growing contribution to the Earth’s radiative budget; however, our understanding of its atmospheric burden and emission rates has been limited. Based on a revision of our previous calibration and using an expanded set of atmospheric measurements together with an atmospheric model and inverse method, we estimate that the global emissions of NF3 in 2011 were 1.18 ± 0.21 Gg⋅y−1, or ∼20 Tg CO2-eq⋅y−1 (carbon dioxide equivalent emissions based on a 100-y global warming potential of 16,600 for NF3). The 2011 global mean tropospheric dry air mole fraction was 0.86 ± 0.04 parts per trillion, resulting from an average emissions growth rate of 0.09 Gg⋅y−2 over the prior decade. In terms of CO2 equivalents, current NF3 emissions represent between 17% and 36% of the emissions of other long-lived fluorinated compounds from electronics manufacture. We also estimate that the emissions benefit of using NF3 over hexafluoroethane (C2F6) in electronics manufacture is significant—emissions of between 53 and 220 Tg CO2-eq⋅y−1 were avoided during 2011. Despite these savings, total NF3 emissions, currently ∼10% of production, are still significantly larger than expected assuming global implementation of ideal industrial practices. As such, there is a continuing need for improvements in NF3 emissions reduction strategies to keep pace with its increasing use and to slow its rising contribution to anthropogenic climate forcing. PMID:23341630

  19. A multitower measurement network estimate of California's methane emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Seongeun; Hsu, Ying-Kuang; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Bianco, Laura; Vaca, Patrick; Wilczak, James M.; Fischer, Marc L.

    2013-10-01

    present an analysis of methane (CH4) emissions using atmospheric observations from five sites in California's Central Valley across different seasons (September 2010 to June 2011). CH4 emissions for spatial regions and source sectors are estimated by comparing measured CH4 mixing ratios with transport model (Weather Research and Forecasting and Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport) predictions based on two 0.1° CH4 (seasonally varying "California-specific" (California Greenhouse Gas Emission Measurements, CALGEM) and a static global (Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research, release version 42, EDGAR42)) prior emission models. Region-specific Bayesian analyses indicate that for California's Central Valley, the CALGEM- and EDGAR42-based inversions provide consistent annual total CH4 emissions (32.87 ± 2.09 versus 31.60 ± 2.17 Tg CO2eq yr-1; 68% confidence interval (CI), assuming uncorrelated errors between regions). Summing across all regions of California, optimized CH4 emissions are only marginally consistent between CALGEM- and EDGAR42-based inversions (48.35 ± 6.47 versus 64.97 ± 11.85 Tg CO2eq), because emissions from coastal urban regions (where landfill and natural gas emissions are much higher in EDGAR than CALGEM) are not strongly constrained by the measurements. Combining our results with those from a recent study of the South Coast Air Basin narrows the range of estimates to 43-57 Tg CO2eq yr-1 (1.3-1.8 times higher than the current state inventory). These results suggest that the combination of rural and urban measurements will be necessary to verify future changes in California's total CH4 emissions.

  20. A multitower measurement network estimate of California's methane emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Seongeun; Hsu, Ying-Kuang; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Bianco, Laura; Vaca, Patrick; Wilczak, James M.; Fischer, Marc L.

    2013-09-20

    In this paper, we present an analysis of methane (CH4) emissions using atmospheric observations from five sites in California's Central Valley across different seasons (September 2010 to June 2011). CH4 emissions for spatial regions and source sectors are estimated by comparing measured CH4 mixing ratios with transport model (Weather Research and Forecasting and Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport) predictions based on two 0.1° CH4 (seasonally varying “California-specific” (California Greenhouse Gas Emission Measurements, CALGEM) and a static global (Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research, release version 42, EDGAR42)) prior emission models. Region-specific Bayesian analyses indicate that for California's Central Valley, the CALGEM- and EDGAR42-based inversions provide consistent annual total CH4 emissions (32.87 ± 2.09 versus 31.60 ± 2.17 Tg CO2eq yr-1; 68% confidence interval (CI), assuming uncorrelated errors between regions). Summing across all regions of California, optimized CH4 emissions are only marginally consistent between CALGEM- and EDGAR42-based inversions (48.35 ± 6.47 versus 64.97 ± 11.85 Tg CO2eq), because emissions from coastal urban regions (where landfill and natural gas emissions are much higher in EDGAR than CALGEM) are not strongly constrained by the measurements. Combining our results with those from a recent study of the South Coast Air Basin narrows the range of estimates to 43–57 Tg CO2eq yr-1 (1.3–1.8 times higher than the current state inventory). Finally, these results suggest that the combination of rural and urban measurements will be necessary to verify future changes in California's total CH4 emissions.

  1. OFFICE EQUIPMENT: DESIGN, INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS, AND POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes available information on office equipment design; indoor air emissions of organics, ozone, and particulates from office equipment; and pollution prevention approaches for reducing these emissions. Since much of the existing emissions data from office equipme...

  2. Quantifying Uncontrolled Air Emissions from Two Florida Landfills

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill gas emissions, if left uncontrolled, contribute to air toxics, climate change, trospospheric ozone, and urban smog. Measuring emissions from landfills presents unique challenges due to the large and variable source area, spatial and temporal variability of emissions, and...

  3. Biogenic organic emissions, air quality and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, A. B.

    2015-12-01

    Living organisms produce copious amounts of a diverse array of metabolites including many volatile organic compounds that are released into the atmosphere. These compounds participate in numerous chemical reactions that influence the atmospheric abundance of important air pollutants and short-lived climate forcers including organic aerosol, ozone and methane. The production and release of these organics are strongly influenced by environmental conditions including air pollution, temperature, solar radiation, and water availability and they are highly sensitive to stress and extreme events. As a result, releases of biogenic organics to the atmosphere have an impact on, and are sensitive to, air quality and climate leading to potential feedback couplings. Their role in linking air quality and climate is conceptually clear but an accurate quantitative representation is needed for predictive models. Progress towards this goal will be presented including numerical model development and assessments of the predictive capability of the Model of Emission of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). Recent studies of processes controlling the magnitude and variations in biogenic organic emissions will be described and observations of their impact on atmospheric composition will be shown. Recent advances and priorities for future research will be discussed including laboratory process studies, long-term measurements, multi-scale regional studies, global satellite observations, and the development of a next generation model for simulating land-atmosphere chemical exchange.

  4. AIR EMISSION INVENTORIES IN NORTH AMERICA: A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although emission inventories are the foundation of air quality management and have supported substantial improvements in North American air quality, they have a number of shortcomings that can potentially lead to ineffective air quality management strategies. New technologies fo...

  5. Report: EPA’s Method for Calculating Air Toxics Emissions for Reporting Results Needs Improvement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2004-P-00012, March 31, 2004. Although the methods by which air toxics emissions are estimated have improved substantially, unvalidated assumptions and other limitations underlying the NTI continue to impact its use as a GPRA performance measure.

  6. Estimates of Embodied Global Energy and Air-Emission Intensities of Japanese Products for Building a Japanese Input–Output Life Cycle Assessment Database with a Global System Boundary

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    To build a life cycle assessment (LCA) database of Japanese products embracing their global supply chains in a manner requiring lower time and labor burdens, this study estimates the intensity of embodied global environmental burden for commodities produced in Japan. The intensity of embodied global environmental burden is a measure of the environmental burden generated globally by unit production of the commodity and can be used as life cycle inventory data in LCA. The calculation employs an input–output LCA method with a global link input–output model that defines a global system boundary grounded in a simplified multiregional input–output framework. As results, the intensities of embodied global environmental burden for 406 Japanese commodities are determined in terms of energy consumption, greenhouse-gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, perfluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, and their summation), and air-pollutant emissions (nitrogen oxide and sulfur oxide). The uncertainties in the intensities of embodied global environmental burden attributable to the simplified structure of the global link input–output model are quantified using Monte Carlo simulation. In addition, by analyzing the structure of the embodied global greenhouse-gas intensities we characterize Japanese commodities in the context of LCA embracing global supply chains. PMID:22881452

  7. Estimates of embodied global energy and air-emission intensities of Japanese products for building a Japanese input-output life cycle assessment database with a global system boundary.

    PubMed

    Nansai, Keisuke; Kondo, Yasushi; Kagawa, Shigemi; Suh, Sangwon; Nakajima, Kenichi; Inaba, Rokuta; Tohno, Susumu

    2012-08-21

    To build a life cycle assessment (LCA) database of Japanese products embracing their global supply chains in a manner requiring lower time and labor burdens, this study estimates the intensity of embodied global environmental burden for commodities produced in Japan. The intensity of embodied global environmental burden is a measure of the environmental burden generated globally by unit production of the commodity and can be used as life cycle inventory data in LCA. The calculation employs an input-output LCA method with a global link input-output model that defines a global system boundary grounded in a simplified multiregional input-output framework. As results, the intensities of embodied global environmental burden for 406 Japanese commodities are determined in terms of energy consumption, greenhouse-gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, perfluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, and their summation), and air-pollutant emissions (nitrogen oxide and sulfur oxide). The uncertainties in the intensities of embodied global environmental burden attributable to the simplified structure of the global link input-output model are quantified using Monte Carlo simulation. In addition, by analyzing the structure of the embodied global greenhouse-gas intensities we characterize Japanese commodities in the context of LCA embracing global supply chains.

  8. Uncertainty in gridded CO2 emissions estimates

    DOE PAGES

    Hogue, Susannah; Marland, Eric; Andres, Robert J.; ...

    2016-05-19

    We are interested in the spatial distribution of fossil-fuel-related emissions of CO2 for both geochemical and geopolitical reasons, but it is important to understand the uncertainty that exists in spatially explicit emissions estimates. Working from one of the widely used gridded data sets of CO2 emissions, we examine the elements of uncertainty, focusing on gridded data for the United States at the scale of 1° latitude by 1° longitude. Uncertainty is introduced in the magnitude of total United States emissions, the magnitude and location of large point sources, the magnitude and distribution of non-point sources, and from the use ofmore » proxy data to characterize emissions. For the United States, we develop estimates of the contribution of each component of uncertainty. At 1° resolution, in most grid cells, the largest contribution to uncertainty comes from how well the distribution of the proxy (in this case population density) represents the distribution of emissions. In other grid cells, the magnitude and location of large point sources make the major contribution to uncertainty. Uncertainty in population density can be important where a large gradient in population density occurs near a grid cell boundary. Uncertainty is strongly scale-dependent with uncertainty increasing as grid size decreases. In conclusion, uncertainty for our data set with 1° grid cells for the United States is typically on the order of ±150%, but this is perhaps not excessive in a data set where emissions per grid cell vary over 8 orders of magnitude.« less

  9. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction portable temporary radioactive air emission units - August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    FRITZ, D.W.

    1999-07-22

    This notice of construction (NOC) requests a categorical approval for construction and operation of three types of portable/temporary radionuclide airborne emission units (PTRAEUs). These three types are portable ventilation-filter systems (Type I), mobile sample preparation facilities (Type II), and mobile sample screening and analysis facilities (Type 111). Approval of the NOC application is intended to allow construction and operation of the three types of PTRAEUs without prior project-specific approval. Environmental cleanup efforts on the Hanford Site often require the use of PTRAEUs. The PTRAEUs support site characterization activities, expedited response actions (ERAs), sampling and monitoring activities, and other routine activities. The PTRAEUs operate at various locations around the Hanford Site. Radiation Air Emissions Program, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, requires that the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) be notified before construction of any new emission that would release airborne radioactivity. The WDOH also must receive notification before any modification of an existing source. This includes changes in the source term or replacement of emission control equipment that might significantly contribute to the offsite maximum dose from a licensed facility. During site characterization activities, ERAs, sampling and monitoring activities, and other routine activities, the PTRAEUs might require startup immediately. The notification period hampers efforts to complete such activities in an effective and timely manner. Additionally, notification is to be submitted to the WDOH when the PTRAEUs are turned off. The U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) potentially could generate several notifications monthly. The WDOH would be required to review and provide approval on each NOC as well as review the notices of discontinued sources. The WDOH regulation also allows facilities the opportunity to request a

  10. Health effects of SRS non-radiological air emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.

    1997-06-16

    This report examines the potential health effects of non radiological emissions to the air resulting from operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The scope of this study was limited to the 55 air contaminants for which the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has quantified risk by determining unit risk factors (excess cancer risks) and/or reference concentrations (deleterious non cancer risks). Potential health impacts have been assessed in relation to the maximally exposed individual. This is a hypothetical person who resides for a lifetime at the SRS boundary. The most recent (1994) quality assured SRS emissions data available were used. Estimated maximum site boundary concentrations of the air contaminants were calculated using air dispersion modeling and 24-hour and annual averaging times. For the emissions studied, the excess cancer risk was found to be less than the generally accepted risk level of 1 in 100,000 and, in most cases, was less than 1 in 1,000,000. Deleterious non cancer effects were also found to be very unlikely.

  11. Heritability estimates of methane emissions from sheep.

    PubMed

    Pinares-Patiño, C S; Hickey, S M; Young, E A; Dodds, K G; MacLean, S; Molano, G; Sandoval, E; Kjestrup, H; Harland, R; Hunt, C; Pickering, N K; McEwan, J C

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the genetic parameters of methane (CH4) emissions and their genetic correlations with key production traits. The trial measured the CH4 emissions, at 5-min intervals, from 1225 sheep placed in respiration chambers for 2 days, with repeat measurements 2 weeks later for another 2 days. They were fed in the chambers, based on live weight, a pelleted lucerne ration at 2.0 times estimated maintenance requirements. Methane outputs were calculated for g CH4/day and g CH4/kg dry matter intake (DMI) for each of the 4 days. Single trait models were used to obtain estimates of heritability and repeatability. Heritability of g CH4/day was 0.29 ± 0.05, and for g CH4/kg DMI 0.13 ± 0.03. Repeatability between measurements 14 days apart were 0.55 ± 0.02 and 0.26 ± 0.02, for the two traits. The genetic and phenotypic correlations of CH4 outputs with various production traits (weaning weight, live weight at 8 months of age, dag score, muscle depth and fleece weight at 12 months of age) measured in the first year of life, were estimated using bivariate models. With the exception of fleece weight, correlations were weak and not significantly different from zero for the g CH4/kg DMI trait. For fleece weight the phenotypic and genetic correlation estimates were -0.08 ± 0.03 and -0.32 ± 0.11 suggesting a low economically favourable relationship. These results indicate that there is genetic variation between animals for CH4 emission traits even after adjustment for feed intake and that these traits are repeatable. Current work includes the establishment of selection lines from these animals to investigate the physiological, microbial and anatomical changes, coupled with investigations into shorter and alternative CH4 emission measurement and breeding value estimation techniques; including genomic selection.

  12. Hydrogen/Air Fuel Nozzle Emissions Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Timothy D.

    2001-01-01

    The use of hydrogen combustion for aircraft gas turbine engines provides significant opportunities to reduce harmful exhaust emissions. Hydrogen has many advantages (no CO2 production, high reaction rates, high heating value, and future availability), along with some disadvantages (high current cost of production and storage, high volume per BTU, and an unknown safety profile when in wide use). One of the primary reasons for switching to hydrogen is the elimination of CO2 emissions. Also, with hydrogen, design challenges such as fuel coking in the fuel nozzle and particulate emissions are no longer an issue. However, because it takes place at high temperatures, hydrogen-air combustion can still produce significant levels of NOx emissions. Much of the current research into conventional hydrocarbon-fueled aircraft gas turbine combustors is focused on NOx reduction methods. The Zero CO2 Emission Technology (ZCET) hydrogen combustion project will focus on meeting the Office of Aerospace Technology goal 2 within pillar one for Global Civil Aviation reducing the emissions of future aircraft by a factor of 3 within 10 years and by a factor of 5 within 25 years. Recent advances in hydrocarbon-based gas turbine combustion components have expanded the horizons for fuel nozzle development. Both new fluid designs and manufacturing technologies have led to the development of fuel nozzles that significantly reduce aircraft emissions. The goal of the ZCET program is to mesh the current technology of Lean Direct Injection and rocket injectors to provide quick mixing, low emissions, and high-performance fuel nozzle designs. An experimental program is planned to investigate the fuel nozzle concepts in a flametube test rig. Currently, a hydrogen system is being installed in cell 23 at NASA Glenn Research Center's Research Combustion Laboratory. Testing will be conducted on a variety of fuel nozzle concepts up to combustion pressures of 350 psia and inlet air temperatures of 1200 F

  13. EMISSIONS OF ORGANIC AIR TOXICS FROM OPEN ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A detailed literature search was performed to collect and collate available data reporting emissions of toxic organic substances into the air from open burning sources. Availability of data varied according to the source and the class of air toxics of interest. Volatile organic compound (VOC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) data were available for many of the sources. Data on semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) that are not PAHs were available for several sources. Carbonyl and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) data were available for only a few sources. There were several sources for which no emissions data were available at all. Several observations were made including: 1) Biomass open burning sources typically emitted less VOCs than open burning sources with anthropogenic fuels on a mass emitted per mass burned basis, particularly those where polymers were concerned; 2) Biomass open burning sources typically emitted less SVOCs and PAHs than anthropogenic sources on a mass emitted per mass burned basis. Burning pools of crude oil and diesel fuel produced significant amounts of PAHs relative to other types of open burning. PAH emissions were highest when combustion of polymers was taking place; and 3) Based on very limited data, biomass open burning sources typically produced higher levels of carbonyls than anthropogenic sources on a mass emitted per mass burned basis, probably due to oxygenated structures r

  14. High-global warming potential F-gas emissions in California: comparison of ambient-based versus inventory-based emission estimates, and implications of refined estimates.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Glenn; Zhan, Tao; Hsu, Ying-Kuang; Gupta, Pamela; Pederson, James; Croes, Bart; Blake, Donald R; Barletta, Barbara; Meinardi, Simone; Ashford, Paul; Vetter, Arnie; Saba, Sabine; Slim, Rayan; Palandre, Lionel; Clodic, Denis; Mathis, Pamela; Wagner, Mark; Forgie, Julia; Dwyer, Harry; Wolf, Katy

    2014-01-21

    To provide information for greenhouse gas reduction policies, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) inventories annual emissions of high-global-warming potential (GWP) fluorinated gases, the fastest growing sector of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally. Baseline 2008 F-gas emissions estimates for selected chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-12), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC-22), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFC-134a) made with an inventory-based methodology were compared to emissions estimates made by ambient-based measurements. Significant discrepancies were found, with the inventory-based emissions methodology resulting in a systematic 42% under-estimation of CFC-12 emissions from older refrigeration equipment and older vehicles, and a systematic 114% overestimation of emissions for HFC-134a, a refrigerant substitute for phased-out CFCs. Initial, inventory-based estimates for all F-gas emissions had assumed that equipment is no longer in service once it reaches its average lifetime of use. Revised emission estimates using improved models for equipment age at end-of-life, inventories, and leak rates specific to California resulted in F-gas emissions estimates in closer agreement to ambient-based measurements. The discrepancies between inventory-based estimates and ambient-based measurements were reduced from -42% to -6% for CFC-12, and from +114% to +9% for HFC-134a.

  15. Air quality assessment and control of emission rates.

    PubMed

    Skiba, Yuri N; Parra-Guevara, David; Belitskaya, Davydova Valentina

    2005-12-01

    Mathematical methods based on the adjoint model approach are given for the air-pollution estimation and control in an urban region. A simple advection-diffusion-reaction model and its adjoint are used to illustrate the application of the methods. Dual pollution concentration estimates in ecologically important zones are derived and used to develop two non-optimal strategies and one optimal strategy for controlling the emission rates of enterprises. A linear convex combination of these strategies represents a new sufficient strategy. A method for detecting the enterprises, which violate the emission rates prescribed by a control, is given. A method for determining an optimal position for a new enterprise in the region is also described.

  16. Fast emission estimates in China and South Africa constrained by satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijling, Bas; van der A, Ronald

    2013-04-01

    Emission inventories of air pollutants are crucial information for policy makers and form important input data for air quality models. Unfortunately, bottom-up emission inventories, compiled from large quantities of statistical data, are easily outdated for emerging economies such as China and South Africa, where rapid economic growth change emissions accordingly. Alternatively, top-down emission estimates from satellite observations of air constituents have important advantages of being spatial consistent, having high temporal resolution, and enabling emission updates shortly after the satellite data become available. However, constraining emissions from observations of concentrations is computationally challenging. Within the GlobEmission project (part of the Data User Element programme of ESA) a new algorithm has been developed, specifically designed for fast daily emission estimates of short-lived atmospheric species on a mesoscopic scale (0.25 × 0.25 degree) from satellite observations of column concentrations. The algorithm needs only one forward model run from a chemical transport model to calculate the sensitivity of concentration to emission, using trajectory analysis to account for transport away from the source. By using a Kalman filter in the inverse step, optimal use of the a priori knowledge and the newly observed data is made. We apply the algorithm for NOx emission estimates in East China and South Africa, using the CHIMERE chemical transport model together with tropospheric NO2 column retrievals of the OMI and GOME-2 satellite instruments. The observations are used to construct a monthly emission time series, which reveal important emission trends such as the emission reduction measures during the Beijing Olympic Games, and the impact and recovery from the global economic crisis. The algorithm is also able to detect emerging sources (e.g. new power plants) and improve emission information for areas where proxy data are not or badly known (e

  17. Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea

    2013-05-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are produced, handled, store d, and potentially emitted . These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989a). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2012, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]) . These minor sources include d about 140 stack sources and no diffuse sources . T here were no unplanned airborne radionuclide emissions from Berkeley Lab operations . Emissions from minor sources were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building- specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA -approved computer code s, CAP88-PC and COMPLY , to calculate doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) at any offsite point where there is a residence, school, business, or office. Because radionuclides are used at three noncontiguous locations (the main site, Berkeley West Bio center, and Joint BioEnergy Institute), three different MEIs were identified.

  18. Effects of future anthropogenic pollution emissions on global air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzer, A.; Zimmermann, P.; Doering, U.; van Aardenne, J.; Dentener, F.; Lelieveld, J.

    2012-04-01

    The atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC is used to estimate the impact of anthropogenic emission changes on global and regional air quality in recent and future years (2005, 2010, 2025 and 2050). The emission scenario assumes that population and economic growth largely determine energy consumption and consequent pollution sources ("business as usual"). By comparing with recent observations, it is shown that the model reproduces the main features of regional air pollution distributions though with some imprecision inherent to the coarse horizontal resolution (around 100 km). To identify possible future hot spots of poor air quality, a multi pollutant index (MPI) has been applied. It appears that East and South Asia and the Arabian Gulf regions represent such hotspots due to very high pollutant concentrations. In East Asia a range of pollutant gases and particulate matter (PM2.5) are projected to reach very high levels from 2005 onward, while in South Asia air pollution, including ozone, will grow rapidly towards the middle of the century. Around the Arabian Gulf, where natural PM2.5 concentrations are already high (desert dust), ozone levels will increase strongly. By extending the MPI definition, we calculated a Per Capita MPI (PCMPI) in which we combined population projections with those of pollution emissions. It thus appears that a rapidly increasing number of people worldwide will experience reduced air quality during the first half of the 21st century. It is projected that air quality for the global average citizen in 2050 will be comparable to the average in East Asia in the year 2005.

  19. Aromatic compound emissions from municipal solid waste landfill: Emission factors and their impact on air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanjun; Lu, Wenjing; Guo, Hanwen; Ming, Zhongyuan; Wang, Chi; Xu, Sai; Liu, Yanting; Wang, Hongtao

    2016-08-01

    Aromatic compounds (ACs) are major components of volatile organic compounds emitted from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The ACs emissions from the working face of a landfill in Beijing were studied from 2014 to 2015 using a modified wind tunnel system. Emission factors (EFs) of fugitive ACs emissions from the working face of the landfill were proposed according to statistical analyses to cope with their uncertainty. And their impacts on air quality were assessed for the first time. Toluene was the dominant AC with an average emission rate of 38.8 ± 43.0 μg m-2 s-1 (at a sweeping velocity of 0.26 m s-1). An increasing trend in AC emission rates was observed from 12:00 to 18:00 and then peaked at 21:00 (314.3 μg m-2 s-1). The probability density functions (PDFs) of AC emission rates could be classified into three distributions: Gaussian, log-normal, and logistic. EFs of ACs from the working face of the landfill were proposed according to the 95th percentile cumulative emission rates and the wind effects on ACs emissions. The annual ozone formation and secondary organic aerosol formation potential caused by AC emissions from landfills in Beijing were estimated to be 8.86 × 105 kg year-1 and 3.46 × 104 kg year-1, respectively. Toluene, m + p-xylene, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were the most significant contributors to air pollution. Although ACs pollutions from landfills accounts for less percentage (∼0.1%) compared with other anthropogenic sources, their fugitive emissions which cannot be controlled efficiently deserve more attention and further investigation.

  20. Inventory of pesticide emissions into the air in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarigiannis, D. A.; Kontoroupis, P.; Solomou, E. S.; Nikolaki, S.; Karabelas, A. J.

    2013-08-01

    Creation of a reliable and comprehensive emission inventory of the pesticides used in Europe is a key step towards quantitatively assessing the link between actual pesticide exposure and adverse health effects. An inventory of pesticide emissions was generated at a 1 × 1 km grid, for the year 2000. The emission model comprises three components: estimates of active substance (AS) wind drift taking into account crop type, volatilization during pesticide application and volatilization from the crop canopy. Results show that atmospheric emission of pesticides varies significantly across Europe. Different pesticide families are emitted from different parts of Europe as a function of the main crop(s) cultivated, agro-climatic conditions and production intensity. The pesticide emission inventory methodology developed herein is a valuable tool for assessing air quality in rural and peri-urban Europe, furnishing the necessary input for atmospheric modelling at different scales. Its estimates have been tested using global sensitivity and Monte Carlo analysis for uncertainty assessment and they have been validated against national and local surveys in four European countries; the results demonstrate the robustness and reliability of the inventory. The latter may therefore be readily used for exposure and health risk assessment studies targeting farmers, applicators, but also bystanders and the general population in Europe.

  1. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  2. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  3. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  4. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  5. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  6. Estimating methane emissions from dairies in the Los Angeles Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viatte, C.; Lauvaux, T.; Hedelius, J.; Parker, H. A.; Chen, J.; Jones, T.; Franklin, J.; Deng, A.; Gaudet, B.; Duren, R. M.; Verhulst, K. R.; Wunch, D.; Roehl, C. M.; Dubey, M. K.; Wofsy, S.; Wennberg, P. O.

    2015-12-01

    Inventory estimates of methane (CH4) emissions among the individual sources (mainly agriculture, energy production, and waste management) remain highly uncertain at regional and urban scales. Accurate atmospheric measurements can provide independent estimates to evaluate bottom-up inventories, especially in urban region, where many different CH4 sources are often confined in relatively small areas. Among these sources, livestock emissions, which are mainly originating from dairy cows, account for ~55% of the total CH4 emissions in California in 2013. This study aims to rigorously estimate the amount of CH4 emitted by the largest dairies in the Southern California region by combining measurements from four mobile ground-based spectrometers (EM27/SUN), in situ isotopic methane measurements from a CRDS analyzer (Picarro), and a high-resolution atmospheric transport model (the Weather Research and Forecasting model) in Large-Eddy Simulation mode. The remote sensing spectrometers measure the total column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CH4 and CO2 (XCH4 and XCO2) in the near infrared region, providing information about total emissions of the dairies. Gradients measured by the four EM27 ranged from 0.2 to 22 ppb and from 0.7 to 3 ppm for XCH4 and XCO2, respectively. To assess the fluxes of the dairies, measurements of these gradients are used in conjunction with the local atmospheric dynamics simulated at 111 m resolution. Inverse modelling from WRF-LES is employed to resolve the spatial distribution of CH4 emissions in the domain. A Bayesian inversion and a Monte-Carlo approach were used to provide the CH4 emissions over the dairy with their associated uncertainties. The isotopic δ13C sampled at different locations in the area ranges from -40 ‰ to -55 ‰, indicating a mixture of anthropogenic and biogenic sources.

  7. An integrated modelling approach to estimate urban traffic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Aarshabh; Roorda, Matthew J.; MacLean, Heather L.

    2013-07-01

    An integrated modelling approach is adopted to estimate microscale urban traffic emissions. The modelling framework consists of a traffic microsimulation model developed in PARAMICS, a microscopic emissions model (Comprehensive Modal Emissions Model), and two dispersion models, AERMOD and the Quick Urban and Industrial Complex (QUIC). This framework is applied to a traffic network in downtown Toronto, Canada to evaluate summer time morning peak traffic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) during five weekdays at a traffic intersection. The model predicted results are validated against sensor observations with 100% of the AERMOD modelled CO concentrations and 97.5% of the QUIC modelled NOx concentrations within a factor of two of the corresponding observed concentrations. Availability of local estimates of ambient concentration is useful for accurate comparisons of predicted concentrations with observed concentrations. Predicted and sensor measured concentrations are significantly lower than the hourly threshold Maximum Acceptable Levels for CO (31 ppm, ˜90 times lower) and NO2 (0.4 mg/m3, ˜12 times lower), within the National Ambient Air Quality Objectives established by Environment Canada.

  8. Clean Air Markets - Part 75 Emissions Monitoring Policy Manual

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about monitoring mass sulfur dioxide and mass carbon dioxide emissions, nitrogen oxide emission rate, and heat input by units affected by the Acid Rain Program and the Clean Air Interstate Rule.

  9. PRELIMINARY PERFORMANCE AND COST ESTIMATES OF MERCURY EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory


    The paper discusses preliminary performance and cost estimates of mercury emission control options for electric utility boilers. Under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, EPA had to determine whether mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants should be regulated. To a...

  10. INVERSE MODELING TO ESTIMATE NH3 EMISSION SEASONALLY AND THE SENSITIVITY TO UNCERTAINTY REPRESENTATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inverse modeling has been used extensively on the global scale to produce top-down estimates of emissions for chemicals such as CO and CH4. Regional scale air quality studies could also benefit from inverse modeling as a tool to evaluate current emission inventories; however, ...

  11. Secondary Aluminum Production: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for new and existing sources at secondary aluminum production facilities. Includes rule history, summary, federal register citations and implementation information.

  12. Potential Air Emission Impacts of Cellulosic Ethanol Production at Seven Demonstration Refineries in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reports on the estimated potential air emissions as found in air permits and supporting documentation for seven of the first group of pre-commercial or Ademonstration@ U.S. cellulosic ethanol refineries currently operating or planning to operate in the near future. Th...

  13. Estimation of ambient BVOC emissions using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichol, Janet; Wong, Man Sing

    2011-06-01

    The contribution of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) to local air quality modelling is often ignored due to the difficulty of obtaining accurate spatial estimates of emissions. Yet their role in the formation of secondary aerosols and photochemical smog is thought to be significant, especially in hot tropical cities such as Hong Kong, which are situated downwind from dense forests. This paper evaluates Guenther et al.'s [Guenther, A., Hewitt, C.N., Erickson, D., Fall, R., Geron, C., Graedel, T.E., Harley, P., Klinger, L., Lerdau, M., McKay, W.A., Pierce, T., Scholes, B., Steinbrecher, R., Tallamraju, R., Taylor, J., Zimmerman, P., 1995. A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions. Journal of Geophysical Research 100, 8873-8892] global model of BVOC emissions, for application at a spatially detailed level to Hong Kong's tropical forested landscape using high resolution remote sensing and ground data. The emission estimates are based on a landscape approach which assigns emission rates directly to ecosystem types not to individual species, since unlike in temperate regions where one or two single species may dominate over large regions, Hong Kong's vegetation is extremely diverse with up to 300 different species in one hectare. The resulting BVOC emission maps are suitable for direct input to regional and local air quality models giving 10 m raster output on an hourly basis over the whole of the Hong Kong territory, an area of 1100 km 2. Due to the spatially detailed mapping of isoprene emissions over the study area, it was possible to validate the model output using field data collected at a precise time and place by replicating those conditions in the model. The field measurement of emissions used for validating the model was based on a canister sampling technique, undertaken under different climatic conditions for Hong Kong's main ecosystem types in both urban and rural areas. The model-derived BVOC flux distributions appeared to be

  14. Air emissions at a municipal solid waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Capenter, J.E.; Bidwell, J.N.

    1996-09-01

    The on-site and off-site ambient air concentrations of non-methane organic compounds (NMOC) and hydrogen sulfide were evaluated at a regional municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. A target list was developed to reflect those compounds typically found at MSW landfills that have potential health effects or odors. The on-site effects on ambient air were estimated conservatively by collecting air samples 10 to 13 cm above the landfill surface. The off-site impacts were predicted using air dispersion modeling that considered both fugitive and point source emissions and were based on landfill gas sampled from an active well collection system. The on-site and off-site ambient air concentrations were compared to levels set by regulatory requirements (Connecticut`s Hazard Limiting Values or HLVs) and odor threshold levels. No compound exceeded the HLVs either on- or off-site. No compounds detected on-site exceeded their odor thresholds. Several compounds evaluated at one-half their detection limit did exceed the odor threshold on-site. Only hydrogen sulfide exceeded its odor threshold off-site but remained below Connecticut`s Odor Limit Value.

  15. SPERCS-A tool for environmental emission estimation.

    PubMed

    Reihlen, Antonia; Bahr, Tobias; Bögi, Christian; Dobe, Christopher; May, Thomas; Verdonck, Frederik; Wind, Thorsten; Zullo, Lorenzo; Tolls, Johannes

    2016-10-01

    The European Union (EU) chemicals regulation Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) requires a hazardous substance registration to identify the uses of a substance and the corresponding conditions of safe use. This requirement includes a human and an environmental safety assessment. Exposure scenarios are developed and employed for estimating emissions resulting from the uses of hazardous substances. To support the environmental assessments, the REACH guidance documents define 22 environmental release categories (ERCs) with conservative release factors (RFs) to water, air, and soil. Several industry associations target the ERCs to more specific uses and respective emission scenarios to enable more realistic emission estimations. They have developed more than 190 specific ERCs (SPERCs) as standardized descriptions of operational conditions (OCs) and risk management measures (RMMs). SPERCs reflect the current good practice and are documented in factsheets. These factsheets contain the information necessary for environmental emission modeling. Key parameters are the substance use rate, the efficiency of the risk management measures (if applicable), and the RFs. These parameters can be based on literature or measured company data or are justified by qualitative arguments. The majority of SPERCs have been implemented as realistic worst-case emission values in screening-level chemical safety assessment (CSA) tools. Three regulatory reviews in Europe have established requirements for documenting the SPERCs and for justifying the RFs. In addition, each of the reviews included recommendations for improving the SPERCs. The latest review proposed a condensed factsheet that focuses on the essentials for exposure assessment and subsequent communication in safety data sheets. It is complemented with a background document for providing details on the emission scenarios and justifications. In the EU the SPERCs will be further progressed in a

  16. 77 FR 1267 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... Group IV Polymers and Resins MACT standards, the typical control devices used to reduce organic HAP... Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient Production; and... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide...

  17. Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-04-01

    Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary

  18. Megacity and country emissions from combustion sources-Buenos Aires-Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawidowski, L.; Gomez, D.; Matranga, M.; D'Angiola, A.; Oreggioni, G.

    2010-12-01

    Historic time series (1970-2006) emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants arising from stationary and mobile combustion sources were estimated at national level for Argentina and at regional level for the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires (MABA). All emissions were estimated using a bottom-up approach following the IPCC good practice guidance. For mobile sources, national emissions include all transport categories. Regional emissions account thus far only for on-road. For national emissions, methodologies and guidance by the IPCC were employed, applying the highest possible tier and using: i)country-specific emission factors for carbon and sulphur and technology-based information for other species, ii)activity data from energy balance series (1970-2007), and iii)complementary information concerning the non-energy use of fuels. Regional emissions in 2006 were estimated in-depth using a technology-based approach for the city of Buenos Aires (CBA) and the 24 neighboring districts composing the MABA. A regional emissions factors database was developed to better characterize Latin American fleets and driving conditions employing COPERT III-IV algorithms and emission factors measured in dynamometers and circulating vehicles in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Colombia. Past emissions were back estimated from 2005 to 1970 using the best available information, which differs greatly among categories, spatial disaggregation and time periods. The time series of stationary and mobile combustion sources at the national and regional level allowed the identification of distinct patterns. National greenhouse gas emissions in 2006 amounted to ~ 150 million ton CO2-equivalent, 70% of which were contributed by stationary sources. On-road transport was the major contributor within mobile sources (28.1 %). The increasing emissions trends are dominated by on-road transport, agriculture and residential categories while the variability is largely associated with energy industries

  19. 40 CFR 265.231 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.231 Section 265.231 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 265.231 Air emission standards. The owner or operator...

  20. 40 CFR 265.202 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.202 Section 265.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 265.202 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage...

  1. 40 CFR 264.200 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.200 Section 264.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Tank Systems § 264.200 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage all hazardous...

  2. 40 CFR 264.179 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.179 Section 264.179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Use and Management of Containers § 264.179 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall...

  3. 40 CFR 265.202 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.202 Section 265.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 265.202 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage...

  4. 40 CFR 265.178 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.178 Section 265.178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 265.178 Air emission standards. The owner...

  5. 40 CFR 264.200 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.200 Section 264.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Tank Systems § 264.200 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage all hazardous...

  6. 40 CFR 265.178 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.178 Section 265.178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 265.178 Air emission standards. The owner...

  7. 40 CFR 264.232 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.232 Section 264.232 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Surface Impoundments § 264.232 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage all...

  8. 40 CFR 264.179 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.179 Section 264.179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Use and Management of Containers § 264.179 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall...

  9. 40 CFR 265.231 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.231 Section 265.231 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 265.231 Air emission standards. The owner or operator...

  10. 40 CFR 264.232 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.232 Section 264.232 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Surface Impoundments § 264.232 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage all...

  11. 40 CFR 264.200 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.200 Section 264.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Tank Systems § 264.200 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage all hazardous...

  12. 40 CFR 264.232 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.232 Section 264.232 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Surface Impoundments § 264.232 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage all...

  13. 40 CFR 265.202 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.202 Section 265.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 265.202 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage...

  14. 40 CFR 265.178 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.178 Section 265.178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 265.178 Air emission standards. The owner...

  15. 40 CFR 264.179 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.179 Section 264.179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Use and Management of Containers § 264.179 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall...

  16. 40 CFR 265.231 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.231 Section 265.231 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 265.231 Air emission standards. The owner or operator...

  17. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1992 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Stirrup, T.S.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the 1992 Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Originally, this report was in response to the Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Agreement in 1989 between the State of Idaho and the Department of Energy Idaho Field Office, and a request from the Idaho Air Quality Bureau. The current purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to provide the basis for the preparation of the INEL Permit-to-Operate (PTO) an Air Emission Source Application, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. This report includes emissions calculations from 1989 to 1992. The Air Emission Inventory System, an ORACLE-based database system, maintains the emissions inventory.

  18. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2006-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation’s site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides that are resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds, dust-devils) along with historically-contaminated soils on the NTS. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (40 Code of Federal Regulations 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent (EDE) to any member of the public. This is the dose limit established for someone living off of the NTS for inhaling radioactive particles that may be carried by wind off of the NTS. This limit assumes that members of the public surrounding the NTS may also inhale “background levels” or radioactive particles unrelated to NTS activities that come from naturally-occurring elements in the environment (e.g., radon gas from the earth or natural building materials) or from other man-made sources (e.g., cigarette smoke). The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires DOE facilities (e.g., the NTS) to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP dose limit by annually estimating the dose to a hypothetical member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI), or the member of the public who resides within an 80-kilometer (50-mile

  19. Top-down methane emissions estimates for the San Francisco Bay Area from 1990 to 2012

    DOE PAGES

    Fairley, David; Fischer, Marc L.

    2015-01-30

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) that is now included in both California State and San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) bottom-up emission inventories as part of California's effort to reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions. Here we provide a top-down estimate of methane (CH4) emissions from the SFBA by combining atmospheric measurements with the comparatively better estimated emission inventory for carbon monoxide (CO). Local enhancements of CH4 and CO are estimated using measurements from 14 air quality sites in the SFBA combined together with global background measurements. Mean annual CH4 emissions are estimated from the product of Bay Area Air Qualitymore » Management District (BAAQMD) emission inventory CO and the slope of ambient local CH4 to CO. The resulting top-down estimates of CH4 emissions are found to decrease slightly from 1990 to 2012, with a mean value of 240 ± 60 GgCH4 yr⁻¹ (at 95% confidence) in the most recent (2009–2012) period, and correspond to reasonably a constant factor of 1.5–2.0 (at 95% confidence) times larger than the BAAQMD CH4 emission inventory. However, we note that uncertainty in these emission estimates is dominated by the variation in CH4:CO enhancement ratios across the observing sites and we expect the estimates could represent a lower-limit on CH4 emissions because BAAQMD monitoring sites focus on urban air quality and may be biased toward CO rather than CH4 sources.« less

  20. Top-down methane emissions estimates for the San Francisco Bay Area from 1990 to 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Fairley, David; Fischer, Marc L.

    2015-01-30

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) that is now included in both California State and San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) bottom-up emission inventories as part of California's effort to reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions. Here we provide a top-down estimate of methane (CH4) emissions from the SFBA by combining atmospheric measurements with the comparatively better estimated emission inventory for carbon monoxide (CO). Local enhancements of CH4 and CO are estimated using measurements from 14 air quality sites in the SFBA combined together with global background measurements. Mean annual CH4 emissions are estimated from the product of Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD) emission inventory CO and the slope of ambient local CH4 to CO. The resulting top-down estimates of CH4 emissions are found to decrease slightly from 1990 to 2012, with a mean value of 240 ± 60 GgCH4 yr⁻¹ (at 95% confidence) in the most recent (2009–2012) period, and correspond to reasonably a constant factor of 1.5–2.0 (at 95% confidence) times larger than the BAAQMD CH4 emission inventory. However, we note that uncertainty in these emission estimates is dominated by the variation in CH4:CO enhancement ratios across the observing sites and we expect the estimates could represent a lower-limit on CH4 emissions because BAAQMD monitoring sites focus on urban air quality and may be biased toward CO rather than CH4 sources.

  1. 76 FR 22565 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins; Marine Tank Vessel Loading Operations... Polymers and Resins; Marine Tank Vessel Loading Operations; Pharmaceuticals Production; and the Printing... NESHAP include: National Emissions Standards for Group I Polymers and Resins (Butyl Rubber...

  2. 77 FR 16508 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ...: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient Production; and Polyether Polyols Production... pollutants: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient Production; and Polyether Polyols...

  3. How Uncertain Are Estimates of CO2 Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Marland, Gregg; Hamal, Khrystyna; Jonas, Matthias

    2009-02-01

    Can satellite or other remotely sensed data provide independent estimates - or even confirmation of existing estimates - for emissions from power plants, highways, projects, cities, countries, or groups of countries? The answer for now is no; estimates of emissions from fossil fuels are actually one of the best constrained pieces of data in analyzing the global carbon cycle.

  4. An intercomparison of biogenic emissions estimates from BEIS2 and BIOME: Reconciling the differences

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, J.G.; Emigh, R.A.; Pierce, T.E.

    1996-12-31

    Biogenic emissions play a critical role in urban and regional air quality. For instance, biogenic emissions contribute upwards of 76% of the daily hydrocarbon emissions in the Atlanta, Georgia airshed. The Biogenic Emissions Inventory System-Version 2.0 (BEIS2) and the Biogenic Model for Emissions (BIOME) are two models that compute biogenic emissions estimates. BEIS2 is a FORTRAN-based system, and BIOME is an ARC/INFO{reg_sign} - and SAS{reg_sign}-based system. Although the technical formulations of the models are similar, the models produce different biogenic emissions estimates for what appear to be essentially the same inputs. The goals of our study are the following: (1) Determine why BIOME and BEIS2 produce different emissions estimates; (2) Attempt to understand the impacts that the differences have on the emissions estimates; (3) Reconcile the differences where possible; and (4) Present a framework for the use of BEIS2 and BIOME. In this study, we used the Coastal Oxidant Assessment for Southeast Texas (COAST) biogenics data which were supplied to us courtesy of the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC), and we extracted the BEIS2 data for the same domain. We compared the emissions estimates of the two models using their respective data sets BIOME Using TNRCC data and BEIS2 using BEIS2 data.

  5. SEASONAL NH3 EMISSION ESTIMATES FOR THE EASTERN UNITED STATES BASED ON AMMONIUM WET CONCENTRATIONS AND AN INVERSE MODELING METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant uncertainty exists in the magnitude and variability of ammonia (NH3) emissions. NH3 emissions are needed as input for air quality modeling of aerosols and deposition of nitrogen compounds. Approximately 85% of NH3 emissions are estimated to come from agricultural ...

  6. INTEGRATION OF THE BIOGENIC EMISSIONS INVENTORY SYSTEM (BEIS3) INTO THE COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY MODELING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The importance of biogenic emissions for regional air quality modeling is generally recognized [Guenther et al., 2000]. Since the 1980s, biogenic emission estimates have been derived from algorithms such as the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS) [Pierce et. al., 1998]....

  7. Applications of Satellite Remote Sensing Data for Biogenic Emission Estimates in Southeastern Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, M. S.; Howard, T.; Mullins, G.; McDonald-Buller, E.; Allen, D. T.

    2007-12-01

    Biogenic hydrocarbons, including isoprene, monoterpenes, and oxygenated compounds, are emitted in substantial quantities by vegetation and dominate the overall volatile organic compound emission inventory in Southeastern Texas. Spatial distributions of biogenic emissions in Texas are heterogeneous, and biogenic emission processes are affected by the characterization of land cover, leaf area index, drought stress, and surface temperatures. On a regional scale, biogenic emissions, particularly isoprene, in the presence of high levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx), will produce elevated ground-level ozone concentrations. The sensitivity of biogenic emission estimates and air quality model predictions to the characterization of land use/land cover (LULC) in southeastern Texas is examined. A LULC database has been developed for the region based on source imagery collected by the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper-Plus sensor between 1999 and 2003, and data from field studies used for species identification and quantification of biomass densities. This database and the LULC database currently used in regulatory air quality models by the State of Texas are compared. Effects of the LULC data on biogenic emission estimates and modeled ozone concentrations are examined using the Global Biosphere Emissions and Interactions System and the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions during an August 22-September 6, 2000 episode developed for the Houston/Galveston area. These results are also compared to biogenic emission estimates from the recently created Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), which includes a global vegetation map compiled from recent satellite data and ecosystem inventories. Biogenic emissions estimated from the new LULC dataset showed good general spatial agreement with those from the currently used LULC dataset but significantly lower emissions (~40% less hourly emissions across the modeling domain), primarily due to differences in

  8. Assessment on motor vehicle emissions and air quality in Beijing

    SciTech Connect

    Lixin Fu; Jiming Hao; Kebin He; Dongquan He

    1996-12-31

    It is occasionally reported that hourly ozone concentrations exceed the National Air Quality Standard (NAQS) of China in recent years in Beijing, which indicates that motor vehicle emissions are more and more important to the total air quality in urban area of Beijing. A deep investigation was carried out to collect the information on road status, vehicle number and types, fuel consumption, traffic condition, and vehicle management in Beijing, so that the real world emission factors (CO, HC, NO{sub x}) could be calculated by MOBILE5a model. The calculated results were comparable with limited testing data from other former researches. With a detailed survey on emissions from other sources such as oil refueling, plants HC emission, and other stationary sources, the emission inventory are established and further projected for the future years, thus the emission contribution rates are obtained for motor vehicle emissions. The results are given for different seasons and different areas in Beijing.

  9. Comparison of air emissions from waste management facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Licata, A.; Minott, D.H.

    1996-09-01

    Landfilling remains the predominate disposal method for managing municipal solid waste (MSW) in the US. According to the US EPA, in 1993 landfilling accounted for 62% of the management alternative for disposing of MSW while recycling and combustion account for 22% and 15% respectively. Recent actions such as limits on flow control and EPA`s proposed Most Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rules for Municipal Waste Combustors (MWCs) most likely will increase the amount of MSW that will be landfilled. The air emissions from landfill operations have in general been ignored and unregulated. This paper will make a comparison of air emissions from a landfill (Fresh Kills Landfill in NYC) and a modern MSW. The paper will present the emissions from landfill operations including uncontrolled emissions, residual and secondary emissions from gas control systems, and emissions from diesel equipment at the landfill. The MWC emissions will include boiler pollutants and a comparison to fossil-fuel fired power plants.

  10. Global and regional emissions estimates for N2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikawa, E.; Prinn, R. G.; Dlugokencky, E.; Ishijima, K.; Dutton, G. S.; Hall, B. D.; Langenfelds, R.; Tohjima, Y.; Machida, T.; Manizza, M.; Rigby, M.; O'Doherty, S.; Patra, P. K.; Harth, C. M.; Weiss, R. F.; Krummel, P. B.; van der Schoot, M.; Fraser, P. J.; Steele, L. P.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Elkins, J. W.

    2014-05-01

    We present a comprehensive estimate of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions using observations and models from 1995 to 2008. High-frequency records of tropospheric N2O are available from measurements at Cape Grim, Tasmania; Cape Matatula, American Samoa; Ragged Point, Barbados; Mace Head, Ireland; and at Trinidad Head, California using the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) instrumentation and calibrations. The Global Monitoring Division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA/ESRL) has also collected discrete air samples in flasks and in situ measurements from remote sites across the globe and analyzed them for a suite of species including N2O. In addition to these major networks, we include in situ and aircraft measurements from the National Institute of Environmental Studies (NIES) and flask measurements from the Tohoku University and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) networks. All measurements show increasing atmospheric mole fractions of N2O, with a varying growth rate of 0.1-0.7% per year, resulting in a 7.4% increase in the background atmospheric mole fraction between 1979 and 2011. Using existing emission inventories as well as bottom-up process modeling results, we first create globally gridded a priori N2O emissions over the 37 years since 1975. We then use the three-dimensional chemical transport model, Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers version 4 (MOZART v4), and a Bayesian inverse method to estimate global as well as regional annual emissions for five source sectors from 13 regions in the world. This is the first time that all of these measurements from multiple networks have been combined to determine emissions. Our inversion indicates that global and regional N2O emissions have an increasing trend between 1995 and 2008. Despite large uncertainties, a significant increase is seen from the Asian agricultural sector in recent years, most likely

  11. Global and regional emissions estimates for N2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikawa, E.; Prinn, R. G.; Dlugokencky, E.; Ishijima, K.; Dutton, G. S.; Hall, B. D.; Langenfelds, R.; Tohjima, Y.; Machida, T.; Manizza, M.; Rigby, M.; O'Doherty, S.; Patra, P. K.; Harth, C. M.; Weiss, R. F.; Krummel, P. B.; van der Schoot, M.; Fraser, P. B.; Steele, L. P.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Elkins, J. W.

    2013-07-01

    We present a comprehensive estimate of nitrous oxide ( N2O) emissions using observations and models from 1995 to 2008. High-frequency records of tropospheric N2O are available from measurements at Cape Grim, Tasmania; Cape Matatula, American Samoa; Ragged Point, Barbados; Mace Head, Ireland; and at Trinidad Head, California using the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) instrumentation and calibrations. The Global Monitoring Division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA/ESRL) has also discrete air samples collected in flasks and in situ measurements from remote sites across the globe and analyzed them for a suite of species including N2O. In addition to these major networks, we include in situ and aircraft measurements from the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) and flask measurements from the Tohoku University and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) networks. All measurements show increasing atmospheric mole fractions of N2O, with a varying growth rate of 0.1-0.7 % yr-1, resulting in a 7.4% increase in the background atmospheric mole fraction between 1979 and 2011. Using existing emission inventories as well as bottom-up process modeling results, we first create globally-gridded a priori N2O emissions over the 37 yr since 1975. We then use the three-dimensional chemical transport model, Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers version 4 (MOZART v4), and a Bayesian inverse method to estimate global as well as regional annual emissions for five source sectors from 13 regions in the world. This is the first time that all of these measurements from multiple networks have been combined to determine emissions. Our inversion indicates that global and regional N2O emissions have an increasing trend between 1995 and 2008. Despite large uncertainties, a significant increase is seen from the Asian agricultural sector in the recent years, most likely

  12. Global and regional emissions estimates for N2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikawa, E.; Prinn, R. G.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Ishijima, K.; Dutton, G. S.; Hall, B. D.; Langenfelds, R.; Tohjima, Y.; Machida, T.; Manizza, M.; Rigby, M. L.; Odoherty, S. J.; Patra, P. K.; Harth, C.; Weiss, R. F.; Krummel, P. B.; van der Schoot, M.; Fraser, P.; Steele, P.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Elkins, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    We present a comprehensive estimate of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions using observations and models from 1995 to 2008. High-frequency records of tropospheric N2O are available from measurements at Cape Grim, Tasmania; Cape Matatula, American Samoa; Ragged Point, Barbados; Mace Head, Ireland; and at Trinidad Head, California using the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) instrumentation and calibrations. The Global Monitoring Division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA/ESRL) has also discrete air samples collected in flasks and in situ measurements from remote sites across the globe and analyzed them for a suite of species including N2O. In addition to these major networks, we include in situ and aircraft measurements from the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) and flask measurements from the Tohoku University and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) networks. All measurements show increasing atmospheric mole fractions of N2O, with a varying growth rate of 0.1-0.7%yr-1, resulting in a 7.4% increase in the background atmospheric mole fraction between 1979 and 2011. Using existing emission inventories as well as bottom-up process modeling results, we first create globally-gridded a priori N2O emissions over the 37 yr since 1975. We then use the three-dimensional chemical transport model, Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers version 4 (MOZART v4), and a Bayesian inverse method to estimate global as well as regional annual emissions for five source sectors from 13 regions in the world. This is the first time that all of these measurements from multiple networks have been combined to determine emissions. Our inversion indicates that global and regional N2O emissions have an increasing trend between 1995 and 2008. Despite large uncertainties, a significant increase is seen from the Asian agricultural sector in the recent years, most likely due

  13. Use of subsampled traffic data to estimate roadway emissions, including conversion to MOBILE6 vehicle classifications.

    PubMed

    Yao, Maosheng; Williamson, Derek G; McFadden, John

    2005-08-01

    Air quality is degraded by many factors, among which the emissions from on-road vehicles play a significant role. Timely and accurate estimate of such emissions becomes very important for policy-making and effective control measures. However, lack of traffic data and outdated emission software make this task difficult. This research has demonstrated a new method that facilitates the vehicular emission inventories at the local level by using shorter-time Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS) traffic data along with the latest U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) emission modeling software, MOBILE6. The conversion methodology was developed for converting readily available HPMS traffic volume data into EPA MOBILE-based traffic classifications, and a corresponding software program was written for automating the process. EPA MOBILE6 model was used to obtain emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compound (VOC), and cabon monoxide (CO) emitted by the parent traffic and subsampled traffic data, and these emissions were additionally compared. The case study has shown that the difference of the magnitude between the emission estimates produced by certain subsampled and parent traffic data are minor, indicating that subsampled HPMS data can be used for reporting parent traffic emissions. It was also observed that traffic emissions follow a Weibull distribution, and NOx emissions were more sensitive to the traffic data composition than VOC and CO. Lastly, use of average emission values of 20 or 30 consecutive minutes appears to be valid for representing hourly emissions.

  14. SEMINAR PUBLICATION: ORGANIC AIR EMISSIONS FROM WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The organic chemicals contained in wastes processed during waste management operations can volatilize into the atmosphere and cause toxic or carcinogenic effects or contribute to ozone formation. Because air emissions from waste management operations pose a threat to human health...

  15. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants in Region 7

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) are applicable requirements under the Title V operating permit program. This is a resource for permit writers and reviewers to learn about the rules and explore other helpful tools.

  16. Estimating the Influence of Oil and Gas Emissions on Urban Ozone and Associated Health Risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capps, S.; Nsanzineza, R.; Turner, M. D.; Henze, D. K.; Zhao, S.; Russell, M. G.; Hakami, A.; Milford, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) degrades air quality, impacting human health and public welfare. The National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) is designed to limit these impacts, but certain areas in the continental U.S. exceed this standard. Mitigating O3 NAAQS exceedances by designing emissions controls can be complicated in urban areas because of the long-range transport of ozone and its gaseous precursors as well as the complex mix of local emissions sources. Recent growth of unconventional oil and gas development near urban areas in Colorado, Texas, and the northeastern corridor has exacerbated this problem. To estimate the contribution of emissions from oil and gas development to urban O3 issues, we apply the CMAQ adjoint, which efficiently elucidates the relative influence of emissions sources on select concentration-based metrics. Specifically, the adjoint is used to calculate the spatially-specific relative contributions of emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) throughout the continental U.S. to O3 NAAQS exceedances and to ozone-related health risks in select urban areas. By evaluating these influences for different urban areas, including one in California that has been managing air quality with adjacent oil and gas development for a longer period of time, we are able to compare and contrast the emissions control strategies that may be more effective in particular regions. Additionally, the resulting relationships between emissions and concentrations provide a way to project ozone impacts when measurements provide refined estimates of emissions from this sector.

  17. CRITERIA AND AIR TOXIC EMISSIONS FROM IN-USE, LOW EMISSION VEHICLES (LEVS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency implemented a program to identify tailpipe emissions of criteria and air toxic contaminants from in-use, light-duty Low Emission Vehicles (LEVs). EPA recruited twenty-five LEVs in 2002, and measured emissions on a chassis dynamometer usin...

  18. ESTIMATE OF GLOBAL METHANE EMISSIONS FROM COAL MINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Country-specific emissions of methane (CH4) from underground coal mines, surface coal mines, and coal crushing and transport operations are estimated for 1989. Emissions for individual countries are estimated by using two sets of regression equations (R2 values range from 0.56 to...

  19. Air Monitoring, Measuring, and Emissions Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Measurement research is advancing the ability to determine the composition of sources of air pollution, conduct exposure assessments, improve monitoring capabilities and support public health research.

  20. Air Pollution Emissions | Air Quality Planning & Standards | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-06-08

    Air pollution comes from many different sources: stationary sources such as factories, power plants, and smelters and smaller sources such as dry cleaners and degreasing operations; mobile sources such as cars, buses, planes, trucks, and trains; and naturally occurring sources such as windblown dust, and volcanic eruptions, all contribute to air pollution.

  1. Estimation of local fleet characteristics data for improved emission inventory development

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, J.; Pollack, A.; Austin, B.

    1996-12-31

    Considerable effort in recent years has been focused on the improvement of on-road mobile source emission factors with much less attention paid to the refinement of activity and fleet characteristics estimates. Current emissions modeling practices commonly use emission factor model defaults or statewide averages for fleet and activity data. As part of the US EPA`s Emission Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP), ENVIRON developed methodologies to derive locality-specific fleet characteristics data from existing data sources in order to improve local emission inventory estimates. Data sources examined included remote sensing studies and inspection and maintenance (I/M) program data. In this paper, we focus on two specific examples: (1) the calculation of mileage accumulation rates from Arizona I/M program data, and (2) the calculation of registration distribution from a Sacramento remote sensing database. In both examples, differences exist between the calculated distributions and those currently used for air quality modeling, resulting in significant impacts on the estimated mobile source emissions inventory. For example, use of the automobile registration distribution data derived from the Sacramento Pilot I/M Program remote sensing database results in an increase in estimated automobile TOG, CO and NO{sub x} of 15, 24 and 17 percent, respectively, when used in place of the default registration distribution in the current California Air Resources Board MVEI7G emissions model.

  2. Spatially resolved air-water emissions tradeoffs improve regulatory impact analyses for electricity generation.

    PubMed

    Gingerich, Daniel B; Sun, Xiaodi; Behrer, A Patrick; Azevedo, Inês L; Mauter, Meagan S

    2017-02-21

    Coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) generate air, water, and solids emissions that impose substantial human health, environmental, and climate change (HEC) damages. This work demonstrates the importance of accounting for cross-media emissions tradeoffs, plant and regional emissions factors, and spatially variation in the marginal damages of air emissions when performing regulatory impact analyses for electric power generation. As a case study, we assess the benefits and costs of treating wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater at US CFPPs using the two best available treatment technology options specified in the 2015 Effluent Limitation Guidelines (ELGs). We perform a life-cycle inventory of electricity and chemical inputs to FGD wastewater treatment processes and quantify the marginal HEC damages of associated air emissions. We combine these spatially resolved damage estimates with Environmental Protection Agency estimates of water quality benefits, fuel-switching benefits, and regulatory compliance costs. We estimate that the ELGs will impose average net costs of $3.01 per cubic meter for chemical precipitation and biological wastewater treatment and $11.26 per cubic meter for zero-liquid discharge wastewater treatment (expected cost-benefit ratios of 1.8 and 1.7, respectively), with damages concentrated in regions containing a high fraction of coal generation or a large chemical manufacturing industry. Findings of net cost for FGD wastewater treatment are robust to uncertainty in auxiliary power source, location of chemical manufacturing, and binding air emissions limits in noncompliant regions, among other variables. Future regulatory design will minimize compliance costs and HEC tradeoffs by regulating air, water, and solids emissions simultaneously and performing regulatory assessments that account for spatial variation in emissions impacts.

  3. A bottom-up methodology to estimate vehicle emissions for the Beijing urban area.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haikun; Fu, Lixin; Lin, Xin; Zhou, Yu; Chen, Jinchuan

    2009-03-01

    Vehicle exhaust emissions have posed a serious threat in recent years to the urban air quality of Beijing. It is necessary to accurately estimate the magnitude and distribution of these emissions in order to reduce the uncertainty of local scale air quality modeling assessment. This paper provides a bottom-up approach by combining vehicle emission factors and vehicle activity data from a travel demand model estimated at the grid level to generate vehicle emissions data for the Beijing urban area in 2005. In that year, vehicular emissions of HC, CO and NOx were respectively 13.33x10(4), 100.02x10(4) and 7.55x10(4) tons. The grid-based emissions were also compared with the vehicular emission inventory developed by macro-scale approach. It shows this bottom-up approach can result in better estimates of the levels and spatial distribution of vehicle emissions than the macro-scale method that relies on more average and aggregated information.

  4. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal -- 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Y.E.; Black, S.C.

    1998-06-01

    Each potential source of Nevada Test Site (NTS) emissions was characterized by one of the following methods: (1) monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at the NTS; (2) a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclide are released to the environment; (3) the measurement of tritiated water (as HTO or T{sub 2}O) concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. The emissions for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) reporting are listed. They are very conservative and are used in Section 3 to calculate the EDE to the maximally exposed individual offsite. Offsite environmental surveillance data, where available, are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative.

  5. Source Emissions in Multipollutant Air Quality Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human activities and natural processes that emit pollutants into the ambient atmosphere are the underlying cause of all air quality problems. In a technical sense, we refer to these activities and processes as pollutant sources. Although air quality management is usually concerne...

  6. Feed management for beef feedlots to reduce air emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This power point presentation gives an overview of air emissions from beef cattle feedyards as well as nutritional and management techniques that might decrease these emissions. Topics include greenhouse gases (methane, nitrous oxide), ammonia, particulate matter and odors. This was presented as on...

  7. WORKSHOP ON SOURCE EMISSION AND AMBIENT AIR MONITORING OF MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    AN EPA/ORD Workshop on Source Emission and Ambient Air Monitoring of Mercury was held on 9/13-14/99, Bloomington, Minnesota. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss the state-of-the-science in source and ambient air mercury monitoring as well as mercury monitoring research and...

  8. EMISSIONS OF ORGANIC AIR TOXICS FROM OPEN BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A detailed literature search was performed to collect and collate available data reporting emissions of toxic organic substances into the air from open burning sources. Availability of data varied according to the source and the class of air toxics of interest. Volatile organic c...

  9. Speed Profiles for Improvement of Maritime Emission Estimation.

    PubMed

    Yau, Pui Shan; Lee, Shun-Cheng; Ho, Kin Fai

    2012-12-01

    Maritime emissions play an important role in anthropogenic emissions, particularly for cities with busy ports such as Hong Kong. Ship emissions are strongly dependent on vessel speed, and thus accurate vessel speed is essential for maritime emission studies. In this study, we determined minute-by-minute high-resolution speed profiles of container ships on four major routes in Hong Kong waters using Automatic Identification System (AIS). The activity-based ship emissions of NO(x), CO, HC, CO(2), SO(2), and PM(10) were estimated using derived vessel speed profiles, and results were compared with those using the speed limits of control zones. Estimation using speed limits resulted in up to twofold overestimation of ship emissions. Compared with emissions estimated using the speed limits of control zones, emissions estimated using vessel speed profiles could provide results with up to 88% higher accuracy. Uncertainty analysis and sensitivity analysis of the model demonstrated the significance of improvement of vessel speed resolution. From spatial analysis, it is revealed that SO(2) and PM(10) emissions during maneuvering within 1 nautical mile from port were the highest. They contributed 7%-22% of SO(2) emissions and 8%-17% of PM(10) emissions of the entire voyage in Hong Kong.

  10. Modeling and Impacts of Traffic Emissions on Air Toxics Concentrations near Roadways

    EPA Science Inventory

    The dispersion formulation incorporated in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s AERMOD regulatory dispersion model is used to estimate the contribution of traffic-generated emissions of select VOCs – benzene, 1,3-butadiene, toluene – to ambient air concentrations at downwin...

  11. A Method to Exchange Air Nitrogen Emission Reductions for Watershed Nitrogen Load Reductions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation of the method developed for the Chesapeake Bay Program to estimate changes in nitrogen loading to Chesapeake due to changes in Bay State state-level nitrogen oxide emissions to support air-water trading by the Bay States. Type for SticsUnder AMAD Application QAPP, QA...

  12. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal -- 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Y.E.; Black, S.C.

    1995-06-01

    This report focuses on air quality at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for 1994. A general description of the effluent sources are presented. Each potential source of NTS emissions was characterized by one of the following: (1) by monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at NTS; (2) by a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclides are released to the environment; (3) by the measurement of tritiated water concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) by using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. Appendices A through J describe the methods used to determine the emissions from the sources. These National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) emissions are very conservative, are used to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the Maximally Exposed Individual offsite, and exceed, in some cases, those reported in DOE`s Effluent Information System (EIS). The NESHAP`s worst-case emissions that exceed the EIS reported emissions are noted. Offsite environmental surveillance data are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative.

  13. Effect of timed secondary-air injection on automotive emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffin, K. P.

    1973-01-01

    A single cylinder of an automotive V-8 engine was fitted with an electronically timed system for the pulsed injection of secondary air. A straight-tube exhaust minimized any mixing other than that produced by secondary-air pulsing. The device was operated over a range of engine loads and speeds. Effects attributable to secondary-air pulsing were found, but emission levels were generally no better than using the engine's own injection system. Under nontypical fast-idle, no-load conditions, emission levels were reduced by roughly a factor of 2.

  14. Air Quality Modeling of Emissions from Prescribed Burning : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Jitendra J.; Ottmar, Robert D.

    1989-06-01

    Fuel moisture content, woody fuel and duff consumption, fire behavior, and smoke plumes were monitored on four prescribed burns located on the Oakridge Ranger District of the Willamette National Forest. The measured fuel moisture, fuel consumption, and fire behavior data were used to validate an Emissions Production Model (EPM) which predicts fuel consumption, heat release rates, and smoke emissions for a smoke dispersion model called Simple Approach Smoke Estimation Model (SASEM). Both EPM and SASEM have been combined together into a single program called Tiered Smoke Air Resource System (TSARS). Several comparisons were made between predicted results from EPM and measured values to help determine the level of accuracy which could be expected for different levels of data input effort. In-plume sampling procedures using tethered equipment for sampling of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants were designed, developed, and acquired during this study. Because the objective of this study was to evaluate the model under the July 1 to Labor Day burning ban meteorological conditions, sampling was scheduled only for the summer months. For each study year, a meteorological pattern occurred that severely limited sampling. The summers for all three study years in general were extremely dry; prohibiting burning due to fire danger. Therefore, a smaller number of units were burned than that planned. 29 refs., 16 figs., 19 tabs.

  15. Impacts of Lowered Urban Air Temperatures on Precursor Emission and Ozone Air Quality.

    PubMed

    Taha, Haider; Konopacki, Steven; Akbari, Hashem

    1998-09-01

    Meteorological, photochemical, building-energy, and power plant simulations were performed to assess the possible precursor emission and ozone air quality impacts of decreased air temperatures that could result from implementing the "cool communities" concept in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). Two pathways are considered. In the direct pathway, a reduction in cooling energy use translates into reduced demand for generation capacity and, thus, reduced precursor emissions from electric utility power plants. In the indirect pathway, reduced air temperatures can slow the atmospheric production of ozone as well as precursor emission from anthropogenic and biogenic sources. The simulations suggest small impacts on emissions following implementation of cool communities in the SoCAB. In summer, for example, there can be reductions of up to 3% in NOx emissions from in-basin power plants. The photochemical simulations suggest that the air quality impacts of these direct emission reductions are small. However, the indirect atmospheric effects of cool communities can be significant. For example, ozone peak concentrations can decrease by up to 11% in summer and population-weighted exceedance exposure to ozone above the California and National Ambient Air Quality Standards can decrease by up to 11 and 17%, respectively. The modeling suggests that if these strategies are combined with others, such as mobile-source emission control, the improvements in ozone air quality can be substantial.

  16. Estimation of carbon emissions from crown fires in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucuk, O.; Bilgili, E.

    2009-04-01

    Forest biomass consumption is an important index for carbon cycling. Forest fire represents one of the important sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to biomass burning processes. Forest fire contribute to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration therefore, role of forest fires in the global carbon cycle has received increasing interest. Various methods were used to estimation of carbon emission. IPCC methodology is commonly used for the calculation of GHG amounts released at forest fire in Europe especially on a national basis. Many European countries have done many studies relation to estimation of carbon emissions from forest fires. However, carbon emissions from forest fires were not estimated in Turkey. The objective of this paper was to estimate carbon emission from forest fires from 1997 to 2006 in three forest district directorate of Turkey. We have used IPCC methodology for estimation of carbon emission form forest fire in Turkey. The emission calculations associated with forest fires were carried out using the IPCC methodology for estimating emissions from biomass burning. According to IPCC methodology, the annual carbon release of gas is the product of parameters: Annual biomass loss by burning (kt), fraction of biomass oxidized on-site, carbon content (CC), emission ratio, N/C ratio. A set of forest fire data during 1997-2006 obtained from the Turkish Ministry of Environment and Forestry-General Directorate of Forestry Service. Fuel biomass and fuel consumption data were provided from experimental fires and biomass studies in Turkey. The highest carbon emission amount was CO2 gas. A wide range in carbon emissions of 0.37-94.85 Gg was caused by variability in pre-fire fuel characteristics (fuel size, distribution, fuel moisture and total load), fire type, fire season and fire weather, which affected fuel moisture and fire behavior. Keywords: Carbon emissions, Forest fire, Fuel consumption, IPCC, Turkey

  17. Atmospheric Inverse Estimates of Methane Emissions from Central California

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Chuanfeng; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Bianco, Laura; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Hirsch, Adam; MacDonald, Clinton; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Fischer, Marc L.

    2008-11-21

    Methane mixing ratios measured at a tall-tower are compared to model predictions to estimate surface emissions of CH{sub 4} in Central California for October-December 2007 using an inverse technique. Predicted CH{sub 4} mixing ratios are calculated based on spatially resolved a priori CH{sub 4} emissions and simulated atmospheric trajectories. The atmospheric trajectories, along with surface footprints, are computed using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) coupled to the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model. An uncertainty analysis is performed to provide quantitative uncertainties in estimated CH{sub 4} emissions. Three inverse model estimates of CH{sub 4} emissions are reported. First, linear regressions of modeled and measured CH{sub 4} mixing ratios obtain slopes of 0.73 {+-} 0.11 and 1.09 {+-} 0.14 using California specific and Edgar 3.2 emission maps respectively, suggesting that actual CH{sub 4} emissions were about 37 {+-} 21% higher than California specific inventory estimates. Second, a Bayesian 'source' analysis suggests that livestock emissions are 63 {+-} 22% higher than the a priori estimates. Third, a Bayesian 'region' analysis is carried out for CH{sub 4} emissions from 13 sub-regions, which shows that inventory CH{sub 4} emissions from the Central Valley are underestimated and uncertainties in CH{sub 4} emissions are reduced for sub-regions near the tower site, yielding best estimates of flux from those regions consistent with 'source' analysis results. The uncertainty reductions for regions near the tower indicate that a regional network of measurements will be necessary to provide accurate estimates of surface CH{sub 4} emissions for multiple regions.

  18. Sensitivity of health risk estimates to air quality adjustment procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Whitfield, R.G.

    1997-06-30

    This letter is a summary of risk results associated with exposure estimates using two-parameter Weibull and quadratic air quality adjustment procedures (AQAPs). New exposure estimates were developed for children and child-occurrences, six urban areas, and five alternative air quality scenarios. In all cases, the Weibull and quadratic results are compared to previous results, which are based on a proportional AQAP.

  19. Estimation of economic costs of particulate air pollution from road transport in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, X. R.; Cheng, S. Y.; Chen, D. S.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, H. Y.

    2010-09-01

    Valuation of health effects of air pollution is becoming a critical component of the performance of cost-benefit analysis of pollution control measures, which provides a basis for setting priorities for action. Beijing has focused on control of transport emission as vehicular emissions have recently become an important source of air pollution, particularly during Olympic games and Post-games. In this paper, we conducted an estimation of health effects and economic cost caused by road transport-related air pollution using an integrated assessment approach which utilizes air quality model, engineering, epidemiology, and economics. The results show that the total economic cost of health impacts due to air pollution contributed from transport in Beijing during 2004-2008 was 272, 297, 310, 323, 298 million US (mean value), respectively. The economic costs of road transport accounted for 0.52, 0.57, 0.60, 0.62, and 0.58% of annual Beijing GDP from 2004 to 2008. Average cost per vehicle and per ton of PM 10 emission from road transport can also be estimated as 106 US /number and 3584 US $ t -1, respectively. These findings illustrate that the impact of road transport contributed particulate air pollution on human health could be substantial in Beijing, whether in physical and economic terms. Therefore, some control measures to reduce transport emissions could lead to considerable economic benefit.

  20. Working Toward Policy-Relevant Air Quality Emissions Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, T.

    2010-12-01

    Though much work has been done to develop accurate chemical emission inventories, few publicly available inventories are appropriate for realistic policy analysis. Emissions from the electricity and transportation sectors, in particular, respond in complex ways to policy, technology, and energy use change. Many widely used inventories, such as the EPA National Emissions Inventory, are well-suited for modeling current air quality, but do not have the specificity needed to address "what if?" questions. Changes in electricity demand, fuel prices, new power sources, and emission controls all influence the emissions from regional power production, requiring a plant-by-plant assessment to capture the spatially explicit impacts. Similarly, land use, freight distribution, or driving behavior will yield differentiated transportation emissions for urban areas, suburbs, and rural highways. We here present results from three recent research projects at the University of Wisconsin—Madison, where bottom-up emission inventories for electricity, freight transport, and urban vehicle use were constructed to support policy-relevant air quality research. These three studies include: 1) Using the MyPower electricity dispatch model to calculate emissions and air quality impacts of Renewable Portfolio Standards and other carbon-management strategies; 2) Using advanced vehicle and commodity flow data from the Federal Highway Administration to evaluate the potential to shift commodities from truck to rail (assuming expanded infrastructure), and assess a range of alternative fuel suggestions; and 3) Working with urban planners to connect urban density with vehicle use to evaluate the air quality impacts of smart-growth in major Midwest cities. Drawing on the results of these three studies, and on challenges overcome in their execution, we discuss the current state of policy-relevant emission dataset generation, as well as techniques and attributes that need to be further refined in order

  1. Probing the radio emission from air showers with polarization measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antičić, T.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bardenet, R.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Foerster, N.; Fox, B. D.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; PeÂķala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Pontz, M.; Porcelli, A.; Preda, T.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Straub, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Taşcǎu, O.; Thao, N. T.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    The emission of radio waves from air showers has been attributed to the so-called geomagnetic emission process. At frequencies around 50 MHz this process leads to coherent radiation which can be observed with rather simple setups. The direction of the electric field induced by this emission process depends only on the local magnetic field vector and on the incoming direction of the air shower. We report on measurements of the electric field vector where, in addition to this geomagnetic component, another component has been observed that cannot be described by the geomagnetic emission process. The data provide strong evidence that the other electric field component is polarized radially with respect to the shower axis, in agreement with predictions made by Askaryan who described radio emission from particle showers due to a negative charge excess in the front of the shower. Our results are compared to calculations which include the radiation mechanism induced by this charge-excess process.

  2. The Impact of Future Emissions Changes on Air Pollution Concentrations and Related Human Health Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikolajczyk, U.; Suppan, P.; Williams, M.

    2015-12-01

    Quantification of potential health benefits of reductions in air pollution on the local scale is becoming increasingly important. The aim of this study is to conduct health impact assessment (HIA) by utilizing regionally and spatially specific data in order to assess the influence of future emission scenarios on human health. In the first stage of this investigation, a modeling study was carried out using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with Chemistry to estimate ambient concentrations of air pollutants for the baseline year 2009, and for the future emission scenarios in southern Germany. Anthropogenic emissions for the baseline year 2009 are derived from the emission inventory provided by the Netherlands Organization of Applied Scientific Research (TNO) (Denier van der Gon et al., 2010). For Germany, the TNO emissions were replaced by gridded emission data with a high spatial resolution of 1/64 x 1/64 degrees. Future air quality simulations are carried out under different emission scenarios, which reflect possible energy and climate measures in year 2030. The model set-up included a nesting approach, where three domains with horizontal resolution of 18 km, 6 km and 2 km were defined. The simulation results for the baseline year 2009 are used to quantify present-day health burdens. Concentration-response functions (CRFs) for PM2.5 and NO2 from the WHO Health risks of air Pollution in Europe (HRAPIE) project were applied to population-weighted mean concentrations to estimate relative risks and hence to determine numbers of attributable deaths and associated life-years lost. In the next step, future health impacts of projected concentrations were calculated taking into account different emissions scenarios. The health benefits that we assume with air pollution reductions can be used to provide options for future policy decisions to protect public health.

  3. Air pollutant emission rates for sources at the Deaf Smith County repository site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-11-01

    This document summarizes the air-quality source terms used for the Deaf Smith County, Texas environmental assessment report and explains their derivation. The engineering data supporting these source terms appear as appendixes to this report and include summary equipment lists for the repository and detailed equipment lists for the exploratory shaft. Although substantial work has been performed in establishing the current repository design, a greater effort will be required for the final design. Consequently, the repository emission rates presented here should be considered as preliminary estimates. Another set of air pollution emission rates will be calculated after design data are more firmly established. 18 refs., 15 tabs.

  4. Velocity Estimate Following Air Data System Failure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    12 Figure 2.2. Pitot Tube...that relay pitot -static information from the aircraft’s air data system and inertial measurement information from the Inertial Navigation System...Air data systems receive total and static pressure inputs from a pitot -static system. A typical pitot tube, as shown below, receives total pressure

  5. Parametric Estimation of Load for Air Force Data Centers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-27

    PARAMETRIC ESTIMATION OF LOAD FOR AIR FORCE DATA CENTERS THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Systems Engineering and Management Graduate...School of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of Technology Air University Air Education and Training Command In Partial Fulfillment of...LtCol Brent Langhals, USAF, Ph.D. (Member) iv AFIT-ENV-MS-15-M-170 Abstract The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has tasked

  6. Compilation and application of Japanese inventories for energy consumption and air pollutant emissions using input-output tables.

    PubMed

    Nansai, Keisuke; Moriguchi, Yuichi; Tohno, Susumu

    2003-05-01

    Preparing emission inventories is essential to the assessment and management of our environment. In this study, Japanese air pollutant emissions, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions categorized by approximately 400 sectors (as classified by Japanese input-output tables in 1995) were estimated, and the contributions of each sector to the total amounts were analyzed. The air pollutants examined were nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), and suspended particulate matter (SPM). Consumptions of about 20 fossil fuels and five other fuels were estimated according to sector. Air pollutant emission factors for stationary sources were calculated from the results of a survey on air pollution prevention in Japan. Pollutant emissions from mobile sources were estimated taking into consideration vehicle types, traveling speeds, and distances. This work also counted energy supply and emissions from seven nonfossil fuel sources, including nonthermal electric power, and CO2 emissions from limestone (for example, during cement production). The total energy consumption in 1995 was concluded to be 18.3 EJ, and the annual total emissions of CO2, NOx, SOx, and SPM were, respectively, 343 Mt-C, 3.51 Mt, 1.87 Mt, and 0.32 Mt. An input-output analysis of the emission inventories was used to calculate the amounts of energy consumption and emissions induced in each sector by the economic final demand.

  7. APPROACH FOR ESTIMATING GLOBAL LANDFILL METHANE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is an overview of available country-specific data and modeling approaches for estimating global landfill methane. Current estimates of global landfill methane indicate that landfills account for between 4 and 15% of the global methane budget. The report describes an ap...

  8. Improvements to lawn and garden equipment emissions estimates for Baltimore, Maryland.

    PubMed

    Reid, Stephen B; Pollard, Erin K; Sullivan, Dana Coe; Shaw, Stephanie L

    2010-12-01

    Lawn and garden equipment are a significant source of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other pollutants in suburban and urban areas. Emission estimates for this source category are typically prepared using default equipment populations and activity data contained in emissions models such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) NONROAD model or the California Air Resources Board's (CARB) OFFROAD model. Although such default data may represent national or state averages, these data are unlikely to reflect regional or local differences in equipment usage patterns because of variations in climate, lot sizes, and other variables. To assess potential errors in lawn and garden equipment emission estimates produced by the NONROAD model and to demonstrate methods that can be used by local planning agencies to improve those emission estimates, this study used bottom-up data collection techniques in the Baltimore metropolitan area to develop local equipment population, activity, and temporal data for lawn and garden equipment in the area. Results of this study show that emission estimates of VOCs, particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) for the Baltimore area that are based on local data collected through surveys of residential and commercial lawn and garden equipment users are 24-56% lower than estimates produced using NONROAD default data, largely because of a difference in equipment populations for high-usage commercial applications. Survey-derived emission estimates of PM and VOCs are 24 and 26% lower than NONROAD default estimates, respectively, whereas survey-derived emission estimates for CO, CO2, and NO(x) are more than 40% lower than NONROAD default estimates. In addition, study results show that the temporal allocation factors applied to residential lawn and garden equipment in the NONROAD model underestimated weekend activity levels by 30% compared with survey-derived temporal

  9. Estimation of GHG Emissions from Water Reclamation Plants in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yupeng; Bai, Yanying; Jiao, Wentao

      A procedure for estimating Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a wastewater reclamation plant in Beijing was developed based on the process chain model. GHG emissions under two typical water reclamation treatment processes, the coagulation-sedimentation-filtration traditional process and advanced biological treatment process, were examined. The total on-site GHG emissions were estimated to be 0.0056 kg/m(3) and 0.6765 kg/m(3) respectively, while total off-site GHG emissions were estimated to be 0.3699 kg/m(3) and 0.4816 kg/m(3). The overall GHG emissions were 0.3755 kg/m(3) under the type 1 treatment, which is much lower than that under the type 2 of 1.1581 kg/m(3). Emissions from both processes were lower than that from the tap water production. Wastewater reclamation and reuse should be promoted as it not only saves the water resources but also can reduce the GHG emissions. Energy consumption was the most significant source of GHG emissions. Biogas recovery should be employed as it can significantly reduce the GHG emissions, especially under the type 2 treatment process. Considering the wastewater treatment and reclamation process as a whole, the type 2 treatment process has advantages in reducing the GHG emissions per unit of pollutant. This paper provides scientific basis for decision making.

  10. The use of acetylene and 1,3-butadiene as tracers for vehicular combustion in urban air and the estimation of the contributions of vehicular emissions to benzene, and alkane concentrations in the Edmonton industrial area

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, R.; Wong, R.; Dann, T.; Wang, D.

    1998-12-31

    Acetylene, propylene and 1,3-butadiene concentrations at two downtown urban sites in Alberta, Canada were used to characterize an area dominated by vehicular emissions. The relationship of acetylene with 1,3-butadiene at the Edmonton industrial site was similar to that observed for the two downtown sites. This suggesting that these volatile organic compounds, VOCs, can be used as tracers for vehicular emissions for the Edmonton industrial area. The tracer VOCs were found to correlate with benzene, n-butane, iso-butane, n-pentane, iso-pentane, n-heptane and n-octane concentrations for the two Alberta downtown sites. The best fit lines from the downtown sites were used to predict daily concentrations of benzene and alkanes at the Edmonton industrial site. During the winter, when benzene levels are predicted to reach a maximum of 4.5 to 6.5 m g/m{sup 3}, it is estimated that industrial sources contribute < 1 m g/m{sup 3} to ambient levels at the Edmonton industrial site. During the summer, when predicted benzene levels are at a minimum of 1 to 2 m g/m{sup 3}, industrial area sources dominate the ambient benzene levels at the Edmonton industrial site, and can contribute up to 6 m g/m{sup 3}. For alkanes, such as butane and pentane, industrial area sources or evaporative storage tank emissions dominate throughout the year. This dominance of industrial sources is also observed for n-heptane and n-octane during summer months. During the winter when predicted n-heptane and n-octane concentrations reach a maximum, 11 to 100% of ambient daily levels can be attributed to vehicular emissions.

  11. 76 FR 13851 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... hazardous air pollutant emission standards reflecting the application of the maximum achievable control...), we established that the application of measurement technology to mercury cell rooms is not... requirements, determines is achievable through application of measures, processes, methods, systems...

  12. EMISSION OF PESTICIDES INTO THE AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    During and after the application of pesticide in agriculture, a substantial fraction of the dosage may enter the atmosphere and be transported over varying distances downwind of the target. The rate and extent of the emission during application depends primarily on the applicat...

  13. Model estimation and measurement of ammonia emission from naturally ventilated dairy cattle buildings with slatted floor designs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chaoyuan; Li, Baoming; Zhang, Guoqiang; Rom, Hans Benny; Strøom, Jan S

    2006-09-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out in a wind tunnel with a model of a slurry pit to investigate the characteristics of ammonia emission from dairy cattle buildings with slatted floor designs. Ammonia emission at different temperatures and air velocities over the floor surface above the slurry pit was measured with uniform feces spreading and urine sprinkling on the surface daily. The data were used to improve a model for estimation of ammonia emission from dairy cattle buildings. Estimates from the updated emission model were compared with measured data from five naturally ventilated dairy cattle buildings. The overall measured ammonia emission rates were in the range of 11-88 g per cow per day at air temperatures of 2.3-22.4 degrees C. Ammonia emission rates estimated by the model were in the range of 19-107 g per cow per day for the surveyed buildings. The average ammonia emission estimated by the model was 11% higher than the mean measured value. The results show that predicted emission patterns generally agree with the measured one, but the prediction has less variation. The model performance may be improved if the influence of animal activity and management strategy on ammonia emission could be estimated and more reliable data of air velocities of the buildings could be obtained.

  14. Estimating Biomass Burning Emissions for Carbon Cycle Science and Resource Monitoring & Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, N. H.; McKenzie, D.; Erickson, T. A.; McCarty, J. L.; Ottmar, R. D.; Kasischke, E. S.; Prichard, S. J.; Hoy, E.; Endsley, K.; Hamermesh, N. K.

    2012-12-01

    Biomass burning emissions, including emissions from wildland fire, agricultural and rangeland burning, and peatland fires, impact the atmosphere dramatically. Current tools to quantify emission sources are developing quickly in a response to the need by the modeling community to assess fire's role in the carbon cycle and the land management community to understand fire effects and impacts on air quality. In a project funded by NASA, our team has developed methods to spatially quantify wildland fire emissions for the contiguous United States (CONUS) and Alaska (AK) at regional scales. We have also developed a prototype web-based information system, the Wildland Fire Emissions Information System (WFEIS) to make emissions modeling tools and estimates for the CONUS and AK available to the user community. With new funding through two NASA programs, our team from MTRI, USFS, and UMd will be further developing WFEIS to provide biomass burning emissions estimates for the carbon cycle science community and for land and air quality managers, to improve the way emissions estimates are calculated for a variety of disciplines. In this poster, we review WFEIS as it currently operates and the plans to extend the current system for use by the carbon cycle science community (through the NASA Carbon Monitoring System Program) and resource management community (through the NASA Applications Program). Features to be enhanced include an improved accounting of biomass present in canopy fuels that are available for burning in a forest fire, addition of annually changing vegetation biomass/fuels used in computing fire emissions, and quantification of the errors present in the estimation methods in order to provide uncertainty of emissions estimates across CONUS and AK. Additionally, WFEIS emissions estimates will be compared with results obtained with the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED), which operates at a global scale at a coarse spatial resolution, to help improve GFED estimates

  15. Large Gain in Air Quality Compared to an Alternative Anthropogenic Emissions Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daskalakis, Nikos; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Fanourgakis, George S.; Kanakidou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    During the last 30 years, significant effort has been made to improve air quality through legislation for emissions reduction. Global three-dimensional chemistrytransport simulations of atmospheric composition over the past 3 decades have been performed to estimate what the air quality levels would have been under a scenario of stagnation of anthropogenic emissions per capita as in 1980, accounting for the population increase (BA1980) or using the standard practice of neglecting it (AE1980), and how they compare to the historical changes in air quality levels. The simulations are based on assimilated meteorology to account for the yearto- year observed climate variability and on different scenarios of anthropogenic emissions of pollutants. The ACCMIP historical emissions dataset is used as the starting point. Our sensitivity simulations provide clear indications that air quality legislation and technology developments have limited the rapid increase of air pollutants. The achieved reductions in concentrations of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, black carbon, and sulfate aerosols are found to be significant when comparing to both BA1980 and AE1980 simulations that neglect any measures applied for the protection of the environment. We also show the potentially large tropospheric air quality benefit from the development of cleaner technology used by the growing global population. These 30-year hindcast sensitivity simulations demonstrate that the actual benefit in air quality due to air pollution legislation and technological advances is higher than the gain calculated by a simple comparison against a constant anthropogenic emissions simulation, as is usually done. Our results also indicate that over China and India the beneficial technological advances for the air quality may have been masked by the explosive increase in local population and the disproportional increase in energy demand partially due to the globalization of the economy.

  16. Large gain in air quality compared to an alternative anthropogenic emissions scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalakis, Nikos; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Fanourgakis, George S.; Kanakidou, Maria

    2016-08-01

    During the last 30 years, significant effort has been made to improve air quality through legislation for emissions reduction. Global three-dimensional chemistry-transport simulations of atmospheric composition over the past 3 decades have been performed to estimate what the air quality levels would have been under a scenario of stagnation of anthropogenic emissions per capita as in 1980, accounting for the population increase (BA1980) or using the standard practice of neglecting it (AE1980), and how they compare to the historical changes in air quality levels. The simulations are based on assimilated meteorology to account for the year-to-year observed climate variability and on different scenarios of anthropogenic emissions of pollutants. The ACCMIP historical emissions dataset is used as the starting point. Our sensitivity simulations provide clear indications that air quality legislation and technology developments have limited the rapid increase of air pollutants. The achieved reductions in concentrations of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, black carbon, and sulfate aerosols are found to be significant when comparing to both BA1980 and AE1980 simulations that neglect any measures applied for the protection of the environment. We also show the potentially large tropospheric air quality benefit from the development of cleaner technology used by the growing global population. These 30-year hindcast sensitivity simulations demonstrate that the actual benefit in air quality due to air pollution legislation and technological advances is higher than the gain calculated by a simple comparison against a constant anthropogenic emissions simulation, as is usually done. Our results also indicate that over China and India the beneficial technological advances for the air quality may have been masked by the explosive increase in local population and the disproportional increase in energy demand partially due to the globalization of the economy.

  17. Integrated assessment of brick kiln emission impacts on air quality.

    PubMed

    Le, Hoang Anh; Oanh, Nguyen Thi Kim

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents monitoring results of daily brick kiln stack emission and the derived emission factors. Emission of individual air pollutant varied significantly during a firing batch (7 days) and between kilns. Average emission factors per 1,000 bricks were 6.35-12.3 kg of CO, 0.52-5.9 kg of SO(2) and 0.64-1.4 kg of particulate matter (PM). PM emission size distribution in the stack plume was determined using a modified cascade impactor. Obtained emission factors and PM size distribution data were used in simulation study using the Industrial Source Complex Short-Term (ISCST3) dispersion model. The model performance was successfully evaluated for the local conditions using the simultaneous ambient monitoring data in 2006 and 2007. SO(2) was the most critical pollutant, exceeding the hourly National Ambient Air Quality Standards over 63 km(2) out of the 100-km(2) modelled domain in the base case. Impacts of different emission scenarios on the ambient air quality (SO(2), PM, CO, PM dry deposition flux) were assessed.

  18. Estimating HAPs and radionuclide emissions from a laboratory complex at a nuclear processing site

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, R.A.; Faugl, T.

    1993-10-01

    A unique methodology was developed for conducting an air emission inventory (AEI) at a DOE nuclear processing facility. This methodology involved the use of computer-assisted design (CAD) drawings to document emission points, computerized process drawings to document industrial processes leading to emissions, and a computerized data base of AEI forms to document emission estimates and related process data. A detailed air emissions inventory for operating years 1985--1991 was recently implemented for the entire site using this methodology. One industrial area at the DOE Site is comprised of laboratory facilities that provide direct support to the nuclear reactor and recovery operations, developmental studies to support reactor and separation operations, and developmental studies to support waste handling and storage. The majority of the functions are conducted in a single large building complex wherein bench scale and pilot scale experiments are carried out involving radionuclides, hazardous air pollutants (HAP), and other chemicals reportable under the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) and Superfund Amendments and Re-authorization Act (SARA) Title 111. The results of the inventory showed that HAP and radionuclide emissions from the laboratory complex were relatively minor.

  19. Spatial analysis on China's regional air pollutants and CO2 emissions: emission pattern and regional disparity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Liang; Liang, Hanwei

    2014-08-01

    China has suffered from serious air pollution and CO2 emission. Challenges of emission reduction policy not only come from technology advancement, but also generate from the fact that, China has pronounced disparity between regions, in geographical and socioeconomic. How to deal with regional disparity is important to achieve the reduction target effectively and efficiently. This research conducts a spatial analysis on the emission patterns of three air pollutants named SO2, NOx and PM2.5, and CO2, in China's 30 provinces, applied with spatial auto-correlation and multi regression modeling. We further analyze the regional disparity and inequity issues with the approach of Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient. Results highlight that: there is evident cluster effect for the regional air pollutants and CO2 emissions. While emission amount increases from western regions to eastern regions, the emission per GDP is in inverse trend. The Lorenz curve shows an even larger unequal distribution of GDP/emissions than GDP/capita in 30 regions. Certain middle and western regions suffers from a higher emission with lower GDP, which reveal the critical issue of emission leakage. Future policy making to address such regional disparity is critical so as to promote the emission control policy under the “equity and efficiency” principle.

  20. Air emissions assessment from offshore oil activities in Sonda de Campeche, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Schifter, I; González-Macías, C; Miranda, A; López-Salinas, E

    2005-10-01

    Air emission data from offshore oil platforms, gas and oil processing installations and contribution of marine activities at the Sonda de Campeche, located at the Gulf of Mexico, were compiled and integrated to facilitate the study of long range transport of pollutants into the region. From this important region, roughly 76% of the total Mexican oil and gas production is obtained. It was estimated that the total air emissions of all contaminants are approximately 821,000 tons per year. Hydrocarbons are the largest pollutant emissions with 277,590 tons per year, generated during flaring activities, and SOx in second place with 185,907 tons per year. Marine and aviation activities contribute with less than 2% of total emissions. Mass of pollutants emitted per barrel of petroleum produced calculated in this work, are in the range reported by similar oil companies.

  1. The health and visibility cost of air pollution: a comparison of estimation methods.

    PubMed

    Delucchi, Mark A; Murphy, James J; McCubbin, Donald R

    2002-02-01

    Air pollution from motor vehicles, electricity-generating plants, industry, and other sources can harm human health, injure crops and forests, damage building materials, and impair visibility. Economists sometimes analyze the social cost of these impacts, in order to illuminate tradeoffs, compare alternatives, and promote efficient use of scarce resource. In this paper, we compare estimates of the health and visibility costs of air pollution derived from a meta-hedonic price analysis, with an estimate of health costs derived from a damage-function analysis and an estimate of the visibility cost derived from contingent valuation. We find that the meta-hedonic price analysis produces an estimate of the health cost that lies at the low end of the range of damage-function estimates. This is consistent with hypotheses that on the one hand, hedonic price analysis does not capture all of the health costs of air pollution (because individuals may not be fully informed about all of the health effects), and that on the other hand, the value of mortality used in the high-end damage function estimates is too high. The analysis of the visibility cost of air pollution derived from a meta-hedonic price analysis produces an estimate that is essentially identical to an independent estimate based on contingent valuation. This close agreement lends some credence to the estimates. We then apply the meta hedonic-price model to estimate the visibility cost per kilogram of motor vehicle emissions.

  2. Air Emission, Liquid Effluent Inventory and Reporting

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Tina

    1998-08-18

    The IES maintains an inventory of radiological air and liquid effluents released to the atmosphere. The IES utilizes the official stack numbers. Data may be entered by generators for any monitoring time period. Waste volumes released as well as their radiological constituents are tracked. The IES provides data to produce a report for NESHAPS as well as several administrative action/anomaly reports. These reports flag unusual occurences (releases) that are above normal range releases.

  3. Carbon and Air Quality Emissions from Crop Residue Burning in the Contiguous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarty, J. L.; Korontzi, S.; Justice, C. O.

    2009-12-01

    Crop residue burning is a global agricultural activity that is a source of carbon and air quality emissions. Carbon and air quality emissions from crop residue burning in the contiguous U.S. (CONUS) were estimated for a five-year period, 2003 through 2007, using multispectral remote sensing-derived products. The atmospheric species that comprise the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) were selected as air quality emissions. CO2 emissions were also calculated due to its importance to global climate change. This analysis utilized multiple remote sensing data sets and products to quantify crop residue burning in CONUS, including multi-year crop type maps, an 8-day difference Normalized Burn Ratio product, and calibrated area estimates of cropland burning from 1 km MODIS Active Fire Points. Remote sensing products were combined in a GIS to quantify the location of cropland burning, burned area size, and associated crop type. A crop-specific emission factor database was compiled from the scientific literature. Fuel loads and combustion efficiency estimates were derived from the literature as well as from in-field collaborators. These data were combined to estimate crop residue burning emissions using the bottom-up methodology developed by Seiler and Crutzen (1980). This analysis found that an average of 1,239,000 ha of croplands burn each year in the CONUS. Florida, Arizona, Idaho, Utah, Washington, Arkansas, Louisiana, Oregon, California, and Colorado accounted for approximately 61% of the total crop residue burning. Crop residue burning is a significant fire activity in the CONUS, averaging 43% of the burned area reported for wildland fires in the U.S. (including Alaska and Hawaii). Crop residue burning was also found to be a significant source of emissions that negatively impacted air quality. Crop residue burning emissions occurred most often in summer and fall, with the exception of winter and early spring

  4. Inverse Estimation of California Methane Emissions and Their Uncertainties using FLEXPART-WRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Y.; Brioude, J. F.; Angevine, W. M.; McKeen, S. A.; Peischl, J.; Nowak, J. B.; Henze, D. K.; Bousserez, N.; Fischer, M. L.; Jeong, S.; Liu, Z.; Michelsen, H. A.; Santoni, G.; Daube, B. C.; Kort, E. A.; Frost, G. J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Wofsy, S. C.; Trainer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Methane (CH4) has a large global warming potential and mediates global tropospheric chemistry. In California, CH4 emissions estimates derived from "top-down" methods based on atmospheric observations have been found to be greater than expected from "bottom-up" population-apportioned national and state inventories. Differences between bottom-up and top-down estimates suggest that the understanding of California's CH4 sources is incomplete, leading to uncertainty in the application of regulations to mitigate regional CH4 emissions. In this study, we use airborne measurements from the California research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) campaign in 2010 to estimate CH4 emissions in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB), which includes California's largest metropolitan area (Los Angeles), and in the Central Valley, California's main agricultural and livestock management area. Measurements from 12 daytime flights, prior information from national and regional official inventories (e.g. US EPA's National Emission Inventory, the California Air Resources Board inventories, the Liu et al. Hybrid Inventory, and the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement dataset), and the FLEXPART-WRF transport model are used in our mesoscale Bayesian inverse system. We compare our optimized posterior CH4 inventory to the prior bottom-up inventories in terms of total emissions (Mg CH4/hr) and the spatial distribution of the emissions (0.1 degree), and quantify uncertainties in our posterior estimates. Our inversions show that the oil and natural gas industry (extraction, processing and distribution) is the main source accounting for the gap between top-down and bottom-up inventories over the SoCAB, while dairy farms are the largest CH4 source in the Central Valley. CH4 emissions of dairy farms in the San Joaquin Valley and variations of CH4 emissions in the rice-growing regions of Sacramento Valley are quantified and discussed. We also estimate CO and NH3 surface

  5. Effect of low emission sources on air quality in Cracow

    SciTech Connect

    Nedoma, J.

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents calculation of power engineering low emission and results of stimulation of the effect of this emission on air quality in Cracow, Poland. It has been stated that the segment of low emission in central areas of the town makes up ca. 40% of the observed concentration of sulfur dioxide. Furthermore it has been stated that the capital investment must be concentrated in the central part of the town in order to reach noticeable improvement of air quality in Cracow. Neither the output of a separate power source nor the emission level and its individual harmful effect, but the location of the source and especially packing density of the sources must decide the priority of upgrading actions.

  6. DYNAMIC EVALUATION OF REGIONAL AIR QUALITY MODELS: ASSESSING CHANGES TO O 3 STEMMING FROM CHANGES IN EMISSIONS AND METEOROLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional-scale air quality models are used to estimate the response of air pollutants to potential emission control strategies as part of the decision-making process. Traditionally, the model predicted pollutant concentrations are evaluated for the “base case” to assess a model’s...

  7. NOx emission estimates during the 2014 Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, J.; van der A, R. J.; Mijling, B.; Levelt, P. F.; Hao, N.

    2015-08-01

    The Nanjing Government applied temporary environmental regulations to guarantee good air quality during the Youth Olympic Games (YOG) in 2014. We study the effect of those regulations by applying the emission estimate algorithm DECSO (Daily Emission estimates Constrained by Satellite Observations) to measurements of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). We improved DECSO by updating the chemical transport model CHIMERE from v2006 to v2013 and by adding an Observation minus Forecast (OmF) criterion to filter outlying satellite retrievals due to high aerosol concentrations. The comparison of model results with both ground and satellite observations indicates that CHIMERE v2013 is better performing than CHIMERE v2006. After filtering the satellite observations with high aerosol loads that were leading to large OmF values, unrealistic jumps in the emission estimates are removed. Despite the cloudy conditions during the YOG we could still see a decrease of tropospheric NO2 column concentrations of about 32 % in the OMI observations when compared to the average NO2 columns from 2005 to 2012. The results of the improved DECSO algorithm for NOx emissions show a reduction of at least 25 % during the YOG period and afterwards. This indicates that air quality regulations taken by the local government have an effect in reducing NOx emissions. The algorithm is also able to detect an emission reduction of 10 % during the Chinese Spring Festival. This study demonstrates the capacity of the DECSO algorithm to capture the change of NOx emissions on a monthly scale. We also show that the observed NO2 columns and the derived emissions show different patterns that provide complimentary information. For example, the Nanjing smog episode in December 2013 led to a strong increase in NO2 concentrations without an increase in NOx emissions. Furthermore, DECSO gives us important information on the non-trivial seasonal relation between NOx emissions and NO2 concentrations on a local scale.

  8. Biofiltration: An innovative air pollution control technology for VOC emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Leson, G. ); Winer, A.M. )

    1991-08-01

    Biofiltration is a relatively recent air pollution control (APC) technology in which off-gases containing biodegradable volatile organic compounds (VOC) or inorganic air toxics are vented through a biologically active material. This technology has been successfully applied in Germany and The Netherlands in many full-scale applications to control odors, VOC and air toxic emissions from a wide range of industrial and public sector sources. Control efficiencies of more than 90 percent have been achieved for many common air pollutants. Due to lower operating costs, biofiltration can provide significant economic advantages over other APC technologies if applied to off-gases that contain readily biodegradable pollutants in low concentrations. Environmental benefits include low energy requirements and the avoidance of cross media transfer of pollutants. This paper reviews the history and current status of biofiltration, outlines its underlying scientific and engineering principles, and discusses the applicability of biofilters for a wide range of specific emission sources.

  9. Radionuclide air emissions annual report for calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-04-04

    This report presents the results of the Pinellas Plant air sampling program for the year of 1994. Topics discussed include: site description; source description; air emissions data; dose assessments; description of dose model; summary of input parameters of dose model; unplanned releases; and diffuse emissions. Included in the attachments of this document are: non-radon individual dose assessment; non-radon population dose assessment; summary of stack flow rate measurements; HOTSPOT computer model run; and meteorological data for the Pinellas Plant for 1994.

  10. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    SciTech Connect

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Price, Lynn

    2008-08-13

    Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emission inventory that identifies and quantifies the State's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion accounted for 80 percent of California GHG emissions (CARB, 2007a). Even though these CO2 emissions are well characterized in the existing state inventory, there still exist significant sources of uncertainties regarding their accuracy. This report evaluates the CO2 emissions accounting based on the California Energy Balance database (CALEB) developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in terms of what improvements are needed and where uncertainties lie. The estimated uncertainty for total CO2 emissions ranges between -21 and +37 million metric tons (Mt), or -6percent and +11percent of total CO2 emissions. The report also identifies where improvements are needed for the upcoming updates of CALEB. However, it is worth noting that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) GHG inventory did not use CALEB data for all combustion estimates. Therefore the range in uncertainty estimated in this report does not apply to the CARB's GHG inventory. As much as possible, additional data sources used by CARB in the development of its GHG inventory are summarized in this report for consideration in future updates to CALEB.

  11. Polarized radio emission from extensive air showers measured with LOFAR

    SciTech Connect

    Schellart, P.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J.E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J.R.; Krause, M.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J.P.; Veen, S. ter; Thoudam, S.

    2014-10-01

    We present LOFAR measurements of radio emission from extensive air showers. We find that this emission is strongly polarized, with a median degree of polarization of nearly 99%, and that the angle between the polarization direction of the electric field and the Lorentz force acting on the particles, depends on the observer location in the shower plane. This can be understood as a superposition of the radially polarized charge-excess emission mechanism, first proposed by Askaryan and the geomagnetic emission mechanism proposed by Kahn and Lerche. We calculate the relative strengths of both contributions, as quantified by the charge-excess fraction, for 163 individual air showers. We find that the measured charge-excess fraction is higher for air showers arriving from closer to the zenith. Furthermore, the measured charge-excess fraction also increases with increasing observer distance from the air shower symmetry axis. The measured values range from (3.3± 1.0)% for very inclined air showers at 25 m to (20.3± 1.3)% for almost vertical showers at 225 m. Both dependencies are in qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions.

  12. Physical Sciences Facility Air Emission Control Equivalency Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, David M.; Belew, Shan T.

    2008-10-17

    This document presents the adequacy evaluation for the application of technology standards during design, fabrication, installation and testing of radioactive air exhaust systems at the Physical Sciences Facility (PSF), located on the Horn Rapids Triangle north of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) complex. The analysis specifically covers the exhaust portion of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems associated with emission units EP-3410-01-S, EP-3420-01-S and EP 3430-01-S.

  13. Renewable Operating Permit Program Air Emission Fees

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  14. The Impact of Residential Combustion Emissions on Air Quality and Human Health in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer-Nicholls, S.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Baumgartner, J.; Brauer, M.; Cohen, A.; Carter, E.; Frostad, J.; Forouzanfar, M.; Xiao, Q.; Liu, Y.; Yang, X.; Hongjiang, N.; Kun, N.

    2015-12-01

    Solid fuel cookstoves are used heavily in rural China for both residential cooking and heating purposes. Their use contributes significantly to regional emissions of several key pollutants, including carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, oxides of nitrogen, and aerosol particles. The residential sector was responsible for approximately 36%, 46% and 81% of China's total primary PM2.5, BC and OC emissions respectively in 2005 (Lei et al., 2011). These emissions have serious consequences for household air pollution, ambient air quality, tropospheric ozone formation, and the resulting population health and climate impacts. This paper presents initial findings from the modeling component of a multi-disciplinary energy intervention study currently being conducted in Sichuan, China. The purpose of this effort is to quantify the impact of residential cooking and heating emissions on regional air quality and human health. Simulations with varying levels of residential emissions have been carried out for the whole of 2014 using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem), a fully-coupled, "online" regional chemical transport model. Model output is evaluated against surface air quality measurements across China and compared with seasonal (winter and summer) ambient air pollution measurements conducted at the Sichuan study site in 2014. The model output is applied to available exposure—response relationships between PM2.5 and cardiopulmonary health outcomes. The sensitivity in different regions across China to the different cookstove emission scenarios and seasonality of impacts are presented. By estimating the mortality and disease burden risk attributable to residential emissions we demonstrate the potential benefits from large-scale energy interventions. Lei Y, Zhang Q, He KB, Streets DG. 2011. Primary anthropogenic aerosol emission trends for China, 1990-2005. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11:931-954.

  15. Estimating methane emissions in California's urban and rural regions using multitower observations

    DOE PAGES

    Jeong, Seongeun; Newman, Sally; Zhang, Jingsong; ...

    2016-11-05

    Here, we present an analysis of methane (CH4) emissions using atmospheric observations from 36 thirteen sites in California during June 2013 – May 2014. A hierarchical Bayesian inversion 37 method is used to estimate CH4 emissions for spatial regions (0.3° pixels for major regions) by 38 comparing measured CH4 mixing ratios with transport model (WRF-STILT) predictions based 39 on seasonally varying California-specific CH4 prior emission models. The transport model is 40 assessed using a combination of meteorological and carbon monoxide (CO) measurements 41 coupled with the gridded California Air Resources Board (CARB) carbon monoxide (CO) 42 emission inventory. Hierarchical Bayesianmore » inversion suggests that state annual anthropogenic 43 CH4 emissions are 2.42 ± 0.49 Tg CH4/yr (at 95% confidence, including transport bias 44 uncertainty), higher (1.2 - 1.8 times) than the CARB current inventory (1.64 Tg CH4/yr in 2013). 45 We note that the estimated CH4 emissions drop to 1.0 - 1.6 times the CARB inventory if we 46 correct for the 10% median CH4 emissions assuming the bias in CO analysis is applicable to 47 CH4. The CH4 emissions from the Central Valley and urban regions (San Francisco Bay and 48 South Coast Air Basins) account for ~58% and 26% of the total posterior emissions, 49 respectively. This study suggests that the livestock sector is likely the major contributor to the 50 state total CH4 emissions, in agreement with CARB’s inventory. Attribution to source sectors for 51 sub-regions of California using additional trace gas species would further improve the 52 quantification of California’s CH4 emissions and mitigation efforts towards the California Global 53 Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB-32).« less

  16. Characterization of air freshener emission: the potential health effects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghwa; Hong, Seong-Ho; Bong, Choon-Keun; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2015-01-01

    Air freshener could be one of the multiple sources that release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the indoor environment. The use of these products may be associated with an increase in the measured level of terpene, such as xylene and other volatile air freshener components, including aldehydes, and esters. Air freshener is usually used indoors, and thus some compounds emitted from air freshener may have potentially harmful health impacts, including sensory irritation, respiratory symptoms, and dysfunction of the lungs. The constituents of air fresheners can react with ozone to produce secondary pollutants such as formaldehyde, secondary organic aerosol (SOA), oxidative product, and ultrafine particles. These pollutants then adversely affect human health, in many ways such as damage to the central nervous system, alteration of hormone levels, etc. In particular, the ultrafine particles may induce severe adverse effects on diverse organs, including the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems. Although the indoor use of air freshener is increasing, deleterious effects do not manifest for many years, making it difficult to identify air freshener-associated symptoms. In addition, risk assessment recognizes the association between air fresheners and adverse health effects, but the distinct causal relationship remains unclear. In this review, the emitted components of air freshener, including benzene, phthalate, and limonene, were described. Moreover, we focused on the health effects of these chemicals and secondary pollutants formed by the reaction with ozone. In conclusion, scientific guidelines on emission and exposure as well as risk characterization of air freshener need to be established.

  17. Use of air quality modeling results as exposure estimates in health studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, H. A.; Ivey, C.; Friberg, M.; Zhai, X.; Balachandran, S.; Hu, Y.; Russell, A. G.; Mulholland, J. A.; Tolbert, P. E.; Sarnat, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    Air pollutant measurements from regulatory monitoring networks are commonly utilized in combination with spatial averaging techniques to develop air quality metrics for use in epidemiologic studies. While these data provide useful indicators for air pollution in a region, their temporal and spatial information are limited. The growing availability of spatially resolved health data sets (i.e., resident and county level patient records) provides an opportunity to develop and apply corresponding spatially resolved air quality metrics as enhanced exposure estimates when investigating the impact of air pollution on health outcomes. Additionally, the measured species concentrations from monitoring networks cannot directly identify specific emission sources or characterize pollutant mixtures. However, these observations in combination with chemical transport models (e.g., CMAQ) and source apportionment methods (e.g., CMB and PMF) can be used to characterize pollutant mixtures, sources and species impacting both individual locations and wider areas. Extensive analysis using a combination of air quality modeling approaches and observations may be beneficial for health studies whose goal is to assess the health impacts of pollutant mixtures, in both spatially resolved and time-series health analyses. As part of the Southeastern Center for Air Pollution and Epidemiology (SCAPE) unique methods have been developed to effectively analyze air pollution and air quality modeling data to better understand how emission sources combine to impact air quality and to provide air quality metrics for use in health assessments. This presentation will discuss the air quality modeling techniques being utilized in SCAPE investigations that are aimed at providing enhanced exposure metrics for use in spatially resolved (state of Georgia) and time-series epidemiologic analyses (St. Louis and Atlanta). To generate spatially resolved daily air quality estimates of species concentrations and source

  18. Emissions estimation for lignite-fired power plants in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Nurten Vardar; Zehra Yumurtaci

    2010-01-15

    The major gaseous emissions (e.g. sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide), some various organic emissions (e.g. benzene, toluene and xylenes) and some trace metals (e.g. arsenic, cobalt, chromium, manganese and nickel) generated from lignite-fired power plants in Turkey are estimated. The estimations are made separately for each one of the thirteen plants that produced electricity in 2007, because the lignite-fired thermal plants in Turkey are installed near the regions where the lignite is mined, and characteristics and composition of lignite used in each power plant are quite different from a region to another. Emission factors methodology is used for the estimations. The emission factors obtained from well-known literature are then modified depending on local moisture content of lignite. Emission rates and specific emissions (per MWh) of the pollutants from the plants without electrostatic precipitators and flue-gas desulfurization systems are found to be higher than emissions from the plants having electrostatic precipitators and flue -gas desulfurization systems. Finally a projection for the future emissions due to lignite-based power plants is given. Predicted demand for the increasing generation capacity based on the lignite-fired thermal power plant, from 2008 to 2017 is around 30%. 39 refs., 13 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Year 2015 Aircraft Emission Scenario for Scheduled Air Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baughcum, Steven L.; Sutkus, Donald J.; Henderson, Stephen C.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the development of a three-dimensional scenario of aircraft fuel burn and emissions (fuel burned, NOx, CO, and hydrocarbons)for projected year 2015 scheduled air traffic. These emission inventories are available for use by atmospheric scientists conducting the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) modeling studies. Fuel burned and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx as NO2), carbon monoxides, and hydrocarbons have been calculated on a 1 degree latitude x 1 degree longitude x 1 kilometer altitude grid and delivered to NASA as electronic files.

  20. Ammonia emissions from an anaerobic digestion plant estimated using atmospheric measurements and dispersion modelling.

    PubMed

    Bell, Michael W; Tang, Y Sim; Dragosits, Ulrike; Flechard, Chris R; Ward, Paul; Braban, Christine F

    2016-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is becoming increasingly implemented within organic waste treatment operations. The storage and processing of large volumes of organic wastes through AD has been identified as a significant source of ammonia (NH3) emissions, however the totality of ammonia emissions from an AD plant have not been previously quantified. The emissions from an AD plant processing food waste were estimated through integrating ambient NH3 concentration measurements, atmospheric dispersion modelling, and comparison with published emission factors (EFs). Two dispersion models (ADMS and a backwards Lagrangian stochastic (bLS) model) were applied to calculate emission estimates. The bLS model (WindTrax) was used to back-calculate a total (top-down) emission rate for the AD plant from a point of continuous NH3 measurement downwind from the plant. The back-calculated emission rates were then input to the ADMS forward dispersion model to make predictions of air NH3 concentrations around the site, and evaluated against weekly passive sampler NH3 measurements. As an alternative approach emission rates from individual sources within the plant were initially estimated by applying literature EFs to the available site parameters concerning the chemical composition of waste materials, room air concentrations, ventilation rates, etc. The individual emission rates were input to ADMS and later tuned by fitting the simulated ambient concentrations to the observed (passive sampler) concentration field, which gave an excellent match to measurements after an iterative process. The total emission from the AD plant thus estimated by a bottom-up approach was 16.8±1.8mgs(-1), which was significantly higher than the back-calculated top-down estimate (7.4±0.78mgs(-1)). The bottom-up approach offered a more realistic treatment of the source distribution within the plant area, while the complexity of the site was not ideally suited to the bLS method, thus the bottom-up method is believed

  1. Objective Measure of Nasal Air Emission Using Nasal Accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    Cler, Meredith J.; Lien, Yu-An S.; Braden, Maia N.; Mittelman, Talia; Downing, Kerri

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This article describes the development and initial validation of an objective measure of nasal air emission (NAE) using nasal accelerometry. Method Nasal acceleration and nasal airflow signals were simultaneously recorded while an expert speech language pathologist modeled NAEs at a variety of severity levels. In addition, microphone and nasal accelerometer signals were collected during the production of /pɑpɑpɑpɑ/ speech utterances by 25 children with and without cleft palate. Fourteen inexperienced raters listened to the microphone signals from the pediatric speakers and rated the samples for the severity of NAE using direct magnitude estimation. Mean listener ratings were compared to a novel quantitative measurement of NAE derived from the nasal acceleration signals. Results Correlation between the nasal acceleration energy measure and the measured nasal airflow was high (r = .87). Correlation between the measure and auditory-perceptual ratings was moderate (r = .49). Conclusion The measure presented here is quantitative and noninvasive, and the required hardware is inexpensive ($150). Future studies will include speakers with a wider range of NAE severity and etiology, including cleft palate, hearing impairment, or dysarthria. Further development will also involve validation of the measure against airflow measures across subjects. PMID:27618145

  2. Impact of underestimating the effects of cold temperature on motor vehicle start emissions of air toxics in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cook, Richard; Touma, Jawad S; Fernandez, Antonio; Brzezinski, David; Bailey, Chad; Scarbro, Carl; Thurman, James; Strum, Madeleine; Ensley, Darrell; Baldauf, Richard

    2007-12-01

    Analyses of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certification data, California Air Resources Board surveillance testing data, and EPA research testing data indicated that EPA's MOBILE6.2 emission factor model substantially underestimates emissions of gaseous air toxics occurring during vehicle starts at cold temperatures for light-duty vehicles and trucks meeting EPA Tier 1 and later standards. An unofficial version of the MOBILE6.2 model was created to account for these underestimates. When this unofficial version of the model was used to project emissions into the future, emissions increased by almost 100% by calendar year 2030, and estimated modeled ambient air toxics concentrations increased by 6-84%, depending on the pollutant. To address these elevated emissions, EPA recently finalized standards requiring reductions of emissions when engines start at cold temperatures.

  3. Reconciling divergent estimates of oil and gas methane emissions

    PubMed Central

    Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Lyon, David R.; Alvarez, Ramón A.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Harriss, Robert; Herndon, Scott C.; Karion, Anna; Kort, Eric Adam; Lamb, Brian K.; Lan, Xin; Marchese, Anthony J.; Pacala, Stephen W.; Robinson, Allen L.; Shepson, Paul B.; Sweeney, Colm; Talbot, Robert; Townsend-Small, Amy; Yacovitch, Tara I.; Zimmerle, Daniel J.; Hamburg, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    Published estimates of methane emissions from atmospheric data (top-down approaches) exceed those from source-based inventories (bottom-up approaches), leading to conflicting claims about the climate implications of fuel switching from coal or petroleum to natural gas. Based on data from a coordinated campaign in the Barnett Shale oil and gas-producing region of Texas, we find that top-down and bottom-up estimates of both total and fossil methane emissions agree within statistical confidence intervals (relative differences are 10% for fossil methane and 0.1% for total methane). We reduced uncertainty in top-down estimates by using repeated mass balance measurements, as well as ethane as a fingerprint for source attribution. Similarly, our bottom-up estimate incorporates a more complete count of facilities than past inventories, which omitted a significant number of major sources, and more effectively accounts for the influence of large emission sources using a statistical estimator that integrates observations from multiple ground-based measurement datasets. Two percent of oil and gas facilities in the Barnett accounts for half of methane emissions at any given time, and high-emitting facilities appear to be spatiotemporally variable. Measured oil and gas methane emissions are 90% larger than estimates based on the US Environmental Protection Agency’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory and correspond to 1.5% of natural gas production. This rate of methane loss increases the 20-y climate impacts of natural gas consumed in the region by roughly 50%. PMID:26644584

  4. Reconciling divergent estimates of oil and gas methane emissions.

    PubMed

    Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Lyon, David R; Alvarez, Ramón A; Davis, Kenneth J; Harriss, Robert; Herndon, Scott C; Karion, Anna; Kort, Eric Adam; Lamb, Brian K; Lan, Xin; Marchese, Anthony J; Pacala, Stephen W; Robinson, Allen L; Shepson, Paul B; Sweeney, Colm; Talbot, Robert; Townsend-Small, Amy; Yacovitch, Tara I; Zimmerle, Daniel J; Hamburg, Steven P

    2015-12-22

    Published estimates of methane emissions from atmospheric data (top-down approaches) exceed those from source-based inventories (bottom-up approaches), leading to conflicting claims about the climate implications of fuel switching from coal or petroleum to natural gas. Based on data from a coordinated campaign in the Barnett Shale oil and gas-producing region of Texas, we find that top-down and bottom-up estimates of both total and fossil methane emissions agree within statistical confidence intervals (relative differences are 10% for fossil methane and 0.1% for total methane). We reduced uncertainty in top-down estimates by using repeated mass balance measurements, as well as ethane as a fingerprint for source attribution. Similarly, our bottom-up estimate incorporates a more complete count of facilities than past inventories, which omitted a significant number of major sources, and more effectively accounts for the influence of large emission sources using a statistical estimator that integrates observations from multiple ground-based measurement datasets. Two percent of oil and gas facilities in the Barnett accounts for half of methane emissions at any given time, and high-emitting facilities appear to be spatiotemporally variable. Measured oil and gas methane emissions are 90% larger than estimates based on the US Environmental Protection Agency's Greenhouse Gas Inventory and correspond to 1.5% of natural gas production. This rate of methane loss increases the 20-y climate impacts of natural gas consumed in the region by roughly 50%.

  5. Multipathway human health risk assessment concerning air emissions from combustion of Orimulsion fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Teaf, C.M.; Coleman, R.M.; Manning, M.J.; Covert, D.J.; Phelps, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    A multipathway human health risk assessment was conducted concerning air emissions from the combustion of Orimulsion. Exposure was considered for nearby residents who might be exposed by oral, dermal or inhalation pathways, including ingestion of analytes that may be present in meat and agricultural products from nearby areas. Occupational exposure were evaluated via the same intake pathways, except for potential ingestion of food products. Pathways included airborne exposures, deposition on crops, exposures to soils, and uptake by livestock and plants. Livestock intake included ingestion of analytes retained by plants and inhalation of soil-bound particulates. Analytes of potential concern included compounds identified as combustion products of the orimulsion fuel. Air concentrations of analytes, and the areal distribution of these concentrations resulting from stack emissions, were predicted using transport and deposition models. A worst cast scenario for air and cumulative soil concentrations was considered to represent the entire facility project lifetime (20 years) for dry deposition as well as predicted air concentrations occurring at continuous 100% facility operating capacity. Potential exposures to sulfuric acid mist and lead were shown to be much less than levels protective of human populations. Based upon the airborne emissions estimates and the deposition estimates for other constituents of interest, as well as the strongly conservative estimates of the potential for human intake, local health risks contributed from the combustion of Orimulsion fuel at the facility were judged to be negligible.

  6. New Directions: GEIA’s 2020 Vision for Better Air Emissions Information

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, G. J.; Middleton, Paulette; Tarrason, Leonor; Granier, Claire; Guenther, Alex B.; Cardenas, B.; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Keating, Terry; Klimont, Z.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Liousse, Catherine; Nickovic, S.; Ohara, Toshimasa; Schultz, Martin; Skiba, Ute; Wang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    We are witnessing a crucial change in how we quantify and understand emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants, with an increasing demand for science-based transparent emissions information produced by robust community efforts. Today’s scientific capabilities, with near-real-time in-situ and remote sensing observations combined with forward and inverse models and a better understanding of the controlling processes, are contributing to this transformation and providing new approaches to derive, verify, and forecast emissions (Tong et al., 2011; Frost et al., 2012) and to quantify their impacts on the environment (e.g., Bond et al., 2013). At the same time, the needs for emissions information and the demands for their accuracy and consistency have grown. Changing economies, demographics, agricultural practices, and energy sources, along with mandates to evaluate emissions mitigation efforts, demonstrate compliance with legislation, and verify treaties, are leading to new challenges in emissions understanding. To quote NOAA Senior Technical Scientist David Fahey, "We are in the Century of Accountability. Emissions information is critical not only for environmental science and decision-making, but also as an instrument of foreign policy and international diplomacy." Emissions quantification represents a key step in explaining observed variability and trends in atmospheric composition and in attributing these observed changes to their causes. Accurate emissions data are necessary to identify feasible controls that reduce adverse impacts associated with air quality and climate and to track the success of implemented policies. To progress further, the international community must improve the understanding of drivers and contributing factors to emissions, and it must strengthen connections among and within different scientific disciplines that characterize our environment and entities that protect the environment and influence further emissions. The Global

  7. Consequential life cycle air emissions externalities for plug-in electric vehicles in the PJM interconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, Allison; Jaramillo, Paulina; Michalek, Jeremy

    2016-02-01

    We perform a consequential life cycle analysis of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and conventional gasoline vehicles in the PJM interconnection using a detailed, normative optimization model of the PJM electricity grid that captures the change in power plant operations and related emissions due to vehicle charging. We estimate and monetize the resulting human health and environmental damages from life cycle air emissions for each vehicle technology. We model PJM using the most recent data available (2010) as well as projections of the PJM grid in 2018 and a hypothetical scenario with increased wind penetration. We assess a range of sensitivity cases to verify the robustness of our results. We find that PEVs have higher life cycle air emissions damages than gasoline HEVs in the recent grid scenario, which has a high percentage of coal generation on the margin. In particular, battery electric vehicles with large battery capacity can produce two to three times as much air emissions damage as gasoline HEVs, depending on charge timing. In our future 2018 grid scenarios that account for predicted coal plant retirements, PEVs would produce air emissions damages comparable to or slightly lower than HEVs.

  8. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction HEPA filtered vacuum radioactive air emission units

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, R.E.

    1999-09-01

    This notice of construction (NOC) requests a categorical approval for construction and operation of certain portable high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered vacuum radionuclide airborne emission units (HVUs). Approval of this NOC application is intended to allow operation of the HVUs without prior project-specific approval. This NOC does not request replacement or supersedence of any previous agreements/approvals by the Washington State Department of Health for the use of vacuums on the Hanford Site. These previous agreement/approvals include the approved NOCs for the use of EuroClean HEPA vacuums at the T Plant Complex (routine technical meeting 12/10/96) and the Kelly Decontamination System at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant (routine technical meeting 06/25/96). Also, this NOC does not replace or supersede the agreement reached regarding the use of HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners for routine cleanup activities conducted by the Environmental Restoration Project. Routine cleanup activities are conducted during the surveillance and maintenance of inactive waste sites (Radioactive Area Remedial Action Project) and inactive facilities. HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners are used to clean up spot surface contamination areas found during outdoor radiological field surveys, and to clean up localized radiologically contaminated material (e.g., dust, dirt, bird droppings, animal feces, liquids, insects, spider webs, etc.). This agreement, documented in the October 12, 1994 Routine Meeting Minutes, is based on routine cleanup consisting of spot cleanup of low-level contamination provided that, in each case, the source term potential would be below 0.1 millirem per year.

  9. AIR TOXICS EMISSIONS FROM A VINYL SHOWER CURTAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports results of both static and dynamic chamber tests conducted to evaluate emission characteristics of air toxics from a vinyl shower Curtain. (NOTE: Due to the relatively low price and ease of installation, vinyl shower curtains have been widely used in bathrooms i...

  10. VOC EMISSIONS FROM AN AIR FRESHENER IN THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes results of tests, conducted in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) large chamber facility, that investigated emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) from one electrical plug-in type air freshener with pine-scented refills. VOCs were measured ...

  11. Improving the City-scale Emission Inventory of Anthropogenic Air Pollutants: A Case Study of Nanjing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, L.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, R.; Xie, F.; Wang, H.; Qin, H.; Wu, X.; Zhang, J.

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the improvement of city-scale emission inventory, a high-resolution emission inventory of air pollutants for Nanjing is first developed combining detailed source information, and then justified through quantitative analysis with observations. The best available domestic emission factors and unit-/facility-based activity level data were compiled based on a thorough field survey on major emission sources. Totally 1089 individual emission sources were identified as point sources and all the emission-related parameters including burner type, combustion technology, fuel quality, and removal efficiency of pollution control devices, are carefully investigated and analyzed. Some new data such as detailed information of city fueling-gas stations, construction sites, monthly activity level, data from continuous emission monitoring systems and traffic flow information were combined to improve spatiotemporal distribution of this inventory. For SO2, NOX and CO, good spatial correlations were found between ground observation (9 state controlling air sampling sites in Nanjing) and city-scale emission inventory (R2=0.34, 0.38 and 0.74, respectively). For TSP, PM10 and PM2.5, however, poorer correlation was found due to relatively weaker accuracy in emission estimation and spatial distribution of road dust. The mixing ratios between specific pollutants including OC/EC, BC/CO and CO2/CO, are well correlated between those from ground observation and emission. Compared to MEIC (Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China), there is a better spatial consistence between this city-scale emission inventory and NO2 measured by OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument). In particular, the city-scale emission inventory still correlated well with satellite observations (R2=0.28) while the regional emission inventory showed little correlation with satellite observations (R2=0.09) when grids containing power plants are excluded. It thus confirms the improvement of city-scale emission

  12. How do emission patterns in megacities affect regional air pollution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heil, A.; Richter, C.; Schroeder, S.; Schultz, M. G.

    2010-12-01

    Megacities around the world show distinctly different emission patterns in terms of absolute amounts and emission ratios of individual chemical compounds due to varying socio-economic developments and technological standards. The emission patterns influence the chemical reactivity of the urban pollution plume, and hence determine air quality in and around megacity areas. In this study, which is part of the European project CITYZEN (megaCITY - Zoom for the ENvironment), the effects of emission changes in four selected megacity areas on air pollution were investigated: BeNeLux (BNL), Istanbul (IST), Pearl River Delta (PRD) and Sao Paulo (SAP). The study aims at answering the question: how would air pollution in megacity X change if it had the same urban emissions per capita as megacity Y? Model simulations with the global chemistry climate model ECHAM5-MOZ were carried out for the year 2001 using a resolution of about 2 degrees in the horizontal and of 31 levels (surface to 10 hPa) in the vertical. The model was driven by meteorological input data from the ECMWF ERA Interim reanalysis. Emissions were taken from the gridded global ACCMIP emission inventory recently established for use in chemistry-climate simulations in connection to the IPCC-AR5 assessments (Lamarque et al. 2010). We carried out sensitivity simulations where emission patterns from each of the megacity areas were replaced by those from all others. This was done on the basis of the per capita emissions for each species and sector averaged over the respective region. Total per capita CO and NMVOC emissions are highest in PRD and lowest in SAP while total per capita NOx emissions are highest in BNL and lowest in SAP. There are strong differences in the relative contribution of the urban sectors to total emissions of individual compounds. As a result, each of the four megacity areas exhibits a very characteristic NMVOC speciation profile which determines the NMVOC-related photochemical ozone (O_3

  13. An inventory of primary air pollutants and CO 2 emissions from cement production in China, 1990-2020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yu; Zhang, Qiang; Nielsen, Chris; He, Kebin

    2011-01-01

    Direct emissions of air pollutants from the cement industry in China were estimated by developing a technology-based methodology using information on the proportion of cement produced from different types of kilns and the emission standards for the Chinese cement industry. Historical emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO 2), nitrogen oxides (NO X), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM) and carbon dioxide (CO 2) were estimated for the years 1990-2008, and future emissions were projected up to 2020 based on current energy-related and emission control policies. Compared with the historical high (4.36 Tg of PM 2.5, 7.16 Tg of PM 10 and 10.44 Tg of TSP in 1997), PM emissions are predicted to drop substantially by 2020, despite the expected tripling of cement production. Certain other air pollutant emissions, such as CO and SO 2, are also predicted to decrease with the progressive closure of shaft kilns. NO X emissions, however, could increase because of the promotion of precalciner kilns and the rapid increase of cement production. CO 2 emissions from the cement industry account for approximately one eighth of China's national CO 2 emissions. Our analysis indicates that it is possible to reduce CO 2 emissions from this industry by approximately 12.8% if advanced energy-related technologies are implemented. These technologies will bring co-benefits in reducing other air pollutants as well.

  14. A new method for estimating greenhouse gases and ammonia emissions from livestock buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrancos, José; Briz, Susana; Nolasco, Dácil; Melián, Gladys; Padilla, Germán; Padrón, Eleazar; Fernández, Isabel; Pérez, Nemesio; Hernández, Pedro A.

    2013-08-01

    It is widely known that carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are the main greenhouse gases contributing to global climate change. Emission factors for the aforementioned gases have been proposed in order to calculate the contribution of livestock farming to global climate change. However, these emission factors depend on many additional factors such as the housing system, environmental conditions, etc., which implies some uncertainties in their estimation. Therefore, works that aim at improving experimental calculation of these emissions are crucial to provide reliable estimates of the emissions produced by livestock. The purpose of this work was to apply a new methodology inspired by the accumulation chamber method to estimate emission rates from livestock buildings. The work was based on measuring the increase of gas emissions inside the livestock building by means of the remote sensing technique Open-Path FTIR (OP-FTIR). Previously to the measurements, livestock building cattle was confined outside of the building. Utilization of fan ventilation system favoured the homogenization of air inside the building. This experiment proved that evolution of CH4 and CO2 concentrations inside the livestock building behaved like an accumulation chamber unlike the N2O which did not show such behaviour. Results showed CH4, CO2 and NH3 emissions of 167 ± 54,700 ± 200 and 1.3 ± 0.2 kg head-1 year-1, respectively. One of the main parameters affecting the estimated emission factors is the type of animal feeding. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the influence of food composition on CH4 and CO2 emission in a relative larger number of operating cattle buildings since the methodology herein proposed is an easy and cheap tool to study livestock emission factors and their variability.

  15. Model-based estimation of changes in air temperature seasonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Susana; Trigo, Ricardo

    2010-05-01

    Seasonality is a ubiquitous feature in climate time series. Climate change is expected to involve not only changes in the mean of climate parameters but also changes in the characteristics of the corresponding seasonal cycle. Therefore the identification and quantification of changes in seasonality is a highly relevant topic in climate analysis, particularly in a global warming context. However, the analysis of seasonality is far from a trivial task. A key challenge is the discrimination between long-term changes in the mean and long-term changes in the seasonal pattern itself, which requires the use of appropriate statistical approaches in order to be able to distinguish between overall trends in the mean and trends in the seasons. Model based approaches are particularly suitable for the analysis of seasonality, enabling to assess uncertainties in the amplitude and phase of seasonal patterns within a well defined statistical framework. This work addresses the changes in the seasonality of air temperature over the 20th century. The analysed data are global air temperature values close to surface (2m above ground) and mid-troposphere (500 hPa geopotential height) from the recently developed 20th century reanalysis. This new 3-D Reanalysis dataset is available since 1891, considerably extending all other Reanalyses currently in use (e.g. NCAR, ECWMF), and was obtained with the Ensemble Filter (Compo et al., 2006) by assimilation of pressure observations into a state-of-the-art atmospheric general circulation model that includes the radiative effects of historical time-varying CO2 concentrations, volcanic aerosol emissions and solar output variations. A modeling approach based on autoregression (Barbosa et al, 2008; Barbosa, 2009) is applied within a Bayesian framework for the estimation of a time varying seasonal pattern and further quantification of changes in the amplitude and phase of air temperature over the 20th century. Barbosa, SM, Silva, ME, Fernandes, MJ

  16. Air pollution response to changing weather and power plant emissions in the eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomer, Bryan Jaye

    Air pollution in the eastern United States causes human sickness and death as well as damage to crops and materials. NOX emission reduction is observed to improve air quality. Effectively reducing pollution in the future requires understanding the connections between smog, precursor emissions, weather, and climate change. Numerical models predict global warming will exacerbate smog over the next 50 years. My analysis of 21 years of CASTNET observations quantifies a climate change penalty. I calculate, for data collected prior to 2002, a climate penalty factor of ˜3.3 ppb O3/°C across the power plant dominated receptor regions in the rural, eastern U.S. Recent reductions in NOX emissions decreased the climate penalty factor to ˜2.2 ppb O3/°C. Prior to 1995, power plant emissions of CO2, SO2, and NOX were estimated with fuel sampling and analysis methods. Currently, emissions are measured with continuous monitoring equipment (CEMS) installed directly in stacks. My comparison of the two methods show CO 2 and SO2 emissions are ˜5% lower when inferred from fuel sampling; greater differences are found for NOX emissions. CEMS are the method of choice for emission inventories and commodity trading and should be the standard against which other methods are evaluated for global greenhouse gas trading policies. I used CEMS data and applied chemistry transport modeling to evaluate improvements in air quality observed by aircraft during the North American electrical blackout of 2003. An air quality model produced substantial reductions in O3, but not as much as observed. The study highlights weaknesses in the model as commonly used for evaluating a single day event and suggests areas for further investigation. A new analysis and visualization method quantifies local-daily to hemispheric-seasonal scale relationships between weather and air pollution, confirming improved air quality despite increasing temperatures across the eastern U.S. Climate penalty factors indicate

  17. First emission estimates from the UK DECC network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Aoife; O'Doherty, Simon; Manning, Alistair J.; Young, Dickon; Simmonds, Peter G.; Derwent, Richard G.; Moncrieff, John B.; Oram, David E.; Sturges, William T.

    2013-04-01

    The UK DECC (Deriving Emissions linked to Climate Change) network monitors the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases to assess the impact of international policies related to climate change. The effects of control measures on greenhouse gases introduced under the Kyoto Protocol are now being observed. Continued monitoring is required to assess the overall success of the Protocol. For over 25 years the UK Government has funded high-frequency measurements of greenhouse gases at Mace Head, a global background measurement station on the west coast of Ireland. These in-situ, high-frequency, high-precision measurements are used to estimate emissions of greenhouse gases across the UK using the inversion methodology InTEM (Inversion Technique for Emission Modelling). InTEM links the Met Office's atmospheric dispersion model, NAME (Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment), with the Mace Head observations and provides independent verification of bottom up (inventory) emission estimates. In 2011 the UK government (Department of Energy and Climate Change) funded the establishment and integration of three new tall tower measurements stations in the UK, to allow enhanced resolution emission estimates with decreased uncertainty to be produced using InTEM. The new network became operational in 2012. All three additional stations provide ultra high-frequency (1 sec) data of CO2 and CH4 using the Picarro© Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer and high frequency (10 min) measurements of N2O and SF6 from custom built sample modules with GC-ECD. We will present the new UK measurement network in detail along with the new inversion results highlighting the enhanced resolution in regional emission maps for the UK. These results are presented to the UK government annually and provide independent verification of the emission estimates of radiatively active trace gases. The results are compared to the bottom up inventory emission estimates as submitted to the UNFCCC.

  18. Estimation of light duty vehicle emissions in Islamabad and climate co-benefits of improved emission standards implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Izhar Hussain; Zeeshan, Muhammad

    2016-02-01

    Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs) hold a major share in Islamabad's vehicle fleet and their contribution towards air pollution has not been analyzed previously. Emissions for the base year (2014) and two optimistic 'what-if' scenarios were estimated by using the International Vehicle Emissions (IVE) model. Considering the recent implementation of Euro II as emission standard in Pakistan, scenario 1 assumed entire LDV fleet meeting at least Euro II standards while scenario 2 assumed all LDVs meeting Euro IV standards except motorcycles which would be meeting Euro III emission standards. Higher average age for all vehicles and lower share of Euro compliant vehicles was found in the base case. Low engine stress mode (lower speeds with frequent decelerations) was observed for all vehicles especially on arterials and residential roads. Highest overall emissions (59%) were observed on arterials, followed by residential roads (24%) and highways (17%) with higher emissions observed during morning (8-10 am) and evening (4-6 pm) rush hours. Composite emission factors were also calculated. Results reveal that 1094, 147, 11.1, 0.2 and 0.4 kt of CO2, CO, NOx, SO2 and PM10 respectively were emitted in 2014 by LDVs. Compared with the base year, scenario 1 showed a reduction of 9%, 69%, 73%, 13% and 31%, while scenario 2 exhibited a reduction of 5%, 92%, 90%, 92% and 81% for CO2, CO, NOx, SO2 and PM10 respectively. As compared to the base year, a 20 year CO2-equivalent Global Warming Potential (GWP) reduced by 55% and 64% under scenario 1 and 2 respectively, while a 100 year GWP reduced by 40% and 44% under scenario 1 and 2 respectively. Our results demonstrated significant co-benefits that could be achieved in emission reduction and air quality improvement in the city by vehicle technology implementation.

  19. Trans-boundary Air Quality and Health Impacts of Emissions in Various Regions in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Yim, S. H. L.

    2015-12-01

    In last few decades, China has gone through a rapid development, resulting in urbanization and industrialization. However, the abundant economic achievements were gained at the cost of a sharp deterioration of air quality. Previous research has reported the adverse health outcome from outdoor air pollution in China. Nevertheless, the trans-boundary air quality and health impacts due to emissions in various regions in China have yet fully understood. Our study aims to comprehensively apportion the attribution of emissions in seven regions in China, which are defined based on their geographical locations, to air pollutions, as well as the resultant health impacts in their local areas and other regions, provinces, and cities in China. A regional air quality model is applied to simulate the physical and chemical processes of various pollutants in the atmosphere. The resultant health outcome, such as premature death, is estimated by using the concentration-response functions reported in the literature. We anticipate that our results would serve as a critical reference for research community and policy makers to mitigate the air quality and health impacts of emissions in China.

  20. Factorization of air pollutant emissions: projections versus observed trends in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rafaj, Peter; Amann, Markus; Siri, José G

    2014-10-01

    This paper revisits the emission scenarios of the European Commission's 2005 Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution (TSAP) in light of today's knowledge. We review assumptions made in the past on the main drivers of emission changes, i.e., demographic trends, economic growth, changes in the energy intensity of GDP, fuel-switching, and application of dedicated emission control measures. Our analysis shows that for most of these drivers, actual trends have not matched initial expectations. Observed ammonia and sulfur emissions in European Union in 2010 were 10% to 20% lower than projected, while emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter exceeded estimates by 8% to 15%. In general, a higher efficiency of dedicated emission controls compensated for a lower-than-expected decline in total energy consumption as well as a delay in the phase-out of coal. For 2020, updated projections anticipate lower sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions than those under the 2005 baseline, whereby the degree to which these emissions are lower depends on what assumptions are made for emission controls and new vehicle standards. Projected levels of particulates are about 10% higher, while smaller differences emerge for other pollutants. New emission projections suggest that environmental targets established by the TSAP for the protection of human health, eutrophication and forest acidification will not be met without additional measures.

  1. Biomass burning emissions estimates in the boreal forests of Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, E. A.; Ivanova, G. A.; Soja, A. J.; Conard, S. G.

    2012-04-01

    Wildfire is the main boreal forest disturbance and can burn 10-30 million hectares annually, thus modifying the global carbon budget through direct fire emissions, postfire biogenic emissions, and by maintaining or altering ecosystems through establishing the beginning and end of successional processes. Fires in the Russian boreal forest range from low-severity surface fires to high-severity crown fires. Estimates of carbon emissions from fires in Russian boreal forests vary substantially due to differences in ecosystems types, burned area calculations, and the amount of fuel consumed. There is an urgent need to obtain more accurate and impartial fire carbon loss estimates in the boreal forests of Siberia due to their considerable contribution to the regional and global carbon balance. We examined uncertainties in estimates of carbon emissions. Area burned in the Siberian region was analyzed and compared using distinct methodologies. Differences between mapped ecosystems were also compared and contrasted to evaluate the potential for error resulting from disparate vegetation structure and fuel consumption estimates. Accurate fuel consumption estimates are obtained in the course of fire experiments with pre- and post-fire biomass measuring. Our large-scale experiments carried out in the course of the FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project provided quantitative and qualitative data on ecosystem state and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior in major forest types of Siberia that could be used to verify large-scale carbon emissions estimates. Carbon emissions from fires vary annually and interannually and can increase several times in extreme fire years in comparison to normal fire years. Climate change and increasing drought length have increased the probability of high-severity fire occurrences. This would result in greater carbon losses and efflux to the atmosphere. This research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, Fulbright

  2. Uncertainty for data with non-detects: Air toxic emissions from combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Y.C.; Frey, H.C.

    2006-12-15

    Air toxic emission factor datasets often contain one or more points below a single or multiple detection limits and such datasets are referred to as 'censored.' Conventional methods used to deal with censored datasets include removing non-detects, replacing the censored points with zero, half of the detection limit, or the detection limit. However, the estimated means of the censored dataset by conventional methods are usually biased. Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and bootstrap simulation have been demonstrated as a statistically robust method to quantify variability and uncertainty of censored datasets and can provide asymptotically unbiased mean estimates. The MLE/bootstrap method is applied to 16 cases of censored air toxic emission factors, including benzene, formaldehyde, benzo(a)pyrene, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, total chromium, chromium VI and lead from coal, fuel oil, and/or wood waste external combustion sources. The proportion of censored values in the emission factor data ranges from 4 to 80%. Key factors that influence the estimated uncertainty in the mean of censored data are sample size and inter-unit variability. The largest range of uncertainty in the mean was obtained for the external coal combustion benzene emission factor, with 95 confidence interval of the mean equal to minus 93 to plus 411%.

  3. Energy use, emissions and air pollution reduction strategies in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Foell, W.; Green, C.; Sarkar, A.; Legler, J.

    1995-12-31

    The pace of economic progress and development experienced in many Asian countries has not occurred without costs to the natural environment. In particular, energy policies and technologies are a primary driving force behind air pollution problems arising from air pollution emissions in Asia. Economic growth, energy use, and reliance on fossil fuels are experiencing extremely high growth throughout most of the continent. Electric power expansion plans in many countries of Asia, particularly China and India, call for substantial increases in coal combustion. In the 1990`s, two-thirds of all power related investments in developing countries will be in Asia. In contrast to the situation in Europe and North America, emissions of air pollution species in Asia are increasing rapidly, resulting in both local air pollution problems and higher acidic deposition in many regions. In general, most Asian countries do not have a strong scientific nor public constituency for addressing potentially serious air pollution problems impacting important economic and cultural activities such as forestry, agriculture, and tourism. The complex political ramifications of trans-boundary air pollution in Asia have not yet begun to be addressed.

  4. European Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound emissions estimate using MEGAN v2.10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawoud, M.; Pozzoli, L.; Unal, A.; Kindap, T.; Poupkou, A.; Katragou, E.; Melas, D.

    2013-12-01

    Biogenic emissions estimations are essential to obtain a comprehensive understanding of both anthropogenic and biogenic contributions of the emissions. In this paper we have calculated the Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) emissions from vegetation over Europe using the newly developed Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature version 2.10 (MEGAN2.10). We performed a simulation of the entire year 2008 for a domain covering all Europe at a resolution of 30 x 30 km. The meteorological fields needed to calculate the BVOC emissions (surface temperature and shortwave radiation) were provided by a WRFv3.3 simulation (driven by NCEP/FNL global reanalysis data at 1° x 1°) and interfaced to MEGAN with MCIPv3.6. We used the global dataset provided with the MEGAN2.10 model containing the Plant Functional Types (PFT, at 0.5° x 0.5°), Leaf Area Indices (LAI, at 30s resolution) and Emission Factors (EF, at 0.01° x 0.01°). The motivation behind this study is to quantify the biogenic emissions as calculated from the new version of MEGAN over Europe for the entire annual cycle, and in second step to quantify the impact of biogenic emissions on air quality, using the Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ). Isoprene emissions comprise about half of the total global biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) estimated using MEGAN2.10, while all Terpenes comprise about 18% of the estimated total global BVOC emissions. Our simulations showed that Isoprene emissions are ranging from 10.7 Gg/month in December to 6572.8 Gg/month over Europe in July, while Terpenes emissions range from 38 Gg/month in January and 1598.23 Gg/month in July. Around 15 Tg/year and 5 Tg/year are estimated as total annual emissions of Isoprene and Terpenes, respectively. In comparison with a previous study using the Natural Emission Model (NEMO), for the same period and the similar domain and resolution, for July we found 70% higher Isoprene emissions and 30% lower Terpenes emissions

  5. Estimation of atmospheric emissions of six semivolatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in southern Canada and the United States by use of an emissions processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Elisabeth Galarneau; Paul A. Makar; Mourad Sassi; Miriam L. Diamond

    2007-06-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic compounds that are ubiquitous in the atmospheric environment. The input for an emissions processing system that was originally configured for the study of criteria air pollutants was updated to calculate emissions of six semivolatile PAHs. The goal of the work was to produce emissions estimates with the spatial and temporal resolution needed to serve as input to a regional air quality model for southern Canada and the U.S. The total annual emission of the six PAHs ({Sigma}6PAH) for both countries was estimated at 18,273 Mg/year. A total of 90% of these emissions arise from U.S. sources. The top six source types account for 73% of emissions and are related to metal production, open burning, incineration, and forest fires. Other sources include coal-fired boilers, diesel and gasoline vehicles, oxygen furnaces, and iron sintering. The emission factors used in this study were derived from published compilations. Although this approach has the advantage of quality control during the compilation process, some compilations include factors from older studies that may overestimate emissions since they do not account for recent improvements in emission control technology. When compared to estimates published in the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) for 2002, the U.S. emissions in this study are higher by a factor of 4. Much of the difference is likely due to use of data unavailable in the 2002 NEI but inferred here on the basis of the PAH emissions literature. Augmenting the 2002 NEI with this additional information would bring its reported annual emissions to 8213 Mg/year, which is within a factor of 2 of the estimates made by the authors. 17 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the PNNL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Ted M.; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2010-05-25

    This document of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, EPA, QA/G4, 2/2006 (EPA 2006) as well as several other published DQOs. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is in the process of developing a radiological air monitoring program for the PNNL Site that is distinct from that of the nearby Hanford Site. Radiological emissions at the PNNL Site result from Physical Sciences Facility (PSF) major emissions units. A team was established to determine how the PNNL Site would meet federal regulations and address guidelines developed to monitor and estimate offsite air emissions of radioactive materials. The result is a program that monitors the impact to the public from the PNNL Site.

  7. AirCRED : the rationale and structure of a tool for estimating air pollutant reduction credits for alternative fuel vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Saricks, C. L.; Energy Systems

    2002-01-01

    Primarily to assist the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities coalitions in estimating the net benefits of reducing air pollutant emissions gained by acquiring original equipment manufacture (OEM) alternativefuel vehicles (AFVs), Argonne National Laboratory has developed a graphical user interface-based benefit calculation model called AirCred. The application of this modeling tool has been extended to the estimation of state implementation plan credits for AFVs that may be claimed in nonattainment and maintenance regions for ozone and carbon monoxide. The tool also has been approved for and applied to the quantification of projected program benefits in applications for grant support to purchase OEM AFVs under the U.S. Department of Transportation's Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Program. First, the model's founding principles and relatively simple mechanics are presented, accompanied by graphic displays of data input screens and comparative results for various vehicular categories. Current and future plans are cited for enhancement of the tool, including its respecification for consistency with MOBILE6 and for air planning in the yet-to-be-designated nonattainment areas for ambient particulate matter of 2.5 {mu}m and smaller. Then some issues and controversies about how and where AirCred should be applied are chronicled. Finally, some example applications are presented to illustrate the residual benefits of AFVs over time relative to their conventionally fueled counterparts of the same (recent) model year. Results indicate that AFVs of certain categories will remain viable and attractive candidates for reducing air emissions in ozone and carbon monoxide air quality control regions well into the future.

  8. Emissions of CO2 and criteria air pollutants from mobile sources: Insights from integrating real-time traffic data into local air quality models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gately, Conor; Hutyra, Lucy

    2016-04-01

    In 2013, on-road mobile sources were responsible for over 26% of U.S. fossil fuel carbon dioxide (ffCO2) emissions, and over 34% of both CO and NOx emissions. However, accurate representations of these emissions at the scale of urban areas remains a difficult challenge. Quantifying emissions at the scale of local streets and highways is critical to provide policymakers with the information needed to develop appropriate mitigation strategies and to guide research into the underlying process that drive mobile emissions. Quantification of vehicle ffCO2 emissions at high spatial and temporal resolutions requires a detailed synthesis of data on traffic activity, roadway attributes, fleet characteristics and vehicle speeds. To accurately characterize criteria air pollutant emissions, information on local meteorology is also critical, as the temperature and relative humidity can affect emissions rates of these pollutants by as much as 400%. As the health impacts of air pollutants are more severe for residents living in close proximity (<500m) to road sources, it is critical that inventories of these emissions rely on highly resolved source data to locate potential hot-spots of exposure. In this study we utilize real-time GPS estimates of vehicle speeds to estimate ffCO2 and criteria air pollutant emissions at multiple spatial and temporal scales across a large metropolitan area. We observe large variations in emissions associated with diurnal activity patterns, congestion, sporting and civic events, and weather anomalies. We discuss the advantages and challenges of using highly-resolved source data to quantify emissions at a roadway scale, and the potential of this methodology for forecasting the air quality impacts of changes in infrastructure, urban planning policies, and regional climate.

  9. Emissions of CO2 and criteria air pollutants from mobile sources: Insights from integrating real-time traffic data into local air quality models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gately, C.; Hutyra, L.; Sue Wing, I.; Peterson, S.; Janetos, A.

    2015-12-01

    In 2013, on-road mobile sources were responsible for over 26% of U.S. fossil fuel carbon dioxide (ffCO2) emissions, and over 34% of both CO and NOx emissions. However, accurate representations of these emissions at the scale of urban areas remains a difficult challenge. Quantifying emissions at the scale of local streets and highways is critical to provide policymakers with the information needed to develop appropriate mitigation strategies and to guide research into the underlying process that drive mobile emissions. Quantification of vehicle ffCO2 emissions at high spatial and temporal resolutions requires a detailed synthesis of data on traffic activity, roadway attributes, fleet characteristics and vehicle speeds. To accurately characterize criteria air pollutant emissions, information on local meteorology is also critical, as the temperature and relative humidity can affect emissions rates of these pollutants by as much as 400%. As the health impacts of air pollutants are more severe for residents living in close proximity (<500m) to road sources, it is critical that inventories of these emissions rely on highly resolved source data to locate potential hot-spots of exposure. In this study we utilize real-time GPS estimates of vehicle speeds to estimate ffCO2 and criteria air pollutant emissions at multiple spatial and temporal scales across a large metropolitan area. We observe large variations in emissions associated with diurnal activity patterns, congestion, sporting and civic events, and weather anomalies. We discuss the advantages and challenges of using highly-resolved source data to quantify emissions at a roadway scale, and the potential of this methodology for forecasting the air quality impacts of changes in infrastructure, urban planning policies, and regional climate.

  10. Fire Emissions Estimates in Siberia: Evaluation of Uncertainties in Area Burned, Land Cover, and Fuel Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, E.; Soja, A. J.; Ivanova, G. A.; Petkov, A.; Ponomarev, E. I.; Conard, S. G.

    2012-12-01

    Wildfire is one of the main disturbance factors in the boreal zone of Russia. Fires in the Russian boreal forest range from low-severity surface fires to high-severity crown fires. Estimates of carbon emissions from fires in Russia vary substantially due to differences in ecosystem classification and mapping, burned area calculations, and estimates of fuel consumption. We examined uncertainties in different parameters used to estimate biomass burning emissions. Several fire datasets (Institute of Forest burned area product, MCD45, MCD64, MOD14/MYD14, official data) were compared to estimate uncertainties in area burned in Siberia. Area burned was found to differ significantly by data source, with satellite data being by an order of magnitude greater than ground-based data. Differences between mapped ecosystems were also compared and contrasted on the basis of five land cover maps (GLC-2000, Globcover-2009, MODIS Collection 4 and 5 Global Land Cover, and the Digitized Ecosystem map of the Former Soviet Union) to evaluate the potential for error resulting from disparate vegetation structure and fuel consumption estimates. The examination of land cover maps showed that estimates of relative proportion of fire by ecosystem type varied substantially for the same year from map to map. Fuel consumption remains one of the main uncertainties in estimates of biomass burning emissions in Siberia. Accurate fuel consumption estimates are obtained in the course of fire experiments with pre- and post-fire biomass measuring. Our large-scale experiments carried out in the course of the FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project provided quantitative and qualitative data on ecosystem state and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior in major forest types of Siberia that could be used to verify large-scale carbon emissions estimates. Global climate change is expected to result in increase of fire hazard and area burned, leading to impacts on global air

  11. Estimating emissions of toxic hydrocarbons from natural gas production sites in the Barnett Shale region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, J. E.; Townsend-Small, A.; Lyon, D. R.; Tsai, T.; Meinardi, S.; Blake, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Throughout the past decade, shale gas operations have moved closer to urban centers and densely populated areas, contributing to growing public concerns regarding exposure to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). These HAPs include gases like hexane, 1,3-butadiene and BTEX compounds, which can cause minor health effects from short-term exposure or possibly cancer due to prolonged exposure. During the Barnett Shale Coordinated Campaign in October, 2013, ground-based whole air samples revealed enhancements in several of these toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) downwind of natural gas well pads and compressor stations. Two methods were used to estimate the emission rate of several HAPs in the Barnett Shale. The first method utilized CH4 flux measurements derived from the Picarro Mobile Flux Plane (MFP) and taken concurrently with whole air samples, while the second used a CH4 emissions inventory developed for the Barnett Shale region. From these two approaches, the regional emission estimate for benzene (C6H6) ranged from 48 ± 16 to 84 ± 26 kg C6H6 hr-1. A significant regional source of atmospheric benzene is evident, despite measurement uncertainty and limited number of samples. The extent to which these emission rates equate to a larger public health risk is unclear, but is of particular interest as natural gas productions continues to expand.

  12. Ambient and Emission Trends of Toxic Air Contaminants in California.

    PubMed

    Propper, Ralph; Wong, Patrick; Bui, Son; Austin, Jeff; Vance, William; Alvarado, Álvaro; Croes, Bart; Luo, Dongmin

    2015-10-06

    After initiating a toxic air contaminant (TAC) identification and control program in 1984, the California Air Resources Board adopted regulations to reduce TAC emissions from cars, trucks, stationary sources, and consumer products. This study quantifies ambient concentration and emission trends for the period 1990-2012 for seven TACs that are responsible for most of the known cancer risk associated with airborne exposure in California. Of these seven, diesel particulate matter (DPM) is the most important; however DPM is not measured directly. Based on a novel surrogate method, DPM concentrations declined 68%, even though the state's population increased 31%, diesel vehicle-miles-traveled increased 81%, and the gross state product (GSP) increased 74%. Based on monitoring data, concentrations of benzene, 1,3-butadiene, perchloroethylene, and hexavalent chromium declined 88-94%. Also, the ambient and emissions trends for each of these four TACs were similar. Furthermore, these declines generally occurred earlier in California than elsewhere. However, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, which are formed in the air photochemically from volatile organic compounds (VOCs), declined only 20-21%. The collective cancer risk from exposure to these seven reviewed TACs declined 76%. Significant reduction in cancer risk to California residents from implementation of air toxics controls (especially for DPM) is expected to continue.

  13. A comparison of emissions estimated in the TRANSMIS approach with those estimated from continuous speeds and accelerations

    SciTech Connect

    Willians, M.D.; Thayer, G.; Smith, L.

    1998-12-31

    TRANSIMS is a simulation system for the analysis of transportation options in metropolitan areas. Its major functional components are: (1) a population disaggregation module, (2) a travel planning module, (3) a regional microsimulation module, and (4) an environmental module. In addition to the major functional components, it includes a strong underpinning of simulation science and an analyst`s toolbox. The purpose of the environmental module is to translate traveler behavior into consequent air quality. The environmental module uses information from the TRANSIMS planner and the microsimulation and it supports the analyst`s toolbox. Transportation systems play a significant role in urban air quality, energy consumption and carbon-dioxide emissions. Recently, it has been found that current systems for estimating emissions of pollutants from transportation devices lead to significant inaccuracies. Most of the existing emission modules use very aggregate representations of traveler behavior and attempt to estimate emissions on typical driving cycles. However, recent data suggest that typical driving cycles produce relatively low emissions with most emissions coming from off-cycle driving, cold-starts, malfunctioning vehicles, and evaporative emissions. Furthermore, some portions of the off-cycle driving such as climbing steep grades are apt to be correlated with major meteorological features such as downslope winds. These linkages are important, but they are not systematically treated in the current modeling systems. The TRANSIMS system holds the promise of a more complete description of the role of heterogeneity in transportation in emission estimation. The TRANSIMS micro-simulation produces second by second vehicle positions defined by 7.5 meter cell locations. An approach has been used to convert average cell populations and average transitions between cells into fine-grained distributions of speeds and accelerations. This paper describes the approach and compares

  14. Modelling of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Marianne

    2011-06-01

    Cosmic rays entering the Earth's atmosphere induce extensive air showers consisting of up to billions of secondary particles. Among them, a multitude of electrons and positrons are generated. These get deflected in the Earth's magnetic field, creating time-varying transverse currents. Thereby, the air shower emits coherent radiation in the MHz frequency range measured by radio antenna arrays on the ground such as LOPES at the KIT. This detection method provides a possibility to study cosmic rays with energies above 1017 eV. At this time, the radio technique undergoes the change from prototype experiments to large scale application. Thus, a detailed understanding of the radio emission process is needed more than ever. Before starting this work, different models made conflicting predictions on the pulse shape and the amplitude of the radio signal. It turned out that a radiation component caused by the variation of the number of charged particles within the air shower was missed in several models. The Monte Carlo code REAS2 superposing the radiation of the individual air shower electrons and positrons was one of those. At this time, it was not known how to take the missing component into account. For REAS3, we developed and implemented the endpoint formalism, a universal approach, to calculate the radiation from each single particle. For the first time, we achieve a good agreement between REAS3 and MGMR, an independent and completely different simulation approach. In contrast to REAS3, MGMR is based on a macroscopic approach and on parametrisations of the air shower. We studied the differences in the underlying air shower models to explain the remaining deviations. For comparisons with LOPES data, we developed a new method which allows "top-down" simulations of air showers. From this, we developed an air shower selection criterion based on the number of muons measured with KASCADE to take shower-to-shower fluctuations for a single event analysis into account. With

  15. Estimation of nitrous oxide emissions from US grasslands

    SciTech Connect

    Mummey, D.L.; Smith, J.L.; Bluhm, G.

    2000-02-01

    Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from temperate grasslands are poorly quantified and may be an important part of the atmospheric N{sub 2}O budget. In this study N{sub 2}O emissions were simulated for 1,052 grassland sites in the US using the NGAS model of Parton and others (1996) coupled with an organic matter decomposition model. N{sub 2}O flux was calculated for each site using soil and land use data obtained from the National Resource Inventory (NRI) database and weather data obtained from NASA. The estimates were regionalized based upon temperature and moisture isotherms. Annual N{sub 2}O emissions for each region were based on the grassland area of each region and the mean estimated annual N{sub 2}O flux from NRI grassland sites in the region. The regional fluxes ranged from 0.18 to 1.02 kg N{sub 2}O N/ha/yr with the mean flux for all regions being 0.29 kg N{sub 2}O N/ha/yr. Even though fluxes from the western regions were relatively low, these regions made the largest contribution to total emissions due to their large grassland area. Total US grassland N{sub 2}O emissions were estimated to be about 67 Gg N{sub 2}O N/yr. Emissions from the Great Plains states, which contain the largest expanse of natural grassland in the US, were estimated to average 0.24 kg N{sub 2}O N/ha/yr. Using the annual flux estimate for the temperate Great Plains, the authors estimate that temperate grasslands worldwide may potentially produce 0.27 Tg N{sub 2}O N/yr. Even though the estimate for global temperate grassland N{sub 2}O emissions is less than published estimates for other major temperate grasslands are a significant part of both United States and global atmospheric N{sub 2}O budgets. This study demonstrates the utility of models for regional N{sub 2}O budgets. This study demonstrates the utility of models for regional N{sub 2}O flux estimation although additional data from carefully designed field studies is needed to further validate model results.

  16. Comparison of air pollutant emissions among mega-cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrish, David D.; Kuster, William C.; Shao, Min; Yokouchi, Yoko; Kondo, Yutaka; Goldan, Paul D.; de Gouw, Joost A.; Koike, Makoto; Shirai, Tomoko

    2009-12-01

    Ambient measurements of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides from three mega-cities (Beijing, Mexico City, Tokyo) are compared with similar measurements from US cities in the mid-1980s and the early 2000s. The common hydrocarbon pattern seen in all data sets suggests that emissions associated with gasoline-fueled vehicles dominate in all of these cities. This commonality suggests that it will be efficient and, ultimately, cost effective to proceed with vehicular emission controls in most emerging mega-cities, while proceeding with development of more locally appropriate air quality control strategies through emissions inventory development and ambient air monitoring. Over the three decades covered by the US data sets, the hydrocarbon emissions decreased by a significant factor (something like an order of magnitude), which is greater than suggested by emission inventories, particularly the EDGAR international inventory. The ambient hydrocarbon and CO concentrations reported for the three non-US mega-cities are higher than present US ambient concentrations, but lower than those observed in the 1980s in the US. The one exception to the preceding statement is the high concentrations of CO observed in Beijing, which apparently have a large regional contribution.

  17. 77 FR 60341 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines to..., ``National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion......

  18. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluates heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). Various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are reviewed. Available methods include in situ test...

  19. Method to Estimate the Dissolved Air Content in Hydraulic Fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to verify the air content in hydraulic fluid, an instrument was needed to measure the dissolved air content before the fluid was loaded into the system. The instrument also needed to measure the dissolved air content in situ and in real time during the de-aeration process. The current methods used to measure the dissolved air content require the fluid to be drawn from the hydraulic system, and additional offline laboratory processing time is involved. During laboratory processing, there is a potential for contamination to occur, especially when subsaturated fluid is to be analyzed. A new method measures the amount of dissolved air in hydraulic fluid through the use of a dissolved oxygen meter. The device measures the dissolved air content through an in situ, real-time process that requires no additional offline laboratory processing time. The method utilizes an instrument that measures the partial pressure of oxygen in the hydraulic fluid. By using a standardized calculation procedure that relates the oxygen partial pressure to the volume of dissolved air in solution, the dissolved air content is estimated. The technique employs luminescent quenching technology to determine the partial pressure of oxygen in the hydraulic fluid. An estimated Henry s law coefficient for oxygen and nitrogen in hydraulic fluid is calculated using a standard method to estimate the solubility of gases in lubricants. The amount of dissolved oxygen in the hydraulic fluid is estimated using the Henry s solubility coefficient and the measured partial pressure of oxygen in solution. The amount of dissolved nitrogen that is in solution is estimated by assuming that the ratio of dissolved nitrogen to dissolved oxygen is equal to the ratio of the gas solubility of nitrogen to oxygen at atmospheric pressure and temperature. The technique was performed at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The technique could be theoretically carried out at higher pressures and elevated

  20. [Situation and Characteristics of Air Pollutants Emission from Crematories in Beijing, China].

    PubMed

    Xue, Yi-feng; Yan, Jing; Tian, He-zhong; Xiong, Cheng-cheng; Li, Jing-dong; Wu, Xiao-ing; Wang, Wei

    2015-06-01

    Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) such as exhaust particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxide (NOx), mercury (Hg) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans ( PCDD/Fs) are emitted by the process of cremation and the burning of oblation. Risks to health posed by emissions of hazardous air pollutants from crematories are emerging concerns. Through field investigation and data collection, we obtained the related activity levels and monitored the concentrations of air pollutants from typical cremators, so as to better understand the current pollutants emission levels for crematory. Using the emission factor method, we calculated the emission inventory of HAPs for crematory of Beijing in 2012 and quantified the range of uncertainty. Using atmospheric diffusion model ADMS, we evaluated the influence of crematories on the surrounding environment, and identified the characteristics of air pollution. The results showed that: for the cremators installed with flue gas purification system, the emission concentration of exhaust PM was rather low, and the CO emission concentration fluctuated greatly. However, relative high emission concentrations of PCDD/Fs were detected mainly due to insufficient combustion. Exhaust PM, CO, SO2, NOx, Hg and PCDD/Fs emitted by crematory of Beijing in 2012 were estimated at about 11. 5 tons, 41.25 tons, 2.34 tons, 7.65 tons, 13.76 kg and 0.88 g, respectively; According to the results of dispersion model simulation, the concentration contributions of exhaust PM, CO, SO2, NOx, Hg, PCDD/Fs from crematories were 0.05947 microg x m(-3), 0.2009 microg x m(-3) and 0.0126 microg x m(-3), 0.03667 microg x m(-3) and 0.06247 microg x m(-3), 0.004213 microg x m(-3), respectively.

  1. Impact of fuel variability on wildfire emission estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasslop, Gitta; Kloster, Silvia

    2015-11-01

    Atmospheric composition is strongly influenced by wildfire emissions, which have a strong variability over time and space. Estimates of fire emissions on large scale are based on a combination of burned area, combustion completeness, and fuel load. Approaches differ in the derivation of this information, which involves models and observations to different degrees. Due to the lack of highly spatially and temporally resolved observations the variability of fuel load is often not fully taken into account. The fuel load can differ between seasons due to variations in the vegetation productivity, decomposition rates and fire occurrence. On the longer time scale the effect of CO2 fertilization is expected to influence the vegetation productivity and therefore overall fuel load abundance. All these processes are accounted for in land carbon cycle models. We use the land surface and vegetation model JSBACH as a tool to understand the influence of fuel load seasonality, fuel load variability within land cover types and CO2 fertilization on fire occurrence and wildfire emissions. We find that using the mean fuel load over time for each grid cell instead of seasonally varying fuels leads to comparable burned area and emissions (only 3% deviations from the reference). Using minimum or maximum values, however, leads to strong under (0.54 times the reference) and overestimation (1.85 times the reference) of the emissions. When using constant fuel load for each vegetation type strong regionally varying, over and underestimations of emissions are found. Over the 20th century CO2 fertilization strongly impacts fuel availability. As a consequence, burned area and carbon emissions are almost 20 and 40% higher at present day. In general, our results confirm the applicability of time constant fuel loads in emission estimation methods for present day, as the seasonality is of minor importance. However, we suggest that considering the variability of fuel driven by climate variability in

  2. Estimates of tropical bromoform emissions using an inversion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashfold, M. J.; Harris, N. R. P.; Manning, A. J.; Robinson, A. D.; Warwick, N. J.; Pyle, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Bromine plays an important role in ozone chemistry in both the troposphere and stratosphere. When measured by mass, bromoform (CHBr3) is thought to be the largest organic source of bromine to the atmosphere. While seaweed and phytoplankton are known to be dominant sources, the size and the geographical distribution of CHBr3 emissions remains uncertain. Particularly little is known about emissions from the Maritime Continent, which have usually been assumed to be large, and which appear to be especially likely to reach the stratosphere. In this study we aim to reduce this uncertainty by combining the first multi-annual set of CHBr3 measurements from this region, and an inversion process, to investigate systematically the distribution and magnitude of CHBr3 emissions. The novelty of our approach lies in the application of the inversion method to CHBr3. We find that local measurements of a short-lived gas like CHBr3 can be used to constrain emissions from only a relatively small, sub-regional domain. We then obtain detailed estimates of CHBr3 emissions within this area, which appear to be relatively insensitive to the assumptions inherent in the inversion process. We extrapolate this information to produce estimated emissions for the entire tropics (defined as 20° S-20° N) of 225 Gg CHBr3 yr-1. The ocean in the area we base our extrapolations upon is typically somewhat shallower, and more biologically productive, than the tropical average. Despite this, our tropical estimate is lower than most other recent studies, and suggests that CHBr3 emissions in the coastline-rich Maritime Continent may not be stronger than emissions in other parts of the tropics.

  3. Characterization of process air emissions in automotive production plants.

    PubMed

    D'Arcy, J B; Dasch, J M; Gundrum, A B; Rivera, J L; Johnson, J H; Carlson, D H; Sutherland, J W

    2016-01-01

    During manufacturing, particles produced from industrial processes become airborne. These airborne emissions represent a challenge from an industrial hygiene and environmental standpoint. A study was undertaken to characterize the particles associated with a variety of manufacturing processes found in the auto industry. Air particulates were collected in five automotive plants covering ten manufacturing processes in the areas of casting, machining, heat treatment and assembly. Collection procedures provided information on air concentration, size distribution, and chemical composition of the airborne particulate matter for each process and insight into the physical and chemical processes that created those particles.

  4. Estimates for biogenic non-methane hydrocarbons and nitric oxide emissions in the Valley of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, Erik

    Biogenic non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (methylbutenol or MBO) and nitrogen oxide (NO) emissions were estimated for the Valley of Mexico developing a spatially and temporally resolved emission inventory for air quality models. The modeling domain includes all the Metropolitan Mexico City Area, the surrounding forests and agriculture fields. The estimates were based on several sources of land use and land cover data and a biogenic emission model; the biomass density and tree characteristics were obtained from reforestation program data. The biogenic emissions depend also on climatic conditions, mainly temperature and solar radiation. The temperature was obtained from a statistical revision of the last 10 yr data reported by the Mexico City Automatic Atmospheric Monitoring Network, while the solar radiation data were obtained from measurements performed in a typical oak forest in the Valley and from sources of total solar radiation data for Mexico City. The results indicated that 7% of total hydrocarbon emissions in Mexico Valley are due to vegetation and NO emissions from soil contribute with 1% to the total NO x emissions.

  5. Formaldehyde emission behavior of building materials: on-site measurements and modeling approach to predict indoor air pollution.

    PubMed

    Bourdin, Delphine; Mocho, Pierre; Desauziers, Valérie; Plaisance, Hervé

    2014-09-15

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate formaldehyde emission behavior of building materials from on-site measurements of air phase concentration at material surface used as input data of a box model to estimate the indoor air pollution of a newly built classroom. The relevance of this approach was explored using CFD modeling. In this box model, the contribution of building materials to indoor air pollution was estimated with two parameters: the convective mass transfer coefficient in the material/air boundary layer and the on-site measurements of gas phase concentration at material surfaces. An experimental method based on an emission test chamber was developed to quantify this convective mass transfer coefficient. The on-site measurement of gas phase concentration at material surface was measured by coupling a home-made sampler to SPME. First results had shown an accurate estimation of indoor formaldehyde concentration in this classroom by using a simple box model.

  6. Feasibility of including fugitive PM-10 emissions estimates in the EPA emissions trends report

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, W.; Carlson, P.

    1990-09-01

    The report describes the results of Part 2 of a two part study. Part 2 was to evaluate the feasibility of developing regional emission trends for PM-10. Part 1 was to evaluate the feasibility of developing VOC emission trends, on a regional and temporal basis. These studies are part of the effort underway to improve the national emission trends. Part 1 is presented in a separate report. The categories evaluated for the feasibility of developing regional emissions estimates were: unpaved roads, paved roads, wind erosion, agricultural tilling, construction activities, feedlots, burning, landfills, mining and quarrying unpaved parking lots, unpaved airstrips and storage piles.

  7. Emissions of air toxics from a simulated charcoal kiln. Final report, October 1997--September 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, P.M.

    1999-06-01

    The report gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In addition, other pollutants, including methanol, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and particle emission rates and size distributions were measured using various techniques. Emissions of all pollutants are reported in units of grams emitted per unit mass of initial wood converted to charcoal. Two burn conditions--slow and fast--were examined. High levels of methanol, benzene, and fine particulate were emitted in all tests. The estimated emissions from the fast burn conditions were significantly higher than those from the slow burn conditions.

  8. Emissions of air toxics from the production of charcoal in a simulated Missouri charcoal kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, P.M.; Kariher, P.H.; Fairless, B.J.; Tapp, J.A.

    1998-11-01

    The paper gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutant from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In addition, other pollutants, including methanol, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and particle emission rates and size distributions were measured using various techniques. Emissions of all pollutants are reported in grams emitted per unit mass of initial wood converted to charcoal. Two burn conditions--slow and fast burn--were examined. High levels of methanol, benzene, and fine particulate were emitted from all tests. The estimated emissions from the fast burn conditions were significantly higher than those from the slow burn conditions.

  9. Estimated emission reductions from California's enhanced Smog Check program.

    PubMed

    Singer, Brett C; Wenzel, Thomas P

    2003-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requires that states evaluate the effectiveness of their vehicle emissions inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs. This study demonstrates an evaluation approach that estimates mass emission reductions over time and includes the effect of I/M on vehicle deterioration. It includes a quantitative assessment of benefits from pre-inspection maintenance and repairs and accounts for the selection bias effect that occurs when intermittent high emitters are tested. We report estimates of one-cycle emission benefits of California's Enhanced Smog Check program, ca. 1999. Program benefits equivalent to metric tons per day of prevented emissions were calculated with a "bottom-up" approach that combined average per vehicle reductions in mass emission rates (g/gal) with average per vehicle activity, resolved by model year. Accelerated simulation mode test data from the statewide vehicle information database (VID) and from roadside Smog Check testing were used to determine 2-yr emission profiles of vehicles passing through Smog Check and infer emission profiles that would occur without Smog Check. The number of vehicles participating in Smog Check was also determined from the VID. We estimate that in 1999 Smog Check reduced tailpipe emissions of HC, CO, and NO(x) by 97, 1690, and 81 t/d, respectively. These correspond to 26, 34, and 14% of the HC, CO, and NO(x) that would have been emitted by vehicles in the absence of Smog Check. These estimates are highly sensitive to assumptions about vehicle deterioration in the absence of Smog Check. Considering the estimated uncertainty in these assumptions yields a range for calculated benefits: 46-128 t/d of HC, 860-2200 t/d of CO, and 60-91 t/d of NO(x). Repair of vehicles that failed an initial, official Smog Check appears to be the most important mechanism of emission reductions, but pre-inspection maintenance and repair also contributed substantially. Benefits from removal of nonpassing

  10. REDD+ emissions estimation and reporting: dealing with uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Johanne; Martin, Davy; Potvin, Catherine

    2013-09-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) defined the technical and financial modalities of policy approaches and incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+). Substantial technical challenges hinder precise and accurate estimation of forest-related emissions and removals, as well as the setting and assessment of reference levels. These challenges could limit country participation in REDD+, especially if REDD+ emission reductions were to meet quality standards required to serve as compliance grade offsets for developed countries’ emissions. Using Panama as a case study, we tested the matrix approach proposed by Bucki et al (2012 Environ. Res. Lett. 7 024005) to perform sensitivity and uncertainty analysis distinguishing between ‘modelling sources’ of uncertainty, which refers to model-specific parameters and assumptions, and ‘recurring sources’ of uncertainty, which refers to random and systematic errors in emission factors and activity data. The sensitivity analysis estimated differences in the resulting fluxes ranging from 4.2% to 262.2% of the reference emission level. The classification of fallows and the carbon stock increment or carbon accumulation of intact forest lands were the two key parameters showing the largest sensitivity. The highest error propagated using Monte Carlo simulations was caused by modelling sources of uncertainty, which calls for special attention to ensure consistency in REDD+ reporting which is essential for securing environmental integrity. Due to the role of these modelling sources of uncertainty, the adoption of strict rules for estimation and reporting would favour comparability of emission reductions between countries. We believe that a reduction of the bias in emission factors will arise, among other things, from a globally concerted effort to improve allometric equations for tropical forests. Public access to datasets and methodology

  11. Pollution Emission Analysis of Selected Air Force Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-04-29

    percent for large non-combat tranaport engines) are proposed. Eraoke numbers wlilch will ensure Invisible aircraft smoke plumes are specified. The...standards are being violated, as well as being significant sources of smoke , ,••(3) that maintenance of the national ambient sir quality BlSndards...and reduced impact of smoke emission requires that air- craft and aircraft engines be Bubjected to a program of control compatible with their

  12. Promoting Geothermal Energy: Air Emissions Comparison and Externality Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kagel, Alyssa; Gawell, Karl

    2005-09-01

    When compared to fossil fuel energy sources such as coal and natural gas, geothermal emerges as one of the least polluting forms of energy, producing virtually zero air emissions. Geothermal offers a baseload source of reliable power that compares favorably with fossil fuel power sources. But unless legislative changes are enacted, geothermal energy will continue to be produced at only a fraction of its potential.

  13. 76 FR 30604 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AN33 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for..., the proposed rule, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and... regarding the EPA's proposed national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants, including data,...

  14. ESTIMATE OF METHANE EMISSIONS FROM U.S. LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the development of a statistical regression model used for estimating methane (CH4) emissions, which relates landfill gas (LFG) flow rates to waste-in-place data from 105 landfills with LFG recovery projects. (NOTE: CH4 flow rates from landfills with LFG reco...

  15. Assessment of air pollutant emissions from brick kilns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajarathnam, Uma; Athalye, Vasudev; Ragavan, Santhosh; Maithel, Sameer; Lalchandani, Dheeraj; Kumar, Sonal; Baum, Ellen; Weyant, Cheryl; Bond, Tami

    2014-12-01

    India has more than 100,000 brick kilns producing around 250 billion bricks annually. Indian brick industry is often a small scale industry and third largest consumer of coal in the country. With the growing demand for building materials and characterised by lack of pollution control measures the brick industry has a potential to cause adverse effects on the environment. This paper presents assessment of five brick making technologies based on the measurements carried out at seventeen individual brick kilns. Emissions of PM, SO2, CO and CO2 were measured and these emissions were used to estimate the emission factors for comparing the emissions across different fuel or operating conditions. Estimated emission from brick kilns in South Asia are about 0.94 million tonnes of PM; 3.9 million tonnes of CO and 127 million tonnes of CO2 per year. Among various technologies that are widely used in India, Zig zag and vertical shaft brick kilns showed better performance in terms of emissions over the traditional fixed chimney Bull's trench kilns. This suggests that the replacement of traditional technologies with Zig zag, vertical shaft brick kilns or other cleaner kiln technologies will contribute towards improvements in the environmental performance of brick kiln industry in the country. Zig zag kilns appear to be the logical replacement because of low capital investment, easy integration with the existing production process, and the possibility of retrofitting fixed chimney Bull's trench kilns into Zig zag firing.

  16. Emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers: Arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1994-08-01

    Concerns over emissions of hazardous air pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue; the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants has been greatly expanded through passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Arsenic and arsenic compounds are of concern mainly because of their generally recognized toxicity. Arsenic is also regarded as one of the trace elements in coal subject to significant vaporization. This report summarizes and evaluates available published information on the arsenic content of coals mined in the United States, on arsenic emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Bituminous and lignite coals have the highest mean arsenic concentrations, with subbituminous and anthracite coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in arsenic concentrations. Arsenic emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific arsenic compounds. Variations in emission, rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of arsenic by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with cold electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 50 to 98% have been reported. Limited data for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems show widely varying removals of from 6 to 97%. On the other hand, waste incineration plants report removals in a narrow range of from 95 to 99%. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in arsenic control for existing flue-gas-cleanup technologies and summarizes the status of analytical techniques for measuring arsenic emissions from combustion sources.

  17. Modeling Air Pollution in Beijing: Emission Reduction vs. Meteorological Influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risse, Eicke-Alexander; Hao, Nan; Trautmann, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    This case study uses the Chemical Transport Model WRF-Chem to simulate and measure the efficiency of temporal large-scale emission reductions under different meteorological conditions. The Nov. 2014 Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit provides a unique opportunity for this study due to the extraordinarily good and well-measured air quality which is believed to be induced by intense emission- reduction measures by the Chinese government. Four cases are simulated to inter-compare between favorable und unfavorablemeteorological conditions (in terms of air quality) as well as reduced and non-reduced emissions. Key variables of the simulation results are evaluated against AERONET measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and air-quality measurements by the Chinese Ministry of Environment (CME). The inter-comparison is then performed on time- and volume-averaged total concentrations of the key variables Nitrogenous Oxide (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10).The simulation settings and some important facts about the model are shown in table 1.

  18. Biogenic nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions estimated from tethered balloon observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, K. J.; Lenschow, D. H.; Zimmerman, P. R.

    1994-01-01

    A new technique for estimating surface fluxes of trace gases, the mixed-layer gradient technique, is used to calculate isoprene and terpene emissions from forests. The technique is applied to tethered balloon measurements made over the Amazon forest and a pine-oak forest in Alabama at altitudes up to 300 m. The observations were made during the dry season Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2A) and the Rural Oxidants in the Southern Environment 1990 experiment (ROSE I). Results from large eddy simulations of scalar transport in the clear convective boundary layer are used to infer fluxes from the balloon profiles. Profiles from the Amazon give a mean daytime emission of 3630 +/- 1400 micrograms isoprene sq m/h, where the uncertainty represents the standard deviation of the mean of eight flux estimates. Twenty profiles from Alabama give emissions of 4470 +/- 3300 micrograms isoprene sq m/h, 1740 +/- 1060 micrograms alpha-pinene sq m/h, and 790 +/- 560 micrograms beta-pinene sq m/h, respectively. These results are in agreement with emissions derived from chemical budgets. The emissions may be overestimated because of uncertainty about how to incorporate the effects of the canopy on the mixed-layer gradients. The large variability in these emission estimates is probably due to the relatively short sampling times of the balloon profiles, though spatially heterogeneous emissions may also play a role. Fluxes derived using this technique are representative of an upwind footprint of several kilometers and are independent of hydrocarbon oxidation rate and mean advection.

  19. Global top-down smoke aerosol emissions estimation using satellite fire radiative power measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichoku, C.; Ellison, L.

    2013-10-01

    Biomass burning occurs seasonally in most vegetated parts of the world, consuming large amounts of biomass fuel, generating intense heat energy, and emitting corresponding amounts of smoke plumes that comprise different species of aerosols and trace gases. Accurate estimates of these emissions are required as model inputs to evaluate and forecast smoke plume transport and impacts on air quality, human health, clouds, weather, radiation, and climate. Emissions estimates have long been based on bottom-up approaches that are not only complex, but also fraught with compounding uncertainties. Fortunately, a series of recent studies have revealed that both the rate of biomass consumption and the rate of emission of aerosol particulate matter (PM) by open biomass burning are directly proportional to the rate of release of fire radiative energy (FRE), which is fire radiative power (FRP) that is measurable from satellite. This direct relationship enables the determination of coefficients of emission (Ce), which can be used to convert FRP or FRE to smoke aerosol emissions in the same manner as emission factors (EFs) are used to convert burned biomass to emissions. We have leveraged this relationship to generate the first global 1° × 1° gridded Ce product for smoke aerosol or total particulate matter (TPM) emissions using coincident measurements of FRP and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) sensors aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites. This new Fire Energetics and Emissions Research version 1.0 (FEER.v1) Ce product has now been released to the community and can be obtained from http://feer.gsfc.nasa.gov/, along with the corresponding 1-to-1 mapping of their quality assurance (QA) flags that will enable the Ce values to be filtered by quality for use in various applications. The regional averages of Ce values for different ecosystem types were found to be in

  20. 77 FR 58219 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Hard and Decorative Chromium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ...This action finalizes the residual risk and technology review conducted for the following source categories regulated under two national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP): hard and decorative chromium electroplating and chromium anodizing tanks, and steel pickling--HCl process facilities and hydrochloric acid regeneration plants. On October 21, 2010, EPA proposed......

  1. Air pollutants emissions from waste treatment and disposal facilities.

    PubMed

    Hamoda, Mohamed F

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the atmospheric pollution created by some waste treatment and disposal facilities in the State of Kuwait. Air monitoring was conducted in a municipal wastewater treatment plant, an industrial wastewater treatment plant established in a petroleum refinery, and at a landfill site used for disposal of solid wastes. Such plants were selected as models for waste treatment and disposal facilities in the Arabian Gulf region and elsewhere. Air measurements were made over a period of 6 months and included levels of gaseous emissions as well as concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Samples of gas and bioaerosols were collected from ambient air surrounding the treatment facilities. The results obtained from this study have indicated the presence of VOCs and other gaseous pollutants such as methane, ammonia, and hydrogen sulphide in air surrounding the waste treatment and disposal facilities. In some cases the levels exceeded the concentration limits specified by the air quality standards. Offensive odors were also detected. The study revealed that adverse environmental impact of air pollutants is a major concern in the industrial more than in the municipal waste treatment facilities but sitting of municipal waste treatment and disposal facilities nearby the urban areas poses a threat to the public health.

  2. Estimate of air carrier and air taxi crash frequencies from high altitude en route flight operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sanzo, D.; Kimura, C.Y.; Prassinos, P.G.

    1996-06-03

    In estimating the frequency of an aircraft crashing into a facility, it has been found convenient to break the problem down into two broad categories. One category estimates the aircraft crash frequency due to air traffic from nearby airports, the so-called near-airport environment. The other category estimates the aircraft crash frequency onto facilities due to air traffic from airways, jet routes, and other traffic flying outside the near-airport environment The total aircraft crash frequency is the summation of the crash frequencies from each airport near the facility under evaluation and from all airways, jet routes, and other traffic near the facility of interest. This paper will examine the problems associated with the determining the aircraft crash frequencies onto facilities outside the near-airport environment. This paper will further concentrate on the estimating the risk of aircraft crashes to ground facilities due to high altitude air carrier and air taxi traffic. High altitude air carrier and air taxi traffic will be defined as all air carrier and air taxi flights above 18,000 feet Mean Sea Level (MSL).

  3. The 1977 emissions inventory for southeastern Virginia. [environment model of air quality based on exhaust emission from urban areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, D. A.; Remsberg, E. E.; Woodbury, G. E.; Quinn, L. C.

    1979-01-01

    Regional tropospheric air pollution modeling and data compilation to simulate the time variation of species concentrations in and around an urban area is discussed. The methods used to compile an emissions inventory are outlined. Emissions factors for vehicular travel in the urban area are presented along with an analysis of the emission gases. Emission sources other than vehicular including industrial wastes, residential solid waste disposal, aircraft emissions, and emissions from the railroads are investigated.

  4. Estimating shipping emissions in the region of the Sea of Marmara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Deniz, Cengiz; Durmuşoğlu, Yalçin

    2008-02-01

    Ship emissions are significantly increasing globally and have remarkable impact on air quality on sea and land. These emissions contribute serious adverse health and environmental effects. Territorial waters, inland seas and ports are the regions most affected by ship emissions. As an inland sea the Sea of Marmara is an area that has too much ship traffic. Since the region of the Marmara is highly urbanized, emissions from ships affect human health and the overall environment. In this paper exhaust gas emissions from ships in the Sea of Marmara and the Turkish Straits are calculated by utilizing the data acquired in 2003. Main engine types, fuel types, operations types, navigation times and speeds of vessels are taken into consideration in the study. Total emissions from ships in the study area were estimated as 5,451,224 t y(-1) for CO(2), 111,039 t y(-1) for NO(x), 87,168 t y(-1) for SO(2), 20,281 t y(-1) for CO, 5801 t y(-1) for VOC, 4762 t y(-1) for PM. The shipping emissions in the region are equivalent to 11% of NO(x) 0.1% of CO and 0.12% of PM of the corresponding total emissions in Turkey. The shipping emissions in the area are 46% of NO(x), 25% of PM and 1.5% of CO of road traffic emissions in Turkey data between which and correspond to a higher level than aircraft emissions and rail emissions in Turkey.

  5. Objective estimates of cochlear tuning by otoacoustic emission analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moleti, Arturo; Sisto, Renata

    2003-01-01

    A new method is presented for estimating cochlear tuning starting from measurements of either the transient evoked otoacoustic emission latency or the spontaneous otoacoustic emission minimal spacing. This method could be useful in obtaining indirect information about the tuning curve, particularly for subjects that, like neonates, cannot be studied with psycho-acoustical techniques. Theoretical models of the acoustic transmission along the cochlea based on the transmission line formalism predict a relation between the otoacoustic emission latency and the frequency. This relation depends on the tuning curve, i.e., the frequency dependence of the quality factor of the cochlear resonances. On the other hand, models for the generation of spontaneous emissions based on the concept of coherent scattering from cochlear random inhomogeneities imply an independent relation between the tuning curve and the minimal frequency spacing between spontaneous emissions. In this study, experimental measurements of the otoacoustic emission latency and of the minimal spacing between spontaneous emissions are presented. Theoretical relations are derived, which connect these two measured quantities and the tuning curve. The typically longer latency of neonates implies a higher degree of tuning at high levels of stimulation.

  6. 75 FR 48894 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Revisions to Emissions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... and maintain the National Ambient Air Quality Standards that EPA has established for criteria... Bernalillo County to report emissions location information, PM 2.5 emissions, and ammonia emissions to...

  7. Evaluation of emissions and air quality in megacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurjar, B. R.; Butler, T. M.; Lawrence, M. G.; Lelieveld, J.

    Several concepts and indicators exist to measure and rank urban areas in terms of their socio-economic, infrastructural, and environment-related parameters. The World Bank regularly publishes the World Development Indicators (WDI), and the United Nations reports the City Development Index (CDI) and also ranks megacities on the basis of their population size. Here, we evaluate and rank megacities in terms of their trace gas and particle emissions and ambient air quality. Besides ranking the megacities according to their surface area and population density, we evaluate them based on carbon monoxide (CO) emissions per capita, per year, and per unit surface area. Further, we rank the megacities according to ambient atmospheric concentrations of criteria pollutants, notably total suspended particles (TSP), sulfur dioxide (SO 2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). We propose a multi-pollutant index (MPI) considering the combined level of the three criteria pollutants (i.e., TSP, SO 2, and NO 2) in view of the World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines for Air Quality. Of 18 megacities considered here 5 classify as having "fair" air quality, and 13 as "poor". The megacities with the highest MPI, Dhaka, Beijing, Cairo, and Karachi, most urgently need reduction of air pollution.

  8. Industrial process data and estimating potential to emit (PTE): The effects of process chemistry on PTE and the emissions inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Najjar, R.C.; Podsiadlo, K.

    1997-12-31

    Title V of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Title V) requires facilities to perform an inventory of their air pollutant emissions to determine if a Title V air permit is required. Facilities emitting air pollutants below applicable Title V thresholds (i.e., particulates, oxides of sulfur (SO{sub x}), oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide, ozone, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), lead, and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs)) still must show proof to the regulatory agencies that the Title V permitting requirements do not apply. Recently, the authors have performed several emissions inventories for some large industrial facilities in New York State with up to 250 air emissions sources. As a result, they have identified several reoccurring process/chemistry data issues that have impacted the estimation of PTE, the current New York State (NYS) point source permit compliance, and the potential Title V application status. Although there are many training courses that focus on how environmental managers should perform a comprehensive facility air emissions inventory and should prepare Title V applications, these courses generally assume that all emission source data are readily available. However, to the authors` knowledge, no one has communicated key process/chemistry issues and obstacles encountered in completing emissions inventories at large facilities or recommended potential solutions. The authors will highlight their experience with reoccurring facility emission data and data management shortfalls found during the performance of several large facility inventories. This includes their findings of apparently systemic loose practices, procedures, data management, and utilization of process data and chemistry for estimation of potential emissions needed for Title V compliance.

  9. US Department of Energy report 1996 LANL radionuclide air emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, K.W.

    1997-08-01

    Presented is the Laboratory-wide certified report regarding radioactive effluents released into the air by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 1996. This information is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a hypothetical maximum exposed individual (MEI) of the public was calculated, using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. That dose was 1.93 mrem for 1996. Emissions of {sup 11}C, {sup 13}N, and {sup 15}O from a 1-mA, 800 MeV proton accelerator contributed over 92% of the EDE to LANL`s MEI. Using CAP88, the EPA`s dose assessment model, more than 86% of the total dose received by the MEI was via the air immersion pathway.

  10. Interactions between energy efficiency and emission trading under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Hillsman, E.L.; Alvic, D.R.

    1994-08-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments affect electric utilities in numerous ways. The feature that probably has received the greatest attention is the provision to let utilities trade emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), while at the same time requiring them to reduce S0{sub 2} emissions in 2000 by an aggregate 43%. The emission trading system was welcomed by many as a way of reducing the cost of reducing emissions, by providing greater flexibility than past approaches. This report examines some of the potential interactions between trading emissions and increasing end-use energy efficiency. The analysis focuses on emission trading in the second phase of the trading program, which begins in 2000. The aggregate effects, calculated by an emission compliance and trading model, turn out to be rather small. Aggressive improvement of end-use efficiency by all utilities might reduce allowance prices by $22/ton (1990 dollars), which is small compared to the reduction that has occurred in the estimates of future allowance prices and when compared to the roughly $400/ton price we estimate as a base case. However, the changes in the allowance market that result are large enough to affect some compliance decisions. If utilities in only a few states improve end-use efficiency aggressively, their actions may not have a large effect on the price of an allowance, but they could alter the demand for allowances and thereby the compliance decisions of utilities in other states. The analysis shows how improving electricity end-use efficiency in some states can cause smaller emission reductions in other states, relative to what would have happened without the improvements. Such a result, while not surprising given the theory behind the emission trading system, is upsetting to people who view emissions, environmental protection, and energy efficiency in moral rather than strictly economic terms.

  11. Energy and air emission effects of water supply.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad

    2009-04-15

    Life-cycle air emission effects of supplying water are explored using a hybrid life-cycle assessment For the typically sized U.S. utility analyzed, recycled water is preferable to desalination and comparable to importation. Seawater desalination has an energy and air emission footprint that is 1.5-2.4 times larger than that of imported water. However, some desalination modes fare better; brackish groundwater is 53-66% as environmentally intensive as seawater desalination. The annual water needs (326 m3) of a typical Californian that is met with imported water requires 5.8 GJ of energy and creates 360 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. With seawater desalination, energy use would increase to 14 GJ and 800 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. Meeting the water demand of California with desalination would consume 52% of the state's electricity. Supply options were reassessed using alternative electricity mixes, including the average mix of the United States and several renewable sources. Desalination using solar thermal energy has lower greenhouse gas emissions than that of imported and recycled water (using California's electricity mix), but using the U.S. mix increases the environmental footprint by 1.5 times. A comparison with a more energy-intensive international scenario shows that CO2 equivalent emissions for desalination in Dubai are 1.6 times larger than in California. The methods, decision support tool (WEST), and results of this study should persuade decision makers to make informed water policy choices by including energy consumption and material use effects in the decision-making process.

  12. Co-benefits of mitigating global greenhouse gas emissions for future air quality and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, J. Jason; Smith, Steven J.; Silva, Raquel A.; Naik, Vaishali; Zhang, Yuqiang; Adelman, Zachariah; Fry, Meridith M.; Anenberg, Susan; Horowitz, Larry W.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

    2013-10-01

    Actions to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions often reduce co-emitted air pollutants, bringing co-benefits for air quality and human health. Past studies typically evaluated near-term and local co-benefits, neglecting the long-range transport of air pollutants, long-term demographic changes, and the influence of climate change on air quality. Here we simulate the co-benefits of global GHG reductions on air quality and human health using a global atmospheric model and consistent future scenarios, via two mechanisms: reducing co-emitted air pollutants, and slowing climate change and its effect on air quality. We use new relationships between chronic mortality and exposure to fine particulate matter and ozone, global modelling methods and new future scenarios. Relative to a reference scenario, global GHG mitigation avoids 0.5+/-0.2, 1.3+/-0.5 and 2.2+/-0.8 million premature deaths in 2030, 2050 and 2100. Global average marginal co-benefits of avoided mortality are US$50-380 per tonne of CO2, which exceed previous estimates, exceed marginal abatement costs in 2030 and 2050, and are within the low range of costs in 2100. East Asian co-benefits are 10-70 times the marginal cost in 2030. Air quality and health co-benefits, especially as they are mainly local and near-term, provide strong additional motivation for transitioning to a low-carbon future.

  13. Probabilistic estimation of residential air exchange rates for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Residential air exchange rates (AERs) are a key determinant in the infiltration of ambient air pollution indoors. Population-based human exposure models using probabilistic approaches to estimate personal exposure to air pollutants have relied on input distributions from AER measurements. An algorithm for probabilistically estimating AER was developed based on the Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory Infiltration model utilizing housing characteristics and meteorological data with adjustment for window opening behavior. The algorithm was evaluated by comparing modeled and measured AERs in four US cities (Los Angeles, CA; Detroit, MI; Elizabeth, NJ; and Houston, TX) inputting study-specific data. The impact on the modeled AER of using publically available housing data representative of the region for each city was also assessed. Finally, modeled AER based on region-specific inputs was compared with those estimated using literature-based distributions. While modeled AERs were similar in magnitude to the measured AER they were consistently lower for all cities except Houston. AERs estimated using region-specific inputs were lower than those using study-specific inputs due to differences in window opening probabilities. The algorithm produced more spatially and temporally variable AERs compared with literature-based distributions reflecting within- and between-city differences, helping reduce error in estimates of air pollutant exposure. Published in the Journal of

  14. Clean Air Act Settlement Reduces Air Emissions and Improves Chemical Safety at Rhode Island Biodiesel Plant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA & U.S. Department of Justice have settled an environmental enforcement case with Newport Biodiesel, Inc., resulting in reduced air emissions and improved safety controls at the company’s biodiesel manufacturing plant in Newport, Rhode Island.

  15. A blended land emissivity product from the Inter-Comparison of different Land Surface Emissivity Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norouzi, H.; Temimi, M.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2012-12-01

    Passive microwave observations are routinely used to estimate rain rate, cloud liquid water, and total precipitable water. In order to have accurate estimations from microwave, the contribution of the surface should be accounted for. Over land, due to the complex interaction between the microwave signal and the soil surface, retrieval of land surface emissivity and other surface and subsurface parameters is not straightforward. Several microwave emissivity products from various microwave sensors have been proposed. However, lack of ground truth measurements makes the validation of these products difficult. This study aims to inter-compare several available emissivity products over land and ultimately proposes a unique blended product that overcomes the flaws of each individual product. The selected products are based on observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E), the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), the Advanced Microwave Sounding unit (AMSU), and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS). In retrieval of emissivities from these sensors different methods and ancillary data have been used. Some inherent discrepancies between the selected products can be introduced by as the difference in geometry in terms of incident angle, spectral response, and the foot print size which can affect the estimations. Moreover, ancillary data especially skin temperature and cloud mask cover can cause significant discrepancies between various estimations. The time series and correlation between emissivity maps are explored to assess the consistency of emissivity variations with geophysical variable such as snow, precipitation and drought. Preliminary results reveal that inconsistency between products varies based on land cover type due to penetration depth effect and ancillary data. Six years of estimations are employed in this research study, and a global blended emissivity estimations based on all product with minimal discrepancies

  16. Effects of animal activity and air temperature on methane and ammonia emissions from a naturally ventilated building for dairy cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngwabie, N. M.; Jeppsson, K.-H.; Gustafsson, G.; Nimmermark, S.

    2011-12-01

    Knowledge of how different factors affect gas emissions from animal buildings can be useful for emission prediction purposes and for the improvement of emission abatement techniques. In this study, the effects of dairy cow activity and indoor air temperature on gas emissions were examined. The concentrations of CH 4, NH 3, CO 2 and N 2O inside and outside a dairy cow building were measured continuously between February and May together with animal activity and air temperature. The building was naturally ventilated and had a solid concrete floor which sloped towards a central urine gutter. Manure was scraped from the floor once every hour in the daytime and once every second hour at night into a partly covered indoor pit which was emptied daily at 6 a.m. and at 5 p.m. Gas emissions were calculated from the measured gas concentrations and ventilation rates estimated by the CO 2 balance method. The animal activity and emission rates of CH 4 and NH 3 showed significant diurnal variations with two peaks which were probably related to the feeding routine. On an average day, CH 4 emissions ranged from 7 to 15 g LU -1 h -1 and NH 3 emissions ranged from 0.4 to 1.5 g LU -1 h -1 (1 LU = 500 kg animal weight). Mean emissions of CH 4 and NH 3 were 10.8 g LU -1 h -1 and 0.81 g LU -1 h -1, respectively. The NH 3 emissions were comparable to emissions from tied stall buildings and represented a 4% loss in manure nitrogen. At moderate levels, temperature seems to affect the behaviour of dairy cows and in this study where the daily indoor air temperature ranged from about 5 up to about 20 °C, the daily activity of the cows decreased with increasing indoor air temperature ( r = -0.78). Results suggest that enteric fermentation is the main source of CH 4 emissions from systems of the type in this study, while NH 3 is mainly emitted from the manure. Daily CH 4 emissions increased significantly with the activity of the cows ( r = 0.61) while daily NH 3 emissions increased

  17. Road construction: Emissions Factors and Air Quality Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font Font, Anna M.; Baker, Timothy; Mudway, Ian; Fuller, Gary W.

    2014-05-01

    Very few studies have investigated the air pollution impacts of road construction. Over a 17 month period a congested main road in south east London was widened from two lanes to four. Emissions factors for road construction were determined and a notable deterioration in residential air quality was found with the final expanded road layout. Air quality monitoring sites measuring PM10, PM2.5, NOX, NO2 and meteorological variables were deployed on both sides of the road construction to quantify ambient air quality before, during and after the completion of the road works, with additional measurements from a nearby background site. PM10 samples were collected for oxidative potential measurements. PM10 was the only pollutant to increase during the construction; mean PM10 from the road increased by 15 µg m-3 during working hours; weekdays between 6 am and 5 pm; and on Saturdays between 6 am and 12 pm, compared to concentrations before the road works. During the construction the number of days with daily mean PM10 concentrations greater than 50 µg m-3 was more than 35 for both sides of the road, breaching the European Union Limit Value (LV). Downwind-upwind differences were used to calculate real-world PM10 emissions associated to the construction activity by means of box modelling. The quantity of PM10 emitted per area and month of construction was 0.0009 kg PM10 m-2 month-1 for the construction period. This emission factor was similar to the one used in the UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI). Worst case construction emissions factors were 0.0105 kg PM10 m-2 month-1, compared to 0.0448 kg PM10 m-2 month-1 and 0.1038 kg PM10 m-2 month-1 used in current European and US inventories, respectively. After the completion of the road widening an increase in all pollutants was measured during rush hour peaks: 2-4 µg m-3 for PM10; 1 µg m-3 for PM2.5; 20 and 4 ppbv (40 and 8 µg m-3) for NOX and NO2, respectively, leading to a breach of the NO2 annual mean LV

  18. Estimating methane emissions in California's urban and rural regions using multitower observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Seongeun; Newman, Sally; Zhang, Jingsong; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Bianco, Laura; Bagley, Justin; Cui, Xinguang; Graven, Heather; Kim, Jooil; Salameh, Peter; LaFranchi, Brian W.; Priest, Chad; Campos-Pineda, Mixtli; Novakovskaia, Elena; Sloop, Christopher D.; Michelsen, Hope A.; Bambha, Ray P.; Weiss, Ray F.; Keeling, Ralph; Fischer, Marc L.

    2016-11-01

    We present an analysis of methane (CH4) emissions using atmospheric observations from 13 sites in California during June 2013 to May 2014. A hierarchical Bayesian inversion method is used to estimate CH4 emissions for spatial regions (0.3° pixels for major regions) by comparing measured CH4 mixing ratios with transport model (Weather Research and Forecasting and Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport) predictions based on seasonally varying California-specific CH4 prior emission models. The transport model is assessed using a combination of meteorological and carbon monoxide (CO) measurements coupled with the gridded California Air Resources Board (CARB) CO emission inventory. The hierarchical Bayesian inversion suggests that state annual anthropogenic CH4 emissions are 2.42 ± 0.49 Tg CH4/yr (at 95% confidence), higher (1.2-1.8 times) than the current CARB inventory (1.64 Tg CH4/yr in 2013). It should be noted that undiagnosed sources of errors or uncaptured errors in the model-measurement mismatch covariance may increase these uncertainty bounds beyond that indicated here. The CH4 emissions from the Central Valley and urban regions (San Francisco Bay and South Coast Air Basins) account for 58% and 26% of the total posterior emissions, respectively. This study suggests that the livestock sector is likely the major contributor to the state total CH4 emissions, in agreement with CARB's inventory. Attribution to source sectors for subregions of California using additional trace gas species would further improve the quantification of California's CH4 emissions and mitigation efforts toward the California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (Assembly Bill 32).

  19. Estimating terpene and terpenoid emissions from conifer oleoresin composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Rosa M.; Doskey, Paul V.

    2015-07-01

    The following algorithm, which is based on the thermodynamics of nonelectrolyte partitioning, was developed to predict emission rates of terpenes and terpenoids from specific storage sites in conifers: Ei =xoriγoripi∘ where Ei is the emission rate (μg C gdw-1 h-1) and pi∘ is the vapor pressure (mm Hg) of the pure liquid terpene or terpenoid, respectively, and xori and γori are the mole fraction and activity coefficient (on a Raoult's law convention), respectively, of the terpene and terpenoid in the oleoresin. Activity coefficients are calculated with Hansen solubility parameters that account for dispersive, polar, and H-bonding interactions of the solutes with the oleoresin matrix. Estimates of pi∘ at 25 °C and molar enthalpies of vaporization are made with the SIMPOL.1 method and are used to estimate pi∘ at environmentally relevant temperatures. Estimated mixing ratios of terpenes and terpenols were comparatively higher above resin-acid- and monoterpene-rich oleoresins, respectively. The results indicated a greater affinity of terpenes and terpenols for the non-functionalized and carboxylic acid containing matrix through dispersive and H-bonding interactions, which are expressed in the emission algorithm by the activity coefficient. The correlation between measured emission rates of terpenes and terpenoids for Pinus strobus and emission rates predicted with the algorithm were very good (R = 0.95). Standard errors for the range and average of monoterpene emission rates were ±6 - ±86% and ±54%, respectively, and were similar in magnitude to reported standard deviations of monoterpene composition of foliar oils (±38 - ±51% and ±67%, respectively).

  20. Estimating National-scale Emissions using Dense Monitoring Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, A.; Manning, A.; Grant, A.; Young, D.; Oram, D.; Sturges, W. T.; Moncrieff, J. B.; O'Doherty, S.

    2014-12-01

    The UK's DECC (Deriving Emissions linked to Climate Change) network consists of four greenhouse gas measurement stations that are situated to constrain emissions from the UK and Northwest Europe. These four stations are located in Mace Head (West Coast of Ireland), and on telecommunication towers at Ridge Hill (Western England), Tacolneston (Eastern England) and Angus (Eastern Scotland). With the exception of Angus, which currently only measures carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), the remaining sites are additionally equipped to monitor nitrous oxide (N2O). We present an analysis of the network's CH4 and N2O observations from 2011-2013 and compare derived top-down regional emissions with bottom-up inventories, including a recently produced high-resolution inventory (UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory). As countries are moving toward national-level emissions estimation, we also address some of the considerations that need to be made when designing these national networks. One of the novel aspects of this work is that we use a hierarchical Bayesian inversion framework. This methodology, which has newly been applied to greenhouse gas emissions estimation, is designed to estimate temporally and spatially varying model-measurement uncertainties and correlation scales, in addition to fluxes. Through this analysis, we demonstrate the importance of characterizing these covariance parameters in order to properly use data from high-density monitoring networks. This UK case study highlights the ways in which this new inverse framework can be used to address some of the limitations of traditional Bayesian inverse methods.

  1. Study of air emissions related to aircraft deicing

    SciTech Connect

    Zarubiak, D.C.Z.; DeToro, J.A.; Menon, R.P.

    1997-12-31

    This paper outlines the results of a study that was conducted by Trinity Consultants Incorporated (Trinity) to estimate the airborne emissions of glycol from Type 1 Deicer fluid and potential exposure of ground personnel during routine deicing of aircraft. The study involved the experimental measurement of Type 1 Deicer fluid vapor emissions by Southern Research Institute (SRI, Research Triangle Park, NC). An open path Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique developed by SRI was used during a simulated airplane deicing event. The emissions measurement data are analyzed to obtain appropriate emission rates for an atmospheric dispersion modeling analysis. The modeled gaseous Type 1 Deicer fluid concentrations are determined from calculated emission rates and selected meteorological conditions. A propylene glycol (PG)-based Type 1 Deicer fluid was used. In order to examine the effects of the assumptions that are made for the development of the emission quantification and dispersion modeling methodologies, various scenarios are evaluated. A parametric analysis evaluates the effect of variations in the following parameters on the results of the study: glycol concentrations in deicing fluids, error limits of emission measurements, emission source heights, evaporation rate for various wind speeds, wind directions over typical physical layouts, and background (ambient) Type 1 Deicer fluid concentrations. The emissions for an EG based Type 1 Deicing fluid are expected to be between 80 and 85% of the reported data. In general, the model shows the region of maximum concentrations is located between 20 and 50 meters downwind from the trailing edge of the wing. This range is consistent with experimental findings. Depending on the specific modeled scenarios, maximum glycol concentrations are found to generally range between 50 and 500 milligrams per cubic meter.

  2. Reconciling Top-Down and Bottom-Up Estimates of Oil and Gas Methane Emissions in the Barnett Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamburg, S.

    2015-12-01

    Top-down approaches that use aircraft, tower, or satellite-based measurements of well-mixed air to quantify regional methane emissions have typically estimated higher emissions from the natural gas supply chain when compared to bottom-up inventories. A coordinated research campaign in October 2013 used simultaneous top-down and bottom-up approaches to quantify total and fossil methane emissions in the Barnett Shale region of Texas. Research teams have published individual results including aircraft mass-balance estimates of regional emissions and a bottom-up, 25-county region spatially-resolved inventory. This work synthesizes data from the campaign to directly compare top-down and bottom-up estimates. A new analytical approach uses statistical estimators to integrate facility emission rate distributions from unbiased and targeted high emission site datasets, which more rigorously incorporates the fat-tail of skewed distributions to estimate regional emissions of well pads, compressor stations, and processing plants. The updated spatially-resolved inventory was used to estimate total and fossil methane emissions from spatial domains that match seven individual aircraft mass balance flights. Source apportionment of top-down emissions between fossil and biogenic methane was corroborated with two independent analyses of methane and ethane ratios. Reconciling top-down and bottom-up estimates of fossil methane emissions leads to more accurate assessment of natural gas supply chain emission rates and the relative contribution of high emission sites. These results increase our confidence in our understanding of the climate impacts of natural gas relative to more carbon-intensive fossil fuels and the potential effectiveness of mitigation strategies.

  3. Methods for Measuring and Estimating Methane Emission from Ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Storm, Ida M. L. D.; Hellwing, Anne Louise F.; Nielsen, Nicolaj I.; Madsen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Knowledge about methods used in quantification of greenhouse gasses is currently needed due to international commitments to reduce the emissions. In the agricultural sector one important task is to reduce enteric methane emissions from ruminants. Different methods for quantifying these emissions are presently being used and others are under development, all with different conditions for application. For scientist and other persons working with the topic it is very important to understand the advantages and disadvantage of the different methods in use. This paper gives a brief introduction to existing methods but also a description of newer methods and model-based techniques. Abstract This paper is a brief introduction to the different methods used to quantify the enteric methane emission from ruminants. A thorough knowledge of the advantages and disadvantages of these methods is very important in order to plan experiments, understand and interpret experimental results, and compare them with other studies. The aim of the paper is to describe the principles, advantages and disadvantages of different methods used to quantify the enteric methane emission from ruminants. The best-known methods: Chambers/respiration chambers, SF6 technique and in vitro gas production technique and the newer CO2 methods are described. Model estimations, which are used to calculate national budget and single cow enteric emission from intake and diet composition, are also discussed. Other methods under development such as the micrometeorological technique, combined feeder and CH4 analyzer and proxy methods are briefly mentioned. Methods of choice for estimating enteric methane emission depend on aim, equipment, knowledge, time and money available, but interpretation of results obtained with a given method can be improved if knowledge about the disadvantages and advantages are used in the planning of experiments. PMID:26486915

  4. Uncertainty in gridded CO2 emissions estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Hogue, Susannah; Marland, Eric; Andres, Robert J.; Marland, Gregg; Woodard, Dawn

    2016-05-19

    We are interested in the spatial distribution of fossil-fuel-related emissions of CO2 for both geochemical and geopolitical reasons, but it is important to understand the uncertainty that exists in spatially explicit emissions estimates. Working from one of the widely used gridded data sets of CO2 emissions, we examine the elements of uncertainty, focusing on gridded data for the United States at the scale of 1° latitude by 1° longitude. Uncertainty is introduced in the magnitude of total United States emissions, the magnitude and location of large point sources, the magnitude and distribution of non-point sources, and from the use of proxy data to characterize emissions. For the United States, we develop estimates of the contribution of each component of uncertainty. At 1° resolution, in most grid cells, the largest contribution to uncertainty comes from how well the distribution of the proxy (in this case population density) represents the distribution of emissions. In other grid cells, the magnitude and location of large point sources make the major contribution to uncertainty. Uncertainty in population density can be important where a large gradient in population density occurs near a grid cell boundary. Uncertainty is strongly scale-dependent with uncertainty increasing as grid size decreases. In conclusion, uncertainty for our data set with 1° grid cells for the United States is typically on the order of ±150%, but this is perhaps not excessive in a data set where emissions per grid cell vary over 8 orders of magnitude.

  5. Cost Effective Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions in the Air Freight Sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blinge, Magnus

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents cost effective measures to reduce CO2 emissions in the air freight sector. One door-to-door transport chain is studied in detail from a Scandinavian city to a city in southern Europe. The transport chain was selected by a group of representatives from the air freight sector in order to encompass general characteristics within the sector. Three different ways of shipping air cargo are studied, i.e., by air freighter, as belly freight (in passenger aircrafts) and trucking. CO2 emissions are calculated for each part of the transport chain and its relative importance towards the total amount CO2 emitted during the whole transport chain is shown. It is confirmed that the most CO2 emitting part of the transport chain is the actual flight and that it is in the take-off and climbing phases that most fuel are burned. It is also known that the technical development of aircraft implies a reduction in fuel consumption for each new generation of aircraft. Thus, the aircraft manufacturers have an important role in this development. Having confirmed these observations, this paper focuses on other factors that significantly affects the fuel consumption. Analyzed factors are, e.g., optimization of speed and altitude, traffic management, congestion on and around the airfields, tankering, "latest acceptance time" for goods and improving the load factor. The different factors relative contribution to the total emission levels for the transport chain has been estimated.

  6. Economically consistent long-term scenarios for air pollutant emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; West, Jason; Kyle, G. Page

    2011-09-08

    Pollutant emissions such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone precursors substantially influence climate. While future century-scale scenarios for these emissions have become more realistic through the inclusion of emission controls, they still potentially lack consistency between surface pollutant concentrations and regional levels of affluence. We demonstrate a methodology combining use of an integrated assessment model and a three-dimensional atmospheric chemical transport model, whereby a reference scenario is constructed by requiring consistent surface pollutant levels as a function of regional income over the 21st century. By adjusting air pollutant emission control parameters, we improve agreement between modeled PM2.5 and economic income among world regions through time; agreement for ozone is also improved but is more difficult to achieve because of the strong influence of upwind world regions. The scenario examined here was used as the basis for one of the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. This analysis methodology could also be used to examine the consistency of other pollutant emission scenarios.

  7. CO2 Emissions from Air Travel by AGU and ESA Conference Attendees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, B.; Plug, L. J.

    2003-12-01

    Air travel by scientists is one contributor to rising concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. To assess the magnitude of this contribution in per-capita and overall terms, we calculated emissions derived from air travel for two major scientific conferences held in 2002: the western meeting of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) in San Francisco and the Ecological Society of America meeting in Tucson (ESA). Round trip travel distance for sampled attendees is 7971 +/- 6968 km (1 sigma range given, n=337) for AGU and 5452 +/- 5664 km for ESA (n=263), conservatively assuming great circle routes were followed. Using accepted CO2 production rates for commercial aircraft, mean AGU emissions are 1.3 tonnes per attendee and 12351 tonnes total and for ESA 0.9 tonnes per attendee and 3140 tonnes total. Although small compared to total anthropogenic emissions (2.275 x 1010 tonnes y-1 in 1999), per attendee emissions are significant compared to annual per-capita emissions; CO2 emission per AGU and ESA attendee exceeds the per capita annual emission of 42% and 19% of Earth's population, respectively. Per attendee AGU emissions are ≈6% of U.S. and ≈14% of British and Japanese per capita annual emission. Relocation of AGU and ESA to cities which minimize travel distances, Denver and Omaha respectively, would result in modest emission reductions of 8% and 14% (assuming 2002 attendee composition). To form a preliminary estimate of annual CO2 emissions for scientists in academia, we surveyed Earth Science faculty at our home institution. Mean annual air travel distance for professional activities was 38064 km y-1 (7 respondents). The consequent release of 6.1 tonnes y-1 of CO2 is 30% of annual per capita emissions in North America, and exceeds global per capita average of 4 tonnes y-1 by 150%. Society and the environment often benefit from scientific enquiry which is facilitated by travel. These benefits, however, might be balanced against the

  8. Organochlorine pesticides in air and soil and estimated air-soil exchange in Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Syed, Jabir Hussain; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Liu, Di; Xu, Yue; Wang, Yan; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2013-02-01

    This study provides the first systematic data on the distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the soils and atmosphere of the Punjab province, Pakistan. Atmospheric concentrations of OCPs were estimated by using the polyurethane foam passive air sampling (PUF-PAS) technique. DDTs (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), HCHs (hexachlorocyclohexane) and chlordane were the dominant OCPs found in both soil and air samples. The average concentrations of DDTs, HCHs and chlordane were 350, 55 and 99 pg m(-3) in air and 40, 7.8 and 3.8 ng g(-1) in soils, respectively. Air-soil exchange of OCPs was estimated by calculating the fugacities in soil and air. Fugacity fraction (ff) values indicate that soils are acting as a secondary source to contaminate the atmosphere at certain sampling stations.

  9. Modeling VOC emissions and air concentrations from the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, S.R. ); Drivas, P.J. )

    1993-03-01

    During the two-week period following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in March 1989 in Prince William Sound, Alaska, toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) evaporated from the surface of the oil spill and were transported and dispersed throughout the region. To estimate the air concentrations of these VOCs, emissions and dispersion modeling was conducted for each hour during the first two weeks of the spill. A multicomponent evaporative emissions model was developed and applied to the oil spill; the model considered the evaporation of 15 specific compounds, including benzene and toluene. Both mass transfer from the surface of the spill and diffusion through the oil layer were considered in the emissions model. Maximum emissions of toluene were calculated to equal about 20,000 kg/hr, or about 5 g/m[sup 2] hr, at a time of eight hours after the initial oil spill. Meteorological data were acquired from sources and used to estimate hourly-averaged wind velocity over the spill. Air concentrations of specific components were calculated using the ATDL area source diffusion model and the Offshore and Coastal Dispersion (OCD) model. Maximum hourly-averaged concentrations were predicted not to exceed 10 ppmv for any compound. 24 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Air Monitoring of Emissions from the Fukushima Daiichi Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    McNaughton, Michael; Allen, Shannon P.; Archuleta, Debra C.; Brock, Burgandy; Coronado, Melissa A.; Dewart, Jean M.; Eisele, William F. Jr.; Fuehne, David P.; Gadd, Milan S.; Green, Andrew A.; Lujan, Joan J.; MacDonell, Carolyn; Whicker, Jeffrey J.

    2012-06-12

    In response to the disasters in Japan on March 11, 2011, and the subsequent emissions from Fukushima-Daiichi, we monitored the air near Los Alamos using four air-monitoring systems: the standard AIRNET samplers, the standard rad-NESHAP samplers, the NEWNET system, and high-volume air samplers. Each of these systems has advantages and disadvantages. In combination, they provide a comprehensive set of measurements of airborne radionuclides near Los Alamos during the weeks following March 11. We report air-monitoring measurements of the fission products released from the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear-power-plant accident in 2011. Clear gamma-spectrometry peaks were observed from Cs-134, Cs-136, Cs-137, I-131, I132, Te-132, and Te-129m. These data, together with measurements of other radionuclides, are adequate for an assessment and assure us that radionuclides from Fukushima Daiichi did not present a threat to human health at or near Los Alamos. The data demonstrate the capabilities of the Los Alamos air-monitoring systems.

  11. Estimation of SO2 emissions using OMI retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fioletov, V. E.; McLinden, C. A.; Krotkov, N.; Moran, M. D.; Yang, K.

    2011-11-01

    Satellite sulfur dioxide (SO2) measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite sensor, averaged over a period of several years, were compared with emissions inventories for major US sources. Low- and high- spatial frequency filtration was applied to OMI data to reduce the noise and bias to enhance and reveal weak SO2 signals that are otherwise not readily apparent. Averaging a large number of individual observations enables the study of SO2 spatial distributions near larger SO2 emissions sources with an effective resolution superior to that of an individual OMI observation and even to obtain rough estimates of the emissions level from those sources. It is demonstrated that individual sources (or multiple sources within 50 km) with annual SO2 emissions greater than about 70 kT y-1 produce a statistically significant signal in 3-year averaged OMI data. A correlation of 0.93 was found between OMI SO2 integrated around the source and the annual SO2 emission rate for the sources greater than 70 kT y-1. OMI SO2 data also indicate a 40% decline in SO2 values over the largest US coal power plants between 2005-2007 and 2008-2010, a value that is consistent with the reported 46% reduction in annual emissions due to the implementation of new SO2 pollution control measures over this period.

  12. New principle for estimation of hydrogen in expired air.

    PubMed

    van der Klei-van Moorsel, J M; Douwes, A C; van Oeveren, J P

    1984-02-01

    A new device for estimation of hydrogen in expired air is described. The measuring principle consists of a semi-conductive detector with a high affinity for hydrogen. Experiments on reliability and reproducibility are satisfactory. A good correlation has been obtained with the results of gas chromatographic analysis of hydrogen in reference gases as well as in samples of expired air. Discrimination between lactose absorbers and lactose malabsorbers in 50 consecutive patients is the same when using both methods simultaneously. This so-called "Lactoscreen", supplied with separate collection systems for infants and for older children, provides a rapid estimation of breath hydrogen concentration. A built-in hydrogen generator produces hydrogen air mixtures of variable concentrations, thus obviating the need for external reference gases. The "Lactoscreen" appears to be reliable for routine screening for carbohydrate malabsorption in children and adults and is easy for medical assistants to handle.

  13. A comparison of estimates of cost-effectiveness of alternative fuels and vehicles for reducing emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.

    1995-11-01

    The cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) is a measure of the monetary value of resources expended to obtain reductions in emissions of air pollutants. The CER can lead to selection of the most effective sequence of pollution reduction options. Derived with different methodologies and technical assumptions, CER estimates for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have varied widely among pervious studies. In one of several explanations of LCER differences, this report uses a consistent basis for fuel price to re-estimate CERs for AFVs in reduction of emissions of criteria pollutants, toxics, and greenhouse gases. The re-estimated CERs for a given fuel type have considerable differences due to non-fuel costs and emissions reductions, but the CERs do provide an ordinal sense of cost-effectiveness. The category with CER less than $5,000 per ton includes compressed natural gas and ed Petroleum gas vehicles; and E85 flexible-fueled vehicles (with fuel mixture of 85 percent cellulose-derived ethanol in gasoline). The E85 system would be much less attractive if corn-derived ethanol were used. The CER for E85 (corn-derived) is higher with higher values placed on the reduction of gas emissions. CER estimates are relative to conventional vehicles fueled with Phase 1 California reformulated gasoline (RFG). The California Phase 2 RFG program will be implemented before significant market penetration by AFVs. CERs could be substantially greater if they are calculated incremental to the Phase 2 RFG program. Regression analysis suggests that different assumptions across studies can sometimes have predictable effects on the CER estimate of a particular AFV type. The relative differences in cost and emissions reduction assumptions can be large, and the effect of these differences on the CER estimate is often not predictable. Decomposition of CERs suggests that methodological differences can make large contributions to CER differences among studies.

  14. Emissions Estimation from Satellite Retrievals: a Review of Current Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streets, David; Canty, Timothy; Carmichael, Gregory R.; deFoy, Benjamin; Dickerson, Russell R.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Edwards, David P.; Haynes, John A.; Henze, Daven K.; Houyoux, Marc R.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Lamsal, Lok N.; Liu, Yang; Lu, Zifeng; Martin, Randall V.; Pfister, Gabriele G.; Pinder, Robert W.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Wecht, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s a new generation of Earth-observing satellites has been able to detect tropospheric air pollution at increasingly high spatial and temporal resolution. Most primary emitted species can be measured by one or more of the instruments. This review article addresses the question of how well we can relate the satellite measurements to quantification of primary emissions and what advances are needed to improve the usability of the measurements by U.S. air quality managers. Built on a comprehensive literature review and comprising input by both satellite experts and emission inventory specialists, the review identifies several targets that seem promising: large point sources of NOx and SO2, species that are difficult to measure by other means (NH3 and CH4, for example), area sources that cannot easily be quantified by traditional bottom-up methods (such as unconventional oil and gas extraction, shipping, biomass burning, and biogenic sources), and the temporal variation of emissions (seasonal, diurnal, episodic). Techniques that enhance the usefulness of current retrievals (data assimilation, oversampling, multi-species retrievals, improved vertical profiles, etc.) are discussed. Finally, we point out the value of having new geostationary satellites like GEO-CAPE and TEMPO over North America that could provide measurements at high spatial (few km) and temporal (hourly) resolution.

  15. Emissions estimation from satellite retrievals: A review of current capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streets, David G.; Canty, Timothy; Carmichael, Gregory R.; de Foy, Benjamin; Dickerson, Russell R.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Edwards, David P.; Haynes, John A.; Henze, Daven K.; Houyoux, Marc R.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Lamsal, Lok N.; Liu, Yang; Lu, Zifeng; Martin, Randall V.; Pfister, Gabriele G.; Pinder, Robert W.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Wecht, Kevin J.

    2013-10-01

    Since the mid-1990s a new generation of Earth-observing satellites has been able to detect tropospheric air pollution at increasingly high spatial and temporal resolution. Most primary emitted species can be measured by one or more of the instruments. This review article addresses the question of how well we can relate the satellite measurements to quantification of primary emissions and what advances are needed to improve the usability of the measurements by U.S. air quality managers. Built on a comprehensive literature review and comprising input by both satellite experts and emission inventory specialists, the review identifies several targets that seem promising: large point sources of NOx and SO2, species that are difficult to measure by other means (NH3 and CH4, for example), area sources that cannot easily be quantified by traditional bottom-up methods (such as unconventional oil and gas extraction, shipping, biomass burning, and biogenic sources), and the temporal variation of emissions (seasonal, diurnal, episodic). Techniques that enhance the usefulness of current retrievals (data assimilation, oversampling, multi-species retrievals, improved vertical profiles, etc.) are discussed. Finally, we point out the value of having new geostationary satellites like GEO-CAPE and TEMPO over North America that could provide measurements at high spatial (few km) and temporal (hourly) resolution.

  16. Emission trends and mitigation options for air pollutants in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. X.; Zhao, B.; Cai, S. Y.; Klimont, Z.; Nielsen, C.; McElroy, M. B.; Morikawa, T.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, Y.; Fu, X.; Xu, J. Y.; Hao, J. M.; He, K. B.

    2014-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants in East Asia play an important role in the regional and global atmospheric environment. In this study we evaluated the recent emission trends of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matters (PM), and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) in East Asia, and projected their future emissions up to 2030 with six emission scenarios. The results will provide future emission projections for the modeling community of the model inter-comparison program for Asia (MICS-Asia). During 2005-2010, the emissions of SO2 and PM2.5 in East Asia decreased by 15 % and 11%, respectively, mainly attributable to the large scale deployment of FGD for China's power plants, and the promotion of high-efficient PM removal technologies in China's power plants and cement industry. During this period, the emissions of NOx and NMVOC increased by 25% and 15%, driven by the rapid increase in the emissions from China owing to inadequate control strategies. In contrast, the NOx and NMVOC emissions in East Asia except China decreased by 13-17% mainly due to the implementation of tight vehicle emission standards in Japan and South Korea. Under current legislation and current implementation status, NOx, SO2, and NMVOC emissions in East Asia are estimated to increase by about one quarter by 2030 from the 2010 levels, while PM2.5 emissions are expected to decrease by 7%. Assuming enforcement of new energy-saving policies, emissions of NOx, SO2, PM2.5 and NMVOC in East Asia are expected to decrease by 28%, 36%, 28%, and 15% respectively compared with the baseline case. The implementation of the "progressive" end-of-pipe control measures is expected to lead to another one third reduction of the baseline emissions of NOx, and about one quarter reduction for SO2, PM2.5, and NMVOC. With the full implementation of maximum feasible reduction measures, the emissions of NOx, SO2, and PM2.5 in East Asia are expected to account for only about one quarter and

  17. Global top-down smoke-aerosol emissions estimation using satellite fire radiative power measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichoku, C.; Ellison, L.

    2014-07-01

    Fire emissions estimates have long been based on bottom-up approaches that are not only complex, but also fraught with compounding uncertainties. We present the development of a global gridded (1° × 1°) emission coefficients (Ce) product for smoke total particulate matter (TPM) based on a top-down approach using coincident measurements of fire radiative power (FRP) and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) sensors aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites. This new Fire Energetics and Emissions Research version 1.0 (FEER.v1) Ce product has now been released to the community and can be obtained from http://feer.gsfc.nasa.gov/, along with the corresponding 1-to-1 mapping of their quality assurance (QA) flags that will enable the Ce values to be filtered by quality for use in various applications. The regional averages of Ce values for different ecosystem types were found to be in the ranges of 16-21 g MJ-1 for savanna and grasslands, 15-32 g MJ-1 for tropical forest, 9-12 g MJ-1 for North American boreal forest, and 18-26 g MJ-1 for Russian boreal forest, croplands and natural vegetation. The FEER.v1 Ce product was multiplied by time-integrated FRP data to calculate regional smoke TPM emissions, which were compared with equivalent emissions products from three existing inventories. FEER.v1 showed higher and more reasonable smoke TPM estimates than two other emissions inventories that are based on bottom-up approaches and already reported in the literature to be too low, but portrayed an overall reasonable agreement with another top-down approach. This suggests that top-down approaches may hold better promise and need to be further developed to accelerate the reduction of uncertainty associated with fire emissions estimation in air-quality and climate research and applications. Results of the analysis of FEER.v1 data for 2004-2011 show that 65-85 Tg yr-1 of

  18. Global Top-Down Smoke-Aerosol Emissions Estimation Using Satellite Fire Radiative Power Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, C.; Ellison, L.

    2014-01-01

    Fire emissions estimates have long been based on bottom-up approaches that are not only complex, but also fraught with compounding uncertainties. We present the development of a global gridded (1 deg ×1 deg) emission coefficients (Ce) product for smoke total particulate matter (TPM) based on a top-down approach using coincident measurements of fire radiative power (FRP) and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites. This new Fire Energetics and Emissions Research version 1.0 (FEER.v1) Ce product has now been released to the community and can be obtained from http://feer.gsfc. nasa.gov/, along with the corresponding 1-to-1 mapping of their quality assurance (QA) flags that will enable the Ce values to be filtered by quality for use in various applications. The regional averages of Ce values for different ecosystem types were found to be in the ranges of 16-21/gMJ-1 for savanna and grasslands, 15-32/gMJ-1 for tropical forest, 9-12/gMJ-1 for North American boreal forest, and 18- 26/MJ-1 for Russian boreal forest, croplands and natural vegetation. The FEER.v1 Ce product was multiplied by time-integrated FRP data to calculate regional smoke TPM emissions, which were compared with equivalent emissions products from three existing inventories. FEER.v1 showed higher and more reasonable smoke TPM estimates than two other emissions inventories that are based on bottom-up approaches and already reported in the literature to be too low, but portrayed an overall reasonable agreement with another top-down approach. This suggests that top-down approaches may hold better promise and need to be further developed to accelerate the reduction of uncertainty associated with fire emissions estimation in air-quality and climate research and applications. Results of the analysis of FEER.v1 data for 2004-2011 show that 65-85 Tg yr-1 of TPM is emitted globally from open biomass burning, with a

  19. A Monte Carlo Technique to Estimate Emissions from R&D Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Duchsherer, Cheryl J.

    2012-08-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates multidisciplinary laboratory Research and Development (R&D) facilities for the U. S. Department of Energy and sampled air chemical emissions from some of these facilities from 1998 until 2008. Although sampling was not required for environmental compliance, PNNL conducted sampling to provide data to compare estimated release fractions to those used for emissions estimates and to verify that methods used to determine compliance with air regulations and permits conservatively predict actual emissions. Sampling also identifies and quantifies air toxics emitted to compare with compliance limits established by the State. The sampling data provides a unique opportunity to quantify emissions and investigate factors potentially impacting emissions. Previous work using this data set include a paper by Woodruff, Benar, and McCarthy1 who summarized the compliance approach used by PNNL and described sampling and analytical measurements for the first sampling campaigns. Conclusions reported in the paper were that none of the measurements of the target compounds exceeded a State acceptable source impact level (ASIL)2 even using significant overestimation factors, and that an average release fraction calculated from the data provided reasonable validation of the factor used in compliance assessments. Other reports using the data include the following: • A metric was developed by Ballinger, Duchsherer, and Metoyer3 to compare chemical signatures. The analysis found similarities in chemical signatures from three of the buildings but a markedly different signature from the fourth building. • A method was developed and used on the data to rank the chemical compounds that present the greatest risk to a potential downstream receptor and to determine whether the sampling parameters and detection limits provided sufficient resolution to verify compliance at potential receptor locations.4 • The stack data from one of the

  20. Radio Emission in Atmospheric Air Showers Measured by LOPES-30

    SciTech Connect

    Isar, P. G.

    2008-01-24

    When Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) interact with particles in the Earth's atmosphere, they produce a shower of secondary particles propagating towards the ground. These relativistic particles emit synchrotron radiation in the radio frequency range when passing the Earth's magnetic field. The LOPES (LOFAR Prototype Station) experiment investigates the radio emission from these showers in detail and will pave the way to use this detection technique for large scale applications like in LOFAR (Low Frequency Array) and the Pierre Auger Observatory. The LOPES experiment is co-located and measures in coincidence with the air shower experiment KASCADE-Grande at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany. LOPES has an absolute amplitude calibration array of 30 dipole antennas (LOPES-30). After one year of measurements of the single East-West polarization by all 30 antennas, recently, the LOPES-30 set-up was configured to perform dual-polarization measurements. Half of the antennas have been configured for measurements of the North-South polarization. Only by measuring at the same time both, the E-W and N-S polarization components of the radio emission, the geo-synchrotron effect as the dominant emission mechanism in air showers can be verified. The status of the measurements, including the absolute calibration procedure of the dual-polarized antennas as well as analysis of dual-polarized event examples are reported.

  1. Improved Soundings and Error Estimates using AIRS/AMSU Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel

    2006-01-01

    AIRS was launched on EOS Aqua on May 4, 2002, together with AMSU A and HSB, to form a next generation polar orbiting infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system. The primary products of AIRS/AMSU are twice daily global fields of atmospheric temperature-humidity profiles, ozone profiles, sea/land surface skin temperature, and cloud related parameters including OLR. The sounding goals of AIRS are to produce 1 km tropospheric layer mean temperatures with an rms error of 1 K, and layer precipitable water with an rms error of 20 percent, in cases with up to 80 percent effective cloud cover. The basic theory used to analyze AIRS/AMSU/HSB data in the presence of clouds, called the at-launch algorithm, and a post-launch algorithm which differed only in the minor details from the at-launch algorithm, have been described previously. The post-launch algorithm, referred to as AIRS Version 4.0, has been used by the Goddard DAAC to analyze and distribute AIRS retrieval products. In this paper we show progress made toward the AIRS Version 5.0 algorithm which will be used by the Goddard DAAC starting late in 2006. A new methodology has been developed to provide accurate case by case error estimates for retrieved geophysical parameters and for the channel by channel cloud cleared radiances used to derive the geophysical parameters from the AIRS/AMSU observations. These error estimates are in turn used for quality control of the derived geophysical parameters and clear column radiances. Improvements made to the retrieval algorithm since Version 4.0 are described as well as results comparing Version 5.0 retrieval accuracy and spatial coverage with those obtained using Version 4.0.

  2. Estimations of global no, emissions and their uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. S.; Köhler, I.; Grobler, E.; Rohrer, F.; Sausen, R.; Gallardo-Klenner, L.; Olivier, J. G. J.; Dentener, F. J.; Bouwman, A. F.

    The AERONOX programme investigated the impact of NO x emissions from aircraft on the atmosphere and included an extensive modelling programme. In the model comparisons undertaken within the AERONOX programme, a "standard" set of emissions of NO x from both aviation and non-aviation sources was required so that differences between the models could be examined. This paper describes the data sets used in the study. These were: fossil fuel combustion from stationary and mobile sources at Earth's surface (22 Tg N yr -1), tropical biomass burning (5 Tg N yr -1), soil microbial production of NO (4 Tg N yr -1), lightning (5 Tg N yr -1), and the stratospheric decomposition of nitrous oxide (0.6 Tg N yr -1), ). However, global emission inventories of trace gases are developing rapidly: this paper also presents some emission estimates updated since the AERONOX study and also attempts to quantify uncertainties. The lightning source was constructed using convective cloud-top height from a GCM and differential rates of NO production calculated for cloud-to-cloud, and cloud-to-ground strikes. A revised biomass inventory including deforestation, savanna burning, agricultural waste burning and biofuel combustion results in approximately 8 Tg Nyr -1. This estimate includes sources beyond the tropics. Both extrapolation of measurements of soil NO fluxes by biome type, and a further refinement of the AERONOX soils emission model resulted in an emission of approximately 7 Tg Nyr -1. Ammonia oxidation as a source of NO x is calculated to be 0.9 N Tg yr -1), with a range of 0-l.6 Tg N yr -1), which shows that this is a relatively unimportant source of NO x in the troposphere. Uncertainty estimates for all sources have been given and discussed. The global source term for NO x for all sources (including the revisions) is estimated to be 44 Tg N yr -1), with an uncertainty range of 23-81 Tg N yr -1), A future scenario for fossil fuel combustion is given for 2025 resulting in an emission

  3. Estimating emissions from the Indian transport sector with on-road fleet composition and traffic volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Apoorva; Venkataraman, Chandra

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization and rising household incomes in India have led to growing transport demand, particularly during 1990-2010. Emissions from transportation have been implicated in air quality and climate effects. In this work, emissions of particulate matter (PM2.5 or mass concentration of particles smaller than 2.5 um diameter), black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC), were estimated from the transport sector in India, using detailed technology divisions and regionally measured emission factors. Modes of transport addressed in this work include road transport, railways, shipping and aviation, but exclude off-road equipment like diesel machinery and tractors. For road transport, a vehicle fleet model was used, with parameters derived from vehicle sales, registration data, and surveyed age-profile. The fraction of extremely high emitting vehicles, or superemitters, which is highly uncertain, was assumed as 20%. Annual vehicle utilization estimates were based on regional surveys and user population. For railways, shipping and aviation, a top-down approach was applied, using nationally reported fuel consumption. Fuel use and emissions from on-road vehicles were disaggregated at the state level, with separate estimates for 30 cities in India. The on-road fleet was dominated by two-wheelers, followed by four-and three-wheelers, with new vehicles comprising the majority of the fleet for each vehicle type. A total of 276 (-156, 270) Gg/y PM2.5, 144 (-99, 207) Gg/y BC, and 95 (-64, 130) Gg/y OC emissions were estimated, with over 97% contribution from on-road transport. Largest emitters were identified as heavy duty diesel vehicles for PM2.5 and BC, but two-stroke vehicles and superemitters for OC. Old vehicles (pre-2005) contributed significantly more (∼70%) emissions, while their share in the vehicle fleet was smaller (∼45%). Emission estimates were sensitive to assumed superemitter fraction. Improvement of emission estimates requires on-road emission factor measurements

  4. Effect of fuel-air-ratio nonuniformity on emissions of nitrogen oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, V. J.

    1981-01-01

    The inlet fuel-air ratio nonuniformity is studied to deterine how nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions are affected. An increase in NOx emissions with increased fuel-air ratio nonuniformity for average equivalence ratios less than 0.7 and a decrease in NOx emissions for average equivalence ratios near stoichiometric is predicted. The degree of uniformityy of fuel-air ratio profiles that is necessary to achieve NOx emissions goals for actual engines that use lean, premixed, prevaporized combustion systems is determined.

  5. Estimation of Fire Emissions from Satellite-Based Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles; Kaufman, Yoram J.

    2004-01-01

    Biomass burning is a worldwide phenomenon affecting many vegetated parts of the globe regularly. Fires emit large quantities of aerosol and trace gases into the atmosphere, thus influencing the atmospheric chemistry and climate. Traditional methods of fire emissions estimation achieved only limited success, because they were based on peripheral information such as rainfall patterns, vegetation types and changes, agricultural practices, and surface ozone concentrations. During the last several years, rapid developments in satellite remote sensing has allowed more direct estimation of smoke emissions using remotely-sensed fire data. However, current methods use fire pixel counts or burned areas, thereby depending on the accuracy of independent estimations of the biomass fuel loadings, combustion efficiency, and emission factors. With the enhanced radiometric range of its 4-micron fire channel, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor, which flies aboard both of the Earth Observing System EOS) Terra and Aqua Satellites, is able to measure the rate of release of fire radiative energy (FRE) in MJ/s (something that older sensors could not do). MODIS also measures aerosol distribution. Taking advantage of these new resources, we have developed a procedure combining MODIS fire and aerosol products to derive FRE-based smoke emission coefficients (C(e), in kg/MJ) for different regions of the globe. These coefficients are simply used to multiply FRE from MODIS to derive the emitted smoke aerosol mass. Results from this novel methodology are very encouraging. For instance, it was found that the smoke total particulate mass emission coefficient for the Brazilian Cerrado ecosystem (approximately 0.022 kg/MJ) is about twice the value for North America, Western Europe, or Australia, but about 50% lower than the value for southern Africa.

  6. Noninvasive LV pressure estimation using subharmonic emissions from microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Dave, Jaydev K; Halldorsdottir, Valgerdur G; Eisenbrey, John R; Raichlen, Joel S; Liu, Ji-Bin; McDonald, Maureen E; Dickie, Kris; Wang, Shumin; Leung, Corina; Forsberg, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    To develop a new noninvasive approach to quantify left ventricular (LV) pressures using subharmonic emissions from microbubbles, an ultrasound scanner was used in pulse inversion grayscale mode; unprocessed radiofrequency data were obtained with pulsed wave Doppler from the aorta and/or LV during Sonazoid infusion. Subharmonic data (in dB) were extracted and processed. Calibration factor (mm Hg/dB) from the aortic pressure was used to estimate LV pressures. Errors ranged from 0.19 to 2.50 mm Hg when estimating pressures using the aortic calibration factor, and were higher (0.64 to 8.98 mm Hg) using a mean aortic calibration factor. Subharmonic emissions from ultrasound contrast agents have the potential to noninvasively monitor LV pressures.

  7. Vehicular emissions and fuel consumption estimation in passer IV. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhary, N.A.

    1995-04-01

    Gasoline consumed by vehicles traveling within urban signalized networks constitutes a large portion of the total fuel usage in the United States. In addition, pollutants emitted by these vehicles degrade urban air quality. It is well known that the optimal coordination of traffic signals on urban signalized arterials improves traffic flow and reduces gasoline consumption and vehicular emissions. The research performed in this project incorporated fuel consumption and emissions estimation procedures into PASSER IV, a program for optimizing bandwidth-based signal timings in traffic networks. The enhanced PASSER IV software will allow Traffic Engineers to better assess the impacts of alternate signal timing plans on fuel consumption and emissions of vehicles traveling in a signalized network.

  8. Methodology to estimate particulate matter emissions from certified commercial aircraft engines.

    PubMed

    Wayson, Roger L; Fleming, Gregg G; Lovinelli, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Today, about one-fourth of U.S. commercial service airports, including 41 of the busiest 50, are either in nonattainment or maintenance areas per the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. U.S. aviation activity is forecasted to triple by 2025, while at the same time, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is evaluating stricter particulate matter (PM) standards on the basis of documented human health and welfare impacts. Stricter federal standards are expected to impede capacity and limit aviation growth if regulatory mandated emission reductions occur as for other non-aviation sources (i.e., automobiles, power plants, etc.). In addition, strong interest exists as to the role aviation emissions play in air quality and climate change issues. These reasons underpin the need to quantify and understand PM emissions from certified commercial aircraft engines, which has led to the need for a methodology to predict these emissions. Standardized sampling techniques to measure volatile and nonvolatile PM emissions from aircraft engines do not exist. As such, a first-order approximation (FOA) was derived to fill this need based on available information. FOA1.0 only allowed prediction of nonvolatile PM. FOA2.0 was a change to include volatile PM emissions on the basis of the ratio of nonvolatile to volatile emissions. Recent collaborative efforts by industry (manufacturers and airlines), research establishments, and regulators have begun to provide further insight into the estimation of the PM emissions. The resultant PM measurement datasets are being analyzed to refine sampling techniques and progress towards standardized PM measurements. These preliminary measurement datasets also support the continued refinement of the FOA methodology. FOA3.0 disaggregated the prediction techniques to allow for independent prediction of nonvolatile and volatile emissions on a more theoretical basis. The Committee for Aviation Environmental Protection of the International Civil

  9. Estimating methane emissions in California's urban and rural regions using multitower observations

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Seongeun; Newman, Sally; Zhang, Jingsong; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Bianco, Laura; Bagley, Justin; Cui, Xinguang; Graven, Heather; Kim, Jooil; Salameh, Peter; LaFranchi, Brian W.; Priest, Chad; Campos-Pineda, Mixtli; Novakovskaia, Elena; Sloop, Christopher D.; Michelsen, Hope A.; Bambha, Ray P.; Weiss, Ray F.; Keeling, Ralph; Fischer, Marc L.

    2016-11-05

    Here, we present an analysis of methane (CH4) emissions using atmospheric observations from 36 thirteen sites in California during June 2013 – May 2014. A hierarchical Bayesian inversion 37 method is used to estimate CH4 emissions for spatial regions (0.3° pixels for major regions) by 38 comparing measured CH4 mixing ratios with transport model (WRF-STILT) predictions based 39 on seasonally varying California-specific CH4 prior emission models. The transport model is 40 assessed using a combination of meteorological and carbon monoxide (CO) measurements 41 coupled with the gridded California Air Resources Board (CARB) carbon monoxide (CO) 42 emission inventory. Hierarchical Bayesian inversion suggests that state annual anthropogenic 43 CH4 emissions are 2.42 ± 0.49 Tg CH4/yr (at 95% confidence, including transport bias 44 uncertainty), higher (1.2 - 1.8 times) than the CARB current inventory (1.64 Tg CH4/yr in 2013). 45 We note that the estimated CH4 emissions drop to 1.0 - 1.6 times the CARB inventory if we 46 correct for the 10% median CH4 emissions assuming the bias in CO analysis is applicable to 47 CH4. The CH4 emissions from the Central Valley and urban regions (San Francisco Bay and 48 South Coast Air Basins) account for ~58% and 26% of the total posterior emissions, 49 respectively. This study suggests that the livestock sector is likely the major contributor to the 50 state total CH4 emissions, in agreement with CARB’s inventory. Attribution to source sectors for 51 sub-regions of California using additional trace gas species would further improve the 52 quantification of California’s CH4 emissions and mitigation efforts towards the California Global 53 Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB-32).

  10. Mobile source hazardous air pollutant emissions in the Seattle-Tacoma urban area. Report for February 1993-November 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Mangino, J.; Jones, J.W.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes mobile source hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions in the Seattle-Tacoma, Washington, urban area. Included in this inventory are mobile source emissions from both on-road (e.g., highway vehicles) and non-road (e.g., agricultural equipment) mobile sources. These mobile source emission estimates, summarized in this paper, were developed based on volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions and activity level data from the Seattle-Tacoma 1990 base year State Implementation Plan (SIP) emission inventory. The contribution of mobile source HAP emissions was compared to that of stationary area sources in the Seattle-Tacoma area. Mobile sources contributed about 83% of the benzene, 74% of the formaldehyde, and 88% of the 1,3-butadiene emissions.

  11. Comparison of Anthropogenic CO2, NOx, and CO Emissions: Exploiting a Synergy Between Air Quality and Carbon Cycle Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, M. L.; Gurney, K. R.; Gregg, J. S.; Murtishaw, S.; Knox, S.; Andres, R. J.; Sieb, B.

    2005-05-01

    Studies of biospheric CO2 exchange at the regional to continental scale would be facilitated by spatiotemporally resolved estimates of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and other human activities. However, current estimates of fossil CO2 emissions do not provide sufficient temporal or spatial resolution for regional-scale investigations. The US-EPA National Emission Inventory (NEI) for criteria pollutants (e.g., NOx and CO) was developed for control of regional air quality and currently provides high resolution emissions estimates that are based, in part on, estimates of fuel consumption. Here we investigate the applicability of estimating CO2 emissions from either 1) NEI estimates of NOx or CO emissions, or 2) underlying information on fuel use contained within NEI. First, we calculate monthly sums of NOx and CO emissions separately for mobile, distributed area, and point sources for the 48 continental United States. We compare the aggregate NOx and CO emissions with monthly sums of each states CO2 emissions computed from sales of petroleum, natural gas, and coal as reported by the US Energy Information Agency (EIA). We then compute linear regressions to estimate CO:CO2 and NOx:CO2 emissions ratios and quantify the fraction of variance in CO2 captured by NOx and CO. Although the categories in the two data sets do not overlap perfectly, we find that in the cases where a close correspondence between fuel type and use is expected (e.g., petroleum and mobile sources), variations in NOx and CO explain approximately 80% of the variation in CO2 emissions. Second, we employ the Consolidated Community Emissions Processing Tool (CONCEPT) framework to extract estimates of fuel use or other proxy variables and estimate CO2 directly from the information contained in the NEI, and compare with the EIA estimates of CO2 emissions, and with NEI estimates of NOx and CO emissions as above. Finally, we discuss these results with consideration of previous atmospheric

  12. Comparison of Anthropogenic CO2, NOx, and CO Emissions: Exploiting a Synergy Between Air Quality and Carbon Cycle Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, M. L.; Gurney, K. R.; Gregg, J. S.; Murtishaw, S.; Knox, S.; Andres, R. J.; Sieb, B.

    2006-12-01

    Studies of biospheric CO2 exchange at the regional to continental scale would be facilitated by spatiotemporally resolved estimates of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and other human activities. However, current estimates of fossil CO2 emissions do not provide sufficient temporal or spatial resolution for regional-scale investigations. The US-EPA National Emission Inventory (NEI) for criteria pollutants (e.g., NOx and CO) was developed for control of regional air quality and currently provides high resolution emissions estimates that are based, in part on, estimates of fuel consumption. Here we investigate the applicability of estimating CO2 emissions from either 1) NEI estimates of NOx or CO emissions, or 2) underlying information on fuel use contained within NEI. First, we calculate monthly sums of NOx and CO emissions separately for mobile, distributed area, and point sources for the 48 continental United States. We compare the aggregate NOx and CO emissions with monthly sums of each states CO2 emissions computed from sales of petroleum, natural gas, and coal as reported by the US Energy Information Agency (EIA). We then compute linear regressions to estimate CO:CO2 and NOx:CO2 emissions ratios and quantify the fraction of variance in CO2 captured by NOx and CO. Although the categories in the two data sets do not overlap perfectly, we find that in the cases where a close correspondence between fuel type and use is expected (e.g., petroleum and mobile sources), variations in NOx and CO explain approximately 80% of the variation in CO2 emissions. Second, we employ the Consolidated Community Emissions Processing Tool (CONCEPT) framework to extract estimates of fuel use or other proxy variables and estimate CO2 directly from the information contained in the NEI, and compare with the EIA estimates of CO2 emissions, and with NEI estimates of NOx and CO emissions as above. Finally, we discuss these results with consideration of previous atmospheric

  13. 75 FR 48860 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Revisions to Emissions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... ammonia emissions to New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The revisions also allow NMED to require... to report emissions location information, PM 2.5 and ammonia emissions, and allowed NMED to require... emissions, and ammonia emissions; and (2) allow NMED to require speciation of hazardous air pollutants...

  14. Biomass burning in Asia : annual and seasonal estimates and atmospheric emissions.

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, D. G.; Yarber, K. F.; Woo, J.-H.; Carmichael, G. R.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Iowa

    2003-10-15

    Estimates of biomass burning in Asia are developed to facilitate the modeling of Asian and global air quality. A survey of national, regional, and international publications on biomass burning is conducted to yield consensus estimates of 'typical' (i.e., non-year-specific) estimates of open burning (excluding biofuels). We conclude that 730 Tg of biomass are burned in a typical year from both anthropogenic and natural causes. Forest burning comprises 45% of the total, the burning of crop residues in the field comprises 34%, and 20% comes from the burning of grassland and savanna. China contributes 25% of the total, India 18%, Indonesia 13%, and Myanmar 8%. Regionally, forest burning in Southeast Asia dominates. National, annual totals are converted to daily and monthly estimates at 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} spatial resolution using distributions based on AVHRR fire counts for 1999--2000. Several adjustment schemes are applied to correct for the deficiencies of AVHRR data, including the use of moving averages, normalization, TOMS Aerosol Index, and masks for dust, clouds, landcover, and other fire sources. Good agreement between the national estimates of biomass burning and adjusted fire counts is obtained (R{sup 2} = 0.71--0.78). Biomass burning amounts are converted to atmospheric emissions, yielding the following estimates: 0.37 Tg of SO{sub 2}, 2.8 Tg of NO{sub x}, 1100 Tg of CO{sub 2}, 67 Tg of CO, 3.1 Tg of CH{sub 4}, 12 Tg of NMVOC, 0.45 Tg of BC, 3.3 Tg of OC, and 0.92 Tg of NH{sub 3}. Uncertainties in the emission estimates, measured as 95% confidence intervals, range from a low of {+-}65% for CO{sub 2} emissions in Japan to a high of {+-}700% for BC emissions in India.

  15. Current and future emission estimates of exhaust gases and particles from shipping at the largest port in Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Sang-Keun; Shon, Zang-Ho

    2014-05-01

    The emissions of exhaust gases (NOx , SO2, VOCs, and CO2) and particles (e.g., PM) from ships traversing Busan Port in Korea were estimated over three different years (the years 2006, 2008, and 2009). This analysis was performed according to the ship operational modes ("at sea," "maneuvering," and "in port") and ship types based on an activity-based method. The ship emissions for current (base year 2009) and future scenarios (years 2020 and 2050) were also compared. The annual emissions of SO2, VOCs, PM, and CO2 were highest (9.6 × 10(3), 374, 1.2 × 10(3), and 5.6 × 10(5) ton year(-1), respectively) in 2008. In contrast, the annual NO x emissions were highest (11.7 × 10(3) ton year(-1)) in 2006 due mainly to the high NO x emission factor. The emissions of air pollutants for each ship operational mode differed considerably, with the largest emission observed in "in port" mode. In addition, the largest fraction (approximately 45-67%) of the emissions of all air pollutants during the study period was emitted from container ships. The future ship emissions of most pollutants (except for SO2 and PM) in 2020 and 2050 are estimated to be 1.4-1.8 and 4.7-6.1 times higher than those in 2009 (base year), respectively.

  16. Development of North American emission inventories for air quality modeling under climate change.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jung-Hun; He, Shan; Tagaris, Efthimios; Liao, Kuo-Jen; Manomaiphiboon, Kasemsan; Amar, Praveen; Russell, Armistead G

    2008-11-01

    An assessment of how future climate change will impact regional air quality requires projecting emissions many decades into the future in a consistent manner. An approach that integrates the impact of both the current regulations and the longer-term national and global trends is developed to construct an emissions inventory (EI) for North America for the mid-century in support of a regional modeling study of ozone and particulate matter (PM) less than or equal to 2.5 microm (PM2.5). Because the time horizon of such a distant projection is beyond that of EIs used in typical modeling studies, it is necessary to identify a practical approach that allows the emission projections to account for emission controls and climatic and energy-use changes. However, a technical challenge arises because this requires integration of various different types of information with which emissions from human activities are associated. Often, emission information in global models has less detail and uses coarser spatiotemporal resolution. The method developed here is based on data availability, spatiotemporal coverage and resolution, and future-scenario consistency (i.e., Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios [IPCC SRES] A1B), and consists of two major steps: (1) near-future EI projection (to the year 2020), and (2) longer-term EI projection (to mid-century). The first step is based closely on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Clean Air Interstate Rule EI, the Environment Canada EI, as well estimates of Mexico's EI; whereas the second step follows approaches proposed by the EI from the Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment (IMAGE), developed by Netherlands's National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM). For the United States, the year-2050 emissions for nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), PM2.5, anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and ammonia are projected to change by -55, -55, -30, -40

  17. Assessment of methane emission and oxidation at Air Hitam Landfill site cover soil in wet tropical climate.

    PubMed

    Abushammala, Mohammed F M; Basri, Noor Ezlin Ahmad; Elfithri, Rahmah

    2013-12-01

    Methane (CH₄) emissions and oxidation were measured at the Air Hitam sanitary landfill in Malaysia and were modeled using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change waste model to estimate the CH₄ generation rate constant, k. The emissions were measured at several locations using a fabricated static flux chamber. A combination of gas concentrations in soil profiles and surface CH₄ and carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions at four monitoring locations were used to estimate the CH₄ oxidation capacity. The temporal variations in CH₄ and CO₂ emissions were also investigated in this study. Geospatial means using point kriging and inverse distance weight (IDW), as well as arithmetic and geometric means, were used to estimate total CH₄ emissions. The point kriging, IDW, and arithmetic means were almost identical and were two times higher than the geometric mean. The CH₄ emission geospatial means estimated using the kriging and IDW methods were 30.81 and 30.49 gm(−2) day(−1), respectively. The total CH₄ emissions from the studied area were 53.8 kg day(−1). The mean of the CH₄ oxidation capacity was 27.5 %. The estimated value of k is 0.138 year(−1). Special consideration must be given to the CH₄ oxidation in the wet tropical climate for enhancing CH₄ emission reduction.

  18. Dynamic Evaluation of Regional Air Quality Model's Response to Emission Reductions in the Presence of Uncertain Emission Inventories

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method is presented and applied for evaluating an air quality model’s changes in pollutant concentrations stemming from changes in emissions while explicitly accounting for the uncertainties in the base emission inventory. Specifically, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMA...

  19. Measurement of Ozone Emission and Particle Removal Rates from Portable Air Purifiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mang, Stephen A.; Walser, Maggie L.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Laux, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Portable air purifiers are popular consumer items, especially in areas with poor air quality. Unfortunately, most users of these air purifiers have minimal understanding of the factors affecting their efficiency in typical indoor settings. Emission of the air pollutant ozone (O[subscript 3]) by certain air purifiers is of particular concern. In an…

  20. National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants submittal -- 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Y.E.; Black, S.C.

    1997-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing. Monitoring and evaluation of the various activities conducted onsite indicate that the potential sources of offsite radiation exposure in 1996 were releases from the following: evaporation of tritiated water from containment ponds that receive drainage from E tunnel and from wells used for site characterization studies; onsite radioanalytical laboratories; the Area 5 RWMS facility; and diffuse sources of tritium and resuspension of plutonium. Section 1 describes these sources on the NTS. Section 2 tabulates the air emissions data for the NTS. These data are used to calculate the effective dose equivalents to offsite residents. Appendices describe the methods used to determine the emissions from the sources listed.

  1. Volcanic gas emissions and their effect on ambient air character

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, A.J.; Elias, T.

    1994-01-01

    This bibliography was assembled to service an agreement between Department of Energy and the USGS to provide a body of references and useful annotations for understanding background gas emissions from Kilauea volcano. The current East Rift Zone (ERZ) eruption of Kilauea releases as much as 500,000 metric tonnes of SO{sub 2} annually, along with lesser amounts of other chemically and radiatively active species including H{sub 2}S, HCl, and HF. Primary degassing locations on Kilauea are located in the summit caldera and along the middle ERZ. The effects of these emissions on ambient air character are a complex function of chemical reactivity, source geometry and effusivity, and local meteorology. Because of this complexity, we organized the bibliography into three main sections: (1) characterizing gases as they leave the edifice; (2) characterizing gases and chemical reaction products away from degassing sources; and (3) Hawaii Island meteorology.

  2. Overview of Megacity Air Pollutant Emissions and Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, C. E.

    2013-05-01

    The urban metabolism that characterizes major cities consumes very large qualities of humanly produced and/or processed food, fuel, water, electricity, construction materials and manufactured goods, as well as, naturally provided sunlight, precipitation and atmospheric oxygen. The resulting urban respiration exhalations add large quantities of trace gas and particulate matter pollutants to urban atmospheres. Key classes of urban primary air pollutants and their sources will be reviewed and important secondary pollutants identified. The impacts of these pollutants on urban and downwind regional inhabitants, ecosystems, and climate will be discussed. Challenges in quantifying the temporally and spatially resolved urban air pollutant emissions and secondary pollutant production rates will be identified and possible measurement strategies evaluated.

  3. Maximizing sinter plant operating flexibility through emissions trading and air modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Schewe, G.J.; Wagner, J.A.; Heron, T.; Topf, R.; Shepker, T.O.

    1998-12-31

    This paper provides details on the dispersion modeling analysis performed to demonstrate air quality impacts associated with an emission trading scheme for a sintering operation in Youngstown, Ohio. The emission trade was proposed to allow the sinter plant to expand its current allowable sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions while being offset with SO{sub 2} emissions from boilers at a nearby shutdown steel mill. While the emission trade itself was feasible and the emissions required for the offset were available (the boiler shutdown and their subsequent SO{sub 2} emission credits were never claimed, banked, or used elsewhere), the second criteria for determining compliance was a demonstration of minimal air quality impact. The air analysis combined the increased ambient SO{sub 2} concentrations of the relaxed sinter plant emissions with the offsetting air quality of the shutdown boilers to yield the net air quality impacts. To test this net air impact, dispersion modeling was performed treating the sinter plant SO{sub 2} emissions as positive and the shutdown boiler SO{sub 2} emissions as negative. The results of the modeling indicated that the ambient air concentrations due to the proposed emissions increase will be offset by the nearby boiler emissions to levels acceptable under EPA`s offset policy Level 2 significant impact concentrations. Therefore, the dispersion modeling demonstrated that the emission trading scheme would not result in significant air quality impacts and maximum operating flexibility was provided to the sintering facility.

  4. 1998 INEEL National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Tkachyk

    1999-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1998. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1998, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  5. 1999 INEEL National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Tkachyk

    2000-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1999. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1999, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  6. Wind Energy and Air Emission Reduction Benefits: A Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, D.; High, C.

    2008-02-01

    This document provides a summary of the impact of wind energy development on various air pollutants for a general audience. The core document addresses the key facts relating to the analysis of emission reductions from wind energy development. It is intended for use by a wide variety of parties with an interest in this issue, ranging from state environmental officials to renewable energy stakeholders. The appendices provide basic background information for the general reader, as well as detailed information for those seeking a more in-depth discussion of various topics.

  7. Analytical estimate for low-altitude ENA emissivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, J.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Shematovich, V. I.; Gérard, J.-C.; Søraas, F.; McComas, D. J.; Valek, P. W.; LLera, K.; Redfern, J.

    2016-02-01

    We formulate the first analytical model for energetic neutral atom (ENA) emissivity that partially corrects for the global viewing geometry dependence of low-altitude emissions (LAEs) observed by Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS). The emissivity correction requires the pitch angle distribution (PAD) and geophysical location of low-altitude ENAs. To estimate PAD, we create an energy-dependent analytical model, based on a Monte Carlo simulation. We account for energy binning by integrating model PAD over each energy bin. We account for finite angular pixels by computing emissivity as an integral over the pitch angle range sampled by the pixel. We investigate location uncertainty in TWINS pixels by performing nine variations of the emissivity calculation. Using TWINS 2 ENA imaging data from 1131 to 1145 UT on 6 April 2010, we derive emissivity-corrected ion fluxes for two angular pixel sizes: 4° and 1°. To evaluate the method, we compare TWINS-derived ion fluxes to simultaneous in situ data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) 17 satellite. The TWINS-NOAA agreement for emissivity-corrected flux is improved by up to a factor of 7, compared to uncorrected flux. The highest 1° pixel fluxes are a factor of 2 higher than for 4° pixels, consistent with pixel-derived fluxes that are artificially low because subpixel structures are smoothed out, and indicating a possible slight advantage to oversampling the instrument-measured LAE signal. Both TWINS and NOAA ion fluxes decrease westward of 2000 magnetic local time. The TWINS-NOAA comparison indicates that the global ion precipitation oval comprises multiple smaller-scale (3-5° of latitude) structures.

  8. Emissions of air pollutants from indoor charcoal barbecue.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsiao-Lin; Lee, Whei-May Grace; Wu, Feng-Shu

    2016-01-25

    Ten types of commercial charcoal commonly used in Taiwan were investigated to study the potential health effects of air pollutants generated during charcoal combustion in barbecue restaurants. The charcoal samples were combusted in a tubular high-temperature furnace to simulate the high-temperature charcoal combustion in barbecue restaurants. The results indicated that traditional charcoal has higher heating value than green synthetic charcoal. The amount of PM10 and PM2.5 emitted during the smoldering stage increased when the burning temperature was raised. The EF for CO and CO2 fell within the range of 68-300 and 644-1225 g/kg, respectively. Among the charcoals, the lowest EF for PM2.5 and PM10 were found in Binchōtan (B1). Sawdust briquette charcoal (I1S) emitted the smallest amount of carbonyl compounds. Charcoal briquettes (C2S) emitted the largest amount of air pollutants during burning, with the EF for HC, PM2.5, PM10, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde being the highest among the charcoals studied. The emission of PM2.5, PM10, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde were 5-10 times those of the second highest charcoal. The results suggest that the adverse effects of the large amounts of air pollutants generated during indoor charcoal combustion on health and indoor air quality must not be ignored.

  9. Six methods to assess potential radioactive air emissions from a stack.

    PubMed

    Barnett, J M; Davis, W E

    1996-11-01

    In accordance with U.S. Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 61, "National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants," Subpart H, U.S. Department of Energy stack emissions which have the potential to cause an exposure > or = 1 muSv y-1 to the offsite maximally exposed individual must meet the continuous monitoring requirements dictated therein. Since February 1993, all 125 stacks operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site have been assessed for their potential unabated radionuclide emissions using one of six methods approved for use by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10. These potential emissions combined with the CAP88 code were used to produce dose estimates to the maximally exposed individual. Results show there are 106 stacks in compliance and below the potential to emit greater than the EPA threshold. The 19 remaining stacks will be brought into full compliance under a Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement which was established in February, 1994. While each method maintains the safety and protection of the occupational worker, the public, and the environment, significant cost benefits may be derived by applying the best available technology. The CAP88 code and the methods for estimating potential emissions are presented, as well as the associated results.

  10. Multimodel estimates of premature human mortality due to intercontinental transport of air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, C.; Silva, R.; West, J. J.; Sudo, K.; Lund, M. T.; Emmons, L. K.; Takemura, T.; Bian, H.

    2015-12-01

    Numerous modeling studies indicate that emissions from one continent influence air quality over others. Reducing air pollutant emissions from one continent can therefore benefit air quality and health on multiple continents. Here, we estimate the impacts of the intercontinental transport of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on premature human mortality by using an ensemble of global chemical transport models coordinated by the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP). We use simulations of 20% reductions of all anthropogenic emissions from 13 regions (North America, Central America, South America, Europe, Northern Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Former Soviet Union, Middle East, East Asia, South Asia, South East Asia, Central Asia, and Australia) to calculate their impact on premature mortality within each region and elsewhere in the world. To better understand the impact of potential control strategies, we also analyze premature mortality for global 20% perturbations from five sectors individually: power and industry, ground transport, forest and savannah fires, residential, and others (shipping, aviation, and agriculture). Following previous studies, premature human mortality resulting from each perturbation scenario is calculated using a health impact function based on a log-linear model for O3 and an integrated exposure response model for PM2.5 to estimate relative risk. The spatial distribution of the exposed population (adults aged 25 and over) is obtained from the LandScan 2011 Global Population Dataset. Baseline mortality rates for chronic respiratory disease, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer are estimated from the GBD 2010 country-level mortality dataset for the exposed population. Model results are regridded from each model's original grid to a common 0.5°x0.5° grid used to estimate mortality. We perform uncertainty analysis and evaluate the sensitivity

  11. Temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of primary air pollutants emissions from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yifeng; Tian, Hezhong; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhen; Wang, Junling; Nie, Lei; Pan, Tao; Zhou, Junrui; Hua, Shenbing; Wang, Yong; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2016-06-01

    Coal-fired combustion is recognized as a significant anthropogenic source of atmospheric compounds in Beijing, causing heavy air pollution events and associated deterioration in visibility. Obtaining an accurate understanding of the temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of emissions from coal-fired industrial combustion is essential for predicting air quality changes and evaluating the effectiveness of current control measures. In this study, an integrated emission inventory of primary air pollutants emitted from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing is developed for the period of 2007-2013 using a technology-based approach. Future emission trends are projected through 2030 based on current energy-related and emission control policies. Our analysis shows that there is a general downward trend in primary air pollutants emissions because of the implementation of stricter local emission standards and the promotion by the Beijing municipal government of converting from coal-fired industrial boilers to gas-fired boilers. However, the ratio of coal consumed by industrial boilers to total coal consumption has been increasing, raising concerns about the further improvement of air quality in Beijing. Our estimates indicate that the total emissions of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOx, CO and VOCs from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing in 2013 are approximately 19,242 t, 13,345 t, 26,615 t, 22,965 t, 63,779 t and 1406 t, respectively. Under the current environmental policies and relevant energy savings and emission control plans, it may be possible to reduce NOx and other air pollutant emissions by 94% and 90% by 2030, respectively, if advanced flue gas purification technologies are implemented and coal is replaced with natural gas in the majority of existing boilers.

  12. Covariance specification and estimation to improve top-down Green House Gas emission estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S.; Lopez-Coto, I.; Prasad, K.; Whetstone, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) operates the North-East Corridor (NEC) project and the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) in order to develop measurement methods to quantify sources of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions as well as their uncertainties in urban domains using a top down inversion method. Top down inversion updates prior knowledge using observations in a Bayesian way. One primary consideration in a Bayesian inversion framework is the covariance structure of (1) the emission prior residuals and (2) the observation residuals (i.e. the difference between observations and model predicted observations). These covariance matrices are respectively referred to as the prior covariance matrix and the model-data mismatch covariance matrix. It is known that the choice of these covariances can have large effect on estimates. The main objective of this work is to determine the impact of different covariance models on inversion estimates and their associated uncertainties in urban domains. We use a pseudo-data Bayesian inversion framework using footprints (i.e. sensitivities of tower measurements of GHGs to surface emissions) and emission priors (based on Hestia project to quantify fossil-fuel emissions) to estimate posterior emissions using different covariance schemes. The posterior emission estimates and uncertainties are compared to the hypothetical truth. We find that, if we correctly specify spatial variability and spatio-temporal variability in prior and model-data mismatch covariances respectively, then we can compute more accurate posterior estimates. We discuss few covariance models to introduce space-time interacting mismatches along with estimation of the involved parameters. We then compare several candidate prior spatial covariance models from the Matern covariance class and estimate their parameters with specified mismatches. We find that best-fitted prior covariances are not always best in recovering the truth. To achieve

  13. China's CO and CO2 emissions estimated from the bottom up: Recent trends, uncertainties, and implications of improved energy efficiency and emission control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Nielsen, C.; McElroy, M. B.

    2012-12-01

    China's emissions of anthropogenic CO and CO2 from 2005 to 2010 are estimated using a bottom-up emission inventory framework based on a detailed categorization of economic sectors and provincial economic and energy data. It includes a newly compiled database of emission factors employing the latest field study results from China. The CO emission factors for major sectors declined to varying degrees for the past years, attributed to improved energy efficiency and/or emission control regulations. The national CO emissions are estimated at 173 Tg for 2005 and have been relatively stable for subsequent years, despite fast growth of energy consumption and industrial production. While industry and transportation dominated CO emissions in developed eastern and north-central China, residential combustion played a greater role in the less developed western provinces. Total CO2 emissions are estimated to have risen from 7126 to 10152 Tg from 2005 to 2010. Recent policies to conserve energy and reduce emissions have been effective in limiting CO2 emissions from power and iron & steel plants, but have had little effect on those from cement production. The uncertainties of China's CO and CO2 emissions are quantified for the first time using Monte Carlo simulation, producing the 95% confidence intervals of -20% to +45% and -9% to +11% for emissions in 2005, respectively. Due to poor understanding of emission factors and activity levels for combustion of solid fuels, the largest uncertainties are found for emissions from the residential sector. Emission factors are identified as the most important parameters contributing to the uncertainties of CO emissions for all the sectors, while the largest contributors to uncertainties of CO2 are emission factors for most industrial sources and activity levels for power plants, transportation, and residential sources. The trends of bottom-up emissions compare reasonably to ground observations of CO2-CO correlation slopes, as shown in Table

  14. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region

    PubMed Central

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Ge, C.; Wang, J.; Eberwein, J. R.; Liang, L. L.; Allsman, L. A.; Grantz, D. A.; Jenerette, G. D.

    2015-01-01

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional air quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, temperature and soil moisture. We find that a regional air chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving air quality. PMID:26556236

  15. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, P Y; Ge, C; Wang, J; Eberwein, J R; Liang, L L; Allsman, L A; Grantz, D A; Jenerette, G D

    2015-11-10

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional air quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, temperature and soil moisture. We find that a regional air chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving air quality.

  16. Reconciling Long-Term Trends in Air Quality with Bottom-up Emission Inventories for Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcdonald, B. C.; Kim, S. W.; Frost, G. J.; Harley, R.; Trainer, M.

    2014-12-01

    Significant long-term changes in air quality have been observed in the United States over several decades. However, reconciling ambient observations with bottom-up emission inventories has proved challenging. In this study, we perform WRF-Chem modeling in the Los Angeles basin for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and ozone (O3) over a long time period (1987-2010). To improve reconciliation of emission inventories with atmospheric observations, we incorporate new high-resolution emissions maps of a major to dominant source of urban air pollution, motor vehicles. A fuel-based approach is used to estimate motor vehicle emissions utilizing annual fuel sales reports, traffic count data that capture spatial and temporal patterns of vehicle activity, and pollutant emission factors measured from roadway studies performed over the last twenty years. We also update emissions from stationary sources using Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems (CEMS) data when available, and use emission inventories developed by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) and California Air Resources Board (ARB) for other important emission source categories. WRF-Chem modeling is performed in three years where field-intensive measurements were made: 1987 (SCAQS: Southern California Air Quality Study), 2002 (ITCT: Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation Study), and 2010 (CALNEX). We assess the ability of the improved bottom-up emissions inventory to predict long-term changes in ambient levels of CO, NOx, and O3, which are known to have occurred over this time period. We also assess changing spatial and temporal patterns of primary (CO and NOx) and secondary (O3) pollutant concentrations across the Los Angeles basin, which has important implications on human health.

  17. Communicating the uncertainty in estimated greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture.

    PubMed

    Milne, Alice E; Glendining, Margaret J; Lark, R Murray; Perryman, Sarah A M; Gordon, Taylor; Whitmore, Andrew P

    2015-09-01

    In an effort to mitigate anthropogenic effects on the global climate system, industrialised countries are required to quantify and report, for various economic sectors, the annual emissions of greenhouse gases from their several sources and the absorption of the same in different sinks. These estimates are uncertain, and this uncertainty must be communicated effectively, if government bodies, research scientists or members of the public are to draw sound conclusions. Our interest is in communicating the uncertainty in estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture to those who might directly use the results from the inventory. We tested six methods of communication. These were: a verbal scale using the IPCC calibrated phrases such as 'likely' and 'very unlikely'; probabilities that emissions are within a defined range of values; confidence intervals for the expected value; histograms; box plots; and shaded arrays that depict the probability density of the uncertain quantity. In a formal trial we used these methods to communicate uncertainty about four specific inferences about greenhouse gas emissions in the UK. Sixty four individuals who use results from the greenhouse gas inventory professionally participated in the trial, and we tested how effectively the uncertainty about these inferences was communicated by means of a questionnaire. Our results showed differences in the efficacy of the methods of communication, and interactions with the nature of the target audience. We found that, although the verbal scale was thought to be a good method of communication it did not convey enough information and was open to misinterpretation. Shaded arrays were similarly criticised for being open to misinterpretation, but proved to give the best impression of uncertainty when participants were asked to interpret results from the greenhouse gas inventory. Box plots were most favoured by our participants largely because they were particularly favoured by those who worked

  18. Remote estimation of net CO2 emission from boreal ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, C. A.; Strachan, I. B.

    2010-12-01

    Hydroelectricity is the main source of power in the province of Quebec, Canada. While hydroelectricity is considered to be a relatively green source of energy, reservoir creation is a land use change that involves flooding terrestrial ecosystems and thus a loss of greenhouse gas (GHG) uptake as well as direct GHG emission from decomposing vegetation. Both the lost sink for GHGs and direct emission from the reservoir surface must be included in estimating the net GHG emission attributable to the reservoir’s construction. These emissions can be determined using techniques such as eddy covariance, however, such methods are often costly and time consuming, and require frequent access to remote locations. Remote sensing is able to provide spatially continuous data over large areas, minimizing the need for ground based measurements. We tested the ability of the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to predict fluxes of carbon dioxide in areas representative of boreal forests and peatlands flooded by the Eastmain 1 hydroelectric reservoir in the James Bay region of Quebec, Canada. We collected spectral measurements from hand-held and helicopter-based platforms, as well as continuously monitored the indices PRI and NDVI from tower-mounted sensors at a forest and peatland site. We then compared the vegetation indices to net fluxes of carbon dioxide measured by eddy covariance at each site. PRI was related to fluxes at both the forest and peatland sites, suggesting it is possible to remotely estimate carbon dioxide uptake by vegetation in boreal forests and peatlands and thus greenhouse gas emissions resulting from land use changes in boreal regions, such as reservoir inundation.

  19. Global isoprene emissions estimated using MEGAN, ECMWF analyses and a detailed canopy environment model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, J.-F.; Stavrakou, T.; Wallens, S.; de Smedt, I.; van Roozendael, M.; Potosnak, M. J.; Rinne, J.; Munger, B.; Goldstein, A.; Guenther, A. B.

    2007-11-01

    The global emissions of isoprene are calculated at 0.5° resolution for each year between 1995 and 2006, based on the MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature) version 2 model (Guenther et al., 2006) and a detailed multi-layer canopy environment model for the calculation of leaf temperature and visible radiation fluxes. The calculation is driven by meteorological fields - air temperature, cloud cover, downward solar irradiance, windspeed, volumetric soil moisture in 4 soil layers - provided by analyses of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The estimated annual global isoprene emission ranges between 374 Tg (in 1996) and 449 Tg (in 1998 and 2005), for an average of ca. 410 Tg/year over the whole period, i.e. about 30% less than the standard MEGAN estimate (Guenther et al., 2006). This difference is due, to a large extent, to the impact of the soil moisture stress factor, which is found here to decrease the global emissions by more than 20%. In qualitative agreement with past studies, high annual emissions are found to be generally associated with El Niño events. The emission inventory is evaluated against flux measurement campaigns at Harvard forest (Massachussets) and Tapajós in Amazonia, showing that the model can capture quite well the short-term variability of emissions, but that it fails to reproduce the observed seasonal variation at the tropical rainforest site, with largely overestimated wet season fluxes. The comparison of the HCHO vertical columns calculated by a chemistry and transport model (CTM) with HCHO distributions retrieved from space provides useful insights on tropical isoprene emissions. For example, the relatively low emissions calculated over Western Amazonia (compared to the corresponding estimates in the inventory of Guenther et al., 1995) are validated by the excellent agreement found between the CTM and HCHO data over this region. The parameterized impact of the soil moisture stress

  20. Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 4, commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document serves as a manual for a workshop on commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues. Areas covered include: An overview of the glass industry; Furnace design and construction practices; Melting furnace operation; Energy input methods and controls; Air legislation and regulations; Soda lime emission mechanisms; and, Post furnace emission controls. Supporting papers are also included.

  1. 76 FR 35806 - Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Plating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ...-9320-7] RIN 2060-AM37 Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area.... SUMMARY: On June 12, 2008, EPA issued national emission standards for control of hazardous air pollutants...). In today's action, EPA is proposing to amend the national emission standards for control of...

  2. 76 FR 29031 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Lead Smelting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ...EPA is proposing amendments to the national emissions standards for hazardous air pollutants for Secondary Lead Smelting to address the results of the residual risk and technology review that EPA is required to conduct by the Clean Air Act. These proposed amendments include revisions to the stack emissions limits for lead; revisions to the fugitive dust emissions control requirements; the......

  3. 40 CFR 86.166-12 - Method for calculating emissions due to air conditioning leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to air conditioning leakage. 86.166-12 Section 86.166-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY... for calculating emissions due to air conditioning leakage. This section describes procedures used...

  4. 40 CFR 270.315 - What air emissions control information must I keep at my facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAM RCRA Standardized Permits for Storage and Treatment Units Information That Must Be Kept at Your Facility § 270.315 What air emissions control information must I keep at my facility? If you have air... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What air emissions control...

  5. 40 CFR 270.315 - What air emissions control information must I keep at my facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAM RCRA Standardized Permits for Storage and Treatment Units Information That Must Be Kept at Your Facility § 270.315 What air emissions control information must I keep at my facility? If you have air... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What air emissions control...

  6. 40 CFR 60.37b - Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... incinerators. 60.37b Section 60.37b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... § 60.37b Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators. For approval, a State plan shall include emission limits for opacity for air curtain incinerators at least as protective as those listed in §...

  7. 40 CFR 60.37b - Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... incinerators. 60.37b Section 60.37b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... § 60.37b Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators. For approval, a State plan shall include emission limits for opacity for air curtain incinerators at least as protective as those listed in §...

  8. 40 CFR 60.37b - Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... incinerators. 60.37b Section 60.37b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... § 60.37b Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators. For approval, a State plan shall include emission limits for opacity for air curtain incinerators at least as protective as those listed in §...

  9. 40 CFR 60.37b - Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... incinerators. 60.37b Section 60.37b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... § 60.37b Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators. For approval, a State plan shall include emission limits for opacity for air curtain incinerators at least as protective as those listed in §...

  10. 40 CFR 60.37b - Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... incinerators. 60.37b Section 60.37b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... § 60.37b Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators. For approval, a State plan shall include emission limits for opacity for air curtain incinerators at least as protective as those listed in §...

  11. Improving the accuracy of vehicle emissions profiles for urban transportation greenhouse gas and air pollution inventories.

    PubMed

    Reyna, Janet L; Chester, Mikhail V; Ahn, Soyoung; Fraser, Andrew M

    2015-01-06

    Metropolitan greenhouse gas and air emissions inventories can better account for the variability in vehicle movement, fleet composition, and infrastructure that exists within and between regions, to develop more accurate information for environmental goals. With emerging access to high quality data, new methods are needed for informing transportation emissions assessment practitioners of the relevant vehicle and infrastructure characteristics that should be prioritized in modeling to improve the accuracy of inventories. The sensitivity of light and heavy-duty vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) and conventional air pollutant (CAP) emissions to speed, weight, age, and roadway gradient are examined with second-by-second velocity profiles on freeway and arterial roads under free-flow and congestion scenarios. By creating upper and lower bounds for each factor, the potential variability which could exist in transportation emissions assessments is estimated. When comparing the effects of changes in these characteristics across U.S. cities against average characteristics of the U.S. fleet and infrastructure, significant variability in emissions is found to exist. GHGs from light-duty vehicles could vary by -2%-11% and CAP by -47%-228% when compared to the baseline. For heavy-duty vehicles, the variability is -21%-55% and -32%-174%, respectively. The results show that cities should more aggressively pursue the integration of emerging big data into regional transportation emissions modeling, and the integration of these data is likely to impact GHG and CAP inventories and how aggressively policies should be implemented to meet reductions. A web-tool is developed to aide cities in improving emissions uncertainty.

  12. Quantifying baseline emission factors of air pollutants in China's regional power grids.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenjia; Wang, Can; Jin, Zhugang; Chen, Jining

    2013-04-16

    Drawing lessons from the clean development mechanism (CDM), this paper developed a combined margin methodology to quantify baseline emission factors of air pollutants in China's regional power grids. The simple average of baseline emission factors of SO2, NOX, and PM2.5 in China's six power grids in 2010 were respectively 1.91 kg/MWh, 1.83 kg/MWh and 0.32 kg/MWh. Several low-efficient mitigation technologies, such as low nitrogen oxide burner (LNB), were suggested to be replaced or used together with other technologies in order to virtually decrease the grid's emission factor. The synergies between GHG and air pollution mitigation in China's power sector was also notable. It is estimated that in 2010, that every 1% CO2 reduction in China's power generation sector resulted in the respective coreduction of 1.1%, 0.5%, and 0.8% of SO2, NOX, and PM2.5. Wind is the best technology to achieve the largest amount of coabatement in most parts of China. This methodology is recommended to be used in making comprehensive air pollution control strategies and in cobenefits analysis in future CDM approval processes.

  13. An air quality balance index estimating the total amount of air pollutants at ground level.

    PubMed

    Trivero, Paolo; Biamino, Walter; Borasi, Maria; Cavagnero, Marco; Musa, Maya; Rinaudo, Caterina; Sesia, Veronica

    2012-07-01

    A new index named Air Quality Balance Index (AQBI), which is able to characterise the amount of pollution level in a selected area, is proposed. This index is a function of the ratios between pollutant concentration values and their standards; it aims at identifying all situations in which there is a possible environmental risk even when several pollutants are below their limit values but air quality is reduced. AQBI is evaluated by using a high-resolution three-dimensional dispersion model: the air concentration for each substance is computed starting from detailed emissions sources: point, line and area emissions hourly modulated. This model is driven with accurate meteorological data from ground stations and remote sensing systems providing vertical profiles of temperature and wind; these data are integrated with wind and temperature profiles at higher altitudes obtained by a Local Area Model. The outputs of the dispersion model are compared with pollutant concentrations provided by measuring stations, in order to recalibrate emission data. A three-dimensional high resolution grid of AQBI data is evaluated for an industrial area close to Alessandria (Northern Italy), assessing air quality and environmental conditions. Performance of AQBI is compared with the Air Quality Index (AQI) developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. AQBI, computed taking into account all pollutants, is able to point out situations not evidenced by AQI, based on a preset limited number of substances; therefore, AQBI is a good tool for evaluating the air quality either in urban and in industrial areas. The AQBI values at ground level, in selected points, are in agreement with in situ observations.

  14. A contemporary landscape of air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions leads to inevitable phenomena of low birthweight.

    PubMed

    Akhmat, Ghulam; Zaman, Khalid; Shukui, Tan; Abdul Malik, Ihtisham; Begum, Shamzana; Ahmed, Adeel

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study is to empirically examine the air pollution, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and low birth weight in Pakistan through the cointegration and error correction model over a 36-year time period, i.e., between 1975 and 2012. The study employed the Johansen cointegration technique to estimate the long-run relationship between the variables, while an error correction model was used to determine the short-run dynamics of the system. The study was limited to the following variables, including carbon dioxide emissions, methane emissions, nitrous oxide emissions, GHG emissions, and low birth weight in order to manage robust data analysis. The results reveal that air pollution and GHG emissions significantly affects the low birth weight in Pakistan. In the long run, carbon dioxide emissions act as a strong contributor for low birth weight, as the coefficient value indicates there is a more elastic relationship (i.e., -1.214, p<0.000) between them, whereas in the short run, this results has been evaporated. Subsequently, in the short run, GHG emissions have a one-to-one corresponding relationship with the low birth weight in Pakistan. Nitrous oxide emissions, both in the short and long run, have a significant and less elastic relationship (i.e., -0.517 with p<0.001 and -0.335 with p<0.090). Methane emissions have no significant relationship with the low birth weight in Pakistan.

  15. Temporal variability of air-sea CO2 exchange in a low-emission estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mørk, Eva Thorborg; Sejr, Mikael Kristian; Stæhr, Peter Anton; Sørensen, Lise Lotte

    2016-07-01

    There is the need for further study of whether global estimates of air-sea CO2 exchange in estuarine systems capture the relevant temporal variability and, as such, the temporal variability of bulk parameterized and directly measured CO2 fluxes was investigated in the Danish estuary, Roskilde Fjord. The air-sea CO2 fluxes showed large temporal variability across seasons and between days and that more than 30% of the net CO2 emission in 2013 was a result of two large fall and winter storms. The diurnal variability of ΔpCO2 was up to 400 during summer changing the estuary from a source to a sink of CO2 within the day. Across seasons the system was suggested to change from a sink of atmospheric CO2 during spring to near neutral during summer and later to a source of atmospheric CO2 during fall. Results indicated that Roskilde Fjord was an annual low-emission estuary, with an estimated bulk parameterized release of 3.9 ± 8.7 mol CO2 m-2 y-1 during 2012-2013. It was suggested that the production-respiration balance leading to the low annual emission in Roskilde Fjord, was caused by the shallow depth, long residence time and high water quality in the estuary. In the data analysis the eddy covariance CO2 flux samples were filtered according to the H2Osbnd CO2 cross-sensitivity assessment suggested by Landwehr et al. (2014). This filtering reduced episodes of contradicting directions between measured and bulk parameterized air-sea CO2 exchanges and changed the net air-sea CO2 exchange from an uptake to a release. The CO2 gas transfer velocity was calculated from directly measured CO2 fluxes and ΔpCO2 and agreed to previous observations and parameterizations.

  16. CO2 emission of Indonesian fires in 2015 estimated from satellite-derived atmospheric CO2 concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heymann, J.; Reuter, M.; Buchwitz, M.; Schneising, O.; Bovensmann, H.; Burrows, J. P.; Massart, S.; Kaiser, J. W.; Crisp, D.

    2017-02-01

    Indonesia experienced an exceptional number of fires in 2015 as a result of droughts related to the recent El Niño event and human activities. These fires released large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere. Emission databases such as the Global Fire Assimilation System version 1.2 and the Global Fire Emission Database version 4s estimated the CO2 emission to be approximately 1100 MtCO2 in the time period from July to November 2015. This emission was indirectly estimated by using parameters like burned area, fire radiative power, and emission factors. In the study presented in this paper, we estimate the Indonesian fire CO2 emission by using the column-averaged dry air mole fraction of CO2, XCO2, derived from measurements of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 satellite mission. The estimated CO2 emission is 748 ± 209 MtCO2, which is about 30% lower than provided by the emission databases.

  17. Prospective air pollutant emissions inventory for the development and production of unconventional natural gas in the Karoo basin, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altieri, Katye E.; Stone, Adrian

    2016-03-01

    The increased use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing techniques to produce gas from unconventional deposits has led to concerns about the impacts to local and regional air quality. South Africa has the 8th largest technically recoverable shale gas reserve in the world and is in the early stages of exploration of this resource. This paper presents a prospective air pollutant emissions inventory for the development and production of unconventional natural gas in South Africa's Karoo basin. A bottom-up Monte Carlo assessment of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), and non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emissions was conducted for major categories of well development and production activities. NOx emissions are estimated to be 68 tons per day (±42; standard deviation), total NMVOC emissions are 39 tons per day (±28), and PM2.5 emissions are 3.0 tons per day (±1.9). NOx and NMVOC emissions from shale gas development and production would dominate all other regional emission sources, and could be significant contributors to regional ozone and local air quality, especially considering the current lack of industrial activity in the region. Emissions of PM2.5 will contribute to local air quality, and are of a similar magnitude as typical vehicle and industrial emissions from a large South African city. This emissions inventory provides the information necessary for regulatory authorities to evaluate emissions reduction opportunities using existing technologies and to implement appropriate monitoring of shale gas-related activities.

  18. Biofuels that cause land-use change may have much larger non-GHG air quality emissions than fossil fuels.

    PubMed

    Tsao, C-C; Campbell, J E; Mena-Carrasco, M; Spak, S N; Carmichael, G R; Chen, Y

    2012-10-02

    Although biofuels present an opportunity for renewable energy production, significant land-use change resulting from biofuels may contribute to negative environmental, economic, and social impacts. Here we examined non-GHG air pollution impacts from both indirect and direct land-use change caused by the anticipated expansion of Brazilian biofuels production. We synthesized information on fuel loading, combustion completeness, and emission factors, and developed a spatially explicit approach with uncertainty and sensitivity analyses to estimate air pollution emissions. The land-use change emissions, ranging from 6.7 to 26.4 Tg PM(2.5), were dominated by deforestation burning practices associated with indirect land-use change. We also found Brazilian sugar cane ethanol and soybean biodiesel including direct and indirect land-use change effects have much larger life-cycle emissions than conventional fossil fuels for six regulated air pollutants. The emissions magnitude and uncertainty decrease with longer life-cycle integration periods. Results are conditional to the single LUC scenario employed here. After LUC uncertainty, the largest source of uncertainty in LUC emissions stems from the combustion completeness during deforestation. While current biofuels cropland burning policies in Brazil seek to reduce life-cycle emissions, these policies do not address the large emissions caused by indirect land-use change.

  19. Planetary Probe Entry Atmosphere Estimation Using Synthetic Air Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlgaard, Chris; Schoenenberger, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops an atmospheric state estimator based on inertial acceleration and angular rate measurements combined with an assumed vehicle aerodynamic model. The approach utilizes the full navigation state of the vehicle (position, velocity, and attitude) to recast the vehicle aerodynamic model to be a function solely of the atmospheric state (density, pressure, and winds). Force and moment measurements are based on vehicle sensed accelerations and angular rates. These measurements are combined with an aerodynamic model and a Kalman-Schmidt filter to estimate the atmospheric conditions. The new method is applied to data from the Mars Science Laboratory mission, which landed the Curiosity rover on the surface of Mars in August 2012. The results of the new estimation algorithm are compared with results from a Flush Air Data Sensing algorithm based on onboard pressure measurements on the vehicle forebody. The comparison indicates that the new proposed estimation method provides estimates consistent with the air data measurements, without the use of pressure measurements. Implications for future missions such as the Mars 2020 entry capsule are described.

  20. STANDARDS CONTROLLING AIR EMISSIONS FOR THE SOIL DESICCATION PILOT TEST

    SciTech Connect

    BENECKE MW

    2010-09-08

    This air emissions document supports implementation of the Treatability Test Plan for Soil Desiccation as outlined in the Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau (DOE/RL-2007-56). Treatability testing supports evaluation of remedial technologies for technetium-99 (Tc-99) contamination in the vadose zone at sites such as the BC Cribs and Trenches. Soil desiccation has been selected as the first technology for testing because it has been recommended as a promising technology in previous Hanford Site technology evaluations and because testing of soil desiccation will provide useful information to enhance evaluation of other technologies, in particular gas-phase remediation technologies. A soil desiccation pilot test (SDPT) will evaluate the desiccation process (e.g., how the targeted interval is dried) and the long-term performance for mitigation of contaminant transport. The SDPT will dry out a moist zone contaminated by Tc-99 and nitrate that has been detected at Well 299-E13-62 (Borehole C5923). This air emissions document applies to the activities to be completed to conduct the SDPT in the 200-BC-1 operable unit located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. Well 299-E13-62 is planned to be used as an injection well. This well is located between and approximately equidistant from cribs 216-B-16, 216-B-17, 216-B-18. and 216-B-19. Nitrogen gas will be pumped at approximately 300 ft{sup 3}/min into the 299-EI3-62 injection well, located approximately 12 m (39 ft) away from extraction well 299-EI3-65. The soil gas extraction rate will be approximately 150 ft{sup 3}/min. The SDPT will be conducted continuously over a period of approximately six months. The purpose of the test is to evaluate soil desiccation as a potential remedy for protecting groundwater. A conceptual depiction is provided in Figure 1. The soil desiccation process will physically dry, or evaporate, some of the water from the moist zone of interest. As such, it is

  1. Effects of soil dust emissions on air quality over the East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Y.; Kim, S.; Cho, J.; choi, D.

    2013-12-01

    Asian mineral dust from Gobi Desert, sand desert, Loess Plateau and barren mixed soil in Northern China and Mongolia has a major impact on the air quality in the East Asia. These mineral aerosols increase PM10 concentration over 1000 μg/m3 during the dust storm event as well as PM10 background concentrations as the fugitive dust during the non-dust period in the SMA (Seoul Metropolitan Area). The PM10 prediction by a regional chemical transport model without the dust emission shows an intrinsic tendency of underestimation according to previous studies in this region, especially for the soil originated coarse PM. The Asian Dust Aerosol Model 2 (ADAM2) scheme for the dust emission with CAMx was tested for its applicability in assessing impact of the fugitive dust on air quality in the China region and SMA. The performance of ADMS2 dust emission was evaluated to depict not only onset times of the dust storm event but also to estimate the level of background PM10 concentration for the non-dust event against the surface measurements and satellite measurements over East Asia. The surface observations were from EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring NETwork in East Asia), API (Air Pollution Index) monitoring sites in China and the intensive monitoring stations in the SMA. The results show that the CAMx predictions of PM10 with ADAM2 scheme were relatively in a good agreement with the observations. They, however, occasionally over-predicted the PM10 concentrations during non-dust event periods and under-predicted the PM10 concentrations during dust event periods. Details of model comparison for other chemical species and implication of dust emission schemes on the air quality will be discussed in the presentation. Acknowledgements This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as 'The Eco-technopia 21 project'.

  2. Modeling to Evaluate Contribution of Oil and Gas Emissions to Air Pollution.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Tammy M; Shepherd, Donald; Stacy, Andrea; Barna, Michael G; Schichtel, Bret A

    2017-04-01

    Oil and gas production in the Western United States has increased considerably over the past 10 years. While many of the still limited oil and gas impact assessments have focused on potential human health impacts, the typically remote locations of production in the Intermountain West suggests that the impacts of oil and gas production on national parks and wilderness areas (Class I and II areas) could also be important. To evaluate this, we utilize the Comprehensive Air quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) with a year-long modeling episode representing the best available representation of 2011 meteorology and emissions for the Western United States. The model inputs for the 2011 episodes were generated as part of the Three State Air Quality Study (3SAQS). The study includes a detailed assessment of oil and gas (O&G) emissions in Western States. The year-long modeling episode was run both with and without emissions from O&G production. The difference between these two runs provides an estimate of the contribution of the O&G production to air quality. These data were used to assess the contribution of O&G to the 8 hour average ozone concentrations, daily and annual fine particulate concentrations, annual nitrogen deposition totals and visibility in the modeling domain. We present the results for the Class I and II areas in the Western United States. Modeling results suggest that emissions from O&G activity are having a negative impact on air quality and ecosystem health in our National Parks and Class I areas.

  3. Global cost estimates of reducing carbon emissions through avoided deforestation.

    PubMed

    Kindermann, Georg; Obersteiner, Michael; Sohngen, Brent; Sathaye, Jayant; Andrasko, Kenneth; Rametsteiner, Ewald; Schlamadinger, Bernhard; Wunder, Sven; Beach, Robert

    2008-07-29

    Tropical deforestation is estimated to cause about one-quarter of anthropogenic carbon emissions, loss of biodiversity, and other environmental services. United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change talks are now considering mechanisms for avoiding deforestation (AD), but the economic potential of AD has yet to be addressed. We use three economic models of global land use and management to analyze the potential contribution of AD activities to reduced greenhouse gas emissions. AD activities are found to be a competitive, low-cost abatement option. A program providing a 10% reduction in deforestation from 2005 to 2030 could provide 0.3-0.6 Gt (1 Gt = 1 x 10(5) g) CO(2).yr(-1) in emission reductions and would require $0.4 billion to $1.7 billion.yr(-1) for 30 years. A 50% reduction in deforestation from 2005 to 2030 could provide 1.5-2.7 Gt CO(2).yr(-1) in emission reductions and would require $17.2 billion to $28.0 billion.yr(-1). Finally, some caveats to the analysis that could increase costs of AD programs are described.

  4. A zinc-air battery and flywheel zero emission vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Tokarz, F.; Smith, J.R.; Cooper, J.; Bender, D.; Aceves, S.

    1995-10-03

    In response to the 1990 Clean Air Act, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) developed a compliance plan known as the Low Emission Vehicle Program. An integral part of that program was a sales mandate to the top seven automobile manufacturers requiring the percentage of Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEVs) sold in California to be 2% in 1998, 5% in 2001 and 10% by 2003. Currently available ZEV technology will probably not meet customer demand for range and moderate cost. A potential option to meet the CARB mandate is to use two Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) technologies, namely, zinc-air refuelable batteries (ZARBs) and electromechanical batteries (EMBs, i. e., flywheels) to develop a ZEV with a 384 kilometer (240 mile) urban range. This vehicle uses a 40 kW, 70 kWh ZARB for energy storage combined with a 102 kW, 0.5 kWh EMB for power peaking. These technologies are sufficiently near-term and cost-effective to plausibly be in production by the 1999-2001 time frame for stationary and initial vehicular applications. Unlike many other ZEVs currently being developed by industry, our proposed ZEV has range, acceleration, and size consistent with larger conventional passenger vehicles available today. Our life-cycle cost projections for this technology are lower than for Pb-acid battery ZEVs. We have used our Hybrid Vehicle Evaluation Code (HVEC) to simulate the performance of the vehicle and to size the various components. The use of conservative subsystem performance parameters and the resulting vehicle performance are discussed in detail.

  5. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction 241-SY-101 crust growth near term mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    HOMAN, N.A.

    1999-04-12

    The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health, Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions & Defense Waste Section as a notice of construction (NOC) in accordance with the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of the information listed in Appendix A.'' Appendix A (WAC 246-247-110), lists the requirements that must be addressed. Additionally, the following description, attachments and references are provided to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.'' The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide less than 0.1 mrem/year total effective dose equivalent to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual, and commencement is needed within a short time frame. Therefore, this application is also intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application will also constitute EPA acceptance of this 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1) notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2), will be provided at a later date.

  6. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction 241-ER-311 catch tank

    SciTech Connect

    HILL, J.S.

    1999-11-01

    The following description, attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions & Defense Waste Section as a notice of construction (NOC) in accordance with the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration and licensing,'' states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of the information listed in Appendix A,'' Appendix A (WAC 246-247-110) lists the requirements that must be addressed. Additionally, the following description, attachments and references are provided to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 6 1, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.'' The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide less than 0.1 millirem/year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI), and commencement is needed within a short time frame. Therefore, this application is also intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(l), and it is requested that approval of this application will also constitute EPA acceptance of this 40 CFR 61.09(a)(l) notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2) will be provided later.

  7. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2011-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as those from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Because this report is intended to discuss radioactive air emissions during calendar year 2010, data on radionuclides in air from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant releases are not presented but will be included in the report for calendar year 2011. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP

  8. IMPROVING EMISSIONS ESTIMATES WITH COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE, DATABASE EXPANSION, AND COMPREHENSIVE VALIDATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses an EPA investigation of techniques to improve methods for estimating volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from area sources. Using the automobile refinishing industry for a detailed area source case study, an emission estimation method is being developed...

  9. A new statistical approach for establishing high-resolution emission inventory of primary gaseous air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ying; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Chen, Dongsheng; Lang, Jianlei; Zhao, Beibei; Wei, Wei

    2014-09-01

    This paper, which aims at the primary gaseous air pollutants (i.e., SO2, NOx, VOCS and CO), is the third paper in the series papers published in Atmospheric Environment to develop new emission estimation models by the regression method. A group of regression models for various industrial and non-industrial sectors were proposed based on an emission investigation case study of Handan region in northern China. The main data requirements of the regression models for industrial sectors were coal consumption, oil consumption, gaseous fuel consumption and annual industrial output. The data requirements for non-industrial sector emission estimations were the population, the number of resident population households, the vehicle population, the area of construction sites, the forestland area, and the orchard area. The models were then applied to Tangshan region in northern China. The results showed that the developed regression models had relatively satisfactory performance. The modeling errors at the regional level for SO2, NOx, VOCS and CO were -16.5%, -10.6%, -11.8% and -22.6%, respectively. The corresponding modeling errors at the county level were 39.9%, 33.9%, 46.3% and 46.9%, respectively. The models were also applied to other regions in northern China. The results revealed that the new models could develop emission inventories with generally lower error than found in previous emission inventory studies. The developed models had the advantages of only using publicly available statistical information for developing high-accuracy and high-resolution emission inventory, without requiring detailed data investigation which is necessary by conventional “bottom-up” emission inventory development approach.

  10. Measurement error in mobile source air pollution exposure estimates due to residential mobility during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pennington, Audrey Flak; Strickland, Matthew J; Klein, Mitchel; Zhai, Xinxin; Russell, Armistead G; Hansen, Craig; Darrow, Lyndsey A

    2016-12-14

    Prenatal air pollution exposure is frequently estimated using maternal residential location at the time of delivery as a proxy for residence during pregnancy. We describe residential mobility during pregnancy among 19,951 children from the Kaiser Air Pollution and Pediatric Asthma Study, quantify measurement error in spatially resolved estimates of prenatal exposure to mobile source fine particulate matter (PM2.5) due to ignoring this mobility, and simulate the impact of this error on estimates of epidemiologic associations. Two exposure estimates were compared, one calculated using complete residential histories during pregnancy (weighted average based on time spent at each address) and the second calculated using only residence at birth. Estimates were computed using annual averages of primary PM2.5 from traffic emissions modeled using a Research LINE-source dispersion model for near-surface releases (RLINE) at 250 m resolution. In this cohort, 18.6% of children were born to mothers who moved at least once during pregnancy. Mobile source PM2.5 exposure estimates calculated using complete residential histories during pregnancy and only residence at birth were highly correlated (rS>0.9). Simulations indicated that ignoring residential mobility resulted in modest bias of epidemiologic associations toward the null, but varied by maternal characteristics and prenatal exposure windows of interest (ranging from -2% to -10% bias).Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 14 December 2016; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.66.

  11. Estimation of saltation emission in the Kubuqi Desert, North China.

    PubMed

    Du, Heqiang; Xue, Xian; Wang, Tao

    2014-05-01

    The Kubuqi Desert suffered more severe wind erosion hazard. Every year, a mass of aeolian sand was blown in the Ten Tributaries that are tributaries of the Yellow River. To estimate the quantity of aeolian sediment blown into the Ten Tributaries from the Kubuqi Desert, it is necessary to simulate the saltation processes of the Kubuqi Desert. A saltation submodel of the IWEMS (Integrated Wind-Erosion Modeling System) and its accompanying RS (Remote Sensing) and GIS (Geographic Information System) methods were used to model saltation emissions in the Kubuqi Desert. To calibrate the saltation submodel, frontal area of vegetation, soil moisture, wind velocity and saltation sediment were observed synchronously on several points in 2011 and 2012. In this study, a model namely BEACH (Bridge Event And Continuous Hydrological) was introduced to simulate the daily soil moisture. Using the surface parameters (frontal area of vegetation and soil moisture) along with the observed wind velocities and saltation sediments for the observed points, the saltation model was calibrated and validated. To reduce the simulate error, a subdaily wind velocity program, WINDGEN was introduced in this model to simulate the hourly wind velocity of the Kubuqi Desert. By incorporating simulated hourly wind velocity, and model variables, the saltation emission of the Kubuqi Desert was modeled. The model results show that the total sediment flow rate was 1-30.99 tons/m over the last 10years (2001-2010). The saltation emission mainly occurs in the north central part of the Kubuqi Desert in winter and spring. Integrating the wind directions, the quantity of the aeolian sediment that deposits in the Ten Tributaries was estimated. Compared with the observed data by the local government and hydrometric stations, our estimation is reasonable.

  12. Evaluation of national emissions inventories of anthropogenic air pollutants for Brunei Darussalam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotse, Sam-Quarcoo; Dagar, Lalit; Petra, Mohammad Iskandar; De Silva, Liyanage C.

    2016-05-01

    Haze and other air pollution related problems are getting more significant in Brunei Darussalam but till date there is absence of comprehensive national emission inventory for Brunei Darussalam. Although there are few regional and global inventories available for Brunei Darussalam, large variations in the emission estimates exist in these datasets. Therefore, there is an important need for an updated inventory, based on data available from government and other sources. This study presents a sector-wise anthropogenic emission estimates and trends (2001-2012) for the pollutants CO2, CH4, N2O, NOX, NMVOC, CO, SOX, and PM10. The results suggest no significant contributions from residential sector (<1%) whilst road transport is the main contributor for most of the pollutants. CO2 is largely emitted by power plants (∼72% in 2001 and∼ 62% in 2012) and the main source of CH4 is Solid waste disposal and wastewater handling (∼92%). There were also significant contributions from industrial processes and solvent use to NMVOC and PM10 emissions (∼74% and ∼45% respectively).

  13. Selection of emission factor standards for estimating emissions from diesel construction equipment in building construction in the Australian context.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guomin; Sandanayake, Malindu; Setunge, Sujeeva; Li, Chunqing; Fang, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Emissions from equipment usage and transportation at the construction stage are classified as the direct emissions which include both greenhouse gas (GHG) and non-GHG emissions due to partial combustion of fuel. Unavailability of a reliable and complete inventory restricts an accurate emission evaluation on construction work. The study attempts to review emission factor standards readily available worldwide for estimating emissions from construction equipment. Emission factors published by United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), Australian National Greenhouse Accounts (AUS NGA), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and European Environmental Agency (EEA) are critically reviewed to identify their strengths and weaknesses. A selection process based on the availability and applicability is then developed to help identify the most suitable emission factor standards for estimating emissions from construction equipment in the Australian context. A case study indicates that a fuel based emission factor is more suitable for GHG emission estimation and a time based emission factor is more appropriate for estimation of non-GHG emissions. However, the selection of emission factor standards also depends on factors like the place of analysis (country of origin), data availability and the scope of analysis. Therefore, suitable modifications and assumptions should be incorporated in order to represent these factors.

  14. Comparison of exposure estimation methods for air pollutants: ambient monitoring data and regional air quality simulation.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Mercedes A; Fuentes, Montserrat; Zhang, Yang; Burr, Michael J; Bell, Michelle L

    2012-07-01

    Air quality modeling could potentially improve exposure estimates for use in epidemiological studies. We investigated this application of air quality modeling by estimating location-specific (point) and spatially-aggregated (county level) exposure concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM(2.5)) and ozone (O(3)) for the eastern U.S. in 2002 using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and a traditional approach using ambient monitors. The monitoring approach produced estimates for 370 and 454 counties for PM(2.5) and O(3), respectively. Modeled estimates included 1861 counties, covering 50% more population. The population uncovered by monitors differed from those near monitors (e.g., urbanicity, race, education, age, unemployment, income, modeled pollutant levels). CMAQ overestimated O(3) (annual normalized mean bias=4.30%), while modeled PM(2.5) had an annual normalized mean bias of -2.09%, although bias varied seasonally, from 32% in November to -27% in July. Epidemiology may benefit from air quality modeling, with improved spatial and temporal resolution and the ability to study populations far from monitors that may differ from those near monitors. However, model performance varied by measure of performance, season, and location. Thus, the appropriateness of using such modeled exposures in health studies depends on the pollutant and metric of concern, acceptable level of uncertainty, population of interest, study design, and other factors.

  15. 55 FR 14037 Correction to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Correction to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Benzene Emissions From Maleic Anhydride Plants, Ethylbenzene/Styrene Plants, Benzene Storage Vessels, Benzene Equipment Leaks, and Coke Byproduct Recovery Plants.

  16. (AWMA) IMPROVING EMISSION INVENTORIES FOR EFFECTIVE AIR-QUALITY MANAGEMENT ACROSS NORTH AMERICA - A NARSTO ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NARSTO Ozone and Particulate Matter Assessments emphasized that emission inventories are critical to the success of air quality management programs and that emissions inventories in Canada, Mexico, and the United States need improvement to meet expectations for quality, timel...

  17. AIR EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL HEATING: THE WOOD HEATING OPTION PUT INTO ENVIRONMENTAL PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper compares the national scale (rather than local) air quality impacts of the various residential space heating options. Specifically, it compares the relative contribution of the space heating options to fine particulate emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, and acid preci...

  18. IMPROVING EMISSION INVENTORIES FOR EFFECTIVE AIR-QUALITY MANAGMENT ACROSS NORTH AMERICA - A NARSTO ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NARSTO Ozone and Particulate Matter Assessments emphasized that emission inventories are critical to the success of air quality management programs and that emissions inventories in Canada, Mexico, and the United States need improvement to meet expectations for quality, timel...

  19. Effects of business-as-usual anthropogenic emissions on air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzer, A.; Zimmermann, P.; Doering, U. M.; van Aardenne, J.; Tost, H.; Dentener, F.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Lelieveld, J.

    2012-08-01

    The atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC has been used to estimate the impact of anthropogenic emission changes on global and regional air quality in recent and future years (2005, 2010, 2025 and 2050). The emission scenario assumes that population and economic growth largely determine energy and food consumption and consequent pollution sources with the current technologies ("business as usual"). This scenario is chosen to show the effects of not implementing legislation to prevent additional climate change and growing air pollution, other than what is in place for the base year 2005, representing a pessimistic (but plausible) future. By comparing with recent observations, it is shown that the model reproduces the main features of regional air pollution distributions though with some imprecisions inherent to the coarse horizontal resolution (~100 km) and simplified bottom-up emission input. To identify possible future hot spots of poor air quality, a multi pollutant index (MPI), suited for global model output, has been applied. It appears that East and South Asia and the Middle East represent such hotspots due to very high pollutant concentrations, while a general increase of MPIs is observed in all populated regions in the Northern Hemisphere. In East Asia a range of pollutant gases and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is projected to reach very high levels from 2005 onward, while in South Asia air pollution, including ozone, will grow rapidly towards the middle of the century. Around the Persian Gulf, where natural PM2.5 concentrations are already high (desert dust), ozone levels are expected to increase strongly. The population weighted MPI (PW-MPI), which combines demographic and pollutant concentration projections, shows that a rapidly increasing number of people worldwide will experience reduced air quality during the first half of the 21st century. Following this business as usual scenario, it is projected that air quality for the global

  20. Effects of business-as-usual anthropogenic emissions on air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzer, A.; Zimmermann, P.; Doering, U. M.; van Aardenne, J.; Tost, H.; Dentener, F.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Lelieveld, J.

    2012-04-01

    The atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC has been used to estimate the impact of anthropogenic emission changes on global and regional air quality in recent and future years (2005, 2010, 2025 and 2050). The emission scenario assumes that population and economic growth largely determine energy and food consumption and consequent pollution sources with the current technologies ("business as usual"). This scenario is chosen to show the effects of not implementing legislation to prevent additional climate change and growing air pollution, other than what is in place for the base year 2005, representing a pessimistic (but feasible) future. By comparing with recent observations, it is shown that the model reproduces the main features of regional air pollution distributions though with some imprecisions inherent to the coarse horizontal resolution (~100 km) and simplified bottom-up emission input. To identify possible future hot spots of poor air quality, a multi pollutant index (MPI), suited for global model output, has been applied. It appears that East and South Asia and the Middle East represent such hotspots due to very high pollutant concentrations, although a general increase of MPIs is observed in all populated regions in the Northern Hemisphere. In East Asia a range of pollutant gases and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is projected to reach very high levels from 2005 onward, while in South Asia air pollution, including ozone, will grow rapidly towards the middle of the century. Around the Arabian Gulf, where natural PM2.5 concentrations are already high (desert dust), ozone levels are expected to increase strongly. The per capita MPI (PCMPI), which combines demographic and pollutants concentrations projections, shows that a rapidly increasing number of people worldwide will experience reduced air quality during the first half of the 21st century. Following the business as usual scenario, it is projected that air quality for the global average

  1. Valuation of plug-in vehicle life-cycle air emissions and oil displacement benefits

    PubMed Central

    Michalek, Jeremy J.; Chester, Mikhail; Jaramillo, Paulina; Samaras, Constantine; Shiau, Ching-Shin Norman; Lave, Lester B.

    2011-01-01

    We assess the economic value of life-cycle air emissions and oil consumption from conventional vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs), and battery electric vehicles in the US. We find that plug-in vehicles may reduce or increase externality costs relative to grid-independent HEVs, depending largely on greenhouse gas and SO2 emissions produced during vehicle charging and battery manufacturing. However, even if future marginal damages from emissions of battery and electricity production drop dramatically, the damage reduction potential of plug-in vehicles remains small compared to ownership cost. As such, to offer a socially efficient approach to emissions and oil consumption reduction, lifetime cost of plug-in vehicles must be competitive with HEVs. Current subsidies intended to encourage sales of plug-in vehicles with large capacity battery packs exceed our externality estimates considerably, and taxes that optimally correct for externality damages would not close the gap in ownership cost. In contrast, HEVs and PHEVs with small battery packs reduce externality damages at low (or no) additional cost over their lifetime. Although large battery packs allow vehicles to travel longer distances using electricity instead of gasoline, large packs are more expensive, heavier, and more emissions intensive to produce, with lower utilization factors, greater charging infrastructure requirements, and life-cycle implications that are more sensitive to uncertain, time-sensitive, and location-specific factors. To reduce air emission and oil dependency impacts from passenger vehicles, strategies to promote adoption of HEVs and PHEVs with small battery packs offer more social benefits per dollar spent. PMID:21949359

  2. Valuation of plug-in vehicle life-cycle air emissions and oil displacement benefits.

    PubMed

    Michalek, Jeremy J; Chester, Mikhail; Jaramillo, Paulina; Samaras, Constantine; Shiau, Ching-Shin Norman; Lave, Lester B

    2011-10-04

    We assess the economic value of life-cycle air emissions and oil consumption from conventional vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs), and battery electric vehicles in the US. We find that plug-in vehicles may reduce or increase externality costs relative to grid-independent HEVs, depending largely on greenhouse gas and SO(2) emissions produced during vehicle charging and battery manufacturing. However, even if future marginal damages from emissions of battery and electricity production drop dramatically, the damage reduction potential of plug-in vehicles remains small compared to ownership cost. As such, to offer a socially efficient approach to emissions and oil consumption reduction, lifetime cost of plug-in vehicles must be competitive with HEVs. Current subsidies intended to encourage sales of plug-in vehicles with large capacity battery packs exceed our externality estimates considerably, and taxes that optimally correct for externality damages would not close the gap in ownership cost. In contrast, HEVs and PHEVs with small battery packs reduce externality damages at low (or no) additional cost over their lifetime. Although large battery packs allow vehicles to travel longer distances using electricity instead of gasoline, large packs are more expensive, heavier, and more emissions intensive to produce, with lower utilization factors, greater charging infrastructure requirements, and life-cycle implications that are more sensitive to uncertain, time-sensitive, and location-specific factors. To reduce air emission and oil dependency impacts from passenger vehicles, strategies to promote adoption of HEVs and PHEVs with small battery packs offer more social benefits per dollar spent.

  3. Protocols of radiocontaminant air monitoring for inhalation exposure estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.H.

    1995-09-01

    Monitoring the plutonium and americium particle emissions from soils contaminated during atmospheric nuclear testing or due to accidental releases is important for several reasons. First, it is important to quantify the extent of potential human exposure from inhalation of alpha-emitting particles, which is the major exposure pathway from transuranic radionuclides. Second, the information provided by resuspension monitoring is the basis of criteria that determine the target soil concentrations for management and cleanup of contaminated soil sites. There are other radioactive aerosols, such as the fission products (cesium and strontium) and neutron-activation products (europium isotopes), which may be resuspended and therefore necessary to monitor as well. This Standard Protocol (SP) provides the method used for radiocontaminant air monitoring by the Health and Ecological Assessment Division (formerly Environmental Sciences Division), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, as developed and tested at Nevada Test Site (NTS) and in the Marshall Islands. The objective of this SP is to document the applications and methods of monitoring of all the relevant variables. This protocol deals only with measuring air concentrations of radionuclides and total suspended particulates (TSP, or {open_quotes}dust{close_quotes}). A separate protocol presents the more difficult measurements required to determine transuranic aerosol emission rates, or {open_quotes}resuspension rate{close_quotes}.

  4. 76 FR 15553 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ...EPA is promulgating national emission standards for control of hazardous air pollutants from two area source categories: Industrial boilers and commercial and institutional boilers. The final emission standards for control of mercury and polycyclic organic matter emissions from coal-fired area source boilers are based on the maximum achievable control technology. The final emission standards......

  5. [Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from wood furniture--estimation of emission rate by passive flux sampler].

    PubMed

    Jinno, Hideto; Tanaka-Kagawa, Toshiko; Furuta, Mitsuko; Shibatsuji, Masayoshi; Nishimura, Tetsuji

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate aldehydes and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission from furniture, which may cause hazardous influence on human being such as sick building/sick house syndrome. In this study, VOCs emitted from six kinds of wood furniture, including three set of dining tables and three beds, were analyzed by large chamber test method (JIS A 1911). Based on the emission rates of total VOCs (TVOC), the impacts on the indoor TVOC was estimated by the simulation model with volume of 20 m3 and ventilation frequency of 0.5 times/h. The estimated increment of formaldehyde were exceeded the guideline value (100 microg/m3) in one set of dining table and one bed. The estimated TVOC increment values were exceeded the provisional target value for indoor air (400 microg/m3) in two sets of dining tables and two beds. These results revealed that VOC emissions from wood furniture may influence significantly indoor air quality. Also, in this study, to establish the alternative method for large chamber test methods, emission rates from representative five areas of furniture unit were evaluated by passive sampling method using flux sampler and emission rate from full-sized furniture was predicted. Emission rates predicted by flux passive sampler were 10-106% (formaldehyde) and 8-141% (TVOC) of the data measured using large chamber test, respectively.

  6. 40 CFR 60.2250 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2250 Section 60.2250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... 1, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2250 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) Within 60 days after your air curtain incinerator reaches the charge rate at which it...

  7. 40 CFR 60.2250 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2250 Section 60.2250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... 1, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2250 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) Within 60 days after your air curtain incinerator reaches the charge rate at which it...

  8. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford Site, calendar year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Diediker, L.P.; Johnson, A.R.; Rhoads, K.; Klages, D.L.; Soldat, J.K.; Rokkan, D.J.

    1993-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1992 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to an member of the public. The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, ``National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,`` Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.``

  9. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford site, Calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P.; Diediker, L.P.; Jette, S.J.; Rhoads, K.; Soldat, S.K.

    1995-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1994, and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the ``MEI.`` The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, ``National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,`` Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.``

  10. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2010 INL Report for Radionuclides (2011)

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

    2011-06-01

    This report documents the calendar Year 2010 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'

  11. MODELING ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTIONS ON OZONE AIR QUALITY IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES: OFFSETTING INCREASES IN ENERGY USE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study is to examine changes in ambient ozone concentrations estimated by a photochemical air quality model in response to the NOx emission reductions imposed on the utility sector. To accomplish this task, CMAQ air quality model simulations were performe...

  12. Using Satellite Remote Sensing and Modelling for Insights into N02 Air Pollution and NO2 Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamsal, L. N.; Martin, R. V.; Krotkov, N. A.; Bucsela, E. J.; Celarier, E. A.; vanDonkelaar, A.; Parrish, D.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) are key actors in air quality and climate change. Satellite remote sensing of tropospheric NO2 has developed rapidly with enhanced spatial and temporal resolution since initial observations in 1995. We have developed an improved algorithm and retrieved tropospheric NO2 columns from Ozone Monitoring Instrument. Column observations of tropospheric NO2 from the nadir-viewing satellite sensors contain large contributions from the boundary layer due to strong enhancement of NO2 in the boundary layer. We infer ground-level NO2 concentrations from the OMI satellite instrument which demonstrate significant agreement with in-situ surface measurements. We examine how NO2 columns measured by satellite, ground-level NO2 derived from satellite, and NO(x) emissions obtained from bottom-up inventories relate to world's urban population. We perform inverse modeling analysis of NO2 measurements from OMI to estimate "top-down" surface NO(x) emissions, which are used to evaluate and improve "bottom-up" emission inventories. We use NO2 column observations from OMI and the relationship between NO2 columns and NO(x) emissions from a GEOS-Chem model simulation to estimate the annual change in bottom-up NO(x) emissions. The emission updates offer an improved estimate of NO(x) that are critical to our understanding of air quality, acid deposition, and climate change.

  13. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the PNNL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Theodore M.; Antonio, Ernest J.

    2012-11-12

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is in the process of developing a radiological air monitoring program for the PNNL Site that is distinct from that of the nearby Hanford Site. The original DQO (PNNL-19427) considered radiological emissions at the PNNL Site from Physical Sciences Facility (PSF) major emissions units. This first revision considers PNNL Site changes subsequent to the implementation of the original DQO. A team was established to determine how the PNNL Site changes would continue to meet federal regulations and address guidelines developed to monitor air emissions and estimate offsite impacts of radioactive material operations. The result is an updated program to monitor the impact to the public from the PNNL Site. The team used the emission unit operation parameters and local meteorological data as well as information from the PSF Potential-to-Emit documentation and Notices of Construction submitted to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH). The locations where environmental monitoring stations would most successfully characterize the maximum offsite impacts of PNNL Site emissions from the three PSF buildings with major emission units were determined from these data. Three monitoring station locations were determined during the original revision of this document. This first revision considers expanded Department of Energy operations south of the PNNL Site and relocation of the two offsite, northern monitoring stations to sites near the PNNL Site fenceline. Inclusion of the southern facilities resulted in the proposal for a fourth monitoring station in the southern region. The southern expansion added two minor emission unit facilities and one diffuse emission unit facility. Relocation of the two northern stations was possible due to the use of solar power, rather than the previous limitation of the need for access to AC power, at these more remote locations. Addendum A contains all the changes brought about by the revision 1

  14. Recent decreases in fossil-fuel emissions of ethane and methane derived from firn air.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Murat; Verhulst, Kristal R; Saltzman, Eric S; Battle, Mark O; Montzka, Stephen A; Blake, Donald R; Tang, Qi; Prather, Michael J

    2011-08-10

    Methane and ethane are the most abundant hydrocarbons in the atmosphere and they affect both atmospheric chemistry and climate. Both gases are emitted from fossil fuels and biomass burning, whereas methane (CH(4)) alone has large sources from wetlands, agriculture, landfills and waste water. Here we use measurements in firn (perennial snowpack) air from Greenland and Antarctica to reconstruct the atmospheric variability of ethane (C(2)H(6)) during the twentieth century. Ethane levels rose from early in the century until the 1980s, when the trend reversed, with a period of decline over the next 20 years. We find that this variability was primarily driven by changes in ethane emissions from fossil fuels; these emissions peaked in the 1960s and 1970s at 14-16 teragrams per year (1 Tg = 10(12) g) and dropped to 8-10 Tg  yr(-1) by the turn of the century. The reduction in fossil-fuel sources is probably related to changes in light hydrocarbon emissions associated with petroleum production and use. The ethane-based fossil-fuel emission history is strikingly different from bottom-up estimates of methane emissions from fossil-fuel use, and implies that the fossil-fuel source of methane started to decline in the 1980s and probably caused the late twentieth century slow-down in the growth rate of atmospheric methane.

  15. Air pollutant emissions from vehicles in China under various energy scenarios.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingyu; Sun, Guojin; Fang, Simai; Tian, Weili; Li, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Huiyu

    2013-04-15

    Estimations of air pollutant emissions from vehicles in China under different energy and emission abatement policy scenarios are presented in this paper. Three scenarios are designed: (i) "business as usual" (BAU); (ii) "advanced fuel economy" (AFE); and (iii) "alternative energy replacement" (AER). The CO, VOCs, NOx, PM10, and CO2 emissions are predicted to reach 105.8, 5.9, 7.5, 1.1, and 3522.6 million tons, respectively, in the BAU scenario by 2030. In the AFE scenario, the CO, VOCs, NOx, PM10, and CO2 emissions in 2030 will be abated by 23.8%, 18.6%, 25.3%, 18.2%, and 24.5% respectively compared with the BAU scenario. In the AER scenario, the CO and VOCs in 2030 will be further reduced by 15.9% and 6.1% respectively, while NOx, PM10, and CO2 will be increased by 10.7%, 33.3%, and 2.0% compared with AFE. In conclusion, our models indicate that the emission abatement policies introduced by governmental institutions are potentially viable, as long as they are effectively implemented.

  16. Radiative heat transfer estimation in pipes with various wall emissivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, Langebach; Christoph, Haberstroh

    2017-02-01

    Radiative heat transfer is usually of substantial importance in cryogenics when systems are designed and thermal budgeting is carried out. However, the contribution of pipes is commonly assumed to be comparably low since the warm and cold ends as well as their cross section are fairly small. Nevertheless, for a first assessment of each pipe rough estimates are always appreciated. In order to estimate the radiative heat transfer with traditional “paper and pencil“ methods there is only one analytical case available in literature – the case of plane-parallel plates. This case can only be used to calculate the theoretical lower and the upper asymptotic values of the radiative heat transfer, since pipe wall radiation properties are not taken into account. For this paper we investigated the radiative heat transfer estimation in pipes with various wall emissivities with the help of numerical simulations. Out of a number of calculation series we could gain an empirical extension for the used approach of plane-parallel plates. The model equation can be used to carry out enhanced paper and pencil estimations for the radiative heat transfer through pipes without demanding numerical simulations.

  17. Modeling and Qualification of a Modified Emission Unit for Radioactive Air Emissions Stack Sampling Compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Glissmeyer, John A.

    2016-01-01

    A planned laboratory space and exhaust system modification to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Material Science and Technology Building indicated a new evaluation of the mixing at the air sampling system location would be required for compliance to ANSI/HPS N13.1-2011. The modified exhaust system would add a third fan thereby increasing the overall exhaust rate out the stack thus voiding the previous mixing study. Prior to modifying the radioactive air emissions exhaust system, a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics computer model was used to evaluate the mixing at the sampling system location. Modeling of the new original three-fan system indicated that not all mixing criteria could be met. A second modeling effort was conducted with the addition of an air blender downstream of the confluence of the three fans which then showed satisfactory mixing results. The final installation included an air blender, and the exhaust system underwent full-scale tests to verify velocity, cyclonic flow, gas, and particulate uniformity. The modeling results and those of the full-scale tests show agreement between each of the evaluated criteria. The use of a computational fluid dynamics code was an effective aid in the design process and allowed the sampling system to remain in its original location while still meeting the requirements for sampling at a well-mixed location.