Science.gov

Sample records for air emissions monitoring

  1. Basic Information about Air Emissions Monitoring

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site is about types of air emissions monitoring and the Clean Air Act regulations, including Ambient Air Quality Monitoring, Stationary Source Emissions Monitoring, and Continuous Monitoring Systems.

  2. Air Emissions Monitoring for Permits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Operating permits document how air pollution sources will demonstrate compliance with emission limits and also how air pollution sources will monitor, either periodically or continuously, their compliance with emission limits and all other requirements.

  3. Air Monitoring, Measuring, and Emissions Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Measurement research is advancing the ability to determine the composition of sources of air pollution, conduct exposure assessments, improve monitoring capabilities and support public health research.

  4. Clean Air Markets - Part 75 Emissions Monitoring Policy Manual

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about monitoring mass sulfur dioxide and mass carbon dioxide emissions, nitrogen oxide emission rate, and heat input by units affected by the Acid Rain Program and the Clean Air Interstate Rule.

  5. WORKSHOP ON SOURCE EMISSION AND AMBIENT AIR MONITORING OF MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    AN EPA/ORD Workshop on Source Emission and Ambient Air Monitoring of Mercury was held on 9/13-14/99, Bloomington, Minnesota. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss the state-of-the-science in source and ambient air mercury monitoring as well as mercury monitoring research and...

  6. Air Monitoring of Emissions from the Fukushima Daiichi Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    McNaughton, Michael; Allen, Shannon P.; Archuleta, Debra C.; Brock, Burgandy; Coronado, Melissa A.; Dewart, Jean M.; Eisele, William F. Jr.; Fuehne, David P.; Gadd, Milan S.; Green, Andrew A.; Lujan, Joan J.; MacDonell, Carolyn; Whicker, Jeffrey J.

    2012-06-12

    In response to the disasters in Japan on March 11, 2011, and the subsequent emissions from Fukushima-Daiichi, we monitored the air near Los Alamos using four air-monitoring systems: the standard AIRNET samplers, the standard rad-NESHAP samplers, the NEWNET system, and high-volume air samplers. Each of these systems has advantages and disadvantages. In combination, they provide a comprehensive set of measurements of airborne radionuclides near Los Alamos during the weeks following March 11. We report air-monitoring measurements of the fission products released from the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear-power-plant accident in 2011. Clear gamma-spectrometry peaks were observed from Cs-134, Cs-136, Cs-137, I-131, I132, Te-132, and Te-129m. These data, together with measurements of other radionuclides, are adequate for an assessment and assure us that radionuclides from Fukushima Daiichi did not present a threat to human health at or near Los Alamos. The data demonstrate the capabilities of the Los Alamos air-monitoring systems.

  7. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Potential Impact Categories for Radiological Air Emission Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.; Barnett, J. Matthew

    2012-06-05

    In 2002, the EPA amended 40 CFR 61 Subpart H and 40 CFR 61 Appendix B Method 114 to include requirements from ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities for major emission points. Additionally, the WDOH amended the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247 Radiation protection-air emissions to include ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 requirements for major and minor emission points when new permitting actions are approved. A result of the amended regulations is the requirement to prepare a written technical basis for the radiological air emission sampling and monitoring program. A key component of the technical basis is the Potential Impact Category (PIC) assigned to an emission point. This paper discusses the PIC assignments for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Integrated Laboratory emission units; this revision includes five PIC categories.

  8. Autonomous Mobile Platform for Monitoring Air Emissions from Industrial and Municipal Waste Water Ponds.

    PubMed

    Fu, Long; Huda, Quamrul; Yang, Zheng; Zhang, Lucas; Hashisho, Zaher

    2017-02-02

    Significant amounts of volatile organic compounds and greenhouse gases are generated from wastewater lagoons and tailings ponds in Alberta. Accurate measurements of these air pollutants and greenhouse gases are needed to support management and regulatory decisions. A mobile platform was developed to measure air emissions from tailings pond in the oil sands region of Alberta. The mobile platform was tested in 2015 in a municipal wastewater treatment lagoon. With a flux chamber and a CO2/CH4 sensor on board, the mobile platform was able to measure CO2 and CH4 emissions over two days at two different locations in the pond. Flux emission rates of CO2 and CH4 that were measured over the study period suggest the presence of aerobic and anaerobic zones in the wastewater treatment lagoon. The study demonstrated the capabilities of the mobile platform in measuring fugitive air emissions and identified the potential for the applications in air and water quality monitoring programs. Implications The Mobile Platform demonstrated in this study has the ability to measure greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fugitive sources such as municipal wastewater lagoons. This technology can be used to measure emission fluxes from tailings pond with better detection of spatial and temporal variations of fugitive emissions. Additional air and water sampling equipment could be added to the mobile platform for a broad range of air and water quality studies in the oil sands region of Alberta.

  9. Fugitive emissions monitoring trends

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.H.

    1997-02-01

    New Clean Air Act requirements are pushing facilities to reevaluate their monitoring programs. A description of the fugitive emission guidelines is included in this article, along with ideas about monitoring.

  10. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the PNNL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Ted M.; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2010-05-25

    This document of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, EPA, QA/G4, 2/2006 (EPA 2006) as well as several other published DQOs. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is in the process of developing a radiological air monitoring program for the PNNL Site that is distinct from that of the nearby Hanford Site. Radiological emissions at the PNNL Site result from Physical Sciences Facility (PSF) major emissions units. A team was established to determine how the PNNL Site would meet federal regulations and address guidelines developed to monitor and estimate offsite air emissions of radioactive materials. The result is a program that monitors the impact to the public from the PNNL Site.

  11. Emissions and ambient air monitoring trends of lower olefins across Texas from 2002 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Myers, Jessica L; Phillips, Tracie; Grant, Roberta L

    2015-11-05

    Texas has the largest ambient air monitoring network in the country with approximately 83 monitoring sites that measure ambient air concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The lower olefins, including 1,3-butadiene, ethylene, isoprene, and propylene, are a group of VOCs that can be measured in both 24h/every sixth-day canister samples and continuous 1-h Automated Gas Chromatography (AutoGC) samples. Based on 2012 Toxics Release Inventory data, the total reported industrial air emissions in Texas for these olefins, as compared to total national reported air emissions, were 79% for 1,3-butadiene, 62% for ethylene, 76% for isoprene, and 54% for propylene, illustrating that Texas industries are some of the major emitters for these olefins. The purpose of this study was to look at the patterns of annual average air monitoring data from 2002 to 2012 using Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) data for these four lower olefins. It should be emphasized that monitors may not be located close to or downwind of the highest emitters of these lower olefins. In addition, air monitors only provide a snapshot in time of air concentrations for their respective locations, and may not be able to discriminate emissions between specific sources. In 2012, the highest annual average air concentration for 1,3-butadiene was 1.28 ppb by volume (ppbv), which was measured at the Port Neches monitoring site in Region 10-Beaumont. For ethylene, the highest 2012 annual average air concentration was 5.77 ppbv, which was measured at the Dona Park monitoring site in TCEQ Region 14-Corpus Christi. Although reported industrial emissions of isoprene are predominantly from the Houston and Beaumont regions, trees are natural emitters of isoprene, and the highest ambient air concentrations tend to be from regions with large areas of coniferous and hardwood forests. This was observed with TCEQ Region 5-Tyler, which had the two highest isoprene annual average air concentrations for

  12. Monitoring plan for routine organic air emissions at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Waste Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, K.J.; Jolley, J.G.

    1994-06-01

    This monitoring plan provides the information necessary to perform routine organic air emissions monitoring at the Waste Storage Facilities located at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The Waste Storage Facilities include both the Type I and II Waste Storage Modules. The plan implements a dual method approach where two dissimilar analytical methodologies, Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) and ancillary SUMMA{reg_sign} canister sampling, following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analytical method TO-14, will be used to provide qualitative and quantitative volatile organic concentration data. The Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy will provide in situ, real time monitoring of volatile organic compound concentrations in the ambient air of the Waste Storage Facilities. To supplement the OP-FTIR data, air samples will be collected using SUMMA{reg_sign}, passivated, stainless steel canisters, following the EPA Method TO-14. These samples will be analyzed for volatile organic compounds with gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry analysis. The sampling strategy, procedures, and schedules are included in this monitoring plan. The development of this monitoring plan is driven by regulatory compliance to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, State of Idaho Toxic Air Pollutant increments, Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The various state and federal regulations address the characterization of the volatile organic compounds and the resultant ambient air emissions that may originate from facilities involved in industrial production and/or waste management activities.

  13. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the PNNL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Theodore M.; Antonio, Ernest J.

    2012-11-12

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is in the process of developing a radiological air monitoring program for the PNNL Site that is distinct from that of the nearby Hanford Site. The original DQO (PNNL-19427) considered radiological emissions at the PNNL Site from Physical Sciences Facility (PSF) major emissions units. This first revision considers PNNL Site changes subsequent to the implementation of the original DQO. A team was established to determine how the PNNL Site changes would continue to meet federal regulations and address guidelines developed to monitor air emissions and estimate offsite impacts of radioactive material operations. The result is an updated program to monitor the impact to the public from the PNNL Site. The team used the emission unit operation parameters and local meteorological data as well as information from the PSF Potential-to-Emit documentation and Notices of Construction submitted to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH). The locations where environmental monitoring stations would most successfully characterize the maximum offsite impacts of PNNL Site emissions from the three PSF buildings with major emission units were determined from these data. Three monitoring station locations were determined during the original revision of this document. This first revision considers expanded Department of Energy operations south of the PNNL Site and relocation of the two offsite, northern monitoring stations to sites near the PNNL Site fenceline. Inclusion of the southern facilities resulted in the proposal for a fourth monitoring station in the southern region. The southern expansion added two minor emission unit facilities and one diffuse emission unit facility. Relocation of the two northern stations was possible due to the use of solar power, rather than the previous limitation of the need for access to AC power, at these more remote locations. Addendum A contains all the changes brought about by the revision 1

  14. Air quality monitoring data could help lower emissions during Superfund cleanups

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, L.O. )

    1994-05-01

    Many Superfund projects include extensive air quality monitoring efforts. However, even when large volumes of air quality and meteorological data are collected, they often are used mainly for documentation, rather than as interactive tools to protect the public. This need not be so. If remedial actions were designed to include routine data evaluations and contingency plans to reduce emissions when action levels are exceeded, air quality monitoring could help minimize public exposure to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) during cleanups. This article describes ambient air quality and meteorological monitoring programs conducted by URS Consultants Inc. (Denver) at the Sand Creek Industrial Superfund site in Commerce City, Colo., and the Vertac Chemical Co. Superfund site in Jacksonville, Ark. The Sand Creek project includes structure demolition, excavation and removal of soils and demolition debris, soil-vapor extraction of HAPs, and soil thermal treatment to remove pesticides and other hazardous organics. A rotary-kiln incinerator is used on the Vertac project to destroy solvents, pesticides, and other dioxin- and furan-contaminated materials.

  15. An isotopic dilution approach for 1,3-butadiene tailpipe emissions and ambient air monitoring.

    PubMed

    Riservato, Manuela; Rolla, Antonio; Davoli, Enrico

    2004-01-01

    An isotopic dilution approach for 1,3-butadiene analysis in gaseous samples is presented. The methodology is based on active sampling on sorbent tubes and subsequent analysis by thermal desorption into a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system. By adding a perdeuterated internal standard onto the sorbent tubes before sampling, and using mass spectrometric detection, the methodology gives high accuracy for this unstable analyte. The method has been used to monitor 1,3-butadiene ambient air concentrations in a residential area in proximity to a heavy-traffic roadway over a one-week period, for comparison with other traffic-related pollutants analysed by standard procedures. It has also been used to determine tailpipe emissions of two vehicles by standard emission testing procedures in a dynamometer. These vehicles were chosen as examples of low- and high-end emission rate vehicles, i.e., an old no-catalytic converter Otto engine and a new direct-injection diesel engine with catalytic converter. Exhaust gas emissions were 0.052 and 35.85 mg/km, reflecting differences in fuel, engine design, age, and presence (or not) of a catalytic abatement system. The ambient air results showed a weekly average concentration of 1,3-butadiene of 0.53 microg/m(3).

  16. Air pollution monitoring using emission inventories combined with the moss bag approach.

    PubMed

    Iodice, P; Adamo, P; Capozzi, F; Di Palma, A; Senatore, A; Spagnuolo, V; Giordano, S

    2016-01-15

    Inventory of emission sources and biomonitoring with moss transplants are two different methods to evaluate air pollution. In this study, for the first time, both these approaches were simultaneously applied in five municipalities in Campania (southern Italy), deserving attention for health-oriented interventions as part of a National Interest Priority Site. The pollutants covered by the inventory were CO, NOx, particulate matter (PM10), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and some heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn). The biomonitoring survey was based on the use of the devitalized moss Hypnum cupressiforme transplanted into bags, following a harmonized protocol. The exposure covered 40 agricultural and urban/residential sites, with half of them located in proximity to roads. The pollutants monitored were Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn, as well as total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) only in five sites. Using the emission inventory approach, high emission loads were detected for all the major air pollutants and the following heavy metals: Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, over the entire study area. Arsenic, Pb, and Zn were the elements most accumulated by moss. Total PAH postexposure contents were higher than the preexposure values (~20-50% of initial value). Moss uptakes did not differ substantially among municipalities or within exposure sites. In the five municipalities, a similar spatial pattern was evidenced for Pb by emission inventory and moss accumulation. Both approaches indicated the same most polluted municipality, suggesting their combined use as a valuable resource to reveal contaminants that are not routinely monitored.

  17. Monitoring of atmospheric aerosol emissions using a remotely piloted air vehicle (RPV)-Borne Sensor Suite

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    We have developed a small sensor system, the micro-atmospheric measurement system ({mu}-AMS), to monitor and track aerosol emissions. The system was developed to fly aboard a remotely piloted air vehicle, or other mobile platform, to provide real-time particle measurements in effluent plumes and to collect particles for chemical analysis. The {mu}-AMS instrument measures atmospheric parameters including particle mass concentration and size distribution, temperature, humidity, and airspeed, altitude and position (by GPS receiver) each second. The sensor data are stored onboard and are also down linked to a ground station in real time. The {mu}-AMS is battery powered, small (8 in. dia x 36 in.), and lightweight (15 pounds). Aerosol concentrations and size distributions from above ground explosive tests, airbone urban pollution, and traffic-produced particulates are presented.

  18. 40 CFR 61.68 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 61.68 Section 61...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.68 Emission monitoring. (a) A vinyl chloride monitoring system is to be used to monitor on...

  19. 40 CFR 61.68 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 61.68 Section 61...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.68 Emission monitoring. (a) A vinyl chloride monitoring system is to be used to monitor on...

  20. 40 CFR 61.68 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 61.68 Section 61...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.68 Emission monitoring. (a) A vinyl chloride monitoring system is to be used to monitor on...

  1. 40 CFR 61.68 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 61.68 Section 61...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.68 Emission monitoring. (a) A vinyl chloride monitoring system is to be used to monitor on...

  2. A sensor management architecture concept for monitoring emissions from open-air demil operations.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Michael M.; Robinson, Jerry D.; Stoddard, Mary Clare; Horn, Brent A.; Lipkin, Joel; Foltz, Greg W.

    2005-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, CA proposed a sensor concept to detect emissions from open-burning/open-detonation (OB/OD) events. The system would serve two purposes: (1) Provide data to demilitarization operations about process efficiency, allowing process optimization for cleaner emissions and higher efficiency. (2) Provide data to regulators and neighboring communities about materials dispersing into the environment by OB/OD operations. The proposed sensor system uses instrument control hardware and data visualization software developed at Sandia National Laboratories to link together an array of sensors to monitor emissions from OB/OD events. The suite of sensors would consist of various physical and chemical detectors mounted on stationary or mobile platforms. The individual sensors would be wirelessly linked to one another and controlled through a central command center. Real-time data collection from the sensors, combined with integrated visualization of the data at the command center, would allow for feedback to the sensors to alter operational conditions to adjust for changing needs (i.e., moving plume position, increased spatial resolution, increased sensitivity). This report presents a systems study of the problem of implementing a sensor system for monitoring OB/OD emissions. The goal of this study was to gain a fuller understanding of the political, economic, and technical issues for developing and fielding this technology.

  3. Air Quality Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Stak-Tracker CEM (Continuous Emission Monitor) Gas Analyzer is an air quality monitor capable of separating the various gases in a bulk exhaust stream and determining the amounts of individual gases present within the stream. The monitor is produced by GE Reuter- Stokes, a subsidiary of GE Corporate Research & Development Center. The Stak-Tracker uses a Langley Research Center software package which measures the concentration of a target gas by determining the degree to which molecules of that gas absorb an infrared beam. The system is environmental-friendly, fast and has relatively low installation and maintenance costs. It is applicable to gas turbines and various industries including glass, paper and cement.

  4. Comprehensive air monitoring plan: general monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-31

    Recommendations are provided for general monitoring of hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) in ambient air in parts of Colusa, Lake, Mendocino, Napa, and Sonoma counties potentially impacted by emissions from geothermal development projects in the Geysers-Calistoga Known Geothermal Resource Area. Recommendations for types, placement, performance guidelines, and criteria and procedure for triggering establishment and termination of CAMP monitoring equipment were determined after examination of four factors: population location; emission sources; meteorological considerations; and data needs of permitting agencies and applicants. Three alternate financial plans were developed. Locations and equipment for immediate installation are recommended for: two air quality stations in communities where the State ambient air quality standard for H/sub 2/S has been exceeded; three air quality trend stations to monitor progress in reduction of H/sub 2/S emissions; two meteorological observation stations to monitor synoptic wind flow over the area; and one acoustic radar and one rawinsonde station to monitor air inversions which limit the depth of the mixing layer.

  5. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim Site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Theodore M.

    2012-12-27

    This document of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, EPA, QA/G4, 2/2006 (EPA 2006), as well as several other published DQOs. The intent of this report is to determine the necessary steps required to ensure that radioactive emissions to the air from the Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) headquartered at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Sequim Marine Research Operations (Sequim Site) on Washington State’s Olympic Peninsula are managed in accordance with regulatory requirements and best practices. The Sequim Site was transitioned in October 2012 from private operation under Battelle Memorial Institute to an exclusive use contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Pacific Northwest Site Office.

  6. 40 CFR 61.183 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.183 Emission monitoring. (a... arsenic trioxide and metallic arsenic process emission stream that exits from a control device. (b)...

  7. 40 CFR 61.183 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.183 Emission monitoring. (a... arsenic trioxide and metallic arsenic process emission stream that exits from a control device. (b)...

  8. 40 CFR 61.183 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.183 Emission monitoring. (a... arsenic trioxide and metallic arsenic process emission stream that exits from a control device. (b)...

  9. 40 CFR 61.183 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.183 Emission monitoring. (a... arsenic trioxide and metallic arsenic process emission stream that exits from a control device. (b)...

  10. 40 CFR 61.183 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.183 Emission monitoring. (a... arsenic trioxide and metallic arsenic process emission stream that exits from a control device. (b)...

  11. Air Emissions Factors and Quantification

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Emissions factors are used in developing air emissions inventories for air quality management decisions and in developing emissions control strategies. This area provides technical information on and support for the use of emissions factors.

  12. 40 CFR 61.163 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 61.163 Section 61.163 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic...

  13. 40 CFR 61.163 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 61.163 Section 61.163 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic...

  14. 40 CFR 61.163 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 61.163 Section 61.163 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic...

  15. 40 CFR 61.163 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 61.163 Section 61.163 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic...

  16. 40 CFR 61.163 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 61.163 Section 61.163 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic...

  17. Assessing the long term impact of power plant emissions on regional air pollution using extensive monitoring data.

    PubMed

    Yuval; Broday, David M

    2009-02-01

    In spite of the recent increasing interest in energy production from renewable sources, polluting hydrocarbon-fueled power plants will continue to provide most of the electricity to the world's population in the coming decades. This work studies the long term impact on the regional ambient air which can be attributable to three plants with different power outputs, fuel types, and stack heights. The study is carried out in an area with relatively flat topography and typical coastal meteorology. A dense air pollution monitoring network, operating for many years, makes this area a real life laboratory for studying the pollution routes, the impact of the sources at different directions and distances, and the effects of transition to cleaner fuel. The direct impact of each of the two large power plants on the ambient SO2 levels could be clearly detected in most of the monitoring stations at distances up to 40 km away. Interestingly, a relatively large impact can also be attributed to the indirect effect of emissions that are recirculated back to the region with the land breeze. The transition from using fuel oil to natural gas in one of the large power plants resulted in a dramatic reduction in the mean SO2 levels in all of the monitoring stations. The contribution of the industrial emissions to the ambient NO2 levels seems to be very modest relative to that from traffic. An analysis of the NO, NO2 and O3 records suggests that the highest mean NO2 concentrations, and a large proportion of the total NO2 encountered in the study area, are probably due to recirculated NOx emitted by traffic in a densely populated region north of it.

  18. Siting Air Monitoring Stations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, F. L.

    1978-01-01

    Describes guidelines for consideration in selecting sites for air monitoring systems. Careful selection for spatial scale and specific sources assures that the collected data are accurately representing the situation. (Author/MA)

  19. Next Generation Air Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract. Air pollution measurement technology is advancing rapidly towards smaller-scale and wireless devices, with a potential to significantly change the landscape of air pollution monitoring. The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development is evaluating and developing a rang...

  20. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    DOEpatents

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  1. Continuous emission monitor for incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the development of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to continuous monitoring of incinerator emissions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is well suited to this application because it can identify and quantify selected target analytes in a complex mixture without first separating the components in the mixture. Currently, there is no on-stream method to determine the destruction of hazardous substances, such as benzene, or to continuously monitor for hazardous products of incomplete combustion (PICs) in incinerator exhaust emissions. This capability is especially important because of Federal regulations in the Clean Air Act of 1990, which requires the monitoring of air toxics (Title III), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). An on-stream continuous emission monitor (CEM) that can differentiate species in the ppm and ppb range and can calculate the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) could be used to determine the safety and reliability of incinerators. This information can be used to address reasonable public concern about incinerator safety and aid in the permitting process.

  2. Continuous emission monitor for incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.

    1992-07-01

    This paper describes the development of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to continuous monitoring of incinerator emissions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is well suited to this application because it can identify and quantify selected target analytes in a complex mixture without first separating the components in the mixture. Currently, there is no on-stream method to determine the destruction of hazardous substances, such as benzene, or to continuously monitor for hazardous products of incomplete combustion (PICs) in incinerator exhaust emissions. This capability is especially important because of Federal regulations in the Clean Air Act of 1990, which requires the monitoring of air toxics (Title III), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). An on-stream continuous emission monitor (CEM) that can differentiate species in the ppm and ppb range and can calculate the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) could be used to determine the safety and reliability of incinerators. This information can be used to address reasonable public concern about incinerator safety and aid in the permitting process.

  3. Finisher hog production in the Southeastern United States: Ancillary measurements derived from the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robarge, W. P.; Lee, S.; Walker, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of emissions of gases and fine particulate matter from swine animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the southeastern US have typically been confined to relatively short periods (days to several weeks) and have generally focused on waste lagoons. Access to swine animal housing units and other ancillary information has been limited. The National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) provided a unique opportunity to characterize emissions from swine housing units for an extended period of time (~ 2 years), and allowed access to ancillary measurements regarding nutrient flows (feed amounts and composition), manure dynamics, animal inventories, water usage and farm management. Presented here is a summary of the observations made for a NAEMS finisher site (NC3B) selected as being representative of swine production in the southeastern US. Finisher hogs are raised in rotations (~ 140 days) with a target market weight of 123 kg/hog. Among the population during a rotation (700-800 hogs/barn) the actual growth rate varies with a series of “grade-outs” of market-weight hogs starting ~ 110 days from initial load-in. Derivation of the standing live-weight in the barns during a rotation therefore requires use of a growth model and summation over several different “populations” of hogs within a single barn. Up to 5 different feed formulations are fed during a rotation with %N content ranging from (3.4 to 2.2% N; total feed consumed 181,000 kg/barn). Across 4 complete rotations, N consumed was ~50 g N per hog/day. Of this amount, we estimate ~ 60% is excreted as fecal matter and urine. The TAN (NH3 + NH4+) content of the shallow pits is consistently higher (1880 ±390 mg TAN/L) than that found in the anaerobic lagoon (800 ±70 mg TAN/L), except immediately after recharge following pit-pull (pH of the two liquids was similar). The presence of a recalcitrant layer of sludge in the shallow pits (liquid height = 20 cm; sludge depth = 5-10 cm; TAN = 2500 mg N/L; total

  4. Personal continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, Ronald G.; Salazar, Samuel A.

    2000-01-01

    A personal continuous air monitor capable of giving immediate warning of the presence of radioactivity has a filter/detector head to be worn in the breathing zone of a user, containing a filter mounted adjacent to radiation detectors, and a preamplifier. The filter/detector head is connected to a belt pack to be worn at the waist or on the back of a user. The belt pack contains a signal processor, batteries, a multichannel analyzer, a logic circuit, and an alarm. An air pump also is provided in the belt pack for pulling air through the filter/detector head by way of an air tube.

  5. Improve emissions monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Vining, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    Marathon`s Texas City refinery was subject to five separate EPA regulations in addition to a state program for monitoring and repairing fugitive leaks. In this case history, the refinery sought an organizational solution that reduced monitoring costs and kept the facility fully compliant with current state and federal regulations. Equally important, the new monitoring program incorporated flexibility for future emission-reduction requirements. The paper describes the solution, regulatory background, the previous system, leak-threshold consolidation, operator ownership, and projects benefits.

  6. Inversion Approach to Validate Mercury Emissions Based on Background Air Monitoring at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch (3580 m).

    PubMed

    Denzler, Basil; Bogdal, Christian; Henne, Stephan; Obrist, Daniel; Steinbacher, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2017-03-07

    The reduction of emissions of mercury is a declared aim of the Minamata Convention, a UN treaty designed to protect human health and the environment from adverse effects of mercury. To assess the effectiveness of the convention in the future, better constraints about the current mercury emissions is a premise. In our study, we applied a top-down approach to quantify mercury emissions on the basis of atmospheric mercury measurements conducted at the remote high altitude monitoring station Jungfraujoch, Switzerland. We established the source-receptor relationships and by the means of atmospheric inversion we were able to quantify spatially resolved European emissions of 89 ± 14 t/a for elemental mercury. Our European emission estimate is 17% higher than the bottom-up emission inventory, which is within stated uncertainties. However, some regions with unexpectedly high emissions were identified. Stationary combustion, in particular in coal-fired power plants, is found to be the main responsible sector for increased emission estimates. Our top-down approach, based on measurements, provides an independent constraint on mercury emissions, helps to improve and refine reported emission inventories, and can serve for continued assessment of future changes in emissions independent from bottom-up inventories.

  7. Results of the air emission research study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air quality was monitored in beef mono-slope barns. The objectives of the study were 1) to gather baseline data for the levels of gas emissions and particulate matter from beef mono-slope facilities, 2) evaluate the effect of two different manure handling systems on air quality, and 3) provide infor...

  8. Tribal Air Quality Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    The Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals (ITEP) (Flagstaff, Arizona) provides training and support for tribal professionals in the technical job skills needed for air quality monitoring and other environmental management tasks. ITEP also arranges internships, job placements, and hands-on training opportunities and supports an…

  9. Space Derived Air Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    COPAMS, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Air Monitoring System, derives from technology involved in building unmanned spacecraft. The Nimbus spacecraft carried experimental sensors to measure temperature, pressure, ozone, and water vapor, and instruments for studying solar radiation and telemetry. The process which relayed these findings to Earth formed the basis for COPAMS. The COPAMS system consists of data acquisition units which measure and record pollution level, and sense wind speed and direction, etc. The findings are relayed to a central station where the information is computerized. The system is automatic and supplemented by PAQSS, PA Air Quality Surveillance System.

  10. Acoustic emission monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    Romrell, Delwin M.

    1977-07-05

    Methods and apparatus for identifying the source location of acoustic emissions generated within an acoustically conductive medium. A plurality of acoustic receivers are communicably coupled to the surface of the medium at a corresponding number of spaced locations. The differences in the reception time of the respective sensors in response to a given acoustic event are measured among various sensor combinations prescribed by the monitoring mode employed. Acoustic reception response encountered subsequent to the reception by a predetermined number of the prescribed sensor combinations are inhibited from being communicated to the processing circuitry, while the time measurements obtained from the prescribed sensor combinations are translated into a position measurement representative of the location on the surface most proximate the source of the emission. The apparatus is programmable to function in six separate and five distinct operating modes employing either two, three or four sensory locations. In its preferred arrangement the apparatus of this invention will re-initiate a monitoring interval if the predetermined number of sensors do not respond to a particular emission within a given time period.

  11. High sensitive gas detection and isotopic measurement for the applications of industrial emission online monitoring and air pollution source tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Fengzhong; Zhang, Zhirong; Xia, Hua; Cui, Xiaojuan; Pang, Tao; Wu, Bian; Chen, Weidong; Sigrist, Markus

    2015-04-01

    High sensitive gas detection and isotopic measurements have been widely employed in the industrial and safety production. The recent progress made by our group on high sensitive gas detection with technologies of TDLAS, off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) and cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) will be briefly summarized in this report. Some works for field applications of industrial emission online monitoring and gas leakage detection in oil tank farm with TDLAS are first presented, and then part of our most recent researches on isotopic gas detection with OA-ICOS and CRDS for tracking of pollution sources are also introduced.

  12. Real time measurement of transient event emissions of air toxics by tomographic remote sensing in tandem with mobile monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olaguer, Eduardo P.; Stutz, Jochen; Erickson, Matthew H.; Hurlock, Stephen C.; Cheung, Ross; Tsai, Catalina; Colosimo, Santo F.; Festa, James; Wijesinghe, Asanga; Neish, Bradley S.

    2017-02-01

    During the Benzene and other Toxics Exposure (BEE-TEX) study, a remote sensing network based on long path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) was set up in the Manchester neighborhood beside the Ship Channel of Houston, Texas in order to perform Computer Aided Tomography (CAT) scans of hazardous air pollutants. On 18-19 February 2015, the CAT scan network detected large nocturnal plumes of toluene and xylenes most likely associated with railcar loading and unloading operations at Ship Channel petrochemical facilities. The presence of such plumes during railcar operations was confirmed by a mobile laboratory equipped with a Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS), which measured transient peaks of toluene and C2-benzenes of 50 ppb and 57 ppb respectively around 4 a.m. LST on 19 February 2015. Plume reconstruction and source attribution were performed using the 4D variational data assimilation technique and a 3D micro-scale forward and adjoint air quality model based on both tomographic and PTR-MS data. Inverse model estimates of fugitive emissions associated with railcar transfer emissions ranged from 2.0 to 8.2 kg/hr for toluene and from 2.2 to 3.5 kg/hr for xylenes in the early morning of 19 February 2015.

  13. 40 CFR 60.613 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Air Oxidation Unit Processes § 60.613 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) The owner or... from each air oxidation reactor within an affected facility at a point closest to the inlet of...

  14. Next-generation air monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution measurement technology is advancing rapidly towards smaller-scale and wireless devices, with a potential to significantly change the landscape of air pollution monitoring. EPA is evaluating and developing a range of next-generation air monitoring (NGAM) technologie...

  15. Ports Primer: 7.2 Air Emissions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Near-port communities are often disproportionately impacted by air emissions due to port operations, goods movement operations and other industries that may be co-located with ports. Air emissions at ports also impact regional air quality.

  16. Continuous emission monitoring and accounting automated systems at an HPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Ionkin, I. L.; Kondrateva, O. E.; Borovkova, A. M.; Seregin, V. A.; Morozov, I. V.

    2015-03-01

    Environmental and industrial emission monitoring at HPP's is a very urgent task today. Industrial monitoring assumes monitoring of emissions of harmful pollutants and optimization of fuel combustion technological processes at HPP's. Environmental monitoring is a system to assess ambient air quality with respect to a number of separate sources of harmful substances in pollution of atmospheric air of the area. Works on creating an industrial monitoring system are carried out at the National Research University Moscow Power Engineering Institute (MPEI) on the basis of the MPEI combined heat and power plant, and environmental monitoring stations are installed in Lefortovo raion, where the CHPP is located.

  17. Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zohner, Steven K

    2000-05-01

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  18. 2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    David P. Fuehne

    2007-06-30

    This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

  19. Monitoring Air Quality from Space using AURA Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleason, James F.; Chance, Kelly V.; Fishman, Jack; Torres, Omar; Veefkind, Pepijn

    2003-01-01

    Measurements from the Earth Observing System (EOS) AURA mission will provide a unique perspective on air quality monitoring. Ozone, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde and aerosols from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and carbon monoxide from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) will be simultaneously measured with the spatial resolution and coverage needed for improving our understanding of air quality. AURA data products useful for air quality monitoring will be given.

  20. EPA/ORD WORKSHOP ON SOURCE EMISSION AND AMBIENT AIR MONITORING OF MERCURY. OPENING & CLOSING REMARKS AND OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mercury Monitoring Workshop was developed because mercury contamination, both nationally and internationally, has long been recognized as a growing problem for both humans and ecosystems. Mercury is released to the environment from a variety of human (anthropogenic) sources i...

  1. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1992 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Stirrup, T.S.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the 1992 Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Originally, this report was in response to the Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Agreement in 1989 between the State of Idaho and the Department of Energy Idaho Field Office, and a request from the Idaho Air Quality Bureau. The current purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to provide the basis for the preparation of the INEL Permit-to-Operate (PTO) an Air Emission Source Application, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. This report includes emissions calculations from 1989 to 1992. The Air Emission Inventory System, an ORACLE-based database system, maintains the emissions inventory.

  2. 40 CFR 60.73 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.73 Section 60... Emission monitoring. (a) The source owner or operator shall install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a... measuring emissions with the continuous monitoring system concurrent with measuring emissions with...

  3. 40 CFR 60.73 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.73 Section 60... Emission monitoring. (a) The source owner or operator shall install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a... measuring emissions with the continuous monitoring system concurrent with measuring emissions with...

  4. 40 CFR 60.73 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.73 Section 60... Emission monitoring. (a) The source owner or operator shall install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a... measuring emissions with the continuous monitoring system concurrent with measuring emissions with...

  5. 40 CFR 60.73 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.73 Section 60... Emission monitoring. (a) The source owner or operator shall install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a... measuring emissions with the continuous monitoring system concurrent with measuring emissions with...

  6. 40 CFR 60.73 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.73 Section 60... Emission monitoring. (a) The source owner or operator shall install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a... measuring emissions with the continuous monitoring system concurrent with measuring emissions with...

  7. Air quality monitor and acid rain networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, H.

    1980-01-01

    The air quality monitor program which consists of two permanent air monitor stations (PAMS's) and four mobile shuttle pollutant air monitor stations (SPAMS's) is evaluated. The PAMS measures SO sub X, NO sub X particulates, CO, O3, and nonmethane hydrocarbons. The SPAMS measures O3, SO2, HCl, and particulates. The collection and analysis of data in the rain monitor program are discussed.

  8. Mobile Air Monitoring Data Processing Strategies and Effects on Spatial Air Pollution Trends

    EPA Science Inventory

    The collection of real-time air quality measurements while in motion (i.e., mobile monitoring) is currently conducted worldwide to evaluate in situ emissions, local air quality trends, and air pollutant exposure. This measurement strategy pushes the limits of traditional data an...

  9. Source fingerprint monitoring of air pollutants from petrochemical industry and the determination of their annual emission flux using open path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yih-Shiaw Huang; Shih-Yi Chang; Tai-Ly Tso

    1996-12-31

    Toxic air pollutants were investigated in several petrochemical industrial park in Taiwan using a movable open-path Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show the qualitative and quantitative analysis of emission gases from plants, and also provide the emission rates of various compounds. More than twenty compounds under usual operation were found from these industrial park. The concentration variation with time could be correlated exactly with the distances from the emission source along the wind direction. This means that by changing the measuring points the source of emission could be unambiguously identified. The point, area and line source (PAL) plume dispersion model has been applied to estimate the emission rate of either a point or an area source. The local atmospheric stability was determined by releasing an SF{sub 6} tracer. The origin of errors came mainly from the uncertainty of the source configuration and the variation of the meteorological condition. Through continuous measurement using a portable open-path Fourier transform infrared (POP-FTIR) spectrometer, the maximum value of the emission rate and the annual amount of emission could be derived. The emission rate of the measured toxic gases was derived by the model technique, and the results show that the emission amount is on the order of ten to hundred tons per year.

  10. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea; Wahl, Linnea

    2008-06-13

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). The EPA regulates radionuclide emissions that may be released from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or that may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2007, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor stack or building emissions sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]), there were no diffuse emissions, and there were no unplanned emissions. Emissions from minor sources either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities received for use or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 3.0, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2007 is 1.2 x 10{sup -2} mrem/yr (1.2 x 10{sup -4} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) EPA dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 3.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (3.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2007.

  11. Air Quality Monitoring and Sensor Technologies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA scientist Ron Williams presented on the features, examination, application, examples, and data quality of continuous monitoring study designs at EPA's Community Air Monitoring Training in July 2015.

  12. 40 CFR 60.703 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Monitoring of emissions and operations. 60.703 Section 60.703 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR..., temperature monitoring devices shall be installed in the gas stream immediately before and after the...

  13. Air Quality Monitoring and Forecasting in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijling, Bas; van der A, Ronald; Wang, Pucai

    2010-05-01

    Within the ESA-MOST Dragon 2 Programme, the AMFIC project consists of an integrated system for monitoring and forecasting tropospheric pollutants over China. Satellite data, in situ measurements and chemical transport model results are used to generate consistent air quality information over China. The system includes a data archive of the recent years, near real time data, and air quality forecasts for several days ahead, which can be find on http://www.amfic.eu. Air pollutants covered are nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, methane and aerosol. The AMFIC system has been used to evaluate the effect of the air quality measures which were taken by the Chinese authorities related to the Olympic Games and Paralympics in Beijing. Industrial activities and traffic in and around the city were reduced drastically to improve air quality. To compensate for the atypical meteorological conditions during the Olympic events, tropospheric NO2 column observations from GOME-2 and OMI are interpreted against simulations from the CHIMERE regional chemistry transport model. When compared with the pre-Olympic concentration levels, we find a NO2 reduction of 60% over Beijing and significant reductions in surrounding areas. After the Olympic period, NO2 concentrations slowly return to their pre-Olympic level. The satellite observations and model simulations of tropospheric NO2 column concentrations are also used to constrain NOx emissions over China by using data assimilation techniques. We will present the preliminary results of these efforts. The periodical update of the bottom-up emission inventory is expected to reveal emission trends and improve the air quality forecasts for China.

  14. Noise Emission from Laboratory Air Blowers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossing, Thomas D.; Windham, Betty

    1978-01-01

    Product noise ratings for a number of laboratory air blowers are reported and several recommendations for reducing laboratory noise from air blowers are given. Relevant noise ratings and methods for measuring noise emission of appliances are discussed. (BB)

  15. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea

    2010-06-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40CFR61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2009, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2009 is 7.0 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (7.0 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.5 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.5 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2009.

  16. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea

    2009-05-21

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2008, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources include more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2008 is 5.2 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (5.2 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2008.

  17. Tropospheric emissions: monitoring of pollution (TEMPO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, Kelly; Liu, Xiong; Suleiman, Raid M.; Flittner, David E.; Al-Saadi, Jassim; Janz, Scott J.

    2013-09-01

    TEMPO was selected in 2012 by NASA as the first Earth Venture Instrument, for launch circa 2018. It will measure atmospheric pollution for greater North America from space using ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy. TEMPO measures from Mexico City to the Canadian tar sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution (~2 km N/S×4.5 km E/W at 36.5°N, 100°W). TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry. Measurements are from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the inherent high variability in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies. TEMPO takes advantage of a commercial GEO host spacecraft to provide a modest cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve O3, NO2, SO2, H2CO, C2H2O2, H2O, aerosols, cloud parameters, and UVB radiation. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, substantially reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides near-real-time air quality products that will be made widely, publicly available. TEMPO will launch at a prime time to be the North American component of the global geostationary constellation of pollution monitoring together with European Sentinel-4 and Korean GEMS.

  18. Air Quality Monitoring: Risk-Based Choices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Air monitoring is secondary to rigid control of risks to air quality. Air quality monitoring requires us to target the credible residual risks. Constraints on monitoring devices are severe. Must transition from archival to real-time, on-board monitoring. Must provide data to crew in a way that they can interpret findings. Dust management and monitoring may be a major concern for exploration class missions.

  19. Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea

    2013-05-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are produced, handled, store d, and potentially emitted . These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989a). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2012, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]) . These minor sources include d about 140 stack sources and no diffuse sources . T here were no unplanned airborne radionuclide emissions from Berkeley Lab operations . Emissions from minor sources were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building- specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA -approved computer code s, CAP88-PC and COMPLY , to calculate doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) at any offsite point where there is a residence, school, business, or office. Because radionuclides are used at three noncontiguous locations (the main site, Berkeley West Bio center, and Joint BioEnergy Institute), three different MEIs were identified.

  20. FAST-RESPONSE ISOTOPIC ALPHA CONTINUOUS AIR MONITOR (CAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Keith D. Patch

    2000-04-28

    The objective of this effort is to develop and test a novel Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) instrument for monitoring alpha-emitting radionuclides, using a technology that can be applied to Continuous Emission Monitoring (CEM) of thermal treatment system off gas streams. The CAM instrument will have very high alpha spectral resolution and provide real-time, on-line monitoring suitable for alerting workers of high concentrations of alpha-emitting radionuclides in the ambient air and for improved control of decontamination, dismantlement, and air emission control equipment. Base Phase I involves the design, development, and preliminary testing of a laboratory-scale instrument. Testing will initially be conducted using naturally-occurring radon progeny in ambient air. In the Optional Phase II, the Base Phase I instrument will be critically evaluated at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI) with characterized plutonium aerosols; then an improved instrument will be built and field-tested at a suitable DOE site.

  1. 40 CFR 60.264 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.264 Section 60... Facilities § 60.264 Emission monitoring. (a) The owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart... opacity of emissions discharged into the atmosphere from the control device(s). (b) For the purpose...

  2. 40 CFR 60.264 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.264 Section 60... Facilities § 60.264 Emission monitoring. (a) The owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart... opacity of emissions discharged into the atmosphere from the control device(s). (b) For the purpose...

  3. 40 CFR 60.264 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.264 Section 60... Facilities § 60.264 Emission monitoring. (a) The owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart... opacity of emissions discharged into the atmosphere from the control device(s). (b) For the purpose...

  4. 40 CFR 60.264 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.264 Section 60... Facilities § 60.264 Emission monitoring. (a) The owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart... opacity of emissions discharged into the atmosphere from the control device(s). (b) For the purpose...

  5. 40 CFR 60.264 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.264 Section 60... Facilities § 60.264 Emission monitoring. (a) The owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart... opacity of emissions discharged into the atmosphere from the control device(s). (b) For the purpose...

  6. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal -- 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Y.E.; Black, S.C.

    1998-06-01

    Each potential source of Nevada Test Site (NTS) emissions was characterized by one of the following methods: (1) monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at the NTS; (2) a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclide are released to the environment; (3) the measurement of tritiated water (as HTO or T{sub 2}O) concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. The emissions for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) reporting are listed. They are very conservative and are used in Section 3 to calculate the EDE to the maximally exposed individual offsite. Offsite environmental surveillance data, where available, are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative.

  7. 2008 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2009-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2008. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  8. 2009 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2010-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2009. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  9. 2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2011-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  10. Carbon dioxide emissions from international air freight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howitt, Oliver J. A.; Carruthers, Michael A.; Smith, Inga J.; Rodger, Craig J.

    2011-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from international air transport were excluded from reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol, partly because of difficulties with quantifying and apportioning such emissions. Although there has been a great deal of recent research into calculating emissions from aeroplane operations globally, publicly available emissions factors for air freight emissions are scarce. This paper presents a methodology to calculate the amount of fuel burnt and the resulting CO 2 emissions from New Zealand's internationally air freighted imports and exports in 2007. This methodology could be applied to other nations and/or regions. Using data on fuel uplift, air freight and air craft movements, and assumptions on mean passenger loadings and the mass of passengers and air freight, CO 2 emissions factors of 0.82 kg CO 2 per t-km and 0.69 kg CO 2 per t-km for short-haul and long-haul journeys, respectively, were calculated. The total amount of fuel consumed for the international air transport of New Zealand's imports and exports was calculated to be 0.21 Mt and 0.17 Mt respectively, with corresponding CO 2 emissions of 0.67 Mt and 0.53 Mt.

  11. Tropospheric emissions: Monitoring of pollution (TEMPO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoogman, P.; Liu, X.; Suleiman, R. M.; Pennington, W. F.; Flittner, D. E.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Hilton, B. B.; Nicks, D. K.; Newchurch, M. J.; Carr, J. L.; Janz, S. J.; Andraschko, M. R.; Arola, A.; Baker, B. D.; Canova, B. P.; Chan Miller, C.; Cohen, R. C.; Davis, J. E.; Dussault, M. E.; Edwards, D. P.; Fishman, J.; Ghulam, A.; González Abad, G.; Grutter, M.; Herman, J. R.; Houck, J.; Jacob, D. J.; Joiner, J.; Kerridge, B. J.; Kim, J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Lamsal, L.; Li, C.; Lindfors, A.; Martin, R. V.; McElroy, C. T.; McLinden, C.; Natraj, V.; Neil, D. O.; Nowlan, C. R.; O`Sullivan, E. J.; Palmer, P. I.; Pierce, R. B.; Pippin, M. R.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Spurr, R. J. D.; Szykman, J. J.; Torres, O.; Veefkind, J. P.; Veihelmann, B.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Chance, K.

    2017-01-01

    TEMPO was selected in 2012 by NASA as the first Earth Venture Instrument, for launch between 2018 and 2021. It will measure atmospheric pollution for greater North America from space using ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy. TEMPO observes from Mexico City, Cuba, and the Bahamas to the Canadian oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution ( 2.1 km N/S×4.4 km E/W at 36.5°N, 100°W). TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry, as well as contributing to carbon cycle knowledge. Measurements are made hourly from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the high variability present in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry that are unobservable from current low-Earth orbit (LEO) satellites that measure once per day. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies. TEMPO takes advantage of a commercial GEO host spacecraft to provide a modest cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), formaldehyde (H2CO), glyoxal (C2H2O2), bromine monoxide (BrO), IO (iodine monoxide), water vapor, aerosols, cloud parameters, ultraviolet radiation, and foliage properties. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, substantially reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides these near-real-time air quality products that will be made publicly available. TEMPO will launch at a prime time to be the North American component of the global geostationary constellation of pollution monitoring

  12. Air Pollution Monitoring | Air Quality Planning & Standards ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-06-08

    The basic mission of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is to preserve and improve the quality of our nation's air. To accomplish this, OAQPS must be able to evaluate the status of the atmosphere as compared to clean air standards and historical information.

  13. Air Pollution Monitoring for Communities Grants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA, through its Science to Achieve Results (STAR) grants program is providing funding to six institutions that will advance air monitoring technology while helping communities address unique air quality challenges.

  14. Air Pollution Monitoring for Communities Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA through its Science to Achieve Results (STAR) grants program is providing funding to six institutions that will advance air monitoring technology while helping communities address unique air quality challenges.

  15. 40 CFR 60.273 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Furnaces Constructed After October 21, 1974, and On or Before August 17, 1983 § 60.273 Emission monitoring... when the furnace is operating in the melting and refining period. All visible emissions observations... furnace static pressure monitoring device is not required on any EAF equipped with a DEC system...

  16. 40 CFR 60.273 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Furnaces Constructed After October 21, 1974, and On or Before August 17, 1983 § 60.273 Emission monitoring... when the furnace is operating in the melting and refining period. All visible emissions observations... furnace static pressure monitoring device is not required on any EAF equipped with a DEC system...

  17. Integrated assessment of brick kiln emission impacts on air quality.

    PubMed

    Le, Hoang Anh; Oanh, Nguyen Thi Kim

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents monitoring results of daily brick kiln stack emission and the derived emission factors. Emission of individual air pollutant varied significantly during a firing batch (7 days) and between kilns. Average emission factors per 1,000 bricks were 6.35-12.3 kg of CO, 0.52-5.9 kg of SO(2) and 0.64-1.4 kg of particulate matter (PM). PM emission size distribution in the stack plume was determined using a modified cascade impactor. Obtained emission factors and PM size distribution data were used in simulation study using the Industrial Source Complex Short-Term (ISCST3) dispersion model. The model performance was successfully evaluated for the local conditions using the simultaneous ambient monitoring data in 2006 and 2007. SO(2) was the most critical pollutant, exceeding the hourly National Ambient Air Quality Standards over 63 km(2) out of the 100-km(2) modelled domain in the base case. Impacts of different emission scenarios on the ambient air quality (SO(2), PM, CO, PM dry deposition flux) were assessed.

  18. Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, Kelly; Liu, Xiong; Suleiman, Raid M.; Flittner, David; Al-Saadi, Jay; Janz, Scott

    2015-01-01

    TEMPO is now well into its implementation phase, having passed both its Key Decision Point C and the Critical Design Review (CDR) for the instrument. The CDR for the ground systems will occur in March 2016 and the CDR for the Mission component at a later date, after the host spacecraft has been selected. TEMPO is on schedule to measure atmospheric pollution for greater North America from space using ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy. TEMPO measures from Mexico City to the Canadian oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution. TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry. Measurements are from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the inherent high variability in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies. TEMPO takes advantage of a GEO host spacecraft to provide a modest cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve O3, NO2, SO2, H2CO, C2H2O2, H2O, aerosols, cloud parameters, and UVB radiation. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, substantially reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions by 50 percent. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides near-real-time air quality products that will be made widely, publicly available. TEMPO provides much of the atmospheric measurement capability recommended for GEO-CAPE in the 2007 National Research Council Decadal Survey, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond. Instruments from Europe (Sentinel 4) and Asia (GEMS) will

  19. Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, Kelly; Liu, Xiong; Suleiman, Raid M.; Flittner, David E.; Al-Saadi, Jassim; Janz, Scott J.

    2014-06-01

    TEMPO, selected by NASA as the first Earth Venture Instrument, will measure atmospheric pollution for greater North America from space using ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy. TEMPO measures from Mexico City to the Canadian oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution. TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry. Measurements are from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the inherent high variability in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies. TEMPO takes advantage of a GEO host spacecraft to provide a modest-cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve O3, NO2, SO2, H2CO, C2H2O2, H2O, aerosols, cloud parameters, and UVB radiation. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions by 50 %. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides near-real-time air quality products that will be made widely, publicly available. TEMPO makes the first tropospheric trace gas measurements from GEO, by building on the heritage of five spectrometers flown in low-earth-orbit (LEO). These LEO instruments measure the needed spectra, although at coarse spatial and temporal resolutions, to the precisions required for TEMPO and use retrieval algorithms developed for them by TEMPO Science Team members and currently running in operational environments. This makes TEMPO an innovative use of a well-proven technique, able to produce a revolutionary data set. TEMPO provides much of the atmospheric measurement

  20. Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Suleiman, R. M.; Flittner, D. E.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Janz, S. J.; Tempo Science Team

    2013-05-01

    TEMPO has been selected by NASA as the first Earth Venture Instrument. It will measure atmospheric pollution for greater North America from space using ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy. TEMPO measures from Mexico City to the Canadian tar/oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution (Mexico City is measured at 1.6 km N/S by 4.5 km E/W). TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry. Measurements are from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the inherent high variability in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies. TEMPO takes advantage of a GEO host spacecraft to provide a modest cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve O3, NO2, SO2, H2CO, C2H2O2, H2O, aerosols, cloud parameters, and UVB radiation. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions by 50%. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides near-real-time air quality products that will be made widely, publicly available. TEMPO makes the first tropospheric trace gas measurements from GEO, by building on the heritage of five spectrometers flown in low-earth-orbit (LEO). These LEO instruments measure the needed spectra, although at coarse spatial and temporal resolutions, to the precisions required for TEMPO and use retrieval algorithms developed for them by TEMPO Science Team members and currently running in operational environments. This makes TEMPO an innovative use of a well proven technique, able to produce a revolutionary

  1. Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Suleiman, R. M.; Flittner, D. E.; Janz, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    TEMPO is a proposed concept to measure pollution for greater North America using ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy. TEMPO measures from Mexico City to the Canadian tar/oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution (9 km2). TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry. Measurements are from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the inherent high variability in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies. TEMPO takes advantage of a GEO host spacecraft to provide a modest cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve O3, NO2, SO2, H2CO, C2H2O2, H2O, aerosols, cloud parameters, and UVB radiation. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions by 50%. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides near-real-time air quality products that will be made widely, publicly available. TEMPO makes the first tropospheric trace gas measurements from GEO, by building on the heritage of five spectrometers flown in low-earth-orbit (LEO). These LEO instruments measure the needed spectra, although at coarse spatial and temporal resolutions, to the precisions required for TEMPO and use retrieval algorithms developed for them by TEMPO Science Team members and currently running in operational environments. This makes TEMPO an innovative use of a well proven technique, able to produce a revolutionary data set. TEMPO provides much of the atmospheric measurement capability recommended for GEO-CAPE in the 2007

  2. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal -- 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Y.E.; Black, S.C.

    1995-06-01

    This report focuses on air quality at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for 1994. A general description of the effluent sources are presented. Each potential source of NTS emissions was characterized by one of the following: (1) by monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at NTS; (2) by a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclides are released to the environment; (3) by the measurement of tritiated water concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) by using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. Appendices A through J describe the methods used to determine the emissions from the sources. These National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) emissions are very conservative, are used to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the Maximally Exposed Individual offsite, and exceed, in some cases, those reported in DOE`s Effluent Information System (EIS). The NESHAP`s worst-case emissions that exceed the EIS reported emissions are noted. Offsite environmental surveillance data are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative.

  3. Clean Air Markets - Monitoring Surface Water Chemistry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about how EPA uses Long Term Monitoring (LTM) and Temporily Integrated Monitoring of Ecosystems (TIME) to track the effect of the Clean Air Act Amendments on acidity of surface waters in the eastern U.S.

  4. AIR EMISSIONS FROM SCRAP TIRE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  5. Alpha-environmental continuous air monitor inlet

    DOEpatents

    Rodgers, John C.

    2003-01-01

    A wind deceleration and protective shroud that provides representative samples of ambient aerosols to an environmental continuous air monitor (ECAM) has a cylindrical enclosure mounted to an input on the continuous air monitor, the cylindrical enclosure having shrouded nozzles located radially about its periphery. Ambient air flows, often along with rainwater flows into the nozzles in a sampling flow generated by a pump in the continuous air monitor. The sampling flow of air creates a cyclonic flow in the enclosure that flows up through the cylindrical enclosure until the flow of air reaches the top of the cylindrical enclosure and then is directed downward to the continuous air monitor. A sloped platform located inside the cylindrical enclosure supports the nozzles and causes any moisture entering through the nozzle to drain out through the nozzles.

  6. Evaluation of workplace air monitoring locations

    SciTech Connect

    Stoetzel, G.A.; Cicotte, G.R.; Lynch, T.P. ); Aldrich, L.K. )

    1991-10-01

    Current federal guidance on occupational radiation protection recognizes the importance of conducting air flow studies to assist in the placement of air sampling and monitoring equipment. In support of this, Pacific Northwest Laboratory has provided technical assistance to Westinghouse Hanford Company for the purpose of evaluating the adequacy of air sampling and monitoring locations at selected Hanford facilities. Qualitative air flow studies were performed using smoke aerosols to visually determine air movement. Three examples are provided of how air flow studies results, along with information on the purpose of the air sample being collected, were used as a guide in placing the air samplers and monitors. Preparatory steps in conducting an air flow study should include: (1) identifying type of work performed in the work area including any actual or potential release points; (2) determining the amounts of radioactive material available for release and its chemical and physical form; (3) obtaining accurate work area descriptions and diagrams; (4) identifying the location of existing air samplers and monitors; (5) documenting physical and ventilation configurations; (6) notifying appropriate staff of the test; and (7) obtaining necessary equipment and supplies. The primary steps in conducting an air flow study are measurements of air velocities in the work area, release of the smoke aerosol at selected locations in the work area and the observation of air flow patterns, and finally evaluation and documentation of the results. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Volunteers for Air Monitoring Project (VAMP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge National Lab., TN.

    An education and communication project of the Environment and Technology Assessment Program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, is described in this report. The project for monitoring air dustfall resulted in the largest citizen-scientist air monitoring effort in the history of our nation. Nearly 21,000 public secondary school students and…

  8. Citizen Science Air Monitor (CSAM) Operating Procedures

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Citizen Science Air Monitor (CSAM) is an air monitoring system designed for measuring nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) pollutants simultaneously. This self-contained system consists of a CairPol CairClip NO2 sensor, a Thermo Scientific personal DataRAM PM2.5...

  9. The use of video for air pollution source monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, F.; Camara, A.

    1999-07-01

    The evaluation of air pollution impacts from single industrial emission sources is a complex environmental engineering problem. Recent developments in multimedia technologies used by personal computers improved the digitizing and processing of digital video sequences. This paper proposes a methodology where statistical analysis of both meteorological and air quality data combined with digital video images are used for monitoring air pollution sources. One of the objectives of this paper is to present the use of image processing algorithms in air pollution source monitoring. CCD amateur video cameras capture images that are further processed by computer. The use of video as a remote sensing system was implemented with the goal of determining some particular parameters, either meteorological or related with air quality monitoring and modeling of point sources. These parameters include the remote calculation of wind direction, wind speed, gases stack's outlet velocity, and stack's effective emission height. The characteristics and behavior of a visible pollutant's plume is also studied. Different sequences of relatively simple image processing operations are applied to the images gathered by the different cameras to segment the plume. The algorithms are selected depending on the atmospheric and lighting conditions. The developed system was applied to a 1,000 MW fuel power plant located at Setubal, Portugal. The methodology presented shows that digital video can be an inexpensive form to get useful air pollution related data for monitoring and modeling purposes.

  10. Concepts for Environmental Radioactive Air Sampling and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew

    2011-11-04

    Environmental radioactive air sampling and monitoring is becoming increasingly important as regulatory agencies promulgate requirements for the measurement and quantification of radioactive contaminants. While researchers add to the growing body of knowledge in this area, events such as earthquakes and tsunamis demonstrate how nuclear systems can be compromised. The result is the need for adequate environmental monitoring to assure the public of their safety and to assist emergency workers in their response. Two forms of radioactive air monitoring include direct effluent measurements and environmental surveillance. This chapter presents basic concepts for direct effluent sampling and environmental surveillance of radioactive air emissions, including information on establishing the basis for sampling and/or monitoring, criteria for sampling media and sample analysis, reporting and compliance, and continual improvement.

  11. Incinerator air emissions: Inhalation exposure perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, H.W.

    1995-12-01

    Incineration is often proposed as the treatment of choice for processing diverse wastes, particularly hazardous wastes. Where such treatment is proposed, people are often fearful that it will adversely affect their health. Unfortunately, information presented to the public about incinerators often does not include any criteria or benchmarks for evaluating such facilities. This article describes a review of air emission data from regulatory trial burns in a large prototype incinerator, operated at design capacity by the US Army to destroy chemical warfare materials. It uses several sets of criteria to gauge the threat that these emissions pose to public health. Incinerator air emission levels are evaluated with respect to various toxicity screening levels and ambient air levels of the same pollutants. Also, emission levels of chlorinated dioxins and furans are compared with emission levels of two common combustion sources. Such comparisons can add to a community`s understanding of health risks associated with an incinerator. This article focuses only on the air exposure/inhalation pathway as related to human health. It does not address other potential human exposure pathways or the possible effects of emissions on the local ecology, both of which should also be examined during a complete analysis of any major new facility.

  12. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction portable temporary radioactive air emission units - August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    FRITZ, D.W.

    1999-07-22

    This notice of construction (NOC) requests a categorical approval for construction and operation of three types of portable/temporary radionuclide airborne emission units (PTRAEUs). These three types are portable ventilation-filter systems (Type I), mobile sample preparation facilities (Type II), and mobile sample screening and analysis facilities (Type 111). Approval of the NOC application is intended to allow construction and operation of the three types of PTRAEUs without prior project-specific approval. Environmental cleanup efforts on the Hanford Site often require the use of PTRAEUs. The PTRAEUs support site characterization activities, expedited response actions (ERAs), sampling and monitoring activities, and other routine activities. The PTRAEUs operate at various locations around the Hanford Site. Radiation Air Emissions Program, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, requires that the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) be notified before construction of any new emission that would release airborne radioactivity. The WDOH also must receive notification before any modification of an existing source. This includes changes in the source term or replacement of emission control equipment that might significantly contribute to the offsite maximum dose from a licensed facility. During site characterization activities, ERAs, sampling and monitoring activities, and other routine activities, the PTRAEUs might require startup immediately. The notification period hampers efforts to complete such activities in an effective and timely manner. Additionally, notification is to be submitted to the WDOH when the PTRAEUs are turned off. The U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) potentially could generate several notifications monthly. The WDOH would be required to review and provide approval on each NOC as well as review the notices of discontinued sources. The WDOH regulation also allows facilities the opportunity to request a

  13. Acoustic emission monitoring of polymer composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardenheier, R.

    1981-01-01

    The techniques of acoustic emission monitoring of polymer composite materials is described. It is highly sensitive, quasi-nondestructive testing method that indicates the origin and behavior of flaws in such materials when submitted to different load exposures. With the use of sophisticated signal analysis methods it is possible the distinguish between different types of failure mechanisms, such as fiber fracture delamination or fiber pull-out. Imperfections can be detected while monitoring complex composite structures by acoustic emission measurements.

  14. Preliminary draft: comprehensive air-monitoring plan report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-15

    The topography of the CAMP Study Area, climate, and air pollution meteorology are described. The population analysis indicated limited growth during the next 10 years in the CAMP Study Area. Analysis of emission sources (current and projected) included a presentation of the types of emissions and their impact on the Study Area population (receptors). The general conclusion was drawn that of the non-condensible gases emitted, and considered pollutants, hydrogen sulfide was the only one for which monitoring would be recommended. Recommendations for type, placement, performance criteria, and the timing of establishment and terminating monitoring equipment were determined.

  15. 2014 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David Patrick

    2015-07-21

    This report describes the emissions of airborne radionuclides from operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2014, and the resulting off-site dose from these emissions. This document fulfills the requirements established by the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H – Emissions of Radionuclides other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities, commonly referred to as the Radionuclide NESHAP or Rad-NESHAP. Compliance with this regulation and preparation of this document is the responsibility of LANL’s RadNESHAP compliance program, which is part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 6.

  16. Community Air Monitoring Where You Live in EPA Region 5

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Community air monitoring projects that are using air sensor technology to monitor air quality in states in EPA’s Region 5 are providing the public with more information on the quality of the air they breathe.

  17. Community Air Monitoring Where You Live in EPA Region 8

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Community air monitoring projects that are using air sensor technology to monitor air quality in states in EPA’s Region 8 are providing the public with more information on the quality of the air they breathe.

  18. KCBX Air Monitoring Data - February 2014

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    KCBX submitted spreadsheets of heavy metal amounts, PM10 concentration, carbon measurements, and continuous monitor data from its petroleum coke (pet coke) facilities in Chicago, Illinois, per EPA's Clean Air Act Section 114 request.

  19. Monitoring Air Quality with Leaf Yeasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, D. H. S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Proposes that leaf yeast serve as quick, inexpensive, and effective techniques for monitoring air quality. Outlines procedures and provides suggestions for data analysis. Includes results from sample school groups who employed this technique. (ML)

  20. Emissions and Air Quality Impacts of Freight Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickford, Erica

    Diesel freight vehicles (trucks + trains) are responsible for 20% of all U.S. nitrogen oxide (NOx) and 3% of fine particulate (PM2.5) emissions - pollutants that are harmful to human health. Freight tonnage is also projected to double over the next several decades, reaching 30 billion tons by 2050, increasing freight transport activity. Air quality impacts from increased activity, trade-offs between activity and vehicle technology improvements, as well as where to make infrastructure investments that encourage sustainable freight growth, are important considerations for transportation and air quality managers. To address these questions, we build a bottom-up roadway-by-roadway freight truck inventory (WIFE) and employ it to quantify emissions impacts of swapping biodiesel blends into the Midwest diesel freight truck fleet, and investigate emissions and air quality impacts of truck-to-rail freight modal shifts in the Midwest. We also evaluate the spatial and seasonal freight performance of WIFE modeled in a regional photochemical model (CMAQ) against satellite retrievals of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Results show that spatial and seasonal distribution of biodiesel affects regional emissions impacts. Summer high-blend deployment yields a larger annual emissions reduction than year-round low-blend deployment, however, technological improvements in vehicle emissions controls between 2009 and 2018 dwarf the impacts of biodiesel. Truck-to-rail modal shift analysis found 40% of daily freight truck VMT could be shifted to rail freight, causing a 26% net reduction in NOx emissions, and 31% less carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Despite significant emissions impacts, air quality modeling results showed mostly localized near roadway air quality improvements, with small regional net changes; yet, federal regulation of CO2 emissions and/or rising costs of diesel fuel could motivate shifting freight to more fuel efficient rail. Evaluation of

  1. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 58 - Probe and Monitoring Path Siting Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... emissions, then the site is likely to be properly located nearby. This type of monitoring site would in all likelihood be a microscale type of monitoring site. If a monitoring site is to be used to determine air... account the heights of the flues, type of waste or fuel burned, and the sulfur content of the fuel....

  2. Air Quality Monitoring And Forecasting In China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Der A, Ronald; Mijling, Bas; De Smedt, Isabelle; Van Roozendael, Michel; Kelder, Hennie

    2010-10-01

    For the last decade the industrial activity of China has been growing at rapid pace, bringing economic wealth to its 1300 million inhabitants, but also generating an unprecedented level of air pollution. This deteriorates the air quality of the densely populated and industrialized areas such as Beijing, Shanghai and the Pearl River Delta, and increases the background pollution levels world-wide [1]. The AMFIC project aims at monitoring and forecasting the air quality in China by using satellite observations and model simulations, together with ground observations in China. The combination of these instruments and tools offers a unique possibility to investigate trends in air pollution and the effectiveness of air quality policy.

  3. Biofuels, vehicle emissions, and urban air quality.

    PubMed

    Wallington, Timothy J; Anderson, James E; Kurtz, Eric M; Tennison, Paul J

    2016-07-18

    Increased biofuel content in automotive fuels impacts vehicle tailpipe emissions via two mechanisms: fuel chemistry and engine calibration. Fuel chemistry effects are generally well recognized, while engine calibration effects are not. It is important that investigations of the impact of biofuels on vehicle emissions consider the impact of engine calibration effects and are conducted using vehicles designed to operate using such fuels. We report the results of emission measurements from a Ford F-350 fueled with either fossil diesel or a biodiesel surrogate (butyl nonanoate) and demonstrate the critical influence of engine calibration on NOx emissions. Using the production calibration the emissions of NOx were higher with the biodiesel fuel. Using an adjusted calibration (maintaining equivalent exhaust oxygen concentration to that of the fossil diesel at the same conditions by adjusting injected fuel quantities) the emissions of NOx were unchanged, or lower, with biodiesel fuel. For ethanol, a review of the literature data addressing the impact of ethanol blend levels (E0-E85) on emissions from gasoline light-duty vehicles in the U.S. is presented. The available data suggest that emissions of NOx, non-methane hydrocarbons, particulate matter (PM), and mobile source air toxics (compounds known, or suspected, to cause serious health impacts) from modern gasoline and diesel vehicles are not adversely affected by increased biofuel content over the range for which the vehicles are designed to operate. Future increases in biofuel content when accomplished in concert with changes in engine design and calibration for new vehicles should not result in problematic increases in emissions impacting urban air quality and may in fact facilitate future required emissions reductions. A systems perspective (fuel and vehicle) is needed to fully understand, and optimize, the benefits of biofuels when blended into gasoline and diesel.

  4. Microbial monitoring and performance evaluation for H2S biological air emissions control at a wastewater lift station in South Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kim D; Yadavalli, Naga; Karre, Anand K; Paca, Jan

    2012-01-01

    A pilot-scale biological sequential treatment system consisting of a biotrickling filter and two biofilters was installed at Waste Water Lift Station # 64 in Brownsville, Texas, USA to evaluate the performance of the system being loaded with variable concentrations of wastewater hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) emissions. In this study, the effectiveness of sulfur oxidizing bacteria along with the distribution of various sulfur species and their correlation with the performance of the biofilters was evaluated. The biofilters were packed with engineered media consisting of plastic cylinders with compacted organic material which was supplied by Met-Pro Environmental Air Solutions (formerly Bio·Reaction Industries). The overall performance of the pilot-scale biological sequential treatment system with an Empty Bed Residence Time (EBRT) of 60s and the overall performance of the biofilter unit with an EBRT of 35s developed a removal efficiency of > 99% at H(2)S levels up to 500 ppm. A decrease in performance over time was observed in the first and second sections of the first biofilter unit with the third section of the biofilter unit ultimately becoming the most robust unit removing most of the pollutant. The second biofilter unit was not needed and subsequently removed from the system. The number of CFUs in sulfur oxidizing T.thioparus selective media grew significantly in all four sections of the biofilter over the two months of pilot operation of the biological unit. The sulfur oxidizer growth rates appeared to be highest at low total sulfur content and at slightly acidic pH levels. This study has implications for improving the understanding of the distribution of sulfur oxidizing bacteria throughout the length of the biofilter columns, which can be used to further optimize performance and estimate breakthrough at these very high H(2)S input loadings.

  5. Ambient air monitoring for organic compounds, acids, and metals at Los Alamos National Laboratory, January 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.H.; Eberhart, C.F.

    1992-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) contracted Radian Corporation (Radian) to conduct a short-term, intensive air monitoring program whose goal was to estimate the impact of chemical emissions from LANL on the ambient air environment. A comprehensive emission inventory had identified more than 600 potential air contaminants in LANL`s emissions. A subset of specific target chemicals was selected for monitoring: 20 organic vapors, 6 metals and 5 inorganic acid vapors. These were measured at 5 ground level sampling sites around LANL over seven consecutive days in January 1991. The sampling and analytical strategy used a combination of EPA and NIOSH methods modified for ambient air applications.

  6. Ambient air monitoring for organic compounds, acids, and metals at Los Alamos National Laboratory, January 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.H. ); Eberhart, C.F. )

    1992-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) contracted Radian Corporation (Radian) to conduct a short-term, intensive air monitoring program whose goal was to estimate the impact of chemical emissions from LANL on the ambient air environment. A comprehensive emission inventory had identified more than 600 potential air contaminants in LANL's emissions. A subset of specific target chemicals was selected for monitoring: 20 organic vapors, 6 metals and 5 inorganic acid vapors. These were measured at 5 ground level sampling sites around LANL over seven consecutive days in January 1991. The sampling and analytical strategy used a combination of EPA and NIOSH methods modified for ambient air applications.

  7. 40 CFR 60.1765 - What additional requirements must I meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring system? 60.1765 Section 60.1765 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring system? Use the required span...

  8. 40 CFR 60.1765 - What additional requirements must I meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring system? 60.1765 Section 60.1765 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring system? Use the required span...

  9. 40 CFR 60.1765 - What additional requirements must I meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring system? 60.1765 Section 60.1765 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring system? Use the required span...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1765 - What additional requirements must I meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring system? 60.1765 Section 60.1765 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring system? Use the required span...

  11. 40 CFR 60.1765 - What additional requirements must I meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring system? 60.1765 Section 60.1765 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring system? Use the required span...

  12. Instrumentation for Air Pollution Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollowell, Craig D.; McLaughlin, Ralph D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the techniques which form the basis of current commercial instrumentation for monitoring five major gaseous atmospheric pollutants (sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxidants, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons). (JR)

  13. Improving ammonia emissions in air quality modelling for France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Meleux, Frédérik; Beekmann, Matthias; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Génermont, Sophie; Cellier, Pierre; Létinois, Laurent

    2014-08-01

    We have implemented a new module to improve the representation of ammonia emissions from agricultural activities in France with the objective to evaluate the impact of such emissions on the formation of particulate matter modelled with the air quality model CHIMERE. A novel method has been set up for the part of ammonia emissions originating from mineral fertilizer spreading. They are calculated using the one dimensional 1D mechanistic model “VOLT'AIR” which has been coupled with data on agricultural practices, meteorology and soil properties obtained at high spatial resolution (cantonal level). These emissions display high spatiotemporal variations depending on soil pH, rates and dates of fertilization and meteorological variables, especially soil temperature. The emissions from other agricultural sources (animal housing, manure storage and organic manure spreading) are calculated using the national spatialised inventory (INS) recently developed in France. The comparison of the total ammonia emissions estimated with the new approach VOLT'AIR_INS with the standard emissions provided by EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) used currently in the CHIMERE model shows significant differences in the spatiotemporal distributions. The implementation of new ammonia emissions in the CHIMERE model has a limited impact on ammonium nitrate aerosol concentrations which only increase at most by 10% on the average for the considered spring period but this impact can be more significant for specific pollution episodes. The comparison of modelled PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm) and ammonium nitrate aerosol with observations shows that the use of the new ammonia emission method slightly improves the spatiotemporal correlation in certain regions and reduces the negative bias on average by 1 μg m-3. The formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol depends not only on ammonia concentrations but also on nitric acid availability, which

  14. The TOMPs ambient air monitoring network - Continuous data on UK air quality for over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Graf, Carola; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2016-10-01

    Long-term air monitoring datasets are needed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to assess the effectiveness of source abatement measures and the factors controlling ambient levels. The Toxic Organic Micro Pollutants (TOMPs) Network, which has operated since 1991, collects ambient air samples at six sites across England and Scotland, using high-volume active air samplers. The network provides long-term ambient air trend data for a range of POPs at both urban and rural locations. Data from the network provides the UK Government, regulators and researchers with valuable information on emission/source controls and on the effectiveness of international chemicals regulation such as the Stockholm Convention and UN/ECE Protocol on POPs. The target chemicals of TOMPs have been polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and, since 2010, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The continuous monitoring of these compounds demonstrates the constant decline in UK air concentrations over the last two decades, with average clearance rates for PCDD/Fs in urban locations of 5.1 years and for PCBs across all sites 6.6 years. No significant declines in rural locations for PCDD/Fs have been observed. There is a strong observable link between the declining ambient air concentrations and the emission reductions estimated in the annually produced National Atmospheric Emission Inventory (NAEI) dataset. These findings clearly demonstrate the unique strengths of long-term consistent datasets for the evaluation of the success of chemical regulation and control.

  15. 76 FR 54462 - Notification of a Public Teleconference; Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee; Air Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... teleconference of the Air Monitoring and Methods Subcommittee (AMMS) of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory... AGENCY Notification of a Public Teleconference; Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee; Air Monitoring and Methods Subcommittee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  16. 40 CFR 63.6003 - How do I monitor and collect data to demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... monitoring malfunctions or associated repairs, or recorded during required quality assurance or control... Section 63.6003 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National...

  17. Design and implementation air quality monitoring robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuanhua; Li, Jie; Qi, Chunxue

    2017-01-01

    Robot applied in environmental protection can break through the limitations in working environment, scope and mode of the existing environmental monitoring and pollution abatement equipments, which undertake the innovation and improvement in the basin, atmosphere, emergency and pollution treatment facilities. Actually, the relevant technology is backward with limited research and investment. Though the device companies have achieved some results in the study on the water quality monitoring, pipeline monitoring and sewage disposal, this technological progress on the whole is still much slow, and the mature product has not been formed. As a result, the market urges a demand of a new type of device which is more suitable for environmental protection on the basis of robot successfully applied in other fields. This paper designs and realizes a tracked mobile robot of air quality monitoring, which can be used to monitor air quality for the pollution accident in industrial parks and regular management.

  18. 21 CFR 868.2025 - Ultrasonic air embolism monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ultrasonic air embolism monitor. 868.2025 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2025 Ultrasonic air embolism monitor. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic air embolism monitor is a device used to detect air bubbles...

  19. 40 CFR 58.15 - Annual air monitoring data certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Monitoring Network § 58.15 Annual air monitoring data... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual air monitoring data... an annual air monitoring data certification letter to certify data collected at all SLAMS and at...

  20. Williams Air Force Base Air Quality Monitoring Study,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    During monitoring operations conducted from five ground stations at Williams Air Force Base (WAFB) near Phoenix, Arizona, air quallity data were collected... chemical spraying, which could explain the higher levels of THC. Pollution roses for CO and THC were constructed using April 17 - June 18 data, and the...mixing depth). They also provided information on the vertical mixing properties of the atmosphere and (as input for model calculations) insight into

  1. Room air monitor for radioactive aerosols

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, David K.; Tyree, William H.

    1989-04-11

    A housing assembly for use with a room air monitor for simultaneous collection and counting of suspended particles includes a casing containing a combination detector-preamplifier system at one end, a filter system at the other end, and an air flow system consisting of an air inlet formed in the casing between the detector-preamplifier system and the filter system and an air passageway extending from the air inlet through the casing and out the end opposite the detector-preamplifier combination. The filter system collects suspended particles transported directly through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles are detected and examined for radioactivity by the detector-pre The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP03533 between the Department of Energy and Rockwell International Corporation.

  2. Room air monitor for radioactive aerosols

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, D.K.; Tyree, W.H.

    1987-03-23

    A housing assembly for use with a room air monitor for simultaneous collection and counting of suspended particles includes a casing containing a combination detector-preamplifier system at one end, a filter system at the other end, and an air flow system consisting of an air inlet formed in the casing between the detector-preamplifier system and the filter system and an air passageway extending from the air inlet through the casing and out the end opposite the detector-preamplifier combination. The filter system collects suspended particles transported directly through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles are detected and examined for radioactivity by the detector-preamplifier combination. 2 figs.

  3. The air quality monitoring program for the 1100-EM-1 remedial investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, C.S.; Laws, G.L.

    1990-09-01

    Air quality monitoring for the remedial investigation of the Hanford Site's 1100-EM-1 operable unit was conducted in the spring and fall of 1989 and during January 1990. The monitoring program was divided into two phases. The first phase examined the air quality impact of routine atmospheric emissions at three of the operable unit's waste sites before the beginning of intrusive remedial investigation activities. The second phase of monitoring examined the air quality impact of routine atmospheric emissions from two of the operable unit's waste sites during intrusive remedial investigation activities. Each phase of the program consisted of a series of monitoring events that measured pollutant concentrations at key locations upwind and downwind of individual waste sites. During each monitoring event, sampling was conducted to determine the air concentrations of a wide variety of volatile organic compounds and semivolatile organic compounds. Monitoring for heavy metals and asbestos was also conducted during some monitoring events. 8 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Ambient and Emission Trends of Toxic Air Contaminants in California.

    PubMed

    Propper, Ralph; Wong, Patrick; Bui, Son; Austin, Jeff; Vance, William; Alvarado, Álvaro; Croes, Bart; Luo, Dongmin

    2015-10-06

    After initiating a toxic air contaminant (TAC) identification and control program in 1984, the California Air Resources Board adopted regulations to reduce TAC emissions from cars, trucks, stationary sources, and consumer products. This study quantifies ambient concentration and emission trends for the period 1990-2012 for seven TACs that are responsible for most of the known cancer risk associated with airborne exposure in California. Of these seven, diesel particulate matter (DPM) is the most important; however DPM is not measured directly. Based on a novel surrogate method, DPM concentrations declined 68%, even though the state's population increased 31%, diesel vehicle-miles-traveled increased 81%, and the gross state product (GSP) increased 74%. Based on monitoring data, concentrations of benzene, 1,3-butadiene, perchloroethylene, and hexavalent chromium declined 88-94%. Also, the ambient and emissions trends for each of these four TACs were similar. Furthermore, these declines generally occurred earlier in California than elsewhere. However, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, which are formed in the air photochemically from volatile organic compounds (VOCs), declined only 20-21%. The collective cancer risk from exposure to these seven reviewed TACs declined 76%. Significant reduction in cancer risk to California residents from implementation of air toxics controls (especially for DPM) is expected to continue.

  5. 76 FR 18415 - Continuous Emission Monitoring

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 75 Continuous Emission Monitoring CFR Correction In Title 40 of the Code of Federal... units. The owner or operator of an affected unit that combusts wood, refuse, or other material...

  6. Solar Powered Radioactive Air Monitoring Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-10-30

    Environmental monitoring of ambient air for radioactive material is required as stipulated in the PNNL Site radioactive air license. Sampling ambient air at identified preferred locations could not be initially accomplished because utilities were not readily available. Therefore, solar powered environmental monitoring systems were considered as a possible option. PNNL purchased two 24-V DC solar powered environmental monitoring systems which consisted of solar panels, battery banks, and sampling units. During an approximate four month performance evaluation period, the solar stations operated satisfactorily at an on-site test location. They were subsequently relocated to their preferred locations in June 2012 where they continue to function adequately under the conditions found in Richland, Washington.

  7. SNRB{trademark} air toxics monitoring. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is currently conducting a project under the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology (CCT II) Program to demonstrate its SO{sub x}NO{sub x}-Rox Box{trademark} (SNRB{trademark}) process in a 5 MWe Field Demonstration Unit at Ohio Edison`s R. E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio. The objective of the SNRB{trademark} Air Toxics Monitoring Project was to provide data on SNRB{trademark} air toxics emissions control performance to B&W and to add to the DOE/EPRI/EPA data base by quantifying the flow rates of selected hazardous substances (or air toxics) in all of the major input and output streams of the SNRB{trademark} process as well as the power plant. Work under the project included the collection and analysis of representative samples of all major input and output streams of the SNRB{trademark} demonstration unit and the power plant, and the subsequent laboratory analysis of these samples to determine the partitioning of the hazardous substances between the various process streams. Material balances for selected air toxics were subsequently calculated around the SNRB{trademark} and host boiler systems, including the removal efficiencies across each of the major air pollution control devices. This report presents results of the SNRB{trademark} Air Toxics Monitoring Project. In addition to the Introduction, a brief description of the test site, including the Boiler No. 8 and the SNRB{trademark} process, is included in Section H. The concentrations of air toxic emissions are presented in Section II according to compound class. Material balances are included in Section IV for three major systems: boiler, electrostatic precipitator, and SNRB{trademark}. Emission factors and removal efficiencies are also presented according to compound class in Sections V and VI, respectively. A data evaluation is provided in Section VII.

  8. Air emissions inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory -- 1995 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the 1995 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources. The air contaminants reported include nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, particulates, and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs).

  9. OFFICE EQUIPMENT: DESIGN, INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS, AND POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes available information on office equipment design; indoor air emissions of organics, ozone, and particulates from office equipment; and pollution prevention approaches for reducing these emissions. Since much of the existing emissions data from office equipme...

  10. Quantifying Uncontrolled Air Emissions from Two Florida Landfills

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill gas emissions, if left uncontrolled, contribute to air toxics, climate change, trospospheric ozone, and urban smog. Measuring emissions from landfills presents unique challenges due to the large and variable source area, spatial and temporal variability of emissions, and...

  11. Biogenic organic emissions, air quality and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, A. B.

    2015-12-01

    Living organisms produce copious amounts of a diverse array of metabolites including many volatile organic compounds that are released into the atmosphere. These compounds participate in numerous chemical reactions that influence the atmospheric abundance of important air pollutants and short-lived climate forcers including organic aerosol, ozone and methane. The production and release of these organics are strongly influenced by environmental conditions including air pollution, temperature, solar radiation, and water availability and they are highly sensitive to stress and extreme events. As a result, releases of biogenic organics to the atmosphere have an impact on, and are sensitive to, air quality and climate leading to potential feedback couplings. Their role in linking air quality and climate is conceptually clear but an accurate quantitative representation is needed for predictive models. Progress towards this goal will be presented including numerical model development and assessments of the predictive capability of the Model of Emission of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). Recent studies of processes controlling the magnitude and variations in biogenic organic emissions will be described and observations of their impact on atmospheric composition will be shown. Recent advances and priorities for future research will be discussed including laboratory process studies, long-term measurements, multi-scale regional studies, global satellite observations, and the development of a next generation model for simulating land-atmosphere chemical exchange.

  12. AIR EMISSION INVENTORIES IN NORTH AMERICA: A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although emission inventories are the foundation of air quality management and have supported substantial improvements in North American air quality, they have a number of shortcomings that can potentially lead to ineffective air quality management strategies. New technologies fo...

  13. Comparison of air pollutant emissions among mega-cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrish, David D.; Kuster, William C.; Shao, Min; Yokouchi, Yoko; Kondo, Yutaka; Goldan, Paul D.; de Gouw, Joost A.; Koike, Makoto; Shirai, Tomoko

    2009-12-01

    Ambient measurements of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides from three mega-cities (Beijing, Mexico City, Tokyo) are compared with similar measurements from US cities in the mid-1980s and the early 2000s. The common hydrocarbon pattern seen in all data sets suggests that emissions associated with gasoline-fueled vehicles dominate in all of these cities. This commonality suggests that it will be efficient and, ultimately, cost effective to proceed with vehicular emission controls in most emerging mega-cities, while proceeding with development of more locally appropriate air quality control strategies through emissions inventory development and ambient air monitoring. Over the three decades covered by the US data sets, the hydrocarbon emissions decreased by a significant factor (something like an order of magnitude), which is greater than suggested by emission inventories, particularly the EDGAR international inventory. The ambient hydrocarbon and CO concentrations reported for the three non-US mega-cities are higher than present US ambient concentrations, but lower than those observed in the 1980s in the US. The one exception to the preceding statement is the high concentrations of CO observed in Beijing, which apparently have a large regional contribution.

  14. Pisces field chemical emissions monitoring project: Site 117 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This report is one of a series sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute in the area of trace substance emissions from fossil-fuel power plants. This report presents the results of a sampling and analytical study to characterize trace substances emissions at Site 117. Site 117 is a 1 MW selective catalytic reduction (SCR) pilot plant. The host boiler is an 850 MW boiler which burned a residual fuel oil. The objective of this report is to transmit the detailed data to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assist the Agency in evaluating utility trace chemical emissions as well as the associated health risk impacts - as mandated in Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. This report does not attempt to compare the results with other sites. An assessment of data from all plants that have been tested is presented in the Electric Utility Trace Substances Synthesis Report.

  15. Air emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1994 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This report Presents the 1994 update of the Air Emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  16. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1998 Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Zohner

    1999-10-01

    This report presents the 1998 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradiological emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  17. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zohner, S.K.

    2000-05-30

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  18. Air Emission, Liquid Effluent Inventory and Reporting

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Tina

    1998-08-18

    The IES maintains an inventory of radiological air and liquid effluents released to the atmosphere. The IES utilizes the official stack numbers. Data may be entered by generators for any monitoring time period. Waste volumes released as well as their radiological constituents are tracked. The IES provides data to produce a report for NESHAPS as well as several administrative action/anomaly reports. These reports flag unusual occurences (releases) that are above normal range releases.

  19. REVIEW OF THE RADNET AIR MONITORING NETWORK ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    RadNet, formerly known as ERAMS, has been operating since the 1970's, monitoring environmental radiation across the country, supporting responses to radiological emergencies, and providing important information on background levels of radiation in the environment. The original purpose of the system was to monitor fallout from weapons testing. Even though upgrades to and reconfiguration of the system have been planned for some time, the events of 9/11/01 gave impetus to a thorough upgrade of RadNet, primarily directed at providing more timely data and covering a larger portion of the nation's population. Moreover, the demands upon RadNet are now based upon homeland security support in addition to existing EPA monitoring responsibilities. Beginning in FY05 and continuing into FY13 up to135 near real-time air monitors will be put into operation across the country to provide decision making-data to EPA officials. Data will be transmitted from the monitors in all 50 states to a central database at the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in Montgomery, Alabama. The data will then be assessed and verified and made available to federal and state officials and, eventually, the public. A data flow model is being constructed to provide the most effective and efficient use of verified data obtained from the new radNet system The objective of the near-real time air monitoring component of RadNet is to provide verified decision-making data to fed

  20. Protocols of radiocontaminant air monitoring for inhalation exposure estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.H.

    1995-09-01

    Monitoring the plutonium and americium particle emissions from soils contaminated during atmospheric nuclear testing or due to accidental releases is important for several reasons. First, it is important to quantify the extent of potential human exposure from inhalation of alpha-emitting particles, which is the major exposure pathway from transuranic radionuclides. Second, the information provided by resuspension monitoring is the basis of criteria that determine the target soil concentrations for management and cleanup of contaminated soil sites. There are other radioactive aerosols, such as the fission products (cesium and strontium) and neutron-activation products (europium isotopes), which may be resuspended and therefore necessary to monitor as well. This Standard Protocol (SP) provides the method used for radiocontaminant air monitoring by the Health and Ecological Assessment Division (formerly Environmental Sciences Division), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, as developed and tested at Nevada Test Site (NTS) and in the Marshall Islands. The objective of this SP is to document the applications and methods of monitoring of all the relevant variables. This protocol deals only with measuring air concentrations of radionuclides and total suspended particulates (TSP, or {open_quotes}dust{close_quotes}). A separate protocol presents the more difficult measurements required to determine transuranic aerosol emission rates, or {open_quotes}resuspension rate{close_quotes}.

  1. Hydrogen/Air Fuel Nozzle Emissions Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Timothy D.

    2001-01-01

    The use of hydrogen combustion for aircraft gas turbine engines provides significant opportunities to reduce harmful exhaust emissions. Hydrogen has many advantages (no CO2 production, high reaction rates, high heating value, and future availability), along with some disadvantages (high current cost of production and storage, high volume per BTU, and an unknown safety profile when in wide use). One of the primary reasons for switching to hydrogen is the elimination of CO2 emissions. Also, with hydrogen, design challenges such as fuel coking in the fuel nozzle and particulate emissions are no longer an issue. However, because it takes place at high temperatures, hydrogen-air combustion can still produce significant levels of NOx emissions. Much of the current research into conventional hydrocarbon-fueled aircraft gas turbine combustors is focused on NOx reduction methods. The Zero CO2 Emission Technology (ZCET) hydrogen combustion project will focus on meeting the Office of Aerospace Technology goal 2 within pillar one for Global Civil Aviation reducing the emissions of future aircraft by a factor of 3 within 10 years and by a factor of 5 within 25 years. Recent advances in hydrocarbon-based gas turbine combustion components have expanded the horizons for fuel nozzle development. Both new fluid designs and manufacturing technologies have led to the development of fuel nozzles that significantly reduce aircraft emissions. The goal of the ZCET program is to mesh the current technology of Lean Direct Injection and rocket injectors to provide quick mixing, low emissions, and high-performance fuel nozzle designs. An experimental program is planned to investigate the fuel nozzle concepts in a flametube test rig. Currently, a hydrogen system is being installed in cell 23 at NASA Glenn Research Center's Research Combustion Laboratory. Testing will be conducted on a variety of fuel nozzle concepts up to combustion pressures of 350 psia and inlet air temperatures of 1200 F

  2. Acoustic-emission monitoring of steam turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, L. J.; Randall, R. L.; Hong, C.

    1982-04-01

    A method for the on-line detection of crack growth in steam turbine rotors based on acoustic emission (AE) monitoring is discussed. A systematic study involving a number of tasks was performed to evaluate the potential for the detection and correct identification of crack growth AE signals during various turbine operating conditions. These included acoustic wave propagation and attenuation measurements, background noise characterization, laboratory rotor material tests, monitoring equipment optimization, dynamic stress analysis of the rotor under transient operation and on-line source location and signal characterization. No crack growth was detected during the monitoring periods but there was sufficient information from the combined tasks to estimate the flaw growth detectability during different operating conditions if it occurs. The experience also suggests that AE monitoring can be useful for diagnosis of other turbine problems such as blade rubbing, out-of-balance condition, bearing deterioration, lubricating oil contamination and perhaps boiler exfoliation and blade erosion.

  3. Changing the Paradigm of Air Pollution Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historically, approaches for monitoring air pollution generally use expensive, complex, stationary equipment,1,2 which limits who collects data, why data are collected, and how data are accessed. This paradigm is changing with the materialization of lower-cost, easy-to...

  4. OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING FOR AIR QUALITY MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper outlines recent developments in using optical remote sensing (ORS) instruments for air quality monitoring both for gaseous pollutants and airborne particulate matter (PM). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been using open-path Fourier transform infrared...

  5. EMISSIONS OF ORGANIC AIR TOXICS FROM OPEN ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A detailed literature search was performed to collect and collate available data reporting emissions of toxic organic substances into the air from open burning sources. Availability of data varied according to the source and the class of air toxics of interest. Volatile organic compound (VOC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) data were available for many of the sources. Data on semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) that are not PAHs were available for several sources. Carbonyl and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) data were available for only a few sources. There were several sources for which no emissions data were available at all. Several observations were made including: 1) Biomass open burning sources typically emitted less VOCs than open burning sources with anthropogenic fuels on a mass emitted per mass burned basis, particularly those where polymers were concerned; 2) Biomass open burning sources typically emitted less SVOCs and PAHs than anthropogenic sources on a mass emitted per mass burned basis. Burning pools of crude oil and diesel fuel produced significant amounts of PAHs relative to other types of open burning. PAH emissions were highest when combustion of polymers was taking place; and 3) Based on very limited data, biomass open burning sources typically produced higher levels of carbonyls than anthropogenic sources on a mass emitted per mass burned basis, probably due to oxygenated structures r

  6. Temporalization of Electric Generation Emissions for Improved Representation of Peak Air Quality Episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas, C. M.; Moeller, M.; Carlton, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    Photochemical transport models routinely under predict peak air quality events. This deficiency may be due, in part, to inadequate temporalization of emissions from the electric generating sector. The National Emissions Inventory (NEI) reports emissions from Electric Generating Units (EGUs) by either Continuous Emission Monitors (CEMs) that report hourly values or as an annual total. The Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions preprocessor (SMOKE), used to prepare emissions data for modeling with the CMAQ air quality model, allocates annual emission totals throughout the year using specific monthly, weekly, and hourly weights according to standard classification code (SCC) and location. This approach represents average diurnal and seasonal patterns of electricity generation but does not capture spikes in emissions due to episodic use as with peaking units or due to extreme weather events. In this project we use a combination of state air quality permits, CEM data, and EPA emission factors to more accurately temporalize emissions of NOx, SO2 and particulate matter (PM) during the extensive heat wave of July and August 2006. Two CMAQ simulations are conducted; the first with the base NEI emissions and the second with improved temporalization, more representative of actual emissions during the heat wave. Predictions from both simulations are evaluated with O3 and PM measurement data from EPA's National Air Monitoring Stations (NAMS) and State and Local Air Monitoring Stations (SLAMS) during the heat wave, for which ambient concentrations of criteria pollutants were often above NAAQS. During periods of increased photochemistry and high pollutant concentrations, it is critical that emissions are most accurately represented in air quality models.

  7. Air pollutants emissions from waste treatment and disposal facilities.

    PubMed

    Hamoda, Mohamed F

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the atmospheric pollution created by some waste treatment and disposal facilities in the State of Kuwait. Air monitoring was conducted in a municipal wastewater treatment plant, an industrial wastewater treatment plant established in a petroleum refinery, and at a landfill site used for disposal of solid wastes. Such plants were selected as models for waste treatment and disposal facilities in the Arabian Gulf region and elsewhere. Air measurements were made over a period of 6 months and included levels of gaseous emissions as well as concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Samples of gas and bioaerosols were collected from ambient air surrounding the treatment facilities. The results obtained from this study have indicated the presence of VOCs and other gaseous pollutants such as methane, ammonia, and hydrogen sulphide in air surrounding the waste treatment and disposal facilities. In some cases the levels exceeded the concentration limits specified by the air quality standards. Offensive odors were also detected. The study revealed that adverse environmental impact of air pollutants is a major concern in the industrial more than in the municipal waste treatment facilities but sitting of municipal waste treatment and disposal facilities nearby the urban areas poses a threat to the public health.

  8. Ozone emissions from a "personal air purifier".

    PubMed

    Phillips, T J; Bloudoff, D P; Jenkins, P L; Stroud, K R

    1999-01-01

    Ozone emissions were measured above a "personal air purifier" (PAP) designed to be worn on a lapel, shirt pocket, or neck strap. The device is being marketed as a negative ion generator that purifies the air. However, it also produces ozone within the person's immediate breathing zone. In order to assess worst-case potential human exposure to ozone at the mouth and nose, we measured ozone concentrations in separate tests at 1, 3, 5, and 6 in. above each of two PAPs in a closed office. One PAP was new, and one had been used slightly for 3 months. Temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, room ozone concentration, and outdoor ozone concentration also were measured concurrently during the tests. Average ozone levels measured directly above the individual PAPs ranged from 65-71 ppb at 6 in. above the device to 268-389 ppb at 1 in. above the device. Ozone emission rates from the PAPs were estimated to be 1.7-1.9 microg/minute. When house dust was sprinkled on the top grid of the PAPs, one showed an initial peak of 522 ppb ozone at 1 in., and then returned to the 200-400 ppb range. Room ozone levels increased by only 0-5 ppb during the tests. Even when two PAPs were left operating over a weekend, room ozone levels did not noticeably increase beyond background room ozone levels. These results indicate that this "PAP," even without significant background ozone, can potentially elevate the user's exposures to ozone levels greater than the health-based air quality standards for outdoor air in California (0.09 ppm, 1-hour average) and the United States (0.08 ppm, 8-hour average).

  9. Tritium Room Air Monitor Operating Experience Review

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; B. J. Denny

    2008-09-01

    Monitoring the breathing air in tritium facility rooms for airborne tritium is a radiological safety requirement and a best practice for personnel safety. Besides audible alarms for room evacuation, these monitors often send signals for process shutdown, ventilation isolation, and cleanup system actuation to mitigate releases and prevent tritium spread to the environment. Therefore, these monitors are important not only to personnel safety but also to public safety and environmental protection. This paper presents an operating experience review of tritium monitor performance on demand during small (1 mCi to 1 Ci) operational releases, and intentional airborne inroom tritium release tests. The tritium tests provide monitor operation data to allow calculation of a statistical estimate for the reliability of monitors annunciating in actual tritium gas airborne release situations. The data show a failure to operate rate of 3.5E-06/monitor-hr with an upper bound of 4.7E-06, a failure to alarm on demand rate of 1.4E-02/demand with an upper bound of 4.4E-02, and a spurious alarm rate of 0.1 to 0.2/monitor-yr.

  10. Air inleak monitoring overcoming the `superheat` problem

    SciTech Connect

    Goode, C.; Rendle, C.

    1995-06-01

    Air inleak monitoring has been carried out for many years by Performance Engineers making the appropriate measurements of flow, temperature and absolute pressure. Instrumentation packages were produced in the late 1980s that brought together these measurements and made the necessary calculation, using firstly analog and subsequently digital techniques. These units used readings taken at one point long the air extraction pipework (Fig. 1). This single point approach has been shown to work satisfactorily on a number of installation, particularly those with large air inleak rates. There are, however, many installations where the procedure cannot work as a result of their being in `superheated mode`. The selection and design of sensors and sensing points to meet the fundamental physical requirements of the calculation process has resulted in the ability to monitor air inleak rates in a very wide range of conditions of both superheat and non-superheat for low and high air inleak rates. The paper discusses the observations made on installations in conventional and nuclear stations and the effect of changing pumping rates and other plant variables.

  11. Assessment of SRS ambient air monitoring network

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, K.; Jannik, T.

    2016-08-03

    Three methodologies have been used to assess the effectiveness of the existing ambient air monitoring system in place at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Effectiveness was measured using two metrics that have been utilized in previous quantification of air-monitoring network performance; frequency of detection (a measurement of how frequently a minimum number of samplers within the network detect an event), and network intensity (a measurement of how consistent each sampler within the network is at detecting events). In addition to determining the effectiveness of the current system, the objective of performing this assessment was to determine what, if any, changes could make the system more effective. Methodologies included 1) the Waite method of determining sampler distribution, 2) the CAP88- PC annual dose model, and 3) a puff/plume transport model used to predict air concentrations at sampler locations. Data collected from air samplers at SRS in 2015 compared with predicted data resulting from the methodologies determined that the frequency of detection for the current system is 79.2% with sampler efficiencies ranging from 5% to 45%, and a mean network intensity of 21.5%. One of the air monitoring stations had an efficiency of less than 10%, and detected releases during just one sampling period of the entire year, adding little to the overall network intensity. By moving or removing this sampler, the mean network intensity increased to about 23%. Further work in increasing the network intensity and simulating accident scenarios to further test the ambient air system at SRS is planned

  12. 40 CFR 75.11 - Specific provisions for monitoring SO2 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... emissions. 75.11 Section 75.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... monitoring SO2 emissions. (a) Coal-fired units. The owner or operator shall meet the general operating... affected coal-fired unit while the unit is combusting coal and/or any other fuel, except as provided...

  13. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  14. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  15. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  16. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  17. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  18. Ionisation Chambers and Secondary Emission Monitors at the PROSCAN Beam Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dölling, Rudolf

    2006-11-01

    PROSCAN, the dedicated new medical facility at PSI using proton beams for the treatment of deep seated tumours and eye melanoma, is now in the commissioning phase. Air filled ionisation chambers in several configurations are used as current monitors, profile monitors, halo, position and loss monitors at the PROSCAN beam lines. Similar monitors based on secondary emission are used for profile and current measurements in the regime where saturation deteriorates the accuracy of the ionisation chambers.

  19. National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants submittal -- 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Y.E.; Black, S.C.

    1997-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing. Monitoring and evaluation of the various activities conducted onsite indicate that the potential sources of offsite radiation exposure in 1996 were releases from the following: evaporation of tritiated water from containment ponds that receive drainage from E tunnel and from wells used for site characterization studies; onsite radioanalytical laboratories; the Area 5 RWMS facility; and diffuse sources of tritium and resuspension of plutonium. Section 1 describes these sources on the NTS. Section 2 tabulates the air emissions data for the NTS. These data are used to calculate the effective dose equivalents to offsite residents. Appendices describe the methods used to determine the emissions from the sources listed.

  20. Demonstration of autonomous air monitoring through robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Rancatore, R.

    1989-11-01

    The project included modifying an existing teleoperated robot to include autonomous navigation, large object avoidance, and air monitoring and demonstrating that prototype robot system in indoor and outdoor environments. The robot was also modified to carry a HNU PI-101 Photoionization Detector air monitoring device. A sonar range finder, which already was an integral part of the Surveyor, was repositioned to the front of the robot chassis to detect large obstacles in the path of the robot. In addition, the software of the onboard computer was also extensively modified to provide: navigation control, dynamic steering to smoothly follow the wire-course without hesitation, obstacle avoidance, autonomous shut down and remote reporting of toxic substance detection.

  1. Citizen Science Opportunities for Monitoring Air Quality Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Citizen Science Opportunities for Monitoring Air Quality fact sheet provides information on what citizen science is and the tools and resources available for citizen scientists interested in monitoring air quality.

  2. Monitoring Air Circulation Under Reduced Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rygalov, Vadim

    Adequate air circulation is required for controlled environments to maintain uniform temperature and humidity control, and hence the ability to measure air flow accurately is important. Human and associated life support habitats (e.g.,. plant production systems) for future space missions will likely be operated at pressures less than 100 kPa to minimize gas leakage and structural mass. Under such reduced pressures, the outputs from conventional anemometers for monitoring air flow can change and require re-calibration. These effects of atmospheric pressure on different types of air flow measurements are not completely understood; hence we compared the performance of several air flow sensors across a range of hypobaric pressures. Sensors included a propeller type anemometer, a hot-wire anemometer, and a Pitot-tube based device. Theoretical schematics (including mathematical models) underlying these measurements were developed. Results demonstrated that changes in sensor outputs were predictable based on their operating principles, and that corrections could be developed for sensors calibrated under normal Earth atmosphere pressure ( 100 kPa) and then used at different pressures. The potential effects of hypobaric atmospheres and their altered air flows on plant physiology are also discussed.

  3. PISCES field chemical emissions monitoring project: Site 112 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This report is one of a series sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute in the area of trace substance emissions from fossil-fuel power plants. This report presents the results of a sampling and analytical study to characterize trace substances emissions at Site 112. Site 112 is a tangentially fired boiler firing residual oil. Site 112 employs electrostatic precipitators and a flue gas desulfurization system for particulate and SO{sub 2} control. Sampling at Site 112 was performed in July and August of 1992 for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and mercury. The objective of this report is to transmit the detailed data to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assist the Agency in evaluating utility trace chemical emissions as well as the associated health risk impacts - as mandated in Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. This report does not attempt to compare the results with other sites. An assessment of data from all plants that have been tested is presented in the Electric Utility Trace Substances Synthesis Report (EPRI TR-104614).

  4. PISCES field chemical emissions monitoring project: Site 21 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This report is one of a series sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute in the area of trace substance emissions from fossil-fuel power plants. This report presents the results of a sampling and analytical study to characterize trace substances emissions at Site 21. Site 21 is a pilot-scale electrostatic precipitator and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. The flue gas for the pilot unit is provided by an adjacent power plant boiler which bums a medium-sulfur bituminous, coal. The primary objective in the Site 21 sampling and analytical program was to quantify the various components of variance in the measurement of trace chemical species. In addition to the replicate sample trains typically conducted at previous PISCES field measurements, duplicate analyses and duplicate (simultaneous) sample trains were also conducted. This enabled the variance due to sampling, analytical, and process conditions to be estimated. The objective of this report is to transmit the detailed data to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assist the Agency in evaluating utility trace chemical emissions as well as the associated health risk impacts - as mandated in Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. This report does not attempt to compare the results with other sites. An assessment of data from all plants that have been tested is presented in the Electric Utility Trace Substances Synthesis Report.

  5. 40 CFR 61.184 - Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... arsenic. 61.184 Section 61.184 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.184 Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic. (a) The owner or operator of each source to...

  6. 40 CFR 61.184 - Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... arsenic. 61.184 Section 61.184 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.184 Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic. (a) The owner or operator of each source to...

  7. 40 CFR 61.184 - Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... arsenic. 61.184 Section 61.184 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.184 Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic. (a) The owner or operator of each source to...

  8. 40 CFR 61.184 - Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... arsenic. 61.184 Section 61.184 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.184 Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic. (a) The owner or operator of each source to...

  9. 40 CFR 61.184 - Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... arsenic. 61.184 Section 61.184 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Arsenic Trioxide and Metallic Arsenic Production Facilities § 61.184 Ambient air monitoring for inorganic arsenic. (a) The owner or operator of each source to...

  10. Emission of pesticides into the air

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Den, Berg; Kubiak, R.; Benjey, W.G.; Majewski, M.S.; Yates, S.R.; Reeves, G.L.; Smelt, J.H.; Van Der Linden, A. M. A.

    1999-01-01

    During and after the application of a pesticide in agriculture, a substantial fraction of the dosage may enter the atmosphere and be transported over varying distances downwind of the target. The rate and extent of the emission during application, predominantly as spray particle drift, depends primarily on the application method (equipment and technique), the formulation and environmental conditions, whereas the emission after application depends primarily on the properties of the pesticide, soils, crops and environmental conditions. The fraction of the dosage that misses the target area may be high in some cases and more experimental data on this loss term are needed for various application types and weather conditions. Such data are necessary to test spray drift models, and for further model development and verification as well. Following application, the emission of soil fumigants and soil incorporated pesticides into the air can be measured and computed with reasonable accuracy, but further model development is needed to improve the reliability of the model predictions. For soil surface applied pesticides reliable measurement methods are available, but there is not yet a reliable model. Further model development is required which must be verified by field experiments. Few data are available on pesticide volatilization from plants and more field experiments are also needed to study the fate processes on the plants. Once this information is available, a model needs to be developed to predict the volatilization of pesticides from plants, which, again, should be verified with field measurements. For regional emission estimates, a link between data on the temporal and spatial pesticide use and a geographical information system for crops and soils with their characteristics is needed.

  11. Road construction: Emissions Factors and Air Quality Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font Font, Anna M.; Baker, Timothy; Mudway, Ian; Fuller, Gary W.

    2014-05-01

    Very few studies have investigated the air pollution impacts of road construction. Over a 17 month period a congested main road in south east London was widened from two lanes to four. Emissions factors for road construction were determined and a notable deterioration in residential air quality was found with the final expanded road layout. Air quality monitoring sites measuring PM10, PM2.5, NOX, NO2 and meteorological variables were deployed on both sides of the road construction to quantify ambient air quality before, during and after the completion of the road works, with additional measurements from a nearby background site. PM10 samples were collected for oxidative potential measurements. PM10 was the only pollutant to increase during the construction; mean PM10 from the road increased by 15 µg m-3 during working hours; weekdays between 6 am and 5 pm; and on Saturdays between 6 am and 12 pm, compared to concentrations before the road works. During the construction the number of days with daily mean PM10 concentrations greater than 50 µg m-3 was more than 35 for both sides of the road, breaching the European Union Limit Value (LV). Downwind-upwind differences were used to calculate real-world PM10 emissions associated to the construction activity by means of box modelling. The quantity of PM10 emitted per area and month of construction was 0.0009 kg PM10 m-2 month-1 for the construction period. This emission factor was similar to the one used in the UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI). Worst case construction emissions factors were 0.0105 kg PM10 m-2 month-1, compared to 0.0448 kg PM10 m-2 month-1 and 0.1038 kg PM10 m-2 month-1 used in current European and US inventories, respectively. After the completion of the road widening an increase in all pollutants was measured during rush hour peaks: 2-4 µg m-3 for PM10; 1 µg m-3 for PM2.5; 20 and 4 ppbv (40 and 8 µg m-3) for NOX and NO2, respectively, leading to a breach of the NO2 annual mean LV

  12. SAMIRA - SAtellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Philipp; Stebel, Kerstin; Ajtai, Nicolae; Diamandi, Andrei; Horalek, Jan; Nicolae, Doina; Stachlewska, Iwona; Zehner, Claus

    2016-04-01

    Here, we present a new ESA-funded project entitled Satellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality (SAMIRA), which aims at improving regional and local air quality monitoring through synergetic use of data from present and upcoming satellites, traditionally used in situ air quality monitoring networks and output from chemical transport models. Through collaborative efforts in four countries, namely Romania, Poland, the Czech Republic and Norway, all with existing air quality problems, SAMIRA intends to support the involved institutions and associated users in their national monitoring and reporting mandates as well as to generate novel research in this area. Despite considerable improvements in the past decades, Europe is still far from achieving levels of air quality that do not pose unacceptable hazards to humans and the environment. Main concerns in Europe are exceedances of particulate matter (PM), ground-level ozone, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). While overall sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions have decreased in recent years, regional concentrations can still be high in some areas. The objectives of SAMIRA are to improve algorithms for the retrieval of hourly aerosol optical depth (AOD) maps from SEVIRI, and to develop robust methods for deriving column- and near-surface PM maps for the study area by combining satellite AOD with information from regional models. The benefit to existing monitoring networks (in situ, models, satellite) by combining these datasets using data fusion methods will be tested for satellite-based NO2, SO2, and PM/AOD. Furthermore, SAMIRA will test and apply techniques for downscaling air quality-related EO products to a spatial resolution that is more in line with what is generally required for studying urban and regional scale air quality. This will be demonstrated for a set of study sites that include the capitals of the four countries and the highly polluted areas along the border of Poland and the

  13. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2011-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as those from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Because this report is intended to discuss radioactive air emissions during calendar year 2010, data on radionuclides in air from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant releases are not presented but will be included in the report for calendar year 2011. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP

  14. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  15. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  16. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.346 Air quality monitoring... VIII Administrator, the State submitted a revised Air Quality Monitoring State Implementation Plan....

  17. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.346 Air quality monitoring... VIII Administrator, the State submitted a revised Air Quality Monitoring State Implementation Plan....

  18. Test plan for air monitoring during the Cryogenic Retrieval Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Yokuda, E.

    1992-06-01

    This report presents a test plan for air monitoring during the Cryogenic Retrieval Demonstration (CRD). Air monitors will be used to sample for the tracer elements neodymium, terbium, and ytterbium, and dysprosium. The results from this air monitoring will be used to determine if the CRD is successful in controlling dust and minimizing contamination. Procedures and equipment specifications for the test are included.

  19. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  20. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  1. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.346 Air quality monitoring... VIII Administrator, the State submitted a revised Air Quality Monitoring State Implementation Plan....

  2. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.346 Air quality monitoring... VIII Administrator, the State submitted a revised Air Quality Monitoring State Implementation Plan....

  3. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.346 Air quality monitoring... VIII Administrator, the State submitted a revised Air Quality Monitoring State Implementation Plan....

  4. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  5. Secondary Aluminum Production: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for new and existing sources at secondary aluminum production facilities. Includes rule history, summary, federal register citations and implementation information.

  6. Locating and estimating air emissions from sources of epichlorohydrin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    To assist groups interested in inventorying air emissions of various potentially toxic substances, EPA is preparing a series of documents such as this to compile available information on sources and emissions of these substances. This document deals specifically with epichlorohydrin. Its intended audience includes Federal, State and local air pollution personnel and others interested in locating potential emitters of epichlorohydrin in making gross estimates of air emissions therefrom. This document presents information on 1) the types of sources that may emit epichlorohydrin; 2) process variations and release points that may be expected within these sources; and 3) available emissions information indicating the potential for epichlorohydrin release into the air from each operation.

  7. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, 1993 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the 1993 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to commence the preparation of the permit to operate application for the INEL, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL and provides emissions estimates for both mobile and stationary sources.

  8. Implementation of Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Suleiman, R. M.; Flittner, D. E.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Janz, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    The updated status of TEMPO, as it proceeds from formulation phase into implementation phase is presented. TEMPO, the first NASA Earth Venture Instrument, will measure atmospheric pollution for greater North America from space using ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy. TEMPO measures from Mexico City to the Canadian oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution. TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry. Measurements are from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the inherent high variability in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies. TEMPO takes advantage of a GEO host spacecraft to provide a modest cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve O3, NO2, SO2, H2CO, C2H2O2, H2O, aerosols, cloud parameters, and UVB radiation. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions by 50%. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides near-real-time air quality products that will be made widely, publicly available. TEMPO provides much of the atmospheric measurement capability recommended for GEO-CAPE in the 2007 National Research Council Decadal Survey, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond. GEO-CAPE is not planned for implementation this decade. However, instruments from Europe (Sentinel 4) and Asia (GEMS) will form parts of a global GEO constellation for pollution monitoring later this decade, with a major focus on intercontinental

  9. Validation of a novel air toxic risk model with air monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Gregory C; Dymond, Mary; Ellickson, Kristie; Thé, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    Three modeling systems were used to estimate human health risks from air pollution: two versions of MNRiskS (for Minnesota Risk Screening), and the USEPA National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA). MNRiskS is a unique cumulative risk modeling system used to assess risks from multiple air toxics, sources, and pathways on a local to a state-wide scale. In addition, ambient outdoor air monitoring data were available for estimation of risks and comparison with the modeled estimates of air concentrations. Highest air concentrations and estimated risks were generally found in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area and lowest risks in undeveloped rural areas. Emissions from mobile and area (nonpoint) sources created greater estimated risks than emissions from point sources. Highest cancer risks were via ingestion pathway exposures to dioxins and related compounds. Diesel particles, acrolein, and formaldehyde created the highest estimated inhalation health impacts. Model-estimated air concentrations were generally highest for NATA and lowest for the AERMOD version of MNRiskS. This validation study showed reasonable agreement between available measurements and model predictions, although results varied among pollutants, and predictions were often lower than measurements. The results increased confidence in identifying pollutants, pathways, geographic areas, sources, and receptors of potential concern, and thus provide a basis for informing pollution reduction strategies and focusing efforts on specific pollutants (diesel particles, acrolein, and formaldehyde), geographic areas (urban centers), and source categories (nonpoint sources). The results heighten concerns about risks from food chain exposures to dioxins and PAHs. Risk estimates were sensitive to variations in methodologies for treating emissions, dispersion, deposition, exposure, and toxicity.

  10. Preliminary air pollution monitoring in San Miguel, Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Fagundez, L A; Fernández, V L; Marino, T H; Martín, I; Persano, D A; Rivarola Y Benítez, M; Sadañiowski, I V; Codnia, J; Zalts, A

    2001-09-01

    Passive diffusion samplers were employed in San Miguel (Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area) for a preliminary air pollution monitoring. The highest loads were observed in downtown, compared with an urban background site. Total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) varied from 0.257 to 0.033 mg cm(-2) month(-1); dust was examined for particle nature and size distribution. A similar trend was observed for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and TSPM spatial distribution, suggesting that traffic is the major pollution source. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) values were low and rather homogeneous. Levels for the investigated pollutants are below EPA's guide line values. Geographic (flat area, near to Rio de La Plata) and climatologic factors (rainfalls and variable wind directions) contribute to disperse pollutants.

  11. Region 7 States Air Quality Monitoring Plans - Missouri

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) - Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska; Annual Monitoring Network Plans, Five-Year Monitoring Network Assessments, and approval documentation. Each year, states are required to submit an annual monitoring netwo

  12. Region 7 States Air Quality Monitoring Plans - Iowa

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) - Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska; Annual Monitoring Network Plans, Five-Year Monitoring Network Assessments, and approval documentation. Each year, states are required to submit an annual monitoring netwo

  13. Region 7 States Air Quality Monitoring Plans - Kansas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) - Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska; Annual Monitoring Network Plans, Five-Year Monitoring Network Assessments, and approval documentation. Each year, states are required to submit an annual monitoring netwo

  14. Region 7 States Air Quality Monitoring Plans - Nebraska

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) - Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska; Annual Monitoring Network Plans, Five-Year Monitoring Network Assessments, and approval documentation. Each year, states are required to submit an annual monitoring netwo

  15. Emission factors of air toxics from semiconductor manufacturing in Korea.

    PubMed

    Eom, Yun-Sung; Hong, Ji-Hyung; Lee, Suk-Jo; Lee, Eun-Jung; Cha, Jun-Seok; Lee, Dae-Gyun; Bang, Sun-Ae

    2006-11-01

    The development of local, accurate emission factors is very important for the estimation of reliable national emissions and air quality management. For that, this study is performed for pollutants released to the atmosphere with source-specific emission tests from the semiconductor manufacturing industry. The semiconductor manufacturing industry is one of the major sources of air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs); thus, understanding the emission characteristics of the emission source is a very important factor in the development of a control strategy. However, in Korea, there is a general lack of information available on air emissions from the semiconductor industry. The major emission sources of air toxics examined from the semiconductor manufacturing industry were wet chemical stations, coating applications, gaseous operations, photolithography, and miscellaneous devices in the wafer fabrication and semiconductor packaging processes. In this study, analyses of emission characteristics, and the estimations of emission data and factors for air toxics, such as acids, bases, heavy metals, and volatile organic compounds from the semiconductor manufacturing process have been performed. The concentration of hydrogen chloride from the packaging process was the highest among all of the processes. In addition, the emission factor of total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) for the packaging process was higher than that of the wafer fabrication process. Emission factors estimated in this study were compared with those of Taiwan for evaluation, and they were found to be of similar level in the case of TVOCs and fluorine compounds.

  16. Quantifying the air pollutants emission reduction during the 2008 Olympic games in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuxiao; Zhao, Meng; Xing, Jia; Wu, Ye; Zhou, Yu; Lei, Yu; He, Kebin; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2010-04-01

    Air quality was a vital concern for the Beijing Olympic Games in 2008. To strictly control air pollutant emissions and ensure good air quality for the Games, Beijing municipal government announced an "Air Quality Guarantee Plan for the 29th Olympics in Beijing". In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the guarantee plan, this study analyzed the air pollutant emission reductions during the 29th Olympiad in Beijing. In June 2008, daily emissions of SO(2), NO(X), PM(10), and NMVOC in Beijing were 103.9 t, 428.5 t, 362.7 t, and 890.0 t, respectively. During the Olympic Games, the daily emissions of SO(2), NO(X), PM(10), and NMVOC in Beijing were reduced to 61.6 t, 229.1 t, 164.3 t, and 381.8 t -41%, 47%, 55%, and 57% lower than June 2008 emission levels. Closing facilities producing construction materials reduced the sector's SO(2) emissions by 85%. Emission control measures for mobile sources, including high-emitting vehicle restrictions, government vehicle use controls, and alternate day driving rules for Beijing's 3.3 million private cars, reduced mobile source NO(X) and NMVOC by 46% and 57%, respectively. Prohibitions on building construction reduced the sector's PM(10) emissions by approximately 90% or total PM(10) by 35%. NMVOC reductions came mainly from mobile source and fugitive emission reductions. Based on the emission inventories developed in this study, the CMAQ model was used to simulate Beijing's ambient air quality during the Olympic Games. The model results accurately reflect the environmental monitoring data providing evidence that the emission inventories in this study are reasonably accurate and quantitatively reflect the emission changes attributable to air pollution control measures taken during the 29th Olympic Games in 2008.

  17. Monitoring hydraulic fracturing with seismic emission volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, F.; Tang, Y.; Chen, H.; TAO, K.; Levander, A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent developments in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have made it possible to access the reservoirs that are not available for massive production in the past. Hydraulic fracturing is designed to enhance rock permeability and reservoir drainage through the creation of fracture networks. Microseismic monitoring has been proven to be an effective and valuable technology to image hydraulic fracture geometry. Based on data acquisition, seismic monitoring techniques have been divided into two categories: downhole and surface monitoring. Surface monitoring is challenging because of the extremely low signal-to-noise ratio of the raw data. We applied the techniques used in earthquake seismology and developed an integrated monitoring system for mapping hydraulic fractures. The system consists of 20 to 30 state-of-the-art broadband seismographs, which are generally about hundreds times more sensible than regular geophones. We have conducted two experiments in two basins with very different geology and formation mechanism in China. In each case, we observed clear microseismic events, which may correspond to the induced seismicity directly associated with fracturing and the triggered ones at pre-existing faults. However, the magnitude of these events is generally larger than magnitude -1, approximately one to two magnitudes larger than those detected by downhole instruments. Spectrum-frequency analysis of the continuous surface recordings indicated high seismic energy associated with injection stages. The seismic energy can be back-projected to a volume that surrounds each injection stage. Imaging seismic emission volume (SEV) appears to be an effective way to map the stimulated reservior volume, as well as natural fractures.

  18. 77 FR 1267 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... Group IV Polymers and Resins MACT standards, the typical control devices used to reduce organic HAP... Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient Production; and... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide...

  19. 40 CFR 61.55 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for Mercury § 61.55 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) Wastewater treatment plant sludge incineration and drying plants. All the sources for which mercury emissions exceed 1.6 kg (3.5 lb) per 24-hour....54, shall monitor mercury emissions at intervals of at least once per year by use of Method 105...

  20. 40 CFR 61.55 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for Mercury § 61.55 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) Wastewater treatment plant sludge incineration and drying plants. All the sources for which mercury emissions exceed 1.6 kg (3.5 lb) per 24-hour....54, shall monitor mercury emissions at intervals of at least once per year by use of Method 105...

  1. Projection of hazardous air pollutant emissions to future years.

    PubMed

    Strum, Madeleine; Cook, Rich; Thurman, James; Ensley, Darrell; Pope, Anne; Palma, Ted; Mason, Richard; Michaels, Harvey; Shedd, Stephen

    2006-08-01

    Projecting a hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emission inventory to future years can provide valuable information for air quality management activities such as prediction of program successes and helping to assess future priorities. We have projected the 1999 National Emission Inventory for HAPs to numerous future years up to 2020 using the following tools and data: the Emissions Modeling System for Hazardous Air Pollutants (EMS-HAP), the National Mobile Inventory Model (NMIM), emission reduction information resulting from national standards and economic growth data. This paper discusses these projection tools, the underlying data, limitations and the results. The results presented include total HAP emissions (sum of pollutants) and toxicity-weighted HAP emissions for cancer and respiratory noncancer effects. Weighting emissions by toxicity does not consider fate, transport, or location and behavior of receptor populations and can only be used to estimate relative risks of direct emissions. We show these projections, along with historical emission trends. The data show that stationary source programs under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and mobile source programs which reduce hydrocarbon and particulate matter emissions, as well as toxic emission performance standards for reformulated gasoline, have contributed to and are expected to continue to contribute to large declines in air toxics emissions, in spite of economic and population growth. We have also analyzed the particular HAPs that dominate the source sectors to better understand the historical and future year trends and the differences across sectors.

  2. 40 CFR 60.703 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... recovery device in the recovery system: (i) A condenser exit (product side) temperature monitoring device... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring of emissions and operations... Processes § 60.703 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) The owner or operator of an affected...

  3. 40 CFR 265.231 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.231 Section 265.231 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 265.231 Air emission standards. The owner or operator...

  4. 40 CFR 265.202 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.202 Section 265.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 265.202 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage...

  5. 40 CFR 264.200 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.200 Section 264.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Tank Systems § 264.200 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage all hazardous...

  6. 40 CFR 264.179 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.179 Section 264.179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Use and Management of Containers § 264.179 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall...

  7. 40 CFR 265.202 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.202 Section 265.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 265.202 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage...

  8. 40 CFR 265.178 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.178 Section 265.178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 265.178 Air emission standards. The owner...

  9. 40 CFR 264.200 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.200 Section 264.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Tank Systems § 264.200 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage all hazardous...

  10. 40 CFR 265.178 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.178 Section 265.178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 265.178 Air emission standards. The owner...

  11. 40 CFR 264.232 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.232 Section 264.232 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Surface Impoundments § 264.232 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage all...

  12. 40 CFR 264.179 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.179 Section 264.179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Use and Management of Containers § 264.179 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall...

  13. 40 CFR 265.231 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.231 Section 265.231 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 265.231 Air emission standards. The owner or operator...

  14. 40 CFR 264.232 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.232 Section 264.232 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Surface Impoundments § 264.232 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage all...

  15. 40 CFR 264.200 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.200 Section 264.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Tank Systems § 264.200 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage all hazardous...

  16. 40 CFR 264.232 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.232 Section 264.232 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Surface Impoundments § 264.232 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage all...

  17. 40 CFR 265.202 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.202 Section 265.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 265.202 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage...

  18. 40 CFR 265.178 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.178 Section 265.178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 265.178 Air emission standards. The owner...

  19. 40 CFR 264.179 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.179 Section 264.179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Use and Management of Containers § 264.179 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall...

  20. 40 CFR 265.231 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.231 Section 265.231 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 265.231 Air emission standards. The owner or operator...

  1. Continuous air monitor filter changeout apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Rodgers, John C.

    2008-07-15

    An apparatus and corresponding method for automatically changing out a filter cartridge in a continuous air monitor. The apparatus includes: a first container sized to hold filter cartridge replacements; a second container sized to hold used filter cartridges; a transport insert connectively attached to the first and second containers; a shuttle block, sized to hold the filter cartridges that is located within the transport insert; a transport driver mechanism means used to supply a motive force to move the shuttle block within the transport insert; and, a control means for operating the transport driver mechanism.

  2. Engineering with uncertainty: monitoring air bag performance.

    PubMed

    Wetmore, Jameson M

    2008-06-01

    Modern engineering is complicated by an enormous number of uncertainties. Engineers know a great deal about the material world and how it works. But due to the inherent limits of testing and the complexities of the world outside the lab, engineers will never be able to fully predict how their creations will behave. One way the uncertainties of engineering can be dealt with is by actively monitoring technologies once they have left the development and production stage. This article uses an episode in the history of automobile air bags as an example of engineers who had the foresight and initiative to carefully track the technology on the road to discover problems as early as possible. Not only can monitoring help engineers identify problems that surface in the field, it can also assist them in their efforts to mobilize resources to resolve problem.

  3. In-line real time air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Wise, Marcus B.; Thompson, Cyril V.

    1998-01-01

    An in-line gas monitor capable of accurate gas composition analysis in a continuous real time manner even under strong applied vacuum conditions operates by mixing an air sample with helium forming a sample gas in two complementary sample loops embedded in a manifold which includes two pairs of 3-way solenoid valves. The sample gas is then analyzed in an ion trap mass spectrometer on a continuous basis. Two valve drivers actuate the two pairs of 3-way valves in a reciprocating fashion, so that there is always flow through the in-line gas monitor via one or the other of the sample loops. The duty cycle for the two pairs of 3-way valves is varied by tuning the two valve drivers to a duty cycle typically between 0.2 to 0.7 seconds.

  4. In-line real time air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Wise, M.B.; Thompson, C.V.

    1998-07-14

    An in-line gas monitor capable of accurate gas composition analysis in a continuous real time manner even under strong applied vacuum conditions operates by mixing an air sample with helium forming a sample gas in two complementary sample loops embedded in a manifold which includes two pairs of 3-way solenoid valves. The sample gas is then analyzed in an ion trap mass spectrometer on a continuous basis. Two valve drivers actuate the two pairs of 3-way valves in a reciprocating fashion, so that there is always flow through the in-line gas monitor via one or the other of the sample loops. The duty cycle for the two pairs of 3-way valves is varied by tuning the two valve drivers to a duty cycle typically between 0.2 to 0.7 seconds. 3 figs.

  5. Air Contamination by Mercury, Emissions and Transformations-a Review.

    PubMed

    Gworek, Barbara; Dmuchowski, Wojciech; Baczewska, Aneta H; Brągoszewska, Paulina; Bemowska-Kałabun, Olga; Wrzosek-Jakubowska, Justyna

    2017-01-01

    The present and future air contamination by mercury is and will continue to be a serious risk for human health. This publication presents a review of the literature dealing with the issues related to air contamination by mercury and its transformations as well as its natural and anthropogenic emissions. The assessment of mercury emissions into the air poses serious methodological problems. It is particularly difficult to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic emissions and re-emissions from lands and oceans, including past emissions. At present, the largest emission sources include fuel combustion, mainly that of coal, and "artisanal and small-scale gold mining" (ASGM). The distinctly highest emissions can be found in South and South-East Asia, accounting for 45% of the global emissions. The emissions of natural origin and re-emissions are estimated at 45-66% of the global emissions, with the largest part of emissions originating in the oceans. Forecasts on the future emission levels are not unambiguous; however, most forecasts do not provide for reductions in emissions. Ninety-five percent of mercury occurring in the air is Hg(0)-GEM, and its residence time in the air is estimated at 6 to 18 months. The residence times of its Hg(II)-GOM and that in Hgp-TPM are estimated at hours and days. The highest mercury concentrations in the air can be found in the areas of mercury mines and those of ASGM. Since 1980 when it reached its maximum, the global background mercury concentration in the air has remained at a relatively constant level.

  6. Objective classification of air quality monitoring sites over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joly, Mathieu; Peuch, Vincent-Henri

    2012-02-01

    The observation sites that make up air quality monitoring networks can have very different characteristics (topography, climatology, distance to emission sources, etc), which are partially described in the meta-information provided with data sets. At the scale of Europe, the description of the sites depends on the institute(s) in charge of the air quality monitoring in each country, and is based on specific criteria that can be sometimes rather subjective. The purpose of this study is to build an objective, homogeneous, and pollutant-specific classification of European air quality monitoring sites, primarily for the purpose of model verification and chemical data assimilation. Most studies that tackled this issue so far were based on limited data sets, and often took into account additional external data such as population density, emission estimates, or land cover maps. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of a classification only based on the past time series of measured pollutants. The underlying idea is that the true fingerprint of a given monitoring site lies within its past observation values. On each site to be categorized, eight indicators are defined to characterize each pollutant time series (O 3, NO 2, NO, SO 2, or PM 10) of the European AirBase and the French BDQA (Base de Données de Qualité de l'Air) reference sets of validated data over the period 2002-2009. A Linear Discriminant Analysis is used to best discriminate the rural and urban sites. After projection on the Fisher axis, ten classes are finally determined on the basis of fixed thresholds, for each molecule. The method is validated by cross-validation and by direct comparison with the existing meta-data. The link between the classes obtained and the meta-data is strongest with NO, NO 2, and PM 10. Across Europe, the classification exhibits interesting large-scale features: some contrasts between different regions depend on the pollutant considered. Comparing the classes obtained

  7. [Air quality monitoring on the International Space Station].

    PubMed

    Pakhomova, A A; Mukhamedieva, L N; Mikos, K N

    2006-01-01

    Chemical contamination of air in space cabins occurs mainly due to permanent offgassing of equipment and materials, and leaks. Methods and means of qualitative and quantitative air monitoring on the ISS are powerful enough as for routine so emergency (e.g. local fire, toxic leak) air control. The ISS air quality has suited to the adopted standards and crew safety requirements. Yet, there is a broad field of action toward improvement of the space cabin air monitoring.

  8. Urban scale air quality modelling using detailed traffic emissions estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrego, C.; Amorim, J. H.; Tchepel, O.; Dias, D.; Rafael, S.; Sá, E.; Pimentel, C.; Fontes, T.; Fernandes, P.; Pereira, S. R.; Bandeira, J. M.; Coelho, M. C.

    2016-04-01

    The atmospheric dispersion of NOx and PM10 was simulated with a second generation Gaussian model over a medium-size south-European city. Microscopic traffic models calibrated with GPS data were used to derive typical driving cycles for each road link, while instantaneous emissions were estimated applying a combined Vehicle Specific Power/Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (VSP/EMEP) methodology. Site-specific background concentrations were estimated using time series analysis and a low-pass filter applied to local observations. Air quality modelling results are compared against measurements at two locations for a 1 week period. 78% of the results are within a factor of two of the observations for 1-h average concentrations, increasing to 94% for daily averages. Correlation significantly improves when background is added, with an average of 0.89 for the 24 h record. The results highlight the potential of detailed traffic and instantaneous exhaust emissions estimates, together with filtered urban background, to provide accurate input data to Gaussian models applied at the urban scale.

  9. 40 CFR Part 75 Emissions Monitoring Policy Manual

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Provides guidance on the requirements of 40 CFR Part 75 through a series of questions and answers that can be used by units to monitor mass sulfur dioxide emissions, mass carbon dioxide emissions, nitrogen oxide rate and heat input.

  10. Monitoring of Hazardous Air Pollutant Surrogates Using Resonance Enhanced Multiphoton Ionization/Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s preferred approach for regulatory emissions compliance is based upon real-time monitoring of individual hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Real-time, continuous monitoring not only provides the most comprehensive assurance of emissions compliance, but also can serve as...

  11. 76 FR 22565 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins; Marine Tank Vessel Loading Operations... Polymers and Resins; Marine Tank Vessel Loading Operations; Pharmaceuticals Production; and the Printing... NESHAP include: National Emissions Standards for Group I Polymers and Resins (Butyl Rubber...

  12. 77 FR 16508 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ...: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient Production; and Polyether Polyols Production... pollutants: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient Production; and Polyether Polyols...

  13. Vertical hydraulic generators experience with dynamic air gap monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, G.B.; Lyles, J.F )

    1992-12-01

    Until recently, dynamic monitoring of the rotor to stator air gap of hydraulic generators was not practical. Cost effective and reliable dyamic air gap monitoring equipment has been developed in recent years. Dynamic air gap monitoring was originally justified because of the desire of the owner to minimize the effects of catastrophic air gap failure. However, monitoring air gaps on a time basis has been shown to be beneficial by assisting in the assessment of hydraulic generator condition. The air gap monitor provides useful information on rotor and stator condition and generator vibration. The data generated by air gap monitors will assist managers in the decision process with respect to the timing and extent of required maintenance for a particular generating unit.

  14. Radon-immune air monitor for plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Gupton, E.D.

    1982-08-01

    The gross alpha activity in particulate-associated daughters of radon in the work environments may be many times that of one MPC/sub a/ of /sup 239/Pu or /sup 238/Pu. The daughters of radon emit both alpha and beta particles. The ratio of the alpha-to-beta activity is variable and a function of several factors. In spite of this variability, the ratio changes slowly with time and has upper and lower bounds in buildings that have controlled ventilation. This provides the basis for the development of an air monitor in which the radon interference is virtually eliminated. The radon-immune air monitor has three detectors: one that detects the alpha activity on the filter, one that detects the beta activity on the filter plus gamma background, and one that observes gamma background. The counts from these detectors are fed to a computer that is programmed with an algorithm for computing the non-radon-associated alpha activity.

  15. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2012-06-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear power plant were detected at the NNSS in March 2011 and are discussed further in Section III. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the EPA for use on the

  16. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500-MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired cmbustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Field chemical emissions monitoring, Overfire air and overfire air/low NO{sub x} burner operation: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This report summarizes data gathered by Radian Corporation at a coal-fired power plant, designated Site 16, for a program sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services (SCS), and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Concentrations of selected inorganic and organic substances were measured in the process and discharge streams of the plant operating under two different types of combustion modifications: overfire air (OFA) and a combination of overfire air with low-NO{sub x} burners (OFA/LNB). Information contained in this report will allow DOE and EPRI to determine the effects of low-NO{sub x} modifications on plant emissions and discharges. Sampling was performed on an opposed wall-fired boiler burning medium-sulfur bituminous coal. Emissions were controlled by electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). The testing was conducted in two distinct sampling periods, with the OFA test performed in March of 1991 and the OFA/LNB test performed in May of 1993. Specific objectives were: to quantify emissions of target substances from the stack; to determine the efficiency of the ESPs for removing the target substances; and to determine the fate of target substances in the various plant discharge streams.

  17. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring. 52.995 Section 52.995 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the...

  18. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring. 52.995 Section 52.995 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the...

  19. Air Monitoring for Hazardous Gas Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, C. Richard; Naylor, Guy; Haskell, William; Floyd, David; Curley, Charles; Griffin, Timothy P.; Adams, Frederick; Follistein, Duke

    2003-01-01

    The Hazardous Gas Detection Lab is involved in the design and development of instrumentation that can detect and quantify various hazardous gases. Traditionally these systems are designed for leak detection of the cryogenic gases used for the propulsion of the Shuttle and other vehicles. Mass spectrometers are the basis of these systems, which provide excellent quantitation, sensitivity, selectivity, response and limits of detection. Unfortunately, these systems are large, heavy and expensive. This feature limits the ability to perform gas analysis in certain applications. Smaller and lighter mass spectrometer systems could be used in many more applications primarily due to the portability of the system. Such applications would include air analysis in confined spaces, in-situ environmental analysis and emergency response. In general, system cost is lowered as size is reduced. With a low cost air analysis system, several systems could be utilized for monitoring large areas. These networked systems could be deployed at job-sites for worker safety, throughout a community for pollution warnings, or dispersed in a battlefield for early warning of chemical or biological threats. Presented will be information on the first prototype of this type of system. Included will be field trial data, with this prototype performing air analysis autonomously from an aircraft.

  20. Monitoring Trace Contaminants in Air Via Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Peter T.; Karr, Dane; Pearson, Richard; Valero, Gustavo; Wong, Carla

    1995-01-01

    Recent passage of the Clean Air Act with its stricter regulation of toxic gas emissions, and the ever-growing number of applications which require faster turnaround times between sampling and analysis are two major factors which are helping to drive the development of new instrument technologies for in-situ, on-line, real-time monitoring. The ion trap, with its small size, excellent sensitivity, and tandem mass spectrometry capability is a rapidly evolving technology which is well-suited for these applications. In this paper, we describe the use of a commercial ion trap instrument for monitoring trace levels of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air. A number of sample introduction devices including a direct transfer line interface, short column GC, and a cryotrapping interface are employed to achieve increasing levels of sensitivity. MS, MS/MS, and MS/MS/MS methods are compared to illustrate trade-offs between sensitivity and selectivity. Filtered Noise Field (FNF) technology is found to be an excellent means for achieving lower detection limits through selective storage of the ion(s) of interest during ionization. Figures of merit including typical sample sizes, detection limits, and response times are provided. The results indicate the potential of these techniques for atmospheric assessments, the High Speed Research Program, and advanced life support monitoring applications for NASA.

  1. Representativeness of air quality monitoring networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duyzer, Jan; van den Hout, Dick; Zandveld, Peter; van Ratingen, Sjoerd

    2015-03-01

    The suitability of European networks to check compliance with air quality standards and to assess exposure of the population was investigated. An air quality model (URBIS) was applied to estimate and compare the spatial distribution of the concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in ambient air in four large cities. The concentrations calculated at the location of the monitoring stations, compared well with the concentrations measured at the stations indicating that the models worked well. Therefore the calculated concentration distributions were used as a proxy for the actual concentration distributions across the cities. The distributions of these proxy concentrations across the city populations was determined and cumulative population distribution curves were estimated. The calculated annual mean values at the monitoring network stations were located on the population distribution curves to estimate the fractions of the populations that the monitoring network stations represent. This macro scale procedure is used to evaluate which subgroups of the monitoring stations can be reliably used to decide on compliance or to estimate the concentration the population is exposed to. In addition, the CAR model and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models are used to investigate the effect of micro scale siting of the monitoring stations within the streets. The following observations were made: - Berlin and London networks cover the distribution of concentrations to which the population is exposed rather well, while Stuttgart and Barcelona have stations at sites with mainly the higher concentrations and the exposure is covered less well. - The networks in London and Berlin, with a substantial number of urban background stations, seem fit to monitor the average population exposure, contrary to those in Stuttgart and Barcelona with only a limited number of these stations. - The concentrations measured at street stations hardly reflect the calculated differences in street

  2. Cubesat Constellation Design for Air Traffic Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nag, Sreeja; Rios, Joseph Lucio; Gerhardt, David; Pham, Camvu

    2015-01-01

    Suitably equipped global and local air traffic can be tracked. The tracking information may then be used for control from ground-based stations by receiving the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) signal. The ADS-B signal, emitted from the aircraft's Mode-S transponder, is currently tracked by terrestrial based receivers but not over remote oceans or sparsely populated regions such as Alaska or the Pacific Ocean. Lack of real-time aircraft time/location information in remote areas significantly hinders optimal planning and control because bigger "safety bubbles" (lateral and vertical separation) are required around the aircraft until they reach radar-controlled airspace. Moreover, it presents a search-and-rescue bottleneck. Aircraft in distress, e.g. Air France AF449 that crashed in 2009, take days to be located or cannot be located at all, e.g. Malaysia Airlines MH370 in 2014. In this paper, we describe a tool for designing a constellation of small satellites which demonstrates, through high-fidelity modeling based on simulated air traffic data, the value of space-based ADS-B monitoring and provides recommendations for cost-efficient deployment of a constellation of small satellites to increase safety and situational awareness in the currently poorly-served surveillance area of Alaska. Air traffic data has been obtained from the Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET), developed at NASA Ames Research Center, simulated over the Alaskan airspace over a period of one day. The simulation is driven by MATLAB with satellites propagated and coverage calculated using AGI's Satellite ToolKit(STK10).

  3. Monitoring air pollution in the Bialowieza Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malzahn, Elżbieta; Sondej, Izabela; Paluch, Rafał

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution, as sulfur dioxide(SO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), affects forest health negatively and can initiate forest dieback. Long-term monitoring (since 1986) and analyses are conducted in the Bialowieza Forest due to the threat by abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors. This forest has a special and unique natural value, as confirmed by the various forms of protection of national and international rank. The main aim of monitoring is to determine the level and trends of deposition of air pollutants and their effects on selected forest stands and forest communities in the Bialowieza Forest. Concentration measurements of gaseous pollutants and the chemical composition of the precipitation are performed at seven points within the forest area (62 219 ha). Measurement gauges are measuring gaseous pollutants (SO2 and NOx) by the passive method and collecting precipitation at each point at a height of three meters. The period of measuring by the instruments is 30 days. All analyses are conducted according to the methodology of the European forest monitoring program in the certified Laboratory of Natural Environment Chemistry of the Polish Forest Research Institute (IBL). The concentration of pollutant gases (dry deposition) in the years 2002-2015 accounted for only 6-13% of the limit in Poland, as defined by the Polish Ministry of Environment, and are of no threat to the forest environment. Wet deposition of pollutants, which dependents directly from the amount of precipitation and its concentration of pollutants, varied strongly between different months and years. Total deposition (dry and wet) of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) was calculated for seasonal and annual periods. On an annual basis, wet deposition represented approximately 80% of the total deposition of S and N. Total deposition of S did not exceed the average deposition values for forests in north-eastern Europe (5-10 kg ha-1 year-1) at any of the seven measuring points. Total deposition of N did not

  4. Monitoring of pyrocatechol indoor air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eškinja, I.; Grabarić, Z.; Grabarić, B. S.

    Spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods for monitoring of pyrocatechol (PC) indoor air pollution have been investigated. Spectrophotometric determination was performed using Fe(III) and iodine methods. The adherence to Beer's law was found in the concentration range between 0 and 12 μg ml - for iodine method at pH = 5.7 measuring absorbance at 725 nm, and in the range 0-30 μg ml - for Fe(III) method at pH = 9.5 measuring absorbance at 510 nm. The former method showed greater sensitivity than the latter one. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and chronoamperometric (CA) detection in flow injection analysis (FIA) using carbon paste electrode in phosphate buffer solution of pH = 6.5 was also used for pyrocatechol determination. The electrochemical methods allowed pyrocatechol quantitation in submicromolar concentration level with an overall reproducibility of ± 1%. The efficiency of pyrocatechol sampling collection was investigated at two temperatures (27 and 40°C) in water, 0.1 M NaOH and 0.1 M HCl solutions. Solution of 0.1 M HCl gave the best collection efficiency (95.5-98.5%). A chamber testing simulating the indoor pollution has been performed. In order to check the reliability of the proposed methods for monitoring of the indoor pyrocatechol pollution, the air in working premises with pyrocatechol released from meteorological charts during mapping and paper drying was analyzed using proposed methods. The concentration of pyrocatechol in the air during mapping was found to be 1.8 mg m -3 which is below the hygienic standard of permissible exposure of 20 mg m -3 (≈ 5 ppm). The release of pyrocatechol from the paper impregnated with pyrocatechol standing at room temperature during one year was also measured. The proposed methods can be used for indoor pyrocatechol pollution monitoring in working premises of photographic, rubber, oil and dye industries, fur and furniture dyeing and cosmetic or pharmaceutical premises where pyrocatechol and related

  5. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.

    2013-06-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has

  6. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.

    2014-06-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitations to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has

  7. Toward the next generation of air quality monitoring: Persistent organic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Hayley; MacLeod, Matthew; Guardans, Ramon; Scheringer, Martin; Barra, Ricardo; Harner, Tom; Zhang, Gan

    2013-12-01

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are global pollutants that can migrate over long distances and bioaccumulate through food webs, posing health risks to wildlife and humans. Multilateral environmental agreements, such as the Stockholm Convention on POPs, were enacted to identify POPs and establish the conditions to control their release, production and use. A Global Monitoring Plan was initiated under the Stockholm Convention calling for POP monitoring in air as a core medium; however long temporal trends (>10 years) of atmospheric POPs are only available at a few selected sites. Spatial coverage of air monitoring for POPs has recently significantly improved with the introduction and advancement of passive air samplers. Here, we review the status of air monitoring and modeling activities and note major uncertainties in data comparability, deficiencies of air monitoring and modeling in urban and alpine areas, and lack of emission inventories for most POPs. A vision for an internationally-integrated strategic monitoring plan is proposed which could provide consistent and comparable monitoring data for POPs supported and supplemented by global and regional transport models. Key recommendations include developing expertise in all aspects of air monitoring to ensure data comparability and consistency; partnering with existing air quality and meteorological networks to leverage synergies; facilitating data sharing with international data archives; and expanding spatial coverage with passive air samplers. Enhancing research on the stability of particle-bound chemicals is needed to assess exposure and deposition in urban areas, and to elucidate long-range transport. Conducting targeted measurement campaigns in specific source areas would enhance regional models which can be extrapolated to similar regions to estimate emissions. Ultimately, reverse-modeling combined with air measurements can be used to derive “emission” as an indicator to assess environmental

  8. Temporal and modal characterization of DoD source air toxic emission factors: final report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project tested three, real-/near real-time monitoring techniques to develop air toxic emission factors for Department of Defense (DoD) platform sources. These techniques included: resonance enhanced multi photon ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS) for o...

  9. Community air monitoring and the Village Green Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Cost and logistics are practical issues that have historically constrained the number of locations where long-term, active air pollution measurement is possible. In addition, traditional air monitoring approaches are generally conducted by technical experts with limite...

  10. Community air monitoring and the Village Green Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cost and logistics are practical issues that have historically constrained the number of locations where long-term, active air pollution measurement is possible. In addition, traditional air monitoring approaches are generally conducted by technical experts with limited engageme...

  11. Techniques for modeling hazardous air pollutant emissions from landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, R.J.; Vigil, S.A.; Melcer, H.

    1998-12-31

    The Environmental Protection Agency`s Landfill Air Estimation Model (LAEEM), combined with either the AP-42 or CAA landfill emission factors, provide a basis to predict air emissions, including hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), from municipal solid waste landfills. This paper presents alternative approaches for estimating HAP emissions from landfills. These approaches include analytical solutions and estimation techniques that account for convection, diffusion, and biodegradation of HAPs. Results from the modeling of a prototypical landfill are used as the basis for discussion with respect to LAEEM results

  12. Leak detection by acoustic emission monitoring. Phase 1: Feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenstein, Bernard; Winder, A. A.

    1994-05-01

    This investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility of detecting leaks from underground storage tanks or pipelines using acoustic emissions. An extensive technical literature review established that distinguishable acoustic emission signals will be generated when a storage tank is subjected to deformation stresses. A parametric analysis was performed which indicated that leak rates less than 0.1 gallons per hour can be detected for leak sizes less than 1/32 inch with 99% probability if the transient signals were sensed with an array of accelerometers (cemented to the tank or via acoustic waveguides), each having a sensitivity greater than 250 mv/g over a frequency range of 0.1 to 4000 Hz, and processed in a multi-channel Fourier spectrum analyzer with automatic threshold detection. An acoustic transient or energy release processor could conceivably detect the onset of the leak at the moment of fracture of the tank wall. The primary limitations to realizing reliable and robust acoustic emission monitoring of underground fluid leaks are the various masking noise sources prevalent at Air Force bases, which are attributed to aircraft, motor traffic, pump station operation, and ground tremors.

  13. Estimation of glycol air emissions from aircraft deicing

    SciTech Connect

    McCready, D.

    1998-12-31

    Ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PG)-based fluids (collectively referred to as glycol) are recognized as effective in removing and preventing snow and ice contamination on aircraft before take-off. Although much work has been done to develop an understanding of the potential impact of spent fluid run-off to water bodies, little attention has been paid to the potential environmental impact, if any, due to air emissions. In order to determine potential impact from air emissions, it is necessary to develop a protocol for estimating the glycol emissions during deicing operations. This paper presents two approaches for estimating glycol air emissions from aircraft deicing fluids (ADF) and aircraft anti-icing fluids (AAF). The first simple approach is based on emission factors and the quantity of fluid applied. The second approach estimates emissions for a typical deicing event based on site-specific parameters. Sample calculations are presented. The predicted glycol evaporation rates are quite low. Calculated emissions from ethylene glycol-based fluids are lower than emissions from PG-based fluids. The calculated air emissions for a typical event are less than a pound for EG-based fluids. The emission rate from PG-based fluids can be two times greater.

  14. Effluent emissions monitoring at the DOE Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, L.W.

    1993-05-01

    There are numerous regulatory requirements controlling the effluent emissions monitoring at a U.S. Department of Energy site. This paper defines how these regulatory effluent emissions monitoring requirements and the Quality Assurance oversight of these requirements were implemented by Westinghouse Hanford Company, the operations contractor, at the DOE Hanford Site.

  15. Acoustic emission monitoring of HFIR vessel during hydrostatic testing

    SciTech Connect

    Friesel, M.A.; Dawson, J.F.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses the results and conclusions reached from applying acoustic emission monitoring to surveillance of the High Flux Isotope Reactor vessel during pressure testing. The objective of the monitoring was to detect crack growth and/or fluid leakage should it occur during the pressure test. The report addresses the approach, acoustic emission instrumentation, installation, calibration, and test results.

  16. Embedded and conventional ultrasonic sensors for monitoring acoustic emission during thermal fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, Blaine; Zagrai, Andrei

    2016-04-01

    Acoustic emission is widely used for monitoring pressure vessels, pipes, critical infrastructure, as well as land, sea and air vehicles. It is one of dominant approaches to explore material degradation under fatigue and events leading to material fracture. Addressing a recent interest in structural health monitoring of space vehicles, a need has emerged to evaluate material deterioration due to thermal fatigue during spacecraft atmospheric reentry. Thermal fatigue experiments were conducted, in which aluminum plates were subjected to localized heating and acoustic emission was monitoring by embedded and conventional acoustic emission sensors positioned at various distances from a heat source. At the same time, surface temperature of aluminum plates was monitored using an IR camera. Acoustic emission counts collected by embedded sensors were compared to counts measured with conventional acoustic emission sensors. Both types of sensors show noticeable increase of acoustic emission activity as localized heating source was applied to aluminum plates. Experimental data demonstrate correlation between temperature increase on the surface of the plates and increase in measured acoustic emission activity. It is concluded that under particular conditions, embedded piezoelectric wafer active sensors can be used for acoustic emission monitoring of thermally-induced structural degradation.

  17. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2006-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation’s site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides that are resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds, dust-devils) along with historically-contaminated soils on the NTS. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (40 Code of Federal Regulations 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent (EDE) to any member of the public. This is the dose limit established for someone living off of the NTS for inhaling radioactive particles that may be carried by wind off of the NTS. This limit assumes that members of the public surrounding the NTS may also inhale “background levels” or radioactive particles unrelated to NTS activities that come from naturally-occurring elements in the environment (e.g., radon gas from the earth or natural building materials) or from other man-made sources (e.g., cigarette smoke). The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires DOE facilities (e.g., the NTS) to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP dose limit by annually estimating the dose to a hypothetical member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI), or the member of the public who resides within an 80-kilometer (50-mile

  18. Assessment on motor vehicle emissions and air quality in Beijing

    SciTech Connect

    Lixin Fu; Jiming Hao; Kebin He; Dongquan He

    1996-12-31

    It is occasionally reported that hourly ozone concentrations exceed the National Air Quality Standard (NAQS) of China in recent years in Beijing, which indicates that motor vehicle emissions are more and more important to the total air quality in urban area of Beijing. A deep investigation was carried out to collect the information on road status, vehicle number and types, fuel consumption, traffic condition, and vehicle management in Beijing, so that the real world emission factors (CO, HC, NO{sub x}) could be calculated by MOBILE5a model. The calculated results were comparable with limited testing data from other former researches. With a detailed survey on emissions from other sources such as oil refueling, plants HC emission, and other stationary sources, the emission inventory are established and further projected for the future years, thus the emission contribution rates are obtained for motor vehicle emissions. The results are given for different seasons and different areas in Beijing.

  19. Comparison of air emissions from waste management facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Licata, A.; Minott, D.H.

    1996-09-01

    Landfilling remains the predominate disposal method for managing municipal solid waste (MSW) in the US. According to the US EPA, in 1993 landfilling accounted for 62% of the management alternative for disposing of MSW while recycling and combustion account for 22% and 15% respectively. Recent actions such as limits on flow control and EPA`s proposed Most Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rules for Municipal Waste Combustors (MWCs) most likely will increase the amount of MSW that will be landfilled. The air emissions from landfill operations have in general been ignored and unregulated. This paper will make a comparison of air emissions from a landfill (Fresh Kills Landfill in NYC) and a modern MSW. The paper will present the emissions from landfill operations including uncontrolled emissions, residual and secondary emissions from gas control systems, and emissions from diesel equipment at the landfill. The MWC emissions will include boiler pollutants and a comparison to fossil-fuel fired power plants.

  20. Status of Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleiman, R. M.; Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Flittner, D. E.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Janz, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    TEMPO is now well into its implementation phase, having passed both its Key Decision Point C and the Critical Design Review (CDR) for the instrument. The CDR for the ground systems will occur in March 2016 and the CDR for the Mission component at a later date, after the host spacecraft has been selected. TEMPO is on schedule to measure atmospheric pollution for greater North America from space using ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy. TEMPO measures from Mexico City to the Canadian oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution. TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry. Measurements are from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the inherent high variability in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies.TEMPO takes advantage of a GEO host spacecraft to provide a modest cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve O3, NO2, SO2, H2CO, C2H2O2, H2O, aerosols, cloud parameters, and UVB radiation. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, substantially reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions by 50%. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides near-real-time air quality products that will be made widely, publicly available.TEMPO provides much of the atmospheric measurement capability recommended for GEO-CAPE in the 2007 National Research Council Decadal Survey, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond. Instruments from Europe (Sentinel 4) and Asia (GEMS) will form

  1. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Ciucci, John

    2010-06-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NTS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no

  2. Quantitative structural health monitoring using acoustic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, Paul D.; Lee, Chee Kin; Scholey, Jonathan J.; Friswell, Michael I.; Wisnom, Michael R.; Drinkwater, Bruce W.

    2006-03-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) testing is potentially a highly suitable technique for structural health monitoring (SHM) applications due to its ability to achieve high sensitivity from a sparse array of sensors. For AE to be deployed as part of an SHM system it is essential that its capability is understood. This is the motivation for developing a forward model, referred to as QAE-Forward, of the complete AE process in real structures which is described in the first part of this paper. QAE-Forward is based around a modular and expandable architecture of frequency domain transfer functions to describe various aspects of the AE process, such as AE signal generation, wave propagation and signal detection. The intention is to build additional functionality into QAE-Forward as further data becomes available, whether this is through new analytic tools, numerical models or experimental measurements. QAE-Forward currently contains functions that implement (1) the excitation of multimodal guided waves by arbitrarily orientated point sources, (2) multi-modal wave propagation through generally anisotropic multi-layered media, and (3) the detection of waves by circular transducers of finite size. Results from the current implementation of QAE-Forward are compared to experimental data obtained from Hsu-Neilson tests on aluminum plate and good agreement is obtained. The paper then describes an experimental technique and a finite element modeling technique to obtain quantitative AE data from fatigue crack growth that will feed into QAE-Forward.

  3. SEMINAR PUBLICATION: ORGANIC AIR EMISSIONS FROM WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The organic chemicals contained in wastes processed during waste management operations can volatilize into the atmosphere and cause toxic or carcinogenic effects or contribute to ozone formation. Because air emissions from waste management operations pose a threat to human health...

  4. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants in Region 7

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) are applicable requirements under the Title V operating permit program. This is a resource for permit writers and reviewers to learn about the rules and explore other helpful tools.

  5. Air pollution due to traffic, air quality monitoring along three sections of National Highway N-5, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mahboob; Athar, Makshoof

    2008-01-01

    Transportation system has contributed significantly to the development of human civilization; on the other hand it has an enormous impact on the ambient air quality in several ways. In this paper the air and noise pollution at selected sites along three sections of National Highway was monitored. Pakistan National Highway Authority has started a Highway Improvement program for rehabilitations and maintenance of National highways to improve the traffic flows, and would ultimately improve the air quality along highways. The ambient air quality and noise level was monitored at nine different locations along these sections of highways to quantify the air pollution. The duration of monitoring at individual location was 72 h. The most of the sampling points were near the urban or village population, schools or hospitals, in order to quantify the air pollution at most affected locations along these roads. A database consisting of information regarding the source of emission, local metrology and air quality may be created to assess the profile of air quality in the area.

  6. Air Quality Modeling of Emissions from Prescribed Burning : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Jitendra J.; Ottmar, Robert D.

    1989-06-01

    Fuel moisture content, woody fuel and duff consumption, fire behavior, and smoke plumes were monitored on four prescribed burns located on the Oakridge Ranger District of the Willamette National Forest. The measured fuel moisture, fuel consumption, and fire behavior data were used to validate an Emissions Production Model (EPM) which predicts fuel consumption, heat release rates, and smoke emissions for a smoke dispersion model called Simple Approach Smoke Estimation Model (SASEM). Both EPM and SASEM have been combined together into a single program called Tiered Smoke Air Resource System (TSARS). Several comparisons were made between predicted results from EPM and measured values to help determine the level of accuracy which could be expected for different levels of data input effort. In-plume sampling procedures using tethered equipment for sampling of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants were designed, developed, and acquired during this study. Because the objective of this study was to evaluate the model under the July 1 to Labor Day burning ban meteorological conditions, sampling was scheduled only for the summer months. For each study year, a meteorological pattern occurred that severely limited sampling. The summers for all three study years in general were extremely dry; prohibiting burning due to fire danger. Therefore, a smaller number of units were burned than that planned. 29 refs., 16 figs., 19 tabs.

  7. Emission estimates for air pollution transport models.

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, D. G.

    1998-10-09

    The results of studies of energy consumption and emission inventories in Asia are discussed. These data primarily reflect emissions from fuel combustion (both biofuels and fossil fuels) and were collected to determine emissions of acid-deposition precursors (SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}) and greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2} CO, CH{sub 4}, and NMHC) appropriate to RAINS-Asia regions. Current work is focusing on black carbon (soot), volatile organic compounds, and ammonia.

  8. Conditional extraction of air-pollutant source signals from air-quality monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malby, Andrew R.; Whyatt, J. Duncan; Timmis, Roger J.

    2013-08-01

    Ambient air-quality data contain information about air-pollution sources that is currently under-exploited. This information could be used to assess trends in the emissions performance of specific sources, and to check at an early stage if policies or controls to reduce air-quality impacts from particular sources are working. Previous techniques for extracting such information have tended to adopt complex analyses and to rely on data from monitoring networks with many sites, thus limiting their applicability to non-specialist users and to networks with few sites. This paper describes simple techniques for 'conditionally' selecting data from one or two monitors, and for analysing and interpreting concentrations in terms of source performance or policy progress. Our techniques minimise the effects of variations in meteorology and source activity, so that the selected data give a more consistent indication of individual source performance. We demonstrate our techniques with a case study, in which we track the source performance of road traffic on the M4 motorway in London and show how impacts per vehicle have changed over time under different conditions of traffic flow and fleet composition.

  9. U.S. Department of Energy Report, 2005 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Keith W. Jacobson, David P. Fuehne

    2006-09-01

    Amendments to the Clean Air Act, which added radionuclides to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), went into effect in 1990. Specifically, a subpart (H) of 40 CFR 61 established an annual limit on the impact to the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides from U.S. Department of Energy facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). As part of the new NESHAP regulations, LANL must submit an annual report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency headquarters and the regional office in Dallas by June 30. This report includes results of monitoring at LANL and the dose calculations for the calendar year 2006.

  10. CRITERIA AND AIR TOXIC EMISSIONS FROM IN-USE, LOW EMISSION VEHICLES (LEVS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency implemented a program to identify tailpipe emissions of criteria and air toxic contaminants from in-use, light-duty Low Emission Vehicles (LEVs). EPA recruited twenty-five LEVs in 2002, and measured emissions on a chassis dynamometer usin...

  11. Off-site air monitoring following methyl bromide chamber and building fumigations and evaluation of the ISCST air dispersion model

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, T.; Swgawa, R.; Wofford, P.

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Pesticide Regulation`s preliminary risk characterization of methyl bromide indicated an inadequate margin of safety for several exposure scenarios. Characterization of the air concentrations associated with common methyl bromide use patterns was necessary to determine specific scenarios that result in an unacceptable margin of safety. Field monitoring data were used in conjunction with the Industrial Source Complex, Short Tenn (ISCST) air dispersion model to characterize air concentrations associated with various types of methyl bromide applications. Chamber and building fumigations were monitored and modelled. For each fumigation the emission rates, chamber or building specifications and on-site meteorological data were input into the ISCST model. The model predicted concentrations were compared to measured air concentrations. The concentrations predicted by the ISCST model reflect both the pattern and magnitude of the measured concentrations. Required buffer zones were calculated using the ISCST output.

  12. Assessment of unabated facility emission potentials for evaluating airborne radionuclide monitoring requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Jette, S.J.; Sula, M.J.

    1995-11-01

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for 31 emission locations at the US DOE`s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the Hanford Site. Four buildings met Sate and Federal critical for continuous sampling of airborne radionuclide emissions. The assessments were performed using building radionuclide inventory data obtained in 1995.

  13. DIAL measurements for air pollution and fugitive-loss monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Rod A.; Woods, Peter T.; Milton, Martin J. T.

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes a mobile differential absorption LIDAR system, which operates in the UV, visible, and IR spectral regions. This system can measure a range of important air pollutants emitted by industry, including SO2, NO2, NO, HCl, benzene, toluene, and a large range of other VOC's. These species can be monitored at fugitive and flammable levels at ranges of up to 1 km (for IR measurements) and 3 km (for UV measurements). Examples of measurements of fluxes emitted from large scale industrial sties are presented and discussed. Comparisons are given between measured fluxes and those calculated using the US Environmental Protection Agency's and American Petroleum Institute's standard procedures for estimating industrial emissions. The fluxes measured by DIAL are higher than the values derived from the API procedures. Possible reasons for discrepancies between the measured results and the EPA/API estimation procedures will be discussed.

  14. Air Pollution Emissions | Air Quality Planning & Standards | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-06-08

    Air pollution comes from many different sources: stationary sources such as factories, power plants, and smelters and smaller sources such as dry cleaners and degreasing operations; mobile sources such as cars, buses, planes, trucks, and trains; and naturally occurring sources such as windblown dust, and volcanic eruptions, all contribute to air pollution.

  15. Cleaning up the air: effectiveness of air quality policy for SO2 and NOx emissions in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der A, Ronald J.; Mijling, Bas; Ding, Jieying; Elissavet Koukouli, Maria; Liu, Fei; Li, Qing; Mao, Huiqin; Theys, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    Air quality observations by satellite instruments are global and have a regular temporal resolution, which makes them very useful in studying long-term trends in atmospheric species. To monitor air quality trends in China for the period 2005-2015, we derive SO2 columns and NOx emissions on a provincial level with improved accuracy. To put these trends into perspective they are compared with public data on energy consumption and the environmental policies of China. We distinguish the effect of air quality regulations from economic growth by comparing them relatively to fossil fuel consumption. Pollutant levels, per unit of fossil fuel, are used to assess the effectiveness of air quality regulations. We note that the desulfurization regulations enforced in 2005-2006 only had a significant effect in the years 2008-2009, when a much stricter control of the actual use of the installations began. For national NOx emissions a distinct decreasing trend is only visible from 2012 onwards, but the emission peak year differs from province to province. Unlike SO2, emissions of NOx are highly related to traffic. Furthermore, regulations for NOx emissions are partly decided on a provincial level. The last 3 years show a reduction both in SO2 and NOx emissions per fossil fuel unit, since the authorities have implemented several new environmental regulations. Despite an increasing fossil fuel consumption and a growing transport sector, the effects of air quality policy in China are clearly visible. Without the air quality regulations the concentration of SO2 would be about 2.5 times higher and the NO2 concentrations would be at least 25 % higher than they are today in China.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) TEST OF DIOXIN EMISSION MONITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of four dioxin emission monitors including two long-term sampling devices, the DMS (DioxinMonitoringSystem) and AMESA (Adsorption Method for Sampling Dioxins and Furans), and two semi-real-time continuous monitors, RIMMPA-TOFMS (Resonance Ionization with Multi-Mir...

  17. Source Emissions in Multipollutant Air Quality Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human activities and natural processes that emit pollutants into the ambient atmosphere are the underlying cause of all air quality problems. In a technical sense, we refer to these activities and processes as pollutant sources. Although air quality management is usually concerne...

  18. Feed management for beef feedlots to reduce air emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This power point presentation gives an overview of air emissions from beef cattle feedyards as well as nutritional and management techniques that might decrease these emissions. Topics include greenhouse gases (methane, nitrous oxide), ammonia, particulate matter and odors. This was presented as on...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 58 - Network Design Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... strategy development. Data from FRM, FEM, and ARM monitors for NAAQS pollutants will be used for comparing... used to evaluate the regional air quality models used in developing emission strategies, and to track... geography without large sources, and extends from tens to hundreds of kilometers. (6) National and...

  20. Episodic Impacts from California Wildfires Identified in Las Vegas Near-Road Air Quality Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollutant concentrations near major highways are usually attributed to a combination of nearby traffic emissions and regional background, and generally presumed to be additive in nature. During a recent year-long near-road monitoring study conducted in Las Vegas, NV, a substa...

  1. EMISSIONS OF ORGANIC AIR TOXICS FROM OPEN BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A detailed literature search was performed to collect and collate available data reporting emissions of toxic organic substances into the air from open burning sources. Availability of data varied according to the source and the class of air toxics of interest. Volatile organic c...

  2. Can car air filters be useful as a sampling medium for air pollution monitoring purposes?

    PubMed

    Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Birgul, Askin; Ratola, Nuno; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Sweetman, Andy J; Jones, Kevin C

    2012-11-01

    Urban air quality and real human exposure to chemical environmental stressors is an issue of high scientific and political interest. In an effort to find innovative and inexpensive means for air quality monitoring, the ability of car engine air filters (CAFs) to act as efficient samplers collecting street level air, to which people are exposed to, was tested. In particular, in the case of taxis, air filters are replaced after regular distances, the itineraries are almost exclusively urban, cruising mode is similar and, thus, knowledge of the air flow can provide with an integrated city air sample. The present pilot study focused on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the most important category of organic pollutants associated with traffic emissions. Concentrations of ΣPAHs in CAFs ranged between 650 and 2900 μg CAF(-1), with benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene and indeno[123-cd]pyrene being the most abundant PAHs. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) ranged between 110 and 250 μg CAF(-1), accounting regularly for 5-15% of the total carcinogenic PAHs. The CAF PAH loads were used to derive road-level atmospheric PAH concentrations from a standard formula relating to the CAF air flow. Important parameters/assumptions for these estimates are the cruising speed and the exposure duration of each CAF. Based on information obtained from the garage experts, an average 'sampled air volume' of 48,750 m(3) per CAF was estimated, with uncertainty in this calculation estimated to be about a factor of 4 between the two extreme scenarios. Based on this air volume, ΣPAHs ranged between 13 and 56 ng m(-3) and BaP between 2.1 and 5.0 ng m(-3), suggesting that in-traffic BaP concentrations can be many times higher than the limit values set by the UK (0.25 ng m(-3)) and the European Union (1.0 ng m(-3)), or from active sampling stations normally cited on building roof tops or far from city centres. Notwithstanding the limitations of this approach, the very low cost, the continuous

  3. Monitoring and Assessment of Regional Air Quality in China Using Space Observations (MarcoPolo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der A, Ronald; Ding, Jieying; Mijling, Bas; Bai, Jianhui

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we will present the FP7-project ’MarcoPolo’. The main objective of Marco Polo is to improve air quality monitoring, modelling and forecasting over China using satellite data. Within the preceeding DRAGON project AMFIC it was concluded that modelling of air quality are hampered by the rapidly changing emission data due to economic growth in China. In addition, air quality policies could not directly be related to changes in emissions. Therefore, within the MarcoPolo project, the focus will be placed on emission estimates from space and the refinement of these emission estimates by spatial downscaling and by source sector apportionment. A wide range of satellite data will be used from various satellite instruments to derive emission estimates for NOx, SO2, PM and biogenic sources. By combining these emission data with known information from the ground, a new emission database for MarcoPolo will be constructed. The improved emission inventory will be input to the regional and local air quality models.

  4. Monitoring and Assessment of Regional Air Quality in China Using Space Observations (MarcoPolo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der A, Ronald; Ding, Jieying; Mijling, Bas; Bai, Jianhui

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we will present the FP7-project 'MarcoPolo'. The main objective of Marco Polo is to improve air quality monitoring, modelling and forecasting over China using satellite data. Within the preceeding DRAGON project AMFIC it was concluded that modelling of air quality are hampered by the rapidly changing emission data due to economic growth in China. In addition, air quality policies could not directly be related to changes in emissions. Therefore, within the MarcoPolo project, the focus will be placed on emission estimates from space and the refinement of these emission estimates by spatial downscaling and by source sector apportionment. A wide range of satellite data will be used from various satellite instruments to derive emission estimates for NOx, SO2, PM and biogenic sources. By combining these emission data with known information from the ground, a new emission database for MarcoPolo will be constructed. The improved emission inventory will be input to the regional and local air quality models.

  5. Workplace air monitoring and sampling practices at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Swinth, K.L.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.; Burphy, B.L.

    1986-03-01

    Current air monitoring and sampling practices at DOE facilities were surveyed as a part of an air monitoring upgrade task. A comprehensive questionnaire was developed and distributed to DOE contractors through the DOE field offices. Twenty-six facilities returned a completed questionnaire. Questionnaire replies indicate diversity in air sampling and monitoring practices among DOE facilities. The difference among the facilities exist in monitoring and sampling instrumentation, procedures, calibration, analytical methods, detection levels, and action levels. Many of these differences could be attributed to different operational needs.

  6. Full-scale chamber investigation and simulation of air freshener emissions in the presence of ozone.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Mason, Mark; Krebs, Kenneth; Sparks, Leslie

    2004-05-15

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from one electrical plug-in type of pine-scented air freshener and their reactions with O3 were investigated in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency indoor air research large chamber facility. Ozone was generated from a device marketed as an ozone generator air cleaner. Ozone and oxides of nitrogen concentrations and chamber conditions such as temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and air exchange rate were controlled and/or monitored. VOC emissions and some of the reaction products were identified and quantified. Source emission models were developed to predict the time/concentration profiles of the major VOCs (limonene, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, 3-carene, camphene, benzyl propionate, benzyl alcohol, bornyl acetate, isobornyl acetate, and benzaldehyde) emitted bythe air freshener. Gas-phase reactions of VOCs from the air freshener with O3 were simulated by a photochemical kinetics simulation system using VOC reaction mechanisms and rate constants adopted from the literature. The concentration-time predictions were in good agreement with the data for O3 and VOCs emitted from the air freshener and with some of the primary reaction products. Systematic differences between the predictions and the experimental results were found for some species. Poor understanding of secondary reactions and heterogeneous chemistry in the chamber is the likely cause of these differences. The method has the potential to provide data to predict the impact of O3/VOC interactions on indoor air quality.

  7. Effect of timed secondary-air injection on automotive emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffin, K. P.

    1973-01-01

    A single cylinder of an automotive V-8 engine was fitted with an electronically timed system for the pulsed injection of secondary air. A straight-tube exhaust minimized any mixing other than that produced by secondary-air pulsing. The device was operated over a range of engine loads and speeds. Effects attributable to secondary-air pulsing were found, but emission levels were generally no better than using the engine's own injection system. Under nontypical fast-idle, no-load conditions, emission levels were reduced by roughly a factor of 2.

  8. Comprehensive air quality and meteorological monitoring program. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This data report contains air monitoring results for: total suspended particulates, particulates matter less than 10 micrometers, metals (including arsenic mercury), volatile organic compounds, organochlorine pesticides, semivolatile organic compounds, air compounds, air stripper semivolatile organic compounds, basin F waste pile, pond A, tank farm vents (VOCs).

  9. Continuous Emissions Monitoring System Monitoring Plan for the Y-12 Steam Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2003-02-28

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12), managed by BWXT, is submitting this Continuous Emissions Monitoring System (CEMS) Monitoring Plan in conformance with the requirements of Title 40 of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 75. The state of Tennessee identified the Y-12 Steam Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, as a non-electrical generation unit (EGU) nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) budget source as a result of the NO{sub x} State Implementation Plan (SIP) under the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) Rule 1200-3-27. Following this introduction, the monitoring plan contains the following sections: CEMS details, NO{sub x} emissions, and quality assurance (QA)/quality control (QC). The following information is included in the attachments: fuel and flue gas diagram, system layout, data flow diagrams, Electronic Monitoring Plan printouts, vendor information on coal and natural gas feed systems, and the Certification Test Protocol. The Y-12 Steam Plant consists of four Wickes boilers. Each is rated at a maximum heat input capacity of 296.8 MMBtu/hour or 250,000 lb/hour of 250-psig steam. Although pulverized coal is the principal fuel, each of the units can fire natural gas or a combination of coal and gas. Each unit is equipped with a Joy Manufacturing Company reverse air baghouse to control particulate emissions. Flue gases travel out of the baghouse, through an induced draft fan, then to one of two stacks. Boilers 1 and 2 exhaust through Stack 1. Boilers 3 and 4 exhaust through Stack 2. A dedicated CEMS will be installed in the ductwork of each boiler, downstream of the baghouse. The CEMS will be designed, built, installed, and started up by URS Group, Inc. (URS). Data acquisition and handling will be accomplished using a data acquisition and handling system (DAHS) designed, built, and programmed by Environmental Systems Corporation (ESC). The installed CEMS will continuously monitor NO{sub x}, flue gas flowrate, and carbon

  10. Monitoring the progress of emission inventories

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, J.A. Jr.; Solomon, D.; Husk, M.; Irving, B.; Kruger, D.; Levin. L.

    2006-12-15

    This issue of EM contains three articles which focus on the latest improvements on the emissions inventory process. The first, 'Building the national emissions inventory: challenges and plans for improvements' by Doug Solomon and Martin Husk (pages 8-11), looks at the US national emissions inventory. The next, 'Greenhouse gas inventories - a historical perspective and assessment of improvements since 1990' by Bill Irving and Dina Kruger (pages 12-19) assesses improvements in national and international greenhouse gas emissions inventories over the last 15 years. The third article, 'The global mercury emissions inventory' by Leonard Levin (pages 20-25) gives an overview of the challenges associated with conducting a worldwide inventory of mercury emissions.

  11. Impacts of Lowered Urban Air Temperatures on Precursor Emission and Ozone Air Quality.

    PubMed

    Taha, Haider; Konopacki, Steven; Akbari, Hashem

    1998-09-01

    Meteorological, photochemical, building-energy, and power plant simulations were performed to assess the possible precursor emission and ozone air quality impacts of decreased air temperatures that could result from implementing the "cool communities" concept in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). Two pathways are considered. In the direct pathway, a reduction in cooling energy use translates into reduced demand for generation capacity and, thus, reduced precursor emissions from electric utility power plants. In the indirect pathway, reduced air temperatures can slow the atmospheric production of ozone as well as precursor emission from anthropogenic and biogenic sources. The simulations suggest small impacts on emissions following implementation of cool communities in the SoCAB. In summer, for example, there can be reductions of up to 3% in NOx emissions from in-basin power plants. The photochemical simulations suggest that the air quality impacts of these direct emission reductions are small. However, the indirect atmospheric effects of cool communities can be significant. For example, ozone peak concentrations can decrease by up to 11% in summer and population-weighted exceedance exposure to ozone above the California and National Ambient Air Quality Standards can decrease by up to 11 and 17%, respectively. The modeling suggests that if these strategies are combined with others, such as mobile-source emission control, the improvements in ozone air quality can be substantial.

  12. Monitoring of volcanic emissions of SO2 and ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theys, Nicolas; Clarisse, Lieven; Brenot, Hugues; van Gent, Jeroen; Campion, Robin; van der A, Ronald; Valks, Pieter; Corradini, Stefano; Merucci, Luca; Van Roozendael, Michel; Coheur, Pierre-François; Hurtmans, Daniel; Clerbaux, Cathy; Tait, Steve; Ferrucci, Fabrizio

    2013-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions can emit large quantities of fine particles (ash) into the atmosphere as well as several trace gases, such as water vapour, carbon dioxide, sulphur species (SO2, H2S) and halogens (HCl, HBr, HF). These volcanic ejecta can have a considerable impact on the atmosphere, human health and society. Volcanic ash in particular is known to be a major threat for aviation, especially after dispersion over long distances (>1000 km) from the erupting volcano. In this respect, the continuous monitoring of volcanic ash from space is playing an essential role for the mitigation of aviation hazards. Compared to ash, SO2 is less critical for aviation safety, but is much easier to measure. Therefore, SO2 observations are often use as a marker of volcanic ash in the atmosphere. Moreover, SO2 yields information on the processes occurring in the magmatic system and is used as a proxy for the eruptive rate. In this presentation we give an overview of recent developments of the Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS). The focus is on the near-real time detection and monitoring of volcanic plumes of ash and SO2 using polar-orbiting instruments GOME-2, OMI, IASI and AIRS. The second part of the talk is dedicated to the determination of volcanic SO2 fluxes from satellite measurements. We review different techniques and investigate the temporal evolution of the total emissions of SO2 for recent volcanic events.

  13. Improving the City-scale Emission Inventory of Anthropogenic Air Pollutants: A Case Study of Nanjing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, L.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, R.; Xie, F.; Wang, H.; Qin, H.; Wu, X.; Zhang, J.

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the improvement of city-scale emission inventory, a high-resolution emission inventory of air pollutants for Nanjing is first developed combining detailed source information, and then justified through quantitative analysis with observations. The best available domestic emission factors and unit-/facility-based activity level data were compiled based on a thorough field survey on major emission sources. Totally 1089 individual emission sources were identified as point sources and all the emission-related parameters including burner type, combustion technology, fuel quality, and removal efficiency of pollution control devices, are carefully investigated and analyzed. Some new data such as detailed information of city fueling-gas stations, construction sites, monthly activity level, data from continuous emission monitoring systems and traffic flow information were combined to improve spatiotemporal distribution of this inventory. For SO2, NOX and CO, good spatial correlations were found between ground observation (9 state controlling air sampling sites in Nanjing) and city-scale emission inventory (R2=0.34, 0.38 and 0.74, respectively). For TSP, PM10 and PM2.5, however, poorer correlation was found due to relatively weaker accuracy in emission estimation and spatial distribution of road dust. The mixing ratios between specific pollutants including OC/EC, BC/CO and CO2/CO, are well correlated between those from ground observation and emission. Compared to MEIC (Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China), there is a better spatial consistence between this city-scale emission inventory and NO2 measured by OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument). In particular, the city-scale emission inventory still correlated well with satellite observations (R2=0.28) while the regional emission inventory showed little correlation with satellite observations (R2=0.09) when grids containing power plants are excluded. It thus confirms the improvement of city-scale emission

  14. Working Toward Policy-Relevant Air Quality Emissions Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, T.

    2010-12-01

    Though much work has been done to develop accurate chemical emission inventories, few publicly available inventories are appropriate for realistic policy analysis. Emissions from the electricity and transportation sectors, in particular, respond in complex ways to policy, technology, and energy use change. Many widely used inventories, such as the EPA National Emissions Inventory, are well-suited for modeling current air quality, but do not have the specificity needed to address "what if?" questions. Changes in electricity demand, fuel prices, new power sources, and emission controls all influence the emissions from regional power production, requiring a plant-by-plant assessment to capture the spatially explicit impacts. Similarly, land use, freight distribution, or driving behavior will yield differentiated transportation emissions for urban areas, suburbs, and rural highways. We here present results from three recent research projects at the University of Wisconsin—Madison, where bottom-up emission inventories for electricity, freight transport, and urban vehicle use were constructed to support policy-relevant air quality research. These three studies include: 1) Using the MyPower electricity dispatch model to calculate emissions and air quality impacts of Renewable Portfolio Standards and other carbon-management strategies; 2) Using advanced vehicle and commodity flow data from the Federal Highway Administration to evaluate the potential to shift commodities from truck to rail (assuming expanded infrastructure), and assess a range of alternative fuel suggestions; and 3) Working with urban planners to connect urban density with vehicle use to evaluate the air quality impacts of smart-growth in major Midwest cities. Drawing on the results of these three studies, and on challenges overcome in their execution, we discuss the current state of policy-relevant emission dataset generation, as well as techniques and attributes that need to be further refined in order

  15. Electrochemical NOx Sensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, L Y; Glass, R S

    2008-11-14

    Increasingly stringent emissions regulations will require the development of advanced gas sensors for a variety of applications. For example, compact, inexpensive sensors are needed for detection of regulated pollutants, including hydrocarbons (HCs), CO, and NO{sub x}, in automotive exhaust. Of particular importance will be a sensor for NO{sub x} to ensure the proper operation of the catalyst system in the next generation of diesel (CIDI) automobiles. Because many emerging applications, particularly monitoring of automotive exhaust, involve operation in harsh, high-temperature environments, robust ceramic-oxide-based electrochemical sensors are a promising technology. Sensors using yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as an oxygen-ion-conducting electrolyte have been widely reported for both amperometric and potentiometric modes of operation. These include the well-known exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensor. More recently, ac impedance-based (i.e., impedance-metric) sensing techniques using YSZ have been reported for sensing water vapor, hydrocarbons, CO, and NO{sub x}. Typically small-amplitude alternating signal is applied, and the sensor response is measured at a specified frequency. Most impedance-metric techniques have used the modulus (or magnitude) at low frequencies (< 1 Hz) as the sensing signal and attribute the measured response to interfacial phenomena. Work by our group has also investigated using phase angle as the sensing signal at somewhat higher frequencies (10 Hz). The higher frequency measurements would potentially allow for reduced sampling times during sensor operation. Another potential advantage of impedance-metric NO{sub x} sensing is the similarity in response to NO and NO{sub 2} (i.e., total-NO{sub x} sensing). Potentiometric NO{sub x} sensors typically show higher sensitivity to NO2 than NO, and responses that are opposite in sign. However, NO is more stable than NO{sub 2} at temperatures > 600 C, and thermodynamic calculations predict {approx}90

  16. Current air quality analytics and monitoring: a review.

    PubMed

    Marć, Mariusz; Tobiszewski, Marek; Zabiegała, Bożena; de la Guardia, Miguel; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes the different tools and concepts that are commonly applied in air quality monitoring. The monitoring of atmosphere is extremely important as the air quality is an important problem for large communities. Main requirements for analytical devices used for monitoring include a long period of autonomic operation and portability. These instruments, however, are often characterized by poor analytical performance. Monitoring networks are the most common tools used for monitoring, so large-scale monitoring programmes are summarized here. Biomonitoring, as a cheap and convenient alternative to traditional sample collection, is becoming more and more popular, although its main drawback is the lack of standard procedures. Telemonitoring is another approach to air monitoring, which offers some interesting opportunities, such as ease of coverage of large or remote areas, constituting a complementary approach to traditional strategies; however, it requires huge costs.

  17. Probing the radio emission from air showers with polarization measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antičić, T.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bardenet, R.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Foerster, N.; Fox, B. D.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; PeÂķala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Pontz, M.; Porcelli, A.; Preda, T.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Straub, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Taşcǎu, O.; Thao, N. T.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    The emission of radio waves from air showers has been attributed to the so-called geomagnetic emission process. At frequencies around 50 MHz this process leads to coherent radiation which can be observed with rather simple setups. The direction of the electric field induced by this emission process depends only on the local magnetic field vector and on the incoming direction of the air shower. We report on measurements of the electric field vector where, in addition to this geomagnetic component, another component has been observed that cannot be described by the geomagnetic emission process. The data provide strong evidence that the other electric field component is polarized radially with respect to the shower axis, in agreement with predictions made by Askaryan who described radio emission from particle showers due to a negative charge excess in the front of the shower. Our results are compared to calculations which include the radiation mechanism induced by this charge-excess process.

  18. Locomotive emissions monitoring program annual report, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The report is to include data on the traffic moved and the fuel consumed, estimates of the consequent emissions of certain exhaust gases, and information on any improvements in equipment or operating practices that will lead to reduced emissions. This is the first such annual report.

  19. 40 CFR 60.373 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Acid Battery Manufacturing Plants § 60.373 Monitoring of emissions and operations. The owner or operator of any lead-acid battery manufacturing facility subject to the provisions of this subpart...

  20. 40 CFR 60.373 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Acid Battery Manufacturing Plants § 60.373 Monitoring of emissions and operations. The owner or operator of any lead-acid battery manufacturing facility subject to the provisions of this subpart...

  1. 40 CFR 60.314 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Surface Coating of Metal Furniture § 60.314 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) The owner or... measurement device shall be installed in the gas stream immediately before and after the catalyst bed....

  2. 40 CFR 60.663 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Distillation Operations § 60.663 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) The owner or operator of an... distillation unit within an affected facility at a point closest to the inlet of each boiler or process...

  3. 40 CFR 60.663 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Distillation Operations § 60.663 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) The owner or operator of an... distillation unit within an affected facility at a point closest to the inlet of each boiler or process...

  4. 40 CFR 60.663 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Distillation Operations § 60.663 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) The owner or operator of an... distillation unit within an affected facility at a point closest to the inlet of each boiler or process...

  5. 40 CFR 60.663 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Distillation Operations § 60.663 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) The owner or operator of an... distillation unit within an affected facility at a point closest to the inlet of each boiler or process...

  6. 40 CFR 60.663 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Distillation Operations § 60.663 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) The owner or operator of an... distillation unit within an affected facility at a point closest to the inlet of each boiler or process...

  7. A CAVITY RINGDOWN SPECTROSCOPY MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher C. Carter, Ph.D.

    2002-01-01

    The first quarter of this project to develop a Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy mercury continuous emission monitor involved acquisition and verification of the laser system to be used, initial cavity design, and initial software development for signal processing and data acquisition.

  8. A quantitative method for optimized placement of continuous air monitors.

    PubMed

    Whicker, Jeffrey J; Rodgers, John C; Moxley, John S

    2003-11-01

    Alarming continuous air monitors (CAMs) are a critical component for worker protection in facilities that handle large amounts of hazardous materials. In nuclear facilities, continuous air monitors alarm when levels of airborne radioactive materials exceed alarm thresholds, thus prompting workers to exit the room to reduce inhalation exposures. To maintain a high level of worker protection, continuous air monitors are required to detect radioactive aerosol clouds quickly and with good sensitivity. This requires that there are sufficient numbers of continuous air monitors in a room and that they are well positioned. Yet there are no published methodologies to quantitatively determine the optimal number and placement of continuous air monitors in a room. The goal of this study was to develop and test an approach to quantitatively determine optimal number and placement of continuous air monitors in a room. The method we have developed uses tracer aerosol releases (to simulate accidental releases) and the measurement of the temporal and spatial aspects of the dispersion of the tracer aerosol through the room. The aerosol dispersion data is then analyzed to optimize continuous air monitor utilization based on simulated worker exposure. This method was tested in a room within a Department of Energy operated plutonium facility at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina, U.S. Results from this study show that the value of quantitative airflow and aerosol dispersion studies is significant and that worker protection can be significantly improved while balancing the costs associated with CAM programs.

  9. 76 FR 13851 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... hazardous air pollutant emission standards reflecting the application of the maximum achievable control...), we established that the application of measurement technology to mercury cell rooms is not... requirements, determines is achievable through application of measures, processes, methods, systems...

  10. EMISSION OF PESTICIDES INTO THE AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    During and after the application of pesticide in agriculture, a substantial fraction of the dosage may enter the atmosphere and be transported over varying distances downwind of the target. The rate and extent of the emission during application depends primarily on the applicat...

  11. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    DOEpatents

    Durham, Michael D.; Schlager, Richard J.; Sappey, Andrew D.; Sagan, Francis J.; Marmaro, Roger W.; Wilson, Kevin G.

    1997-01-01

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber.

  12. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    DOEpatents

    Durham, M.D.; Schlager, R.J.; Sappey, A.D.; Sagan, F.J.; Marmaro, R.W.; Wilson, K.G.

    1997-10-21

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber. 15 figs.

  13. 10 CFR 835.403 - Air monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... monitoring. (a) Monitoring of airborne radioactivity shall be performed: (1) Where an individual is likely to... radioactivity hazard where respiratory protective devices for protection against airborne radionuclides have... warning of airborne radioactivity concentrations that warrant immediate action to terminate inhalation...

  14. 10 CFR 835.403 - Air monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... monitoring. (a) Monitoring of airborne radioactivity shall be performed: (1) Where an individual is likely to... radioactivity hazard where respiratory protective devices for protection against airborne radionuclides have... warning of airborne radioactivity concentrations that warrant immediate action to terminate inhalation...

  15. 10 CFR 835.403 - Air monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... monitoring. (a) Monitoring of airborne radioactivity shall be performed: (1) Where an individual is likely to... radioactivity hazard where respiratory protective devices for protection against airborne radionuclides have... warning of airborne radioactivity concentrations that warrant immediate action to terminate inhalation...

  16. 10 CFR 835.403 - Air monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... monitoring. (a) Monitoring of airborne radioactivity shall be performed: (1) Where an individual is likely to... radioactivity hazard where respiratory protective devices for protection against airborne radionuclides have... warning of airborne radioactivity concentrations that warrant immediate action to terminate inhalation...

  17. 10 CFR 835.403 - Air monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... monitoring. (a) Monitoring of airborne radioactivity shall be performed: (1) Where an individual is likely to... radioactivity hazard where respiratory protective devices for protection against airborne radionuclides have... warning of airborne radioactivity concentrations that warrant immediate action to terminate inhalation...

  18. 40 CFR 60.464 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Coil Surface Coating § 60.464 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) Where compliance with the numerical limit specified in § 60.462(a) (1) or (2) is achieved through the use of low VOC-content coatings without the use of emission control devices or through the use of higher VOC-content coatings...

  19. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.; Barnett, J. Matthew

    2011-05-13

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants ([NESHAP]; U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these NESHAP assessments, potential unabated off-site doses were evaluated for emission locations at buildings that are part of the consolidated laboratory campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the NESHAP assessment performed in 2010.

  20. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Barfuss, Brad C.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2008-01-01

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP – U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection – Air Emissions. In these NESHAP assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at buildings that are part of the consolidated laboratory campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the NESHAP assessment performed in 2007.

  1. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Sula, Monte J.; Gervais, Todd L.; Edwards, Daniel L.

    2003-12-05

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at facilities owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Hanford Site. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the assessment performed in 2003.

  2. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Sula, Monte J.; Gervais, Todd L.; Shields, Keith D.; Edwards, Daniel R.

    2001-09-28

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at facilities owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Hanford Site. This report describes the inventory-based methods, and provides the results, for the assessment performed in 2001.

  3. Spatial analysis on China's regional air pollutants and CO2 emissions: emission pattern and regional disparity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Liang; Liang, Hanwei

    2014-08-01

    China has suffered from serious air pollution and CO2 emission. Challenges of emission reduction policy not only come from technology advancement, but also generate from the fact that, China has pronounced disparity between regions, in geographical and socioeconomic. How to deal with regional disparity is important to achieve the reduction target effectively and efficiently. This research conducts a spatial analysis on the emission patterns of three air pollutants named SO2, NOx and PM2.5, and CO2, in China's 30 provinces, applied with spatial auto-correlation and multi regression modeling. We further analyze the regional disparity and inequity issues with the approach of Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient. Results highlight that: there is evident cluster effect for the regional air pollutants and CO2 emissions. While emission amount increases from western regions to eastern regions, the emission per GDP is in inverse trend. The Lorenz curve shows an even larger unequal distribution of GDP/emissions than GDP/capita in 30 regions. Certain middle and western regions suffers from a higher emission with lower GDP, which reveal the critical issue of emission leakage. Future policy making to address such regional disparity is critical so as to promote the emission control policy under the “equity and efficiency” principle.

  4. Monitoring Iodine-129 in Air and Milk Samples Collected Near the Hanford Site: An Investigation of Historical Iodine Monitoring Data

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.; Patton, Gregory W.

    2006-01-01

    While other research has reported on the concentrations of 129I in the environment surrounding active nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities, there is a shortage of information regarding how the concentrations change once facilities close. At the Hanford Site, the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) chemical separation plant was operational between 1983 and 1990, during which time 129I concentrations in air and milk were measured. After the cessation of operations in 1990, plant emissions decreased 2.5 orders of magnitude over an 8 year period, and monitoring of environmental levels continued. An evaluation of air and milk 129I concentration data spanning the PUREX operation and post closure period was conducted to compare the changes in environmental levels of 129I measured. Measured concentrations over the monitoring period were below levels that could result in a potential human dose greater than 10 uSv. There was a significant and measurable difference in the measured air concentrations of 129I at different distances from the source, indicating a distinct Hanford fingerprint. Correlations between stack emissions of 129I and concentrations in air and milk indicate that atmospheric emissions were responsible for the 129I concentrations measured in environmental samples. The measured concentrations during PUREX operation were similar to observations made around a fuel reprocessing plant in Germany.

  5. Magnetic evaluation of TSP-filters for air quality monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castañeda-Miranda, Ana Gabriela; Böhnel, Harald N.; Molina-Garza, Roberto S.; Chaparro, Marcos A. E.

    2014-10-01

    We present the magnetic properties of the powders collected by high volume total suspended particle air samplers used to monitor atmospheric pollution in Santiago de Querétaro, a city of one million people in central Mexico. The magnetic measurements have been combined with scanning electron microscopy observations and analysis, in order to characterize the particles captured in the filters as natural and anthropogenic. The main goal of the study is to test if magnetic measurements on the sampled atmospheric dust can be effective, low-cost, proxy to qualitatively estimate the air quality, complementing the traditional analytical methods. The magnetic properties of the powder collected in the filters have been investigated measuring the low field magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis loops, thermomagnetic curves, and isothermal remanent magnetization. The rock magnetism data have been supplemented by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that the main magnetic carrier is low-Ti magnetite in the PSD range with a contribution from SP particles, and small but significant contributions from hematite, maghemite and goethite particles. Total suspended particles in the atmosphere during the monitored days ranged between about 30 and 280 μg/m3. Magnetic susceptibility values are well correlated with the independently determined total suspended particles concentration (R = 0.93), but particle concentration does not correlate as well with IRM1T. This may be attributed to contributions from SP and paramagnetic particles to the susceptibility signal, but not to the remanence. The effects of climate in particle size, composition and concentration were considered in terms of precipitation and wind intensity, but they are actually minor. The main effect of climate appears to be the removal of SP particles during rainy days. There is a contribution to air pollution from natural mineral sources, which we attribute to low vegetation cover

  6. 40 CFR 60.45 - Emissions and fuel monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... opacity monitoring system (COMS) for measuring opacity and a CEMS for measuring SO2 emissions, NOX... initiate investigation of the relevant equipment and control systems within 24 hours of the first discovery... tests, elect to perform subsequent monitoring using a digital opacity compliance system according to...

  7. ETV TEST OF PCDD/F EMISSIONS MONITORING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and furan (PCDD/F) emission monitors were tested under the EPA Environmental Technology and Verification (ETV) program. Two long-term sampling devices, the DioxinMonitoringSystem and Adsorption Method for Sampling Dioxins and Furans, and two sem...

  8. Effect of low emission sources on air quality in Cracow

    SciTech Connect

    Nedoma, J.

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents calculation of power engineering low emission and results of stimulation of the effect of this emission on air quality in Cracow, Poland. It has been stated that the segment of low emission in central areas of the town makes up ca. 40% of the observed concentration of sulfur dioxide. Furthermore it has been stated that the capital investment must be concentrated in the central part of the town in order to reach noticeable improvement of air quality in Cracow. Neither the output of a separate power source nor the emission level and its individual harmful effect, but the location of the source and especially packing density of the sources must decide the priority of upgrading actions.

  9. Biofiltration: An innovative air pollution control technology for VOC emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Leson, G. ); Winer, A.M. )

    1991-08-01

    Biofiltration is a relatively recent air pollution control (APC) technology in which off-gases containing biodegradable volatile organic compounds (VOC) or inorganic air toxics are vented through a biologically active material. This technology has been successfully applied in Germany and The Netherlands in many full-scale applications to control odors, VOC and air toxic emissions from a wide range of industrial and public sector sources. Control efficiencies of more than 90 percent have been achieved for many common air pollutants. Due to lower operating costs, biofiltration can provide significant economic advantages over other APC technologies if applied to off-gases that contain readily biodegradable pollutants in low concentrations. Environmental benefits include low energy requirements and the avoidance of cross media transfer of pollutants. This paper reviews the history and current status of biofiltration, outlines its underlying scientific and engineering principles, and discusses the applicability of biofilters for a wide range of specific emission sources.

  10. A monitoring strategy to assess the fugitive emission from a steel plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amodio, M.; Andriani, E.; Dambruoso, P. R.; de Gennaro, G.; Di Gilio, A.; Intini, M.; Palmisani, J.; Tutino, M.

    2013-11-01

    An assessment of the fugitive emission impact on ambient air PM, PAHs and metal concentrations was performed in a residential area near the biggest European steel plant. A careful experimental design was developed to characterize fugitive emissions produced by the integrated steel plant. A PM10 and PM2.5 monitoring campaign was conducted at three sampling sites around the steel plant, in order to perform a triangulation in the area surrounding the investigated site and evaluate its impact based on wind direction. Data analysis showed that the transport of air mass, from the steelworks to one of the receptor sites, resulted in ambient air concentrations of Fe, Mn, Zn and PAHs higher than those observed in the other two sites. Principal component analysis allowed the identification of four emission sources: coke ovens stack, mineral park, a crustal source and vanadium source. The first two sources were characterized by high concentrations of PAHs and metals and related to the steelworks, while the vanadium source was probably associated with maritime traffic in the port area. This preliminary monitoring approach proved effective in identifying the fugitive emission contribution of the steel plant to the surrounding air quality.

  11. Definition of air quality measurements for monitoring space shuttle launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    A description of a recommended air quality monitoring network to characterize the impact on ambient air quality in the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) (area) of space shuttle launch operations is given. Analysis of ground cloud processes and prevalent meteorological conditions indicates that transient HCl depositions can be a cause for concern. The system designed to monitor HCl employs an extensive network of inexpensive detectors combined with a central analysis device. An acid rain network is also recommended. A quantitative measure of projected minimal long-term impact involves the limited monitoring of NOx and particulates. All recommended monitoring is confined ti KSC property.

  12. Sequim Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-04-01

    This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and ashington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. This report meets the calendar year 2012 Sequim Site annual reporting requirement for its operations as a privately-owned facility as well as its federally-contracted status that began in October 2012. Compliance is indicated by comparing the estimated dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) with the 10 mrem/yr Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard. The MSL contains only sources classified as fugitive emissions. Despite the fact that the regulations are intended for application to point source emissions, fugitive emissions are included with regard to complying with the EPA standard. The dose to the Sequim Site MEI due to routine operations in 2012 was 9E-06 mrem (9E-08 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2012. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  13. Radionuclide air emissions annual report for calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-04-04

    This report presents the results of the Pinellas Plant air sampling program for the year of 1994. Topics discussed include: site description; source description; air emissions data; dose assessments; description of dose model; summary of input parameters of dose model; unplanned releases; and diffuse emissions. Included in the attachments of this document are: non-radon individual dose assessment; non-radon population dose assessment; summary of stack flow rate measurements; HOTSPOT computer model run; and meteorological data for the Pinellas Plant for 1994.

  14. Polarized radio emission from extensive air showers measured with LOFAR

    SciTech Connect

    Schellart, P.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J.E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J.R.; Krause, M.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J.P.; Veen, S. ter; Thoudam, S.

    2014-10-01

    We present LOFAR measurements of radio emission from extensive air showers. We find that this emission is strongly polarized, with a median degree of polarization of nearly 99%, and that the angle between the polarization direction of the electric field and the Lorentz force acting on the particles, depends on the observer location in the shower plane. This can be understood as a superposition of the radially polarized charge-excess emission mechanism, first proposed by Askaryan and the geomagnetic emission mechanism proposed by Kahn and Lerche. We calculate the relative strengths of both contributions, as quantified by the charge-excess fraction, for 163 individual air showers. We find that the measured charge-excess fraction is higher for air showers arriving from closer to the zenith. Furthermore, the measured charge-excess fraction also increases with increasing observer distance from the air shower symmetry axis. The measured values range from (3.3± 1.0)% for very inclined air showers at 25 m to (20.3± 1.3)% for almost vertical showers at 225 m. Both dependencies are in qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions.

  15. Physical Sciences Facility Air Emission Control Equivalency Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, David M.; Belew, Shan T.

    2008-10-17

    This document presents the adequacy evaluation for the application of technology standards during design, fabrication, installation and testing of radioactive air exhaust systems at the Physical Sciences Facility (PSF), located on the Horn Rapids Triangle north of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) complex. The analysis specifically covers the exhaust portion of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems associated with emission units EP-3410-01-S, EP-3420-01-S and EP 3430-01-S.

  16. Next Generation Air Monitoring (NGAM) VOC Sensor Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of next generation air monitor (NGAM) volatile organic compound (VOC) evaluations performed using both laboratory as well as field scale settings. These evaluations focused on challenging lower cost (<$2500) NGAM technologies to either controlle...

  17. Special Ceremony Planned to Unveil Innovative Air Quality Monitoring Bench

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Nov. 5, 2015) The Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), the Myriad Botanical Gardens and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will unveil an innovative air quality monitoring park bench during a special ceremony at

  18. Draft Final Ambient Air Monitoring Plan July 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This work plan describes the ambient air sampling program for the New Bedford Harbor Superfund Site and presents the locations, sampling strategies, and exposure limits for monitoring remedial activities in the Harbor.

  19. WSN based indoor air quality monitoring in classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. K.; Chew, S. P.; Jusoh, M. T.; Khairunissa, A.; Leong, K. Y.; Azid, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    Indoor air quality monitoring is essential as the human health is directly affected by indoor air quality. This paper presents the investigations of the impact of undergraduate students' concentration during lecture due to the indoor air quality in classroom. Three environmental parameters such as temperature, relative humidity and concentration of carbon dioxide are measured using wireless sensor network based air quality monitoring system. This simple yet reliable system is incorporated with DHT-11 and MG-811 sensors. Two classrooms were selected to install the monitoring system. The level of indoor air quality were measured and students' concentration was assessed using intelligent test during normal lecturing section. The test showed significant correlation between the collected environmental parameters and the students' level of performances in their study.

  20. Renewable Operating Permit Program Air Emission Fees

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  1. Satellite Characterization of Fire Emissions of Aerosols and Gases Relevant to Air-Quality Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichoku, C. M.; Ellison, L.; Yue, Y.; Wang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Because of the transient and widespread nature of wildfires and other types of open biomass burning, satellite remote sensing has become an indispensable technique for characterizing their smoke emissions for modeling applications, especially at regional to global scales. Fire radiative energy (FRE), whose instantaneous rate of release or fire radiative power (FRP) is measurable from space, has been found to be proportional to both the biomass consumption and emission of aerosol particulate matter. We have leveraged this relationship to generate a global, gridded smoke-aerosol emission coefficients (Ce) dataset based on FRP and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) measurements from the MODIS sensors aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites. Ce is a simple coefficient to convert FRE to smoke aerosol emissions, in the same manner as traditional emission factors are used to convert burned biomass to emissions. The first version of this Fire Energetics and Emissions Research (FEER.v1) global gridded Ce product at 1°x1° resolution is available at http://feer.gsfc.nasa.gov/. Based on published emission ratios, the FEER.v1 Ce product for total smoke aerosol has also been used to generate similar products for specific fire-emitted aerosols and gases, including those that are regulated as 'criteria pollutants' under the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), such as particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO). These gridded Ce products were used in conjunction with satellite measurements of FRP to derive emissions of several smoke constituents, which were applied to WRF-Chem fully coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model simulations, with promising results. In this presentation, we analyze WRF-Chem simulations of surface-level concentrations of various pollutants based on FEER.v1 emission products to illustrate their value for air-quality modeling, particularly in parts of Africa and southeast Asia where ground-based air

  2. Characterization of air freshener emission: the potential health effects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghwa; Hong, Seong-Ho; Bong, Choon-Keun; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2015-01-01

    Air freshener could be one of the multiple sources that release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the indoor environment. The use of these products may be associated with an increase in the measured level of terpene, such as xylene and other volatile air freshener components, including aldehydes, and esters. Air freshener is usually used indoors, and thus some compounds emitted from air freshener may have potentially harmful health impacts, including sensory irritation, respiratory symptoms, and dysfunction of the lungs. The constituents of air fresheners can react with ozone to produce secondary pollutants such as formaldehyde, secondary organic aerosol (SOA), oxidative product, and ultrafine particles. These pollutants then adversely affect human health, in many ways such as damage to the central nervous system, alteration of hormone levels, etc. In particular, the ultrafine particles may induce severe adverse effects on diverse organs, including the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems. Although the indoor use of air freshener is increasing, deleterious effects do not manifest for many years, making it difficult to identify air freshener-associated symptoms. In addition, risk assessment recognizes the association between air fresheners and adverse health effects, but the distinct causal relationship remains unclear. In this review, the emitted components of air freshener, including benzene, phthalate, and limonene, were described. Moreover, we focused on the health effects of these chemicals and secondary pollutants formed by the reaction with ozone. In conclusion, scientific guidelines on emission and exposure as well as risk characterization of air freshener need to be established.

  3. Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    MULKEY, C.H.

    1999-07-06

    This document describes the results of the data quality objective (DQO) process undertaken to define data needs for state and federal requirements associated with toxic, hazardous, and/or radiological air emissions under the jurisdiction of the River Protection Project (RPP). Hereafter, this document is referred to as the Air DQO. The primary drivers for characterization under this DQO are the regulatory requirements pursuant to Washington State regulations, that may require sampling and analysis. The federal regulations concerning air emissions are incorporated into the Washington State regulations. Data needs exist for nonradioactive and radioactive waste constituents and characteristics as identified through the DQO process described in this document. The purpose is to identify current data needs for complying with regulatory drivers for the measurement of air emissions from RPP facilities in support of air permitting. These drivers include best management practices; similar analyses may have more than one regulatory driver. This document should not be used for determining overall compliance with regulations because the regulations are in constant change, and this document may not reflect the latest regulatory requirements. Regulatory requirements are also expected to change as various permits are issued. Data needs require samples for both radionuclides and nonradionuclide analytes of air emissions from tanks and stored waste containers. The collection of data is to support environmental permitting and compliance, not for health and safety issues. This document does not address health or safety regulations or requirements (those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) or continuous emission monitoring systems. This DQO is applicable to all equipment, facilities, and operations under the jurisdiction of RPP that emit or have the potential to emit regulated air pollutants.

  4. Air pollution response to changing weather and power plant emissions in the eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomer, Bryan Jaye

    Air pollution in the eastern United States causes human sickness and death as well as damage to crops and materials. NOX emission reduction is observed to improve air quality. Effectively reducing pollution in the future requires understanding the connections between smog, precursor emissions, weather, and climate change. Numerical models predict global warming will exacerbate smog over the next 50 years. My analysis of 21 years of CASTNET observations quantifies a climate change penalty. I calculate, for data collected prior to 2002, a climate penalty factor of ˜3.3 ppb O3/°C across the power plant dominated receptor regions in the rural, eastern U.S. Recent reductions in NOX emissions decreased the climate penalty factor to ˜2.2 ppb O3/°C. Prior to 1995, power plant emissions of CO2, SO2, and NOX were estimated with fuel sampling and analysis methods. Currently, emissions are measured with continuous monitoring equipment (CEMS) installed directly in stacks. My comparison of the two methods show CO 2 and SO2 emissions are ˜5% lower when inferred from fuel sampling; greater differences are found for NOX emissions. CEMS are the method of choice for emission inventories and commodity trading and should be the standard against which other methods are evaluated for global greenhouse gas trading policies. I used CEMS data and applied chemistry transport modeling to evaluate improvements in air quality observed by aircraft during the North American electrical blackout of 2003. An air quality model produced substantial reductions in O3, but not as much as observed. The study highlights weaknesses in the model as commonly used for evaluating a single day event and suggests areas for further investigation. A new analysis and visualization method quantifies local-daily to hemispheric-seasonal scale relationships between weather and air pollution, confirming improved air quality despite increasing temperatures across the eastern U.S. Climate penalty factors indicate

  5. Impact of biogenic emissions on air quality over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagaris, Efthimios; Sotiropoulou, Rafaella-Eleni P.; Gounaris, Nikos; Andronopoulois, Spyros

    2013-04-01

    The impact of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions on air quality over Europe is assessed for a summer month (i.e., July, 2006) using Models-3 (i.e., CMAQ, MM5, SMOKE) modeling system. The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) v4.7 Modeling System with the Carbon Bond mechanism (CB05) is used for the regional air quality modeling. Meteorological fields are derived using the Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5). Emissions are processed by the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE v2.6) modeling system for converting the resolution of the emission inventory data to the resolution needed by the air quality model. TNO has provided a gridded anthropogenic emissions database for the year 2006 over Europe in a 0.1 × 0.1 degrees resolution. The Biogenic Emission Inventory System, version 3 (BEIS3) is used for processing biogenic source emissions. Gridded land use data in 1 km resolution provided by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the default summer and winter emission factors and meteorological fields are used to create hourly model-ready biogenic emissions estimates. Results suggest that biogenic emissions increase simulated daily maximum 8 hours ozone average (Max8hrO3) concentrations over Europe by 5.6% for July 2006. BVOC emissions increase Max8hrO3 concentrations more than 5ppbV in a big part of Europe while locally it is more than 10ppbV. Despite the general trend of reduction in PM2.5 concentrations (about -2% on average over Europe during July 2006) there are regions where PM2.5 concentrations are simulated higher due to BVOC emissions. This is related to the change in PM2.5 component concentrations: an increase in organic carbon concentration and a decrease in sulfate concentration are simulated (13.6% and -5.6% on average over Europe during July 2006, respectively) while changes in nitrate concentrations are noted regionally. This work was supported by the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) 2007-2013 grand No 09SYN-31-667.

  6. Year 2015 Aircraft Emission Scenario for Scheduled Air Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baughcum, Steven L.; Sutkus, Donald J.; Henderson, Stephen C.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the development of a three-dimensional scenario of aircraft fuel burn and emissions (fuel burned, NOx, CO, and hydrocarbons)for projected year 2015 scheduled air traffic. These emission inventories are available for use by atmospheric scientists conducting the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) modeling studies. Fuel burned and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx as NO2), carbon monoxides, and hydrocarbons have been calculated on a 1 degree latitude x 1 degree longitude x 1 kilometer altitude grid and delivered to NASA as electronic files.

  7. DESIGN OF LARGE-SCALE AIR MONITORING NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential effects of air pollution on human health have received much attention in recent years. In the U.S. and other countries, there are extensive large-scale monitoring networks designed to collect data to inform the public of exposure risks to air pollution. A major crit...

  8. Air toxic emissions from snowmobiles in Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Shively, David; Mao, Huiting; Russo, Rachel S; Pape, Bruce; Mower, Richard N; Talbot, Robert; Sive, Barkley C

    2010-01-01

    A study on emissions associated with oversnow travel in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) was conducted for the time period of February 13-16, 2002 and February 12-16, 2003. Whole air and exhaust samples were characterized for 85 volatile organic compounds using gas chromatography. The toxics including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (p-, m-, and o-xylene), and n-hexane, which are major components of two-stroke engine exhaust, show large enhancements during sampling periods resulting from increased snowmobile traffic. Evaluation of the photochemical history of air masses sampled in YNP revealed that emissions of these air toxics were (i) recent, (ii) persistent throughout the region, and (iii) consistent with the two-stroke engine exhaust sample fingerprints. The annual fluxes were estimated to be 0.35, 1.12, 0.24, 1.45, and 0.36 Gg yr(-1) for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and n-hexane, respectively, from snowmobile usage in YNP. These results are comparable to the flux estimates of 0.23, 0.77, 0.17, and 0.70 Gg yr(-1) for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes, respectively, that were derived on the basis of (i) actual snowmobile counts in the Park and (ii) our ambient measurements conducted in 2003. Extrapolating these results, annual emissions from snowmobiles in the U.S. appear to be significantly higher than the values from the EPA National Emissions Inventory (1999). Snowmobile emissions represent a significant fraction ( approximately 14-21%) of air toxics with respect to EPA estimates of emissions by nonroad vehicles. Further investigation is warranted to more rigorously quantify the difference between our estimates and emission inventories.

  9. 40 CFR 60.273 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... alarm system that will sound when an increase in relative particulate loading is detected over the alarm... temperature and humidity according to the procedures identified in the site-specific monitoring plan required... (c) of this section and the alarm on the bag leak detection system does not sound, the owner...

  10. 40 CFR 60.273 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alarm system that will sound when an increase in relative particulate loading is detected over the alarm... temperature and humidity according to the procedures identified in the site-specific monitoring plan required... (c) of this section and the alarm on the bag leak detection system does not sound, the owner...

  11. 40 CFR 60.273 - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... alarm system that will sound when an increase in relative particulate loading is detected over the alarm... temperature and humidity according to the procedures identified in the site-specific monitoring plan required... (c) of this section and the alarm on the bag leak detection system does not sound, the owner...

  12. Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) - Status and Potential Science Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chance, Kelly

    2016-05-01

    TEMPO is the first NASA Earth Venture Instrument, to launch between 2019 and 2021. It measures atmospheric pollution from Mexico City and Cuba to the Canadian oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly at high spatial resolution, ~ 10 km2. It measures the key elements of air pollution chemistry. Geostationary (GEO) measurements capture the variability in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry at sub-urban scale to improve emission inventories, monitor population exposure, and enable emission-control strategies. TEMPO measures the UV/visible spectra to retrieve O3, NO2, SO2, H2 CO, C2 H2 O2, H2 O, aerosols, cloud parameters, and UVB radiation. It tracks aerosol loading. It provides near-real-time air quality products. TEMPO is the North American component of the global geostationary constellation for pollution monitoring, with the European Sentinel-4 and the Korean GEMS. TEMPO studies may include: Solar-induced fluorescence from chlorophyll over land and in the ocean to study tropical dynamics, primary productivity, carbon uptake, to detect red tides, and to study phytoplankton; Measurements of stratospheric intrusions that cause air quality exceedances; Measurements at peaks in vehicle travel to capture the variability in emissions from mobile sources; Measurements of thunderstorm activity, including outflow regions to better quantify lightning NOx and O3 production; Cropland measurements follow the temporal evolution of emissions after fertilizer application and from rain-induced emissions from semi-arid soils; Measurements investigate the chemical processing of primary fire emissions and the secondary formation of VOCs and ozone; Measurements examine ocean halogen emissions and their impact on the oxidizing capacity of coastal environments; Spectra of nighttime lights are markers for human activity, energy conservation, and compliance with outdoor lighting standards intended to reduce light pollution.

  13. [Emission of electromagnetic radiation from selected computer monitors].

    PubMed

    Zyss, T

    1995-01-01

    The emission of electromagnetic fields from computer monitors was analysed. The data were compared with the permissible exposure level. EM radiation of chromatic monitors is higher than that of monochromatic ones. The radiation of magnetic fraction is insignificant. Both electric and magnetic fractions of EM radiation, 50 cm away from the monitor, are very low and do not exceed permissible values. It was observed that screen filters were effective in suppressing EM emission only at a short (up to 30 cm) distance from the monitor. At a distance of 50 cm they proved to be ineffective. Metallic-net filters were more effective than glass filters in suppressing EM radiation. It seems that EM fields generated by computer monitors are not harmful to computer operators if the distance is kept in safe limits.

  14. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction HEPA filtered vacuum radioactive air emission units

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, R.E.

    1999-09-01

    This notice of construction (NOC) requests a categorical approval for construction and operation of certain portable high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered vacuum radionuclide airborne emission units (HVUs). Approval of this NOC application is intended to allow operation of the HVUs without prior project-specific approval. This NOC does not request replacement or supersedence of any previous agreements/approvals by the Washington State Department of Health for the use of vacuums on the Hanford Site. These previous agreement/approvals include the approved NOCs for the use of EuroClean HEPA vacuums at the T Plant Complex (routine technical meeting 12/10/96) and the Kelly Decontamination System at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant (routine technical meeting 06/25/96). Also, this NOC does not replace or supersede the agreement reached regarding the use of HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners for routine cleanup activities conducted by the Environmental Restoration Project. Routine cleanup activities are conducted during the surveillance and maintenance of inactive waste sites (Radioactive Area Remedial Action Project) and inactive facilities. HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners are used to clean up spot surface contamination areas found during outdoor radiological field surveys, and to clean up localized radiologically contaminated material (e.g., dust, dirt, bird droppings, animal feces, liquids, insects, spider webs, etc.). This agreement, documented in the October 12, 1994 Routine Meeting Minutes, is based on routine cleanup consisting of spot cleanup of low-level contamination provided that, in each case, the source term potential would be below 0.1 millirem per year.

  15. AIR TOXICS EMISSIONS FROM A VINYL SHOWER CURTAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports results of both static and dynamic chamber tests conducted to evaluate emission characteristics of air toxics from a vinyl shower Curtain. (NOTE: Due to the relatively low price and ease of installation, vinyl shower curtains have been widely used in bathrooms i...

  16. VOC EMISSIONS FROM AN AIR FRESHENER IN THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes results of tests, conducted in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) large chamber facility, that investigated emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) from one electrical plug-in type air freshener with pine-scented refills. VOCs were measured ...

  17. METHODOLOGY FOR SITING AMBIENT AIR MONITORS AT THE NEIGHBORHOOD SCALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In siting a monitor to measure compliance with U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter (PM), there is a need to characterize variations in PM concentration within a neighborhood-scale region in order to achieve monitor siting objectives.

    We p...

  18. How do emission patterns in megacities affect regional air pollution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heil, A.; Richter, C.; Schroeder, S.; Schultz, M. G.

    2010-12-01

    Megacities around the world show distinctly different emission patterns in terms of absolute amounts and emission ratios of individual chemical compounds due to varying socio-economic developments and technological standards. The emission patterns influence the chemical reactivity of the urban pollution plume, and hence determine air quality in and around megacity areas. In this study, which is part of the European project CITYZEN (megaCITY - Zoom for the ENvironment), the effects of emission changes in four selected megacity areas on air pollution were investigated: BeNeLux (BNL), Istanbul (IST), Pearl River Delta (PRD) and Sao Paulo (SAP). The study aims at answering the question: how would air pollution in megacity X change if it had the same urban emissions per capita as megacity Y? Model simulations with the global chemistry climate model ECHAM5-MOZ were carried out for the year 2001 using a resolution of about 2 degrees in the horizontal and of 31 levels (surface to 10 hPa) in the vertical. The model was driven by meteorological input data from the ECMWF ERA Interim reanalysis. Emissions were taken from the gridded global ACCMIP emission inventory recently established for use in chemistry-climate simulations in connection to the IPCC-AR5 assessments (Lamarque et al. 2010). We carried out sensitivity simulations where emission patterns from each of the megacity areas were replaced by those from all others. This was done on the basis of the per capita emissions for each species and sector averaged over the respective region. Total per capita CO and NMVOC emissions are highest in PRD and lowest in SAP while total per capita NOx emissions are highest in BNL and lowest in SAP. There are strong differences in the relative contribution of the urban sectors to total emissions of individual compounds. As a result, each of the four megacity areas exhibits a very characteristic NMVOC speciation profile which determines the NMVOC-related photochemical ozone (O_3

  19. Measurement results obtained from air quality monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Turzanski, P.K.; Beres, R.

    1995-12-31

    An automatic system of air pollution monitoring operates in Cracow since 1991. The organization, assembling and start-up of the network is a result of joint efforts of the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Cracow environmental protection service. At present the automatic monitoring network is operated by the Provincial Inspection of Environmental Protection. There are in total seven stationary stations situated in Cracow to measure air pollution. These stations are supported continuously by one semi-mobile (transportable) station. It allows to modify periodically the area under investigation and therefore the 3-dimensional picture of creation and distribution of air pollutants within Cracow area could be more intelligible.

  20. 40 CFR 60.1250 - What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... continuous emission monitoring systems? 60.1250 Section 60.1250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Continuous Emission Monitoring § 60.1250 What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems? (a) Conduct annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems no more than...

  1. 40 CFR 60.1250 - What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... continuous emission monitoring systems? 60.1250 Section 60.1250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Continuous Emission Monitoring § 60.1250 What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems? (a) Conduct annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems no more than...

  2. 40 CFR 60.3040 - What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... continuous emission monitoring systems? 60.3040 Section 60.3040 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... continuous emission monitoring systems? (a) Conduct annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring... emission monitoring systems daily and quarterly as specified in appendix F of this part....

  3. 40 CFR 60.2941 - What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... continuous emission monitoring systems? 60.2941 Section 60.2941 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... emission monitoring systems? (a) Conduct annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems... emission monitoring systems daily and quarterly as specified in appendix F of this part....

  4. 40 CFR 60.1235 - How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems used? 60.1235 Section 60.1235 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Continuous Emission Monitoring § 60.1235 How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used? You must use data from the continuous emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide,...

  5. 40 CFR 60.1250 - What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... continuous emission monitoring systems? 60.1250 Section 60.1250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Continuous Emission Monitoring § 60.1250 What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems? (a) Conduct annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems no more than...

  6. 40 CFR 60.2941 - What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... continuous emission monitoring systems? 60.2941 Section 60.2941 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... emission monitoring systems? (a) Conduct annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems... emission monitoring systems daily and quarterly as specified in appendix F of this part....

  7. 40 CFR 60.3040 - What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... continuous emission monitoring systems? 60.3040 Section 60.3040 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... continuous emission monitoring systems? (a) Conduct annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring... emission monitoring systems daily and quarterly as specified in appendix F of this part....

  8. 40 CFR 60.3040 - What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... continuous emission monitoring systems? 60.3040 Section 60.3040 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... continuous emission monitoring systems? (a) Conduct annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring... emission monitoring systems daily and quarterly as specified in appendix F of this part....

  9. 40 CFR 60.1235 - How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems used? 60.1235 Section 60.1235 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Continuous Emission Monitoring § 60.1235 How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used? You must use data from the continuous emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide,...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1250 - What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... continuous emission monitoring systems? 60.1250 Section 60.1250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Continuous Emission Monitoring § 60.1250 What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems? (a) Conduct annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems no more than...

  11. 40 CFR 60.3040 - What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... continuous emission monitoring systems? 60.3040 Section 60.3040 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... continuous emission monitoring systems? (a) Conduct annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring... emission monitoring systems daily and quarterly as specified in appendix F of this part....

  12. 40 CFR 60.3040 - What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... continuous emission monitoring systems? 60.3040 Section 60.3040 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... continuous emission monitoring systems? (a) Conduct annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring... emission monitoring systems daily and quarterly as specified in appendix F of this part....

  13. 40 CFR 60.1250 - What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... continuous emission monitoring systems? 60.1250 Section 60.1250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Continuous Emission Monitoring § 60.1250 What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems? (a) Conduct annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems no more than...

  14. 40 CFR 60.2941 - What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... continuous emission monitoring systems? 60.2941 Section 60.2941 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... emission monitoring systems? (a) Conduct annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems... emission monitoring systems daily and quarterly as specified in appendix F of this part....

  15. 40 CFR 60.1235 - How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems used? 60.1235 Section 60.1235 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Continuous Emission Monitoring § 60.1235 How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used? You must use data from the continuous emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide,...

  16. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants unregistered stack (power exhaust) source assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.E.

    1994-08-04

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site to determine which are subject to continuous emission measurement requirements in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H, and to continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. This evaluation provides an assessment of the 39 unregistered stacks, under Westinghouse Hanford Company`s management, and their potential radionuclide emissions, i.e., emissions with no control devices in place. The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified three stacks, 107-N, 296-P-26 and 296-P-28, as having potential emissions that would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr. These stacks, as noted by 40 CFR 61.93, would require continuous monitoring.

  17. Real-time monitoring of emissions from monoethanolamine-based industrial scale carbon capture facilities.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liang; Schade, Gunnar Wolfgang; Nielsen, Claus Jørgen

    2013-12-17

    We demonstrate the capabilities and properties of using Proton Transfer Reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) to real-time monitor gaseous emissions from industrial scale amine-based carbon capture processes. The benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) was used as an example of amines needing to be monitored from carbon capture facilities, and to describe how the measurements may be influenced by potentially interfering species in CO2 absorber stack discharges. On the basis of known or expected emission compositions, we investigated the PTR-ToF-MS MEA response as a function of sample flow humidity, ammonia, and CO2 abundances, and show that all can exhibit interferences, thus making accurate amine measurements difficult. This warrants a proper sample pretreatment, and we show an example using a dilution with bottled zero air of 1:20 to 1:10 to monitor stack gas concentrations at the CO2 Technology Center Mongstad (TCM), Norway. Observed emissions included many expected chemical species, dominantly ammonia and acetaldehyde, but also two new species previously not reported but emitted in significant quantities. With respect to concerns regarding amine emissions, we show that accurate amine quantifications in the presence of water vapor, ammonia, and CO2 become feasible after proper sample dilution, thus making PTR-ToF-MS a viable technique to monitor future carbon capture facility emissions, without conventional laborious sample pretreatment.

  18. Infrared Laser System for Extended Area Monitoring of Air Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowman, L. R.; Gillmeister, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    An atmospheric pollution monitoring system using a spectrally scanning laser has been developed by the General Electric Company. This paper will report on an evaluation of a breadboard model, and will discuss applications of the concept to various ambient air monitoring situations. The system is adaptable to other tunable lasers. Operating in the middle infrared region, the system uses retroreflectors to measure average concentrations over long paths at low, safe power levels. The concept shows promise of meeting operational needs in ambient air monitoring and providing new data for atmospheric research.

  19. Updating Sea Spray Aerosol Emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantt, B.; Bash, J. O.; Kelly, J.

    2014-12-01

    Sea spray aerosols (SSA) impact the particle mass concentration and gas-particle partitioning in coastal environments, with implications for human and ecosystem health. In this study, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is updated to enhance fine mode SSA emissions, include sea surface temperature (SST) dependency, and revise surf zone emissions. Based on evaluation with several regional and national observational datasets in the continental U.S., the updated emissions generally improve surface concentrations predictions of primary aerosols composed of sea-salt and secondary aerosols affected by sea-salt chemistry in coastal and near-coastal sites. Specifically, the updated emissions lead to better predictions of the magnitude and coastal-to-inland gradient of sodium, chloride, and nitrate concentrations at Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) sites near Tampa, FL. Including SST-dependency to the SSA emission parameterization leads to increased sodium concentrations in the southeast U.S. and decreased concentrations along the Pacific coast and northeastern U.S., bringing predictions into closer agreement with observations at most Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) and Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) sites. Model comparison with California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) observations will also be discussed, with particular focus on the South Coast Air Basin where clean marine air mixes with anthropogenic pollution in a complex environment. These SSA emission updates enable more realistic simulation of chemical processes in coastal environments, both in clean marine air masses and mixtures of clean marine and polluted conditions.

  20. 40 CFR 63.7747 - How do I apply for alternative monitoring requirements for a continuous emissions monitoring system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... monitoring requirements for a continuous emissions monitoring system? 63.7747 Section 63.7747 Protection of... apply for alternative monitoring requirements for a continuous emissions monitoring system? (a) You may... prevention technique, a description of the continuous monitoring system or method including...

  1. 40 CFR 63.7747 - How do I apply for alternative monitoring requirements for a continuous emissions monitoring system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... monitoring requirements for a continuous emissions monitoring system? 63.7747 Section 63.7747 Protection of... apply for alternative monitoring requirements for a continuous emissions monitoring system? (a) You may... prevention technique, a description of the continuous monitoring system or method including...

  2. 40 CFR 63.7747 - How do I apply for alternative monitoring requirements for a continuous emissions monitoring system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... monitoring requirements for a continuous emissions monitoring system? 63.7747 Section 63.7747 Protection of... apply for alternative monitoring requirements for a continuous emissions monitoring system? (a) You may... prevention technique, a description of the continuous monitoring system or method including...

  3. 40 CFR 63.7747 - How do I apply for alternative monitoring requirements for a continuous emissions monitoring system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... monitoring requirements for a continuous emissions monitoring system? 63.7747 Section 63.7747 Protection of... apply for alternative monitoring requirements for a continuous emissions monitoring system? (a) You may... prevention technique, a description of the continuous monitoring system or method including...

  4. 40 CFR 63.7747 - How do I apply for alternative monitoring requirements for a continuous emissions monitoring system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... monitoring requirements for a continuous emissions monitoring system? 63.7747 Section 63.7747 Protection of... apply for alternative monitoring requirements for a continuous emissions monitoring system? (a) You may... prevention technique, a description of the continuous monitoring system or method including...

  5. Emissions of air toxics from a simulated charcoal kiln. Final report, October 1997--September 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, P.M.

    1999-06-01

    The report gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In addition, other pollutants, including methanol, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and particle emission rates and size distributions were measured using various techniques. Emissions of all pollutants are reported in units of grams emitted per unit mass of initial wood converted to charcoal. Two burn conditions--slow and fast--were examined. High levels of methanol, benzene, and fine particulate were emitted in all tests. The estimated emissions from the fast burn conditions were significantly higher than those from the slow burn conditions.

  6. Emissions of air toxics from the production of charcoal in a simulated Missouri charcoal kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, P.M.; Kariher, P.H.; Fairless, B.J.; Tapp, J.A.

    1998-11-01

    The paper gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutant from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In addition, other pollutants, including methanol, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and particle emission rates and size distributions were measured using various techniques. Emissions of all pollutants are reported in grams emitted per unit mass of initial wood converted to charcoal. Two burn conditions--slow and fast burn--were examined. High levels of methanol, benzene, and fine particulate were emitted from all tests. The estimated emissions from the fast burn conditions were significantly higher than those from the slow burn conditions.

  7. Comparison of passive-remote and conventional Fourier transform infrared systems for continuously monitoring incinerator emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.C.; Hammer, C.L.; Kroutil, R.T.

    1992-07-01

    Significant improvements in detection technology are needed to comply with the requirements in the Clean Air Act of 1990, Title 3, which requires the monitoring of air toxics. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy can satisfy these requirements in two different modes. Conventional FTIR spectrometers can be installed on-stream so that a vapor stream enters an infrared cell for analysis. Other types of FTIR spectrometers can detect chemical plumes remotely, measure the natural emissions of the molecules in the plume. The samples do not come to the instrument, and the instrument has neither source nor reflector mirrors. We will discuss the applications of FTIR spectrometry for both conventional and passive-remote FTIR spectroscopy. Some applications of conventional FTIR include a continuous emission monitor for measuring incinerator emissions and determining indoor air quality. Passive-remote FTIR spectroscopy can be used to identify and track a chemical plume. It can also be used to detect fugitive emissions. Hence, it can be used as an independent means to assure compliance with environmental regulations in real-time. Because of the relatively simple instrumentation, passive-remote instruments can be helicopter- or vehicle-mounted for mobile detection of plumes.

  8. Comparison of passive-remote and conventional Fourier transform infrared systems for continuously monitoring incinerator emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.C.; Hammer, C.L. ); Kroutil, R.T. )

    1992-01-01

    Significant improvements in detection technology are needed to comply with the requirements in the Clean Air Act of 1990, Title 3, which requires the monitoring of air toxics. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy can satisfy these requirements in two different modes. Conventional FTIR spectrometers can be installed on-stream so that a vapor stream enters an infrared cell for analysis. Other types of FTIR spectrometers can detect chemical plumes remotely, measure the natural emissions of the molecules in the plume. The samples do not come to the instrument, and the instrument has neither source nor reflector mirrors. We will discuss the applications of FTIR spectrometry for both conventional and passive-remote FTIR spectroscopy. Some applications of conventional FTIR include a continuous emission monitor for measuring incinerator emissions and determining indoor air quality. Passive-remote FTIR spectroscopy can be used to identify and track a chemical plume. It can also be used to detect fugitive emissions. Hence, it can be used as an independent means to assure compliance with environmental regulations in real-time. Because of the relatively simple instrumentation, passive-remote instruments can be helicopter- or vehicle-mounted for mobile detection of plumes.

  9. Energy use, emissions and air pollution reduction strategies in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Foell, W.; Green, C.; Sarkar, A.; Legler, J.

    1995-12-31

    The pace of economic progress and development experienced in many Asian countries has not occurred without costs to the natural environment. In particular, energy policies and technologies are a primary driving force behind air pollution problems arising from air pollution emissions in Asia. Economic growth, energy use, and reliance on fossil fuels are experiencing extremely high growth throughout most of the continent. Electric power expansion plans in many countries of Asia, particularly China and India, call for substantial increases in coal combustion. In the 1990`s, two-thirds of all power related investments in developing countries will be in Asia. In contrast to the situation in Europe and North America, emissions of air pollution species in Asia are increasing rapidly, resulting in both local air pollution problems and higher acidic deposition in many regions. In general, most Asian countries do not have a strong scientific nor public constituency for addressing potentially serious air pollution problems impacting important economic and cultural activities such as forestry, agriculture, and tourism. The complex political ramifications of trans-boundary air pollution in Asia have not yet begun to be addressed.

  10. Method and apparatus for calibrating a particle emissions monitor

    DOEpatents

    Flower, William L.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    1998-07-07

    The instant invention discloses method and apparatus for calibrating particulate emissions monitors, in particular, and sampling probes, in general, without removing the instrument from the system being monitored. A source of one or more specific metals in aerosol (either solid or liquid) or vapor form is housed in the instrument. The calibration operation is initiated by moving a focusing lens, used to focus a light beam onto an analysis location and collect the output light response, from an operating position to a calibration position such that the focal point of the focusing lens is now within a calibration stream issuing from a calibration source. The output light response from the calibration stream can be compared to that derived from an analysis location in the operating position to more accurately monitor emissions within the emissions flow stream.

  11. Continuous monitoring of total hydrocarbon emissions from sludge incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Bostian, H.E.; Crumpler, E.P.; Koch, P.D.; Chehaske, J.T.; Hagele, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Water (OW) drafted risk-based sludge regulations (for incineration and a variety of other options) under Section 405d of the Clean Water Act. Under consideration for the final regulation is a provision for continuously monitoring total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions as a method of controlling organic emissions from sludge incineration. The monitoring would have to demonstrate that the THC stack emissions were not exceeding a concentration limit. Continuous analyzers for THC, CO, and oxygen (O2) were installed and operated at two facilities, both of which employed multiple-hearth furnaces (MHFs) to incinerate wastewater sludge. In addition, EPA requested an evaluation of the use of these monitors to assist with incinerator operation.

  12. Method and apparatus for calibrating a particle emissions monitor

    DOEpatents

    Flower, W.L.; Renzi, R.F.

    1998-07-07

    The invention discloses a method and apparatus for calibrating particulate emissions monitors, in particular, sampling probes, and in general, without removing the instrument from the system being monitored. A source of one or more specific metals in aerosol (either solid or liquid) or vapor form is housed in the instrument. The calibration operation is initiated by moving a focusing lens, used to focus a light beam onto an analysis location and collect the output light response, from an operating position to a calibration position such that the focal point of the focusing lens is now within a calibration stream issuing from a calibration source. The output light response from the calibration stream can be compared to that derived from an analysis location in the operating position to more accurately monitor emissions within the emissions flow stream. 6 figs.

  13. Tracking hazardous air pollutants from a refinery fire by applying on-line and off-line air monitoring and back trajectory modeling.

    PubMed

    Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2013-10-15

    The air monitors used by most regulatory authorities are designed to track the daily emissions of conventional pollutants and are not well suited for measuring hazardous air pollutants that are released from accidents such as refinery fires. By applying a wide variety of air-monitoring systems, including on-line Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector, and off-line gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for measuring hazardous air pollutants during and after a fire at a petrochemical complex in central Taiwan on May 12, 2011, we were able to detect significantly higher levels of combustion-related gaseous and particulate pollutants, refinery-related hydrocarbons, and chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as 1,2-dichloroethane, vinyl chloride monomer, and dichloromethane, inside the complex and 10 km downwind from the fire than those measured during the normal operation periods. Both back trajectories and dispersion models further confirmed that high levels of hazardous air pollutants in the neighboring communities were carried by air mass flown from the 22 plants that were shut down by the fire. This study demonstrates that hazardous air pollutants from industrial accidents can successfully be identified and traced back to their emission sources by applying a timely and comprehensive air-monitoring campaign and back trajectory air flow models.

  14. Challenges in the development of sensors for monitoring automobile emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R.S.; Pham, A.Q.

    1997-02-20

    A new generation of on-board automotive sensors are needed for diagnosis and control of engines and catalytic converters. With regard to catalytic converters, the intent of these regulations is to ensure that the vehicle operator is informed when emission control system are no longer performing adequately. In order to be commercialized, sensors for emission control must meet certain criteria, including low cost, reliability, and manufacturability. We have been developing solid state electrochemical sensors for emission control. Most recently, our work has focused on the development of hydrocarbon sensors for monitoring catalytic converter performance. Previous work was concerned with the development of an oxygen sensor having appropriate sensitivity for lean-burn engines. Operational limits for oxygen sensors have been defined and new materials have been developed for hydrocarbon sensors. Technical results are presented here as well as challenges to be met in the development of materials and designs for new chemical sensors for monitoring automotive emissions.

  15. [Situation and Characteristics of Air Pollutants Emission from Crematories in Beijing, China].

    PubMed

    Xue, Yi-feng; Yan, Jing; Tian, He-zhong; Xiong, Cheng-cheng; Li, Jing-dong; Wu, Xiao-ing; Wang, Wei

    2015-06-01

    Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) such as exhaust particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxide (NOx), mercury (Hg) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans ( PCDD/Fs) are emitted by the process of cremation and the burning of oblation. Risks to health posed by emissions of hazardous air pollutants from crematories are emerging concerns. Through field investigation and data collection, we obtained the related activity levels and monitored the concentrations of air pollutants from typical cremators, so as to better understand the current pollutants emission levels for crematory. Using the emission factor method, we calculated the emission inventory of HAPs for crematory of Beijing in 2012 and quantified the range of uncertainty. Using atmospheric diffusion model ADMS, we evaluated the influence of crematories on the surrounding environment, and identified the characteristics of air pollution. The results showed that: for the cremators installed with flue gas purification system, the emission concentration of exhaust PM was rather low, and the CO emission concentration fluctuated greatly. However, relative high emission concentrations of PCDD/Fs were detected mainly due to insufficient combustion. Exhaust PM, CO, SO2, NOx, Hg and PCDD/Fs emitted by crematory of Beijing in 2012 were estimated at about 11. 5 tons, 41.25 tons, 2.34 tons, 7.65 tons, 13.76 kg and 0.88 g, respectively; According to the results of dispersion model simulation, the concentration contributions of exhaust PM, CO, SO2, NOx, Hg, PCDD/Fs from crematories were 0.05947 microg x m(-3), 0.2009 microg x m(-3) and 0.0126 microg x m(-3), 0.03667 microg x m(-3) and 0.06247 microg x m(-3), 0.004213 microg x m(-3), respectively.

  16. Effects of soil dust emissions on air quality over the East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Y.; Kim, S.; Cho, J.; choi, D.

    2013-12-01

    Asian mineral dust from Gobi Desert, sand desert, Loess Plateau and barren mixed soil in Northern China and Mongolia has a major impact on the air quality in the East Asia. These mineral aerosols increase PM10 concentration over 1000 μg/m3 during the dust storm event as well as PM10 background concentrations as the fugitive dust during the non-dust period in the SMA (Seoul Metropolitan Area). The PM10 prediction by a regional chemical transport model without the dust emission shows an intrinsic tendency of underestimation according to previous studies in this region, especially for the soil originated coarse PM. The Asian Dust Aerosol Model 2 (ADAM2) scheme for the dust emission with CAMx was tested for its applicability in assessing impact of the fugitive dust on air quality in the China region and SMA. The performance of ADMS2 dust emission was evaluated to depict not only onset times of the dust storm event but also to estimate the level of background PM10 concentration for the non-dust event against the surface measurements and satellite measurements over East Asia. The surface observations were from EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring NETwork in East Asia), API (Air Pollution Index) monitoring sites in China and the intensive monitoring stations in the SMA. The results show that the CAMx predictions of PM10 with ADAM2 scheme were relatively in a good agreement with the observations. They, however, occasionally over-predicted the PM10 concentrations during non-dust event periods and under-predicted the PM10 concentrations during dust event periods. Details of model comparison for other chemical species and implication of dust emission schemes on the air quality will be discussed in the presentation. Acknowledgements This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as 'The Eco-technopia 21 project'.

  17. Radionuclide air emissions. Annual report for calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    A description is provided of radioactive effluent releases from the Pinellas Plant. The DOE sold the Pinellas Plant in March 1995. A portion of the plant was backed by DOE until September 1997 to facilitate a safe transition to commercial ventures.The plant`s radiological processing equipment was cleaned from past DOE operations. Emissions from the cleanup activity were monitored.

  18. Air emission from the co-combustion of alternative derived fuels within cement plants: Gaseous pollutants.

    PubMed

    Richards, Glen; Agranovski, Igor E

    2015-02-01

    Cement manufacturing is a resource- and energy-intensive industry, utilizing 9% of global industrial energy use while releasing more than 5% of global carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions. With an increasing demand of production set to double by 2050, so too will be its carbon footprint. However, Australian cement plants have great potential for energy savings and emission reductions through the substitution of combustion fuels with a proportion of alternative derived fuels (ADFs), namely, fuels derived from wastes. This paper presents the environmental emissions monitoring of 10 cement batching plants while under baseline and ADF operating conditions, and an assessment of parameters influencing combustion. The experiential runs included the varied substitution rates of seven waste streams and the monitoring of seven target pollutants. The co-combustion tests of waste oil, wood chips, wood chips and plastic, waste solvents, and shredded tires were shown to have the minimal influence when compared to baseline runs, or had significantly reduced the unit mass emission factor of pollutants. With an increasing ADF% substitution, monitoring identified there to be no subsequent emission effects and that key process parameters contributing to contaminant suppression include (1) precalciner and kiln fuel firing rate and residence time; (2) preheater and precalciner gas and material temperature; (3) rotary kiln flame temperature; (4) fuel-air ratio and percentage of excess oxygen; and (5) the rate of meal feed and rate of clinker produced.

  19. Health effects of SRS non-radiological air emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.

    1997-06-16

    This report examines the potential health effects of non radiological emissions to the air resulting from operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The scope of this study was limited to the 55 air contaminants for which the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has quantified risk by determining unit risk factors (excess cancer risks) and/or reference concentrations (deleterious non cancer risks). Potential health impacts have been assessed in relation to the maximally exposed individual. This is a hypothetical person who resides for a lifetime at the SRS boundary. The most recent (1994) quality assured SRS emissions data available were used. Estimated maximum site boundary concentrations of the air contaminants were calculated using air dispersion modeling and 24-hour and annual averaging times. For the emissions studied, the excess cancer risk was found to be less than the generally accepted risk level of 1 in 100,000 and, in most cases, was less than 1 in 1,000,000. Deleterious non cancer effects were also found to be very unlikely.

  20. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, June 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Robert F. Grossman

    2005-06-01

    The sources of radionuclides include current and previous activities conducted on the NTS. The NTS was the primary location for testing of nuclear explosives in the Continental U.S. between 1951 and 1992. Historical testing has included (1) atmospheric testing in the 1950s and early 1960s, (2) underground testing between 1951 and 1992, and (3) open-air nuclear reactor and rocket engine testing (DOE, 1996a). No nuclear tests have been conducted since September 23,1992 (DOE, 2000), however; radionuclides remaining on the soil surface in many NTS areas after several decades of radioactive decay are re-suspended into the atmosphere at concentrations that can be detected by air sampling. Limited non-nuclear testing includes spills of hazardous materials at the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (formerly called the Hazardous Materials Spill Center), private technology development, aerospace and demilitarization activities, and site remediating activities. Processing of radioactive materials is limited to laboratory analyses; handling, transport, storage, and assembly of nuclear explosive devices or radioactive targets for the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research (JASPER) gas gun; and operation of radioactive waste management sites (RWMSs) for low-level radioactive and mixed waste (DOE, 1996a). Monitoring and evaluation of the various activities conducted onsite indicate that the potential sources of offsite radiation exposure in calendar year (CY) 2004 were releases from (1) evaporation of tritiated water (HTO) from containment ponds that receive drainage water from E Tunnel in Area 12 and water pumped from wells used to characterize the aquifers at the sites of past underground nuclear tests, (2) onsite radioanalytical laboratories, (3) the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS facilities, and (4) diffuse sources of tritium (H{sup 3}) and re-suspension of plutonium ({sup 239+240}Pu) and americium ({sup 241}Am) at the sites of past nuclear tests. The following

  1. Monitoring Indoor Air Quality for Enhanced Occupational Health.

    PubMed

    Pitarma, Rui; Marques, Gonçalo; Ferreira, Bárbara Roque

    2017-02-01

    Indoor environments are characterized by several pollutant sources. Because people spend more than 90% of their time in indoor environments, several studies have pointed out the impact of indoor air quality on the etiopathogenesis of a wide number of non-specific symptoms which characterizes the "Sick Building Syndrome", involving the skin, the upper and lower respiratory tract, the eyes and the nervous system, as well as many building related diseases. Thus, indoor air quality (IAQ) is recognized as an important factor to be controlled for the occupants' health and comfort. The majority of the monitoring systems presently available is very expensive and only allow to collect random samples. This work describes the system (iAQ), a low-cost indoor air quality monitoring wireless sensor network system, developed using Arduino, XBee modules and micro sensors, for storage and availability of monitoring data on a web portal in real time. Five micro sensors of environmental parameters (air temperature, humidity, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and luminosity) were used. Other sensors can be added for monitoring specific pollutants. The results reveal that the system can provide an effective indoor air quality assessment to prevent exposure risk. In fact, the indoor air quality may be extremely different compared to what is expected for a quality living environment. Systems like this would have benefit as public health interventions to reduce the burden of symptoms and diseases related to "sick buildings".

  2. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - November 2, 2015 – November 8, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  3. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - November 16, 2015 – November 22, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  4. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - October 12, 2015 – October 18, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  5. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - March 7, 2013 - March 13, 2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  6. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - November 30, 2015 – December 6, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  7. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - November 9, 2015 – November 15, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  8. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - February 1, 2016 – February 7, 2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  9. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - October 26, 2015 – November 1, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  10. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - October 5, 2015 – October 11, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  11. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - September 28, 2015 – October 4, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  12. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - February 15, 2016 – February 21, 2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  13. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - October 19, 2015 – October 25, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  14. Carter Carburetor Weekly Air Monitoring & Sampling Report - November 23, 2015 – November 29, 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Carter Carburetor Daily Weather Conditions, Dairly Work Activities, Daily Air Monitoring and Samplying Results, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results –Station 2 Linc 126, Air Monitoring/Sampling Results- Sation 3 Linc 123, Air Monitoring/Samplying Results-Stati

  15. Temporal trends of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in arctic air: 20 years of monitoring under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP).

    PubMed

    Hung, Hayley; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios A; Brorström-Lundén, Eva; Olafsdottir, Kristin; Aas, Wenche; Breivik, Knut; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Sigurdsson, Arni; Hakola, Hannele; Bossi, Rossana; Skov, Henrik; Sverko, Ed; Barresi, Enzo; Fellin, Phil; Wilson, Simon

    2016-10-01

    Temporal trends of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) measured in Arctic air are essential in understanding long-range transport to remote regions and to evaluate the effectiveness of national and international chemical control initiatives, such as the Stockholm Convention (SC) on POPs. Long-term air monitoring of POPs is conducted under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) at four Arctic stations: Alert, Canada; Stórhöfði, Iceland; Zeppelin, Svalbard; and Pallas, Finland, since the 1990s using high volume air samplers. Temporal trends observed for POPs in Arctic air are summarized in this study. Most POPs listed for control under the SC, e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and chlordanes, are declining slowly in Arctic air, reflecting the reduction of primary emissions during the last two decades and increasing importance of secondary emissions. Slow declining trends also signifies their persistence and slow degradation under the Arctic environment, such that they are still detectable after being banned for decades in many countries. Some POPs, e.g. hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and lighter PCBs, showed increasing trends at specific locations, which may be attributable to warming in the region and continued primary emissions at source. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) do not decline in air at Canada's Alert station but are declining in European Arctic air, which may be due to influence of local sources at Alert and the much higher historical usage of PBDEs in North America. Arctic air samples are screened for chemicals of emerging concern to provide information regarding their environmental persistence (P) and long-range transport potential (LRTP), which are important criteria for classification as a POP under SC. The AMAP network provides consistent and comparable air monitoring data of POPs for trend development and acts as a bridge between national monitoring programs and SC's Global Monitoring

  16. Modelling of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Marianne

    2011-06-01

    Cosmic rays entering the Earth's atmosphere induce extensive air showers consisting of up to billions of secondary particles. Among them, a multitude of electrons and positrons are generated. These get deflected in the Earth's magnetic field, creating time-varying transverse currents. Thereby, the air shower emits coherent radiation in the MHz frequency range measured by radio antenna arrays on the ground such as LOPES at the KIT. This detection method provides a possibility to study cosmic rays with energies above 1017 eV. At this time, the radio technique undergoes the change from prototype experiments to large scale application. Thus, a detailed understanding of the radio emission process is needed more than ever. Before starting this work, different models made conflicting predictions on the pulse shape and the amplitude of the radio signal. It turned out that a radiation component caused by the variation of the number of charged particles within the air shower was missed in several models. The Monte Carlo code REAS2 superposing the radiation of the individual air shower electrons and positrons was one of those. At this time, it was not known how to take the missing component into account. For REAS3, we developed and implemented the endpoint formalism, a universal approach, to calculate the radiation from each single particle. For the first time, we achieve a good agreement between REAS3 and MGMR, an independent and completely different simulation approach. In contrast to REAS3, MGMR is based on a macroscopic approach and on parametrisations of the air shower. We studied the differences in the underlying air shower models to explain the remaining deviations. For comparisons with LOPES data, we developed a new method which allows "top-down" simulations of air showers. From this, we developed an air shower selection criterion based on the number of muons measured with KASCADE to take shower-to-shower fluctuations for a single event analysis into account. With

  17. Effects of future anthropogenic pollution emissions on global air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzer, A.; Zimmermann, P.; Doering, U.; van Aardenne, J.; Dentener, F.; Lelieveld, J.

    2012-04-01

    The atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC is used to estimate the impact of anthropogenic emission changes on global and regional air quality in recent and future years (2005, 2010, 2025 and 2050). The emission scenario assumes that population and economic growth largely determine energy consumption and consequent pollution sources ("business as usual"). By comparing with recent observations, it is shown that the model reproduces the main features of regional air pollution distributions though with some imprecision inherent to the coarse horizontal resolution (around 100 km). To identify possible future hot spots of poor air quality, a multi pollutant index (MPI) has been applied. It appears that East and South Asia and the Arabian Gulf regions represent such hotspots due to very high pollutant concentrations. In East Asia a range of pollutant gases and particulate matter (PM2.5) are projected to reach very high levels from 2005 onward, while in South Asia air pollution, including ozone, will grow rapidly towards the middle of the century. Around the Arabian Gulf, where natural PM2.5 concentrations are already high (desert dust), ozone levels will increase strongly. By extending the MPI definition, we calculated a Per Capita MPI (PCMPI) in which we combined population projections with those of pollution emissions. It thus appears that a rapidly increasing number of people worldwide will experience reduced air quality during the first half of the 21st century. It is projected that air quality for the global average citizen in 2050 will be comparable to the average in East Asia in the year 2005.

  18. Electrical discharge machining: occupational hygienic characterization using emission-based monitoring.

    PubMed

    Evertz, Sven; Dott, Wolfgang; Eisentraeger, Adolf

    2006-09-01

    Hazardous potential in industrial environments is normally assessed by means of immission-based sampling and analyses. This approach is not adequate, if effects of specific technical adjustments at machine tools or working processes on hygienic parameters should be assessed. This work has focused on the optimization of a manufacturing process (electrical discharge machining, EDM), with regard to risk reduction assessment. It is based on emission analyses rather than immision analyses. Several technical EDM parameters have been examined for their influence on air-based emissions. Worktools and workpieces used have a strong influence on aliphatic compounds and metals but not on volatile organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylene-benzene and xylene (BTEX)) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air emissions. Increasing the dielectric (mineral oil) level above processing location decreases BTEX, chromium, nickel and PAH emissions. Aliphatic compounds, in contrast, increase in air emissions. EDM current used has a positive relationship with all substances analyzed in air emissions. Indicative immission concentrations, as can be expected under EDM conditions, are estimated in a predictive scenario. The results of this characterization give rise to an important conclusion in that risk assessment so far has been using incorrect parameters: total aliphatic compounds. Maximum level of chromium is reached long before limit values of aliphatic compounds are exceeded. Because of the fact that metals, like chromium, also have a higher hazardous potential, metal analysis should be introduced in future risk assessment. This experimental approach, that captures total emission of the electrical discharge machine, and is not solely based on immission values, has lead to a better understanding of the production process. This information is used to extract recommendations regarding monitoring aspects and protection measures.

  19. 77 FR 60341 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines to..., ``National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion......

  20. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluates heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). Various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are reviewed. Available methods include in situ test...

  1. 40 CFR 62.15205 - What minimum amount of monitoring data must I collect with my continuous emission monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... must I collect with my continuous emission monitoring systems and is this requirement enforceable? 62... with my continuous emission monitoring systems and is this requirement enforceable? (a) Where continuous emission monitoring systems are required, obtain 1-hour arithmetic averages. Make sure...

  2. Characterization of process air emissions in automotive production plants.

    PubMed

    D'Arcy, J B; Dasch, J M; Gundrum, A B; Rivera, J L; Johnson, J H; Carlson, D H; Sutherland, J W

    2016-01-01

    During manufacturing, particles produced from industrial processes become airborne. These airborne emissions represent a challenge from an industrial hygiene and environmental standpoint. A study was undertaken to characterize the particles associated with a variety of manufacturing processes found in the auto industry. Air particulates were collected in five automotive plants covering ten manufacturing processes in the areas of casting, machining, heat treatment and assembly. Collection procedures provided information on air concentration, size distribution, and chemical composition of the airborne particulate matter for each process and insight into the physical and chemical processes that created those particles.

  3. PISCES field chemical emissions monitoring project: Site 16 emissions report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This report is one of a series sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute in the area of trace substance emissions from fossil-fuel power plants. This report presents the results of a sampling and analytical study to characterize trace substances emissions at Site 16. Site 16 is a pulverized coal-fired boiler burning a medium-sulfur bituminous coal. Site 16 employs electrostatic precipitators for particulate control. Measurements were conducted under two modifications: overfire air and a combination of overfire air with low-NO{sub x} burners. The objective of this report is to transmit the detailed data to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assist the Agency in evaluating utility trace chemical emissions as well as the associated health risk impacts -- as mandated in Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. This report does not attempt to compare the results with other sites.

  4. Noncontact Monitoring of Respiration by Dynamic Air-Pressure Sensor.

    PubMed

    Takarada, Tohru; Asada, Tetsunosuke; Sumi, Yoshihisa; Higuchi, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that a dynamic air-pressure sensor system allows respiratory status to be visually monitored for patients in minimally clothed condition. The dynamic air-pressure sensor measures vital information using changes in air pressure. To utilize this device in the field, we must clarify the influence of clothing conditions on measurement. The present study evaluated use of the dynamic air-pressure sensor system as a respiratory monitor that can reliably detect change in breathing patterns irrespective of clothing. Twelve healthy volunteers reclined on a dental chair positioned horizontally with the sensor pad for measuring air-pressure signals corresponding to respiration placed on the seat back of the dental chair in the central lumbar region. Respiratory measurements were taken under 2 conditions: (a) thinly clothed (subject lying directly on the sensor pad); and (b) thickly clothed (subject lying on the sensor pad covered with a pressure-reducing sheet). Air-pressure signals were recorded and time integration values for air pressure during each expiration were calculated. This information was compared with expiratory tidal volume measured simultaneously by a respirometer connected to the subject via face mask. The dynamic air-pressure sensor was able to receive the signal corresponding to respiration regardless of clothing conditions. A strong correlation was identified between expiratory tidal volume and time integration values for air pressure during each expiration for all subjects under both clothing conditions (0.840-0.988 for the thinly clothed condition and 0.867-0.992 for the thickly clothed condition). These results show that the dynamic air-pressure sensor is useful for monitoring respiratory physiology irrespective of clothing.

  5. 40 CFR 60.284 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... atmosphere from any lime kiln, recovery furnace, digester system, brown stock washer system, multiple-effect... lime kiln or smelt dissolving tank using a scrubber emission control device: (i) A monitoring device... each operating day for the recovery furnace and lime kiln. These 12-hour averages shall correspond...

  6. 40 CFR 60.284 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... atmosphere from any lime kiln, recovery furnace, digester system, brown stock washer system, multiple-effect... lime kiln or smelt dissolving tank using a scrubber emission control device: (i) A monitoring device... each operating day for the recovery furnace and lime kiln. These 12-hour averages shall correspond...

  7. 40 CFR 60.613 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... operator of an affected facility that uses an incinerator to seek to comply with the TOC emission limit... and having an accuracy of ±1 percent of the temperature being monitored expressed in degrees Celsius... device in the firebox equipped with a continuous recorder and having an accuracy of ±1 percent of...

  8. 40 CFR 60.703 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... that uses an incinerator to seek to comply with the TOC emission limit specified under § 60.702(a... ±1 percent of the temperature being monitored expressed in degrees Celsius or ±0.5 °C, whichever is... equipped with a continuous recorder and having an accuracy of ±1 percent of the temperature being...

  9. 40 CFR 60.613 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... operator of an affected facility that uses an incinerator to seek to comply with the TOC emission limit... and having an accuracy of ±1 percent of the temperature being monitored expressed in degrees Celsius... device in the firebox equipped with a continuous recorder and having an accuracy of ±1 percent of...

  10. 40 CFR 60.703 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... that uses an incinerator to seek to comply with the TOC emission limit specified under § 60.702(a... ±1 percent of the temperature being monitored expressed in degrees Celsius or ±0.5 °C, whichever is... equipped with a continuous recorder and having an accuracy of ±1 percent of the temperature being...

  11. 40 CFR 60.613 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... operator of an affected facility that uses an incinerator to seek to comply with the TOC emission limit... and having an accuracy of ±1 percent of the temperature being monitored expressed in degrees Celsius... device in the firebox equipped with a continuous recorder and having an accuracy of ±1 percent of...

  12. 40 CFR 60.273a - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Furnaces and Argon-Oxygen Decarburization Vessels Constructed After August 17, 1983 § 60.273a Emission... conducted at least once per day for at least three 6-minute periods when the furnace is operating in the... specified in § 60.272a(a). (d) A furnace static pressure monitoring device is not required on any...

  13. 40 CFR 60.273a - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Furnaces and Argon-Oxygen Decarburization Vessels Constructed After August 17, 1983 § 60.273a Emission... conducted at least once per day for at least three 6-minute periods when the furnace is operating in the... specified in § 60.272a(a). (d) A furnace static pressure monitoring device is not required on any...

  14. 40 CFR 60.373 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Lead-Acid Battery Manufacturing Plants § 60.373 Monitoring of emissions and operations. The owner or operator of any lead-acid battery manufacturing facility subject to the provisions of this subpart...

  15. 40 CFR 60.734 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Calciners and Dryers in Mineral Industries § 60.734 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) With the... calciner, a feldspar rotary dryer, a fire clay rotary dryer, an industrial sand fluid bed dryer, a kaolin rotary calciner, a perlite rotary dryer, a roofing granules fluid bed dryer, a roofing granules...

  16. 40 CFR 60.734 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Calciners and Dryers in Mineral Industries § 60.734 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) With the... calciner, a feldspar rotary dryer, a fire clay rotary dryer, an industrial sand fluid bed dryer, a kaolin rotary calciner, a perlite rotary dryer, a roofing granules fluid bed dryer, a roofing granules...

  17. 40 CFR 60.734 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Calciners and Dryers in Mineral Industries § 60.734 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) With the... calciner, a feldspar rotary dryer, a fire clay rotary dryer, an industrial sand fluid bed dryer, a kaolin rotary calciner, a perlite rotary dryer, a roofing granules fluid bed dryer, a roofing granules...

  18. 40 CFR 60.734 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Calciners and Dryers in Mineral Industries § 60.734 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) With the... calciner, a feldspar rotary dryer, a fire clay rotary dryer, an industrial sand fluid bed dryer, a kaolin rotary calciner, a perlite rotary dryer, a roofing granules fluid bed dryer, a roofing granules...

  19. 40 CFR 60.734 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Calciners and Dryers in Mineral Industries § 60.734 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) With the... calciner, a feldspar rotary dryer, a fire clay rotary dryer, an industrial sand fluid bed dryer, a kaolin rotary calciner, a perlite rotary dryer, a roofing granules fluid bed dryer, a roofing granules...

  20. 40 CFR 63.848 - Emission monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... must represent a complete operating cycle. (b) POM emissions from Soderberg potlines. Using the... operating cycle. The primary control system must be sampled over an 8-hour period, unless site-specific... alternative monitoring method. All runs must represent a full process cycle. (4) The owner or operator...

  1. Quality Assurance Program Plan for radionuclide airborne emissions monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, L.M.

    1993-07-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) describes the quality assurance requirements and responsibilities for radioactive airborne emissions measurements activities from regulated stacks are controlled at the Hanford Site. Detailed monitoring requirements apply to stacks exceeding 1% of the standard of 10 mrem annual effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual from operations of the Hanford Site.

  2. Standoff Stack Emissions Monitoring Using Short Range Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravel, Jean-Francois Y.; Babin, Francois; Allard, Martin

    2016-06-01

    There are well documented methods for stack emissions monitoring. These are all based on stack sampling through sampling ports in well defined conditions. Once sampled, the molecules are quantified in instruments that often use optical techniques. Unfortunately sampling ports are not found on all stacks/ducts or the use of the sampling ports cannot be planned efficiently because of operational constraints or the emissions monitoring equipment cannot be driven to a remote stack/duct. Emissions monitoring using many of the same optical techniques, but at a standoff distance, through the atmosphere, using short range high spatial resolution lidar techniques was thus attempted. Standoff absorption and Raman will be discussed and results from a field campaign will be presented along with short descriptions of the apparatus. In the first phase of these tests, the molecules that were targeted were NO and O2. Spatially resolved optical measurements allow for standoff identification and quantification of molecules, much like the standardized methods, except for the fact that it is not done in the stack, but in the plume formed by the emissions from the stack. The pros and cons will also be discussed, and in particular the problem of mass emission estimates that require the knowledge of the flow rate and the distribution of molecular concentration in the plane of measurement.

  3. Improved Estimates of Air Pollutant Emissions from Biorefinery

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Eric C. D.

    2015-11-13

    We have attempted to use detailed kinetic modeling approach for improved estimation of combustion air pollutant emissions from biorefinery. We have developed a preliminary detailed reaction mechanism for biomass combustion. Lignin is the only biomass component included in the current mechanism and methane is used as the biogas surrogate. The model is capable of predicting the combustion emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O, CH4) and criteria air pollutants (NO, NO2, CO). The results are yet to be compared with the experimental data. The current model is still in its early stages of development. Given the acknowledged complexity of biomass oxidation, as well as the components in the feed to the combustor, obviously the modeling approach and the chemistry set discussed here may undergo revision, extension, and further validation in the future.

  4. Monitoring human exposure to urban air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Barale, R.; Barrai, I.; Marrazzini, A.

    1993-10-01

    A multidisciplinary study on a general population exposed to vehicle exhaust was undertaken in Pisa in 1991. Environmental factors such as air pollution and those associated with lifestyle were studied. Meanwhile, biological and medical indicators of health condition were investigated. Chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), and micronuclei in lymphocytes were included for the assessment of the genotoxic risk. Because of the large number (3800) of subjects being investigated, standardization of protocols was compulsory. The results on data reproducibility are reported. To assess the reliability of the protocol on a large scale, the population of Porto Tolle, a village located in northeast Italy, was studied and compared to a subset of the Pisa population. Preliminary results showed that probable differences between the two populations and individuals were present in terms of SCE frequencies. The study was potentially able to detect the effects of several factors such as age, smoking, genetics, and environment. The in vitro treatment of lymphocytes with diepoxybutane confirmed the presence of more responsive individuals and permitted us to investigate the genetic predisposition to genetic damage. The possible influence of environmental factors was studied by correlation analyses with external exposure to air pollutants as well as with several lifestyle factors. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Pollution Emission Analysis of Selected Air Force Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-04-29

    percent for large non-combat tranaport engines) are proposed. Eraoke numbers wlilch will ensure Invisible aircraft smoke plumes are specified. The...standards are being violated, as well as being significant sources of smoke , ,••(3) that maintenance of the national ambient sir quality BlSndards...and reduced impact of smoke emission requires that air- craft and aircraft engines be Bubjected to a program of control compatible with their

  6. Promoting Geothermal Energy: Air Emissions Comparison and Externality Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kagel, Alyssa; Gawell, Karl

    2005-09-01

    When compared to fossil fuel energy sources such as coal and natural gas, geothermal emerges as one of the least polluting forms of energy, producing virtually zero air emissions. Geothermal offers a baseload source of reliable power that compares favorably with fossil fuel power sources. But unless legislative changes are enacted, geothermal energy will continue to be produced at only a fraction of its potential.

  7. Emission and Air Quality Modeling Tools for Near-Roadway Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission and air quality modeling tools are needed for estimating the impact of roadway emissions on air quality within a few hundred meters of major roadways. This paper reviews 9 emission and 21 air quality models, with a focus on operational tools that can be applied to the U...

  8. 76 FR 30604 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AN33 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for..., the proposed rule, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and... regarding the EPA's proposed national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants, including data,...

  9. Optical emission line monitor with background observation and cancellation

    DOEpatents

    Goff, David R.; Notestein, John E.

    1986-01-01

    A fiber optics based optical emission line monitoring system is provided in which selected spectral emission lines, such as the sodium D-line emission in coal combustion, may be detected in the presence of interferring background or blackbody radiation with emissions much greater in intensity than that of the emission line being detected. A bifurcated fiber optic light guide is adapted at the end of one branch to view the combustion light which is guided to a first bandpass filter, adapted to the common trunk end of the fiber. A portion of the light is reflected back through the common trunk portion of the fiber to a second bandpass filter adapted to the end of the other branch of the fiber. The first filter bandpass is centered at a wavelength corresponding to the emission line to be detected with a bandwidth of about three nanometers (nm). The second filter is centered at the same wavelength but having a width of about 10 nm. First and second light detectors are located to view the light passing through the first and second filters respectively. Thus, the second detector is blind to the light corresponding to the emission line of interest detected by the first detector and the difference between the two detector outputs is uniquely indicative of the intensity of only the combustion flame emission of interest. This instrument can reduce the effects of interferring blackbody radiation by greater than 20 dB.

  10. Optical emission line monitor with background observation and cancellation

    DOEpatents

    Goff, D.R.; Notestein, J.E.

    1985-01-04

    A fiber optics based optical emission line monitoring system is provided in which selected spectral emission lines, such as the sodium D-line emission in coal combustion, may be detected in the presence of interferring background or blackbody radiation with emissions much greater in intensity than that of the emission line being detected. A bifurcated fiber optic light guide is adapted at the end of one branch to view the combustion light which is guided to a first bandpass filter, adapted to the common trunk end of the fiber. A portion of the light is reflected back through the common trunk portion of the fiber to a second bandpass filter adapted to the end of the other branch of the fiber. The first filter bandpass is centered at a wavelength corresponding to the emission line to be detected with a bandwidth of about three nanometers (nm). The second filter is centered at the same wavelength but having a width of about 10 nm. First and second light detectors are located to view the light passing through the first and second filters respectively. Thus, the second detector is blind to the light corresponding to the emission line of interest detected by the first detector and the difference between the two detector outputs is uniquely indicative of the intensity of only the combustion flame emission of interest. This instrument can reduce the effects of interfering blackbody radiation by greater than 20 dB.

  11. Monitoring Surface Climate With its Emissivity Derived From Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu

    2012-01-01

    Satellite thermal infrared (IR) spectral emissivity data have been shown to be significant for atmospheric research and monitoring the Earth fs environment. Long-term and large-scale observations needed for global monitoring and research can be supplied by satellite-based remote sensing. Presented here is the global surface IR emissivity data retrieved from the last 5 years of Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) measurements observed from the MetOp-A satellite. Monthly mean surface properties (i.e., skin temperature T(sub s) and emissivity spectra epsilon(sub v) with a spatial resolution of 0.5x0.5-degrees latitude-longitude are produced to monitor seasonal and inter-annual variations. We demonstrate that surface epsilon(sub v) and T(sub s) retrieved with IASI measurements can be used to assist in monitoring surface weather and surface climate change. Surface epsilon(sub v) together with T(sub s) from current and future operational satellites can be utilized as a means of long-term and large-scale monitoring of Earth 's surface weather environment and associated changes.

  12. Air Monitoring for Hazardous Gas Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, C. Richard; Griffin, Timothy P.; Adams, Frederick W.; Naylor, Guy; Haskell, William; Floyd, David; Curley, Charles; Follistein, Duke W.

    2004-01-01

    The Hazardous Gas Detection Lab (HGDL) at Kennedy Space Center is involved in the design and development of instrumentation that can detect and quantify various hazardous gases. Traditionally these systems are designed for leak detection of the cryogenic gases used for the propulsion of the Shuttle and other vehicles. Mass spectrometers are the basis of these systems, which provide excellent quantitation, sensitivity, selectivity, response times and detection limits. A Table lists common gases monitored for aerospace applications. The first five gases, hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon are historically the focus of the HGDL.

  13. Air Quality and Road Emission Results for Fort Stewart, Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkham, Randy R.; Driver, Crystal J.; Chamness, Mickie A.; Barfuss, Brad C.

    2004-02-02

    The Directorate of Public Works Environmental & Natural Resources Division (Fort Stewart /Hunter Army Airfield) contracted with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to monitor particulate matter (PM) concentrations on Fort Stewart, Georgia. The purpose of this investigation was to establish a PM sampling network using monitoring equipment typically used in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ''saturation sampling'', to determine air quality on the installation. In this initial study, the emphasis was on training-generated PM, not receptor PM loading. The majority of PM samples were 24-hr filter-based samples with sampling frequency ranging from every other day, to once every six days synchronized with the EPA 6th day national sampling schedule. Eight measurement sites were established and used to determine spatial variability in PM concentrations and evaluate whether fluctuations in PM appear to result from training activities and forest management practices on the installation. Data collected to date indicate the average installation PM2.5 concentration is lower than that of nearby urban Savannah, Georgia. At three sites near the installation perimeter, analyses to segregate PM concentrations by direction of air flow across the installation boundary indicate that air (below 80 ft) leaving the installation contains less PM2.5 than that entering the installation. This is reinforced by the observation that air near the ground is cleaner on average than the air at the top of the canopy.

  14. Emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers: Arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1994-08-01

    Concerns over emissions of hazardous air pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue; the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants has been greatly expanded through passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Arsenic and arsenic compounds are of concern mainly because of their generally recognized toxicity. Arsenic is also regarded as one of the trace elements in coal subject to significant vaporization. This report summarizes and evaluates available published information on the arsenic content of coals mined in the United States, on arsenic emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Bituminous and lignite coals have the highest mean arsenic concentrations, with subbituminous and anthracite coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in arsenic concentrations. Arsenic emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific arsenic compounds. Variations in emission, rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of arsenic by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with cold electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 50 to 98% have been reported. Limited data for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems show widely varying removals of from 6 to 97%. On the other hand, waste incineration plants report removals in a narrow range of from 95 to 99%. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in arsenic control for existing flue-gas-cleanup technologies and summarizes the status of analytical techniques for measuring arsenic emissions from combustion sources.

  15. 40 CFR 75.13 - Specific provisions for monitoring CO 2 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Specific provisions for monitoring CO... provisions for monitoring CO 2 emissions. (a) CO 2 continuous emission monitoring system. If the owner or...” shall apply rather than “SO2 mass emissions.” (b) Determination of CO 2 emissions using appendix G...

  16. 40 CFR 75.13 - Specific provisions for monitoring CO 2 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Specific provisions for monitoring CO... provisions for monitoring CO 2 emissions. (a) CO 2 continuous emission monitoring system. If the owner or...” shall apply rather than “SO2 mass emissions.” (b) Determination of CO 2 emissions using appendix G...

  17. 40 CFR 62.15180 - How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems used? 62.15180 Section 62.15180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Continuous Emission Monitoring § 62.15180 How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used? You must use data from the continuous emission...

  18. 40 CFR 60.1725 - How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems used? 60.1725 Section 60.1725 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Continuous Emission Monitoring § 60.1725 How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used? You must use data from the continuous emission...

  19. 40 CFR 62.15180 - How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems used? 62.15180 Section 62.15180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Continuous Emission Monitoring § 62.15180 How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used? You must use data from the continuous emission...

  20. 40 CFR 60.1725 - How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems used? 60.1725 Section 60.1725 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Continuous Emission Monitoring § 60.1725 How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used? You must use data from the continuous emission...

  1. 40 CFR 62.15180 - How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems used? 62.15180 Section 62.15180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Continuous Emission Monitoring § 62.15180 How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used? You must use data from the continuous emission...

  2. 40 CFR 60.1725 - How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems used? 60.1725 Section 60.1725 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Continuous Emission Monitoring § 60.1725 How are the data from the continuous emission monitoring systems used? You must use data from the continuous emission...

  3. Aromatic compound emissions from municipal solid waste landfill: Emission factors and their impact on air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanjun; Lu, Wenjing; Guo, Hanwen; Ming, Zhongyuan; Wang, Chi; Xu, Sai; Liu, Yanting; Wang, Hongtao

    2016-08-01

    Aromatic compounds (ACs) are major components of volatile organic compounds emitted from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The ACs emissions from the working face of a landfill in Beijing were studied from 2014 to 2015 using a modified wind tunnel system. Emission factors (EFs) of fugitive ACs emissions from the working face of the landfill were proposed according to statistical analyses to cope with their uncertainty. And their impacts on air quality were assessed for the first time. Toluene was the dominant AC with an average emission rate of 38.8 ± 43.0 μg m-2 s-1 (at a sweeping velocity of 0.26 m s-1). An increasing trend in AC emission rates was observed from 12:00 to 18:00 and then peaked at 21:00 (314.3 μg m-2 s-1). The probability density functions (PDFs) of AC emission rates could be classified into three distributions: Gaussian, log-normal, and logistic. EFs of ACs from the working face of the landfill were proposed according to the 95th percentile cumulative emission rates and the wind effects on ACs emissions. The annual ozone formation and secondary organic aerosol formation potential caused by AC emissions from landfills in Beijing were estimated to be 8.86 × 105 kg year-1 and 3.46 × 104 kg year-1, respectively. Toluene, m + p-xylene, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were the most significant contributors to air pollution. Although ACs pollutions from landfills accounts for less percentage (∼0.1%) compared with other anthropogenic sources, their fugitive emissions which cannot be controlled efficiently deserve more attention and further investigation.

  4. Modeling Air Pollution in Beijing: Emission Reduction vs. Meteorological Influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risse, Eicke-Alexander; Hao, Nan; Trautmann, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    This case study uses the Chemical Transport Model WRF-Chem to simulate and measure the efficiency of temporal large-scale emission reductions under different meteorological conditions. The Nov. 2014 Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit provides a unique opportunity for this study due to the extraordinarily good and well-measured air quality which is believed to be induced by intense emission- reduction measures by the Chinese government. Four cases are simulated to inter-compare between favorable und unfavorablemeteorological conditions (in terms of air quality) as well as reduced and non-reduced emissions. Key variables of the simulation results are evaluated against AERONET measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and air-quality measurements by the Chinese Ministry of Environment (CME). The inter-comparison is then performed on time- and volume-averaged total concentrations of the key variables Nitrogenous Oxide (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10).The simulation settings and some important facts about the model are shown in table 1.

  5. Journal Article: the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA has established a National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) to determine the temporal and geographical variability of atmospheric CDDs, CDFs and coplanar PCBs at rural and nonimpacted locations throughout the United States. Currently operating at 32 sampling stations, NDAMN has three primary purposes: (1) to determine the atmospheric levels and occurrences of dioxin-like compounds in rural and agricultural areas where livestock, poultry and animal feed crops are grown; (2) to provide measurements of atmospheric levels of dioxin-like compounds in different geographic regions of the U.S.; and (3) to provide information regarding the long-range transport of dioxin-like compounds in air over the U.S. Designed in 1997, NDAMN has been implemented in phases, with the first phase consisting of 9 monitoring stations. Previously EPA has reported on the preliminary results of monitoring at 9 rural locations from June1998 through June 19991. The one-year measurement at the 9 stations indicated an annual mean TEQDF–WHO98 air concentration of 12 fg m-3. Since this reporting, NDAMN has been extended to include additional stations. The following is intended to be an update to this national monitoring effort. We are reporting the air monitoring results of 22 NDAMN stations operational over 9 sampling moments from June 1998 to December 1999. Fifteen stations are in rural areas, and 6 are located in National Parks. One station is located in suburban Wa

  6. Modeling, Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of Spacecraft Air Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, W. Fred; Skliar, Mikhail; Narayan, Anand; Morgenthaler, George W.; Smith, Gerald J.

    1996-01-01

    Progress and results in the development of an integrated air quality modeling, monitoring, fault detection, and isolation system are presented. The focus was on development of distributed models of the air contaminants transport, the study of air quality monitoring techniques based on the model of transport process and on-line contaminant concentration measurements, and sensor placement. Different approaches to the modeling of spacecraft air contamination are discussed, and a three-dimensional distributed parameter air contaminant dispersion model applicable to both laminar and turbulent transport is proposed. A two-dimensional approximation of a full scale transport model is also proposed based on the spatial averaging of the three dimensional model over the least important space coordinate. A computer implementation of the transport model is considered and a detailed development of two- and three-dimensional models illustrated by contaminant transport simulation results is presented. The use of a well established Kalman filtering approach is suggested as a method for generating on-line contaminant concentration estimates based on both real time measurements and the model of contaminant transport process. It is shown that high computational requirements of the traditional Kalman filter can render difficult its real-time implementation for high-dimensional transport model and a novel implicit Kalman filtering algorithm is proposed which is shown to lead to an order of magnitude faster computer implementation in the case of air quality monitoring.

  7. 77 FR 58219 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Hard and Decorative Chromium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ...This action finalizes the residual risk and technology review conducted for the following source categories regulated under two national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP): hard and decorative chromium electroplating and chromium anodizing tanks, and steel pickling--HCl process facilities and hydrochloric acid regeneration plants. On October 21, 2010, EPA proposed......

  8. Feasibility of wake vortex monitoring systems for air terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D. J.; Shrider, K. R.; Lawrence, T. R.

    1972-01-01

    Wake vortex monitoring systems, especially those using laser Doppler sensors, were investigated. The initial phases of the effort involved talking with potential users (air traffic controllers, pilots, etc.) of a wake vortex monitoring system to determine system requirements from the user's viewpoint. These discussions involved the volumes of airspace to be monitored for vortices, and potential methods of using the monitored vortex data once the data are available. A subsequent task led to determining a suitable mathematical model of the vortex phenomena and developing a mathematical model of the laser Doppler sensor for monitoring the vortex flow field. The mathematical models were used in combination to help evaluate the capability of laser Doppler instrumentation in monitoring vortex flow fields both in the near vicinity of the sensor (within 1 kilometer and at long ranges(10 kilometers).

  9. The 1977 emissions inventory for southeastern Virginia. [environment model of air quality based on exhaust emission from urban areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, D. A.; Remsberg, E. E.; Woodbury, G. E.; Quinn, L. C.

    1979-01-01

    Regional tropospheric air pollution modeling and data compilation to simulate the time variation of species concentrations in and around an urban area is discussed. The methods used to compile an emissions inventory are outlined. Emissions factors for vehicular travel in the urban area are presented along with an analysis of the emission gases. Emission sources other than vehicular including industrial wastes, residential solid waste disposal, aircraft emissions, and emissions from the railroads are investigated.

  10. Air Force Engineering and Services Laboratory Herbicide Orange Monitoring Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    Air Force leaders with the latest available cata in the continuing environmental monitoring and evaluation studies at these critical sites... monitoring and evaluation studies ot areas on Johnston Island, the Naval Construction Battalion Center, and Eglin APB, previously used for the... and evaluation program by collecting samples from NCBC, JI, and Eglin AFB on a semiannual basis. This report summarizes the data on samples collected

  11. 75 FR 48894 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Revisions to Emissions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... and maintain the National Ambient Air Quality Standards that EPA has established for criteria... Bernalillo County to report emissions location information, PM 2.5 emissions, and ammonia emissions to...

  12. 40 CFR 60.2941 - What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... continuous emission monitoring systems? 60.2941 Section 60.2941 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Monitoring § 60.2941 What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems? (a) Conduct annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems no more than 12 months after...

  13. 40 CFR 60.2939 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Qualification Monitoring § 60.2939 What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install? (a) You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for carbon... carbon monoxide. (b) You must install, evaluate, and operate each continuous emission monitoring...

  14. 40 CFR 60.2939 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 60.2939 What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install? (a) You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for carbon monoxide and for oxygen. You must..., evaluate, and operate each continuous emission monitoring system according to the “Monitoring...

  15. 40 CFR 60.2939 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 60.2939 What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install? (a) You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for carbon monoxide and for oxygen. You must..., evaluate, and operate each continuous emission monitoring system according to the “Monitoring...

  16. 40 CFR 60.2941 - What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... continuous emission monitoring systems? 60.2941 Section 60.2941 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Monitoring § 60.2941 What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems? (a) Conduct annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems no more than 12 months after...

  17. 40 CFR 60.2939 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Qualification Monitoring § 60.2939 What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install? (a) You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for carbon... carbon monoxide. (b) You must install, evaluate, and operate each continuous emission monitoring...

  18. 40 CFR 60.2939 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Qualification Monitoring § 60.2939 What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install? (a) You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for carbon... carbon monoxide. (b) You must install, evaluate, and operate each continuous emission monitoring...

  19. Evaluation of emissions and air quality in megacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurjar, B. R.; Butler, T. M.; Lawrence, M. G.; Lelieveld, J.

    Several concepts and indicators exist to measure and rank urban areas in terms of their socio-economic, infrastructural, and environment-related parameters. The World Bank regularly publishes the World Development Indicators (WDI), and the United Nations reports the City Development Index (CDI) and also ranks megacities on the basis of their population size. Here, we evaluate and rank megacities in terms of their trace gas and particle emissions and ambient air quality. Besides ranking the megacities according to their surface area and population density, we evaluate them based on carbon monoxide (CO) emissions per capita, per year, and per unit surface area. Further, we rank the megacities according to ambient atmospheric concentrations of criteria pollutants, notably total suspended particles (TSP), sulfur dioxide (SO 2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). We propose a multi-pollutant index (MPI) considering the combined level of the three criteria pollutants (i.e., TSP, SO 2, and NO 2) in view of the World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines for Air Quality. Of 18 megacities considered here 5 classify as having "fair" air quality, and 13 as "poor". The megacities with the highest MPI, Dhaka, Beijing, Cairo, and Karachi, most urgently need reduction of air pollution.

  20. Using GIS to study the health impact of air emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Dent, A.L.; Fowler, D.A.; Kaplan, B.M.; Zarus, G.M.

    1999-07-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is a fast-developing technology with an ever-increasing number of applications. Air dispersion modeling is a well-established discipline that can produce results in a spatial context. The marriage of these two application is optimal because it leverages the predictive capacity of modeling with the data management, analysis, and display capabilities of GIS. In the public health arena, exposure estimation techniques are invaluable. The utilization of air emission data, such as US EPA Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data, and air dispersion modeling with GIS enable public health professionals to identify and define the potentially exposed population, estimate the health risk burden of that population, and determine correlations between point-based health outcome results with estimated health risk.