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Sample records for air emissions resulting

  1. Results of the air emission research study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air quality was monitored in beef mono-slope barns. The objectives of the study were 1) to gather baseline data for the levels of gas emissions and particulate matter from beef mono-slope facilities, 2) evaluate the effect of two different manure handling systems on air quality, and 3) provide infor...

  2. Air Quality and Road Emission Results for Fort Stewart, Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkham, Randy R.; Driver, Crystal J.; Chamness, Mickie A.; Barfuss, Brad C.

    2004-02-02

    The Directorate of Public Works Environmental & Natural Resources Division (Fort Stewart /Hunter Army Airfield) contracted with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to monitor particulate matter (PM) concentrations on Fort Stewart, Georgia. The purpose of this investigation was to establish a PM sampling network using monitoring equipment typically used in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ''saturation sampling'', to determine air quality on the installation. In this initial study, the emphasis was on training-generated PM, not receptor PM loading. The majority of PM samples were 24-hr filter-based samples with sampling frequency ranging from every other day, to once every six days synchronized with the EPA 6th day national sampling schedule. Eight measurement sites were established and used to determine spatial variability in PM concentrations and evaluate whether fluctuations in PM appear to result from training activities and forest management practices on the installation. Data collected to date indicate the average installation PM2.5 concentration is lower than that of nearby urban Savannah, Georgia. At three sites near the installation perimeter, analyses to segregate PM concentrations by direction of air flow across the installation boundary indicate that air (below 80 ft) leaving the installation contains less PM2.5 than that entering the installation. This is reinforced by the observation that air near the ground is cleaner on average than the air at the top of the canopy.

  3. [Implementation results of emission standards of air pollutants for thermal power plants: a numerical simulation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhan-Shan; Pan, Li-Bo

    2014-03-01

    The emission inventory of air pollutants from the thermal power plants in the year of 2010 was set up. Based on the inventory, the air quality of the prediction scenarios by implementation of both 2003-version emission standard and the new emission standard were simulated using Models-3/CMAQ. The concentrations of NO2, SO2, and PM2.5, and the deposition of nitrogen and sulfur in the year of 2015 and 2020 were predicted to investigate the regional air quality improvement by the new emission standard. The results showed that the new emission standard could effectively improve the air quality in China. Compared with the implementation results of the 2003-version emission standard, by 2015 and 2020, the area with NO2 concentration higher than the emission standard would be reduced by 53.9% and 55.2%, the area with SO2 concentration higher than the emission standard would be reduced by 40.0%, the area with nitrogen deposition higher than 1.0 t x km(-2) would be reduced by 75.4% and 77.9%, and the area with sulfur deposition higher than 1.6 t x km(-2) would be reduced by 37.1% and 34.3%, respectively.

  4. Cleaning Products and Air Fresheners: Emissions and ResultingConcentrations of Glycol Ethers and Terpenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Brett C.; Destaillat, Hugo; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nazaroff,William W.

    2005-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to quantify emissions and concentrations of glycol ethers and terpenoids from cleaning product and air freshener use in a 50-m{sup 3} room ventilated at {approx}0.5 h{sup -1}. Five cleaning products were applied full-strength (FS); three were additionally used in dilute solution. FS application of pine-oil cleaner (POC) yielded 1-h concentrations of 10-1300 {micro}g m{sup -3} for individual terpenoids, including {alpha}-terpinene (90-120), d-limonene (1000-1100), terpinolene (900-1300), and {alpha}-terpineol (260-700). One-hour concentrations of 2-butoxyethanol and/or dlimonene were 300-6000 {micro}g m{sup -3} after FS use of other products. During FS application including rinsing with sponge and wiping with towels, fractional emissions (mass volatilized/dispensed) of 2-butoxyethanol and d-limonene were 50-100% with towels retained, {approx}25-50% when towels were removed after cleaning. Lower fractions (2-11%) resulted from dilute use. Fractional emissions of terpenes from FS use of POC were {approx}35-70% with towels retained, 20-50% with towels removed. During floor cleaning with dilute solution of POC, 7-12% of dispensed terpenes were emitted. Terpene alcohols were emitted at lower fractions: 7-30% (FS, towels retained), 2-9% (FS, towels removed), and 2-5% (dilute). During air-freshener use, d-limonene, dihydromyrcenol, linalool, linalyl acetate, and {beta}-citronellol were emitted at 35-180 mg d{sup -1} over three days while air concentrations averaged 30-160 {micro}g m{sup -3}.

  5. Estimation of maximum annual ambient concentrations of air toxics resulting from industrial facility emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Rehm, R.M. ); Vandenberg, J.J.; Trutna, M.A.; Painter, D.F. )

    1988-01-01

    A screening tool is also needed by S/L agencies and EPA to evaluate initially the large amounts of data now being submitted by industry pursuant to Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. Here, while thousands of sources are required to file data submissions on their releases to the environment of over 300 chemicals and classes of compounds, the information on releases to the atmosphere will only include plant-wide, annual stack and fugitive emissions. The result will be a challenge for governmental officials to identify and prioritize source problems in order to effectively respond to inquiries from concerned citizens. Certainly, the screening tool needed for HRPS identification could also be put to constructive use in determining which SARA sources should be analyzed in more detail. This paper summarizes the authors' progress to date in developing this tool.

  6. Synergy between Emissions Verification for Climate and Air Quality: Results from Modeling Analysis over the Contiguous US using CMAQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Bambha, R.; Pinto, J. P.; Zeng, T.; Michelsen, H. A.

    2013-12-01

    The synergy between emissions-verification exercises for fossil-fuel CO2 and traditional air pollutants (TAPs, e.g., NOx, SO2, CO, and PM) stems from the common physical processes underlying the generation, transport, and perturbations of their emissions. Better understanding and characterizing such a synergetic relationship are of great interest and benefit for science and policy. To this end, we have been developing a modeling framework that allows for studying CO2 along with TAPs on regional-through-urban scales. The framework is based on the EPA Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and has been implemented on a domain over the contiguous US, where abundant observational data and complete emissions information is available. In this presentation, we will show results from a comprehensive analysis of atmospheric CO2 and an array of TAPs observed from multiple networks and platforms (in situ and satellite observations) and those simulated by CMAQ over the contiguous US for a full year of 2007. We will first present the model configurations and input data used for CMAQ CO2 simulations and the results from model evaluations [1]. In light of the unique properties of CO2 compared to TAPs, we tested the sensitivity of model-simulated CO2 to different initial and boundary conditions, biosphere-atmosphere bidirectional fluxes and fossil-fuel emissions. We then examined the variability of CO2 and TAPs simulated by CMAQ and observed from the NOAA ESRL tall-tower network, the EPA AQS network, and satellites (e.g., SCIAMACHY and OMI) at various spatial and temporal scales. Finally, we diagnosed in CMAQ the roles of fluxes and transport in regulating the covariance between CO2 and TAPs manifested in both surface concentrations and column-integrated densities. We will discuss the implications from these results on how to understand trends and characteristics fossil-fuel emissions by exploiting and combining currently available observational and modeling

  7. 2009 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2010-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2009. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  8. 2008 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2009-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2008. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  9. 2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2011-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  10. Carbon dioxide emissions from international air freight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howitt, Oliver J. A.; Carruthers, Michael A.; Smith, Inga J.; Rodger, Craig J.

    2011-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from international air transport were excluded from reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol, partly because of difficulties with quantifying and apportioning such emissions. Although there has been a great deal of recent research into calculating emissions from aeroplane operations globally, publicly available emissions factors for air freight emissions are scarce. This paper presents a methodology to calculate the amount of fuel burnt and the resulting CO 2 emissions from New Zealand's internationally air freighted imports and exports in 2007. This methodology could be applied to other nations and/or regions. Using data on fuel uplift, air freight and air craft movements, and assumptions on mean passenger loadings and the mass of passengers and air freight, CO 2 emissions factors of 0.82 kg CO 2 per t-km and 0.69 kg CO 2 per t-km for short-haul and long-haul journeys, respectively, were calculated. The total amount of fuel consumed for the international air transport of New Zealand's imports and exports was calculated to be 0.21 Mt and 0.17 Mt respectively, with corresponding CO 2 emissions of 0.67 Mt and 0.53 Mt.

  11. Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zohner, Steven K

    2000-05-01

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  12. Effect of Air Temperature and Relative Humidity at Various Fuel-Air Ratios on Exhaust Emissions on a Per-Mode Basis of an AVCO Lycoming 0-320 Diad Light Aircraft Engine: Volume 1: Results and Plotted Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Meng, P. R.; Kempe, E. E., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A carbureted four cylinder air cooled 0-320 DIAD Lycoming aircraft engine was tested to establish the effects of air temperature and humidity at various fuel-air ratios on the exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis. The test conditions include carburetor lean out at air temperatures of 50, 59, 80, and 100 F at relative humidities of 0, 30, 60, and 80 percent. Temperature humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased. Even at a fixed fuel air ratio, the HC emissions increase and the NOx emissions decrease at the higher values of air temperature and humidity.

  13. Toxic effects of air freshener emissions.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R C; Anderson, J H

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate whether emissions of a commercial air freshener produced acute toxic effects in a mammalian species, the authors allowed male Swiss-Webster mice to breathe the emissions of one commercial-brand solid air freshener for 1 h. Sensory irritation and pulmonary irritation were evaluated with the ASTM-E-981 test. A computerized version of this test measured the duration of the break at the end of inspiration and the duration of the pause at the end of expiration--two parameters subject to alteration via respiratory effects of airborne toxins. Measurements of expiratory flow velocity indicated changes in airflow limitation. The authors then subjected mice to a functional observational battery, the purpose of which was to probe for changes in nervous system function. Emissions of this air freshener at several concentrations (including concentrations to which many individuals are actually exposed) caused increases in sensory and pulmonary irritation, decreases in airflow velocity, and abnormalities of behavior measured by the functional observational battery score. The test atmosphere was subjected to gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy, and the authors noted the presence of chemicals with known irritant and neurotoxic properties. The Material Safety Data Sheet for the air freshener indicated that there was a potential for toxic effects in humans. The air freshener used in the study did not diminish the effect of other pollutants tested in combination. The results demonstrated that the air freshener may have actually exacerbated indoor air pollution via addition of toxic chemicals to the atmosphere.

  14. 2014 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David Patrick

    2015-07-21

    This report describes the emissions of airborne radionuclides from operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2014, and the resulting off-site dose from these emissions. This document fulfills the requirements established by the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H – Emissions of Radionuclides other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities, commonly referred to as the Radionuclide NESHAP or Rad-NESHAP. Compliance with this regulation and preparation of this document is the responsibility of LANL’s RadNESHAP compliance program, which is part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 6.

  15. Biofuels, vehicle emissions, and urban air quality.

    PubMed

    Wallington, Timothy J; Anderson, James E; Kurtz, Eric M; Tennison, Paul J

    2016-07-18

    Increased biofuel content in automotive fuels impacts vehicle tailpipe emissions via two mechanisms: fuel chemistry and engine calibration. Fuel chemistry effects are generally well recognized, while engine calibration effects are not. It is important that investigations of the impact of biofuels on vehicle emissions consider the impact of engine calibration effects and are conducted using vehicles designed to operate using such fuels. We report the results of emission measurements from a Ford F-350 fueled with either fossil diesel or a biodiesel surrogate (butyl nonanoate) and demonstrate the critical influence of engine calibration on NOx emissions. Using the production calibration the emissions of NOx were higher with the biodiesel fuel. Using an adjusted calibration (maintaining equivalent exhaust oxygen concentration to that of the fossil diesel at the same conditions by adjusting injected fuel quantities) the emissions of NOx were unchanged, or lower, with biodiesel fuel. For ethanol, a review of the literature data addressing the impact of ethanol blend levels (E0-E85) on emissions from gasoline light-duty vehicles in the U.S. is presented. The available data suggest that emissions of NOx, non-methane hydrocarbons, particulate matter (PM), and mobile source air toxics (compounds known, or suspected, to cause serious health impacts) from modern gasoline and diesel vehicles are not adversely affected by increased biofuel content over the range for which the vehicles are designed to operate. Future increases in biofuel content when accomplished in concert with changes in engine design and calibration for new vehicles should not result in problematic increases in emissions impacting urban air quality and may in fact facilitate future required emissions reductions. A systems perspective (fuel and vehicle) is needed to fully understand, and optimize, the benefits of biofuels when blended into gasoline and diesel. PMID:27112132

  16. Biofuels, vehicle emissions, and urban air quality.

    PubMed

    Wallington, Timothy J; Anderson, James E; Kurtz, Eric M; Tennison, Paul J

    2016-07-18

    Increased biofuel content in automotive fuels impacts vehicle tailpipe emissions via two mechanisms: fuel chemistry and engine calibration. Fuel chemistry effects are generally well recognized, while engine calibration effects are not. It is important that investigations of the impact of biofuels on vehicle emissions consider the impact of engine calibration effects and are conducted using vehicles designed to operate using such fuels. We report the results of emission measurements from a Ford F-350 fueled with either fossil diesel or a biodiesel surrogate (butyl nonanoate) and demonstrate the critical influence of engine calibration on NOx emissions. Using the production calibration the emissions of NOx were higher with the biodiesel fuel. Using an adjusted calibration (maintaining equivalent exhaust oxygen concentration to that of the fossil diesel at the same conditions by adjusting injected fuel quantities) the emissions of NOx were unchanged, or lower, with biodiesel fuel. For ethanol, a review of the literature data addressing the impact of ethanol blend levels (E0-E85) on emissions from gasoline light-duty vehicles in the U.S. is presented. The available data suggest that emissions of NOx, non-methane hydrocarbons, particulate matter (PM), and mobile source air toxics (compounds known, or suspected, to cause serious health impacts) from modern gasoline and diesel vehicles are not adversely affected by increased biofuel content over the range for which the vehicles are designed to operate. Future increases in biofuel content when accomplished in concert with changes in engine design and calibration for new vehicles should not result in problematic increases in emissions impacting urban air quality and may in fact facilitate future required emissions reductions. A systems perspective (fuel and vehicle) is needed to fully understand, and optimize, the benefits of biofuels when blended into gasoline and diesel.

  17. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Guidance for Calculating Emission Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Daryl; Papar, Riyaz; Wright, Dr. Anthony

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule (i.e., subpart DDDDD of CFR part 63). This document divides Boiler System conservation opportunities into four functional areas: 1) the boiler itself, 2) the condensate recovery system, 3) the distribution system, and 4) the end uses of the steam. This document provides technical information for documenting emissions credits proposed in the Implementation Plan for functional areas 2) though 4). This document does not include efficiency improvements related to the Boiler tune-ups.

  18. Projection of hazardous air pollutant emissions to future years.

    PubMed

    Strum, Madeleine; Cook, Rich; Thurman, James; Ensley, Darrell; Pope, Anne; Palma, Ted; Mason, Richard; Michaels, Harvey; Shedd, Stephen

    2006-08-01

    Projecting a hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emission inventory to future years can provide valuable information for air quality management activities such as prediction of program successes and helping to assess future priorities. We have projected the 1999 National Emission Inventory for HAPs to numerous future years up to 2020 using the following tools and data: the Emissions Modeling System for Hazardous Air Pollutants (EMS-HAP), the National Mobile Inventory Model (NMIM), emission reduction information resulting from national standards and economic growth data. This paper discusses these projection tools, the underlying data, limitations and the results. The results presented include total HAP emissions (sum of pollutants) and toxicity-weighted HAP emissions for cancer and respiratory noncancer effects. Weighting emissions by toxicity does not consider fate, transport, or location and behavior of receptor populations and can only be used to estimate relative risks of direct emissions. We show these projections, along with historical emission trends. The data show that stationary source programs under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and mobile source programs which reduce hydrocarbon and particulate matter emissions, as well as toxic emission performance standards for reformulated gasoline, have contributed to and are expected to continue to contribute to large declines in air toxics emissions, in spite of economic and population growth. We have also analyzed the particular HAPs that dominate the source sectors to better understand the historical and future year trends and the differences across sectors.

  19. Biogenic organic emissions, air quality and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, A. B.

    2015-12-01

    Living organisms produce copious amounts of a diverse array of metabolites including many volatile organic compounds that are released into the atmosphere. These compounds participate in numerous chemical reactions that influence the atmospheric abundance of important air pollutants and short-lived climate forcers including organic aerosol, ozone and methane. The production and release of these organics are strongly influenced by environmental conditions including air pollution, temperature, solar radiation, and water availability and they are highly sensitive to stress and extreme events. As a result, releases of biogenic organics to the atmosphere have an impact on, and are sensitive to, air quality and climate leading to potential feedback couplings. Their role in linking air quality and climate is conceptually clear but an accurate quantitative representation is needed for predictive models. Progress towards this goal will be presented including numerical model development and assessments of the predictive capability of the Model of Emission of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). Recent studies of processes controlling the magnitude and variations in biogenic organic emissions will be described and observations of their impact on atmospheric composition will be shown. Recent advances and priorities for future research will be discussed including laboratory process studies, long-term measurements, multi-scale regional studies, global satellite observations, and the development of a next generation model for simulating land-atmosphere chemical exchange.

  20. Regional emissions of air pollutants in China.

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, D. G.

    1998-10-05

    As part of the China-MAP program, sponsored by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration, regional inventories of air pollutants emitted in China are being characterized, in order that the atmospheric chemistry over China can be more fully understood and the resulting ambient concentrations in Chinese cities and the deposition levels to Chinese ecosystems be determined with better confidence. In addition, the contributions of greenhouse gases from China and of acidic aerosols that counteract global warming are being quantified. This paper presents preliminary estimates of the emissions of some of the major air pollutants in China: sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), and black carbon (C). Emissions are estimated for each of the 27 regions of China included in the RAINS-Asia simulation model and are subsequently distributed to a 1{degree} x 1{degree} grid using appropriate disaggregation factors. Emissions from all sectors of the Chinese economy are considered, including the combustion of biofuels in rural homes. Emissions from larger power plants are calculated individually and allocated to the grid accordingly. Data for the period 1990-1995 are being developed, as well as projections for the future under alternative assumptions about economic growth and environmental control.

  1. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea; Wahl, Linnea

    2008-06-13

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). The EPA regulates radionuclide emissions that may be released from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or that may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2007, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor stack or building emissions sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]), there were no diffuse emissions, and there were no unplanned emissions. Emissions from minor sources either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities received for use or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 3.0, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2007 is 1.2 x 10{sup -2} mrem/yr (1.2 x 10{sup -4} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) EPA dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 3.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (3.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2007.

  2. Groundwater treatment with zero air emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Cheuvront, D.A. ); Giggy, C.L.; Loven, C.G. ); Swett, G.H. )

    1990-08-01

    Air emissions from the treatment of volatile organic compound (VOC) - contaminated groundwater are a growing problem in the US. Historically, air stripping has been used to remove VOCs from contaminated groundwater. Air stripping technology is a cross media treatment technique, i.e., it solves a groundwater problem by transferring contamination to the atmosphere. In response to the air pollution problem created by air stripping, the public, air quality regulatory agencies, the federal government and private industry are exerting pressure to eliminate and/or reduce air emissions from the clean-up of contaminated groundwater. These forces make it desirable to consider alternative and innovative technologies for the treatment of groundwater contaminated with VOCs.

  3. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea

    2010-06-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40CFR61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2009, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2009 is 7.0 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (7.0 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.5 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.5 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2009.

  4. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea

    2009-05-21

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2008, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources include more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2008 is 5.2 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (5.2 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2008.

  5. AIR EMISSIONS FROM SCRAP TIRE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  6. Evaluating Radionuclide Air Emission Stack Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2002-12-16

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Hanford Site, Washington. These facilities are subject to Clean Air Act regulations that require sampling of radionuclide air emissions from some of these facilities. A revision to an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard on sampling radioactive air emissions has recently been incorporated into federal and state regulations and a re-evaluation of affected facilities is being performed to determine the impact. The revised standard requires a well-mixed sampling location that must be demonstrated through tests specified in the standard. It also carries a number of maintenance requirements, including inspections and cleaning of the sampling system. Evaluations were performed in 2000 – 2002 on two PNNL facilities to determine the operational and design impacts of the new requirements. The evaluation included inspection and cleaning maintenance activities plus testing to determine if the current sampling locations meet criteria in the revised standard. Results show a wide range of complexity in inspection and cleaning activities depending on accessibility of the system, ease of removal, and potential impact on building operations (need for outages). As expected, these High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA)-filtered systems did not show deposition significant enough to cause concerns with blocking of the nozzle or other parts of the system. The tests for sampling system location in the revised standard also varied in complexity depending on accessibility of the sample site and use of a scale model can alleviate many issues. Previous criteria to locate sampling systems at eight duct diameters downstream and two duct diameters upstream of the nearest disturbances is no guarantee of meeting criteria in the revised standard. A computational fluid dynamics model was helpful in understanding flow and

  7. Controlling air emissions from incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Foisy, M.B.; Li, R.; Chattapadhyay, A.

    1994-04-01

    Last year, EPA published final rules establishing technical standards for the use and disposal of wastewater biosolids (40 CFR, Part 503). Subpart E specifically regulates the operations of and emissions from municipal wastewater biosolids incinerators.

  8. Incinerator air emissions: Inhalation exposure perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, H.W.

    1995-12-01

    Incineration is often proposed as the treatment of choice for processing diverse wastes, particularly hazardous wastes. Where such treatment is proposed, people are often fearful that it will adversely affect their health. Unfortunately, information presented to the public about incinerators often does not include any criteria or benchmarks for evaluating such facilities. This article describes a review of air emission data from regulatory trial burns in a large prototype incinerator, operated at design capacity by the US Army to destroy chemical warfare materials. It uses several sets of criteria to gauge the threat that these emissions pose to public health. Incinerator air emission levels are evaluated with respect to various toxicity screening levels and ambient air levels of the same pollutants. Also, emission levels of chlorinated dioxins and furans are compared with emission levels of two common combustion sources. Such comparisons can add to a community`s understanding of health risks associated with an incinerator. This article focuses only on the air exposure/inhalation pathway as related to human health. It does not address other potential human exposure pathways or the possible effects of emissions on the local ecology, both of which should also be examined during a complete analysis of any major new facility.

  9. Animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to air emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, James R.; Schreiber, R. Kent

    1984-07-01

    With existing and proposed air-quality regulations, ecological disasters resulting from air emissions such as those observed at Copperhill, Tennessee, and Sudbury, Ontario, are unlikely. Current air-quality standards, however, may not protect ecosystems from subacute and chronic exposure to air emissions. The encouragement of the use of coal for energy production and the development of the fossil-fuel industries, including oil shales, tar sands, and coal liquification, point to an increase and spread of fossil-fuel emissions and the potential to influence a number of natural ecosystems. This paper reviews the reported responses of ecosystems to air-borne pollutants and discusses the use of animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to these pollutants. Animal species and populations can act as important indicators of biotic and abiotic responses of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. These responses can indicate long-term trends in ecosystem health and productivity, chemical cycling, genetics, and regulation. For short-term trends, fish and wildlife also serve as monitors of changes in community structure, signaling food-web contamination, as well as providing a measure of ecosystem vitality. Information is presented to show not only the importance of animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to air-quality degradation, but also their value as air-pollution indices, that is, as air-quality-related values (AQRV), required in current air-pollution regulation.

  10. Working Toward Policy-Relevant Air Quality Emissions Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, T.

    2010-12-01

    Though much work has been done to develop accurate chemical emission inventories, few publicly available inventories are appropriate for realistic policy analysis. Emissions from the electricity and transportation sectors, in particular, respond in complex ways to policy, technology, and energy use change. Many widely used inventories, such as the EPA National Emissions Inventory, are well-suited for modeling current air quality, but do not have the specificity needed to address "what if?" questions. Changes in electricity demand, fuel prices, new power sources, and emission controls all influence the emissions from regional power production, requiring a plant-by-plant assessment to capture the spatially explicit impacts. Similarly, land use, freight distribution, or driving behavior will yield differentiated transportation emissions for urban areas, suburbs, and rural highways. We here present results from three recent research projects at the University of Wisconsin—Madison, where bottom-up emission inventories for electricity, freight transport, and urban vehicle use were constructed to support policy-relevant air quality research. These three studies include: 1) Using the MyPower electricity dispatch model to calculate emissions and air quality impacts of Renewable Portfolio Standards and other carbon-management strategies; 2) Using advanced vehicle and commodity flow data from the Federal Highway Administration to evaluate the potential to shift commodities from truck to rail (assuming expanded infrastructure), and assess a range of alternative fuel suggestions; and 3) Working with urban planners to connect urban density with vehicle use to evaluate the air quality impacts of smart-growth in major Midwest cities. Drawing on the results of these three studies, and on challenges overcome in their execution, we discuss the current state of policy-relevant emission dataset generation, as well as techniques and attributes that need to be further refined in order

  11. Probing the radio emission from air showers with polarization measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antičić, T.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bardenet, R.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Foerster, N.; Fox, B. D.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; PeÂķala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Pontz, M.; Porcelli, A.; Preda, T.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Straub, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Taşcǎu, O.; Thao, N. T.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    The emission of radio waves from air showers has been attributed to the so-called geomagnetic emission process. At frequencies around 50 MHz this process leads to coherent radiation which can be observed with rather simple setups. The direction of the electric field induced by this emission process depends only on the local magnetic field vector and on the incoming direction of the air shower. We report on measurements of the electric field vector where, in addition to this geomagnetic component, another component has been observed that cannot be described by the geomagnetic emission process. The data provide strong evidence that the other electric field component is polarized radially with respect to the shower axis, in agreement with predictions made by Askaryan who described radio emission from particle showers due to a negative charge excess in the front of the shower. Our results are compared to calculations which include the radiation mechanism induced by this charge-excess process.

  12. Animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to air emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, J.R.; Schreiber, R.K.

    1984-07-01

    With existing and proposed air-quality regulations, ecological disasters resulting from air emissions such as those observed at Copperhill, Tennessee, and Sudbury, Ontario, are unlikely. Current air-quality standards, however, may not protect ecosystems from subacute and chronic exposure to air emissions. The encouragement of the use of coal for energy production and the development of the fossil-fuel industries, including oil shales, tar sands, and coal liquification, point to an increase and spread of fossil-fuel emissions and the potential to influence a number of natural ecosystems. This paper reviews the reported responses of ecosystems to airborne pollutants and discusses the use of animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to these pollutants. Animal species and populations can act as important indicators of biotic and abiotic responses of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. These responses can indicate long-term trends in ecosystem health and productivity, chemical cycling, genetics, and regulation. For short-term trends, fish and wildlife also serve as monitors of changes in community structure, signaling food-web contamination, as well as providing a measure of ecosystem vitality. Information is presented to show not only the importance of animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to air-quality degradation, but also their value as air-pollution indices, that is, as air-quality-related values (AQRV), required in current air-pollution regulation.

  13. 2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    David P. Fuehne

    2007-06-30

    This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

  14. Emission estimates for air pollution transport models.

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, D. G.

    1998-10-09

    The results of studies of energy consumption and emission inventories in Asia are discussed. These data primarily reflect emissions from fuel combustion (both biofuels and fossil fuels) and were collected to determine emissions of acid-deposition precursors (SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}) and greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2} CO, CH{sub 4}, and NMHC) appropriate to RAINS-Asia regions. Current work is focusing on black carbon (soot), volatile organic compounds, and ammonia.

  15. Integrated assessment of brick kiln emission impacts on air quality.

    PubMed

    Le, Hoang Anh; Oanh, Nguyen Thi Kim

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents monitoring results of daily brick kiln stack emission and the derived emission factors. Emission of individual air pollutant varied significantly during a firing batch (7 days) and between kilns. Average emission factors per 1,000 bricks were 6.35-12.3 kg of CO, 0.52-5.9 kg of SO(2) and 0.64-1.4 kg of particulate matter (PM). PM emission size distribution in the stack plume was determined using a modified cascade impactor. Obtained emission factors and PM size distribution data were used in simulation study using the Industrial Source Complex Short-Term (ISCST3) dispersion model. The model performance was successfully evaluated for the local conditions using the simultaneous ambient monitoring data in 2006 and 2007. SO(2) was the most critical pollutant, exceeding the hourly National Ambient Air Quality Standards over 63 km(2) out of the 100-km(2) modelled domain in the base case. Impacts of different emission scenarios on the ambient air quality (SO(2), PM, CO, PM dry deposition flux) were assessed.

  16. U.S. DOE 2004 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    K.W. Jacobson

    2005-08-12

    Amendments to the Clean Air Act, which added radionuclides to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), went into effect in 1990. Specifically, a subpart (H) of 40 CFR 61 established an annual limit on the impact to the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides from U.S. Department of Energy facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). As part of the new NESHAP regulations, LANL must submit an annual report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency headquarters and the regional office in Dallas by June 30. This report includes results of monitoring at LANL and the dose calculations for the calendar year 2004.

  17. Radionuclide air emissions annual report for calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-04-04

    This report presents the results of the Pinellas Plant air sampling program for the year of 1994. Topics discussed include: site description; source description; air emissions data; dose assessments; description of dose model; summary of input parameters of dose model; unplanned releases; and diffuse emissions. Included in the attachments of this document are: non-radon individual dose assessment; non-radon population dose assessment; summary of stack flow rate measurements; HOTSPOT computer model run; and meteorological data for the Pinellas Plant for 1994.

  18. Emissions and Air Quality Impacts of Freight Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickford, Erica

    Diesel freight vehicles (trucks + trains) are responsible for 20% of all U.S. nitrogen oxide (NOx) and 3% of fine particulate (PM2.5) emissions - pollutants that are harmful to human health. Freight tonnage is also projected to double over the next several decades, reaching 30 billion tons by 2050, increasing freight transport activity. Air quality impacts from increased activity, trade-offs between activity and vehicle technology improvements, as well as where to make infrastructure investments that encourage sustainable freight growth, are important considerations for transportation and air quality managers. To address these questions, we build a bottom-up roadway-by-roadway freight truck inventory (WIFE) and employ it to quantify emissions impacts of swapping biodiesel blends into the Midwest diesel freight truck fleet, and investigate emissions and air quality impacts of truck-to-rail freight modal shifts in the Midwest. We also evaluate the spatial and seasonal freight performance of WIFE modeled in a regional photochemical model (CMAQ) against satellite retrievals of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Results show that spatial and seasonal distribution of biodiesel affects regional emissions impacts. Summer high-blend deployment yields a larger annual emissions reduction than year-round low-blend deployment, however, technological improvements in vehicle emissions controls between 2009 and 2018 dwarf the impacts of biodiesel. Truck-to-rail modal shift analysis found 40% of daily freight truck VMT could be shifted to rail freight, causing a 26% net reduction in NOx emissions, and 31% less carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Despite significant emissions impacts, air quality modeling results showed mostly localized near roadway air quality improvements, with small regional net changes; yet, federal regulation of CO2 emissions and/or rising costs of diesel fuel could motivate shifting freight to more fuel efficient rail. Evaluation of

  19. AIR EMISSION INVENTORIES IN NORTH AMERICA: A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although emission inventories are the foundation of air quality management and have supported substantial improvements in North American air quality, they have a number of shortcomings that can potentially lead to ineffective air quality management strategies. New technologies fo...

  20. Effect of low emission sources on air quality in Cracow

    SciTech Connect

    Nedoma, J.

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents calculation of power engineering low emission and results of stimulation of the effect of this emission on air quality in Cracow, Poland. It has been stated that the segment of low emission in central areas of the town makes up ca. 40% of the observed concentration of sulfur dioxide. Furthermore it has been stated that the capital investment must be concentrated in the central part of the town in order to reach noticeable improvement of air quality in Cracow. Neither the output of a separate power source nor the emission level and its individual harmful effect, but the location of the source and especially packing density of the sources must decide the priority of upgrading actions.

  1. Quantifying Uncontrolled Air Emissions from Two Florida Landfills

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill gas emissions, if left uncontrolled, contribute to air toxics, climate change, trospospheric ozone, and urban smog. Measuring emissions from landfills presents unique challenges due to the large and variable source area, spatial and temporal variability of emissions, and...

  2. OFFICE EQUIPMENT: DESIGN, INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS, AND POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes available information on office equipment design; indoor air emissions of organics, ozone, and particulates from office equipment; and pollution prevention approaches for reducing these emissions. Since much of the existing emissions data from office equipme...

  3. Air emissions inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory -- 1995 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the 1995 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources. The air contaminants reported include nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, particulates, and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs).

  4. AIR TOXICS EMISSIONS FROM A VINYL SHOWER CURTAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports results of both static and dynamic chamber tests conducted to evaluate emission characteristics of air toxics from a vinyl shower Curtain. (NOTE: Due to the relatively low price and ease of installation, vinyl shower curtains have been widely used in bathrooms i...

  5. EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In Addition, other pollu...

  6. VOC EMISSIONS FROM AN AIR FRESHENER IN THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes results of tests, conducted in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) large chamber facility, that investigated emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) from one electrical plug-in type air freshener with pine-scented refills. VOCs were measured ...

  7. Hydrogen/Air Fuel Nozzle Emissions Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Timothy D.

    2001-01-01

    The use of hydrogen combustion for aircraft gas turbine engines provides significant opportunities to reduce harmful exhaust emissions. Hydrogen has many advantages (no CO2 production, high reaction rates, high heating value, and future availability), along with some disadvantages (high current cost of production and storage, high volume per BTU, and an unknown safety profile when in wide use). One of the primary reasons for switching to hydrogen is the elimination of CO2 emissions. Also, with hydrogen, design challenges such as fuel coking in the fuel nozzle and particulate emissions are no longer an issue. However, because it takes place at high temperatures, hydrogen-air combustion can still produce significant levels of NOx emissions. Much of the current research into conventional hydrocarbon-fueled aircraft gas turbine combustors is focused on NOx reduction methods. The Zero CO2 Emission Technology (ZCET) hydrogen combustion project will focus on meeting the Office of Aerospace Technology goal 2 within pillar one for Global Civil Aviation reducing the emissions of future aircraft by a factor of 3 within 10 years and by a factor of 5 within 25 years. Recent advances in hydrocarbon-based gas turbine combustion components have expanded the horizons for fuel nozzle development. Both new fluid designs and manufacturing technologies have led to the development of fuel nozzles that significantly reduce aircraft emissions. The goal of the ZCET program is to mesh the current technology of Lean Direct Injection and rocket injectors to provide quick mixing, low emissions, and high-performance fuel nozzle designs. An experimental program is planned to investigate the fuel nozzle concepts in a flametube test rig. Currently, a hydrogen system is being installed in cell 23 at NASA Glenn Research Center's Research Combustion Laboratory. Testing will be conducted on a variety of fuel nozzle concepts up to combustion pressures of 350 psia and inlet air temperatures of 1200 F

  8. RADIONUCLIDE AIR EMISSIONS REPORT FOR THE HANFORD SITE CY2003

    SciTech Connect

    ROKKAN, D.J.

    2004-06-11

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in 2003 and the resulting effective dose equivalent (EDE) to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) member of the public. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities''; Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, ''Radiation Protection-Air Emissions''; 10 CFR 830.120, Quality Assurance; DOE Order 414.1B, Quality Assurance; NQA-1, Quality Assurance Requirements for Nuclear Facility Application; EPA QA/R-2, EPA Requirements for Quality Management Plans; and EPA QA/R-5, Requirements for Quality Assurance Project Plans. The federal regulations in Subpart H of 40 CFR 61 require the measurement and reporting of radionuclides emitted from DOE facilities and the resulting public dose from those emissions. A standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE is not to be exceeded. The EDE to the MEI due to routine and nonroutine emissions in 2003 from Hanford Site point sources was 0.022 mrem (0.00022 mSv), or 0.22 percent of the federal standard. The portions of the Hanford Site MEI dose attributable to individual point sources as listed in Section 2.0 are appropriate for use in demonstrating the compliance of abated stack emissions with applicable terms of the Hanford Site Air Operating Permit and of Notices of Construction. The state has adopted the 40 CFR 61 standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE into their regulations, yet further requires that the EDE to the MEI be calculated not only from point source emissions but also from diffuse and fugitive sources of emissions. WAC 246-247 also requires the reporting of radionuclide emissions from all Hanford Site sources during routine as well as nonroutine operations. The EDE from

  9. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1998 Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Zohner

    1999-10-01

    This report presents the 1998 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradiological emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  10. Air emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1994 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This report Presents the 1994 update of the Air Emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  11. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zohner, S.K.

    2000-05-30

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  12. Air toxic emissions from snowmobiles in Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Shively, David; Mao, Huiting; Russo, Rachel S; Pape, Bruce; Mower, Richard N; Talbot, Robert; Sive, Barkley C

    2010-01-01

    A study on emissions associated with oversnow travel in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) was conducted for the time period of February 13-16, 2002 and February 12-16, 2003. Whole air and exhaust samples were characterized for 85 volatile organic compounds using gas chromatography. The toxics including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (p-, m-, and o-xylene), and n-hexane, which are major components of two-stroke engine exhaust, show large enhancements during sampling periods resulting from increased snowmobile traffic. Evaluation of the photochemical history of air masses sampled in YNP revealed that emissions of these air toxics were (i) recent, (ii) persistent throughout the region, and (iii) consistent with the two-stroke engine exhaust sample fingerprints. The annual fluxes were estimated to be 0.35, 1.12, 0.24, 1.45, and 0.36 Gg yr(-1) for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and n-hexane, respectively, from snowmobile usage in YNP. These results are comparable to the flux estimates of 0.23, 0.77, 0.17, and 0.70 Gg yr(-1) for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes, respectively, that were derived on the basis of (i) actual snowmobile counts in the Park and (ii) our ambient measurements conducted in 2003. Extrapolating these results, annual emissions from snowmobiles in the U.S. appear to be significantly higher than the values from the EPA National Emissions Inventory (1999). Snowmobile emissions represent a significant fraction ( approximately 14-21%) of air toxics with respect to EPA estimates of emissions by nonroad vehicles. Further investigation is warranted to more rigorously quantify the difference between our estimates and emission inventories.

  13. Estimated 2017 Refrigerant Emissions of 2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene (HFC-1234yf) in the United States Resulting from Automobile Air Conditioning

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to recent regulations and concern over climate change, the global automotive community is evaluating alternatives to the current refrigerant used in automobile air conditioning units, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, HFC-134a. One potential alternative is 2,3,3,3-tetrafluor...

  14. Surveys of Microwave Emission from Air Showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuramoto, Kazuyuki; Ogio, Shoichi; Iijima, Takashi; Yamamoto, Tokonatsu

    2011-09-01

    A possibility of detection of microwave molecular bremsstrahlung radiation from Extensive Air Showers was reported by AMBER group [1] [2]. This method has a potential to provide a high duty cycle and a new technique for measuring longitudinal profile of EAS. To survey this microwave emission from EAS, we built prototype detectors using parabolic antenna dishes for broadcasting satellites, and we are operating detectors with a small EAS array at Osaka City Univercity. Here, we report our detector configurations and the current experimental status.

  15. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region

    PubMed Central

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Ge, C.; Wang, J.; Eberwein, J. R.; Liang, L. L.; Allsman, L. A.; Grantz, D. A.; Jenerette, G. D.

    2015-01-01

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional air quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, temperature and soil moisture. We find that a regional air chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving air quality. PMID:26556236

  16. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, P Y; Ge, C; Wang, J; Eberwein, J R; Liang, L L; Allsman, L A; Grantz, D A; Jenerette, G D

    2015-01-01

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional air quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, temperature and soil moisture. We find that a regional air chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving air quality. PMID:26556236

  17. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, P Y; Ge, C; Wang, J; Eberwein, J R; Liang, L L; Allsman, L A; Grantz, D A; Jenerette, G D

    2015-11-10

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional air quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, temperature and soil moisture. We find that a regional air chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving air quality.

  18. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Guidance for Calculating Efficiency Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Daryl; Papar, Riyaz; Wright, Dr. Anthony

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule (i.e., subpart DDDDD of CFR part 63). This document divides Boiler System conservation opportunities into four functional areas: 1) the boiler itself, 2) the condensate recovery system, 3) the distribution system, and 4) the end uses of the steam. This document provides technical information for documenting emissions credits proposed in the Implementation Plan for functional areas 2) though 4). This document does not include efficiency improvements related to the Boiler tune-ups.

  19. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  20. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  1. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  2. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  3. 40 CFR 1065.667 - Dilution air background emission correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.667 Dilution air background emission correction. (a) To determine the mass of background emissions to subtract... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dilution air background...

  4. Evaluating NOx emission inventories for regulatory air quality modeling using satellite and air quality model data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemball-Cook, Susan; Yarwood, Greg; Johnson, Jeremiah; Dornblaser, Bright; Estes, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of NOx emissions in the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality's (TCEQ) State Implementation Plan (SIP) modeling inventories of the southeastern U.S. We used retrieved satellite tropospheric NO2 columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) together with NO2 columns from the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) to make top-down NOx emissions estimates using the mass balance method. Two different top-down NOx emissions estimates were developed using the KNMI DOMINO v2.0 and NASA SP2 retrievals of OMI NO2 columns. Differences in the top-down NOx emissions estimates made with these two operational products derived from the same OMI radiance data were sufficiently large that they could not be used to constrain the TCEQ NOx emissions in the southeast. The fact that the two available operational NO2 column retrievals give such different top-down NOx emissions results is important because these retrievals are increasingly being used to diagnose air quality problems and to inform efforts to solve them. These results reflect the fact that NO2 column retrievals are a blend of measurements and modeled data and should be used with caution in analyses that will inform policy development. This study illustrates both benefits and challenges of using satellite NO2 data for air quality management applications. Comparison with OMI NO2 columns pointed the way toward improvements in the CAMx simulation of the upper troposphere, but further refinement of both regional air quality models and the NO2 column retrievals is needed before the mass balance and other emission inversion methods can be used to successfully constrain NOx emission inventories used in U.S. regulatory modeling.

  5. MODELS TO ESTIMATE VOLATILE ORGANIC HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL SEWER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions from municipal sewers are usually omitted from hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emission inventories. This omission may result from a lack of appreciation for the potential emission impact and/or from inadequate emission estimation procedures. This paper presents an analys...

  6. Energy use, emissions and air pollution reduction strategies in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Foell, W.; Green, C.; Sarkar, A.; Legler, J.

    1995-12-31

    The pace of economic progress and development experienced in many Asian countries has not occurred without costs to the natural environment. In particular, energy policies and technologies are a primary driving force behind air pollution problems arising from air pollution emissions in Asia. Economic growth, energy use, and reliance on fossil fuels are experiencing extremely high growth throughout most of the continent. Electric power expansion plans in many countries of Asia, particularly China and India, call for substantial increases in coal combustion. In the 1990`s, two-thirds of all power related investments in developing countries will be in Asia. In contrast to the situation in Europe and North America, emissions of air pollution species in Asia are increasing rapidly, resulting in both local air pollution problems and higher acidic deposition in many regions. In general, most Asian countries do not have a strong scientific nor public constituency for addressing potentially serious air pollution problems impacting important economic and cultural activities such as forestry, agriculture, and tourism. The complex political ramifications of trans-boundary air pollution in Asia have not yet begun to be addressed.

  7. Emission of pesticides into the air

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Den, Berg; Kubiak, R.; Benjey, W.G.; Majewski, M.S.; Yates, S.R.; Reeves, G.L.; Smelt, J.H.; Van Der Linden, A. M. A.

    1999-01-01

    During and after the application of a pesticide in agriculture, a substantial fraction of the dosage may enter the atmosphere and be transported over varying distances downwind of the target. The rate and extent of the emission during application, predominantly as spray particle drift, depends primarily on the application method (equipment and technique), the formulation and environmental conditions, whereas the emission after application depends primarily on the properties of the pesticide, soils, crops and environmental conditions. The fraction of the dosage that misses the target area may be high in some cases and more experimental data on this loss term are needed for various application types and weather conditions. Such data are necessary to test spray drift models, and for further model development and verification as well. Following application, the emission of soil fumigants and soil incorporated pesticides into the air can be measured and computed with reasonable accuracy, but further model development is needed to improve the reliability of the model predictions. For soil surface applied pesticides reliable measurement methods are available, but there is not yet a reliable model. Further model development is required which must be verified by field experiments. Few data are available on pesticide volatilization from plants and more field experiments are also needed to study the fate processes on the plants. Once this information is available, a model needs to be developed to predict the volatilization of pesticides from plants, which, again, should be verified with field measurements. For regional emission estimates, a link between data on the temporal and spatial pesticide use and a geographical information system for crops and soils with their characteristics is needed.

  8. Supercontinuum Emission from Focused Femtosecond Laser Pulses in Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreeja, S.; Rao, S. Venugopal; Bagchi, Suman; Sreedhar, S.; Prashant, T. Shuvan; Radhakrishnan, P.; Tewari, Surya P.; Kiran, P. Prem

    2011-10-01

    We present our experimental results from the measurements of Supercontinuum emission (SCE) from air resulting from propagation of tightly focused femtosecond (40 fs) laser pulses. The effect of linearly polarized (LP) and circularly polarized (CP) light pulses on the SCE in two different external focal geometries (f/6, f/15) is presented. A considerable shift in the minimum wavelength of SCE is observed with external tighter focusing.

  9. Effect of fuel/air nonuniformity on nitric oxide emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, V. J.

    1979-01-01

    A flame tube combustor holding jet A fuel was used in experiments performed at a pressure of .3 Mpa and a reference velocity of 25 meters/second for three inlet air temperatures of 600, 700, and 800 K. The gas sample measurements were taken at locations 18 cm and 48 cm downstream of the perforated plate flameholder. Nonuniform fuel/air profiles were produced using a fuel injector by separately fueling the inner five fuel tubes and the outer ring of twelve fuel tubes. Six fuel/air profiles were produced for nominal overall equivalence ratios of .5 and .6. An example of three of three of these profiles and their resultant nitric oxide NOx emissions are presented. The uniform fuel/air profile cases produced uniform and relatively low profile levels. When the profiles were either center-peaked or edge-peaked, the overall mass-weighted nitric oxide levels increased.

  10. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2010 INL Report for Radionuclides (2011)

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

    2011-06-01

    This report documents the calendar Year 2010 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'

  11. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford site, Calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P.; Diediker, L.P.; Jette, S.J.; Rhoads, K.; Soldat, S.K.

    1995-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1994, and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the ``MEI.`` The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, ``National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,`` Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.``

  12. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford Site, calendar year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Diediker, L.P.; Johnson, A.R.; Rhoads, K.; Klages, D.L.; Soldat, J.K.; Rokkan, D.J.

    1993-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1992 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to an member of the public. The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, ``National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,`` Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.``

  13. Locating and estimating air emissions from sources of nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    To assist groups interested in inventorying air emissions of various potentially toxic substances, EPA is preparing a series of documents such as this to compile available information on sources and emissions of these substances. This document deals specifically with nickel. Its intended audience includes Federal, State and local air pollution personnel and others interested in locating potential emitters of nickel and in making gross estimates of air emissions therefrom. This document presents information on (1) the types of sources that may emit nickel, (2) process variations and release points that may be expected within these sources, and (3) available emissions information indicating the potential for nickel release into the air from each operation.

  14. Health effects of SRS non-radiological air emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.

    1997-06-16

    This report examines the potential health effects of non radiological emissions to the air resulting from operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The scope of this study was limited to the 55 air contaminants for which the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has quantified risk by determining unit risk factors (excess cancer risks) and/or reference concentrations (deleterious non cancer risks). Potential health impacts have been assessed in relation to the maximally exposed individual. This is a hypothetical person who resides for a lifetime at the SRS boundary. The most recent (1994) quality assured SRS emissions data available were used. Estimated maximum site boundary concentrations of the air contaminants were calculated using air dispersion modeling and 24-hour and annual averaging times. For the emissions studied, the excess cancer risk was found to be less than the generally accepted risk level of 1 in 100,000 and, in most cases, was less than 1 in 1,000,000. Deleterious non cancer effects were also found to be very unlikely.

  15. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from gas-fired combustion sources: emissions and the effects of design and fuel type.

    PubMed

    England, G C; McGrath, T P; Gilmer, L; Seebold, J G; Lev-On, M; Hunt, T

    2001-01-01

    Air emissions from gas-fired combustion devices such as boilers, process heaters, gas turbines and stationary reciprocating engines contain hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) subjected to consideration under the federal clean air act (CAA). This work presents a recently completed major research project to develop an understanding of HAP emissions from gas-fired boilers and process heaters and new HAP emission factors based on field emission tests of gas-fired external combustion devices used in the petroleum industry. The effect of combustion system design and operating parameters on HAP emissions determined by both field and research tests are discussed. Data from field tests of gas-fired petroleum industry boilers and heaters generally show very low emission levels of organic HAPs. A comparison of the emission data for boilers and process heaters, including units with and without various forms of NOx emission controls, showed no significant difference in organic HAP emission characteristics due to process or burner design. This conclusion is also supported by the results of research tests with different burner designs. Based on field tests of units fired with natural gas and various petroleum industry process gases and research tests in which gas composition was intentionally varied, organic HAP emissions were not determined to be significantly affected by the gas composition. Research data indicate that elevated organic HAP emission levels are found only under extreme operating conditions (starved air or high excess air combustion) associated with poor combustion. PMID:11219701

  16. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, 1993 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the 1993 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to commence the preparation of the permit to operate application for the INEL, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL and provides emissions estimates for both mobile and stationary sources.

  17. Using GIS to study the health impact of air emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Dent, A.L.; Fowler, D.A.; Kaplan, B.M.; Zarus, G.M.

    1999-07-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is a fast-developing technology with an ever-increasing number of applications. Air dispersion modeling is a well-established discipline that can produce results in a spatial context. The marriage of these two application is optimal because it leverages the predictive capacity of modeling with the data management, analysis, and display capabilities of GIS. In the public health arena, exposure estimation techniques are invaluable. The utilization of air emission data, such as US EPA Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data, and air dispersion modeling with GIS enable public health professionals to identify and define the potentially exposed population, estimate the health risk burden of that population, and determine correlations between point-based health outcome results with estimated health risk.

  18. Improved Estimates of Air Pollutant Emissions from Biorefinery

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Eric C. D.

    2015-11-13

    We have attempted to use detailed kinetic modeling approach for improved estimation of combustion air pollutant emissions from biorefinery. We have developed a preliminary detailed reaction mechanism for biomass combustion. Lignin is the only biomass component included in the current mechanism and methane is used as the biogas surrogate. The model is capable of predicting the combustion emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O, CH4) and criteria air pollutants (NO, NO2, CO). The results are yet to be compared with the experimental data. The current model is still in its early stages of development. Given the acknowledged complexity of biomass oxidation, as well as the components in the feed to the combustor, obviously the modeling approach and the chemistry set discussed here may undergo revision, extension, and further validation in the future.

  19. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses results of an evaluation of literature on heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). The various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are re...

  20. 40 CFR 264.179 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.179 Section 264.179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Use and Management of Containers § 264.179 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall...

  1. 40 CFR 264.232 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.232 Section 264.232 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Surface Impoundments § 264.232 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage all...

  2. 40 CFR 265.178 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.178 Section 265.178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 265.178 Air emission standards. The owner...

  3. 40 CFR 265.231 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.231 Section 265.231 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 265.231 Air emission standards. The owner or operator...

  4. 40 CFR 265.178 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.178 Section 265.178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 265.178 Air emission standards. The owner...

  5. 40 CFR 264.200 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.200 Section 264.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Tank Systems § 264.200 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage all hazardous...

  6. 40 CFR 264.179 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.179 Section 264.179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Use and Management of Containers § 264.179 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall...

  7. 40 CFR 264.200 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.200 Section 264.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Tank Systems § 264.200 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage all hazardous...

  8. 40 CFR 264.179 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.179 Section 264.179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Use and Management of Containers § 264.179 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall...

  9. 40 CFR 265.202 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.202 Section 265.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 265.202 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage...

  10. 40 CFR 265.178 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.178 Section 265.178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 265.178 Air emission standards. The owner...

  11. 40 CFR 264.232 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.232 Section 264.232 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Surface Impoundments § 264.232 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage all...

  12. 40 CFR 265.231 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.231 Section 265.231 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 265.231 Air emission standards. The owner or operator...

  13. 40 CFR 264.200 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.200 Section 264.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Tank Systems § 264.200 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage all hazardous...

  14. 40 CFR 265.202 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.202 Section 265.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 265.202 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage...

  15. 40 CFR 264.232 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.232 Section 264.232 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Surface Impoundments § 264.232 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage all...

  16. 40 CFR 265.231 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.231 Section 265.231 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 265.231 Air emission standards. The owner or operator...

  17. 40 CFR 265.202 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.202 Section 265.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 265.202 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage...

  18. 40 CFR 265.178 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.178 Section 265.178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 265.178 Air emission standards. The owner...

  19. 40 CFR 264.232 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.232 Section 264.232 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Surface Impoundments § 264.232 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage all...

  20. 40 CFR 265.231 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.231 Section 265.231 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 265.231 Air emission standards. The owner or operator...

  1. 40 CFR 264.200 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.200 Section 264.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Tank Systems § 264.200 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage all hazardous...

  2. 40 CFR 264.179 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air emission standards. 264.179 Section 264.179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Use and Management of Containers § 264.179 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall...

  3. 40 CFR 265.202 - Air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air emission standards. 265.202 Section 265.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 265.202 Air emission standards. The owner or operator shall manage...

  4. East Mountain Area 1995 air sampling results

    SciTech Connect

    Deola, R.A.

    1996-09-01

    Ambient air samples were taken at two locations in the East Mountain Area in conjunction with thermal testing at the Lurance Canyon Burn Site (LCBS). The samples were taken to provide measurements of particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 10 micrometers (PM{sub 10}) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This report summarizes the results of the sampling performed in 1995. The results from small-scale testing performed to determine the potentially produced air pollutants in the thermal tests are included in this report. Analytical results indicate few samples produced measurable concentrations of pollutants believed to be produced by thermal testing. Recommendations for future air sampling in the East Mountain Area are also noted.

  5. Air toxics emissions from gas-fired engines

    SciTech Connect

    Meeks, H.N. Jr. )

    1992-07-01

    In 1190, 14 natural-gas-fired internal combustion engines (ICE's) in oilfield service were tested in Santa Barbara County, CA, to satisfy California air toxics legislation. The combustion exhaust was tested for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, toluene, xylences, naphthalene, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The fuel was tested for aromatics to enable calculation of destruction efficiencies. Two-stroke and four-stroke engines were tested. Four-stroke engines ranging from 39 to 208 hp were used in pumping unit and constant load service. Emissions from four-stroke engines were unrelated to size and service. The two-stroke engines produced considerably higher emissions than the four-stroke engines. This paper reports that test results indicate natural-gas-fired ICE's produce toxic substances in small amounts. Formaldehyde and benzene dominated the toxic emission profile.

  6. Effects of air emissions on wildlife resources. Air pollution and acid rain report No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    This publication describes in general the pathways of contamination, direct and indirect effects of air emissions on wildlife resources, and the potential use of wildlife as biological indicators of air quality degradation. Also included in the report are summaries of air pollution incidents involving wildlife, responses of wildlife to air pollution, major target systems of selected air pollutants, and information on the capacity of some air pollutants to accumulate in body tissues.

  7. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1992 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Stirrup, T.S.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the 1992 Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Originally, this report was in response to the Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Agreement in 1989 between the State of Idaho and the Department of Energy Idaho Field Office, and a request from the Idaho Air Quality Bureau. The current purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to provide the basis for the preparation of the INEL Permit-to-Operate (PTO) an Air Emission Source Application, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. This report includes emissions calculations from 1989 to 1992. The Air Emission Inventory System, an ORACLE-based database system, maintains the emissions inventory.

  8. Energy and air emission effects of water supply.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad

    2009-04-15

    Life-cycle air emission effects of supplying water are explored using a hybrid life-cycle assessment For the typically sized U.S. utility analyzed, recycled water is preferable to desalination and comparable to importation. Seawater desalination has an energy and air emission footprint that is 1.5-2.4 times larger than that of imported water. However, some desalination modes fare better; brackish groundwater is 53-66% as environmentally intensive as seawater desalination. The annual water needs (326 m3) of a typical Californian that is met with imported water requires 5.8 GJ of energy and creates 360 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. With seawater desalination, energy use would increase to 14 GJ and 800 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. Meeting the water demand of California with desalination would consume 52% of the state's electricity. Supply options were reassessed using alternative electricity mixes, including the average mix of the United States and several renewable sources. Desalination using solar thermal energy has lower greenhouse gas emissions than that of imported and recycled water (using California's electricity mix), but using the U.S. mix increases the environmental footprint by 1.5 times. A comparison with a more energy-intensive international scenario shows that CO2 equivalent emissions for desalination in Dubai are 1.6 times larger than in California. The methods, decision support tool (WEST), and results of this study should persuade decision makers to make informed water policy choices by including energy consumption and material use effects in the decision-making process.

  9. Modeling air quality over China: Results from the Panda project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katinka Petersen, Anna; Bouarar, Idir; Brasseur, Guy; Granier, Claire; Xie, Ying; Wang, Lili; Wang, Xuemei

    2015-04-01

    China faces strong air pollution problems related to rapid economic development in the past decade and increasing demand for energy. Air quality monitoring stations often report high levels of particle matter and ozone all over the country. Knowing its long-term health impacts, air pollution became then a pressing problem not only in China but also in other Asian countries. The PANDA project is a result of cooperation between scientists from Europe and China who joined their efforts for a better understanding of the processes controlling air pollution in China, improve methods for monitoring air quality and elaborate indicators in support of European and Chinese policies. A modeling system of air pollution is being setup within the PANDA project and include advanced global (MACC, EMEP) and regional (WRF-Chem, EMEP) meteorological and chemical models to analyze and monitor air quality in China. The poster describes the accomplishments obtained within the first year of the project. Model simulations for January and July 2010 are evaluated with satellite measurements (SCIAMACHY NO2 and MOPITT CO) and in-situ data (O3, CO, NOx, PM10 and PM2.5) observed at several surface stations in China. Using the WRF-Chem model, we investigate the sensitivity of the model performance to emissions (MACCity, HTAPv2), horizontal resolution (60km, 20km) and choice of initial and boundary conditions.

  10. Inventory of pesticide emissions into the air in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarigiannis, D. A.; Kontoroupis, P.; Solomou, E. S.; Nikolaki, S.; Karabelas, A. J.

    2013-08-01

    Creation of a reliable and comprehensive emission inventory of the pesticides used in Europe is a key step towards quantitatively assessing the link between actual pesticide exposure and adverse health effects. An inventory of pesticide emissions was generated at a 1 × 1 km grid, for the year 2000. The emission model comprises three components: estimates of active substance (AS) wind drift taking into account crop type, volatilization during pesticide application and volatilization from the crop canopy. Results show that atmospheric emission of pesticides varies significantly across Europe. Different pesticide families are emitted from different parts of Europe as a function of the main crop(s) cultivated, agro-climatic conditions and production intensity. The pesticide emission inventory methodology developed herein is a valuable tool for assessing air quality in rural and peri-urban Europe, furnishing the necessary input for atmospheric modelling at different scales. Its estimates have been tested using global sensitivity and Monte Carlo analysis for uncertainty assessment and they have been validated against national and local surveys in four European countries; the results demonstrate the robustness and reliability of the inventory. The latter may therefore be readily used for exposure and health risk assessment studies targeting farmers, applicators, but also bystanders and the general population in Europe.

  11. [Estimation of average traffic emission factor based on synchronized incremental traffic flow and air pollutant concentration].

    PubMed

    Li, Run-Kui; Zhao, Tong; Li, Zhi-Peng; Ding, Wen-Jun; Cui, Xiao-Yong; Xu, Qun; Song, Xian-Feng

    2014-04-01

    On-road vehicle emissions have become the main source of urban air pollution and attracted broad attentions. Vehicle emission factor is a basic parameter to reflect the status of vehicle emissions, but the measured emission factor is difficult to obtain, and the simulated emission factor is not localized in China. Based on the synchronized increments of traffic flow and concentration of air pollutants in the morning rush hour period, while meteorological condition and background air pollution concentration retain relatively stable, the relationship between the increase of traffic and the increase of air pollution concentration close to a road is established. Infinite line source Gaussian dispersion model was transformed for the inversion of average vehicle emission factors. A case study was conducted on a main road in Beijing. Traffic flow, meteorological data and carbon monoxide (CO) concentration were collected to estimate average vehicle emission factors of CO. The results were compared with simulated emission factors of COPERT4 model. Results showed that the average emission factors estimated by the proposed approach and COPERT4 in August were 2.0 g x km(-1) and 1.2 g x km(-1), respectively, and in December were 5.5 g x km(-1) and 5.2 g x km(-1), respectively. The emission factors from the proposed approach and COPERT4 showed close values and similar seasonal trends. The proposed method for average emission factor estimation eliminates the disturbance of background concentrations and potentially provides real-time access to vehicle fleet emission factors.

  12. A search for microwave emission from cosmic ray air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Christopher Lee

    At the highest energies, the sources of cosmic rays should be among the most powerful extragalactic accelerators. Large observatories have revealed a flux suppression above a few 1019 eV, similar to the expected effect of the interaction of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECR) with the cosmic microwave background. The Pierre Auger Observatory has measured the largest sample of cosmic ray induced extensive air showers (EAS) at the highest energies leading to a precise measurement of the energy spectrum, hints of spatial anisotropy, and a surprising change in the chemical composition at the highest energies. To answer the question of the origin of UHECRs a larger sample of high quality data will be required to reach a statistically significant result. One of the possible techniques suggested to achieve this much larger data sample, in a cost effective way, is ultra-wide field of view microwave telescopes which would operate in an analogous way to the already successful fluorescence detection (FD) technique. Detecting EAS in microwaves could be done with 100% duty cycle and essentially no atmospheric effects. This presents many advantages over the FD which has a 10% duty cycle and requires extensive atmospheric monitoring for calibration. We have pursued both prototype detector designs and improved laboratory measurements, the results of which are reported herein, and published in (Alvarez-Muniz et al., 2013; Alvarez-Muniz et al., 2012a; Williams et al., 2013; Alvarez-Muniz et al., 2013). The Microwave Detection of Air Showers (MIDAS) experiment is the first ultra-wide field of view imaging telescope deployed to detect isotropic microwave emission from EAS. With 61 days of livetime data operating on the University of Chicago campus we were able to set new limits on isotropic microwave emission from extensive air showers. The new limits rule out current laboratory air plasma measurements (Gorham et al., 2008) by more than five sigma. The MIDAS experiment continues to

  13. Comparison of air emissions from waste management facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Licata, A.; Minott, D.H.

    1996-09-01

    Landfilling remains the predominate disposal method for managing municipal solid waste (MSW) in the US. According to the US EPA, in 1993 landfilling accounted for 62% of the management alternative for disposing of MSW while recycling and combustion account for 22% and 15% respectively. Recent actions such as limits on flow control and EPA`s proposed Most Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rules for Municipal Waste Combustors (MWCs) most likely will increase the amount of MSW that will be landfilled. The air emissions from landfill operations have in general been ignored and unregulated. This paper will make a comparison of air emissions from a landfill (Fresh Kills Landfill in NYC) and a modern MSW. The paper will present the emissions from landfill operations including uncontrolled emissions, residual and secondary emissions from gas control systems, and emissions from diesel equipment at the landfill. The MWC emissions will include boiler pollutants and a comparison to fossil-fuel fired power plants.

  14. The effects of oxygen-enriched intake air on FFV exhaust emissions using M85

    SciTech Connect

    Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.; Ng, H.K.; Baudino, J.H.; Colucci, C.P.

    1996-05-01

    This paper presents results of emission tests of a flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) powered by an SI engine, fueled by M85 (methanol), and supplied with oxygen-enriched intake air containing 21, 23, and 25 vol% O2. Engine-out total hydrocarbons (THCs) and unburned methanol were considerably reduced in the entire FTP cycle when the O2 content of the intake air was either 23 or 25%. However, CO emissions did not vary much, and NOx emissions were higher. HCHO emissions were reduced by 53% in bag 1, 84% in bag 2, and 59% in bag 3 of the FTP cycle with 25% oxygen-enriched intake air. During cold-phase FTP,reductions of 42% in THCs, 40% in unburned methanol, 60% in nonmethane hydrocarbons, and 45% in nonmethane organic gases (NMOGs) were observed with 25% enriched air; NO{sub x} emissions increased by 78%. Converter-out emissions were also reduced with enriched air but to a lesser degree. FFVs operating on M85 that use 25% enriched air during only the initial 127 s of cold-phase FTP or that use 23 or 25% enriched air during only cold-phase FTP can meet the reactivity-adjusted NMOG, CO, NO{sub x}, and HCHO emission standards of the transitional low-emission vehicle.

  15. Emissions of air pollutants from indoor charcoal barbecue.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsiao-Lin; Lee, Whei-May Grace; Wu, Feng-Shu

    2016-01-25

    Ten types of commercial charcoal commonly used in Taiwan were investigated to study the potential health effects of air pollutants generated during charcoal combustion in barbecue restaurants. The charcoal samples were combusted in a tubular high-temperature furnace to simulate the high-temperature charcoal combustion in barbecue restaurants. The results indicated that traditional charcoal has higher heating value than green synthetic charcoal. The amount of PM10 and PM2.5 emitted during the smoldering stage increased when the burning temperature was raised. The EF for CO and CO2 fell within the range of 68-300 and 644-1225 g/kg, respectively. Among the charcoals, the lowest EF for PM2.5 and PM10 were found in Binchōtan (B1). Sawdust briquette charcoal (I1S) emitted the smallest amount of carbonyl compounds. Charcoal briquettes (C2S) emitted the largest amount of air pollutants during burning, with the EF for HC, PM2.5, PM10, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde being the highest among the charcoals studied. The emission of PM2.5, PM10, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde were 5-10 times those of the second highest charcoal. The results suggest that the adverse effects of the large amounts of air pollutants generated during indoor charcoal combustion on health and indoor air quality must not be ignored.

  16. SEMINAR PUBLICATION: ORGANIC AIR EMISSIONS FROM WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The organic chemicals contained in wastes processed during waste management operations can volatilize into the atmosphere and cause toxic or carcinogenic effects or contribute to ozone formation. Because air emissions from waste management operations pose a threat to human health...

  17. Carbon Dioxide Emissions Resulting from Space Tourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawkes, S.

    An earlier paper by the author examined the links between space tourism and sustainable development. One important aspect of sustainable development is environmental impact and within that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission is a key issue as it is linked to climate change. Space tourism operators need to consider the environmental impact of their operations and in particular measure their total carbon emissions (“carbon footprint”) and then put in place arrangements to reduce or offset them. This paper presents some initial calculations on the carbon dioxide emissions likely to result from both sub-orbital and orbital space tourism flights and discusses options and prices for carbon offsetting. The effect of scaling up the space tourism industry is also considered.

  18. Overview of Megacity Air Pollutant Emissions and Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, C. E.

    2013-05-01

    The urban metabolism that characterizes major cities consumes very large qualities of humanly produced and/or processed food, fuel, water, electricity, construction materials and manufactured goods, as well as, naturally provided sunlight, precipitation and atmospheric oxygen. The resulting urban respiration exhalations add large quantities of trace gas and particulate matter pollutants to urban atmospheres. Key classes of urban primary air pollutants and their sources will be reviewed and important secondary pollutants identified. The impacts of these pollutants on urban and downwind regional inhabitants, ecosystems, and climate will be discussed. Challenges in quantifying the temporally and spatially resolved urban air pollutant emissions and secondary pollutant production rates will be identified and possible measurement strategies evaluated.

  19. Source Emissions in Multipollutant Air Quality Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human activities and natural processes that emit pollutants into the ambient atmosphere are the underlying cause of all air quality problems. In a technical sense, we refer to these activities and processes as pollutant sources. Although air quality management is usually concerne...

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF OZONE EMISSIONS FROM AIR CLEANERS EQUIPPED WITH OZONE GENERATORS AND SENSOR AND FEEDBACK CONTROL CIRCUITRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper give results of a characterization of ozone emissions from air cleaners equipped with ozone generators and sensor and feedback control circuitry. Ozone emission rates of several consumer appliances, marketed as indoor air treatment or air purification systems, were det...

  1. Urban scale air quality modelling using detailed traffic emissions estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrego, C.; Amorim, J. H.; Tchepel, O.; Dias, D.; Rafael, S.; Sá, E.; Pimentel, C.; Fontes, T.; Fernandes, P.; Pereira, S. R.; Bandeira, J. M.; Coelho, M. C.

    2016-04-01

    The atmospheric dispersion of NOx and PM10 was simulated with a second generation Gaussian model over a medium-size south-European city. Microscopic traffic models calibrated with GPS data were used to derive typical driving cycles for each road link, while instantaneous emissions were estimated applying a combined Vehicle Specific Power/Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (VSP/EMEP) methodology. Site-specific background concentrations were estimated using time series analysis and a low-pass filter applied to local observations. Air quality modelling results are compared against measurements at two locations for a 1 week period. 78% of the results are within a factor of two of the observations for 1-h average concentrations, increasing to 94% for daily averages. Correlation significantly improves when background is added, with an average of 0.89 for the 24 h record. The results highlight the potential of detailed traffic and instantaneous exhaust emissions estimates, together with filtered urban background, to provide accurate input data to Gaussian models applied at the urban scale.

  2. 1999 INEEL National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Tkachyk

    2000-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1999. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1999, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  3. 1998 INEEL National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Tkachyk

    1999-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1998. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1998, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  4. EMISSIONS OF ORGANIC AIR TOXICS FROM OPEN BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A detailed literature search was performed to collect and collate available data reporting emissions of toxic organic substances into the air from open burning sources. Availability of data varied according to the source and the class of air toxics of interest. Volatile organic c...

  5. WORKSHOP ON SOURCE EMISSION AND AMBIENT AIR MONITORING OF MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    AN EPA/ORD Workshop on Source Emission and Ambient Air Monitoring of Mercury was held on 9/13-14/99, Bloomington, Minnesota. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss the state-of-the-science in source and ambient air mercury monitoring as well as mercury monitoring research and...

  6. Examining air pollution in China using production- and consumption-based emissions accounting approaches.

    PubMed

    Huo, Hong; Zhang, Qiang; Guan, Dabo; Su, Xin; Zhao, Hongyan; He, Kebin

    2014-12-16

    Two important reasons for China's air pollution are the high emission factors (emission per unit of product) of pollution sources and the high emission intensity (emissions per unit of GDP) of the industrial structure. Therefore, a wide variety of policy measures, including both emission abatement technologies and economic adjustment, must be implemented. To support such measures, this study used the production- and consumption-based emissions accounting approaches to simulate the SO2, NOx, PM2.5, and VOC emissions flows among producers and consumers. This study analyzed the emissions and GDP performance of 36 production sectors. The results showed that the equipment, machinery, and devices manufacturing and construction sectors contributed more than 50% of air pollutant emissions, and most of their products were used for capital formation and export. The service sector had the lowest emission intensities, and its output was mainly consumed by households and the government. In China, the emission intensities of production activities triggered by capital formation and export were approximately twice that of the service sector triggered by final consumption expenditure. This study suggests that China should control air pollution using the following strategies: applying end-of-pipe abatement technologies and using cleaner fuels to further decrease the emission factors associated with rural cooking, electricity generation, and the transportation sector; continuing to limit highly emission-intensive but low value-added exports; developing a plan to reduce construction activities; and increasing the proportion of service GDP in the national economy.

  7. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal -- 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Y.E.; Black, S.C.

    1998-06-01

    Each potential source of Nevada Test Site (NTS) emissions was characterized by one of the following methods: (1) monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at the NTS; (2) a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclide are released to the environment; (3) the measurement of tritiated water (as HTO or T{sub 2}O) concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. The emissions for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) reporting are listed. They are very conservative and are used in Section 3 to calculate the EDE to the maximally exposed individual offsite. Offsite environmental surveillance data, where available, are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative.

  8. Quantifying the air pollutants emission reduction during the 2008 Olympic games in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuxiao; Zhao, Meng; Xing, Jia; Wu, Ye; Zhou, Yu; Lei, Yu; He, Kebin; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2010-04-01

    Air quality was a vital concern for the Beijing Olympic Games in 2008. To strictly control air pollutant emissions and ensure good air quality for the Games, Beijing municipal government announced an "Air Quality Guarantee Plan for the 29th Olympics in Beijing". In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the guarantee plan, this study analyzed the air pollutant emission reductions during the 29th Olympiad in Beijing. In June 2008, daily emissions of SO(2), NO(X), PM(10), and NMVOC in Beijing were 103.9 t, 428.5 t, 362.7 t, and 890.0 t, respectively. During the Olympic Games, the daily emissions of SO(2), NO(X), PM(10), and NMVOC in Beijing were reduced to 61.6 t, 229.1 t, 164.3 t, and 381.8 t -41%, 47%, 55%, and 57% lower than June 2008 emission levels. Closing facilities producing construction materials reduced the sector's SO(2) emissions by 85%. Emission control measures for mobile sources, including high-emitting vehicle restrictions, government vehicle use controls, and alternate day driving rules for Beijing's 3.3 million private cars, reduced mobile source NO(X) and NMVOC by 46% and 57%, respectively. Prohibitions on building construction reduced the sector's PM(10) emissions by approximately 90% or total PM(10) by 35%. NMVOC reductions came mainly from mobile source and fugitive emission reductions. Based on the emission inventories developed in this study, the CMAQ model was used to simulate Beijing's ambient air quality during the Olympic Games. The model results accurately reflect the environmental monitoring data providing evidence that the emission inventories in this study are reasonably accurate and quantitatively reflect the emission changes attributable to air pollution control measures taken during the 29th Olympic Games in 2008. PMID:20222727

  9. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction portable temporary radioactive air emission units - August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    FRITZ, D.W.

    1999-07-22

    This notice of construction (NOC) requests a categorical approval for construction and operation of three types of portable/temporary radionuclide airborne emission units (PTRAEUs). These three types are portable ventilation-filter systems (Type I), mobile sample preparation facilities (Type II), and mobile sample screening and analysis facilities (Type 111). Approval of the NOC application is intended to allow construction and operation of the three types of PTRAEUs without prior project-specific approval. Environmental cleanup efforts on the Hanford Site often require the use of PTRAEUs. The PTRAEUs support site characterization activities, expedited response actions (ERAs), sampling and monitoring activities, and other routine activities. The PTRAEUs operate at various locations around the Hanford Site. Radiation Air Emissions Program, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, requires that the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) be notified before construction of any new emission that would release airborne radioactivity. The WDOH also must receive notification before any modification of an existing source. This includes changes in the source term or replacement of emission control equipment that might significantly contribute to the offsite maximum dose from a licensed facility. During site characterization activities, ERAs, sampling and monitoring activities, and other routine activities, the PTRAEUs might require startup immediately. The notification period hampers efforts to complete such activities in an effective and timely manner. Additionally, notification is to be submitted to the WDOH when the PTRAEUs are turned off. The U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) potentially could generate several notifications monthly. The WDOH would be required to review and provide approval on each NOC as well as review the notices of discontinued sources. The WDOH regulation also allows facilities the opportunity to request a

  10. CRITERIA AND AIR TOXIC EMISSIONS FROM IN-USE, LOW EMISSION VEHICLES (LEVS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency implemented a program to identify tailpipe emissions of criteria and air toxic contaminants from in-use, light-duty Low Emission Vehicles (LEVs). EPA recruited twenty-five LEVs in 2002, and measured emissions on a chassis dynamometer usin...

  11. Assessment of 2012 on-road mobile source episode specific emissions on air quality in Houston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Shen, X.; Sarker, S.; Du, H.; Huque, Z.; Kommalapati, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    Houston has long been known to suffer from poor air quality, especially ground ozone level produced from photochemical reactions between nitrogen oxides (NOx) and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) in the presence of sunlight. In order to investigate impact of various emissions on air quality in Houston, combination of biogenic emissions with anthropogenic emissions were simulated for 2012 ozone episode. In this research, impact of on-road mobile source emissions on air quality in Houston were assessed. On-road mobile source inventories were developed using the EPA's MOVES (MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator) model. Emissions Preprocessor System was used to convert the developed on-road mobile source inventories to suitable format. The converted on-road mobile source inventories were combined with biogenic emissions as the air quality model input. CAMx (Comprehensive Air quality Model with extensions) model was used to simulate various air pollutants concentrations for 2012 ozone episode. Simulation results showed that various transportation patterns have quite different influences on the air quality in this region.

  12. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal -- 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Y.E.; Black, S.C.

    1995-06-01

    This report focuses on air quality at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for 1994. A general description of the effluent sources are presented. Each potential source of NTS emissions was characterized by one of the following: (1) by monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at NTS; (2) by a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclides are released to the environment; (3) by the measurement of tritiated water concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) by using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. Appendices A through J describe the methods used to determine the emissions from the sources. These National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) emissions are very conservative, are used to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the Maximally Exposed Individual offsite, and exceed, in some cases, those reported in DOE`s Effluent Information System (EIS). The NESHAP`s worst-case emissions that exceed the EIS reported emissions are noted. Offsite environmental surveillance data are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative.

  13. Influence of future anthropogenic emissions on climate, natural emissions, and air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Mark Z.; Streets, David G.

    2009-04-01

    This study examines the effects of future anthropogenic emissions on climate, and the resulting feedback to natural emissions and air quality. Speciated sector- and region-specific 2030 emission factors were developed to produce gas and particle emission inventories that followed Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) A1B and B1 emission trajectories. Current and future climate model simulations were run, in which anthropogenic emission changes affected climate, which fed back to natural emissions from lightning (NO, NO2, HONO, HNO3, N2O, H2O2, HO2, CO), soils (dust, bacteria, NO, N2O, H2, CH4, H2S, DMS, OCS, CS2), the ocean (bacteria, sea spray, DMS, N2O, H2, CH4), vegetation (pollen, spores, isoprene, monoterpenes, methanol, other VOCs), and photosynthesis/respiration. New methods were derived to calculate lightning flash rates as a function of size-resolved collisions and other physical principles and pollen, spore, and bacteria emissions. Although the B1 scenario was "cleaner" than the A1B scenario, global warming increased more in the B1 scenario because much A1B warming was masked by additional reflective aerosol particles. Thus neither scenario is entirely beneficial from a climate and health perspective, and the best control measure is to reduce warming gases and warming/cooling particles together. Lightning emissions declined by ˜3% in the B1 scenario and ˜12% in the A1B scenario as the number of ice crystals, thus charge-separating bounceoffs, decreased. Net primary production increased by ˜2% in both scenarios. Emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes increased by ˜1% in the A1B scenario and 4-5% in the B1 scenario. Near-surface ozone increased by ˜14% in the A1B scenario and ˜4% in the B1 scenario, reducing ambient isoprene in the latter case. Gases from soils increased in both scenarios due to higher temperatures. Near-surface PM2.5 mass increased by ˜2% in the A1B scenario and decreased by ˜2% in the B1 scenario. The resulting 1.4% higher

  14. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2011 INL Report for Radionuclides (2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

    2012-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  15. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Calendar Year 2012 INL Report for Radionuclides (2013)

    SciTech Connect

    Verdoorn, Mark; Haney, Tom

    2013-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ''Protection of the Environment,'' Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  16. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Calendar Year 2013 INL Report for Radionuclides [2014

    SciTech Connect

    Verdoorn, Mark; Haney, Tom

    2014-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2013 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ''Protection of the Environment,'' Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 3.02 E-02 mrem per year, 0.30 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  17. Radionuclide air emission report for the Hanford Site Calendar Year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Diediker, L.P.; Curn, B.L.; Rhoads, K.; Damberg, E.G.; Soldat, J.K.; Jette, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1993 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, {open_quotes}National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,{close_quotes} Subpart H, {open_quotes}National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.{close_quotes}

  18. Comparing the VOC emissions between air-dried and heat-treated Scots pine wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manninen, Anne-Marja; Pasanen, Pertti; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    The emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from air-dried Scots pine wood and from heat-treated Scots pine wood were compared with GC-MS analysis. Air-dried wood blocks released about 8 times more total VOCs than heat-treated (24 h at 230°C) ones. Terpenes were clearly the main compound group in the air-dried wood samples, whereas aldehydes and carboxylic acids and their esters dominated in the heat-treated wood samples. Only 14 compounds out of 41 identified individual compounds were found in both wood samples indicating considerable changes in VOC emission profile during heat-treatment process. Of individual compounds α-pinene, 3-carene and hexanal were the most abundant ones in the air-dried wood. By contrast, in the heat-treated wood 2-furancarboxaldehyde, acetic acid and 2-propanone were the major compounds of VOC emission. Current emission results reveal that significant chemical changes have occurred, and volatile monoterpenes and other low-molecular-weight compounds have evaporated from the wood during the heat-treatment process when compared to air-dried wood. Major chemical changes detected in VOC emissions are explained by the thermal degradation and oxidation of main constituents in wood. The results suggest that if heat-treated wood is used in interior carpentry, emissions of monoterpenes are reduced compared to air-dried wood, but some irritating compounds might be released into indoor air.

  19. EMISSION OF PESTICIDES INTO THE AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    During and after the application of pesticide in agriculture, a substantial fraction of the dosage may enter the atmosphere and be transported over varying distances downwind of the target. The rate and extent of the emission during application depends primarily on the applicat...

  20. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2011-06-30

    limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE, 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001(EPA, 2001a) and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR, 2010a). For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide's concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2010, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from less than 1 percent to a maximum of 17 percent of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 20 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of that measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000032 mrem/yr, more than 300,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

  1. A zinc-air battery and flywheel zero emission vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Tokarz, F.; Smith, J.R.; Cooper, J.; Bender, D.; Aceves, S.

    1995-10-03

    In response to the 1990 Clean Air Act, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) developed a compliance plan known as the Low Emission Vehicle Program. An integral part of that program was a sales mandate to the top seven automobile manufacturers requiring the percentage of Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEVs) sold in California to be 2% in 1998, 5% in 2001 and 10% by 2003. Currently available ZEV technology will probably not meet customer demand for range and moderate cost. A potential option to meet the CARB mandate is to use two Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) technologies, namely, zinc-air refuelable batteries (ZARBs) and electromechanical batteries (EMBs, i. e., flywheels) to develop a ZEV with a 384 kilometer (240 mile) urban range. This vehicle uses a 40 kW, 70 kWh ZARB for energy storage combined with a 102 kW, 0.5 kWh EMB for power peaking. These technologies are sufficiently near-term and cost-effective to plausibly be in production by the 1999-2001 time frame for stationary and initial vehicular applications. Unlike many other ZEVs currently being developed by industry, our proposed ZEV has range, acceleration, and size consistent with larger conventional passenger vehicles available today. Our life-cycle cost projections for this technology are lower than for Pb-acid battery ZEVs. We have used our Hybrid Vehicle Evaluation Code (HVEC) to simulate the performance of the vehicle and to size the various components. The use of conservative subsystem performance parameters and the resulting vehicle performance are discussed in detail.

  2. Dynamic Evaluation of a Regional Air Quality Model: Assessing the Emissions-Induced Weekly Ozone Cycle

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality models are used to predict changes in pollutant concentrations resulting from envisioned emission control policies. Recognizing the need to assess the credibility of air quality models in a policy-relevant context, we perform a dynamic evaluation of the community Mult...

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT EMISSION FACTORS FROM STATE SOURCE TEST PROGRAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study in which emission factors were evolved from test data obtained from several Air Quality Management Districts in California and from state environmental agencies in Louisiana, Maryland, New Jersey, and Texas. The emission factors were developed...

  4. EMISSIONS FROM THE BURNING OF VEGETATIVE DEBRIS IN AIR CURTAIN DESTRUCTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although no data has been published on emissions from construction and demolition (C&D) debris burned in an air curtain destructor (ACD), a few studies provide information on emissions from combustion of vegetative debris. These results are compared to studies of open burning of...

  5. ESP 2.0: Improved method for projecting U.S. GHG and air pollution emissions through 2055

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Emission Scenario Projection (ESP) method is used to develop multi-decadal projections of U.S. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) and criteria pollutant emissions. The resulting future-year emissions can then translated into an emissions inventory and applied in climate and air quality mod...

  6. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Campus Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2014-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2013 from PNNL Site sources is 2E-05 mrem (2E-07 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 2E-6 mrem (2E-8 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 1E-11 mrem (1E-13 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2013. The total radiological dose for 2013 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 2E-5 mrem (2E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance

  7. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2013-06-06

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2012 from PNNL Site sources is 9E-06 mrem (9E-08 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 1E-7 mrem (1E-9 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 2E-6 mrem (2E-08 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2012. The total radiological dose for 2012 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 1E-5 mrem (1E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

  8. Air Emission, Liquid Effluent Inventory and Reporting

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Tina

    1998-08-18

    The IES maintains an inventory of radiological air and liquid effluents released to the atmosphere. The IES utilizes the official stack numbers. Data may be entered by generators for any monitoring time period. Waste volumes released as well as their radiological constituents are tracked. The IES provides data to produce a report for NESHAPS as well as several administrative action/anomaly reports. These reports flag unusual occurences (releases) that are above normal range releases.

  9. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford site calendar year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-26

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1995, and the resulting effective dose equivalent (FDE) to the maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the `MEI.` The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, `National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,` Subpart H, `National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.` This report has also been prepared for and will be submitted in accordance with the reporting requirements of the Washington Administrative Code Chapter 246-247, `Radiation Protection-Air Emissions.`

  10. 76 FR 12863 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... that provided national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants for existing stationary spark... Docket Center (6102T), National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant for Stationary... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines...

  11. Modeling and Qualification of a Modified Emission Unit for Radioactive Air Emissions Stack Sampling Compliance.

    PubMed

    Barnett, J Matthew; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Recknagle, Kurtis P; Glissmeyer, John A

    2016-11-01

    A planned laboratory space and exhaust system modification to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Material Science and Technology Building indicated that a new evaluation of the mixing at the air sampling system location would be required for compliance to ANSI/HPS N13.1-2011. The modified exhaust system would add a third fan, thereby increasing the overall exhaust rate out the stack, thus voiding the previous mixing study. Prior to modifying the radioactive air emissions exhaust system, a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics computer model was used to evaluate the mixing at the sampling system location. Modeling of the original three-fan system indicated that not all mixing criteria could be met. A second modeling effort was conducted with the addition of an air blender downstream of the confluence of the three fans, which then showed satisfactory mixing results. The final installation included an air blender, and the exhaust system underwent full-scale tests to verify velocity, cyclonic flow, gas, and particulate uniformity. The modeling results and those of the full-scale tests show agreement between each of the evaluated criteria. The use of a computational fluid dynamics code was an effective aid in the design process and allowed the sampling system to remain in its original location while still meeting the requirements for sampling at a well mixed location. PMID:27682902

  12. The effects of energy paths and emission controls and standards on future trends in China's emissions of primary air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2014-09-01

    To examine the efficacy of China's actions to control atmospheric pollution, three levels of growth of energy consumption and three levels of implementation of emission controls are estimated, generating a total of nine combined activity-emission control scenarios that are then used to estimate trends of national emissions of primary air pollutants through 2030. The emission control strategies are expected to have more effects than the energy paths on the future emission trends for all the concerned pollutants. As recently promulgated national action plans of air pollution prevention and control (NAPAPPC) are implemented, China's anthropogenic pollutant emissions should decline. For example, the emissions of SO2, NOx, total suspended particles (TSP), PM10, and PM2.5 are estimated to decline 7, 20, 41, 34, and 31% from 2010 to 2030, respectively, in the "best guess" scenario that includes national commitment of energy saving policy and implementation of NAPAPPC. Should the issued/proposed emission standards be fully achieved, a less likely scenario, annual emissions would be further reduced, ranging from 17 (for primary PM2.5) to 29% (for NOx) declines in 2015, and the analogue numbers would be 12 and 24% in 2030. The uncertainties of emission projections result mainly from the uncertain operational conditions of swiftly proliferating air pollutant control devices and lack of detailed information about emission control plans by region. The predicted emission trends by sector and chemical species raise concerns about current pollution control strategies: the potential for emissions abatement in key sectors may be declining due to the near saturation of emission control devices use; risks of ecosystem acidification could rise because emissions of alkaline base cations may be declining faster than those of SO2; and radiative forcing could rise because emissions of positive-forcing carbonaceous aerosols may decline more slowly than those of SO2 emissions and thereby

  13. The effects of energy paths and emission controls and standards on future trends in China's emissions of primary air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2014-03-01

    To examine the efficacy of China's actions to control atmospheric pollution, three levels of growth of energy consumption and three levels of implementation of emission controls are estimated, generating a total of nine combined activity-emission control scenarios that are then used to estimate trends of national emissions of primary air pollutants through 2030. The emission control strategies are expected to have more effects than the energy paths on the future emission trends for all the concerned pollutants. As recently promulgated national action plans of air pollution prevention and control (NAPAPPC) are implemented, China's anthropogenic pollutant emissions should decline. For example, the emissions of SO2, NOx, total primary particulate matter (PM), PM10, and PM2.5 are estimated to decline 7%, 20%, 41%, 34%, and 31% from 2010 to 2030, respectively, in the "best guess" scenario that includes national commitment of energy saving policy and partial implementation of NAPAPPC. Should the issued/proposed emission standards be fully achieved, a less likely scenario, annual emissions would be further reduced, ranging from 17% (for primary PM2.5) to 29% (for NOx) declines in 2015, and the analogue numbers would be 12% and 24% in 2030. The uncertainties of emission projections result mainly from the uncertain operational conditions of swiftly proliferating air pollutant control devices and lack of detailed information about emission control plans by region. The predicted emission trends by sector and chemical species raise concerns about current pollution control strategies: the potential for emissions abatement in key sectors may be declining due to the near saturation of emission control devices use; risks of ecosystem acidification could rise because emissions of alkaline base cations may be declining faster than those of SO2; and radiative forcing could rise because emissions of positive-forcing carbonaceous aerosols may decline more slowly than those of SO2

  14. Estimating Lightning NOx Emissions for Regional Air Quality Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, T.; Scotty, E.; Harkey, M.

    2014-12-01

    Lightning emissions have long been recognized as an important source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) on a global scale, and an essential emission component for global atmospheric chemistry models. However, only in recent years have regional air quality models incorporated lightning NOx emissions into simulations. The growth in regional modeling of lightning emissions has been driven in part by comparisons with satellite-derived estimates of column NO2, especially from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard the Aura satellite. We present and evaluate a lightning inventory for the EPA Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Our approach follows Koo et al. [2010] in the approach to spatially and temporally allocating a given total value based on cloud-top height and convective precipitation. However, we consider alternate total NOx emission values (which translate into alternate lightning emission factors) based on a review of the literature and performance evaluation against OMI NO2 for July 2007 conditions over the U.S. and parts of Canada and Mexico. The vertical distribution of lightning emissions follow a bimodal distribution from Allen et al. [2012] calculated over 27 vertical model layers. Total lightning NO emissions for July 2007 show the highest above-land emissions in Florida, southeastern Texas and southern Louisiana. Although agreement with OMI NO2 across the domain varied significantly depending on lightning NOx assumptions, agreement among the simulations at ground-based NO2 monitors from the EPA Air Quality System database showed no meaningful sensitivity to lightning NOx. Emissions are compared with prior studies, which find similar distribution patterns, but a wide range of calculated magnitudes.

  15. A continuous sampling air-ICP for metals emission monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, D.P.; Zamzow, D.S.; Eckels, D.E.; Miller, G.P.

    1999-09-19

    An air-inductively coupled plasma (air-ICP) system has been developed for continuous sampling and monitoring of metals as a continuous emission monitor (CEM). The plasma is contained in a metal enclosure to allow reduced-pressure operation. The enclosure and plasma are operated at a pressure slightly less than atmospheric using a Roots blower, so that sample gas is continuously drawn into the plasma. A Teflon sampling chamber, equipped with a sampling pump, is connected to the stack that is to be monitored to isokinetically sample gas from the exhaust line and introduce the sample into the air-ICP. Optical emission from metals in the sampled gas stream is detected and monitored using an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF)--echelle spectrometer system. A description of the continuous sampling air-ICP system is given, along with some preliminary laboratory data for continuous monitoring of metals.

  16. Low Emissions RQL Flametube Combustor Component Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, James D.; Chang, Clarence T.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes and summarizes elements of the High Speed Research (HSR) Low Emissions Rich burn/Quick mix/Lean burn (RQL) flame tube combustor test program. This test program was performed at NASA Glenn Research Center circa 1992. The overall objective of this test program was to demonstrate and evaluate the capability of the RQL combustor concept for High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) applications with the goal of achieving NOx emission index levels of 5 g/kg-fuel at representative HSCT supersonic cruise conditions. The specific objectives of the tests reported herein were to investigate component performance of the RQL combustor concept for use in the evolution of ultra-low NOx combustor design tools. Test results indicated that the RQL combustor emissions and performance at simulated supersonic cruise conditions were predominantly sensitive to the quick mixer subcomponent performance and not sensitive to fuel injector performance. Test results also indicated the mixing section configuration employing a single row of circular holes was the lowest NOx mixer tested probably due to the initial fast mixing characteristics of this mixing section. However, other quick mix orifice configurations such as the slanted slot mixer produced substantially lower levels of carbon monoxide emissions most likely due to the enhanced circumferential dispersion of the air addition. Test results also suggested that an optimum momentum-flux ratio exists for a given quick mix configuration. This would cause undesirable jet under- or over-penetration for test conditions with momentum-flux ratios below or above the optimum value. Tests conducted to assess the effect of quick mix flow area indicated that reduction in the quick mix flow area produced lower NOx emissions at reduced residence time, but this had no effect on NOx emissions measured at similar residence time for the configurations tested.

  17. Polarized radio emission from extensive air showers measured with LOFAR

    SciTech Connect

    Schellart, P.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J.E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J.R.; Krause, M.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J.P.; Veen, S. ter; Thoudam, S.

    2014-10-01

    We present LOFAR measurements of radio emission from extensive air showers. We find that this emission is strongly polarized, with a median degree of polarization of nearly 99%, and that the angle between the polarization direction of the electric field and the Lorentz force acting on the particles, depends on the observer location in the shower plane. This can be understood as a superposition of the radially polarized charge-excess emission mechanism, first proposed by Askaryan and the geomagnetic emission mechanism proposed by Kahn and Lerche. We calculate the relative strengths of both contributions, as quantified by the charge-excess fraction, for 163 individual air showers. We find that the measured charge-excess fraction is higher for air showers arriving from closer to the zenith. Furthermore, the measured charge-excess fraction also increases with increasing observer distance from the air shower symmetry axis. The measured values range from (3.3± 1.0)% for very inclined air showers at 25 m to (20.3± 1.3)% for almost vertical showers at 225 m. Both dependencies are in qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions.

  18. Sequim Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-04-01

    This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and ashington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. This report meets the calendar year 2012 Sequim Site annual reporting requirement for its operations as a privately-owned facility as well as its federally-contracted status that began in October 2012. Compliance is indicated by comparing the estimated dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) with the 10 mrem/yr Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard. The MSL contains only sources classified as fugitive emissions. Despite the fact that the regulations are intended for application to point source emissions, fugitive emissions are included with regard to complying with the EPA standard. The dose to the Sequim Site MEI due to routine operations in 2012 was 9E-06 mrem (9E-08 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2012. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  19. Physical Sciences Facility Air Emission Control Equivalency Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, David M.; Belew, Shan T.

    2008-10-17

    This document presents the adequacy evaluation for the application of technology standards during design, fabrication, installation and testing of radioactive air exhaust systems at the Physical Sciences Facility (PSF), located on the Horn Rapids Triangle north of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) complex. The analysis specifically covers the exhaust portion of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems associated with emission units EP-3410-01-S, EP-3420-01-S and EP 3430-01-S.

  20. Effects of Coaxial Air on Nitrogen-Diluted Hydrogen Jet Diffusion Flame Length and NOx Emission

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, N.T.; Chen, R.-H.; Strakey, P.A.

    2007-10-01

    Turbulent nitrogen-diluted hydrogen jet diffusion flames with high velocity coaxial air flows are investigated for their NOx emission levels. This study is motivated by the DOE turbine program’s goal of achieving 2 ppm dry low NOx from turbine combustors running on nitrogen-diluted high-hydrogen fuels. In this study, effects of coaxial air velocity and momentum are varied while maintaining low overall equivalence ratios to eliminate the effects of recirculation of combustion products on flame lengths, flame temperatures, and resulting NOx emission levels. The nature of flame length and NOx emission scaling relationships are found to vary, depending on whether the combined fuel and coaxial air jet is fuel-rich or fuel-lean. In the absence of differential diffusion effects, flame lengths agree well with predicted trends, and NOx emissions levels are shown to decrease with increasing coaxial air velocity, as expected. Normalizing the NOx emission index with a flame residence time reveals some interesting trends, and indicates that a global flame strain based on the difference between the fuel and coaxial air velocities, as is traditionally used, is not a viable parameter for scaling the normalized NOx emissions of coaxial air jet diffusion flames.

  1. Characterization of air freshener emission: the potential health effects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghwa; Hong, Seong-Ho; Bong, Choon-Keun; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2015-01-01

    Air freshener could be one of the multiple sources that release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the indoor environment. The use of these products may be associated with an increase in the measured level of terpene, such as xylene and other volatile air freshener components, including aldehydes, and esters. Air freshener is usually used indoors, and thus some compounds emitted from air freshener may have potentially harmful health impacts, including sensory irritation, respiratory symptoms, and dysfunction of the lungs. The constituents of air fresheners can react with ozone to produce secondary pollutants such as formaldehyde, secondary organic aerosol (SOA), oxidative product, and ultrafine particles. These pollutants then adversely affect human health, in many ways such as damage to the central nervous system, alteration of hormone levels, etc. In particular, the ultrafine particles may induce severe adverse effects on diverse organs, including the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems. Although the indoor use of air freshener is increasing, deleterious effects do not manifest for many years, making it difficult to identify air freshener-associated symptoms. In addition, risk assessment recognizes the association between air fresheners and adverse health effects, but the distinct causal relationship remains unclear. In this review, the emitted components of air freshener, including benzene, phthalate, and limonene, were described. Moreover, we focused on the health effects of these chemicals and secondary pollutants formed by the reaction with ozone. In conclusion, scientific guidelines on emission and exposure as well as risk characterization of air freshener need to be established. PMID:26354370

  2. Results of an indoor air pollution investigation.

    PubMed

    Beller, M; Middaugh, J P

    1989-01-01

    After the opening of a new elementary school in fall 1986, several members of the school's staff noticed symptoms they attributed to the workplace. An investigation by the Occupational Safety and Health Branch (OSHA) of the Alaska Department of Labor found no major health problems and concluded that fireproofing at the school may have caused a petroleum-like odor. In fall 1987, parents reported illness in their children that they attributed to school attendance. Subsequent epidemiologic investigation found that student and staff absentee rates were not increased and were similar to other schools in the district. Testing conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) confirmed that the petroleum-like odor was due to the fireproofing. Toxicologic information and the results of air sampling confirmed that no adverse health effects would be expected from the product. By working together with NIOSH, OSHA, the school district, and a consulting mechanical engineer, deficiencies in the school's ventilation system were discovered and immediately corrected with interim engineering changes. Only by bringing multiple agencies together and openly sharing findings with concerned parents and staff were the problems at the school resolved. PMID:2596649

  3. Evaluation of life-cycle air emission factors of freight transportation.

    PubMed

    Facanha, Cristiano; Horvath, Arpad

    2007-10-15

    Life-cycle air emission factors associated with road, rail, and air transportation of freight in the United States are analyzed. All life-cycle phases of vehicles, infrastructure, and fuels are accounted for in a hybrid life-cycle assessment (LCA). It includes not only fuel combustion, but also emissions from vehicle manufacturing, maintenance, and end of life, infrastructure construction, operation, maintenance, and end of life, and petroleum exploration, refining, and fuel distribution. Results indicate that total life-cycle emissions of freight transportation modes are underestimated if only tailpipe emissions are accounted for. In the case of CO2 and NOx, tailpipe emissions underestimate total emissions by up to 38%, depending on the mode. Total life-cycle emissions of CO and SO2 are up to seven times higher than tailpipe emissions. Sensitivity analysis considers the effects of vehicle type, geography, and mode efficiency on the final results. Policy implications of this analysis are also discussed. For example, while it is widely assumed that currently proposed regulations will result in substantial reductions in emissions, we find that this is true for NOx, emissions, because fuel combustion is the main cause, and to a lesser extent for SO2, but not for PM10 emissions, which are significantly affected by the other life-cycle phases.

  4. 77 FR 16508 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ..., was published on January 9, 2012 (77 FR 1268). EPA has established the public docket for the proposed...: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient Production; and Polyether Polyols Production... pollutants: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and...

  5. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Potential Impact Categories for Radiological Air Emission Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.; Barnett, J. Matthew

    2012-06-05

    In 2002, the EPA amended 40 CFR 61 Subpart H and 40 CFR 61 Appendix B Method 114 to include requirements from ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities for major emission points. Additionally, the WDOH amended the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247 Radiation protection-air emissions to include ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 requirements for major and minor emission points when new permitting actions are approved. A result of the amended regulations is the requirement to prepare a written technical basis for the radiological air emission sampling and monitoring program. A key component of the technical basis is the Potential Impact Category (PIC) assigned to an emission point. This paper discusses the PIC assignments for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Integrated Laboratory emission units; this revision includes five PIC categories.

  6. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2006-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation’s site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides that are resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds, dust-devils) along with historically-contaminated soils on the NTS. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (40 Code of Federal Regulations 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent (EDE) to any member of the public. This is the dose limit established for someone living off of the NTS for inhaling radioactive particles that may be carried by wind off of the NTS. This limit assumes that members of the public surrounding the NTS may also inhale “background levels” or radioactive particles unrelated to NTS activities that come from naturally-occurring elements in the environment (e.g., radon gas from the earth or natural building materials) or from other man-made sources (e.g., cigarette smoke). The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires DOE facilities (e.g., the NTS) to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP dose limit by annually estimating the dose to a hypothetical member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI), or the member of the public who resides within an 80-kilometer (50-mile

  7. Air pollution radiative forcing from specific emissions sectors at 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, Nadine; Shindell, Drew T.; Koch, Dorothy M.; Streets, David G.

    2008-01-01

    Reduction of short-lived air pollutants can contribute to mitigate global warming in the near-term with ancillary benefits to human health. However, the radiative forcings of short-lived air pollutants depend on the location and source type of the precursor emissions. We apply the Goddard Institute for Space Studies atmospheric composition-climate model to quantify near-future (2030 A1B) global annual mean radiative forcing by ozone (O3) and sulfate from six emissions sectors in seven geographic regions. At 2030 the net forcings from O3, sulfate, black and organic carbon, and indirect CH4 effects for each emission sector are (in mWm-2) biomass burning, +95; domestic, +68; transportation, +67; industry, -131; and power, -224. Biomass burning emissions in East Asia and central and southern Africa, domestic biofuel emissions in East Asia, south Asia, and central and southern Africa, and transportation emissions in Europe and North America have large net positive forcings and are therefore attractive targets to counter global warming. Power and industry emissions from East Asia, south Asia, and north Africa and the Middle East have large net negative forcings. Therefore air quality control measures that affect these regional sectors require offsetting climate measures to avoid a warming impact. Linear relationships exist between O3 forcing and biomass burning and domestic biofuel CO precursor emissions independent of region with sensitivity of +0.2 mWm-2/TgCO. Similarly, linear relationships exist between sulfate forcing and SO2 precursor emissions that depend upon region but are independent of sector with sensitivities ranging from -3 to -12 mWm-2/TgS.

  8. Year 2015 Aircraft Emission Scenario for Scheduled Air Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baughcum, Steven L.; Sutkus, Donald J.; Henderson, Stephen C.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the development of a three-dimensional scenario of aircraft fuel burn and emissions (fuel burned, NOx, CO, and hydrocarbons)for projected year 2015 scheduled air traffic. These emission inventories are available for use by atmospheric scientists conducting the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) modeling studies. Fuel burned and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx as NO2), carbon monoxides, and hydrocarbons have been calculated on a 1 degree latitude x 1 degree longitude x 1 kilometer altitude grid and delivered to NASA as electronic files.

  9. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction HEPA filtered vacuum radioactive air emission units

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, R.E.

    1999-09-01

    This notice of construction (NOC) requests a categorical approval for construction and operation of certain portable high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered vacuum radionuclide airborne emission units (HVUs). Approval of this NOC application is intended to allow operation of the HVUs without prior project-specific approval. This NOC does not request replacement or supersedence of any previous agreements/approvals by the Washington State Department of Health for the use of vacuums on the Hanford Site. These previous agreement/approvals include the approved NOCs for the use of EuroClean HEPA vacuums at the T Plant Complex (routine technical meeting 12/10/96) and the Kelly Decontamination System at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant (routine technical meeting 06/25/96). Also, this NOC does not replace or supersede the agreement reached regarding the use of HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners for routine cleanup activities conducted by the Environmental Restoration Project. Routine cleanup activities are conducted during the surveillance and maintenance of inactive waste sites (Radioactive Area Remedial Action Project) and inactive facilities. HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners are used to clean up spot surface contamination areas found during outdoor radiological field surveys, and to clean up localized radiologically contaminated material (e.g., dust, dirt, bird droppings, animal feces, liquids, insects, spider webs, etc.). This agreement, documented in the October 12, 1994 Routine Meeting Minutes, is based on routine cleanup consisting of spot cleanup of low-level contamination provided that, in each case, the source term potential would be below 0.1 millirem per year.

  10. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford Site -- calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P.; Rhoads, K.

    1998-06-17

    This report documents radionuclide air emission from the Hanford Site in 1997, and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the MEI. The report has been prepared in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities. This report has also been prepared in accordance with the reporting requirements of the Washington Administrative Code Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The effective dose equivalent to the MEI from the Hanford Site`s 1997 point source emissions was 1.2 E-03 mrem (1.2 E-05 mSv), which is well below the 40 CFR 61 Subpart H regulatory limit of 10 mrem/yr. Radon and thoron emissions, exempted from 40 CFR 61 Subpart H, resulted in an effective dose equivalent to the MEI of 2.5 E-03 mrem (2.5 E-05 mSv). The effective dose equivalent to the MEI attributable to diffuse and fugitive emissions was 2.2 E-02 mrem (2.2 E-04 mSv). The total effective dose equivalent from all of the Hanford Site`s air emissions was 2.6 E-02 mrem (2.6 E-04 mSv). The effective dose equivalent from all of the Hanford Site`s air emissions is well below the Washington Administrative Code, Chapter 246-247, regulatory limit of 10 mrem/yr.

  11. Improving ammonia emissions in air quality modelling for France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Meleux, Frédérik; Beekmann, Matthias; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Génermont, Sophie; Cellier, Pierre; Létinois, Laurent

    2014-08-01

    We have implemented a new module to improve the representation of ammonia emissions from agricultural activities in France with the objective to evaluate the impact of such emissions on the formation of particulate matter modelled with the air quality model CHIMERE. A novel method has been set up for the part of ammonia emissions originating from mineral fertilizer spreading. They are calculated using the one dimensional 1D mechanistic model “VOLT'AIR” which has been coupled with data on agricultural practices, meteorology and soil properties obtained at high spatial resolution (cantonal level). These emissions display high spatiotemporal variations depending on soil pH, rates and dates of fertilization and meteorological variables, especially soil temperature. The emissions from other agricultural sources (animal housing, manure storage and organic manure spreading) are calculated using the national spatialised inventory (INS) recently developed in France. The comparison of the total ammonia emissions estimated with the new approach VOLT'AIR_INS with the standard emissions provided by EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) used currently in the CHIMERE model shows significant differences in the spatiotemporal distributions. The implementation of new ammonia emissions in the CHIMERE model has a limited impact on ammonium nitrate aerosol concentrations which only increase at most by 10% on the average for the considered spring period but this impact can be more significant for specific pollution episodes. The comparison of modelled PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm) and ammonium nitrate aerosol with observations shows that the use of the new ammonia emission method slightly improves the spatiotemporal correlation in certain regions and reduces the negative bias on average by 1 μg m-3. The formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol depends not only on ammonia concentrations but also on nitric acid availability, which

  12. Emission of air pollutants from burning candles with different composition in indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Derudi, Marco; Gelosa, Simone; Sliepcevich, Andrea; Cattaneo, Andrea; Cavallo, Domenico; Rota, Renato; Nano, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    Candle composition is expected to influence the air pollutants emissions, possibly leading to important differences in the emissions of volatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In this regard, the purity of the raw materials and additives used can play a key role. Consequently, in this work emission factors for some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic species, short-chain aldehydes and particulate matter have been determined for container candles constituted by different paraffin waxes burning in a test chamber. It has been found that wax quality strongly influences the air pollutant emissions. These results could be used, at least at a first glance, to foresee the expected pollutant concentration in a given indoor environment with respect to health safety standards, while the test chamber used for performing the reported results could be useful to estimate the emission factors of any other candle in an easy-to-build standardised environment. PMID:24318837

  13. Proton emission - new results and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, R. D.

    2016-09-01

    Proton emission is the radioactive decay mode that is expected to determine the limit of observable proton-rich nuclei for most elements. Considerable progress has been made in the study of proton-emitting nuclei since the first observation of direct proton emission nearly 50 years ago. This has led to improvements in our understanding of this decay process and provided invaluable nuclear structure data far from the valley of beta stability. The rapid fall in half-lives with increasing neutron deficiency when proton emission dominates makes it likely that for some elements, the lightest isotopes whose ground states can be observed in conventional experiments have already been reached. The enhanced stability against proton emission of the recently discovered high-lying isomer in 158Ta raises the possibility that proton emission from multiparticle isomers could be observed in nuclei beyond the expected boundaries of the nuclear landscape.

  14. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.

    2013-06-10

    been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR 2010a). For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide’s concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2012, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from less than 0.5% to a maximum of 11.1% of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 9 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of the value measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000024 mrem/yr, more than 400,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

  15. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2012-06-19

    NNSS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2. For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide's concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2011, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from less than 1% to a maximum of 12.2% of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 20 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of the value measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000024 mrem/yr, more than 400,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

  16. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.

    2014-06-04

    been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR 2010a). For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide’s concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2013, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from 0.2% to a maximum of 10.1% of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 9 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of the value measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000011 mrem/yr, more than 900,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

  17. Air quality improvements following implementation of Lisbon's Low Emission Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, F.; Gomes, P.; Tente, H.; Carvalho, A. C.; Pereira, P.; Monjardino, J.

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution levels within Lisbon city limits have been exceeding the limit values established in European Union and national legislation since 2001, with the most problematic cases related to the levels of fine particles (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), mainly originated by road traffic. With the objective of answering this public health issue, an Air Quality Action Plan was developed in 2006 and the respective Enforcement Plan was published in 2009. From the overall strategy, one of the major measures presented in this strategy was the creation of a Low Emission Zone (LEZ) in Lisbon, which has been operating since July 2011. Implemented at different stages it has progressively expanded its area, including more vehicle types and adopting more stringent requirements in terms of minimum emission standards (currently LEZ phase 2 with EURO 2 in the city center - zone 1 and EURO 1 in the rest of the LEZ area - zone 2). At the same time the road axis comprised of Marquês de Pombal square and Avenida da Liberdade was subjected to profound changes in its traffic circulation model, reducing road traffic volumes. The analysis of the air quality data before and after the LEZ phase 2 has shown positive evolution when comparing the period between 2011 (before measures) and 2013 (after measures). In 2013, there was a reduction in PM10 annual average concentration of 23% and NO2 annual average concentrations of 12%, compared with the year 2011. Although PM10 reductions were more significant inside the LEZ area, the same was not valid for NO2, suggesting that the implementation of these measures was not as effective in reducing NO2 levels as shown by results in other cities like Berlin and London. The results from road traffic characterization indicate a relevant effect on fleet renewal with an overall decrease in the relative weight of pre-EURO 2 vehicles in 2012/2013, compared with data from 2011. An important increase in the share of EURO 4 and EURO 5 vehicles was also

  18. Impact of Trans-Boundary Emissions on Modelled Air Pollution in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovic, Radenko; Moran, Mike; Zhang, Junhua; Zheng, Qiong; Menard, Sylvain; Anselmo, David; Davignon, Didier

    2014-05-01

    The operational air quality model GEM-MACH is run twice daily at the Canadian Meteorological Centre in Montreal, Quebec to produce 48-hour forecasts of hourly O3, NO2, and PM2.5 fields over a North American domain. The hourly gridded anthropogenic emissions fields needed by GEM-MACH are currently based on the 2006 Canadian emissions inventory, a 2012 projected U.S. inventory, and the 1999 Mexican inventory. The Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) processing package was used to process these three national emissions inventories to create the GEM-MACH emissions fields. While Canada is the second-largest country in the world by total area, its population and its emissions of criteria contaminants are both only about one-tenth of U.S. values and roughly 80% of the Canadian population lives within 150 km of the international border with the U.S. As a consequence, transboundary transport of air pollution has a major impact on air quality in Canada. To quantify the impact of non-Canadian emissions on forecasted pollutant levels in Canada, the following two tests were performed: (a) all U.S. and Mexican anthropogenic emissions were switched off; and (b) anthropogenic emissions from the southernmost tier of U.S. states and Mexico were switched off. These sensitivity tests were performed for the summer and winter periods of 2012 or 2011. The results obtained show that the impact of non-Canadian sources on forecasted pollution is generally larger in summer than in winter, especially in south-eastern parts of Canada. For the three pollutants considered in the Canadian national Air Quality Health Index, PM2.5 is impacted the most (up to 80%) and NO2 the least (<10%). Emissions from the southern U.S. and Mexico do impact Canadian air quality, but the sign may change depending on the season (i.e., increase vs. decrease), reflecting chemical processing en route.

  19. Reducing Ultrafine Particle Emissions Using Air Injection in Wood-Burning Cookstoves.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Vi H; Caubel, Julien J; Wilson, Daniel L; Gadgil, Ashok J

    2016-08-01

    In order to address the health risks and climate impacts associated with pollution from cooking on biomass fires, researchers have focused on designing new cookstoves that improve cooking performance and reduce harmful emissions, specifically particulate matter (PM). One method for improving cooking performance and reducing emissions is using air injection to increase turbulence of unburned gases in the combustion zone. Although air injection reduces total PM mass emissions, the effect on PM size distribution and number concentration has not been thoroughly investigated. Using two new wood-burning cookstove designs from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, this research explores the effect of air injection on cooking performance, PM and gaseous emissions, and PM size distribution and number concentration. Both cookstoves were created using the Berkeley-Darfur Stove as the base platform to isolate the effects of air injection. The thermal performance, gaseous emissions, PM mass emissions, and particle concentrations (ranging from 5 nm to 10 μm in diameter) of the cookstoves were measured during multiple high-power cooking tests. The results indicate that air injection improves cookstove performance and reduces total PM mass but increases total ultrafine (less than 100 nm in diameter) PM concentration over the course of high-power cooking.

  20. Reducing Ultrafine Particle Emissions Using Air Injection in Wood-Burning Cookstoves.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Vi H; Caubel, Julien J; Wilson, Daniel L; Gadgil, Ashok J

    2016-08-01

    In order to address the health risks and climate impacts associated with pollution from cooking on biomass fires, researchers have focused on designing new cookstoves that improve cooking performance and reduce harmful emissions, specifically particulate matter (PM). One method for improving cooking performance and reducing emissions is using air injection to increase turbulence of unburned gases in the combustion zone. Although air injection reduces total PM mass emissions, the effect on PM size distribution and number concentration has not been thoroughly investigated. Using two new wood-burning cookstove designs from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, this research explores the effect of air injection on cooking performance, PM and gaseous emissions, and PM size distribution and number concentration. Both cookstoves were created using the Berkeley-Darfur Stove as the base platform to isolate the effects of air injection. The thermal performance, gaseous emissions, PM mass emissions, and particle concentrations (ranging from 5 nm to 10 μm in diameter) of the cookstoves were measured during multiple high-power cooking tests. The results indicate that air injection improves cookstove performance and reduces total PM mass but increases total ultrafine (less than 100 nm in diameter) PM concentration over the course of high-power cooking. PMID:27348315

  1. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2010-06-11

    member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration of each detected radionuclide at each of these locations is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2. At any one location, if multiple radionuclides are detected, then compliance with NESHAP is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide’s concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2009, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NTS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was a maximum of 1.69 mrem/yr, well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all six critical receptor stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values listed in Table 2 in Appendix E of 40 CFR 61. Concentrations ranged from less than 1 percent to a maximum of 17 percent of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides approximately 20 kilometers from potential release points on the NTS, concentrations at this location would be only a small fraction of that measured on the NTS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000044 mrem/yr, 230,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

  2. Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for the Hanford Site Calendar Year 1999

    SciTech Connect

    ROKKAN, D.J.

    2000-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the US. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in 1999 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) member of the public. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities'', and with the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247. Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The federal regulations in Subpart H of 40 CFR 61 require the measurement and reporting of radionuclides emitted from US. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and the resulting offsite dose from those emissions. A standard of 10 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent (EDE) is imposed on them. The EDE to the MEI due to routine emissions in 1999 from Hanford Site point sources was 0.029 mrem (2.9 E-04 mSv), which is less than 0.3 percent of the federal standard. WAC 246-247 requires the reporting of radionuclide emissions from all Hanford Site sources, during routine as well as nonroutine operations. The state has adopted the 40 CFR 61 standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE into their regulations. The state further requires that the EDE to the MEI be calculated not only from point source emissions but also from diffuse and fugitive sources of emissions. The EDE from diffuse and fugitive emissions at the Hanford Site in 1999 was 0.039 mrem (3.9 E-04 mSv) EDE. The total dose from point sources and from diffuse and fugitive sources of radionuclide emissions during all operating conditions in 1999 was 0.068 mrem (6.8 E-04 mSv) EDE, which is less than 0.7 percent of the state standard.

  3. Contribution of ship emissions to the concentration and deposition of air pollutants in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoyoglu, S.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.

    2015-11-01

    Emissions from the marine transport sector are one of the least regulated anthropogenic emission sources and contribute significantly to air pollution. Although strict limits were introduced recently for the maximum sulfur content in marine fuels in the SECAs (sulfur emission control areas) and in the EU ports, sulfur emissions outside the SECAs and emissions of other components in all European maritime areas have continued to increase in the last two decades. We have used the air quality model CAMx with and without ship emissions for the year 2006 to determine the effects of international shipping on the annual as well as seasonal concentrations of ozone, primary and secondary components of PM2.5 and the dry and wet deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds in Europe. Our results suggest that emissions from international shipping affect the air quality in northern and southern Europe differently and their contributions to the air concentrations vary seasonally. The largest changes in pollutant concentrations due to ship emissions were predicted for summer. Increased concentrations of the primary particle mass were found only along the shipping routes whereas concentrations of the secondary pollutants were affected over a larger area. Concentrations of particulate sulfate increased due to ship emissions in the Mediterranean (up to 60 %), in the English Channel and the North Sea (30-35 %) while increases in particulate nitrate levels were found especially in the north, around the Benelux area (20 %) where there were high NH3 land-based emissions. Our model results showed that not only the atmospheric concentrations of pollutants are affected by ship emissions, but also depositions of nitrogen and sulfur compounds increase significantly along the shipping routes. NOx emissions from the ships especially in the English Channel and the North Sea, cause a decrease in the dry deposition of reduced nitrogen at source regions by moving it from the gas-phase to the

  4. Experimental study of the effects of secondary air on the emissions and stability of a lean premixed combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roffe, G.; Raman, R. S. V.; Marek, C. J.

    1982-01-01

    A study of the effects of secondary air addition on the stability and emissions of a gas turbine combustor has been performed. Tests were conducted with two types of flameholders and varying amounts of dilution air addition. Results indicate that NO(x) decreases with increasing dilution air injection, whereas CO is independent of the amount of dilution air and is related to the gas temperature near the walls. The axial location of the dilution air addition has no effect on the performance or stability. Results also indicate that the amount of secondary air entrained by the flameholder recirculation zone is dependent on the amount of dilution air and flameholder geometry.

  5. Large gain in air quality compared to an alternative anthropogenic emissions scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalakis, Nikos; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Fanourgakis, George S.; Kanakidou, Maria

    2016-08-01

    During the last 30 years, significant effort has been made to improve air quality through legislation for emissions reduction. Global three-dimensional chemistry-transport simulations of atmospheric composition over the past 3 decades have been performed to estimate what the air quality levels would have been under a scenario of stagnation of anthropogenic emissions per capita as in 1980, accounting for the population increase (BA1980) or using the standard practice of neglecting it (AE1980), and how they compare to the historical changes in air quality levels. The simulations are based on assimilated meteorology to account for the year-to-year observed climate variability and on different scenarios of anthropogenic emissions of pollutants. The ACCMIP historical emissions dataset is used as the starting point. Our sensitivity simulations provide clear indications that air quality legislation and technology developments have limited the rapid increase of air pollutants. The achieved reductions in concentrations of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, black carbon, and sulfate aerosols are found to be significant when comparing to both BA1980 and AE1980 simulations that neglect any measures applied for the protection of the environment. We also show the potentially large tropospheric air quality benefit from the development of cleaner technology used by the growing global population. These 30-year hindcast sensitivity simulations demonstrate that the actual benefit in air quality due to air pollution legislation and technological advances is higher than the gain calculated by a simple comparison against a constant anthropogenic emissions simulation, as is usually done. Our results also indicate that over China and India the beneficial technological advances for the air quality may have been masked by the explosive increase in local population and the disproportional increase in energy demand partially due to the globalization of the economy.

  6. Large Gain in Air Quality Compared to an Alternative Anthropogenic Emissions Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daskalakis, Nikos; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Fanourgakis, George S.; Kanakidou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    During the last 30 years, significant effort has been made to improve air quality through legislation for emissions reduction. Global three-dimensional chemistrytransport simulations of atmospheric composition over the past 3 decades have been performed to estimate what the air quality levels would have been under a scenario of stagnation of anthropogenic emissions per capita as in 1980, accounting for the population increase (BA1980) or using the standard practice of neglecting it (AE1980), and how they compare to the historical changes in air quality levels. The simulations are based on assimilated meteorology to account for the yearto- year observed climate variability and on different scenarios of anthropogenic emissions of pollutants. The ACCMIP historical emissions dataset is used as the starting point. Our sensitivity simulations provide clear indications that air quality legislation and technology developments have limited the rapid increase of air pollutants. The achieved reductions in concentrations of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, black carbon, and sulfate aerosols are found to be significant when comparing to both BA1980 and AE1980 simulations that neglect any measures applied for the protection of the environment. We also show the potentially large tropospheric air quality benefit from the development of cleaner technology used by the growing global population. These 30-year hindcast sensitivity simulations demonstrate that the actual benefit in air quality due to air pollution legislation and technological advances is higher than the gain calculated by a simple comparison against a constant anthropogenic emissions simulation, as is usually done. Our results also indicate that over China and India the beneficial technological advances for the air quality may have been masked by the explosive increase in local population and the disproportional increase in energy demand partially due to the globalization of the economy.

  7. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2012-06-12

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation ProtectionAir Emissions. The EDE to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine emissions in 2011 from PNNL Site sources was 1.7E 05 mrem (1.7E-7 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2011. The total radiological dose for 2011 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions was more than 10,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

  8. Preliminary Results of Field Emission Cathode Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Kovaleski, Scott D.

    2001-01-01

    Preliminary screening tests of field emission cathodes such as chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond, textured pyrolytic graphite, and textured copper were conducted at background pressures typical of electric thruster test facilities to assess cathode performance and stability. Very low power electric thrusters which provide tens to hundreds micronewtons of thrust may need field emission neutralizers that have a capability of tens to hundreds of microamperes. From current voltage characteristics, it was found that the CVD diamond and textured metals cathodes clearly satisfied the Fowler-Nordheim emission relation. The CVD diamond and a textured copper cathode had average current densities of 270 and 380 mA/sq cm, respectively, at the beginning-of-life. After a few hours of operation the cathode emission currents degraded by 40 to 75% at background pressures in the 10(exp -5) Pa to 10(exp -4) Pa range. The textured pyrolytic graphite had a modest current density at beginning-of-life of 84 mA/sq cm, but this cathode was the most stable of all. Extended testing of the most promising cathodes is warranted to determine if current degradation is a burn-in effect or whether it is a long-term degradation process. Preliminary experiments with ferroelectric emission cathodes, which are ceramics with spontaneous electric polarization, were conducted. Peak current densities of 30 to 120 mA/sq cm were obtained for pulse durations of about 500 ns in the 10(exp -4) Pa pressure range.

  9. Characterization of process air emissions in automotive production plants.

    PubMed

    D'Arcy, J B; Dasch, J M; Gundrum, A B; Rivera, J L; Johnson, J H; Carlson, D H; Sutherland, J W

    2016-01-01

    During manufacturing, particles produced from industrial processes become airborne. These airborne emissions represent a challenge from an industrial hygiene and environmental standpoint. A study was undertaken to characterize the particles associated with a variety of manufacturing processes found in the auto industry. Air particulates were collected in five automotive plants covering ten manufacturing processes in the areas of casting, machining, heat treatment and assembly. Collection procedures provided information on air concentration, size distribution, and chemical composition of the airborne particulate matter for each process and insight into the physical and chemical processes that created those particles.

  10. Air Permit Compliance for Hanford Waste Retrieval Operations Involving Multi-Unit Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Faulk, D.E.; Simmons, F.M.

    2008-07-01

    Since 1970, approximately 38,000 suspect-transuranic and transuranic waste containers have been placed in retrievable storage on the Hanford Site in the 200 Areas burial grounds. Hanford's Waste Retrieval Project is retrieving these buried containers and processing them for safe storage and disposition. Container retrieval activities require an air emissions permit to account for potential emissions of radionuclides. The air permit covers the excavation activities as well as activities associated with assaying containers and installing filters in the retrieved transuranic containers lacking proper venting devices. Fluor Hanford, Inc. is required to track radioactive emissions resulting from the retrieval activities. Air, soil, and debris media contribute to the emissions and enabling assumptions allow for calculation of emissions. Each of these activities is limited to an allowed annual emission (per calendar year) and contributes to the overall total emissions allowed for waste retrieval operations. Tracking these emissions is required to ensure a permit exceedance does not occur. A tracking tool was developed to calculate potential emissions in real time sense. Logic evaluations are established within the tracking system to compare real time data against license limits to ensure values are not exceeded for either an individual activity or the total limit. Data input are based on field survey and workplace air monitoring activities. This tracking tool is used monthly and quarterly to verify compliance to the license limits. Use of this tool has allowed Fluor Hanford, Inc. to successfully retrieve a significant number of containers in a safe manner without any exceedance of emission limits. (authors)

  11. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluates heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). Various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are reviewed. Available methods include in situ test...

  12. Exploring synergies between climate and air quality policies using long-term global and regional emission scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braspenning Radu, Olivia; van den Berg, Maarten; Klimont, Zbigniew; Deetman, Sebastiaan; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Muntean, Marilena; Heyes, Chris; Dentener, Frank; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present ten scenarios developed using the IMAGE2.4 framework (Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment) to explore how different assumptions on future climate and air pollution policies influence emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants. These scenarios describe emission developments in 26 world regions for the 21st century, using a matrix of climate and air pollution policies. For climate policy, the study uses a baseline resulting in forcing levels slightly above RCP6.0 and an ambitious climate policy scenario similar to RCP2.6. For air pollution, the study explores increasingly tight emission standards, ranging from no improvement, current legislation and three variants assuming further improvements. For all pollutants, the results show that more stringent control policies are needed after 2030 to prevent a rise in emissions due to increased activities and further reduce emissions. The results also show that climate mitigation policies have the highest impact on SO2 and NOX emissions, while their impact on BC and OC emissions is relatively low, determined by the overlap between greenhouse gas and air pollutant emission sources. Climate policy can have important co-benefits; a 10% decrease in global CO2 emissions by 2100 leads to a decrease of SO2 and NOX emissions by about 10% and 5%, respectively compared to 2005 levels. In most regions, low levels of air pollutant emissions can also be achieved by solely implementing stringent air pollution policies. The largest differences across the scenarios are found in Asia and other developing regions, where a combination of climate and air pollution policy is needed to bring air pollution levels below those of today.

  13. Dynamic evaluation of regional air quality model’s response to emission reductions in the presence of uncertain emission inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napelenok, Sergey L.; Foley, Kristen M.; Kang, Daiwen; Mathur, Rohit; Pierce, Thomas; Rao, S. Trivikrama

    2011-08-01

    A method is presented and applied for evaluating an air quality model's changes in pollutant concentrations stemming from changes in emissions while explicitly accounting for the uncertainties in the base emission inventory. Specifically, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is evaluated for its ability to simulate the change in ozone (O 3) levels in response to significant reductions in nitric oxide (NO x = NO + NO 2) emissions from the NO x State Implementation Plan (SIP) Call and vehicle fleet turnover between the years of 2002 and 2005. The dynamic model evaluation (i.e., the evaluation of a model's ability to predict changes in pollutant levels given changes in emissions) differs from previous approaches by explicitly accounting for known uncertainties in the NO x emissions inventories. Uncertainty in three sectors of NO x emissions is considered - area sources, mobile sources, and point sources - and is propagated using sensitivity coefficients calculated by the decoupled direct method in three dimensions (DDM-3D). The change in O 3 levels between 2002 and 2005 is estimated based on differences in the empirical distributions of the modeled and observed data during the two years. Results indicate that the CMAQ model is able to reproduce the observed change in daily maximum 8-hr average O 3 levels at more than two-thirds of Air Quality System (AQS) monitoring locations when a relatively moderate amount of uncertainty (50%) is assumed in area and mobile emissions of NO x together with a low amount of uncertainty (3%) in the utility sector (elevated point sources) emissions. The impact of other sources of uncertainty in the model is also briefly explored.

  14. Emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers: Arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1994-08-01

    Concerns over emissions of hazardous air pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue; the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants has been greatly expanded through passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Arsenic and arsenic compounds are of concern mainly because of their generally recognized toxicity. Arsenic is also regarded as one of the trace elements in coal subject to significant vaporization. This report summarizes and evaluates available published information on the arsenic content of coals mined in the United States, on arsenic emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Bituminous and lignite coals have the highest mean arsenic concentrations, with subbituminous and anthracite coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in arsenic concentrations. Arsenic emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific arsenic compounds. Variations in emission, rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of arsenic by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with cold electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 50 to 98% have been reported. Limited data for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems show widely varying removals of from 6 to 97%. On the other hand, waste incineration plants report removals in a narrow range of from 95 to 99%. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in arsenic control for existing flue-gas-cleanup technologies and summarizes the status of analytical techniques for measuring arsenic emissions from combustion sources.

  15. Trans-boundary Air Quality and Health Impacts of Emissions in Various Regions in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Yim, S. H. L.

    2015-12-01

    In last few decades, China has gone through a rapid development, resulting in urbanization and industrialization. However, the abundant economic achievements were gained at the cost of a sharp deterioration of air quality. Previous research has reported the adverse health outcome from outdoor air pollution in China. Nevertheless, the trans-boundary air quality and health impacts due to emissions in various regions in China have yet fully understood. Our study aims to comprehensively apportion the attribution of emissions in seven regions in China, which are defined based on their geographical locations, to air pollutions, as well as the resultant health impacts in their local areas and other regions, provinces, and cities in China. A regional air quality model is applied to simulate the physical and chemical processes of various pollutants in the atmosphere. The resultant health outcome, such as premature death, is estimated by using the concentration-response functions reported in the literature. We anticipate that our results would serve as a critical reference for research community and policy makers to mitigate the air quality and health impacts of emissions in China.

  16. The Impact of Residential Combustion Emissions on Air Quality and Human Health in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer-Nicholls, S.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Baumgartner, J.; Brauer, M.; Cohen, A.; Carter, E.; Frostad, J.; Forouzanfar, M.; Xiao, Q.; Liu, Y.; Yang, X.; Hongjiang, N.; Kun, N.

    2015-12-01

    Solid fuel cookstoves are used heavily in rural China for both residential cooking and heating purposes. Their use contributes significantly to regional emissions of several key pollutants, including carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, oxides of nitrogen, and aerosol particles. The residential sector was responsible for approximately 36%, 46% and 81% of China's total primary PM2.5, BC and OC emissions respectively in 2005 (Lei et al., 2011). These emissions have serious consequences for household air pollution, ambient air quality, tropospheric ozone formation, and the resulting population health and climate impacts. This paper presents initial findings from the modeling component of a multi-disciplinary energy intervention study currently being conducted in Sichuan, China. The purpose of this effort is to quantify the impact of residential cooking and heating emissions on regional air quality and human health. Simulations with varying levels of residential emissions have been carried out for the whole of 2014 using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem), a fully-coupled, "online" regional chemical transport model. Model output is evaluated against surface air quality measurements across China and compared with seasonal (winter and summer) ambient air pollution measurements conducted at the Sichuan study site in 2014. The model output is applied to available exposure—response relationships between PM2.5 and cardiopulmonary health outcomes. The sensitivity in different regions across China to the different cookstove emission scenarios and seasonality of impacts are presented. By estimating the mortality and disease burden risk attributable to residential emissions we demonstrate the potential benefits from large-scale energy interventions. Lei Y, Zhang Q, He KB, Streets DG. 2011. Primary anthropogenic aerosol emission trends for China, 1990-2005. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11:931-954.

  17. The Impact of Future Emissions Changes on Air Pollution Concentrations and Related Human Health Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikolajczyk, U.; Suppan, P.; Williams, M.

    2015-12-01

    Quantification of potential health benefits of reductions in air pollution on the local scale is becoming increasingly important. The aim of this study is to conduct health impact assessment (HIA) by utilizing regionally and spatially specific data in order to assess the influence of future emission scenarios on human health. In the first stage of this investigation, a modeling study was carried out using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with Chemistry to estimate ambient concentrations of air pollutants for the baseline year 2009, and for the future emission scenarios in southern Germany. Anthropogenic emissions for the baseline year 2009 are derived from the emission inventory provided by the Netherlands Organization of Applied Scientific Research (TNO) (Denier van der Gon et al., 2010). For Germany, the TNO emissions were replaced by gridded emission data with a high spatial resolution of 1/64 x 1/64 degrees. Future air quality simulations are carried out under different emission scenarios, which reflect possible energy and climate measures in year 2030. The model set-up included a nesting approach, where three domains with horizontal resolution of 18 km, 6 km and 2 km were defined. The simulation results for the baseline year 2009 are used to quantify present-day health burdens. Concentration-response functions (CRFs) for PM2.5 and NO2 from the WHO Health risks of air Pollution in Europe (HRAPIE) project were applied to population-weighted mean concentrations to estimate relative risks and hence to determine numbers of attributable deaths and associated life-years lost. In the next step, future health impacts of projected concentrations were calculated taking into account different emissions scenarios. The health benefits that we assume with air pollution reductions can be used to provide options for future policy decisions to protect public health.

  18. 76 FR 42052 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 9 and 63 RIN 2060-AO55 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From... portions of the final rule amending the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From...) establishes a two-stage regulatory process to address emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAP)...

  19. 76 FR 56750 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Air Emissions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Air Emissions... submitting comments. E-mail: a-and-r-docket@epa.gov . Fax: (202) 566-1741. Mail: Air Emissions Reporting... on that basis, are authorized to implement and enforce the Air Emissions Reporting Requirements...

  20. Effect of air preheat temperature and oxygen concentration on flame structure and emission

    SciTech Connect

    Bolz, S.; Gupta, A.K.

    1998-07-01

    The structure of turbulent diffusion flames with highly preheated combustion air (air preheat temperature in excess of 1,150 C) has been obtained using a specially designed regenerative combustion furnace. Propane gas was used as the fuel. Data have been obtained on the global flame features, spectral emission characteristics, spatial distribution of OH, CH and C{sub 2} species, and pollutants emission from the flames. The results have been obtained for various degrees of air preheat temperatures and O{sub 2} concentration in the air. The color of the flame was found to change from yellow to blue to bluish-green to green over the range of conditions examined. In some cases a hybrid color flame was also observed. The recorded images of the flame photographs were analyzed using color-analyzing software. The results show that thermal and chemical flame behavior strongly depends on the air preheat temperature and oxygen content in the air. The flame color was found to be bluish-green or green at very high air preheat temperatures and low-oxygen concentration. However, at high oxygen concentration the flame color was yellow. The flame volume was found to increase with increase in air-preheat temperature and decrease in oxygen concentration. The flame length showed a similar behavior. The concentrations of OH, CH and C{sub 2} increased with an increase in air preheat temperatures. These species exhibited a two-stage combustion behavior at low oxygen concentration and single stage combustion behavior at high oxygen concentration in the air. Stable flames were obtained for remarkably low equivalence ratios, which would not be possible with normal combustion air. Pollutants emission, including CO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} , was much lower with highly preheated combustion air at low O{sub 2} concentration than the normal air. The results also suggest uniform flow and flame thermal characteristics with conditioned highly preheated air. Highly preheated air combustion provides much

  1. U.S. Department of Energy Report, 2005 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Keith W. Jacobson, David P. Fuehne

    2006-09-01

    Amendments to the Clean Air Act, which added radionuclides to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), went into effect in 1990. Specifically, a subpart (H) of 40 CFR 61 established an annual limit on the impact to the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides from U.S. Department of Energy facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). As part of the new NESHAP regulations, LANL must submit an annual report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency headquarters and the regional office in Dallas by June 30. This report includes results of monitoring at LANL and the dose calculations for the calendar year 2006.

  2. Aromatic compound emissions from municipal solid waste landfill: Emission factors and their impact on air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanjun; Lu, Wenjing; Guo, Hanwen; Ming, Zhongyuan; Wang, Chi; Xu, Sai; Liu, Yanting; Wang, Hongtao

    2016-08-01

    Aromatic compounds (ACs) are major components of volatile organic compounds emitted from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The ACs emissions from the working face of a landfill in Beijing were studied from 2014 to 2015 using a modified wind tunnel system. Emission factors (EFs) of fugitive ACs emissions from the working face of the landfill were proposed according to statistical analyses to cope with their uncertainty. And their impacts on air quality were assessed for the first time. Toluene was the dominant AC with an average emission rate of 38.8 ± 43.0 μg m-2 s-1 (at a sweeping velocity of 0.26 m s-1). An increasing trend in AC emission rates was observed from 12:00 to 18:00 and then peaked at 21:00 (314.3 μg m-2 s-1). The probability density functions (PDFs) of AC emission rates could be classified into three distributions: Gaussian, log-normal, and logistic. EFs of ACs from the working face of the landfill were proposed according to the 95th percentile cumulative emission rates and the wind effects on ACs emissions. The annual ozone formation and secondary organic aerosol formation potential caused by AC emissions from landfills in Beijing were estimated to be 8.86 × 105 kg year-1 and 3.46 × 104 kg year-1, respectively. Toluene, m + p-xylene, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were the most significant contributors to air pollution. Although ACs pollutions from landfills accounts for less percentage (∼0.1%) compared with other anthropogenic sources, their fugitive emissions which cannot be controlled efficiently deserve more attention and further investigation.

  3. Consequential life cycle air emissions externalities for plug-in electric vehicles in the PJM interconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, Allison; Jaramillo, Paulina; Michalek, Jeremy

    2016-02-01

    We perform a consequential life cycle analysis of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and conventional gasoline vehicles in the PJM interconnection using a detailed, normative optimization model of the PJM electricity grid that captures the change in power plant operations and related emissions due to vehicle charging. We estimate and monetize the resulting human health and environmental damages from life cycle air emissions for each vehicle technology. We model PJM using the most recent data available (2010) as well as projections of the PJM grid in 2018 and a hypothetical scenario with increased wind penetration. We assess a range of sensitivity cases to verify the robustness of our results. We find that PEVs have higher life cycle air emissions damages than gasoline HEVs in the recent grid scenario, which has a high percentage of coal generation on the margin. In particular, battery electric vehicles with large battery capacity can produce two to three times as much air emissions damage as gasoline HEVs, depending on charge timing. In our future 2018 grid scenarios that account for predicted coal plant retirements, PEVs would produce air emissions damages comparable to or slightly lower than HEVs.

  4. 77 FR 75739 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... Control Technology HAP Hazardous Air Pollutants HON National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry ICR Information Collection Request lb... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Miscellaneous Organic Chemical Manufacturing MSDS Material Safety Data...

  5. 76 FR 14839 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source... County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed... national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) to the Maricopa County Air...

  6. The 1977 emissions inventory for southeastern Virginia. [environment model of air quality based on exhaust emission from urban areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, D. A.; Remsberg, E. E.; Woodbury, G. E.; Quinn, L. C.

    1979-01-01

    Regional tropospheric air pollution modeling and data compilation to simulate the time variation of species concentrations in and around an urban area is discussed. The methods used to compile an emissions inventory are outlined. Emissions factors for vehicular travel in the urban area are presented along with an analysis of the emission gases. Emission sources other than vehicular including industrial wastes, residential solid waste disposal, aircraft emissions, and emissions from the railroads are investigated.

  7. Air Monitoring of Emissions from the Fukushima Daiichi Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    McNaughton, Michael; Allen, Shannon P.; Archuleta, Debra C.; Brock, Burgandy; Coronado, Melissa A.; Dewart, Jean M.; Eisele, William F. Jr.; Fuehne, David P.; Gadd, Milan S.; Green, Andrew A.; Lujan, Joan J.; MacDonell, Carolyn; Whicker, Jeffrey J.

    2012-06-12

    In response to the disasters in Japan on March 11, 2011, and the subsequent emissions from Fukushima-Daiichi, we monitored the air near Los Alamos using four air-monitoring systems: the standard AIRNET samplers, the standard rad-NESHAP samplers, the NEWNET system, and high-volume air samplers. Each of these systems has advantages and disadvantages. In combination, they provide a comprehensive set of measurements of airborne radionuclides near Los Alamos during the weeks following March 11. We report air-monitoring measurements of the fission products released from the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear-power-plant accident in 2011. Clear gamma-spectrometry peaks were observed from Cs-134, Cs-136, Cs-137, I-131, I132, Te-132, and Te-129m. These data, together with measurements of other radionuclides, are adequate for an assessment and assure us that radionuclides from Fukushima Daiichi did not present a threat to human health at or near Los Alamos. The data demonstrate the capabilities of the Los Alamos air-monitoring systems.

  8. Contribution of ship emissions to the concentration and deposition of air pollutants in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoyoglu, Sebnem; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2016-02-01

    Emissions from the marine transport sector are one of the least-regulated anthropogenic emission sources and contribute significantly to air pollution. Although strict limits were introduced recently for the maximum sulfur content in marine fuels in the SECAs (sulfur emission control areas) and in EU ports, sulfur emissions outside the SECAs and emissions of other components in all European maritime areas have continued to increase in the last two decades. We have used the air quality model CAMx (Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions) with and without ship emissions for the year 2006 to determine the effects of international shipping on the annual as well as seasonal concentrations of ozone, primary and secondary components of PM2.5, and the dry and wet deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds in Europe. The largest changes in pollutant concentrations due to ship emissions were predicted for summer. Concentrations of particulate sulfate increased due to ship emissions in the Mediterranean (up to 60 %), the English Channel and the North Sea (30-35 %), while increases in particulate nitrate levels were found especially in the north, around the Benelux area (20 %), where there were high NH3 land-based emissions. Our model results showed that not only are the atmospheric concentrations of pollutants affected by ship emissions, but also depositions of nitrogen and sulfur compounds increase significantly along the shipping routes. NOx emissions from the ships, especially in the English Channel and the North Sea, cause a decrease in the dry deposition of reduced nitrogen at source regions by moving it from the gas phase to the particle phase which then contributes to an increase in the wet deposition at coastal areas with higher precipitation. In the western Mediterranean region, on the other hand, model results show an increase in the deposition of oxidized nitrogen (mostly HNO3) due to the ship traffic. Dry deposition of SO2 seems to be significant along

  9. Economically consistent long-term scenarios for air pollutant emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; West, Jason; Kyle, G. Page

    2011-09-08

    Pollutant emissions such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone precursors substantially influence climate. While future century-scale scenarios for these emissions have become more realistic through the inclusion of emission controls, they still potentially lack consistency between surface pollutant concentrations and regional levels of affluence. We demonstrate a methodology combining use of an integrated assessment model and a three-dimensional atmospheric chemical transport model, whereby a reference scenario is constructed by requiring consistent surface pollutant levels as a function of regional income over the 21st century. By adjusting air pollutant emission control parameters, we improve agreement between modeled PM2.5 and economic income among world regions through time; agreement for ozone is also improved but is more difficult to achieve because of the strong influence of upwind world regions. The scenario examined here was used as the basis for one of the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. This analysis methodology could also be used to examine the consistency of other pollutant emission scenarios.

  10. Satellite Characterization of Fire Emissions of Aerosols and Gases Relevant to Air-Quality Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichoku, C. M.; Ellison, L.; Yue, Y.; Wang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Because of the transient and widespread nature of wildfires and other types of open biomass burning, satellite remote sensing has become an indispensable technique for characterizing their smoke emissions for modeling applications, especially at regional to global scales. Fire radiative energy (FRE), whose instantaneous rate of release or fire radiative power (FRP) is measurable from space, has been found to be proportional to both the biomass consumption and emission of aerosol particulate matter. We have leveraged this relationship to generate a global, gridded smoke-aerosol emission coefficients (Ce) dataset based on FRP and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) measurements from the MODIS sensors aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites. Ce is a simple coefficient to convert FRE to smoke aerosol emissions, in the same manner as traditional emission factors are used to convert burned biomass to emissions. The first version of this Fire Energetics and Emissions Research (FEER.v1) global gridded Ce product at 1°x1° resolution is available at http://feer.gsfc.nasa.gov/. Based on published emission ratios, the FEER.v1 Ce product for total smoke aerosol has also been used to generate similar products for specific fire-emitted aerosols and gases, including those that are regulated as 'criteria pollutants' under the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), such as particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO). These gridded Ce products were used in conjunction with satellite measurements of FRP to derive emissions of several smoke constituents, which were applied to WRF-Chem fully coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model simulations, with promising results. In this presentation, we analyze WRF-Chem simulations of surface-level concentrations of various pollutants based on FEER.v1 emission products to illustrate their value for air-quality modeling, particularly in parts of Africa and southeast Asia where ground-based air

  11. Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    MULKEY, C.H.

    1999-07-06

    This document describes the results of the data quality objective (DQO) process undertaken to define data needs for state and federal requirements associated with toxic, hazardous, and/or radiological air emissions under the jurisdiction of the River Protection Project (RPP). Hereafter, this document is referred to as the Air DQO. The primary drivers for characterization under this DQO are the regulatory requirements pursuant to Washington State regulations, that may require sampling and analysis. The federal regulations concerning air emissions are incorporated into the Washington State regulations. Data needs exist for nonradioactive and radioactive waste constituents and characteristics as identified through the DQO process described in this document. The purpose is to identify current data needs for complying with regulatory drivers for the measurement of air emissions from RPP facilities in support of air permitting. These drivers include best management practices; similar analyses may have more than one regulatory driver. This document should not be used for determining overall compliance with regulations because the regulations are in constant change, and this document may not reflect the latest regulatory requirements. Regulatory requirements are also expected to change as various permits are issued. Data needs require samples for both radionuclides and nonradionuclide analytes of air emissions from tanks and stored waste containers. The collection of data is to support environmental permitting and compliance, not for health and safety issues. This document does not address health or safety regulations or requirements (those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) or continuous emission monitoring systems. This DQO is applicable to all equipment, facilities, and operations under the jurisdiction of RPP that emit or have the potential to emit regulated air pollutants.

  12. Reduction in air emissions attainable through implementation of district heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    District heating and cooling (DHC) can provide multiple opportunities to reduce air emissions associated with space conditioning and electricity generation, which contribute 30% to 50% of all such emissions. When DHC is combined with cogeneration (CHP), maximum reductions in sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), particulates, and ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants can most effectively be achieved. Although significant improvements in air quality have been documented in Europe and Scandinavia due to DHC and CHP implementation, accurately predicting such improvements has been difficult. Without acceptable quantification methods, regulatory bodies are reluctant to grant air emissions credits, and local community leaders are unwilling to invest in DHC and CHP as preferred methods of providing energy or strategies for air quality improvement. The recent development and release of a number of computer models designed specifically to provide quantification of air emissions that can result from DHC and CHP implementation should help provide local, state, and national policymakers with information vital to increasing support and investment in DHC development.

  13. A Prescribed Fire Emission Factors Database for Land Management and Air Quality Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincoln, E.; Hao, W.; Baker, S.; Yokelson, R. J.; Burling, I. R.; Urbanski, S. P.; Miller, W.; Weise, D. R.; Johnson, T. J.

    2010-12-01

    Prescribed fire is a significant emissions source in the U.S. and that needs to be adequately characterized in atmospheric transport/chemistry models. In addition, the Clean Air Act, its amendments, and air quality regulations require that prescribed fire managers estimate the quantity of emissions that a prescribed fire will produce. Several published papers contain a few emission factors for prescribed fire and additional results are found in unpublished documents whose quality has to be assessed. In conjunction with three research projects developing detailed new emissions data and meteorological tools to assist prescribed fire managers, the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) is supporting development of a database that contains emissions information related to prescribed burning. Ultimately, this database will be available on the Internet and will contain older emissions information that has been assessed and newer emissions information that has been developed from both laboratory-scale and field measurements. The database currently contains emissions information from over 300 burns of different wildland vegetation types, including grasslands, shrublands, woodlands, forests, and tundra over much of North America. A summary of the compiled data will be presented, along with suggestions for additional categories.

  14. Assessing the potential visibility benefits of Clean Air Act Title IV emission reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Trexler, E.C. Jr.; Shannon, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    Assessments are made of the benefits of the 1990 Clean Air Act Title IV (COVE), Phase 2, SO2 and NOX reduction provisions, to the visibility in typical eastern and western Class 1 areas. Probable bands of visibility impairment distribution curves are developed for Shenandoah National Park, Smoky Mountain National Park and the Grand Canyon National Park, based on the existing emissions, ``Base Case``, and for the COVE emission reductions, ``CAAA Case``. Emission projections for 2010 are developed with improved versions of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program emission projection models. Source-receptor transfer matrices created with the Advanced Statistical Trajectory Regional Air Pollution (ASTRAP) model are used with existing emission inventories and with the emission projections to calculate atmospheric concentrations of sulfate and nitrate at the receptors of interest for existing and projected emission scenarios. The Visibility Assessment Scoping Model (VASM) is then used to develop distributions of visibility impairment. VASM combines statistics of observed concentrations of particulate species and relative humidity with ASTRAP calculations of the relative changes in atmospheric sulfate and nitrate particulate concentrations in a Monte Carlo approach to produce expected distributions of hourly particulate concentrations and RH. Light extinction relationships developed in theoretical and field studies are then used to calculate the resulting distribution of visibility impairment. Successive Monte Carlo studies are carried out to develop sets of visibility impairment distributions with and without the COVE emission reductions to gain insight into the detectability of expected visibility improvements.

  15. Emissions of halocarbons from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yan, H H; Guo, H; Ou, J M

    2014-08-15

    During the implementation of Montreal Protocol, emission inventories of halocarbons in different sectors at regional scale are fundamental to the formulation of relevant management strategy and inspection of the implementation efficiency. This study investigated the emission profile of halocarbons used in the mobile vehicle air conditioning system, the leading sector of refrigeration industry in terms of the refrigerant bank, market and emission, in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, using a bottom-up approach developed by 2006 IPCC Good Practice Guidance. The results showed that emissions of CFC-12 peaked at 53 tons ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential) in 1992 and then gradually diminished, whereas HFC-134a presented an increasing emission trend since 1990s and the emissions of HFC-134a reached 65,000 tons CO2-equivelant (CO2-eq) by the end of 2011. Uncertainty analysis revealed relatively high levels of uncertainties for special-purpose vehicles and government vehicles. Moreover, greenhouse gas (GHG) abatements under different scenarios indicated that potential emission reduction of HFC-134a ranged from 4.1 to 8.4 × 10(5)tons CO2-eq. The findings in this study advance our knowledge of halocarbon emissions from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong.

  16. Emissions of halocarbons from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yan, H H; Guo, H; Ou, J M

    2014-08-15

    During the implementation of Montreal Protocol, emission inventories of halocarbons in different sectors at regional scale are fundamental to the formulation of relevant management strategy and inspection of the implementation efficiency. This study investigated the emission profile of halocarbons used in the mobile vehicle air conditioning system, the leading sector of refrigeration industry in terms of the refrigerant bank, market and emission, in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, using a bottom-up approach developed by 2006 IPCC Good Practice Guidance. The results showed that emissions of CFC-12 peaked at 53 tons ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential) in 1992 and then gradually diminished, whereas HFC-134a presented an increasing emission trend since 1990s and the emissions of HFC-134a reached 65,000 tons CO2-equivelant (CO2-eq) by the end of 2011. Uncertainty analysis revealed relatively high levels of uncertainties for special-purpose vehicles and government vehicles. Moreover, greenhouse gas (GHG) abatements under different scenarios indicated that potential emission reduction of HFC-134a ranged from 4.1 to 8.4 × 10(5)tons CO2-eq. The findings in this study advance our knowledge of halocarbon emissions from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong. PMID:24997256

  17. Air quality impacts of European wildfire emissions in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, Wolfgang; Dentener, Frank; Hantson, Stijn; Jiang, Leiwen; Klimont, Zbigniew; Arneth, Almut

    2016-05-01

    Wildfires are not only a threat to human property and a vital element of many ecosystems, but also an important source of air pollution. In this study, we first review the available evidence for a past or possible future climate-driven increase in wildfire emissions in Europe. We then introduce an ensemble of model simulations with a coupled wildfire-dynamic-ecosystem model, which we combine with published spatial maps of both wildfire and anthropogenic emissions of several major air pollutants to arrive at air pollutant emission projections for several time slices during the 21st century. The results indicate moderate wildfire-driven emission increases until 2050, but there is a possibility of large increases until the last decades of this century at high levels of climate change. We identify southern and north-eastern Europe as potential areas where wildfires may surpass anthropogenic pollution sources during the summer months. Under a scenario of high levels of climate change (Representative Concentration Pathway, RCP, 8.5), emissions from wildfires in central and northern Portugal and possibly southern Italy and along the west coast of the Balkan peninsula are projected to reach levels that could affect annual mean particulate matter concentrations enough to be relevant for meeting WHO air quality targets.

  18. EVALUATION OF A TEST METHOD FOR MEASURING INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS FROM DRY-PROCESS PHOTOCOPIERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large chamber test method for measuring indoor air emissions from office equipment was developed, evaluated, and revised based on the initial testing of four dry-process photocopiers. Because all chambers may not necessarily produce similar results (e.g., due to differences in ...

  19. MEASUREMENT OF INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS FROM DRY-PROCESS PHOTOCOPY MACHINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article provides background information on indoor air emissions from office equipment, with emphasis on dry-process photocopy machines. The test method is described in detail along with results of a study to evaluate the test method using four dry-process photocopy machines. ...

  20. FULL-SCALE CHAMBER INVESTIGATION AND SIMULATION OF AIR FRESHENER EMISSIONS IN THE PRESENCE OF OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses results of tests, conducted in the EPA large chamber facility, determining emissions and chemical degradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from one electrical plug-in type pine-scented air freshener in the presence of ozone supplied by a device markete...

  1. Mode-selective terahertz emission from rippled air irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Junghun; Zhidkov, Alexei; Jin, Zhan; Hosokai, Tomonao; Kodama, Ryosuke

    2014-04-01

    Terahertz (THz) emission from rippled air is studied in multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations that include optical field ionization. The ionization modulation in a plasma channel produced by a laser pulse propagating along a ripple and the pulse self-focusing result in THz mode selection with the generation of intense signals having quasi-monochromatic spectral distributions.

  2. Air emissions assessment and air quality permitting for a municipal waste landfill treating municipal sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, J.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents a case study into the air quality permitting of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in the San Francisco Bay Area undergoing a proposed expansion in operations to increase the life of the landfill. The operations of this facility include MSW landfilling, the treatment and disposal of municipal sewage sludge, the aeration of petroleum-contaminated soils, the construction of a new on-site plant to manufacture soil amendment products from waste wood and other organic material diverted from the landfill, and the installation of a vaporator to create steam from leachate for injection into the landfill gas flare. The emissions assessment for each project component relied upon interpretation of source tests from similar operations, incorporation of on-site measurements into emissions models and mass balances, and use of AP-42 procedures for emissions sources such as wind-blown dust, material handling and transfer operations, and fugitive landfill gas. Air permitting issues included best available control technology (BACT), emission offset thresholds, new source performance standards (NSPS), potential air toxics health risk impacts, and compliance with federal Title V operating permit requirements. With the increasing difficulties of siting new landfills, increasing pressures to reduce the rate of waste placement into existing landfills, and expanding regulatory requirements on landfill operations, experiences similar to those described in this paper are likely to increase in the future as permitting scenarios become more complex.

  3. Influence of population density and temporal variations in emissions on the air duality benefits of NOx emission trading.

    PubMed

    Nobel, Carolyn E; McDonald-Buller, Elena C; Kimura, Yosuke; Lumbley, Katherine E; Allen, David T

    2002-08-15

    Ozone formation is a complex function of local hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide emissions. Therefore, trading of NOx emissions among geographically distributed facilities can lead to more or less ozone formation than across-the-board reductions. Monte Carlo simulations of trading scenarios involving 51 large NOx point sources in eastern Texas were used in a previous study by the authors to assess the effects of trading on air quality benefits, as measured by changes in ozone concentrations. The results indicated that 12% of trading scenarios would lead to greater than a 25% variation from conventional across-the-board reductions when air quality benefits are based only on changes in ozone concentration. The current study found that when benefits are based on a metric related to population exposure to ozone, two-thirds of the trading scenarios lead to changes in air quality benefits of approximately 25%. Variability in air quality benefits is not as strongly dependent on the temporal distribution of NOx emissions.

  4. Radio Emission in Atmospheric Air Showers Measured by LOPES-30

    SciTech Connect

    Isar, P. G.

    2008-01-24

    When Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) interact with particles in the Earth's atmosphere, they produce a shower of secondary particles propagating towards the ground. These relativistic particles emit synchrotron radiation in the radio frequency range when passing the Earth's magnetic field. The LOPES (LOFAR Prototype Station) experiment investigates the radio emission from these showers in detail and will pave the way to use this detection technique for large scale applications like in LOFAR (Low Frequency Array) and the Pierre Auger Observatory. The LOPES experiment is co-located and measures in coincidence with the air shower experiment KASCADE-Grande at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany. LOPES has an absolute amplitude calibration array of 30 dipole antennas (LOPES-30). After one year of measurements of the single East-West polarization by all 30 antennas, recently, the LOPES-30 set-up was configured to perform dual-polarization measurements. Half of the antennas have been configured for measurements of the North-South polarization. Only by measuring at the same time both, the E-W and N-S polarization components of the radio emission, the geo-synchrotron effect as the dominant emission mechanism in air showers can be verified. The status of the measurements, including the absolute calibration procedure of the dual-polarized antennas as well as analysis of dual-polarized event examples are reported.

  5. Air pollutant emissions from Chinese households: A major and underappreciated ambient pollution source.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Mauzerall, Denise L; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Qiang; Song, Yu; Peng, Wei; Klimont, Zbigniew; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhang, Shiqiu; Hu, Min; Lin, Weili; Smith, Kirk R; Zhu, Tong

    2016-07-12

    As part of the 12th Five-Year Plan, the Chinese government has developed air pollution prevention and control plans for key regions with a focus on the power, transport, and industrial sectors. Here, we investigate the contribution of residential emissions to regional air pollution in highly polluted eastern China during the heating season, and find that dramatic improvements in air quality would also result from reduction in residential emissions. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry to evaluate potential residential emission controls in Beijing and in the Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei (BTH) region. In January and February 2010, relative to the base case, eliminating residential emissions in Beijing reduced daily average surface PM2.5 (particulate mater with aerodynamic diameter equal or smaller than 2.5 micrometer) concentrations by 14 ± 7 μg⋅m(-3) (22 ± 6% of a baseline concentration of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m(-3); mean ± SD). Eliminating residential emissions in the BTH region reduced concentrations by 28 ± 19 μg⋅m(-3) (40 ± 9% of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m(-3)), 44 ± 27 μg⋅m(-3) (43 ± 10% of 99 ± 54 μg⋅m(-3)), and 25 ± 14 μg⋅m(-3) (35 ± 8% of 70 ± 35 μg⋅m(-3)) in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei provinces, respectively. Annually, elimination of residential sources in the BTH region reduced emissions of primary PM2.5 by 32%, compared with 5%, 6%, and 58% achieved by eliminating emissions from the transportation, power, and industry sectors, respectively. We also find air quality in Beijing would benefit substantially from reductions in residential emissions from regional controls in Tianjin and Hebei, indicating the value of policies at the regional level. PMID:27354524

  6. Air pollutant emissions from Chinese households: A major and underappreciated ambient pollution source

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Qiang; Song, Yu; Peng, Wei; Klimont, Zbigniew; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhang, Shiqiu; Hu, Min; Lin, Weili; Smith, Kirk R.; Zhu, Tong

    2016-01-01

    As part of the 12th Five-Year Plan, the Chinese government has developed air pollution prevention and control plans for key regions with a focus on the power, transport, and industrial sectors. Here, we investigate the contribution of residential emissions to regional air pollution in highly polluted eastern China during the heating season, and find that dramatic improvements in air quality would also result from reduction in residential emissions. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry to evaluate potential residential emission controls in Beijing and in the Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei (BTH) region. In January and February 2010, relative to the base case, eliminating residential emissions in Beijing reduced daily average surface PM2.5 (particulate mater with aerodynamic diameter equal or smaller than 2.5 micrometer) concentrations by 14 ± 7 μg⋅m−3 (22 ± 6% of a baseline concentration of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m−3; mean ± SD). Eliminating residential emissions in the BTH region reduced concentrations by 28 ± 19 μg⋅m−3 (40 ± 9% of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m−3), 44 ± 27 μg⋅m−3 (43 ± 10% of 99 ± 54 μg⋅m−3), and 25 ± 14 μg⋅m−3 (35 ± 8% of 70 ± 35 μg⋅m−3) in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei provinces, respectively. Annually, elimination of residential sources in the BTH region reduced emissions of primary PM2.5 by 32%, compared with 5%, 6%, and 58% achieved by eliminating emissions from the transportation, power, and industry sectors, respectively. We also find air quality in Beijing would benefit substantially from reductions in residential emissions from regional controls in Tianjin and Hebei, indicating the value of policies at the regional level. PMID:27354524

  7. Air pollutant emissions from Chinese households: A major and underappreciated ambient pollution source.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Mauzerall, Denise L; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Qiang; Song, Yu; Peng, Wei; Klimont, Zbigniew; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhang, Shiqiu; Hu, Min; Lin, Weili; Smith, Kirk R; Zhu, Tong

    2016-07-12

    As part of the 12th Five-Year Plan, the Chinese government has developed air pollution prevention and control plans for key regions with a focus on the power, transport, and industrial sectors. Here, we investigate the contribution of residential emissions to regional air pollution in highly polluted eastern China during the heating season, and find that dramatic improvements in air quality would also result from reduction in residential emissions. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry to evaluate potential residential emission controls in Beijing and in the Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei (BTH) region. In January and February 2010, relative to the base case, eliminating residential emissions in Beijing reduced daily average surface PM2.5 (particulate mater with aerodynamic diameter equal or smaller than 2.5 micrometer) concentrations by 14 ± 7 μg⋅m(-3) (22 ± 6% of a baseline concentration of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m(-3); mean ± SD). Eliminating residential emissions in the BTH region reduced concentrations by 28 ± 19 μg⋅m(-3) (40 ± 9% of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m(-3)), 44 ± 27 μg⋅m(-3) (43 ± 10% of 99 ± 54 μg⋅m(-3)), and 25 ± 14 μg⋅m(-3) (35 ± 8% of 70 ± 35 μg⋅m(-3)) in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei provinces, respectively. Annually, elimination of residential sources in the BTH region reduced emissions of primary PM2.5 by 32%, compared with 5%, 6%, and 58% achieved by eliminating emissions from the transportation, power, and industry sectors, respectively. We also find air quality in Beijing would benefit substantially from reductions in residential emissions from regional controls in Tianjin and Hebei, indicating the value of policies at the regional level.

  8. Identification of the odour and chemical composition of alumina refinery air emissions.

    PubMed

    Coffey, P S; Ioppolo-Armanios, M

    2004-01-01

    Alcoa World Alumina Australia has undertaken comprehensive air emissions monitoring aimed at characterising and quantifying the complete range of emissions to the atmosphere from Bayer refining of alumina at its Western Australian refineries. To the best of our knowledge, this project represents the most complete air emissions inventory of a Bayer refinery conducted in the worldwide alumina industry. It adds considerably to knowledge of air emission factors available for use in emissions estimation required under national pollutant release and transfer registers (NPRTs), such as the Toxic Releases Inventory, USA, and the National Pollutant Inventory, Australia. It also allows the preliminary identification of the key chemical components responsible for characteristic alumina refinery odours and the contribution of these components to the quality, or hedonic tone, of the odours. The strength and acceptability of refinery odours to employees and neighbours appears to be dependent upon where and in what proportion the odorous gases have been emitted from the refineries. This paper presents the results of the programme and develops a basis for classifying the odour properties of the key emission sources in the alumina-refining process.

  9. Aircraft engine exhaust emissions and other airport-related contributions to ambient air pollution: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiol, Mauro; Harrison, Roy M.

    2014-10-01

    Civil aviation is fast-growing (about +5% every year), mainly driven by the developing economies and globalisation. Its impact on the environment is heavily debated, particularly in relation to climate forcing attributed to emissions at cruising altitudes and the noise and the deterioration of air quality at ground-level due to airport operations. This latter environmental issue is of particular interest to the scientific community and policymakers, especially in relation to the breach of limit and target values for many air pollutants, mainly nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, near the busiest airports and the resulting consequences for public health. Despite the increased attention given to aircraft emissions at ground-level and air pollution in the vicinity of airports, many research gaps remain. Sources relevant to air quality include not only engine exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from aircraft, but also emissions from the units providing power to the aircraft on the ground, the traffic due to the airport ground service, maintenance work, heating facilities, fugitive vapours from refuelling operations, kitchens and restaurants for passengers and operators, intermodal transportation systems, and road traffic for transporting people and goods in and out to the airport. Many of these sources have received inadequate attention, despite their high potential for impact on air quality. This review aims to summarise the state-of-the-art research on aircraft and airport emissions and attempts to synthesise the results of studies that have addressed this issue. It also aims to describe the key characteristics of pollution, the impacts upon global and local air quality and to address the future potential of research by highlighting research needs.

  10. Effect of fuel-air-ratio nonuniformity on emissions of nitrogen oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, V. J.

    1981-01-01

    The inlet fuel-air ratio nonuniformity is studied to deterine how nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions are affected. An increase in NOx emissions with increased fuel-air ratio nonuniformity for average equivalence ratios less than 0.7 and a decrease in NOx emissions for average equivalence ratios near stoichiometric is predicted. The degree of uniformityy of fuel-air ratio profiles that is necessary to achieve NOx emissions goals for actual engines that use lean, premixed, prevaporized combustion systems is determined.

  11. National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants submittal -- 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Y.E.; Black, S.C.

    1997-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing. Monitoring and evaluation of the various activities conducted onsite indicate that the potential sources of offsite radiation exposure in 1996 were releases from the following: evaporation of tritiated water from containment ponds that receive drainage from E tunnel and from wells used for site characterization studies; onsite radioanalytical laboratories; the Area 5 RWMS facility; and diffuse sources of tritium and resuspension of plutonium. Section 1 describes these sources on the NTS. Section 2 tabulates the air emissions data for the NTS. These data are used to calculate the effective dose equivalents to offsite residents. Appendices describe the methods used to determine the emissions from the sources listed.

  12. Volcanic gas emissions and their effect on ambient air character

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, A.J.; Elias, T.

    1994-01-01

    This bibliography was assembled to service an agreement between Department of Energy and the USGS to provide a body of references and useful annotations for understanding background gas emissions from Kilauea volcano. The current East Rift Zone (ERZ) eruption of Kilauea releases as much as 500,000 metric tonnes of SO{sub 2} annually, along with lesser amounts of other chemically and radiatively active species including H{sub 2}S, HCl, and HF. Primary degassing locations on Kilauea are located in the summit caldera and along the middle ERZ. The effects of these emissions on ambient air character are a complex function of chemical reactivity, source geometry and effusivity, and local meteorology. Because of this complexity, we organized the bibliography into three main sections: (1) characterizing gases as they leave the edifice; (2) characterizing gases and chemical reaction products away from degassing sources; and (3) Hawaii Island meteorology.

  13. Considerations on the radio emission from extended air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, E.; Sartori, G.

    2016-05-01

    The process of radio emission from extended air showers produced by high energy cosmic rays has reached a good level of comprehension and prediction. It has a coherent nature, so the emitted power scales quadratically with the energy of the primary particle. Recently, a laboratory measurement has revealed that an incoherent radiation mechanism exists, namely, the bremsstrahlung emission. In this paper we expound why bremsstrahlung radiation, that should be present in showers produced by ultra high energy cosmic rays, has escaped detection so far, and why, on the other side, it could be exploited, in the 1-10 GHz frequency range, to detect astronomical γ-rays. We propose an experimental scheme to verify such hypothesis, which, if correct, would deeply impact on the observational γ-ray astronomy.

  14. [Situation and Characteristics of Air Pollutants Emission from Crematories in Beijing, China].

    PubMed

    Xue, Yi-feng; Yan, Jing; Tian, He-zhong; Xiong, Cheng-cheng; Li, Jing-dong; Wu, Xiao-ing; Wang, Wei

    2015-06-01

    Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) such as exhaust particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxide (NOx), mercury (Hg) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans ( PCDD/Fs) are emitted by the process of cremation and the burning of oblation. Risks to health posed by emissions of hazardous air pollutants from crematories are emerging concerns. Through field investigation and data collection, we obtained the related activity levels and monitored the concentrations of air pollutants from typical cremators, so as to better understand the current pollutants emission levels for crematory. Using the emission factor method, we calculated the emission inventory of HAPs for crematory of Beijing in 2012 and quantified the range of uncertainty. Using atmospheric diffusion model ADMS, we evaluated the influence of crematories on the surrounding environment, and identified the characteristics of air pollution. The results showed that: for the cremators installed with flue gas purification system, the emission concentration of exhaust PM was rather low, and the CO emission concentration fluctuated greatly. However, relative high emission concentrations of PCDD/Fs were detected mainly due to insufficient combustion. Exhaust PM, CO, SO2, NOx, Hg and PCDD/Fs emitted by crematory of Beijing in 2012 were estimated at about 11. 5 tons, 41.25 tons, 2.34 tons, 7.65 tons, 13.76 kg and 0.88 g, respectively; According to the results of dispersion model simulation, the concentration contributions of exhaust PM, CO, SO2, NOx, Hg, PCDD/Fs from crematories were 0.05947 microg x m(-3), 0.2009 microg x m(-3) and 0.0126 microg x m(-3), 0.03667 microg x m(-3) and 0.06247 microg x m(-3), 0.004213 microg x m(-3), respectively.

  15. [Situation and Characteristics of Air Pollutants Emission from Crematories in Beijing, China].

    PubMed

    Xue, Yi-feng; Yan, Jing; Tian, He-zhong; Xiong, Cheng-cheng; Li, Jing-dong; Wu, Xiao-ing; Wang, Wei

    2015-06-01

    Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) such as exhaust particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxide (NOx), mercury (Hg) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans ( PCDD/Fs) are emitted by the process of cremation and the burning of oblation. Risks to health posed by emissions of hazardous air pollutants from crematories are emerging concerns. Through field investigation and data collection, we obtained the related activity levels and monitored the concentrations of air pollutants from typical cremators, so as to better understand the current pollutants emission levels for crematory. Using the emission factor method, we calculated the emission inventory of HAPs for crematory of Beijing in 2012 and quantified the range of uncertainty. Using atmospheric diffusion model ADMS, we evaluated the influence of crematories on the surrounding environment, and identified the characteristics of air pollution. The results showed that: for the cremators installed with flue gas purification system, the emission concentration of exhaust PM was rather low, and the CO emission concentration fluctuated greatly. However, relative high emission concentrations of PCDD/Fs were detected mainly due to insufficient combustion. Exhaust PM, CO, SO2, NOx, Hg and PCDD/Fs emitted by crematory of Beijing in 2012 were estimated at about 11. 5 tons, 41.25 tons, 2.34 tons, 7.65 tons, 13.76 kg and 0.88 g, respectively; According to the results of dispersion model simulation, the concentration contributions of exhaust PM, CO, SO2, NOx, Hg, PCDD/Fs from crematories were 0.05947 microg x m(-3), 0.2009 microg x m(-3) and 0.0126 microg x m(-3), 0.03667 microg x m(-3) and 0.06247 microg x m(-3), 0.004213 microg x m(-3), respectively. PMID:26387295

  16. Wind Energy and Air Emission Reduction Benefits: A Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, D.; High, C.

    2008-02-01

    This document provides a summary of the impact of wind energy development on various air pollutants for a general audience. The core document addresses the key facts relating to the analysis of emission reductions from wind energy development. It is intended for use by a wide variety of parties with an interest in this issue, ranging from state environmental officials to renewable energy stakeholders. The appendices provide basic background information for the general reader, as well as detailed information for those seeking a more in-depth discussion of various topics.

  17. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the PNNL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Ted M.; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2010-05-25

    This document of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, EPA, QA/G4, 2/2006 (EPA 2006) as well as several other published DQOs. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is in the process of developing a radiological air monitoring program for the PNNL Site that is distinct from that of the nearby Hanford Site. Radiological emissions at the PNNL Site result from Physical Sciences Facility (PSF) major emissions units. A team was established to determine how the PNNL Site would meet federal regulations and address guidelines developed to monitor and estimate offsite air emissions of radioactive materials. The result is a program that monitors the impact to the public from the PNNL Site.

  18. Air emission control equipment - the new challenge for equpiment suppliers

    SciTech Connect

    Lobb, F.H.

    1997-12-31

    The combination of Title V, the CAM Rule and the Credible Evidence Rule demand industrial sites view the selection and operation of emission control devices in a whole new light. No longer can users see these devices as detached end of pipe pieces of equipment essentially purchased off lowest bid. These regulatory changes force plants to fully integrate the operation of these devices into their process control systems and instrumentation. And this is specifically EPA`s stated intent. EPA believes that by forcing sites to exercise the same knowledge and attention to air emissions that they do to operate their production processes, emissions will undergo a natural reduction across the country. Process and operational data that historically has been the sole province of sites becomes public. And compliance with state defined requirements must be demonstrated essentially continuously. This paper explores the new approach to compliance and provides insight through specific field examples/installations of emission control equipment. The author seeks to promote understanding through discussion of these significant regulatory changes.

  19. Regional air quality impacts of future fire emissions in Sumatra and Kalimantan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlier, Miriam E.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Kim, Patrick S.; Gaveau, David L. A.; Koplitz, Shannon N.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Margono, Belinda A.; Myers, Samuel S.

    2015-05-01

    Fire emissions associated with land cover change and land management contribute to the concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, which can affect regional air quality and climate. Mitigating these impacts requires a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between fires and different land cover change trajectories and land management strategies. We develop future fire emissions inventories from 2010-2030 for Sumatra and Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) to assess the impact of varying levels of forest and peatland conservation on air quality in Equatorial Asia. To compile these inventories, we combine detailed land cover information from published maps of forest extent, satellite fire radiative power observations, fire emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database, and spatially explicit future land cover projections using a land cover change model. We apply the sensitivities of mean smoke concentrations to Indonesian fire emissions, calculated by the GEOS-Chem adjoint model, to our scenario-based future fire emissions inventories to quantify the different impacts of fires on surface air quality across Equatorial Asia. We find that public health impacts are highly sensitive to the location of fires, with emissions from Sumatra contributing more to smoke concentrations at population centers across the region than Kalimantan, which had higher emissions by more than a factor of two. Compared to business-as-usual projections, protecting peatlands from fires reduces smoke concentrations in the cities of Singapore and Palembang by 70% and 40%, and by 60% for the Equatorial Asian region, weighted by the population in each grid cell. Our results indicate the importance of focusing conservation priorities on protecting both forested (intact or logged) peatlands and non-forested peatlands from fire, even after considering potential leakage of deforestation pressure to other areas, in order to limit the impact of fire emissions on atmospheric smoke concentrations and

  20. Effects of reducing SO2 and NOx emission from ships on air quality in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, T. T.; Mölders, N.

    2011-12-01

    We performed simulations with the Alaska-adapted WRF/Chem using the same meteorological conditions of January 2000, but alternatively applying the emissions of 2000 (REF), emissions of 2000 with the ship-emission reductions for the planned North American Emission Contral Area (ECA) for SO2 only (ECA1) and SO2 and NOx (ECA2) that have been proposed by the International Maritime Organization for 2015. The analysis focused on the air quality along the international shipping lanes (ISL), in the ECA and over Alaska (AK). Our goal is to examine how the decreases in ship emissions in the ISL and ECA affect to air quality in Alaska. Our model results show that reducing SO2 and NOx ship-emissions reduces the concentration of sulfur and nitrogen compounds over Alaska despite of no changes in Alaska emissions. The reductions of pollutants over the ISL, ECA and AK stemming from concurrent SO2-NOx ship emission reductions are an order of magnitude of those stemming from SO2 reduction in ship emissions only. Reductions in sulfur compounds reach up to 14km while reductions of nitrogen compounds reach to only about 7km. Reductions of sulfate and nitrate in clouds are highest at the top of the boundary layer. Among the three regions of interest, strongest reductions occur over the ECA and ISL for sulfur and nitrogen compounds, respectively, since the ECA (ISL) has highest reductions of SO2 (NOx). The PM2.5 speciation partitioning over all three regions marginally changes when the ship emissions change. Sulfate is the major component of PM2.5 in all regions. Closer to the land, organic carbon (OC) partitioning is higher indicating the enhancing impacts of inland anthropogenic emissions to total PM2.5 concentrations over land.

  1. Locating and estimating air emissions from sources of styrene. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D.

    1991-10-01

    To assist groups interested in inventorying air emissions of various potentially toxic substances, EPA is preparing a series of documents such as this to compile available information on sources and emission of these substances. The document deals specifically with styrene. Its intended audience includes Federal, State and local air pollution personnel and others interested in locating potential emitters of styrene and in making gross estimates of air emissions therefrom. The document presents information on: (1) the types of sources that may emit styrene; (2) process variations and release points that may be emitted within these sources; and (3) available emissions information indicating the potential for styrene releases into the air from each operation. The document is being released as an interim document pending incorporation of testing results from the U.S. EPA. The EPA is currently testing several unsaturated polyester resin fabricators who produce cultured marble bathroom fixtures. When the test results are available, the EPA will publish a final report including these data.

  2. Impact of air traffic emissions on airport air quality. Multi-scale modeling, test bed and field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaroson, R.; Vuillot, F.; Durand, Y.; Courbet, B.; Janin, F.; Copalle, A.; Guin, C.; Paux, E.; Vannier, F.; Talbaut, M.; Weill, M.

    2004-12-01

    Air traffic emissions are playing a significant role in airport air quality. Engine emissions contribute to the ozone and PM formation. There is an emergence of a need to develop advanced numerical tools and airport emission databases for air pollution studies. Field monitoring at airports necessary to support model assessment is still limited in time and space. The French ONERA AIRPUR project has focused on three objectives: emission inventories; dispersion models; field measurements. Results are presented and discussed in this paper. The ground spatial distribution of LTO emissions using realistic aircraft trajectories, aircraft-engine classification by ICAO, fuel flow methodology and diurnal variations of fleet number, is presented and discussed. Exhaust species time evolution is simulated using a chemical-dispersion model. Results show high emissions of NOx during LTO, and a maximum of CO and Hydrocarbons during taxi. Depending on seasons, the NOx lifetime is varying differently; lower concentration is calculated far away from LTO emissions. Longer-lived pollutants such as ozone are formed downstream and require the use of advanced dispersion models. For this reason, two interactive models coupling the micro and the regional scales are developed and used in this work. A 3D CFD model (CEDRE) simulates the flow characteristics around buildings and the dispersion of emissions. CEDRE boundary conditions are provided by the 3D nested dispersion model MEDIUM/MM5, which includes a surface boundary layer chemistry and calculates the concentration of pollutants from the local to the airport vicinities. The CFD results show a tracer accumulation calculated downstream beside terminals, consistent with observations at some mega-airports. Sensibility studies are conducted to highlight the impact of emissions on ozone formation with MEDIUM. Results show that longer-lived species are produced downstream, their concentration depending on NOx, aromatics and VOC released by

  3. Measurement of Ozone Emission and Particle Removal Rates from Portable Air Purifiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mang, Stephen A.; Walser, Maggie L.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Laux, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Portable air purifiers are popular consumer items, especially in areas with poor air quality. Unfortunately, most users of these air purifiers have minimal understanding of the factors affecting their efficiency in typical indoor settings. Emission of the air pollutant ozone (O[subscript 3]) by certain air purifiers is of particular concern. In an…

  4. Emission of burning emulsified diesel oil with sodium sulfate in salty atmospheric air.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cherng-Yuan; Pan, Jenq-Yih

    2003-01-01

    The effects of sodium sulfate in fuel oil and salty atmospheric air on the emission characteristics of furnaces or boilers burned with emulsified diesel oils are considered in this study. An industrial cylindrical furnace made of stainless steel associated with an automatic oil-fired burner was used for the emission measurements. Both neat diesel oil and emulsified diesel oil with distilled water were used as the tested oils. A homogenizing and emulsifying machine was employed to stir the diesel oil and sodium sulfate powder into a homogeneous oil mixture, and to prepare emulsions of micro-droplets of water dispersed in diesel oil. The experimental results showed that the existence of sodium chloride in atmospheric air enhanced SO2 formation. The use of emulsified diesel oil with 300-ppm sodium sulfate as fuel reduced the burning gas temperature and NOx emission while increased O2 emission. Moreover, the presence of sodium chloride in atmospheric air hindered the completeness of the combustion process and thus resulted in lower burning efficiency and larger excess oxygen emission. PMID:14672327

  5. Global Scenarios of Air Pollutant Emissions from Road Transport through to 2050

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents global scenarios of sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) emissions from road transport through to 2050, taking into account the potential impacts of: (1) the timing of air pollutant emission regulation implementation in developing countries; (2) global CO2 mitigation policy implementation; and (3) vehicle cost assumptions, on study results. This is done by using a global energy system model treating the transport sector in detail. The major conclusions are the following. First, as long as non-developed countries adopt the same vehicle emission standards as in developed countries within a 30-year lag, global emissions of SO2, NOx, and PM from road vehicles decrease substantially over time. Second, light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty trucks make a large and increasing contribution to future global emissions of SO2, NOx, and PM from road vehicles. Third, the timing of air pollutant emission regulation implementation in developing countries has a large impact on future global emissions of SO2, NOx, and PM from road vehicles, whereas there is a possibility that global CO2 mitigation policy implementation has a comparatively small impact on them. PMID:21845172

  6. Study of air emissions related to aircraft deicing

    SciTech Connect

    Zarubiak, D.C.Z.; DeToro, J.A.; Menon, R.P.

    1997-12-31

    This paper outlines the results of a study that was conducted by Trinity Consultants Incorporated (Trinity) to estimate the airborne emissions of glycol from Type 1 Deicer fluid and potential exposure of ground personnel during routine deicing of aircraft. The study involved the experimental measurement of Type 1 Deicer fluid vapor emissions by Southern Research Institute (SRI, Research Triangle Park, NC). An open path Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique developed by SRI was used during a simulated airplane deicing event. The emissions measurement data are analyzed to obtain appropriate emission rates for an atmospheric dispersion modeling analysis. The modeled gaseous Type 1 Deicer fluid concentrations are determined from calculated emission rates and selected meteorological conditions. A propylene glycol (PG)-based Type 1 Deicer fluid was used. In order to examine the effects of the assumptions that are made for the development of the emission quantification and dispersion modeling methodologies, various scenarios are evaluated. A parametric analysis evaluates the effect of variations in the following parameters on the results of the study: glycol concentrations in deicing fluids, error limits of emission measurements, emission source heights, evaporation rate for various wind speeds, wind directions over typical physical layouts, and background (ambient) Type 1 Deicer fluid concentrations. The emissions for an EG based Type 1 Deicing fluid are expected to be between 80 and 85% of the reported data. In general, the model shows the region of maximum concentrations is located between 20 and 50 meters downwind from the trailing edge of the wing. This range is consistent with experimental findings. Depending on the specific modeled scenarios, maximum glycol concentrations are found to generally range between 50 and 500 milligrams per cubic meter.

  7. The AMY experiment: Microwave emission from air shower plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Blanco, M.; Boháčová, M.; Buonomo, B.; Cataldi, G.; Coluccia, M. R.; Creti, P.; De Mitri, I.; Di Giulio, C.; Facal San Luis, P.; Foggetta, L.; Gaïor, R.; Garcia-Fernandez, D.; Iarlori, M.; Le Coz, S.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Louedec, K.; Maris, I. C.; Martello, D.; Mazzitelli, G.; Monasor, M.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Privitera, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Salamida, F.; Salina, G.; Settimo, M.; Valente, P.; Vazquez, J. R.; Verzi, V.; Williams, C.

    2016-07-01

    You The Air Microwave Yield (AMY) experiment investigate the molecular bremsstrahlung radiation emitted in the GHz frequency range from an electron beam induced air-shower. The measurements have been performed at the Beam Test Facility (BTF) of Frascati INFN National Laboratories with a 510 MeV electron beam in a wide frequency range between 1 and 20 GHz. We present the apparatus and the results of the tests performed.

  8. Air emissions from exposed contaminated sediments and dredged material

    SciTech Connect

    Valsaraj, K.T.; Ravikrishna, R.; Reible, D.D.; Thibodeaux, L.J.; Choy, B.; Price, C.B.; Brannon, J.M.; Myers, T.E.; Yost, S.

    1999-01-01

    The sediment-to-air fluxes of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (phenanthrene and pyrene) and a heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (dibenzofuran) from a laboratory-contaminated sediment and those of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene) from three field sediments were investigated in experimental microcosms. The flux was dependent on the sediment moisture content, air-filled porosity, and the relative humidity of the air flowing over the sediment surface. The mathematical model predictions of flux from the laboratory-spiked sediment agreed with observed values. The fluxes of compounds with higher hydrophobicity were more air-side resistance controlled. Conspicuous differences were observed between the fluxes from the laboratory-spiked and two of the three field sediments. Two field sediments showed dramatic increases in mass-transfer resistances with increasing exposure time and had significant fractions of oil and grease. The proposed mathematical model was inadequate for predicting the flux from the latter field sediments. Sediment reworking enhanced the fluxes from the field sediments due to exposure of fresh solids to the air. Variations in flux from the lab-spiked sediment as a result of change in air relative humidity were due to differences in retardation of chemicals on a dry or wet surface sediment. High moisture in the air over the dry sediment increased the competition for sorption sites between water and contaminant and increased the contaminant flux.

  9. Dynamic Evaluation of Regional Air Quality Model's Response to Emission Reductions in the Presence of Uncertain Emission Inventories

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method is presented and applied for evaluating an air quality model’s changes in pollutant concentrations stemming from changes in emissions while explicitly accounting for the uncertainties in the base emission inventory. Specifically, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMA...

  10. Air exchange effectiveness in office buildings: Measurement techniques and results

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.

    1992-07-01

    We define two air exchange effectiveness parameters which indicate the extent of short circuiting, mixing, or displacement air flow in an entire building, the air diffusion effectiveness which indicates the air flow pattern locally, and the normalized local age of air. After describing two tracer gas procedures for measuring these parameters, we discuss assumptions inherent in the data analysis that are often violated in large office buildings. To obtain valuable data, careful selection of buildings for measurements and assessments to determine if operating conditions are reasonably consistent with the assumptions are necessary. Multiple factors, in addition to the air flow pattern in the occupied space, can affect measurement results, consequently, the interpretation of measurements is not straightforward. We summarize the results of measurements in several office buildings and in a research laboratory. Almost all measurements indicate that the extent of both short circuiting and displacement flow is small. A moderate amount of short circuiting is evident from a few measurements in rooms with heated supply air. Ages of air and their reciprocals (local ventilation rates) often vary substantially between rooms, probably because of room-to-room variation in the rate of air supply. For future research, we suggest assessments of measurement accuracy, development of measurement approaches that may be practically applied for a broader range of buildings, and a greater focus on pollutant removal efficiencies.

  11. Modelling the impacts of ammonia emissions reductions on North American air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makar, P. A.; Moran, M. D.; Zheng, Q.; Cousineau, S.; Sassi, M.; Duhamel, A.; Besner, M.; Davignon, D.; Crevier, L.-P.; Bouchet, V. S.

    2009-09-01

    A unified regional air-quality modelling system (AURAMS) was used to investigate the effects of reductions in ammonia emissions on regional air quality, with a focus on particulate-matter formation. Three simulations of one-year duration were performed for a North American domain: (1) a base-case simulation using 2002 Canadian and US national emissions inventories augmented by a more detailed Canadian emissions inventory for agricultural ammonia; (2) a 30% North-American-wide reduction in agricultural ammonia emissions; and (3) a 50% reduction in Canadian beef-cattle ammonia emissions. The simulations show that a 30% continent-wide reduction in agricultural ammonia emissions lead to reductions in median hourly PM2.5 mass of <1 μg m-3 on an annual basis. The atmospheric response to these emission reductions displays marked seasonal variations, and on even shorter time scales, the impacts of the emissions reductions are highly episodic: 95th-percentile hourly PM2.5 mass decreases can be up to a factor of six larger than the median values. A key finding of the modelling work is the linkage between gas and aqueous chemistry and transport; reductions in ammonia emissions affect gaseous ammonia concentrations close to the emissions site, but substantial impacts on particulate matter and atmospheric deposition often occur at considerable distances downwind, with particle nitrate being the main vector of ammonia/um transport. Ammonia emissions reductions therefore have trans-boundary consequences downwind. Calculations of critical-load exceedances for sensitive ecosystems in Canada suggest that ammonia emission reductions will have a minimal impact on current ecosystem acidification within Canada, but may have a substantial impact on future ecosystem acidification. The 50% Canadian beef-cattle ammonia emissions reduction scenario was used to examine model sensitivity to uncertainties in the new Canadian agricultural ammonia emissions inventory, and the simulation results

  12. Speed-dependent emission of air pollutants from gasoline-powered passenger cars.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sungwoon; Lee, Meehye; Kim, Jongchoon; Lyu, Youngsook; Park, Junhong

    2011-01-01

    In Korea emissions from motor vehicles are a major source of air pollution in metropolitan cities, and in Seoul a large proportion of the vehicle fleet is made up of gasoline-powered passenger cars. The carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2) contained in the exhaust emissions from 76 gasoline-powered passenger cars equipped with three-way catalysts has been assessed by vehicle speed, vehicle mileage and model year. The results show that CO, HC, NOx and CO2 emissions remained almost unchanged at higher speeds but decreased rapidly at lower speeds. While a reduction in CO, HC and NOx emissions was noticeable in vehicles of recent manufacture and lower mileage, CO2 emissions were found to be insensitive to vehicle mileage, but strongly dependent on gross vehicle weight. Lower emissions from more recent gasoline-powered vehicles arose mainly from improvements in three-way catalytic converter technology following strengthened emission regulations. The correlation between CO2 emission and fuel consumption has been investigated with a view to establishing national CO2 emission standards for Korea.

  13. [Major Air Pollutant Emissions of Coal-Fired Power Plant in Yangtze River Delta].

    PubMed

    Ding, Qing-qing; Wei, Wei; Shen, Qun; Sun, Yu-han

    2015-07-01

    The emission factor method was used to estimate major air pollutant emissions of coal-fired power plant in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region of the year 2012. Results showed that emissions of SO2, NOx, dust, PM10, PM2.5 were respectively 473 238, 1 566 195, 587 713, 348 773 and 179 820 t. For SO2 and NOx, 300 MW and above class units made contributions of 85% and 82% in emission; while in the respect of dust, PM10 and PM2.5 contribution rates of 100 MW and below class units were respectively 81%, 53% and 40%. Considering the regional distribution, Jiangsu discharged the most, followed by Zhejiang, Shanghai. According to discharge data of several local power plants, we also calculated and made a comparative analysis of emission factors in different unit levels in Shanghai, which indicated a lower emission level. Assuming an equal level was reached in whole YRD, SO2 emission would cut down 55. 8% - 65. 3%; for NOx and dust emissions were 50. 5% - 64. 1% and 3. 4% - 11. 3%, respectively. If technologies and pollution control of lower class units were improved, the emission cuts would improve. However, according to the pollution realities of YRD, we suggested to make a multiple-cuts plan, which could effectively improve the reaional atmospheric environment. PMID:26489303

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions for refrigerant choices in room air conditioner units.

    PubMed

    Galka, Michael D; Lownsbury, James M; Blowers, Paul

    2012-12-01

    In this work, potential replacement refrigerants for window-mounted room air conditioners (RACs) in the U.S. have been evaluated using a greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions analysis. CO(2)-equivalent emissions for several hydrofluoroethers (HFEs) and other potential replacements were compared to the most widely used refrigerants today. Included in this comparison are pure refrigerants that make up a number of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) mixtures, pure hydrocarbons, and historically used refrigerants such as propane and ammonia. GHG emissions from direct and indirect sources were considered in this thermodynamic analysis. Propylene, dimethyl ether, ammonia, R-152a, propane, and HFE-152a all performed effectively in a 1 ton window unit and produced slightly lower emissions than the currently used R-22 and R-134a. The results suggest that regulation of HFCs in this application would have some effect on reducing emissions since end-of-life emissions remain at 55% of total refrigerant charge despite EPA regulations that mandate 80% recovery. Even so, offsite emissions due to energy generation dominate over direct GHG emissions and all the refrigerants perform similarly in totals of indirect GHG emissions. PMID:23136858

  15. Speed-dependent emission of air pollutants from gasoline-powered passenger cars.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sungwoon; Lee, Meehye; Kim, Jongchoon; Lyu, Youngsook; Park, Junhong

    2011-01-01

    In Korea emissions from motor vehicles are a major source of air pollution in metropolitan cities, and in Seoul a large proportion of the vehicle fleet is made up of gasoline-powered passenger cars. The carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2) contained in the exhaust emissions from 76 gasoline-powered passenger cars equipped with three-way catalysts has been assessed by vehicle speed, vehicle mileage and model year. The results show that CO, HC, NOx and CO2 emissions remained almost unchanged at higher speeds but decreased rapidly at lower speeds. While a reduction in CO, HC and NOx emissions was noticeable in vehicles of recent manufacture and lower mileage, CO2 emissions were found to be insensitive to vehicle mileage, but strongly dependent on gross vehicle weight. Lower emissions from more recent gasoline-powered vehicles arose mainly from improvements in three-way catalytic converter technology following strengthened emission regulations. The correlation between CO2 emission and fuel consumption has been investigated with a view to establishing national CO2 emission standards for Korea. PMID:21970159

  16. [Major Air Pollutant Emissions of Coal-Fired Power Plant in Yangtze River Delta].

    PubMed

    Ding, Qing-qing; Wei, Wei; Shen, Qun; Sun, Yu-han

    2015-07-01

    The emission factor method was used to estimate major air pollutant emissions of coal-fired power plant in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region of the year 2012. Results showed that emissions of SO2, NOx, dust, PM10, PM2.5 were respectively 473 238, 1 566 195, 587 713, 348 773 and 179 820 t. For SO2 and NOx, 300 MW and above class units made contributions of 85% and 82% in emission; while in the respect of dust, PM10 and PM2.5 contribution rates of 100 MW and below class units were respectively 81%, 53% and 40%. Considering the regional distribution, Jiangsu discharged the most, followed by Zhejiang, Shanghai. According to discharge data of several local power plants, we also calculated and made a comparative analysis of emission factors in different unit levels in Shanghai, which indicated a lower emission level. Assuming an equal level was reached in whole YRD, SO2 emission would cut down 55. 8% - 65. 3%; for NOx and dust emissions were 50. 5% - 64. 1% and 3. 4% - 11. 3%, respectively. If technologies and pollution control of lower class units were improved, the emission cuts would improve. However, according to the pollution realities of YRD, we suggested to make a multiple-cuts plan, which could effectively improve the reaional atmospheric environment.

  17. Effect of outside air ventilation rate on VOC concentrations and emissions in a call center

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, A.T.; Faulkner, D.; Sullivan, D.P.; DiBartolomeo, D.L.; Russell, M.L.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    A study of the relationship between outside air ventilation rate and concentrations of VOCs generated indoors was conducted in a call center. Ventilation rates were manipulated in the building's four air handling units (AHUs). Concentrations of VOCs in the AHU returns were measured on 7 days during a 13-week period. Indoor minus outdoor concentrations and emission factors were calculated. The emission factor data was subjected to principal component analysis to identify groups of co-varying compounds based on source type. One vector represented emissions of solvents from cleaning products. Another vector identified occupant sources. Direct relationships between ventilation rate and concentrations were not observed for most of the abundant VOCs. This result emphasizes the importance of source control measures for limiting VOC concentrations in buildings.

  18. Compilation and application of Japanese inventories for energy consumption and air pollutant emissions using input-output tables.

    PubMed

    Nansai, Keisuke; Moriguchi, Yuichi; Tohno, Susumu

    2003-05-01

    Preparing emission inventories is essential to the assessment and management of our environment. In this study, Japanese air pollutant emissions, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions categorized by approximately 400 sectors (as classified by Japanese input-output tables in 1995) were estimated, and the contributions of each sector to the total amounts were analyzed. The air pollutants examined were nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), and suspended particulate matter (SPM). Consumptions of about 20 fossil fuels and five other fuels were estimated according to sector. Air pollutant emission factors for stationary sources were calculated from the results of a survey on air pollution prevention in Japan. Pollutant emissions from mobile sources were estimated taking into consideration vehicle types, traveling speeds, and distances. This work also counted energy supply and emissions from seven nonfossil fuel sources, including nonthermal electric power, and CO2 emissions from limestone (for example, during cement production). The total energy consumption in 1995 was concluded to be 18.3 EJ, and the annual total emissions of CO2, NOx, SOx, and SPM were, respectively, 343 Mt-C, 3.51 Mt, 1.87 Mt, and 0.32 Mt. An input-output analysis of the emission inventories was used to calculate the amounts of energy consumption and emissions induced in each sector by the economic final demand. PMID:12775078

  19. STANDARDS CONTROLLING AIR EMISSIONS FOR THE SOIL DESICCATION PILOT TEST

    SciTech Connect

    BENECKE MW

    2010-09-08

    This air emissions document supports implementation of the Treatability Test Plan for Soil Desiccation as outlined in the Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau (DOE/RL-2007-56). Treatability testing supports evaluation of remedial technologies for technetium-99 (Tc-99) contamination in the vadose zone at sites such as the BC Cribs and Trenches. Soil desiccation has been selected as the first technology for testing because it has been recommended as a promising technology in previous Hanford Site technology evaluations and because testing of soil desiccation will provide useful information to enhance evaluation of other technologies, in particular gas-phase remediation technologies. A soil desiccation pilot test (SDPT) will evaluate the desiccation process (e.g., how the targeted interval is dried) and the long-term performance for mitigation of contaminant transport. The SDPT will dry out a moist zone contaminated by Tc-99 and nitrate that has been detected at Well 299-E13-62 (Borehole C5923). This air emissions document applies to the activities to be completed to conduct the SDPT in the 200-BC-1 operable unit located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. Well 299-E13-62 is planned to be used as an injection well. This well is located between and approximately equidistant from cribs 216-B-16, 216-B-17, 216-B-18. and 216-B-19. Nitrogen gas will be pumped at approximately 300 ft{sup 3}/min into the 299-EI3-62 injection well, located approximately 12 m (39 ft) away from extraction well 299-EI3-65. The soil gas extraction rate will be approximately 150 ft{sup 3}/min. The SDPT will be conducted continuously over a period of approximately six months. The purpose of the test is to evaluate soil desiccation as a potential remedy for protecting groundwater. A conceptual depiction is provided in Figure 1. The soil desiccation process will physically dry, or evaporate, some of the water from the moist zone of interest. As such, it is

  20. 77 FR 41146 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source.... SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 112(l) of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, EPA is proposing to grant delegation of specific national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) to the Gila...

  1. 75 FR 8888 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source...). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 112(l) of the 1990 Clean Air Act, EPA granted delegation of specific national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) to the...

  2. 76 FR 81327 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Pulp and Paper Industry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Pulp and Paper Industry; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76... Part 63 RIN 2060-AQ41 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Pulp and Paper... proposing amendments to the national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants for the pulp and...

  3. 40 CFR 63.2850 - How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards? 63.2850 Section 63.2850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National...

  4. 40 CFR 63.2850 - How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards? 63.2850 Section 63.2850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED)...

  5. 40 CFR 60.37b - Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... incinerators. 60.37b Section 60.37b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... § 60.37b Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators. For approval, a State plan shall include emission limits for opacity for air curtain incinerators at least as protective as those listed in §...

  6. 40 CFR 60.37b - Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... incinerators. 60.37b Section 60.37b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... § 60.37b Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators. For approval, a State plan shall include emission limits for opacity for air curtain incinerators at least as protective as those listed in §...

  7. 40 CFR 60.37b - Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... incinerators. 60.37b Section 60.37b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... § 60.37b Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators. For approval, a State plan shall include emission limits for opacity for air curtain incinerators at least as protective as those listed in §...

  8. 40 CFR 60.37b - Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... incinerators. 60.37b Section 60.37b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... § 60.37b Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators. For approval, a State plan shall include emission limits for opacity for air curtain incinerators at least as protective as those listed in §...

  9. 40 CFR 60.37b - Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... incinerators. 60.37b Section 60.37b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... § 60.37b Emission guidelines for air curtain incinerators. For approval, a State plan shall include emission limits for opacity for air curtain incinerators at least as protective as those listed in §...

  10. Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 4, commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document serves as a manual for a workshop on commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues. Areas covered include: An overview of the glass industry; Furnace design and construction practices; Melting furnace operation; Energy input methods and controls; Air legislation and regulations; Soda lime emission mechanisms; and, Post furnace emission controls. Supporting papers are also included.

  11. 76 FR 35806 - Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Plating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AM37 Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: On June 12, 2008, EPA issued national emission standards for control of hazardous... Air Act (CAA). In today's action, EPA is proposing to amend the national emission standards...

  12. 77 FR 8575 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Aluminum Production

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... February 14, 2012 Part V Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 63 National Emissions Standards for... 63 RIN 2060-AQ40 National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Aluminum... proposing amendments to the national emissions standards for hazardous air pollutants for Secondary...

  13. Impacts of future climate and emission changes on U.S. air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penrod, Ashley; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Kai; Wu, Shiang-Yuh; Leung, L. Ruby

    2014-06-01

    Changes in climate and emissions will affect future air quality. In this work, simulations of regional air quality during current (2001-2005) and future (2026-2030) winter and summer are conducted with the newly released CMAQ version 5.0 to examine the impacts of simulated future climate and anthropogenic emission projections on air quality over the U.S. Current meteorological and chemical predictions are evaluated against observations to assess the model's capability in reproducing the seasonal differences. WRF and CMAQ capture the overall observational spatial patterns and seasonal differences. Biases in model predictions are attributed to uncertainties in emissions, boundary conditions, and limitations in model physical and chemical treatments as well as the use of a coarse grid resolution. Increased temperatures (up to 3.18 °C) and decreased ventilation (up to 157 m in planetary boundary layer height) are found in both future winter and summer, with more prominent changes in winter. Increases in future temperatures result in increased isoprene and terpene emissions in winter and summer, driving the increase in maximum 8-h average O3 (up to 5.0 ppb) over the eastern U.S. in winter while decreases in NOx emissions drive the decrease in O3 over most of the U.S. in summer. Future PM2.5 concentrations in winter and summer and many of its components decrease due to decreases in primary anthropogenic emissions and the concentrations of secondary anthropogenic pollutants as well as increased precipitation in winter. Future winter and summer dry and wet deposition fluxes are spatially variable and increase with decreasing surface resistance and precipitation, respectively. They decrease with a decrease in ambient particulate concentrations. Anthropogenic emissions play a more important role in summer than in winter for future O3 and PM2.5 levels, with a dominance of the effects of significant emission reductions over those of climate change on future PM2.5 levels.

  14. Performance of underfloor air distribution: Results of a field study

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William; Faulkner, David; Sullivan, Douglas

    2004-09-02

    Underfloor air distribution (UFAD) is a new method of supplying heated or cooled air throughout a building. Reported advantages of UFAD include easy relocation of air supply diffusers, energy savings, and improved indoor air quality (IAQ). We measured several aspects of the performance of an UFAD system installed in a medium-size office building. The measured air change effectiveness was very close to unity, which is comparable to that measured in buildings with typical overhead air distribution. The pollutant removal efficiency for carbon dioxide was 13 percent higher than expected in a space with well-mixed air, suggesting a 13 percent reduction in exposures to occupant generated pollutants. The increase in indoor air temperatures with height above the floor was only 1 to 2 C (2-4 F). This amount of thermal stratification could reduce the sensible energy requirements for cooling of outdoor air by approximately 10 percent. The occupants level of satisfaction with thermal conditions w as well above average and this high satisfaction rating could possibly be due, in all or part, to the use of a UFAD system. The results of this study provide some evidence of moderate energy and IAQ-related benefits of UFAD. Before general conclusions are drawn, the benefits need to be confirmed in other studies.

  15. Climate change and pollutant emissions impacts on air quality in 2050 over Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sá, E.; Martins, H.; Ferreira, J.; Marta-Almeida, M.; Rocha, A.; Carvalho, A.; Freitas, S.; Borrego, C.

    2016-04-01

    Changes in climate and air pollutant emissions will affect future air quality from global to urban scale. In this study, regional air quality simulations for historical and future periods are conducted, with CAMx version 6.0, to investigate the impacts of future climate and anthropogenic emission projections on air quality over Portugal and the Porto metropolitan area in 2050. The climate and the emission projections were derived from the Representative Concentrations Pathways (RCP8.5) scenario. Modelling results show that climate change will impact NO2, PM10 and O3 concentrations over Portugal. The NO2 and PM10 annual means will increase in Portugal and in the Porto municipality, and the maximum 8-hr daily O3 value will increase in the Porto suburban areas (approximately 5%) and decrease in the urban area (approximately 2%). When considering climate change and projected anthropogenic emissions, the NO2 annual mean decreases (approximately 50%); PM10 annual mean will increase in Portugal and decrease in Porto municipality (approximately 13%); however PM10 and O3 levels increase and extremes occur more often, surpassing the currently legislated annual limits and displaying a higher frequency of daily exceedances. This air quality degradation is likely to be related with the trends found for the 2046-2065 climate, which implies warmer and dryer conditions, and with the increase of background concentrations of ozone and particulate matter. The results demonstrate the need for Portuguese authorities and policy-makers to design and implement air quality management strategies that take climate change impacts into account.

  16. Air stripping of contaminated water sources - air emissions and controls. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vancit, M.A.; Howle, R.H.; Herndon, D.J.; Shareef, S.A.

    1987-08-01

    Air-stripping towers are being used to remove low concentrations of organic contaminants from water. The report describes the technology and methods used to control air pollution resulting from this procedure. The cost of the controls is presented along with other positive and negative impacts of the technology.

  17. ElectroCore separator for particulate air emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Easom, B.H.; Smolensky, L.A.; Wysk, S.R.; Altman, R.F.; Olen, K.R.

    1998-07-01

    Coal combustion in fossil energy power systems releases trace amounts of chemical elements identified in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Most HAPs exist as solid phase particulate matter and are emitted to the atmosphere in this form. To reduce the emissions of these HAPs, a novel, high efficiency particle collection system known as the ElectroCore is being developed. The concept involves placing a high efficiency particle separator downstream of an underperforming electrostatic precipitator (ESP) that strips the particles from the incoming flow and returns them, along with a small amount of recirculation flow, back to the inlet of the ESP. The main component of the system is the ElectroCore separator. Its design is based on the mechanical Core Separator developed by LSR as a high efficiency centrifugal separator. Enhancing the Core Separator by adding an electrical field improves the separation efficiency of particles in the sub-micron range which is the range where centrifugal separation is ineffective. In the combined system, the centrifugal forces operating on the particles augmented by electrostatic forces so that the ElectroCore has high separation efficiency for particles of all sizes. Field tests have shown that the ElectroCore operating downstream of an underperforming ESP can reduce the particulate emission rate to below 4.3 ng/J (0.01 lb{sub m}/million Btu) even for ESPs with emission rates as high as 260 ng/J (0.6 lb{sub m}/million Btu). The ElectroCore system can perform with most all coal ranks or residual fuel oils (RFO) and has a potentially low capital cost.

  18. Air strippers and their emissions control at Superfund sites. Technical report, February-April 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Blaney, B.L.; Branscome, M.

    1988-08-01

    Air stripping, a traditional means of making slightly contaminated ground water potable, is being applied increasingly to more-severe groundwater pollution at remedial action sites. Concentrations of volatile and semivolatile compounds at such sites may reach hundreds of parts per million. As a result, several changes have resulted in air-stripping technology. New air stripping technologies are being employed to achieve very high (>99% removal of volatile compounds and to increase the removal of semivolatiles. New stripper designs are being investigated for compactness and mobility. In addition, emissions controls are being added because air-pollution impacts are larger. The paper discusses these trends and provides examples from ground-water cleanup at remedial-action sites in the United States.

  19. Assessment of China's virtual air pollution transport embodied in trade by using a consumption-based emission inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Guan, D. B.; Davis, S. J.; Liu, Z.; Huo, H.; Lin, J. T.; Liu, W. D.; He, K. B.

    2015-05-01

    Substantial anthropogenic emissions from China have resulted in serious air pollution, and this has generated considerable academic and public concern. The physical transport of air pollutants in the atmosphere has been extensively investigated; however, understanding the mechanisms how the pollutant was transferred through economic and trade activities remains a challenge. For the first time, we quantified and tracked China's air pollutant emission flows embodied in interprovincial trade, using a multiregional input-output model framework. Trade relative emissions for four key air pollutants (primary fine particle matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and non-methane volatile organic compounds) were assessed for 2007 in each Chinese province. We found that emissions were significantly redistributed among provinces owing to interprovincial trade. Large amounts of emissions were embodied in the imports of eastern regions from northern and central regions, and these were determined by differences in regional economic status and environmental policy. It is suggested that measures should be introduced to reduce air pollution by integrating cross-regional consumers and producers within national agreements to encourage efficiency improvement in the supply chain and optimize consumption structure internationally. The consumption-based air pollutant emission inventory developed in this work can be further used to attribute pollution to various economic activities and final demand types with the aid of air quality models.

  20. Intake fraction variability between air pollution emission sources inside an urban area.

    PubMed

    Tainio, Marko; Holnicki, Piotr; Loh, Miranda M; Nahorski, Zbigniew

    2014-11-01

    The cost-effective mitigation of adverse health effects caused by air pollution requires information on the contribution of different emission sources to exposure. In urban areas the exposure potential of different sources may vary significantly depending on emission height, population density, and other factors. In this study, we quantified this intraurban variability by predicting intake fraction (iF) for 3,066 emission sources in Warsaw, Poland. iF describes the fraction of the pollutant that is inhaled by people in the study area. We considered the following seven pollutants: particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), benzo[a] pyrene (BaP), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb). Emissions for these pollutants were grouped into four emission source categories (Mobile, Area, High Point, and Other Point sources). The dispersion of the pollutants was predicted with the CALPUFF dispersion model using the year 2005 emission rate data and meteorological records. The resulting annual average concentrations were combined with population data to predict the contribution of each individual source to population exposure. The iFs for different pollutant-source category combinations varied between 51 per million (PM from Mobile sources) and 0.013 per million (sulfate PM from High Point sources). The intraurban iF variability for Mobile sources primary PM emission was from 4 per million to 100 per million with the emission-weighted iF of 44 per million. These results propose that exposure due to intraurban air pollution emissions could be decreased more effectively by specifically targeting sources with high exposure potency rather than all sources.

  1. Emissions inventory and scenario analyses of air pollutants in Guangdong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui; Meng, Jing

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution, causing significantly adverse health impacts and severe environmental problems, has raised great concerns in China in the past few decades. Guangdong Province faces major challenges to address the regional air pollution problem due to the lack of an emissions inventory. To fill this gap, an emissions inventory of primary fine particles (PM2.5) is compiled for the year 2012, and the key precursors (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) are identified. Furthermore, policy packages are simulated during the period of 2012-2030 to investigate the potential mitigation effect. The results show that in 2012, SO2, NO x , and PM2.5 emissions in Guangdong Province were as high as (951.7, 1363.6, and 294.9) kt, respectively. Industrial production processes are the largest source of SO2 and PM2.5 emissions, and transport is the top contributor of NO x emissions. Both the baseline scenario and policy scenario are constructed based on projected energy growth and policy designs. Under the baseline scenario, SO2, NO x , and PM2.5 emissions will almost double in 2030 without proper emissions control policies. The suggested policies are categorized into end-of-pipe control in power plants (ECP), end-of-pipe control in industrial processes (ECI), fuel improvement (FI), energy efficiency improvement (EEI), substitution-pattern development (SPD), and energy saving options (ESO). With the implementation of all these policies, SO2, NO x , and PM2.5 emissions are projected to drop to (303.1, 585.4, and 102.4) kt, respectively, in 2030. This inventory and simulated results will provide deeper insights for policy makers to understand the present situation and the evolution of key emissions in Guangdong Province.

  2. Effects of animal activity and air temperature on methane and ammonia emissions from a naturally ventilated building for dairy cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngwabie, N. M.; Jeppsson, K.-H.; Gustafsson, G.; Nimmermark, S.

    2011-12-01

    Knowledge of how different factors affect gas emissions from animal buildings can be useful for emission prediction purposes and for the improvement of emission abatement techniques. In this study, the effects of dairy cow activity and indoor air temperature on gas emissions were examined. The concentrations of CH 4, NH 3, CO 2 and N 2O inside and outside a dairy cow building were measured continuously between February and May together with animal activity and air temperature. The building was naturally ventilated and had a solid concrete floor which sloped towards a central urine gutter. Manure was scraped from the floor once every hour in the daytime and once every second hour at night into a partly covered indoor pit which was emptied daily at 6 a.m. and at 5 p.m. Gas emissions were calculated from the measured gas concentrations and ventilation rates estimated by the CO 2 balance method. The animal activity and emission rates of CH 4 and NH 3 showed significant diurnal variations with two peaks which were probably related to the feeding routine. On an average day, CH 4 emissions ranged from 7 to 15 g LU -1 h -1 and NH 3 emissions ranged from 0.4 to 1.5 g LU -1 h -1 (1 LU = 500 kg animal weight). Mean emissions of CH 4 and NH 3 were 10.8 g LU -1 h -1 and 0.81 g LU -1 h -1, respectively. The NH 3 emissions were comparable to emissions from tied stall buildings and represented a 4% loss in manure nitrogen. At moderate levels, temperature seems to affect the behaviour of dairy cows and in this study where the daily indoor air temperature ranged from about 5 up to about 20 °C, the daily activity of the cows decreased with increasing indoor air temperature ( r = -0.78). Results suggest that enteric fermentation is the main source of CH 4 emissions from systems of the type in this study, while NH 3 is mainly emitted from the manure. Daily CH 4 emissions increased significantly with the activity of the cows ( r = 0.61) while daily NH 3 emissions increased

  3. Quantifying the Impact of Emission Sectors and Foreign Inflow to U.S. Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karambelas, A. N.; Holloway, T.; Bickford, E.

    2012-12-01

    Several sector-specific model simulations were performed to quantify how emission sectors and global pollution inflow contribute to air pollution episodes across the United States. Using the EPA Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ), all simulations were performed using 27 vertical layers and a horizontal resolution of 36 km x 36 km over the continental U.S. for both January and July of 2007. Meteorological data were generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and integrated with the 2007 emissions inventory from the Lake Michigan Air Directors Consortium (LADCO). Our study focuses on the following sectors: electricity generating units, on-road and off-road transportation (diesel vehicles, gasoline vehicles, and rail), as well as global inflow as simulated by the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers (MOZART). For each of these sectors, CMAQ was run with sectoral emissions "zeroed out" for comparison with a base case scenario. Base case results are evaluated for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) species with ground based monitors from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Air Quality System (AQS). Total column NO2 is further compared with satellite data obtained from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite. Comparisons with surface observations show ground-level concentrations that are comparable to measurements taken at EPA monitor locations across most of the U.S. Conclusions on the various emission sectors may provide useful data for air quality managers to make informed decisions for air pollution control strategies.

  4. Development of an air emissions inventory for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Skipper, D.D.

    1996-08-01

    Accurate air emissions inventory is important in an effective Clean Air Act (CAA) compliance program; without it, a facility may have difficulty proving compliance with regulations or permit conditions. An emissions inventory can also serve for evaluating the applicability of new regulations (eg, Title V of CAA) and in complying with them. Therefore it is important for the inventory to be well-planned and comprehensive. Preparation of an emissions inventory for a large R&D facility such as ORNL can be a challenging task. ORNL, a government facility managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp. for US DOE, consists of more than 300 buildings on about 1,500 acres. It has several thousand diverse emission sources, including small laboratory hoods, several wastewater treatment facilities, and a steam plant. This paper describes the development of ORNL`s emissions inventory with emphasis on setting goals and identifying the scope of the inventory, identifying the emission points, developing/implementing the inventory methodology, compiling data, and evaluating the results.

  5. Economic development and multiple air pollutant emissions from the industrial sector.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Hidemichi; Managi, Shunsuke

    2016-02-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between economic growth and emissions of eight environmental air pollutants (carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen oxide (NOx), sulfur oxide (SOx), carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC), and ammonia (NH3)) in 39 countries from 1995 to 2009. We tested an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for 16 individual industry sectors and for the total industrial sector. The results clarified that at least ten individual industries do not have an EKC relationship in eight air pollutants even though this relationship was observed in the country and total industrial sector level data. We found that the key industries that dictated the EKC relationship in the country and the total industrial sector existed in CO2, N2O, CO, and NMVOC emissions. Finally, the EKC turning point and the relationship between economic development and trends of air pollutant emissions differ among industries according to the pollution substances. These results suggest inducing new environmental policy design such as the sectoral crediting mechanism, which focuses on the industrial characteristics of emissions.

  6. Emission inventory of primary air pollutants in 2010 from industrial processes in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Alyuz, Ummugulsum; Alp, Kadir

    2014-08-01

    The broad objective of this study was to develop CO2, PM, SOx, CO, NOx, VOC, NH3 and N2O emission inventory of organic and inorganic chemicals, mineral products, metallurgical, petroleum refining, wood products, food industries of Turkey for 2010 for both co]ntrolled and uncontrolled conditions. In this study, industries were investigated in 7 main categories and 53 sub-sectors and a representative number of pollutants per sub-sector were considered. Each industry was evaluated in terms of emitted emissions only from industrial processes, and fuel combustion activities were excluded (except cement industry). The study employed an approach designed in four stages; identification of key categories; activity data & emission factor search; emission factor analyzing; calculation of emissions. Emission factor analyzing required aggregate and firm analysis of sectors and sub-sectors and deeper insights into underlying specific production methods used in the industry to decide on the most representative emission factor. Industry specific abatement technologies were considered by using open-source documents and industry specific reports. Regarding results of this study, mineral industry and iron & steel industry were determined as important contributors of industrial emissions in Turkey in 2010. Respectively, organic chemicals, petroleum refining, and pulp & paper industries had serious contributions to Turkey's air pollutant emission inventory from industrial processes. The results showed that calculated CO2 emissions for year 2010 was 55,124,263 t, also other emissions were 48,853 t PM, 24,533 t SOx, 79,943 t NOx, 31,908 t VOC, 454 t NH3 and 2264 t N2O under controlled conditions.

  7. Emission inventory of primary air pollutants in 2010 from industrial processes in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Alyuz, Ummugulsum; Alp, Kadir

    2014-08-01

    The broad objective of this study was to develop CO2, PM, SOx, CO, NOx, VOC, NH3 and N2O emission inventory of organic and inorganic chemicals, mineral products, metallurgical, petroleum refining, wood products, food industries of Turkey for 2010 for both co]ntrolled and uncontrolled conditions. In this study, industries were investigated in 7 main categories and 53 sub-sectors and a representative number of pollutants per sub-sector were considered. Each industry was evaluated in terms of emitted emissions only from industrial processes, and fuel combustion activities were excluded (except cement industry). The study employed an approach designed in four stages; identification of key categories; activity data & emission factor search; emission factor analyzing; calculation of emissions. Emission factor analyzing required aggregate and firm analysis of sectors and sub-sectors and deeper insights into underlying specific production methods used in the industry to decide on the most representative emission factor. Industry specific abatement technologies were considered by using open-source documents and industry specific reports. Regarding results of this study, mineral industry and iron & steel industry were determined as important contributors of industrial emissions in Turkey in 2010. Respectively, organic chemicals, petroleum refining, and pulp & paper industries had serious contributions to Turkey's air pollutant emission inventory from industrial processes. The results showed that calculated CO2 emissions for year 2010 was 55,124,263 t, also other emissions were 48,853 t PM, 24,533 t SOx, 79,943 t NOx, 31,908 t VOC, 454 t NH3 and 2264 t N2O under controlled conditions. PMID:24576652

  8. Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for the Hanford Site Calendar year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    DIEDIKER, L.P.

    1999-06-15

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in I998 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) member of the public. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR SI), Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities,'' and with the Washington Administrative Code Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection--Air Emissions. The federal regulations in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H; require the measurement and reporting of radionuclides emitted from Department of Energy facilities and the resulting offsite dose from those emissions. A standard of 10 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent (EDE) is imposed on them. The EDE to the MEI due to routine emissions in 1998 from Hanford Site point sources was 1.3 E-02 mrem (1.3 E-04 mSv), which is 0.13 percent of the federal standard. Chapter 246-247 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) requires the reporting of radionuclide emissions from all Department of Energy Hanford Site sources. The state has adopted into these regulations the 40 CFR 61 standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE. The EDE to the MEI attributable to diffuse and fugitive radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1998 was 2.5 E-02 mrem (2.5 E-04 mSv). This dose added to the dose from point sources gives a total for all sources of 3.8 E-02 mrem/yr (3.8 E-04 mSv) EDE, which is 0.38 percent of the 10 mrem/yr standard. An unplanned release on August 26, 1998, in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site resulted in a potential dose of 4.1 E-02 mrem to a hypothetical individual at the nearest point of public access to that area. This hypothetical individual was not the MEI since the wind direction on the day of the release was away from the MEI residence. The potential dose from the unplanned event

  9. Emissions of air toxics from a simulated charcoal kiln. Final report, October 1997--September 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, P.M.

    1999-06-01

    The report gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In addition, other pollutants, including methanol, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and particle emission rates and size distributions were measured using various techniques. Emissions of all pollutants are reported in units of grams emitted per unit mass of initial wood converted to charcoal. Two burn conditions--slow and fast--were examined. High levels of methanol, benzene, and fine particulate were emitted in all tests. The estimated emissions from the fast burn conditions were significantly higher than those from the slow burn conditions.

  10. Emissions of air toxics from the production of charcoal in a simulated Missouri charcoal kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, P.M.; Kariher, P.H.; Fairless, B.J.; Tapp, J.A.

    1998-11-01

    The paper gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutant from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In addition, other pollutants, including methanol, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and particle emission rates and size distributions were measured using various techniques. Emissions of all pollutants are reported in grams emitted per unit mass of initial wood converted to charcoal. Two burn conditions--slow and fast burn--were examined. High levels of methanol, benzene, and fine particulate were emitted from all tests. The estimated emissions from the fast burn conditions were significantly higher than those from the slow burn conditions.

  11. Confronting environmental pressure, environmental quality and human health impact indicators of priority air emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geelen, Loes M. J.; Huijbregts, Mark A. J.; den Hollander, Henri; Ragas, Ad M. J.; van Jaarsveld, Hans. A.; de Zwart, Dick

    This paper evaluates the ranking of 21 priority air pollutants with three indicator schemes: environmental pressure indicator (EPI), environmental quality indicator (EQI), and human health effect indicator (HEI). The EPI and EQI compare the emissions and concentrations with the target emissions and target concentrations, respectively. The HEI comprehends the steps from cause (i.e. national emissions) to effect (i.e. human health effects), and is the total human health burden, expressed in Disability Adjusted Life Years per year of exposure (DALYs year -1). We estimated a health burden in the Netherlands of 41 × 10 3 DALYs year -1 caused by Dutch air emissions of PM10 and its precursors in the year 2003. The burden due to 17 carcinogenic substances emitted to air, was much lower (140 DALYs year -1). In contrast, when the same substances were evaluated regarding environmental pressure and environmental quality, carbon tetrachloride (pressure) and benzo[ a]pyrene (quality) were of highest importance, whereas the importance of PM10 was substantially lower. This result is remarkable, because for the majority of substances evaluated, the target concentrations and target emissions are based on preventing human health damage. The differences in relevance are explained by the different weighting of interests in the indicators. The HEI is based on concentration-response relations, whereas the EPI and EQI also depend on other, policy-based, principles and on technical feasibility. Therefore, to effectively prioritize emission reduction measures in policy-making, substances should not only be evaluated as to whether emission targets and environmental quality targets are reached, but they should be evaluated regarding their human health impact as well. In this context, the HEI is a suitable indicator to evaluate the human health impact.

  12. IMPROVING EMISSION INVENTORIES FOR EFFECTIVE AIR-QUALITY MANAGEMENT ACROSS NORTH AMERICA - A NARSTO ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NARSTO Ozone and Particulate Matter Assessments emphasized that emission inventories are critical to the success of air quality management programs and that emissions inventories in Canada, Mexico, and the United States need improvement to meet expectations for quality, timel...

  13. IMPROVING EMISSION INVENTORIES FOR EFFECTIVE AIR-QUALITY MANAGMENT ACROSS NORTH AMERICA - A NARSTO ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NARSTO Ozone and Particulate Matter Assessments emphasized that emission inventories are critical to the success of air quality management programs and that emissions inventories in Canada, Mexico, and the United States need improvement to meet expectations for quality, timel...

  14. (AWMA) IMPROVING EMISSION INVENTORIES FOR EFFECTIVE AIR-QUALITY MANAGEMENT ACROSS NORTH AMERICA - A NARSTO ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NARSTO Ozone and Particulate Matter Assessments emphasized that emission inventories are critical to the success of air quality management programs and that emissions inventories in Canada, Mexico, and the United States need improvement to meet expectations for quality, timel...

  15. AIR EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL HEATING: THE WOOD HEATING OPTION PUT INTO ENVIRONMENTAL PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper compares the national scale (rather than local) air quality impacts of the various residential space heating options. Specifically, it compares the relative contribution of the space heating options to fine particulate emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, and acid preci...

  16. 76 FR 20536 - Protocol Gas Verification Program and Minimum Competency Requirements for Air Emission Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... for Air Emission Testing Correction In rule document 2011-6216 appearing on pages 17288-17325 in the... heading of Appendix D is corrected to read: ] Appendix D to Part 75--Optional SO 2 Emissions Data...

  17. Use of air quality modeling results as exposure estimates in health studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, H. A.; Ivey, C.; Friberg, M.; Zhai, X.; Balachandran, S.; Hu, Y.; Russell, A. G.; Mulholland, J. A.; Tolbert, P. E.; Sarnat, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    Air pollutant measurements from regulatory monitoring networks are commonly utilized in combination with spatial averaging techniques to develop air quality metrics for use in epidemiologic studies. While these data provide useful indicators for air pollution in a region, their temporal and spatial information are limited. The growing availability of spatially resolved health data sets (i.e., resident and county level patient records) provides an opportunity to develop and apply corresponding spatially resolved air quality metrics as enhanced exposure estimates when investigating the impact of air pollution on health outcomes. Additionally, the measured species concentrations from monitoring networks cannot directly identify specific emission sources or characterize pollutant mixtures. However, these observations in combination with chemical transport models (e.g., CMAQ) and source apportionment methods (e.g., CMB and PMF) can be used to characterize pollutant mixtures, sources and species impacting both individual locations and wider areas. Extensive analysis using a combination of air quality modeling approaches and observations may be beneficial for health studies whose goal is to assess the health impacts of pollutant mixtures, in both spatially resolved and time-series health analyses. As part of the Southeastern Center for Air Pollution and Epidemiology (SCAPE) unique methods have been developed to effectively analyze air pollution and air quality modeling data to better understand how emission sources combine to impact air quality and to provide air quality metrics for use in health assessments. This presentation will discuss the air quality modeling techniques being utilized in SCAPE investigations that are aimed at providing enhanced exposure metrics for use in spatially resolved (state of Georgia) and time-series epidemiologic analyses (St. Louis and Atlanta). To generate spatially resolved daily air quality estimates of species concentrations and source

  18. 40 CFR 60.2250 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2250 Section 60.2250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... 1, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2250 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) Within 60 days after your air curtain incinerator reaches the charge rate at which it...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2250 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2250 Section 60.2250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... 1, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2250 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) Within 60 days after your air curtain incinerator reaches the charge rate at which it...

  20. 40 CFR 60.2250 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2250 Section 60.2250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... 1, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2250 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) Within 60 days after your air curtain incinerator reaches the charge rate at which it...

  1. Emission trends and mitigation options for air pollutants in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. X.; Zhao, B.; Cai, S. Y.; Klimont, Z.; Nielsen, C. P.; Morikawa, T.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, Y.; Fu, X.; Xu, J. Y.; Hao, J. M.; He, K. B.

    2014-07-01

    Emissions of air pollutants in East Asia play an important role in the regional and global atmospheric environment. In this study we evaluated the recent emission trends of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) in East Asia, and projected their future emissions up until 2030 with six emission scenarios. The results will provide future emission projections for the modeling community of the model inter-comparison program for Asia (MICS-Asia). During 2005-2010, the emissions of SO2 and PM2.5 in East Asia decreased by 15 and 12%, respectively, mainly attributable to the large-scale deployment of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) at China's power plants, and the promotion of highly efficient PM removal technologies in China's power plants and cement industry. During this period, the emissions of NOx and NMVOC increased by 25 and 15%, driven by rapid increase in the emissions from China due to inadequate control strategies. In contrast, the NOx and NMVOC emissions in East Asia except China decreased by 13-17%, mainly due to the implementation of stringent vehicle emission standards in Japan and South Korea. Under current regulations and current levels of implementation, NOx, SO2, and NMVOC emissions in East Asia are projected to increase by about one-quarter over 2010 levels by 2030, while PM2.5 emissions are expected to decrease by 7%. Assuming enforcement of new energy-saving policies, emissions of NOx, SO2, PM2.5 and NMVOC in East Asia are expected to decrease by 28, 36, 28, and 15%, respectively, compared with the baseline case. The implementation of "progressive" end-of-pipe control measures would lead to another one-third reduction of the baseline emissions of NOx, and about one-quarter reduction of SO2, PM2.5, and NMVOC. Assuming the full application of technically feasible energy-saving policies and end-of-pipe control technologies, the emissions of NOx, SO2, and PM2.5 in East Asia

  2. Measurement results obtained from air quality monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Turzanski, P.K.; Beres, R.

    1995-12-31

    An automatic system of air pollution monitoring operates in Cracow since 1991. The organization, assembling and start-up of the network is a result of joint efforts of the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Cracow environmental protection service. At present the automatic monitoring network is operated by the Provincial Inspection of Environmental Protection. There are in total seven stationary stations situated in Cracow to measure air pollution. These stations are supported continuously by one semi-mobile (transportable) station. It allows to modify periodically the area under investigation and therefore the 3-dimensional picture of creation and distribution of air pollutants within Cracow area could be more intelligible.

  3. Effect of VOC emissions from vegetation on urban air quality during hot periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churkina, Galina; Kuik, Friderike; Bonn, Boris; Lauer, Axel; Grote, Ruediger; Butler, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Programs to plant millions of trees in cities around the world aim at the reduction of summer temperatures, increase of carbon storage, storm water control, and recreational space, as well as at poverty alleviation. These urban greening programs, however, do not take into account how closely human and natural systems are coupled in urban areas. Compared with the surroundings of cities, elevated temperatures together with high anthropogenic emissions of air and water pollutants are quite typical in urban systems. Urban and sub-urban vegetation respond to changes in meteorology and air quality and can react to pollutants. Neglecting this coupling may lead to unforeseen negative effects on air quality resulting from urban greening programs. The potential of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vegetation combined with anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants to produce ozone has long been recognized. This ozone formation potential increases under rising temperatures. Here we investigate how emissions of VOC from urban vegetation affect corresponding ground-level ozone and PM10 concentrations in summer and especially during heat wave periods. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with coupled atmospheric chemistry (WRF-CHEM) to quantify these feedbacks in the Berlin-Brandenburg region, Germany during the two summers of 2006 (heat wave) and 2014 (reference period). VOC emissions from vegetation are calculated by MEGAN 2.0 coupled online with WRF-CHEM. Our preliminary results indicate that the contribution of VOCs from vegetation to ozone formation may increase by more than twofold during heat wave periods. We highlight the importance of the vegetation for urban areas in the context of a changing climate and discuss potential tradeoffs of urban greening programs.

  4. Modeling natural emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model-I: building an emissions data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. N.; Mueller, S. F.

    2010-05-01

    A natural emissions inventory for the continental United States and surrounding territories is needed in order to use the US Environmental Protection Agency Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model for simulating natural air quality. The CMAQ air modeling system (including the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) emissions processing system) currently estimates non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emissions from biogenic sources, nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from soils, ammonia from animals, several types of particulate and reactive gas emissions from fires, as well as sea salt emissions. However, there are several emission categories that are not commonly treated by the standard CMAQ Model system. Most notable among these are nitrogen oxide emissions from lightning, reduced sulfur emissions from oceans, geothermal features and other continental sources, windblown dust particulate, and reactive chlorine gas emissions linked with sea salt chloride. A review of past emissions modeling work and existing global emissions data bases provides information and data necessary for preparing a more complete natural emissions data base for CMAQ applications. A model-ready natural emissions data base is developed to complement the anthropogenic emissions inventory used by the VISTAS Regional Planning Organization in its work analyzing regional haze based on the year 2002. This new data base covers a modeling domain that includes the continental United States plus large portions of Canada, Mexico and surrounding oceans. Comparing July 2002 source data reveals that natural emissions account for 16% of total gaseous sulfur (sulfur dioxide, dimethylsulfide and hydrogen sulfide), 44% of total NOx, 80% of reactive carbonaceous gases (NMVOCs and carbon monoxide), 28% of ammonia, 96% of total chlorine (hydrochloric acid, nitryl chloride and sea salt chloride), and 84% of fine particles (i.e., those smaller than 2.5 μm in size) released into the atmosphere

  5. Modeling natural emissions in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model - Part 1: Building an emissions data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. N.; Mueller, S. F.

    2010-01-01

    A natural emissions inventory for the continental United States and surrounding territories is needed in order to use the US Environmental Protection Agency Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model for simulating natural air quality. The CMAQ air modeling system (including the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) emissions processing system) currently estimates volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from biogenic sources, nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from soils, ammonia from animals, several types of particulate and reactive gas emissions from fires, as well as windblown dust and sea salt emissions. However, there are several emission categories that are not commonly treated by the standard CMAQ Model system. Most notable among these are nitrogen oxide emissions from lightning, reduced sulfur emissions from oceans, geothermal features and other continental sources, and reactive chlorine gas emissions linked with sea salt chloride. A review of past emissions modeling work and existing global emissions data bases provides information and data necessary for preparing a more complete natural emissions data base for CMAQ applications. A model-ready natural emissions data base is developed to complement the anthropogenic emissions inventory used by the VISTAS Regional Planning Organization in its work analyzing regional haze based on the year 2002. This new data base covers a modeling domain that includes the continental United States plus large portions of Canada, Mexico and surrounding oceans. Comparing July 2002 source data reveals that natural emissions account for 16% of total gaseous sulfur (sulfur dioxide, dimethylsulfide and hydrogen sulfide), 44% of total NOx, 80% of reactive carbonaceous gases (VOCs and carbon monoxide), 28% of ammonia, 96% of total chlorine (hydrochloric acid, nitryl chloride and sea salt chloride), and 84% of fine particles (i.e., those smaller than 2.5 μm in size) released into the atmosphere. The seasonality and

  6. Multipathway human health risk assessment concerning air emissions from combustion of Orimulsion fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Teaf, C.M.; Coleman, R.M.; Manning, M.J.; Covert, D.J.; Phelps, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    A multipathway human health risk assessment was conducted concerning air emissions from the combustion of Orimulsion. Exposure was considered for nearby residents who might be exposed by oral, dermal or inhalation pathways, including ingestion of analytes that may be present in meat and agricultural products from nearby areas. Occupational exposure were evaluated via the same intake pathways, except for potential ingestion of food products. Pathways included airborne exposures, deposition on crops, exposures to soils, and uptake by livestock and plants. Livestock intake included ingestion of analytes retained by plants and inhalation of soil-bound particulates. Analytes of potential concern included compounds identified as combustion products of the orimulsion fuel. Air concentrations of analytes, and the areal distribution of these concentrations resulting from stack emissions, were predicted using transport and deposition models. A worst cast scenario for air and cumulative soil concentrations was considered to represent the entire facility project lifetime (20 years) for dry deposition as well as predicted air concentrations occurring at continuous 100% facility operating capacity. Potential exposures to sulfuric acid mist and lead were shown to be much less than levels protective of human populations. Based upon the airborne emissions estimates and the deposition estimates for other constituents of interest, as well as the strongly conservative estimates of the potential for human intake, local health risks contributed from the combustion of Orimulsion fuel at the facility were judged to be negligible.

  7. Interactions of fire emissions and urban pollution over California: Ozone formation and air quality simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, H. B.; Cai, C.; Kaduwela, A.; Weinheimer, A.; Wisthaler, A.

    2012-09-01

    An instrumented DC-8 aircraft was employed to perform airborne observations in rural and urban environs of California during the summer 2008 NASA ARCTAS-CARB campaign. The fortuitous occurrence of large wildfire episodes in Northern California allowed for studies of fire emissions, their composition, and their interactions with rural and urban air. Relative to CO, emissions of HCN were shown to vary non-linearly with fire characteristics while those of CH3CN were nearly unchanged, making the latter a superior quantitative tracer of biomass combustion. Although some fire plumes over California contained little NOx and virtually no O3 enhancement, others contained ample VOCs and sufficient NOx, largely from urban influences, to result in significant ozone formation. The highest observed O3 mixing ratios (170 ppb) were also in fire-influenced urban air masses. Attempts to simulate these interactions using CMAQ, a high-resolution state of the art air quality model, were only minimally successful and indicated several shortcomings in simulating fire emission influences on urban smog formation. A variety of secondary oxidation products (e.g. O3, PAN, HCHO) were substantially underestimated in fire-influenced air masses. Available data involving fire plumes and anthropogenic pollution interactions are presently quite sparse and additional observational and mechanistic studies are needed.

  8. Effects of ethanol-blended gasoline on air pollutant emissions from motorcycle.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yung-Chen; Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2009-09-15

    The effect of ethanol-gasoline blends on criteria air pollutant emissions was investigated in a four-stroke motorcycle. The ethanol was blended with unleaded gasoline in four percentages (3, 10, 15, and 20% v/v) and controlled at a constant research octane number, RON (95), to accurately represent commercial gasoline. CO, THC, and NOx emissions were evaluated using the Economic Commission for Europe cycle on the chassis dynamometers. The results of the ethanol-gasoline blends were compared to those of commercial unleaded gasoline with methyl tert-butyl ether as the oxygenated additive. In general, the exhaust CO and NOx emissions decreased with increasing oxygen content in fuels. In contrast, ethanol added in the gasoline did not reduce the THC emissions for a constant RON gasoline. The 15% ethanol blend had the highest emission reductions relative to the reference fuel. The high ethanol-gasoline blend ratio (20%) resulted in a less emission reduction than those of low ratio blends (<15%). This may be attributed to the changes in the combustion conditions in the carburetor engine with 20% ethanol addition. Furthermore, the influence of ethanol-gasoline blends on the reduction of exhaust emissions was observed at different driving modes, especially at 15km/h cruising speed for CO and THC and acceleration stages for NOx. PMID:19595441

  9. Effects of ethanol-blended gasoline on air pollutant emissions from motorcycle.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yung-Chen; Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2009-09-15

    The effect of ethanol-gasoline blends on criteria air pollutant emissions was investigated in a four-stroke motorcycle. The ethanol was blended with unleaded gasoline in four percentages (3, 10, 15, and 20% v/v) and controlled at a constant research octane number, RON (95), to accurately represent commercial gasoline. CO, THC, and NOx emissions were evaluated using the Economic Commission for Europe cycle on the chassis dynamometers. The results of the ethanol-gasoline blends were compared to those of commercial unleaded gasoline with methyl tert-butyl ether as the oxygenated additive. In general, the exhaust CO and NOx emissions decreased with increasing oxygen content in fuels. In contrast, ethanol added in the gasoline did not reduce the THC emissions for a constant RON gasoline. The 15% ethanol blend had the highest emission reductions relative to the reference fuel. The high ethanol-gasoline blend ratio (20%) resulted in a less emission reduction than those of low ratio blends (<15%). This may be attributed to the changes in the combustion conditions in the carburetor engine with 20% ethanol addition. Furthermore, the influence of ethanol-gasoline blends on the reduction of exhaust emissions was observed at different driving modes, especially at 15km/h cruising speed for CO and THC and acceleration stages for NOx.

  10. DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Noonkester, J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, W.; Hyde, W.; Kohn, J.; Walker, R.

    2012-09-20

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air injection well testing was performed at the Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) site located near the M-Area Settling Basin (referred to as DUS II in this report). The objective of this testing was to determine the effectiveness of continued operation of these systems. Steam injection ended on September 19, 2009 and since this time the extraction operations have utilized residual heat that is present in the subsurface. The well testing campaign began on June 5, 2012 and was completed on June 25, 2012. Thirty-two (32) SVE wells were purged for 24 hours or longer using the active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) system at the DUS II site. During each test five or more soil gas samples were collected from each well and analyzed for target volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The DUS II site is divided into four parcels (see Figure 1) and soil gas sample results show the majority of residual VOC contamination remains in Parcel 1 with lesser amounts in the other three parcels. Several VOCs, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were detected. PCE was the major VOC with lesser amounts of TCE. Most soil gas concentrations of PCE ranged from 0 to 60 ppmv with one well (VEW-22A) as high as 200 ppmv. Air sparging (AS) generally involves the injection of air into the aquifer through either vertical or horizontal wells. AS is coupled with SVE systems when contaminant recovery is necessary. While traditional air sparging (AS) is not a primary component of the DUS process, following the cessation of steam injection, eight (8) of the sixty-three (63) steam injection wells were used to inject air. These wells were previously used for hydrous pyrolysis oxidation (HPO) as part of the DUS process. Air sparging is different from the HPO operations in that the air was injected at a higher rate (20 to 50 scfm) versus HPO (1 to 2 scfm). . At the DUS II site the air injection wells were tested to determine if air sparging affected

  11. Integration of Linear Dynamic Emission and Climate Models with Air Traffic Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Ng, Hok K.; Chen, Neil Y.

    2012-01-01

    Future air traffic management systems are required to balance the conflicting objectives of maximizing safety and efficiency of traffic flows while minimizing the climate impact of aviation emissions and contrails. Integrating emission and climate models together with air traffic simulations improve the understanding of the complex interaction between the physical climate system, carbon and other greenhouse gas emissions and aviation activity. This paper integrates a national-level air traffic simulation and optimization capability with simple climate models and carbon cycle models, and climate metrics to assess the impact of aviation on climate. The capability can be used to make trade-offs between extra fuel cost and reduction in global surface temperature change. The parameters in the simulation can be used to evaluate the effect of various uncertainties in emission models and contrails and the impact of different decision horizons. Alternatively, the optimization results from the simulation can be used as inputs to other tools that monetize global climate impacts like the FAA s Aviation Environmental Portfolio Management Tool for Impacts.

  12. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Submittal - 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Black, S.C.; Townsend, Y.E.

    1996-06-01

    This report contains National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It provides lists of figures and tables related to the NTS and includes a Site Description. The Source Description includes current and previous activities conducted on the NTS. The Site has been the primary location for testing of nuclear explosives in the Continental U.S. since 1951. Historical testing has included (1) atmospheric testing in the 1950`s and early 1960s, (2) earth-cratering experiments, and (3) open-air nuclear reactor and rocket engine testing. At the North Las Vegas Facility, operated for DOE/NV by EG&G Energy Measurements, there was an Unusual Occurrence that led to an insignificant potential exposure to an offsite person. The incident involved the release of tritiated water (HTO), and a description of the incident and the method of calculating the effective dose equivalent for offsite exposure are described. The Source Description further describes Ground Seepage of Noble Gases, Radioactive Waste Management Sites, and Plutonium Contaminated Surface Areas.

  13. Interactions between energy efficiency and emission trading under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Hillsman, E.L.; Alvic, D.R.

    1994-08-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments affect electric utilities in numerous ways. The feature that probably has received the greatest attention is the provision to let utilities trade emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), while at the same time requiring them to reduce S0{sub 2} emissions in 2000 by an aggregate 43%. The emission trading system was welcomed by many as a way of reducing the cost of reducing emissions, by providing greater flexibility than past approaches. This report examines some of the potential interactions between trading emissions and increasing end-use energy efficiency. The analysis focuses on emission trading in the second phase of the trading program, which begins in 2000. The aggregate effects, calculated by an emission compliance and trading model, turn out to be rather small. Aggressive improvement of end-use efficiency by all utilities might reduce allowance prices by $22/ton (1990 dollars), which is small compared to the reduction that has occurred in the estimates of future allowance prices and when compared to the roughly $400/ton price we estimate as a base case. However, the changes in the allowance market that result are large enough to affect some compliance decisions. If utilities in only a few states improve end-use efficiency aggressively, their actions may not have a large effect on the price of an allowance, but they could alter the demand for allowances and thereby the compliance decisions of utilities in other states. The analysis shows how improving electricity end-use efficiency in some states can cause smaller emission reductions in other states, relative to what would have happened without the improvements. Such a result, while not surprising given the theory behind the emission trading system, is upsetting to people who view emissions, environmental protection, and energy efficiency in moral rather than strictly economic terms.

  14. The Clean Air Act strictly regulates electric utility emissions and utilities are reducing their emissions significantly

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsman, J.D.

    1998-12-31

    Electric utility SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions have been reduced tremendously, beginning before the first deadlines (1995 for SO{sub 2} and 1996 for NO{sub x}) of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. For the Acid Rain Program, EPA reports that: (1) all 445 affected facilities demonstrated 100 percent compliance for both pollutants and even exceeded the compliance targets; (2) the Acid Rain Program has been very successful; and (3) due to these and other controls, air quality has improved in the United States. Furthermore, the new 8-hour ozone standard, the new PM2.5 standards, the EPA`s 22-state regional NO{sub x} program, the Northeast state petitions for upwind NO{sub x} reductions and EPA`s regional haze proposal will likely lead to substantially greater reductions of utility SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}.

  15. Air pollution "holiday effect" resulting from the Chinese New Year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Pei-Hua; Chou, Chia; Liang, Jing-Yi; Chou, Charles C.-K.; Shiu, Chein-Jung

    Our study was an attempt to conduct a comprehensive and systematical examination of the holiday effect, defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between holiday and non-holiday periods. This holiday effect can be applied to other countries with similar national or cultural holidays. Hourly and daily surface measurements of six major air pollutants from thirteen air quality monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration during the Chinese New Year (CNY) and non-Chinese New Year (NCNY) periods were used. We documented evidence of a "holiday effect", where air pollutant concentrations were significantly different between holidays (CNY) and non-holidays (NCNY), in the Taipei metropolitan area over the past thirteen years (1994-2006). The concentrations of NO x, CO, NMHC, SO 2 and PM 10 were lower in the CNY than in the NCNY period, while the variation in the concentration of O 3 was reversed, which was mainly due to the NO titration effect. Similar differences in these six air pollutants between the CNY and NCNY periods were also found in the diurnal cycle and in the interannual variation. For the diurnal cycle, a common traffic-related double-peak variation was observed in the NCNY period, but not in the CNY period. Impacts of dust storms were also observed, especially on SO 2 and PM 10 in the CNY period. In the 13-year period of 1994-2006, decreasing trends of NO x and CO in the NCNY period implied a possible reduction of local emissions. Increasing trends of SO 2 and PM 10 in the CNY period, on the other hand, indicated a possible enhancement of long-range transport. These two mechanisms weakened the holiday effect.

  16. Impacts of Regional Climate Change on Biogenic Emissions and Air Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yang; Hu, X.-M.; Leung, Lai R.; Gustafson, William I.

    2008-09-25

    Regional air quality simulations are conducted for four summers (2001, 2002, 2051, and 2052) to examine the sensitivity of air quality to potential regional climate change in the U.S. In response to the predicted warmer climate in 2051/2052, emissions of isoprene and terpene increase by 20-92.1% and 20-56%, respectively, over most of the domain. Surface O3, which is sensitive to changes in temperature and solar radiation but relatively insensitive to changes in PBL height and cloud fraction, increase by up to 19-20%. PM2.5, its compositions, and visibility exhibit an overall negative sensitivity (decrease by up to 40%), resulting from the competition of the negative temperature effect and positive emission/temperature effects. While the response of dry deposition is governed by the negative sensitivity of surface resistances, that of wet deposition is either positive or negative, depending on the relative dominancy of changes in PM2.5 and precipitation. Overall the net climatic effect dominates changes in O3, PM2.5, wet and total deposition, and the net biogenic emission effect is important for isoprene, organic matter, visibility, and dry deposition over several regions. Models that do not include secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene photooxidation may underestimate by at least 20% the air quality responses to future climate changes over many areas of the modeling domain. Both regional climate and air quality exhibit interannual variability, particularly in temperature, isoprene emissions, and PM2.5 concentrations, indicating a need for long-term simulations to predict future air quality.

  17. Allometric scaling of UK urban emissions: interpretation and implications for air quality management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenzie, Rob; Barnes, Matt; Whyatt, Duncan; Hewitt, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Allometry uncovers structures and patterns by relating the characteristics of complex systems to a measure of scale. We present an allometric analysis of air quality for UK urban settlements, beginning with emissions and moving on to consider air concentrations. We consider both airshed-average 'urban background' concentrations (cf. those derived from satellites for NO2) and local pollution 'hotspots'. We show that there is a strong and robust scaling (with respect to population) of the non-point-source emissions of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane, as well as the toxic pollutants nitrogen dioxide, PM2.5, and 1,3-butadiene. The scaling of traffic-related emissions is not simply a reflection of road length, but rather results from the socio-economic patterning of road-use. The recent controversy regarding diesel vehicle emissions is germane to our study but does not affect our overall conclusions. We next develop an hypothesis for the population-scaling of airshed-average air concentrations, with which we demonstrate that, although average air quality is expected to be worse in large urban centres compared to small urban centres, the overall effect is an economy of scale (i.e., large cities reduce the overall burden of emissions compared to the same population spread over many smaller urban settlements). Our hypothesis explains satellite-derived observations of airshed-average urban NO2 concentrations. The theory derived also explains which properties of nature-based solutions (urban greening) can make a significant contribution at city scale, and points to a hitherto unforeseen opportunity to make large cities cleaner than smaller cities in absolute terms with respect to their airshed-average pollutant concentration.

  18. Monitoring plan for routine organic air emissions at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Waste Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, K.J.; Jolley, J.G.

    1994-06-01

    This monitoring plan provides the information necessary to perform routine organic air emissions monitoring at the Waste Storage Facilities located at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The Waste Storage Facilities include both the Type I and II Waste Storage Modules. The plan implements a dual method approach where two dissimilar analytical methodologies, Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) and ancillary SUMMA{reg_sign} canister sampling, following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analytical method TO-14, will be used to provide qualitative and quantitative volatile organic concentration data. The Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy will provide in situ, real time monitoring of volatile organic compound concentrations in the ambient air of the Waste Storage Facilities. To supplement the OP-FTIR data, air samples will be collected using SUMMA{reg_sign}, passivated, stainless steel canisters, following the EPA Method TO-14. These samples will be analyzed for volatile organic compounds with gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry analysis. The sampling strategy, procedures, and schedules are included in this monitoring plan. The development of this monitoring plan is driven by regulatory compliance to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, State of Idaho Toxic Air Pollutant increments, Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The various state and federal regulations address the characterization of the volatile organic compounds and the resultant ambient air emissions that may originate from facilities involved in industrial production and/or waste management activities.

  19. Impact of various emission control schemes on air quality using WRF-Chem during APEC China 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jianping; He, Jing; Liu, Hongli; Miao, Yucong; Liu, Huan; Zhai, Panmao

    2016-09-01

    Emission control measures have been implemented to make air quality good enough for Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) China 2014, which provides us with an ideal test-bed to determine how these measures affect air quality in Beijing and surrounding areas. Based on hourly observations at eight monitoring sites of Beijing, the concentrations of other primary atmospheric pollutants during APEC were found to have significantly lower magnitudes than those before APEC, with the exception of a higher O3 concentration. Overall, WRF/Chem reproduced the observed time series of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, CO, and O3 notably well. To investigate the impact of emission control measures on air quality on both local and regional scales, four emission control schemes were developed according to the locations where emission reduction had taken place; the corresponding simulations were subsequently run separately. Scheme S2 (emission control implemented in Beijing) resulted in reductions of 22%, 24%, 10% and 22% for the concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and CO, respectively, compared with 14%, 14%, 8%, and 13% for scheme S3 (emission controls implemented from outside of Beijing). This finding indicates that the local emission reduction in Beijing contributes more to the improved air quality in Beijing during APEC China 2014 than does the emission reduction from outside of Beijing. In terms of the impact on the regional scale, the real emission control scheme led to significant reduction of PM2.5 throughout the whole domain. Although the regional impact cannot be completely ignored, both emission reduction measures implemented in Beijing and those implemented outside of Beijing favor greater reduction in PM2.5 in the domains where measurements are presumably taken, as compared with other domains. Therefore, to improve the air quality in Beijing, more coordinated efforts should be made, particularly in the aspect of more stringent reduction and control strategies on pollutant emission

  20. Verification of CORINAIR 90 emission inventory by comparison with ambient air measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Pulles, T.; Esser, P.; Mareckova, K.; Kozakovic, L.

    1996-12-31

    This study aims at a validation of the CORINAIR 90 emission inventory by a comparison with measured air quality in the Netherlands and in the Slovak Republic. A regional scale atmospheric transport model (Lows) has been used to calculate air quality on a {+-} 60 {times} 60 km{sup 2} grid over Europe, using the CORINAIR 90 emissions database. The calculations have been performed for the 1990 meteorological situation. Application of the model results in calculated yearly averaged wind direction dependent concentrations of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and CO. These results are statistically compared with measurements of national air quality monitoring networks in both countries. Due to characteristics of the monitoring networks in the Netherlands and in the Slovak Republic, the results of this comparison are more conclusive for the Netherlands as compared to the Slovak Republic. Slovak measuring sites seem to be influenced by local effects to such an extent that comparison with the relatively course spatial resolution of the model does not yield clear results. Within the Netherlands a fair agreement between calculated and measured air pollutant concentrations is observed for SO{sub 2} no clear pattern is recognized in the comparison. Differences between measurements and calculations are mainly attributed to local influences. NO{sub x} and CO concentrations appear to be underestimated at south-easterly wind directions. At many grid cells calculated concentrations are lower than the measured ones. The difference seems to be larger for NO{sub x} than for CO.

  1. Proceedings of the 1992 Gas Research Institute, glycol dehydrator air emissions conference

    SciTech Connect

    Rueter, C.O.; Heath, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Emissions of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and the xylene isomers (BTEX) and other volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the reboiler still vent of glycol dehydration units have become a major concern for the natural gas industry as a result of increasing regulatory pressure. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 have provided an impetus for regulating these emissions, and several states are regulating or considering regulation of these units. Because the estimated 20,000--30,000 glycol units in the United States treat virtually all of the domestically produced gas, this issue is of crucial importance to the natural gas industry. To encourage communication and a transfer of regulatory and technical information, the Gas Research Institute sponsored a two and a half day conference on glycol dehydrator air emissions issues. Twenty-two technical papers were presented on regulatory issues and activities, industry approaches to addressing emissions, research and development programs, process and emissions modeling, and control technologies. An open question and answer forum was also held. The conference was attended by 190 people from the production, processing, pipeline, and storage segments of the natural gas industry, as well as regulators, researchers, vendors, and other interested in the conference topic.

  2. Heavy-duty truck emissions in the South Coast Air Basin of California.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Gary A; Schuchmann, Brent G; Stedman, Donald H

    2013-08-20

    California and Federal emissions regulations for 2007 and newer heavy-duty diesel engines require an order of magnitude reduction in particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen spurring the introduction of new aftertreatment systems. Since 2008, four emission measurement campaigns have been conducted at a Port of Los Angeles location and an inland weigh station in the South Coast Air Basin of California. Fuel specific oxides of nitrogen emissions at the Port have decreased 12% since 2010 while infrared opacity (a measure of particulate matter) remained low, showing no diesel particulate filter deterioration. The weigh station truck's fuel specific oxides of nitrogen emission reductions since 2010 (18.5%) almost double the previous three year's reductions and are the result of new trucks using selective catalytic reduction systems. Trucks at the weigh station equipped with these systems have a skewed oxides of nitrogen emissions distribution (half of the emissions were from 6% of the measurements) and had significantly lower emissions than similarly equipped Port trucks. Infrared thermographs of truck exhaust pipes revealed that the mean temperature observed at the weigh station (225 ± 4.5 °C) was 70 °C higher than for Port trucks, suggesting that the catalytic aftertreatment systems on trucks at our Port site were often below minimum operating temperatures.

  3. Emission inventory of anthropogenic air pollutants and VOC species in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.; Chen, C. H.; Li, L.; Cheng, Z.; Wang, H. L.; Huang, H. Y.; Streets, D. G.; Wang, Y. J.; Zhang, G. F.; Chen, Y. R.

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an emission inventory for major anthropogenic air pollutants and VOC species in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region for the year 2007. A "bottom-up" methodology was adopted to compile the inventory based on major emission sources in the sixteen cities of this region. Results show that the emissions of SO2, NOx, CO, PM10, PM2.5, VOCs, and NH3 in the YRD region for the year 2007 are 2392 kt, 2293 kt, 6697 kt, 3116 kt, 1511 kt, 2767 kt, and 459 kt, respectively. Ethylene, mp-xylene, o-xylene, toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 2,4-dimethylpentane, ethyl benzene, propylene, 1-pentene, and isoprene are the key species contributing 77 % to the total ozone formation potential (OFP). The spatial distribution of the emissions shows the emissions and OFPs are mainly concentrated in the urban and industrial areas along the Yangtze River and around Hangzhou Bay. The industrial sources, including power plants other fuel combustion facilities, and non-combustion processes contribute about 97 %, 86 %, 89 %, 91 %, and 69 % of the total SO2, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, and VOC emissions. Vehicles take up 12.3 % and 12.4 % of the NOx and VOC emissions, respectively. Regarding OFPs, the chemical industry, domestic use of paint & printing, and gasoline vehicles contribute 38 %, 24 %, and 12 % to the ozone formation in the YRD region.

  4. [Study on feasible emission control level of air pollutions for cement industry ].

    PubMed

    Ren, Chun; Jiang, Mei; Zou, Lan; Li, Xiao-qian; Wei, Yu-xia; Zhao, Guo-hua; Zhang, Guo-ning

    2014-09-01

    The revised National Emission Standard of Air Pollutions for Cement Industry has been issued, which will be effective for the new enterprises and the existing enterprises on Mar. 1st, 2014 and July 1st, 2015, respectively. In the process of revision, the key technical issues on determination of standard limits was how to determine the feasible emission control level of air pollutions. Feasible emission control requirements were put forward, according to air pollutants emission, technologies, environmental management requirements and foreign standards, etc. The main contents of the revised standard include expanding the scope of application, increasing the pollutants, improving the particulate and NO emissions control level, and increasing special emission limits applied to key areas of air pollutants. The standard will become the gripper of pollution prevention, total emission reduction, structural adjustment and optimization of the layout, and will promote scientific and technical progression for the cement industry.

  5. Recent Developments in the Quantification and Regulation of Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations.

    PubMed

    Heinzen, Tarah

    2015-03-01

    Animal feeding operations (AFOs) emit various air pollutants, including ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, methane, and nitrous oxide. Several of these pollutants are regulated under federal clean air statutes, yet AFOs have largely escaped regulation under these laws because of challenges in accurately estimating the rate and quantity of emissions from various types of livestock operations. Recent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) efforts to collect emissions data, develop an emissions model capable of estimating emissions at AFOs nationwide, and establish emissions estimating methodologies for certain key livestock air pollutants suffered from design flaws and omitted pollutants of concern. Moreover, this process seems to have stalled, delaying other regulatory reforms needed to increase transparency and increase regulation of these facilities. Until EPA establishes these methodologies, significant AFO pollution regulation under the Clean Air Act or emissions reporting statutes will be very difficult to achieve, and the public health and environmental impacts of these emissions will continue unabated. PMID:26231239

  6. Recent Developments in the Quantification and Regulation of Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations.

    PubMed

    Heinzen, Tarah

    2015-03-01

    Animal feeding operations (AFOs) emit various air pollutants, including ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, methane, and nitrous oxide. Several of these pollutants are regulated under federal clean air statutes, yet AFOs have largely escaped regulation under these laws because of challenges in accurately estimating the rate and quantity of emissions from various types of livestock operations. Recent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) efforts to collect emissions data, develop an emissions model capable of estimating emissions at AFOs nationwide, and establish emissions estimating methodologies for certain key livestock air pollutants suffered from design flaws and omitted pollutants of concern. Moreover, this process seems to have stalled, delaying other regulatory reforms needed to increase transparency and increase regulation of these facilities. Until EPA establishes these methodologies, significant AFO pollution regulation under the Clean Air Act or emissions reporting statutes will be very difficult to achieve, and the public health and environmental impacts of these emissions will continue unabated.

  7. Emissions from the burning of vegetative debris in air curtain destructors.

    PubMed

    Miller, C Andrew; Lemieux, Paul M

    2007-08-01

    Although air curtain destructors (ACDs) have been used for quite some time to dispose of vegetative debris, relatively little in-depth testing has been conducted to quantify emissions of pollutants other than CO and particulate matter. As part of an effort to prepare for possible use of ACDs to dispose of the enormous volumes of debris generated by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, the literature on ACD emissions was reviewed to identify potential environmental issues associated with ACD disposal of construction and demolition (C&D) debris. Although no data have been published on emissions from C&D debris combustion in an ACD, a few studies provided information on emissions from the combustion of vegetative debris. These studies are reviewed, and the results compared with studies of open burning of biomass. Combustion of vegetative debris in ACD units results in significantly lower emissions of particulate matter and CO per unit of mass of debris compared with open pile burning. The available data are not sufficient to make general estimates regarding emissions of organic or metal compounds. The highly transient nature of the ACD combustion process, a minimal degree of operational control, and significant variability in debris properties make accurate prediction of ACD emissions impossible in general. Results of scoping tests conducted in preparation for possible in-depth emissions tests demonstrate the challenges associated with sampling ACD emissions and highlight the transient nature of the process. The environmental impacts of widespread use of ACDs for disposal of vegetative debris and their potential use to reduce the volume of C&D debris in future disaster response scenarios remain a considerable gap in understanding the risks associated with debris disposal options.

  8. Emissions and transport of air pollutants from China to the Pacific: Major findings from the EAST-AIRE air campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Li, Z.; Dickerson, R. R.; Chen, H.

    2007-12-01

    Accompanying economic boom over the past few decades, pollutant emissions from China have increased dramatically and raised growing concerns regarding their large-scale impact. Observations over the Pacific Ocean and numerical simulations generally identify mid-latitude cyclones as the major mechanism driving the long-range transport of pollutants off the Chinese coast to downwind areas. Here we present results from the first aircraft campaign of EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment), carried out over an industrialized region in Northeast China in spring 2005. Prefrontal and postfrontal flights provide vertical distribution of pollutants within different sectors of two mid-latitude cyclones traveling through the area. In consistence with previous studies, both cyclones feature abundant anthropogenic pollutants ahead of cold fronts, and much lower pollutant levels (but with dust) behind cold fronts. Pollutant levels above the planetary boundary layer (PBL) were found substantial in one prefrontal flight (April 5) but low in the other (April 11), showing different potentials for long-range transport. Backward trajectories suggest that in both cases, isentropic upward motions associated with the SW flows in the warm sector were weak and largely constrained within PBL. Synoptic analysis and satellite observations further indicate that upwind dry (non- precipitating) convection may explain the pollutants observed above PBL on the 5th. With the assistance of forward trajectory analysis and chemical transport models, two satellite sensors (OMI and MODIS) successfully tracked the pollution plume associated with the April 5 cyclone, as it propagated into the North Pacific on the next few days. Satellite observed changes in SO2 and aerosol content within the plume are used to qualitatively estimate the conversion from aerosol precursor gases to secondary aerosols, in a semi-Lagrangian way.

  9. Impacts of Future Climate and Emission Changes on U.S. Air Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Penrod, Ashley; Zhang, Yang; Wang, K.; Wu, Shiang Yuh; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-06-01

    Changes in climate and emissions will affect future air quality. In this work, simulations of present (2001-2005) and future (2026-2030) regional air quality are conducted with the newly released CMAQ version 5.0 to examine the individual and combined impacts of simulated future climate and anthropogenic emission projections on air quality over the U.S. Current (2001-2005) meteorological and chemical predictions are evaluated against observational data to assess the model’s capability in reproducing the seasonal differences. Overall, WRF and CMAQ perform reasonably well. Increased temperatures (up to 3.18 °C) and decreased ventilation (up to 157 m in planetary boundary layer height) are found in both future winter and summer, with more prominent changes in winter. Increases in future temperatures result in increased isoprene and terpene emissions in winter and summer, driving the increase in maximum 8-h average O3 (up to 5.0 ppb) over the eastern U.S. in winter while decreases in NOx emissions drive the decrease in O3 over most of the U.S. in summer. Future concentrations of PM2.5 in winter and summer and many of its components including organic matter in winter, ammonium and nitrate in summer, and sulfate in winter and summer, decrease due to decreases in primary anthropogenic emissions and the concentrations of secondary anthropogenic pollutants and increased precipitation in winter. Future winter and summer dry and wet deposition fluxes are spatially variable and increase with increasing surface resistance and precipitation (e.g., NH4+ and NO3- dry and wet deposition fluxes increase in winter over much of the U.S.), respectively, and decrease with a decrease in ambient particulate concentrations (e.g., SO42- dry and wet deposition fluxes decrease over the eastern U.S. in summer and winter). Sensitivity simulations show that anthropogenic emission projections dominate over changes in climate in their impacts on the U.S. air quality in the near future. Changes

  10. Air quality in China from 1850 to 2050 simulated using the IPCC AR5 emissions inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, W.; Liao, H.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the changes in regional air quality is central for air quality planning and for understanding the climatic effects of air pollutants. This study applies a fully coupled global chemistry-aerosol-climate model to investigate the interdecadal changes in air pollutants in China from 1850 to 2050. The model includes a detailed simulation of tropospheric O3-NOx-hydrocarbon chemistry, as well as sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon (BC), primary organic aerosol (POA), and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The simulations are performed based on the IPCC AR5 historical emissions inventories and four future scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5). Model results show that the global mean surface-layer PM2.5 aerosol concentration peaked in 1980 with a global mean value of 2.61μg m-3, and then has been decreasing afterwards. A large fraction of the decrease can be explained by the reductions in sulfate aerosol over Europe and North America. The surface-layer PM2.5 concentration in China, however, showed monotonous increase since the preindustrial time. Averaged over eastern China, sulfate aerosol is found to have a relatively stable concentration of 5.5μg m-3 after 1980, whereas the year 2000 concentrations of nitrate, ammonium, BC, POA, and SOA are, respectively, 3.0, 1.6, 1.8, 1.4, and 1.5 times the 1980 values. As a result, the ratio of sulfate to PM2.5 in eastern China decreased from 49% in 1980 to 37% in 2000. These preliminary results indicate that, besides the emission control for SO2, a complex emission reduction strategy targeting other aerosol species is necessary for improving air quality in China.

  11. Plant responses to reduced air pressure: advanced techniques and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daunicht, H.-J.; Brinkjans, H. J.

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge on air pressure impacts on plant processes and growth is essential for understanding responses to altitude and for comprehending the way of action of aerial gasses in general, and is of potential importance for life support systems in space. Our research on reduced air pressure was extended by help of a new set-up comprising two constantly ventilated chambers (283 L each), allowing pressure gradients of +/- 100 kPa. They provide favourable general growth conditions while maintaining all those factors constant or at desired levels which modify the action of air pressure, e.g. water vapour pressure deficit and air mass flow over the plants. Besides plant growth parameters, transpiration and CO_2 gas exchange are determined continuously. Results are presented on young tomato plants grown hydroponically, which had been treated with various combinations of air pressure (400 - 700 - 1000 hPa), CO_2 concentration and wind intensity for seven days. At the lowest pressure transpiration was enhanced considerably, and the plants became sturdier. On the other hand growth was retarded to a certain extent, attributable to secondary air pressure effects. Therefore, even greater limitations of plant productivity are expected after more extended periods of low pressure treatment.

  12. Removal of fine and ultrafine particles from indoor air environments by the unipolar ion emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uk Lee, Byung; Yermakov, Mikhail; Grinshpun, Sergey A.

    2004-09-01

    The continuous emission of unipolar ions was evaluated in order to determine its ability to remove fine and ultrafine particles from indoor air environments. The evolution of the indoor aerosol concentration and particle size distribution was measured in real time with the ELPI in a room-size (24.3 m3) test chamber where the ion emitter was operating. After the results were compared with the natural decay, the air cleaning factor was determined. The particle aerodynamic size range of ∼0.04-2 μm was targeted because it represents many bioaerosol agents that cause emerging diseases, as well as those that can be used for biological warfare or in the event of bioterrorism. The particle electric charge distribution (also measured in the test chamber with the ELPI) was rapidly affected by the ion emission. It was concluded that the corona discharge ion emitters (either positive or negative), which are capable of creating an ion density of 105-106 e± cm-3, can be efficient in controlling fine and ultrafine aerosol pollutants in indoor air environments, such as a typical office or residential room. At a high ion emission rate, the particle mobility becomes sufficient so that the particle migration results in their deposition on the walls and other indoor surfaces. Within the tested ranges of the particle size and ion density, the particles were charged primarily due to the diffusion charging mechanism. The particle removal efficiency was not significantly affected by the particle size, while it increased with increasing ion emission rate and the time of emission. The performance characteristics of three commercially available ionic air purifiers, which produce unipolar ions by corona discharge at relatively high emission rates, were evaluated. A 30-minute operation of the most powerful device among those tested resulted in the removal of about 97% of 0.1 μm particles and about 95% of 1 μm particles from the air in addition to the natural decay effect.

  13. Participant evaluation results for two indoor air quality studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Dudney, C.S.; Cohen, M.A.; Spengler, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    After two surveys for indoor air pollutants (radon and other chemicals) the homeowners were surveyed for their reactions. The results of these participant evaluation surveys, assuming that the participants that responded to the survey were representative, indicate that homeowners will accept a significant level of monitoring activity as part of an indoor air quality field study. Those participants completing surveys overwhelmingly enjoyed being in the studies and would do it again. We believe that the emphasis placed on positive homeowner interactions and efforts made to inform participants throughout our studies were positive factors in this result. There was no substantial differences noted in the responses between the 70-house study, which included a homeowner compensation payment of $100, and the 300-house study, which did not include a compensation payment. These results provide encouragement to conduct future complex, multipollutant indoor air quality studies when they are scientifically sound and cost effective.

  14. Assessment of Air Pollutants and Greenhouse Gases Emission Over East Asia : A Bottom-up Inventory Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, J. H.; Kim, Y.; Lee, Y. M.; Choi, K. C.; Zhang, Q.; Kurokawa, J. I.; Lee, J. B.; Song, C. K.; Kim, S.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollutants (SLCPs) such as tropospheric ozone and aerosols are mainly affected by meteorological variables and emissions. East Asia is one of important source regions of both anthropogenic and natural air pollutants and GHGs. Therefore, significant environmental changes are expected in the future and air quality modeling is the important methodology to quantitatively evaluate them. Multiple emission inventories with various spatio-temporal resolutions are necessary in support of many different air quality modeling and future climate chage researches. Many emission inventories have been developed for Asia and for Globe, such as TRACE-P, INTEX, REAS, CREATE, MICS-Asia, HTAP, SRES, RCP. Those inventories have been successfully used for many international researches, but also have several limitations including relatively old base year, limited number of pollutants/types, and low transparency of sector/fuel information. Understanding discrepancies and similarities among those intentories would give us a better insights to understand not only present status regional emissions amounts but structures of society and policy that link to the future emissions. To understand these, we; 1) selected several base-year bottom-up anthropogenic emission inventories over East Asia, 2) inter-compare emission inventories with more comprehensive sector/fuel classification, 3) explorer emissions change with more updated acvities, emission factors, and control options. The tentative results show that more than 50% of emission amount could be differ by inventory selection and more than 30% of emissions could be changed by emissions factor and/or control options. More findings regarding to these objectives will be presented on site

  15. Trends of multiple air pollutants emissions from residential coal combustion in Beijing and its implication on improving air quality for control measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yifeng; Zhou, Zhen; Nie, Teng; Wang, Kun; Nie, Lei; Pan, Tao; Wu, Xiaoqing; Tian, Hezhong; Zhong, Lianhong; Li, Jing; Liu, Huanjia; Liu, Shuhan; Shao, Panyang

    2016-10-01

    Residential coal combustion is considered to be an important source of air pollution in Beijing. However, knowledge regarding the emission characteristics of residential coal combustion and the related impacts on the air quality is very limited. In this study, we have developed an emission inventory for multiple hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) associated with residential coal combustion in Beijing for the period of 2000-2012. Furthermore, a widely used regional air quality model, the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality model (CMAQ), is applied to analyze the impact of residential coal combustion on the air quality in Beijing in 2012. The results show that the emissions of primary air pollutants from residential coal combustion have basically remained the same levels during the past decade, however, along with the strict emission control imposed on major industrial sources, the contribution of residential coal combustion emissions to the overall emissions from anthropogenic sources have increased obviously. In particular, the contributions of residential coal combustion to the total air pollutants concentrations of PM10, SO2, NOX, and CO represent approximately 11.6%, 27.5%, 2.8% and 7.3%, respectively, during the winter heating season. In terms of impact on the spatial variation patterns, the distributions of the pollutants concentrations are similar to the distribution of the associated primary HAPs emissions, which are highly concentrated in the rural-urban fringe zones and rural suburb areas. In addition, emissions of primary pollutants from residential coal combustion are forecasted by using a scenario analysis. Generally, comprehensive measures must be taken to control residential coal combustion in Beijing. The best way to reduce the associated emissions from residential coal combustion is to use economic incentive means to promote the conversion to clean energy sources for residential heating and cooking. In areas with reliable energy supplies, the coal used

  16. Air stripping and emissions control technologies: Field testing of countercurrent packings, rotary air stripping, catalytic oxidation, and adsorption materials. Final report, April 1987-June 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.H.; Counce, R.M.; Lucero, A.J.; Jennings, H.L.; Singh, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this activity was to field test innovative air stripping with emissions control technologies. The scale of the various components used in these tests was selected such that results would be useful for better predicting the performance of application-scale equipment. The goal of this effort was to provide managers and engineers with necessary information so that decisions relating to the application of this technology can proceed on a rational basis. Conventional countercurrent air stripping (with 4 different packing materials) were compared to a centrifugal contactor, also known as a rotary air stripper. Emissions control tests showed that the activity of the noble metal catalyst was lost before any useful abatement results were obtained. This loss in activity was attributed to poisoning by sulfur stripped from the groundwater. Control of the emissions by activated carbon was achieved. Significant quantities of lighter hydrocarbons were noted in the stripper effluent that were not effectively adsorbed by the carbon. No generally useful results ere obtained for control of emissions by molecular sieves.... Air stripping, Rotary air stripper, VOCs, Fuel contamination, Catalytic oxidations, Carbon adsorption, Molecular sieves.

  17. Emissions of air pollutants from household stoves: honeycomb coal versus coal cake.

    PubMed

    Ge, Su; Xu, Xu; Chow, Judith C; Watson, John; Sheng, Qing; Liu, Weili; Bai, Zhipeng; Zhu, Tan; Zhang, Junfeng

    2004-09-01

    Domestic coal combustion can emit various air pollutants. In the present study, we measured emissions of particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants from burning a specially formulated honeycomb coal (H-coal) and a coal cake (C-coal). Flue gas samples for PM2.5, PM coarse (PM2.5-10), and TSP were collected isokinetically using a cascade impactor; PM mass concentrations were determined gravimetrically. Concentrations of SO2, NOx, and ionic Cr(VI) in PM were analyzed using spectrometric methods. Fluoride concentrations were measured using a specific ion electrode method. PM elemental components were analyzed using an X-ray fluorescence technique. Total (gas and particle phase) benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) concentration was determined using an HPLC/fluorescence method. Elemental and organic carbon contents of PM were analyzed using a thermal/optical reflectance technique. The compositional and structural differences between the H-coal and C-coal resulted in different emission characteristics. In generating 1 MJ of delivered energy, the H-coal resulted in a significant reduction in emissions of SO2 (by 68%), NOx (by 47%), and TSP (by 56%) as compared to the C-coal, whereas the emissions of PM2.5 and total BaP from the H-coal combustion were 2-3-fold higher, indicating that improvements are needed to further reduce emissions of these pollutants in developing future honeycomb coals. Although the H-coal and the C-coal had similar emission factors for gas-phase fluoride, the H-coal had a particle-phase fluoride emission factor that was only half that of the C-coal. The H-coal had lower energy-based emissions of all the measured toxic elements in TSP but higher emissions of Cd and Ni in PM2.5.

  18. Isoprene Emission Factors for Subtropical Street Trees for Regional Air Quality Modeling.

    PubMed

    Dunn-Johnston, Kristina A; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen; Hirabayashi, Satoshi; Plant, Lyndal; Rennenberg, Heinz; Schmidt, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating the environmental benefits and consequences of urban trees supports their sustainable management in cities. Models such as i-Tree Eco enable decision-making by quantifying effects associated with particular tree species. Of specific concern are emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds, particularly isoprene, that contribute to the formation of photochemical smog and ground level ozone. Few studies have quantified these potential disservices of urban trees, and current models predominantly use emissions data from trees that differ from those in our target region of subtropical Australia. The present study aimed (i) to quantify isoprene emission rates of three tree species that together represent 16% of the inventoried street trees in the target region; (ii) to evaluate outputs of the i-Tree Eco model using species-specific versus currently used, generic isoprene emission rates; and (iii) to evaluate the findings in the context of regional air quality. Isoprene emission rates of (Myrtaceae) and (Proteaceae) were 2.61 and 2.06 µg g dry leaf weight h, respectively, whereas (Sapindaceae) was a nonisoprene emitter. We substituted the generic isoprene emission rates with these three empirical values in i-Tree Eco, resulting in a 182 kg yr (97%) reduction in isoprene emissions, totaling 6284 kg yr when extrapolated to the target region. From these results we conclude that care has to be taken when using generic isoprene emission factors for urban tree models. We recommend that emissions be quantified for commonly planted trees, allowing decision-makers to select tree species with the greatest overall benefit for the urban environment. PMID:26828179

  19. 40 CFR 63.2850 - How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I comply with the hazardous air pollutant emission standards? 63.2850 Section 63.2850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... air pollutant emission standards? (a) General requirements. The requirements in paragraphs...

  20. AIR EMISSIONS FROM THE TREATMENT OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH PETROLEUM FUELS AND OTHER SUBSTANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report updates a 1992 report that summarizes available information on air emissions from the treatment of soils contaminated with fuels. Soils contaminated by leaks or spills of fuel products, such as gasoline or jet fuel, are a nationwide concern. Air emissions during remedi...

  1. 40 CFR 204.52 - Portable air compressor noise emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Portable air compressor noise emission standard. 204.52 Section 204.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors §...

  2. 40 CFR 204.52 - Portable air compressor noise emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Portable air compressor noise emission standard. 204.52 Section 204.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors §...

  3. 77 FR 11476 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories; Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... section 112(l) of the 1990 Clean Air Act, EPA granted ] delegation of specific national emission standards... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for...

  4. 40 CFR 265.1082 - Schedule for implementation of air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Tanks, Surface Impoundments, and Containers § 265.1082 Schedule for implementation of air emission standards. (a) Owners or operators of... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Schedule for implementation of...

  5. 40 CFR 265.1082 - Schedule for implementation of air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Tanks, Surface Impoundments, and Containers § 265.1082 Schedule for implementation of air emission standards. (a) Owners or operators of... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Schedule for implementation of...

  6. 40 CFR 265.1082 - Schedule for implementation of air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Tanks, Surface Impoundments, and Containers § 265.1082 Schedule for implementation of air emission standards. (a) Owners or operators of... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Schedule for implementation of...

  7. 40 CFR 265.1082 - Schedule for implementation of air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Tanks, Surface Impoundments, and Containers § 265.1082 Schedule for implementation of air emission standards. (a) Owners or operators of... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Schedule for implementation of...

  8. 40 CFR 265.1082 - Schedule for implementation of air emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Tanks, Surface Impoundments, and Containers § 265.1082 Schedule for implementation of air emission standards. (a) Owners or operators of... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Schedule for implementation of...

  9. 40 CFR 60.2860 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? 60.2860 Section 60.2860 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Curtain Incinerators § 60.2860 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? After...

  10. 40 CFR 60.2860 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? 60.2860 Section 60.2860 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Curtain Incinerators § 60.2860 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? After...

  11. Transport and Environment Database System (TRENDS): Maritime air pollutant emission modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakaki, Aliki; Coffey, Robert A.; Lock, Graham; Sorenson, Spencer C.

    This paper reports the development of the maritime module within the framework of the Transport and Environment Database System (TRENDS) project. A detailed database has been constructed for the calculation of energy consumption and air pollutant emissions. Based on an in-house database of commercial vessels kept at the Technical University of Denmark, relationships between the fuel consumption and size of different vessels have been developed, taking into account the fleet's age and service speed. The technical assumptions and factors incorporated in the database are presented, including changes from findings reported in Methodologies for Estimating air pollutant Emissions from Transport (MEET). The database operates on statistical data provided by Eurostat, which describe vessel and freight movements from and towards EU 15 major ports. Data are at port to Maritime Coastal Area (MCA) level, so a bottom-up approach is used. A port to MCA distance database has also been constructed for the purpose of the study. This was the first attempt to use Eurostat maritime statistics for emission modelling; and the problems encountered, since the statistical data collection was not undertaken with a view to this purpose, are mentioned. Examples of the results obtained by the database are presented. These include detailed air pollutant emission calculations for bulk carriers entering the port of Helsinki, as an example of the database operation, and aggregate results for different types of movements for France. Overall estimates of SO x and NO x emission caused by shipping traffic between the EU 15 countries are in the area of 1 and 1.5 million tonnes, respectively.

  12. Improving the accuracy of vehicle emissions profiles for urban transportation greenhouse gas and air pollution inventories.

    PubMed

    Reyna, Janet L; Chester, Mikhail V; Ahn, Soyoung; Fraser, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    Metropolitan greenhouse gas and air emissions inventories can better account for the variability in vehicle movement, fleet composition, and infrastructure that exists within and between regions, to develop more accurate information for environmental goals. With emerging access to high quality data, new methods are needed for informing transportation emissions assessment practitioners of the relevant vehicle and infrastructure characteristics that should be prioritized in modeling to improve the accuracy of inventories. The sensitivity of light and heavy-duty vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) and conventional air pollutant (CAP) emissions to speed, weight, age, and roadway gradient are examined with second-by-second velocity profiles on freeway and arterial roads under free-flow and congestion scenarios. By creating upper and lower bounds for each factor, the potential variability which could exist in transportation emissions assessments is estimated. When comparing the effects of changes in these characteristics across U.S. cities against average characteristics of the U.S. fleet and infrastructure, significant variability in emissions is found to exist. GHGs from light-duty vehicles could vary by -2%-11% and CAP by -47%-228% when compared to the baseline. For heavy-duty vehicles, the variability is -21%-55% and -32%-174%, respectively. The results show that cities should more aggressively pursue the integration of emerging big data into regional transportation emissions modeling, and the integration of these data is likely to impact GHG and CAP inventories and how aggressively policies should be implemented to meet reductions. A web-tool is developed to aide cities in improving emissions uncertainty. PMID:25438089

  13. Improving the accuracy of vehicle emissions profiles for urban transportation greenhouse gas and air pollution inventories.

    PubMed

    Reyna, Janet L; Chester, Mikhail V; Ahn, Soyoung; Fraser, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    Metropolitan greenhouse gas and air emissions inventories can better account for the variability in vehicle movement, fleet composition, and infrastructure that exists within and between regions, to develop more accurate information for environmental goals. With emerging access to high quality data, new methods are needed for informing transportation emissions assessment practitioners of the relevant vehicle and infrastructure characteristics that should be prioritized in modeling to improve the accuracy of inventories. The sensitivity of light and heavy-duty vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) and conventional air pollutant (CAP) emissions to speed, weight, age, and roadway gradient are examined with second-by-second velocity profiles on freeway and arterial roads under free-flow and congestion scenarios. By creating upper and lower bounds for each factor, the potential variability which could exist in transportation emissions assessments is estimated. When comparing the effects of changes in these characteristics across U.S. cities against average characteristics of the U.S. fleet and infrastructure, significant variability in emissions is found to exist. GHGs from light-duty vehicles could vary by -2%-11% and CAP by -47%-228% when compared to the baseline. For heavy-duty vehicles, the variability is -21%-55% and -32%-174%, respectively. The results show that cities should more aggressively pursue the integration of emerging big data into regional transportation emissions modeling, and the integration of these data is likely to impact GHG and CAP inventories and how aggressively policies should be implemented to meet reductions. A web-tool is developed to aide cities in improving emissions uncertainty.

  14. Evaluating near highway air pollutant levels and estimating emission factors: Case study of Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nayeb Yazdi, Mohammad; Delavarrafiee, Maryam; Arhami, Mohammad

    2015-12-15

    A field sampling campaign was implemented to evaluate the variation in air pollutants levels near a highway in Tehran, Iran (Hemmat highway). The field measurements were used to estimate road link-based emission factors for average vehicle fleet. These factors were compared with results of an in tunnel measurement campaign (in Resalat tunnel). Roadside and in-tunnel measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and size-fractionated particulate matter (PM) were conducted during the field campaign. The concentration gradient diagrams showed exponential decay, which represented a substantial decay, more than 50-80%, in air pollutants level in a distance between 100 and 150meters (m) of the highway. The changes in particle size distribution by distancing from highway were also captured and evaluated. The results showed particle size distribution shifted to larger size particles by distancing from highway. The empirical emission factors were obtained by using the roadside and in tunnel measurements with a hypothetical box model, floating machine model, CALINE4, CT-EMFAC or COPERT. Average CO emission factors were estimated to be in a range of 4 to 12g/km, and those of PM10 were 0.1 to 0.2g/km, depending on traffic conditions. Variations of these emission factors under real working condition with speeds were determined.

  15. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2006

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Technical Services

    2007-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation's site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides which come from historically-contaminated soils resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds) and tritium-contaminated soil moisture emitted to the air from soils through evapotranspiration.

  16. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the PNNL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Theodore M.; Antonio, Ernest J.

    2012-11-12

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is in the process of developing a radiological air monitoring program for the PNNL Site that is distinct from that of the nearby Hanford Site. The original DQO (PNNL-19427) considered radiological emissions at the PNNL Site from Physical Sciences Facility (PSF) major emissions units. This first revision considers PNNL Site changes subsequent to the implementation of the original DQO. A team was established to determine how the PNNL Site changes would continue to meet federal regulations and address guidelines developed to monitor air emissions and estimate offsite impacts of radioactive material operations. The result is an updated program to monitor the impact to the public from the PNNL Site. The team used the emission unit operation parameters and local meteorological data as well as information from the PSF Potential-to-Emit documentation and Notices of Construction submitted to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH). The locations where environmental monitoring stations would most successfully characterize the maximum offsite impacts of PNNL Site emissions from the three PSF buildings with major emission units were determined from these data. Three monitoring station locations were determined during the original revision of this document. This first revision considers expanded Department of Energy operations south of the PNNL Site and relocation of the two offsite, northern monitoring stations to sites near the PNNL Site fenceline. Inclusion of the southern facilities resulted in the proposal for a fourth monitoring station in the southern region. The southern expansion added two minor emission unit facilities and one diffuse emission unit facility. Relocation of the two northern stations was possible due to the use of solar power, rather than the previous limitation of the need for access to AC power, at these more remote locations. Addendum A contains all the changes brought about by the revision 1

  17. Air quality modelling : effects of emission reductions on concentrations of particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girault, L.; Roustan, Y.; Seigneur, C.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) has adverse effects on human health. PM acts primarily on respiratory and cardiovascular (due to their small size they can penetrate deep into the lungs), but they are also known effects on the skin. In France, the "Particulate Plan" - developed as part of the second National Environmental Health Plan - aims to reduce by 30% fine PM (noted PM2.5because these particles have an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less) by 2015. A recent study by Airparif (the organization in charge of monitoring air quality in the Paris region, the Île-de-France) and LSCE (Laboratory of climate and the environmental science, France) has allowed, through a large measurement campaign conducted between 2009 and 2011, to quantify the proportion of PM produced in Île-de-France and those transported from the surrounding areas. The study by numerical modelling of air pollution presented here complements these results by investigating future emission scenarios. The CEREA develops and uses an air quality model which simulates the concentrations of pollutants from an emission inventory, meteorological data and boundary conditions of the area studied. After an evaluation of simulation results for the year 2005, the model is used to assess the effects of various scenarios of reductions in NOx and NH3 emissions on the concentrations of PM2.5in Île-de-France. The effects of the controls on the local pollution and the long-range pollution are considered separately. For each emitted species, three scenarios of emission reductions are identified: an emission reduction at the local level (Île-de-France), a reduction at the regional scale (France) and a reduction at the continental scale (across Europe). In each case, a 15% reduction is applied. The comparison of the results allows us to assess the respective contributions of local emissions and long-range transport to PM2.5 concentrations. For instance, the reduction of NOx emissions in Europe leads to a

  18. Biofuels that cause land-use change may have much larger non-GHG air quality emissions than fossil fuels.

    PubMed

    Tsao, C-C; Campbell, J E; Mena-Carrasco, M; Spak, S N; Carmichael, G R; Chen, Y

    2012-10-01

    Although biofuels present an opportunity for renewable energy production, significant land-use change resulting from biofuels may contribute to negative environmental, economic, and social impacts. Here we examined non-GHG air pollution impacts from both indirect and direct land-use change caused by the anticipated expansion of Brazilian biofuels production. We synthesized information on fuel loading, combustion completeness, and emission factors, and developed a spatially explicit approach with uncertainty and sensitivity analyses to estimate air pollution emissions. The land-use change emissions, ranging from 6.7 to 26.4 Tg PM(2.5), were dominated by deforestation burning practices associated with indirect land-use change. We also found Brazilian sugar cane ethanol and soybean biodiesel including direct and indirect land-use change effects have much larger life-cycle emissions than conventional fossil fuels for six regulated air pollutants. The emissions magnitude and uncertainty decrease with longer life-cycle integration periods. Results are conditional to the single LUC scenario employed here. After LUC uncertainty, the largest source of uncertainty in LUC emissions stems from the combustion completeness during deforestation. While current biofuels cropland burning policies in Brazil seek to reduce life-cycle emissions, these policies do not address the large emissions caused by indirect land-use change.

  19. Biofuels that cause land-use change may have much larger non-GHG air quality emissions than fossil fuels.

    PubMed

    Tsao, C-C; Campbell, J E; Mena-Carrasco, M; Spak, S N; Carmichael, G R; Chen, Y

    2012-10-01

    Although biofuels present an opportunity for renewable energy production, significant land-use change resulting from biofuels may contribute to negative environmental, economic, and social impacts. Here we examined non-GHG air pollution impacts from both indirect and direct land-use change caused by the anticipated expansion of Brazilian biofuels production. We synthesized information on fuel loading, combustion completeness, and emission factors, and developed a spatially explicit approach with uncertainty and sensitivity analyses to estimate air pollution emissions. The land-use change emissions, ranging from 6.7 to 26.4 Tg PM(2.5), were dominated by deforestation burning practices associated with indirect land-use change. We also found Brazilian sugar cane ethanol and soybean biodiesel including direct and indirect land-use change effects have much larger life-cycle emissions than conventional fossil fuels for six regulated air pollutants. The emissions magnitude and uncertainty decrease with longer life-cycle integration periods. Results are conditional to the single LUC scenario employed here. After LUC uncertainty, the largest source of uncertainty in LUC emissions stems from the combustion completeness during deforestation. While current biofuels cropland burning policies in Brazil seek to reduce life-cycle emissions, these policies do not address the large emissions caused by indirect land-use change. PMID:22924498

  20. Locating and estimating air emissions from sources of arsenic and arsenic compounds. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    This document describes the properties of arsenic and arsenic compounds as air pollutants, defines production and use patterns, identifies source categories of air emissions, and provides emission factors. Arsenic is emitted as an air pollutant from external combustion boilers, municipal and hazardous waste incineration, primary copper and zinc smelting, glass manufacturing, copper ore mining, and primary and secondary lead smelting. Emissions of arsenic from these activities are due to the presence of trace amounts of arsenic in fuels and materials being processed. In such cases, the emissions may be quite variable because the trace presence of arsenic is not constant. Arsenic emissions also occur from agricultural chemical production and application, and also from metal processing due to the use of arsenic in these activities. In addition to the arsenic source information, information is provided that specifies how individual sources of arsenic may be tested to quantify air emissions.

  1. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants registered stack source assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.E.; Barnett, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency,, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site . The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified a total of 16 stacks as having potential emissions that,would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr.

  2. Quantifying baseline emission factors of air pollutants in China's regional power grids.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenjia; Wang, Can; Jin, Zhugang; Chen, Jining

    2013-04-16

    Drawing lessons from the clean development mechanism (CDM), this paper developed a combined margin methodology to quantify baseline emission factors of air pollutants in China's regional power grids. The simple average of baseline emission factors of SO2, NOX, and PM2.5 in China's six power grids in 2010 were respectively 1.91 kg/MWh, 1.83 kg/MWh and 0.32 kg/MWh. Several low-efficient mitigation technologies, such as low nitrogen oxide burner (LNB), were suggested to be replaced or used together with other technologies in order to virtually decrease the grid's emission factor. The synergies between GHG and air pollution mitigation in China's power sector was also notable. It is estimated that in 2010, that every 1% CO2 reduction in China's power generation sector resulted in the respective coreduction of 1.1%, 0.5%, and 0.8% of SO2, NOX, and PM2.5. Wind is the best technology to achieve the largest amount of coabatement in most parts of China. This methodology is recommended to be used in making comprehensive air pollution control strategies and in cobenefits analysis in future CDM approval processes.

  3. Origin, occurrence, and source emission rate of acrolein in residential indoor air.

    PubMed

    Seaman, Vincent Y; Bennett, Deborah H; Cahill, Thomas M

    2007-10-15

    Acrolein, a volatile, unsaturated aldehyde, is a known respiratory toxicant and one of the 188 most hazardous air pollutants identified by the U.S. EPA. A newly developed analytical method was used to determine residential indoor air concentrations of acrolein and other volatile aldehydes in nine homes located in three California counties (Los Angeles, Placer, Yolo). Average indoor air concentrations of acrolein were an order of magnitude higher than outdoor concentrations at the same time. All homes showed similar diurnal patterns in indoor air concentrations, with acrolein levels in evening samples up to 2.5 times higherthan morning samples. These increases were strongly correlated with temperature and cooking events, and homes with frequent, regular cooking activity had the highest baseline (morning) acrolein levels. High acrolein concentrations were also found in newly built, uninhabited homes and in emissions from lumber commonly used in home construction, suggesting indoor contributions from off-gassing and/or secondary formation. The results provide strong evidence that human exposure to acrolein is dominated by indoor air with little contribution from ambient outdoor air. PMID:17993132

  4. Modeling indoor air concentrations near emission sources in imperfectly mixed rooms.

    PubMed

    Furtaw, E J; Pandian, M D; Nelson, D R; Behar, J V

    1996-09-01

    Assessments of exposure to indoor air pollutants usually employ spatially well-mixed models which assume homogeneous concentrations throughout a building or room. However, practical experience and experimental data indicate that concentrations are not uniform in rooms containing point sources of emissions; concentrations tend to be greater in close proximity to the source than they are further from it. This phenomenon could account for the observation that "personal air" monitors frequently yield higher concentrations than nearby microenvironmental monitors (i.e., the so-called "personal cloud" effect). In this project, we systematically studied the concentrations of a tracer gas at various distances from its emission source in a controlled-environment, room-size chamber under a variety of ventilation conditions. Measured concentrations in the proximity of the source deviated significantly above the predictions of a conventional well-mixed single-compartment mass balance model. The deviation was found to be a function of distance from the source and total room air flow rate. At typical air flow rates, the average concentration at arm's length (approximately 0.4 meters) from the source exceeds the theoretical well-mixed concentration by a ratio of about 2:1. However, this ratio is not constant; the monitored concentration appears to vary randomly from near the theoretical value to several times above it. Concentration data were fitted to a two-compartment model with the source located in a small virtual compartment within the room compartment. These two compartments were linked with a stochastic air transfer rate parameter. The resulting model provides a more realistic simulation of exposure concentrations than does the well-mixed model for assessing exposure to emissions from active sources. Parameter values are presented for using the enhanced model in a variety of typical situations. PMID:8925388

  5. Air emissions from the incineration of hazardous waste.

    PubMed

    Oppelt, E T

    1990-10-01

    In the United States over the last ten years, concern over important disposal practices of the past has manifested itself in the passage of a series of federal and state-level hazardous waste clean-up and control statutes of unprecedented scope. The impact of these various statutes will be a significant modification of waste management practices. The more traditional and lowest cost methods of direct landfilling, storage in surface impoundments and deep-well injection will be replaced, in large measure, by waste minimization at the source of generation, waste reuse, physical/chemical/biological treatment, incineration and chemical stabilization/solidification methods. Of all of the "terminal" treatment technologies, properly-designed incineration systems are capable of the highest overall degree of destruction and control for the broadest range of hazardous waste streams. Substantial design and operational experience exists and a wide variety of commercial systems are available. Consequently, significant growth is anticipated in the use of incineration and other thermal destruction methods. The objective of this paper is to examine the current state of knowledge regarding air emissions from hazardous waste incineration in an effort to put the associated technological and environmental issues into perspective.

  6. Impact of prescribed fire emission on air quality over the southeastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, T.; Wang, Y.; Tian, D.; Russell, A.; Barnard, W.

    2007-12-01

    Prescribed burning is a large aerosol source in the southeastern United States. Its air quality impact is investigated using EPA model-3 system. Fire emissions are calculated based on a recent developed emission inventory by the Visibility Improvement - State and Tribal Association of the Southeast (VISTAS) program. Two scenarios with and without prescribed fire emissions are investigated for the 10 southeastern states in the base year of 2002 of VISTAS. Large impact has been found with the inclusion of prescribed fire emissions. It significantly improved model performance in spring by reducing the mean biases of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC). CO enhancements in the free troposphere in spring for some fire events can be confirmed by the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) satellite CO observations. Model results show that prescribed burning leads to ~30% enhancements of OC and EC in spring, respectively. We found a moderate correlation between local burning areas and the enhancement of EC and OC. Long-range transport leads to some episodes of PM2.5 increase at some sites in the low fire emission areas. In summer, model underestimated carbonaceous aerosols even after the consideration of prescribed fire emission. Scaled fire emitted EC to MODIS observed seasonality of fire counts in summer cannot account for the underestimation. Under-predicted EC in summer indicates missing or underestimated EC sources in the southeastern US.

  7. Ozone sensitivity to its precursor emissions in northeastern Mexico for a summer air pollution episode.

    PubMed

    Sierra, A; Vanoye, A Y; Mendoza, A

    2013-10-01

    A summer episode was modeled to address the expected response of ambient air O3 to hypothetical emission control scenarios in northeastern Mexico, and in particular in the Monterrey Metropolitan Area (MMA). This region is of interest because the MMA holds one of the worst air quality problems in the country and levels of air pollutants in the rest of northeastern Mexico are starting to be a concern. The MM5-SMOKE-CMAQ platform was used to conduct the numerical experiments. Twenty-four control scenarios were evaluated, combining the level of emission controls of O3 precursors (NO(x) and volatile organic compounds [VOCs]) from 0% to 50%. For the MMA, VOC-only controls result in the best option to reduce O3 concentrations, though the benefit is limited to the urban core. This same strategy results in negligible benefits for the rest of northeastern Mexico. NO(x) controls result in an increase in O3 concentration within the MMA of up to 20 ppbv and a decrease at downwind locations of up to 11 ppbv, with respect to the base-case scenario. Indicator ratios were also used to probe for NO(x)-sensitive and VOC-sensitive areas. Locations with an important influence of NO(x) point sources (i.e., Monclova and Nava/Acuña) are quite sensitive to changes in NO(x) emissions. Border cities in the Rio Bravo/Grande Valley tend to be marginally NO(x)-sensitive. Overall, the MMA seems to be dominated by a VOC-sensitive regime, while the rest of the region would tend to have a NO(x)-sensitive response. The results obtained serve to expand the current knowledge on the chemical regimes that dominate this region (VOC- or NO(x)-sensitive), and thus could help guide public policies related to emission regional control strategies. PMID:24282975

  8. VOCs Emissions from Multiple Wood Pellet Types and Concentrations in Indoor Air

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Garcia, Lydia; Ashley, William J.; Bregg, Sandar; Walier, Drew; LeBouf, Ryan; Hopke, Philip K.; Rossner, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Wood pellet storage safety is an important aspect for implementing woody biomass as a renewable energy source. When wood pellets are stored indoors in large quantities (tons) in poorly ventilated spaces in buildings, such as in basements, off-gassing of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can significantly affect indoor air quality. To determine the emission rates and potential impact of VOC emissions, a series of laboratory and field measurements were conducted using softwood, hardwood, and blended wood pellets manufactured in New York. Evacuated canisters were used to collect air samples from the headspace of drums containing pellets and then in basements and pellet storage areas of homes and small businesses. Multiple peaks were identified during GC/MS and GC/FID analysis, and four primary VOCs were characterized and quantified: methanol, pentane, pentanal, and hexanal. Laboratory results show that total VOCs (TVOCs) concentrations for softwood (SW) were statistically (p < 0.02) higher than blended or hardwood (HW) (SW: 412 ± 25; blended: 203 ± 4; HW: 99 ± 8, ppb). The emission rate from HW was the fastest, followed by blended and SW, respectively. Emissions rates were found to range from 10−1 to 10−5 units, depending upon environmental factors. Field measurements resulted in airborne concentrations ranging from 67 ± 8 to 5000 ± 3000 ppb of TVOCs and 12 to 1500 ppb of aldehydes, with higher concentrations found in a basement with a large fabric bag storage unit after fresh pellet delivery and lower concentrations for aged pellets. These results suggest that large fabric bag storage units resulted in a substantial release of VOCs into the building air. Occupants of the buildings tested discussed concerns about odor and sensory irritation when new pellets were delivered. The sensory response was likely due to the aldehydes. PMID:27022205

  9. 76 FR 57913 - Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Plating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Plating and Polishing'' which was published on June 20, 2011 (76 FR... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AQ74 Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air... standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for the plating and polishing area source category...

  10. 40 CFR 86.166-12 - Method for calculating emissions due to air conditioning leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to air conditioning leakage. 86.166-12 Section 86.166-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... for calculating emissions due to air conditioning leakage. This section describes procedures used to determine a refrigerant leakage rate in grams per year from vehicle-based air conditioning units....

  11. 40 CFR 86.166-12 - Method for calculating emissions due to air conditioning leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to air conditioning leakage. 86.166-12 Section 86.166-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... for calculating emissions due to air conditioning leakage. This section describes procedures used to determine a refrigerant leakage rate in grams per year from vehicle-based air conditioning units....

  12. 40 CFR 60.2860 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2860 Section 60.2860 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2860 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) After the date the initial stack test is required or...

  13. 40 CFR 60.2860 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2860 Section 60.2860 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2860 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) After the date the initial stack test is required or...

  14. 40 CFR 60.2860 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2860 Section 60.2860 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Curtain Incinerators § 60.2860 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? (a) After... for air curtain incinerators? After the date the initial stack test is required or...

  15. 40 CFR 60.2250 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2250 Section 60.2250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2250 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? Within 60 days after your...

  16. 40 CFR 60.2250 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators? 60.2250 Section 60.2250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Air Curtain Incinerators § 60.2250 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators? Within 60 days after your...

  17. 75 FR 43114 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Revisions to Emissions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ..., 1999 and February 26, 2007. The revisions pertain to regulations on reporting air pollution emissions (emission inventories), and conformity of general Federal actions to SIPs. EPA is proposing to approve the... Emissions Inventory Reporting Requirements and Conformity of General Federal Actions, Including...

  18. Emissions of an AVCO Lycoming 0-320-DIAD air cooled light aircraft engine as a function of fuel-air ratio, timing, and air temperature and humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, P. R.; Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A carbureted aircraft engine was operated over a range of test conditions to establish the exhaust levels over the EPA seven-mode emissions cycle. Baseline (full rich production limit) exhaust emissions at an induction air temperature of 59 F and near zero relative humidity were 90 percent of the EPA standard for HC, 35 percent for NOx, and 161 percent for CO. Changes in ignition timing around the standard 25 deg BTDC from 30 deg BTDC to 20 deg BTDC had little effect on the exhaust emissions. Retarding the timing to 15 deg BTDC increased both the HC and CO emissions and decreased NOx emissions. HC and CO emissions decreased as the carburetor was leaned out, while NOx emissions increased. The EPA emission standards were marginally achieved at two leanout conditions. Variations in the quantity of cooling air flow over the engine had no effect on exhaust emissions. Temperature-humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased.

  19. [Air Dielectric Barrier Discharge Emission Spectrum Measurement and Particle Analysis of Discharge Process].

    PubMed

    Shen, Shuang-yan; Jin, Xing; Zhang, Peng

    2016-02-01

    The emission spectrum detection and diagnosis is one of the most common methods of application to the plasma. It provides wealth of information of the chemical and physical process of the plasma. The analysis of discharge plasma dynamic behavior plays an important role in the study of gas discharge mechanism and application. An air dielectric discharge spectrum measuring device was designed and the emission spectrum data was measured under the experimental condition. The plasma particles evolution was analyzed from the emission spectrum. The numerical calculation model was established and the density equation, energy transfer equation and the Boltzmann equation was coupled to analyze the change of the particle density to explain the emission spectrum characteristics. The results are that the particle density is growing with the increasing of reduced electric field. The particle density is one or two orders of magnitude difference for the same particle at the same moment for the reduced electric field of 40, 60 or 80 Td. A lot of N₂ (A³), N₂ (A³) and N₂ (C³) particles are generated by the electric field excitation. However, it transforms quickly due to the higher energy level. The transformation returns to the balance after the discharge of 10⁻⁶ s. The emission spectrometer measured in the experiments is mostly generated by the transition of excited nitrogen. The peak concentration of O₂ (A¹), O₂ (B¹) and O₂ (A³ ∑⁺u) is not low compared to the excited nitrogen molecules. These particles energy is relatively low and the transition spectral is longer. The spectrometer does not capture the oxygen emission spectrum. And the peak concentration of O particles is small, so the transition emission spectrum is weak. The calculation results of the stabled model can well explain the emission spectrum data.

  20. Causality between energy consumption, emissions of CO{sub 2} and surface air temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Mariam, Y.K.G.; Barre, M.

    1998-12-31

    Climate research has been one of the focal points of the scientific community for the past few decades. However, most of the studies tended to examine the scientific basis to understand the mechanisms that resulted in changes in global climate. There was less emphasis on issues of mitigating the causes of climate change. Due to the fact that climate change is primarily the result of emission of green houses gases, especially carbon dioxide, and due to the fact that most these emissions are anthropogenic, social scientists have to address strategies in which emissions are reduced. Of particular significance is that global climate is a common good. Private companies and individuals, in an effort to maximize income or welfare, dump increased emission to the atmosphere. As a typical example of the classic work of the tragedy of the commons, there is a desperate need for all disciplines of the social and natural sciences to develop ways of mitigating the dangers of changes in the global common climate. Energy consumption, particularly fossil fuels, has been attributed as the driving force for the increased emission of CO{sub 2} and rise in global surface air temperature. While many studies have been carried out regarding the relationship between global energy consumption, emissions of CO{sub 2} and indicators of climate change such as temperature, there are only a few studies that have examined linkages between these factors at the level of individual countries. Increased consumption of carbon-intensive sources of energy will continue to exacerbate existing climate change problems. On the other hand, not only will energy consumption influence climate change but also changes in climate change may influence the patterns of energy consumption. The objectives of this research are to examine trends in energy consumption and emissions of CO{sub 2}, and causal linkages between energy consumption, emission of CO{sub 2} and mean annual surface temperature for 21 OECD countries.

  1. [Air Dielectric Barrier Discharge Emission Spectrum Measurement and Particle Analysis of Discharge Process].

    PubMed

    Shen, Shuang-yan; Jin, Xing; Zhang, Peng

    2016-02-01

    The emission spectrum detection and diagnosis is one of the most common methods of application to the plasma. It provides wealth of information of the chemical and physical process of the plasma. The analysis of discharge plasma dynamic behavior plays an important role in the study of gas discharge mechanism and application. An air dielectric discharge spectrum measuring device was designed and the emission spectrum data was measured under the experimental condition. The plasma particles evolution was analyzed from the emission spectrum. The numerical calculation model was established and the density equation, energy transfer equation and the Boltzmann equation was coupled to analyze the change of the particle density to explain the emission spectrum characteristics. The results are that the particle density is growing with the increasing of reduced electric field. The particle density is one or two orders of magnitude difference for the same particle at the same moment for the reduced electric field of 40, 60 or 80 Td. A lot of N₂ (A³), N₂ (A³) and N₂ (C³) particles are generated by the electric field excitation. However, it transforms quickly due to the higher energy level. The transformation returns to the balance after the discharge of 10⁻⁶ s. The emission spectrometer measured in the experiments is mostly generated by the transition of excited nitrogen. The peak concentration of O₂ (A¹), O₂ (B¹) and O₂ (A³ ∑⁺u) is not low compared to the excited nitrogen molecules. These particles energy is relatively low and the transition spectral is longer. The spectrometer does not capture the oxygen emission spectrum. And the peak concentration of O particles is small, so the transition emission spectrum is weak. The calculation results of the stabled model can well explain the emission spectrum data. PMID:27209731

  2. Influence of air flow rate on emission of DEHP from vinyl flooring in the emission cell FLEC: Measurements and CFD simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, Per Axel; Liu, Zhe; Xu, Ying; Kofoed-Sørensen, Vivi; Little, John C.

    2010-07-01

    The emission of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) from one type of vinyl flooring with ˜15% (w/w) DEHP as plasticizer was measured at 22 °C in five FLECs + one blank FLEC (Field and Laboratory Emission Cell). Initially, the flow through all FLECs was 450 ml min -1. After 689 days the flows were changed to 1000 ml min -1, 1600 ml min -1, 2300 ml min -1, and 3000 ml min -1, respectively, in four FLECs, and kept at 450 ml min -1 in one FLEC. Air samples were collected from the effluent air at regular intervals. After 1190 days the experiments were terminated and the interior surfaces of all six FLECs were rinsed with methanol to estimate the internal surface concentrations of DEHP. The DEHP air concentration and specific emission rate (SER) at steady state was estimated for the five different flow rates. The steady-state concentrations decreased slightly with increasing air flow with only the two highest flow rates resulting in significantly lower concentrations. In contrast, the SERs increased significantly. Despite large variation, the internal surface concentrations appeared to decrease slightly with increasing FLEC flow. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations suggest that the interior gas and surface concentrations were roughly uniform for the low flow case (450 ml min -1), under which, the partitioning between the FLEC internal surface and chamber air was examined. Although paired t-tests showed no difference between CFD and experimental results for DEHP air concentrations and SERs at steady-state conditions, CFD indicated that the experimental DEHP surface concentrations in the FLECs were underestimated. In conclusion, the experiments showed that the emission of DEHP from vinyl flooring is subject to "external" control and that the SER is strongly and positively dependent on the air exchange rate. However, the increased SER almost compensates for the decrease in gas-phase concentration caused by the increased air exchange.

  3. Air quality forecast of PM10 in Beijing with Community Multi-scale Air Quality Modeling (CMAQ) system: emission and improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Q.; Xu, W.; Shi, A.; Li, Y.; Zhao, X.; Wang, Z.; Li, J.; Wang, L.

    2014-10-01

    The MM5-SMOKE-CMAQ model system, which was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) as the MODELS-3 system, has been used for daily air quality forecasts in the Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center (Beijing MEMC), as a part of the Ensemble air quality Modeling forecast System for Beijing (EMS-Beijing) since the 2008 Olympic Games. According to the daily forecast results for the entire duration of 2010, the model shows good performance in the PM10 forecast on most days but clearly underestimates PM10 concentration during some air pollution episodes. A typical air pollution episode from 11-20 January 2010 was chosen, in which the observed air pollution index of particulate matter (PM10-API) reached 180 while the forecast PM10-API was about 100. In this study, three numerical methods are used for model improvement: first, by enhancing the inner domain with 3 km resolution grids, and expanding the coverage from only Beijing to an area including Beijing and its surrounding cities; second, by adding more regional point source emissions located at Baoding, Landfang and Tangshan, to the south and east of Beijing; third, by updating the area source emissions, including the regional area source emissions in Baoding and Tangshan and the local village/town-level area source emissions in Beijing. The last two methods are combined as the updated emissions method. According to the model sensitivity testing results by the CMAQ model, the updated emissions method and expanded model domain method can both improve the model performance separately. But the expanded model domain method has better ability to capture the peak values of PM10 than the updated emissions method due to better reproduction of the pollution transport process in this episode. As a result, the hindcast results ("New(CMAQ)"), which are driven by the updated emissions in the expanded model domain, show a much better model performance in the national standard station

  4. Mercury air-borne emissions from 5 municipal solid waste landfills in Guiyang and Wuhan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. G.; Feng, X.; Li, P.; Liang, L.; Tang, S. L.; Wang, S. F.; Fu, X. W.; Qiu, G. L.; Shang, L. H.

    2010-01-01

    A detailed study on atmospheric mercury emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills in China is necessary to understand mercury behavior in this source category, simply because China disposes of bulk MSW by landfilling and a large quantity of mercury enters into landfills. Between 2003 and 2006, mercury airborne emissions through different pathways, as well as mercury speciation in landfill gas (LFG) were measured at 5 MSW landfills in Guiyang and Wuhan, China. The results showed that mercury content in the substrate fundamentally affected the magnitude of mercury emissions, resulting in the highest emission rate (as high as 57 651 ng Hg m-2 h-1) at the working face and in un-covered waste areas, and the lowest measured at soil covers and vegetation areas (less than 20 ng Hg m-2 h-1). Meteorological parameters, especially solar radiation, influenced the diurnal pattern of mercury surface-air emissions. Total gaseous mercury (TGM) in LFG varied from 2.0 to 1406.0 ng m-3, monomethyl mercury (MMHg) and dimethyl mercury (DMHg) in LFG averaged at 1.93 and 9.21 ng m-3, and accounted for 0.51% and 1.79% of the TGM in the LFG, respectively. Total mercury emitted from the five landfills ranged from 17 to 3285 g yr-1, with the highest from the working face, then soil covering, and finally the vent pipes.

  5. Temporal variability of air-sea CO2 exchange in a low-emission estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mørk, Eva Thorborg; Sejr, Mikael Kristian; Stæhr, Peter Anton; Sørensen, Lise Lotte

    2016-07-01

    There is the need for further study of whether global estimates of air-sea CO2 exchange in estuarine systems capture the relevant temporal variability and, as such, the temporal variability of bulk parameterized and directly measured CO2 fluxes was investigated in the Danish estuary, Roskilde Fjord. The air-sea CO2 fluxes showed large temporal variability across seasons and between days and that more than 30% of the net CO2 emission in 2013 was a result of two large fall and winter storms. The diurnal variability of ΔpCO2 was up to 400 during summer changing the estuary from a source to a sink of CO2 within the day. Across seasons the system was suggested to change from a sink of atmospheric CO2 during spring to near neutral during summer and later to a source of atmospheric CO2 during fall. Results indicated that Roskilde Fjord was an annual low-emission estuary, with an estimated bulk parameterized release of 3.9 ± 8.7 mol CO2 m-2 y-1 during 2012-2013. It was suggested that the production-respiration balance leading to the low annual emission in Roskilde Fjord, was caused by the shallow depth, long residence time and high water quality in the estuary. In the data analysis the eddy covariance CO2 flux samples were filtered according to the H2Osbnd CO2 cross-sensitivity assessment suggested by Landwehr et al. (2014). This filtering reduced episodes of contradicting directions between measured and bulk parameterized air-sea CO2 exchanges and changed the net air-sea CO2 exchange from an uptake to a release. The CO2 gas transfer velocity was calculated from directly measured CO2 fluxes and ΔpCO2 and agreed to previous observations and parameterizations.

  6. Multi-model estimates of fire emissions and air quality degradation in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlier, M. E.; DeFries, R. S.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Voulgarakis, A.; Kinney, P. L.; Shindell, D. T.; Randerson, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Like fossil fuel pollution, fire emissions affect both climate change and air quality. In this study, we combine satellite-derived fire estimates and atmospheric modeling to quantify potential population exposure to particulate matter and ozone from fires in Southeast Asia from 1997 to 2007. This region has large interannual variability in fire activity due to El Niño-induced droughts and anthropogenic drivers. Though typically too wet to combust, increased sources of deforestation and degradation are enhancing the susceptibility of forests and underlying carbon-rich peat deposits to fire during drought, as documented in the extreme fires of the 1997-98 El Niño. Concerns of a positive feedback between fire activity and a warming climate would further increase the influence of fires on air quality degradation. Monthly fire emissions are estimated from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED version 3) and transported in two atmospheric models to assess population exposure. We show that during strong El Niño years, fires contribute to daily fine particulate matter and afternoon maximum ozone surface concentrations over 150 μg/m3 and 240 μg/m3, respectively. Exposure to these two types of pollutants increases mortality and hospital admissions from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, even at low concentrations. This fire pollutant burden corresponds to 200 added days per year exceeding the World Health Organization fine particulate matter guideline and exposes up to 50 million additional people to more than 25 days above the most extreme pollutant concentrations. Our results indicate that substantial health and economic co-benefits would result from reducing fires in locations where transported emissions lead to enhanced exposure to air pollution during high fire years.

  7. Incinerator performance: effects of changes in waste input and furnace operation on air emissions and residues.

    PubMed

    Astrup, Thomas; Riber, Christian; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2011-10-01

    Waste incineration can be considered a robust technology for energy recovery from mixed waste. Modern incinerators are generally able to maintain relatively stable performance, but changes in waste input and furnace operation may affect emissions. This study investigated how inorganic air emissions and residue composition at a full-scale incinerator were affected by known additions of specific waste materials to the normal municipal solid waste (MSW) input. Six individual experiments were carried out (% ww of total waste input): NaCl (0.5%), shoes (1.6%), automobile shredder waste (14%), batteries (0.5%), poly(vinyl chloride) (5.5%) and chromate-cupper-arsenate impregnated wood (11%). Materials were selected based on chemical composition and potential for being included or excluded from the waste mix. Critical elements in the waste materials were identified based on comparison with six experiments including 'as-large-as-possible' changes in furnace operation (oxygen levels, air supply and burnout level) only using normal MSW as input. The experiments showed that effects from the added waste materials were significant in relation to: air emissions (in particular As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Sb), element transfer coefficients, and residue composition (As, Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Zn). Changes in furnace operation could not be directly linked to changes in emissions and residues. The results outlined important elements in waste which should be addressed in relation to waste incinerator performance. Likely ranges of element transfer coefficients were provided as the basis for sensitivity analysis of life-cycle assessment (LCA) results involving waste incinerator technologies.

  8. Incinerator performance: effects of changes in waste input and furnace operation on air emissions and residues.

    PubMed

    Astrup, Thomas; Riber, Christian; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2011-10-01

    Waste incineration can be considered a robust technology for energy recovery from mixed waste. Modern incinerators are generally able to maintain relatively stable performance, but changes in waste input and furnace operation may affect emissions. This study investigated how inorganic air emissions and residue composition at a full-scale incinerator were affected by known additions of specific waste materials to the normal municipal solid waste (MSW) input. Six individual experiments were carried out (% ww of total waste input): NaCl (0.5%), shoes (1.6%), automobile shredder waste (14%), batteries (0.5%), poly(vinyl chloride) (5.5%) and chromate-cupper-arsenate impregnated wood (11%). Materials were selected based on chemical composition and potential for being included or excluded from the waste mix. Critical elements in the waste materials were identified based on comparison with six experiments including 'as-large-as-possible' changes in furnace operation (oxygen levels, air supply and burnout level) only using normal MSW as input. The experiments showed that effects from the added waste materials were significant in relation to: air emissions (in particular As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Sb), element transfer coefficients, and residue composition (As, Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Zn). Changes in furnace operation could not be directly linked to changes in emissions and residues. The results outlined important elements in waste which should be addressed in relation to waste incinerator performance. Likely ranges of element transfer coefficients were provided as the basis for sensitivity analysis of life-cycle assessment (LCA) results involving waste incinerator technologies. PMID:21930520

  9. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, June 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Robert F. Grossman

    2005-06-01

    The sources of radionuclides include current and previous activities conducted on the NTS. The NTS was the primary location for testing of nuclear explosives in the Continental U.S. between 1951 and 1992. Historical testing has included (1) atmospheric testing in the 1950s and early 1960s, (2) underground testing between 1951 and 1992, and (3) open-air nuclear reactor and rocket engine testing (DOE, 1996a). No nuclear tests have been conducted since September 23,1992 (DOE, 2000), however; radionuclides remaining on the soil surface in many NTS areas after several decades of radioactive decay are re-suspended into the atmosphere at concentrations that can be detected by air sampling. Limited non-nuclear testing includes spills of hazardous materials at the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (formerly called the Hazardous Materials Spill Center), private technology development, aerospace and demilitarization activities, and site remediating activities. Processing of radioactive materials is limited to laboratory analyses; handling, transport, storage, and assembly of nuclear explosive devices or radioactive targets for the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research (JASPER) gas gun; and operation of radioactive waste management sites (RWMSs) for low-level radioactive and mixed waste (DOE, 1996a). Monitoring and evaluation of the various activities conducted onsite indicate that the potential sources of offsite radiation exposure in calendar year (CY) 2004 were releases from (1) evaporation of tritiated water (HTO) from containment ponds that receive drainage water from E Tunnel in Area 12 and water pumped from wells used to characterize the aquifers at the sites of past underground nuclear tests, (2) onsite radioanalytical laboratories, (3) the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS facilities, and (4) diffuse sources of tritium (H{sup 3}) and re-suspension of plutonium ({sup 239+240}Pu) and americium ({sup 241}Am) at the sites of past nuclear tests. The following

  10. Impact of multisource VOC emission on in-vehicle air quality: test chamber simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodzik, K.; Faber, J.; Goƚda-Kopek, A.; Łomankiewicz, D.

    2016-09-01

    Air quality inside vehicle may be strongly influenced by the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOC). The sources of these compounds may be different. In case of new vehicles VOC mainly originate from off-gassing of interior materials, while in used cars exterior pollution, like exhaust gases, starts to dominate. The aim of this work was to check the influence of multiple VOC sources on concentration of volatile organic compounds emitted from car interior parts. For this purpose material emission tests were performed in 1 m3 emission testing chamber (WKE 1000, Weiss, Germany) at 65 °C, 5% RH and with air exchange. Three different car parts were studied: sun visor, headlining, and handbrake lever cover. It was stated that volatile organic compounds concentration inside test chamber during the test performed with three different parts inside was significantly lower than those being result of addition of the results obtained for parts tested separately. Presented results indicate interactions between different materials and their emissions as well as prove that some of materials acts like sorbents.

  11. VOC and hazardous air pollutant emission factors for military aircraft fuel cell inspection, maintenance, and repair operations

    SciTech Connect

    Nand, K.; Sahu, R.

    1997-12-31

    Accurate emission estimation is one of the key aspects of implementation of any air quality program. The Federal Title 5 program, specially requires an accurate and updated inventory of criteria as well hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from all facilities. An overestimation of these two categories of pollutants, may cause the facility to be classified as a major source, when in fact it may actually be a minor source, and may also trigger unnecessary compliance requirements. A good example of where overestimation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and HAPs is easily possible are military aircraft fuel cells inspection, maintenance, and repair operations. The military aircraft fuel tanks, which are commonly identified as fuel cells, are routinely inspected for maintenance and repairs at military aircraft handling facilities. Prior to entry into the fuel cell by an inspector, fuel cells are first drained into bowsers and then purged with fresh air; the purged air is generally released without any controls to the atmosphere through a stack. The VOC and HAPs emission factors from these operations are not available in the literature for JP-8 fuel, which is being used increasingly by military aircraft. This paper presents two methods for estimating emissions for this source type, which are based on engineering calculations and professional judgment. This paper presents several methods for estimating emissions for this source type, which are based on engineering calculations and professional judgment. There are three emission producing phases during the draining and purging operations: (1) emissions during splash loading of bowsers (unloading of fuel cells), (2) emissions from spillage of fuel during loading of bowsers, and (3) emissions from fuel cell purging operations. Results of the emission estimation, including a comparison of the two emission estimation methods are presented in this paper.

  12. The challenges of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution through energy sources: evidence from a panel of developed countries.

    PubMed

    Akhmat, Ghulam; Zaman, Khalid; Shukui, Tan; Sajjad, Faiza; Khan, Muhammad Azhar; Khan, Muhammad Zahir

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the long-run relationship between climatic factors (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural methane emissions, and industrial nitrous oxide emission), air pollution (i.e., carbon dioxide emissions), and energy sources (i.e., nuclear energy; oil, gas, and coal energy; and fossil fuel energy) in the panel of 35 developed countries (including EU-15, new EU member states, G-7, and other countries) over a period of 1975-2012. In order to achieve this objective, the present study uses sophisticated panel econometric techniques including panel cointegration, panel fully modified OLS (FMOLS), and dynamic OLS (DOLS). The results show that there is a long-run relationship between the variables. Nuclear energy reduces greenhouse gases and carbon emissions; however, the other emissions, i.e., agricultural methane emissions and industrial nitrous oxide, are still to increase during the study period. Electricity production from oil, gas, and coal sources increases the greenhouse gases and carbon emissions; however, the intensity to increase emissions is far less than the intensity to increase emissions through fossil fuel. Policies that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases can simultaneously alter emissions of conventional pollutants that have deleterious effects on human health and the environment.

  13. The challenges of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution through energy sources: evidence from a panel of developed countries.

    PubMed

    Akhmat, Ghulam; Zaman, Khalid; Shukui, Tan; Sajjad, Faiza; Khan, Muhammad Azhar; Khan, Muhammad Zahir

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the long-run relationship between climatic factors (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural methane emissions, and industrial nitrous oxide emission), air pollution (i.e., carbon dioxide emissions), and energy sources (i.e., nuclear energy; oil, gas, and coal energy; and fossil fuel energy) in the panel of 35 developed countries (including EU-15, new EU member states, G-7, and other countries) over a period of 1975-2012. In order to achieve this objective, the present study uses sophisticated panel econometric techniques including panel cointegration, panel fully modified OLS (FMOLS), and dynamic OLS (DOLS). The results show that there is a long-run relationship between the variables. Nuclear energy reduces greenhouse gases and carbon emissions; however, the other emissions, i.e., agricultural methane emissions and industrial nitrous oxide, are still to increase during the study period. Electricity production from oil, gas, and coal sources increases the greenhouse gases and carbon emissions; however, the intensity to increase emissions is far less than the intensity to increase emissions through fossil fuel. Policies that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases can simultaneously alter emissions of conventional pollutants that have deleterious effects on human health and the environment. PMID:24584642

  14. The Regional Impacts of Cooking and Heating Emissions on Ambient Air Quality and Disease Burden in China.

    PubMed

    Archer-Nicholls, Scott; Carter, Ellison; Kumar, Rajesh; Xiao, Qingyang; Liu, Yang; Frostad, Joseph; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Cohen, Aaron; Brauer, Michael; Baumgartner, Jill; Wiedinmyer, Christine

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to air pollution is a major risk factor globally and particularly in Asia. A large portion of air pollutants result from residential combustion of solid biomass and coal fuel for cooking and heating. This study presents a regional modeling sensitivity analysis to estimate the impact of residential emissions from cooking and heating activities on the burden of disease at a provincial level in China. Model surface PM2.5 fields are shown to compare well when evaluated against surface air quality measurements. Scenarios run without residential sector and residential heating emissions are used in conjunction with the Global Burden of Disease 2013 framework to calculate the proportion of deaths and disability adjusted life years attributable to PM2.5 exposure from residential emissions. Overall, we estimate that 341 000 (306 000-370 000; 95% confidence interval) premature deaths in China are attributable to residential combustion emissions, approximately a third of the deaths attributable to all ambient PM2.5 pollution, with 159 000 (142 000-172 000) and 182 000 (163 000-197 000) premature deaths from heating and cooking emissions, respectively. Our findings emphasize the need to mitigate emissions from both residential heating and cooking sources to reduce the health impacts of ambient air pollution in China. PMID:27479733

  15. Effects of future climate and land cover changes on biogenic emissions and air quality in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, S. H.; Gonzalez Abraham, R.; Arroyo, A.; Lamb, B. K.; Duhl, T.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Guenther, A. B.; Zhang, Y.; Salathe, E. P.

    2009-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from vegetations are highly reactive in the atmosphere and contribute to ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation. Climate change influences vegetation distributions and emissions of BVOCs and thereby affects air quality. As part of a comprehensive investigation of the effects of global change on regional air quality in the US, this study examines the effects of future climate and land cover changes on emissions of BVOCs into the atmosphere and air quality in the US. The mesoscale WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model is applied at hemispheric (220 km grid cells) and continental US (36 km grid cells) scales for current (1995-2004) and future (2045-2054) decades to downscale climate results from the ECHAM5 global climate model for IPCC SRES scenario A1B. The MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature) model is driven by WRF meteorological results to predict biogenic emissions of VOCs and NOx. MEGAN accounts for vegetation species distributions and environmental factors such as temperature and light. Current decade vegetation distributions are derived from satellite observations. Future vegetation distributions are predicted from MAPSS (Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System) and the land cover model of IMAGE 2.0 (Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment). Future land cover changes include the expansion of croplands so that land management changes can also be examined. The CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling) chemical transport model is used to simulate O3 and aerosol concentrations using current- and future-decade biogenic emissions but with anthropogenic emissions held constant at current-decade levels. Results showing the changes in US air quality due to climate- and landuse-driven changes in biogenic emissions will be presented. These results are compared to previous simulations derived from the IPCC SRES scenario A1 scenario with the PCM (Parallel Climate Model

  16. Mapping Emissions that Contribute to Air Pollution Using Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastien, L. A. J.; Mcdonald, B. C.; Brown, N. J.; Harley, R.

    2014-12-01

    The adjoint of the Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) is used to map emissions that contribute to air pollution at receptors of interest. Adjoint tools provide an efficient way to calculate the sensitivity of a model response to a large number of model inputs, a task that would require thousands of simulations using a more traditional forward sensitivity approach. Initial applications of this technique, demonstrated here, are to benzene and directly-emitted diesel particulate matter, for which atmospheric reactions are neglected. Emissions of these pollutants are strongly influenced by light-duty gasoline vehicles and heavy-duty diesel trucks, respectively. We study air quality responses in three receptor areas where populations have been identified as especially susceptible to, and adversely affected by air pollution. Population-weighted air basin-wide responses for each pollutant are also evaluated for the entire San Francisco Bay area. High-resolution (1 km horizontal grid) emission inventories have been developed for on-road motor vehicle emission sources, based on observed traffic count data. Emission estimates represent diurnal, day of week, and seasonal variations of on-road vehicle activity, with separate descriptions for gasoline and diesel sources. Emissions that contribute to air pollution at each receptor have been mapped in space and time using the adjoint method. Effects on air quality of both relative (multiplicative) and absolute (additive) perturbations to underlying emission inventories are analyzed. The contributions of local versus upwind sources to air quality in each receptor area are quantified, and weekday/weekend and seasonal variations in the influence of emissions from upwind areas are investigated. The contribution of local sources to the total air pollution burden within the receptor areas increases from about 40% in the summer to about 50% in the winter due to increased atmospheric stagnation. The effectiveness of control

  17. RCRA/UST, superfund, and EPCRA hotline training module. Introduction to: Air emissions standards, updated as of July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The module provides a regulatory overview of the RCRA air emission standards as they apply to hazardous waste facilities. It outlines the history of RCRA air emission standards as well as the air emission controls required by the standards. It explains the differences between the parts 264/265, Subpart AA BB, CC, air emission standards and summarizes the requirements of each of these Subparts. It identifies the types of units subject to these requirements as well as specific exemptions.

  18. Estimates of air emissions from asphalt storage tanks and truck loading

    SciTech Connect

    Trumbore, D.C.

    1999-12-31

    Title V of the 1990 Clean Air Act requires the accurate estimation of emissions from all US manufacturing processes, and places the burden of proof for that estimate on the process owner. This paper is published as a tool to assist in the estimation of air emission from hot asphalt storage tanks and asphalt truck loading operations. Data are presented on asphalt vapor pressure, vapor molecular weight, and the emission split between volatile organic compounds and particulate emissions that can be used with AP-42 calculation techniques to estimate air emissions from asphalt storage tanks and truck loading operations. Since current AP-42 techniques are not valid in asphalt tanks with active fume removal, a different technique for estimation of air emissions in those tanks, based on direct measurement of vapor space combustible gas content, is proposed. Likewise, since AP-42 does not address carbon monoxide or hydrogen sulfide emissions that are known to be present in asphalt operations, this paper proposes techniques for estimation of those emissions. Finally, data are presented on the effectiveness of fiber bed filters in reducing air emissions in asphalt operations.

  19. DIESEL TRUCK IDLING EMISSIONS - MOBILE SOURCE AIR TOXICS MEASURED AT A HOT SPOT

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, II, James E; Storey, John Morse; Miller, Terry L.; Fu, Joshua S.; Hromis, Boris

    2007-01-01

    Mobile Source Air Toxics (MSATs) are of growing concern due to recent studies linking health risk to residency near heavily traveled roadways. Few research studies on MSAT emissions have been performed due to several factors; those factors include: the difficulty of measuring MSATs due to their semi-volatile nature, lower relative concentration in comparison to NOx and other criteria emissions, and fewer regulations on MSATs. In this paper, measurements of MSATs at a "hot spot" of poor air quality created by a high population of idling heavy-duty trucks are presented. The study area was the Watt Road-Interstate-40/75 interchange just west of Knoxville, TN where approximately 20,000 heavy-duty trucks travel along the interstate each day and hundreds of heavy-duty trucks idle at three large truck stops near the interchange. The air quality in the local area surrounding the interchange is affected negatively by the high number of mobile sources as well as geographic and meteorological conditions; the interchange lies in a valley between two ridges which slows long range transport of pollutants especially in winter months when temperature inversion occurs frequently. Ambient air quality was measured during summer and winter months of two separate years at three sites: a site in one of the truckstops, a site near the interstate roadway, and a site on top of one of the surrounding ridges chosen as a background site for comparison. Results of criteria pollutants measured at these sites are reported in a companion paper by Miller et. al.; the results presented here include measurements of MSATs such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and other species obtained via collection on di-nitrophenyl hydrazine (DNPH) filters. Also, preliminary measurements of poly-aromatic hydrocarbons are presented. The results indicate that emissions from idling heavy-duty trucks are a primary contributor of MSATs to local air quality near areas of high static truck traffic; furthermore

  20. Impacts of Energy Sector Emissions on PM2.5 Air Quality in Northern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karambelas, A. N.; Kiesewetter, G.; Heyes, C.; Holloway, T.

    2015-12-01

    India experiences high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and several Indian cities currently rank among the world's most polluted cities. With ongoing urbanization and a growing economy, emissions from different energy sectors remain major contributors to air pollution in India. Emission sectors impact ambient air quality differently due to spatial distribution (typical urban vs. typical rural sources) as well as source height characteristics (low-level vs. high stack sources). This study aims to assess the impacts of emissions from three distinct energy sectors—transportation, domestic, and electricity—on ambient PM2.5­­ in northern India using an advanced air quality analysis framework based on the U.S. EPA Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Present air quality conditions are simulated using 2010 emissions from the Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interaction and Synergies (GAINS) model. Modeled PM2.5 concentrations are compared with satellite observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for 2010. Energy sector emissions impacts on future (2030) PM2.5 are evaluated with three sensitivity simulations, assuming maximum feasible reduction technologies for either transportation, domestic, or electricity sectors. These simulations are compared with a business as usual 2030 simulation to assess relative sectoral impacts spatially and temporally. CMAQ is modeled at 12km by 12km and include biogenic emissions from the Community Land Model coupled with the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols in Nature (CLM-MEGAN), biomass burning emissions from the Global Fires Emissions Database (GFED), and ERA-Interim meteorology generated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for 2010 to quantify the impact of modified anthropogenic emissions on ambient PM2.5 concentrations. Energy sector emissions analysis supports decision-making to improve future air quality and public health in

  1. Co-benefits of mitigating global greenhouse gas emissions for future air quality and human health

    SciTech Connect

    West, Jason; Smith, Steven J.; Silva, Raquel; Naik, Vaishali; Zhang, Yuqiang; Adelman, Zacariah; Fry, Meridith M.; Anenberg, Susan C.; Horowitz, L.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

    2013-10-01

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions also influences air quality. We simulate the co-benefits of global GHG reductions on air quality and human health via two mechanisms: a) reducing co-emitted air pollutants, and b) slowing climate change and its effect on air quality. Relative to a reference scenario, global GHG mitigation in the RCP4.5 scenario avoids 0.5±0.2, 1.3±0.6, and 2.2±1.6 million premature deaths in 2030, 2050, and 2100, from changes in fine particulate matter and ozone. Global average marginal co-benefits of avoided mortality are $40-400 (ton CO2)-1, exceeding marginal abatement costs in 2030 and 2050, and within the low range of costs in 2100. East Asian co-benefits are 10-80 times the marginal cost in 2030. These results indicate that transitioning to a low-carbon future might be justified by air quality and health co-benefits.

  2. Investigation and estimation of emission sources of 54 volatile organic compounds in ambient air in Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshi, Jun-ya; Amano, Saeko; Sasaki, Yuko; Korenaga, Takashi

    Atmospheric concentrations of 52 hydrocarbons and two aldehydes at roadside and urban sites in Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan were analyzed using GC/MS and HPLC. Monthly sampling was conducted during April 2003-March 2005. Annual average concentrations of individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at the roadside site were 1.7-1.9 times higher than at the urban site, suggesting that vehicle exhausts strongly affect VOC concentrations. Since high temperatures and under the stagnant meteorological conditions might increase VOC concentrations in air, the levels of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatic hydrocarbons rose in summer and autumn in 2003 and 2004. The VOCs concentrations against benzene (VOCs/Bz) suggest classifying three groups of VOCs: those mainly from mobile emission sources, those mainly from stationary sources, and those comprising unstable compounds such as aldehydes and 1,3-butadiene. The VOC/Bz technique was applied to registered VOC data from the Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PRTR). Results show that these VOCs in ambient air in Tokyo reflect the PRTR estimated release amounts. The VOC/Bz technique based on environmental monitoring data is useful to estimate non-registered VOCs such as butane and isopentane. Results show the possibility of estimating emission sources using VOC/Bz ratios from environmental monitoring data, even when sufficient information on the emission sources are not available.

  3. Assessment of China's virtual air pollution transport embodied in trade by a consumption-based emission inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Davis, S. J.; Guan, D.; Liu, Z.; Huo, H.; Lin, J. T.; Liu, W. D.; He, K. B.

    2014-10-01

    High anthropogenic emissions from China have resulted in serious air pollution, and it has attracted considerable academic and public concern. The physical transport of air pollutants in the atmosphere has been extensively investigated, however, understanding the mechanisms how the pollutants were transferred through economic and trade activities remains challenge. In this work, we assessed China's virtual air pollutant transport embodied in trade, by using consumption-based accounting approach. We first constructed a consumption-based emission inventory for China's four key air pollutants (primary PM2.5, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)) in 2007, based on the bottom-up sectoral emission inventory concerning their production activities - a production-based inventory. We used a multiregional input-output (MRIO) model to integrate the sectoral production-based emissions and the associated economic and trade activities, and finally obtained consumption-based inventory. Unlike the production-based inventory, the consumption-based inventory tracked emissions throughout the supply chain related to the consumption of goods and services and hereby identified the emission flows followed the supply chains. From consumption-based perspective, emissions were significantly redistributed among provinces due to interprovincial trade. Large amount of emissions were embodied in the net imports of east regions from northern and central regions; these were determined by differences in the regional economic status and environmental policies. We also calculated the emissions embodied in exported and imported goods and services. It is found that 15-23% of China's pollutant emissions were related to exports for foreign consumption; that proportion was much higher for central and export-oriented coastal regions. It is suggested that measures should be introduced to reduce air pollution by integrating cross-regional consumers

  4. Effect of heat waves on VOC emissions from vegetation and urban air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churkina, G.; Kuik, F.; Lauer, A.; Bonn, B.; Butler, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Programs to plant millions of trees in cities around the world aim at the reduction of summer temperatures, increase carbon storage, storm water control, provision of space for recreation, as well as poverty alleviation. Although these multiple benefits speak positively for urban greening programs, the programs do not take into account how close human and natural systems are coupled in urban areas. Elevated temperatures together with anthropogenic emissions of air and water pollutants distinguish the urban system. Urban and sub-urban vegetation responds to ambient changes and reacts with pollutants. Neglecting this coupling may lead to unforeseen drawbacks of urban greening programs. The potential for emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vegetation combined with anthropogenic emissions to produce ozone has long been recognized. This potential increases under rising temperatures. Here we investigate how heat waves affect emissions of VOC from urban vegetation and corresponding ground-level ozone. In this study we use Weather Research and Forecasting Model with coupled atmospheric chemistry (WRF-CHEM) to quantify these feedbacks in Berlin, Germany during the 2006 heat wave. VOC emissions from vegetation are simulated with MEGAN 2.0 coupled with WRF-CHEM. Our preliminary results indicate that contribution of VOCs from vegetation to ozone formation may increase by more than twofold during the heat wave period. We highlight the importance of the vegetation for urban areas under changing climate and discuss associated tradeoffs.

  5. Regional Modelling of Air Quality in the Canadian Arctic: Impact of marine shipping and North American wild fire emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, W.; Beagley, S. R.; Zhang, J.; Cousineau, S.; Sassi, M.; Munoz-Alpizar, R.; Racine, J.; Menard, S.; Chen, J.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic atmospheric composition is strongly influenced by long-range transport from mid-latitudes as well as processes occurring in the Arctic locally. Using an on-line air quality prediction model GEM-MACH, simulations were carried out for the 2010 northern shipping season (April - October) over a regional Arctic domain. North American wildfire emissions and Arctic shipping emissions were represented, along with other anthropogenic and biogenic emissions. Sensitivity studies were carried out to investigate the principal sources and processes affecting air quality in the Canadian Northern and Arctic regions. In this paper, we present an analysis of sources, transport, and removal processes on the ambient concentrations and atmospheric loading of various pollutants with air quality and climate implications, such as, O3, NOx, SO2, CO, and aerosols (sulfate, black carbon, and organic carbon components). Preliminary results from a model simulation of a recent summertime Arctic field campaign will also be presented.

  6. Assessment of Air Emissions at the U S Liquids Exploration and Production Land Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Pardue; K.T. Valsaraj

    2000-12-01

    of E&P wastes. Additional emission measurements were made at the Bateman Island facility within cells over a range of ''ages'', from those most recently loaded with E&P wastes to cells that have not received wastes for 9 months or more. As expected the greatest chance for emissions when the cell is most recently loaded. Again, measured fluxes did not produce air concentrations that were of concern. As expected, the highest fluxes were observed in the cells that had recently received wastes and older cells had very low emissions. Measurements of emissions of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) were also conducted at these two facilities. Levels of emissions were similar to the xange observed in the literature for natural salt marshes that surround these facilities. Production of sulfide within the cells was also measured by the most sensitive techniques available and measured sulfide production rates were low in the samples tested. The only potential concern at the facility with regards to sulfide was the levels of sulfide emitted from the sumps. The facility logbook at Bourg was analyzed to determine a time sequence of activities over 1998-1999. The Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality conducted a time-series of air concentrations for hazardous air pollutants during this period at the fenceline of the Bourg facility. These data were characterized by periods of static concentrations interspersed with peaks. A series of peaks were analyzed and compared with logbook records for the activities occurring at the time. In reverse fashion, a set of activities documented by the logbook was examined and the concentrations of benzene that developed from these activities were documented. No direct correlation could be made with the observed peaks and any activities suggesting that concentrations of benzene at the fenceline may be the result of a complex suite of activities including onsite activities not documented in the logbook (loading of the cells by truck haulers) and

  7. Impact of air conditioning system operation on increasing gases emissions from automobile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burciu, S. M.; Coman, G.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a study concerning the influence of air conditioning system operation on the increase of gases emissions from cars. The study focuses on urban operating regimes of the automobile, regimes when the engines have low loads or are operating at idling. Are presented graphically the variations of pollution emissions (CO, CO2, HC) depending of engine speed and the load on air conditioning system. Additionally are presented, injection duration, throttle position, the mechanical power required by the compressor of air conditioning system and the refrigerant pressure variation on the discharge path, according to the stage of charging of the air conditioning system.

  8. Radiative Forcing associated with Particulate Carbon Emissions resulting from the Use of Mercury Control Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clack, H.; Penner, J. E.; Lin, G.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury is a persistent, toxic metal that bio-accumulates within the food web and causes neurological damage and fetal defects in humans. The U.S. was the first country to regulate the leading anthropogenic source of mercury into the atmosphere: coal combustion for electric power generation. The U.S. EPA's 2005 Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) was replaced and further tightened in 2012 by the Mercury and Air Toxics Standard (MATS), which required existing coal-fired utilities to reduce their mercury emissions by approximately 90% by 2015. Outside the U.S., the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has passed the legally binding Minamata global mercury treaty that compels its signatory countries to prevent and reduce the emission and release of mercury. The most mature technology for controlling mercury emissions from coal combustion is the injection into the flue gas of powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorbents having chemically treated surfaces designed to rapidly oxidize and adsorb mercury. However, such PAC is known to have electrical properties that make it difficult to remove from flue gas via electrostatic precipitation, by far the most common particulate control technology used in countries such as the U.S., India, and China which rely heavily on coal for power generation. As a result, PAC used to control mercury emissions can be emitted into the atmosphere, the sub-micron fraction of which may result in unintended radiative forcing similar to black carbon (BC). Here, we estimate the potential increases in secondary BC emissions, those not produced from combustion but arising instead from the use of injected PAC for mercury emission reduction. We also calculate the radiative forcing associated with these secondary BC emissions by using a global atmospheric chemical transport model coupled with a radiative transfer model.

  9. Incorporating Detailed Chemical Characterization of Biomass Burning Emissions into Air Quality Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsanti, K.; Hatch, L. E.; Yokelson, R. J.; Stockwell, C.; Orlando, J. J.; Emmons, L. K.; Knote, C. J.; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2015-12-01

    Approximately 500 Tg/yr of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) are emitted by biomass burning (BB) to the global atmosphere, leading to the photochemical production of ozone (O3) and secondary particulate matter (PM). Until recently, in studies of BB emissions, a significant mass fraction of NMOCs (up to 80%) remained uncharacterized or unidentified. Models used to simulate the air quality impacts of BB thus have relied on very limited chemical characterization of the emitted compounds. During the Fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-IV), an unprecedented fraction of emitted NMOCs were identified and quantified through the application of advanced analytical techniques. Here we use FLAME-IV data to improve BB emissions speciation profiles for individual fuel types. From box model simulations we evaluate the sensitivity of predicted precursor and pollutant concentrations (e.g., formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and terpene oxidation products) to differences in the emission speciation profiles, for a range of ambient conditions (e.g., high vs. low NOx). Appropriate representation of emitted NMOCs in models is critical for the accurate prediction of downwind air quality. Explicit simulation of hundreds of NMOCs is not feasible; therefore we also investigate the consequences of using existing assumptions and lumping schemes to map individual NMOCs to model surrogates and we consider alternative strategies. The updated BB emissions speciation profiles lead to markedly different surrogate compound distributions than the default speciation profiles, and box model results suggest that these differences are likely to affect predictions of PM and important gas-phase species in chemical transport models. This study highlights the potential for further BB emissions characterization studies, with concerted model development efforts, to improve the accuracy of BB predictions using necessarily simplified mechanisms.

  10. Formaldehyde emission behavior of building materials: on-site measurements and modeling approach to predict indoor air pollution.

    PubMed

    Bourdin, Delphine; Mocho, Pierre; Desauziers, Valérie; Plaisance, Hervé

    2014-09-15

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate formaldehyde emission behavior of building materials from on-site measurements of air phase concentration at material surface used as input data of a box model to estimate the indoor air pollution of a newly built classroom. The relevance of this approach was explored using CFD modeling. In this box model, the contribution of building materials to indoor air pollution was estimated with two parameters: the convective mass transfer coefficient in the material/air boundary layer and the on-site measurements of gas phase concentration at material surfaces. An experimental method based on an emission test chamber was developed to quantify this convective mass transfer coefficient. The on-site measurement of gas phase concentration at material surface was measured by coupling a home-made sampler to SPME. First results had shown an accurate estimation of indoor formaldehyde concentration in this classroom by using a simple box model.

  11. Nature of air pollution, emission sources, and management in the Indian cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttikunda, Sarath K.; Goel, Rahul; Pant, Pallavi

    2014-10-01

    The global burden of disease study estimated 695,000 premature deaths in 2010 due to continued exposure to outdoor particulate matter and ozone pollution for India. By 2030, the expected growth in many of the sectors (industries, residential, transportation, power generation, and construction) will result in an increase in pollution related health impacts for most cities. The available information on urban air pollution, their sources, and the potential of various interventions to control pollution, should help us propose a cleaner path to 2030. In this paper, we present an overview of the emission sources and control options for better air quality in Indian cities, with a particular focus on interventions like urban public transportation facilities; travel demand management; emission regulations for power plants; clean technology for brick kilns; management of road dust; and waste management to control open waste burning. Also included is a broader discussion on key institutional measures, like public awareness and scientific studies, necessary for building an effective air quality management plan in Indian cities.

  12. Impacts of flare emissions from an ethylene plant shutdown to regional air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ziyuan; Wang, Sujing; Xu, Qiang; Ho, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Critical operations of chemical process industry (CPI) plants such as ethylene plant shutdowns could emit a huge amount of VOCs and NOx, which may result in localized and transient ozone pollution events. In this paper, a general methodology for studying dynamic ozone impacts associated with flare emissions from ethylene plant shutdowns has been developed. This multi-scale simulation study integrates process knowledge of plant shutdown emissions in terms of flow rate and speciation together with regional air-quality modeling to quantitatively investigate the sensitivity of ground-level ozone change due to an ethylene plant shutdown. The study shows the maximum hourly ozone increments can vary significantly by different plant locations and temporal factors including background ozone data and solar radiation intensity. It helps provide a cost-effective air-quality control strategy for industries by choosing the optimal starting time of plant shutdown operations in terms of minimizing the induced ozone impact (reduced from 34.1 ppb to 1.2 ppb in the performed case studies). This study provides valuable technical supports for both CPI and environmental policy makers on cost-effective air-quality controls in the future.

  13. Polar firn air reveals large-scale impact of anthropogenic mercury emissions during the 1970s.

    PubMed

    Faïn, Xavier; Ferrari, Christophe P; Dommergue, Aurélien; Albert, Mary R; Battle, Mark; Severinghaus, Jeff; Arnaud, Laurent; Barnola, Jean-Marc; Cairns, Warren; Barbante, Carlo; Boutron, Claude

    2009-09-22

    Mercury (Hg) is an extremely toxic pollutant, and its biogeochemical cycle has been perturbed by anthropogenic emissions during recent centuries. In the atmosphere, gaseous elemental mercury (GEM; Hg degrees ) is the predominant form of mercury (up to 95%). Here we report the evolution of atmospheric levels of GEM in mid- to high-northern latitudes inferred from the interstitial air of firn (perennial snowpack) at Summit, Greenland. GEM concentrations increased rapidly after World War II from approximately 1.5 ng m(-3) reaching a maximum of approximately 3 ng m(-3) around 1970 and decreased until stabilizing at approximately 1.7 ng m(-3) around 1995. This reconstruction reproduces real-time measurements available from the Arctic since 1995 and exhibits the same general trend observed in Europe since 1990. Anthropogenic emissions caused a two-fold rise in boreal atmospheric GEM concentrations before the 1970s, which likely contributed to higher deposition of mercury in both industrialized and remotes areas. Once deposited, this toxin becomes available for methylation and, subsequently, the contamination of ecosystems. Implementation of air pollution regulations, however, enabled a large-scale decline in atmospheric mercury levels during the 1980s. The results shown here suggest that potential increases in emissions in the coming decades could have a similar large-scale impact on atmospheric Hg levels.

  14. Polar firn air reveals large-scale impact of anthropogenic mercury emissions during the 1970s

    PubMed Central

    Faïn, Xavier; Ferrari, Christophe P.; Dommergue, Aurélien; Albert, Mary R.; Battle, Mark; Severinghaus, Jeff; Arnaud, Laurent; Barnola, Jean-Marc; Cairns, Warren; Barbante, Carlo; Boutron, Claude

    2009-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is an extremely toxic pollutant, and its biogeochemical cycle has been perturbed by anthropogenic emissions during recent centuries. In the atmosphere, gaseous elemental mercury (GEM; Hg°) is the predominant form of mercury (up to 95%). Here we report the evolution of atmospheric levels of GEM in mid- to high-northern latitudes inferred from the interstitial air of firn (perennial snowpack) at Summit, Greenland. GEM concentrations increased rapidly after World War II from ≈1.5 ng m−3 reaching a maximum of ≈3 ng m−3 around 1970 and decreased until stabilizing at ≈1.7 ng m−3 around 1995. This reconstruction reproduces real-time measurements available from the Arctic since 1995 and exhibits the same general trend observed in Europe since 1990. Anthropogenic emissions caused a two-fold rise in boreal atmospheric GEM concentrations before the 1970s, which likely contributed to higher deposition of mercury in both industrialized and remotes areas. Once deposited, this toxin becomes available for methylation and, subsequently, the contamination of ecosystems. Implementation of air pollution regulations, however, enabled a large-scale decline in atmospheric mercury levels during the 1980s. The results shown here suggest that potential increases in emissions in the coming decades could have a similar large-scale impact on atmospheric Hg levels. PMID:19805267

  15. Oil and gas impacts on air quality in federal lands in the Bakken region: an overview of the Bakken Air Quality Study and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prenni, A. J.; Day, D. E.; Evanoski-Cole, A. R.; Sive, B. C.; Hecobian, A.; Zhou, Y.; Gebhart, K. A.; Hand, J. L.; Sullivan, A. P.; Li, Y.; Schurman, M. I.; Desyaterik, Y.; Malm, W. C.; Collett, J. L., Jr.; Schichtel, B. A.

    2016-02-01

    The Bakken formation contains billions of barrels of oil and gas trapped in rock and shale. Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing methods have allowed for extraction of these resources, leading to exponential growth of oil production in the region over the past decade. Along with this development has come an increase in associated emissions to the atmosphere. Concern about potential impacts of these emissions on federal lands in the region prompted the National Park Service to sponsor the Bakken Air Quality Study over two winters in 2013-2014. Here we provide an overview of the study and present some initial results aimed at better understanding the impact of local oil and gas emissions on regional air quality. Data from the study, along with long-term monitoring data, suggest that while power plants are still an important emissions source in the region, emissions from oil and gas activities are impacting ambient concentrations of nitrogen oxides and black carbon and may dominate recent observed trends in pollutant concentrations at some of the study sites. Measurements of volatile organic compounds also definitively show that oil and gas emissions were present in almost every air mass sampled over a period of more than 4 months.

  16. Halogenated greenhouse gas emissions over Central Europe inferred from ambient air measurements and 222-Rn activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Christoph; Brunner, Dominik; Vollmer, Martin K.; O'Doherty, Simon; Manning, Alistair; Reimann, Stefan

    2010-05-01

    To check for compliance with the reduction targets defined under the Kyoto Protocol, each participating country has to report its greenhouse gas emissions to the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). These emissions are calculated using a bottom-up approach, by combining categories of compound use and specific activity (release) functions. The uncertainties of these estimates are not well defined, thereby making an independent validation of the reported emissions highly desirable. Top-down estimates based on atmospheric concentration measurements and using a reference species as a priori information are a promising method for independent emission estimates. For this purpose, atmospheric Radon (222-Rn) is very well suited due to its exactly known radioactive decay lifetime of 5.5 days and its homogeneous release over soil with comparatively small spatial and temporal variability. In the present study, concentration measurements of halogenated greenhouse gases such as hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), perfluorocarbons (PFC) and SF6 at the remote sites Jungfraujoch (Switzerland) and Mace Head (Ireland) were combined with backward calculations of the Lagrangian Particle dispersion model FLEXPART to derive emission rates over Central Europe. The ability of FLEXPART to simulate the origin of air masses arriving at the receptor point was checked using 222-Rn measurements in combination with the flux map recently developed by Szegvary et al. (2007), and analysis was restricted to episodes where FLEXPART successfully reproduced the observed concentration pattern of 222-Rn. This procedure not only removes all measurements where the flow regime of air masses is uncertain and source attribution of emissions is therefore difficult, but also allows to correct for potential model uncertainties originating e.g. from the complex topography not resolved by the model. The top-down estimations derived in this study generally agree well with the bottom-up estimates

  17. Air Dispersion Modeling for the INL Application for a Synthetic Minor Sitewide Air Quality Permit to Construct with a Facility Emission Cap Component

    SciTech Connect

    Sondrup, Andrus Jeffrey

    2015-10-01

    The Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is applying for a synthetic minor, Sitewide, air quality permit to construct (PTC) with a facility emission cap (FEC) component from the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) for Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to limit its potential to emit to less than major facility limits for criteria air pollutants (CAPs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) regulated under the Clean Air Act. This document is supplied as an appendix to the application, Idaho National Laboratory Application for a Synthetic Minor Sitewide Air Quality Permit to Construct with a Facility Emissions Cap Component, hereafter referred to as “permit application” (DOE-ID 2015). Air dispersion modeling was performed as part of the permit application process to demonstrate pollutant emissions from the INL will not cause a violation of any ambient air quality standards. This report documents the modeling methodology and results for the air dispersion impact analysis. All CAPs regulated under Section 109 of the Clean Air Act were modeled with the exception of lead (Pb) and ozone, which are not required to be modeled by DEQ. Modeling was not performed for toxic air pollutants (TAPs) as uncontrolled emissions did not exceed screening emission levels for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic TAPs. Modeling for CAPs was performed with the EPA approved AERMOD dispersion modeling system (Version 14134) (EPA 2004a) and five years (2000-2004) of meteorological data. The meteorological data set was produced with the companion AERMET model (Version 14134) (EPA 2004b) using surface data from the Idaho Falls airport, and upper-air data from Boise International Airport supplied by DEQ. Onsite meteorological data from the Grid 3 Mesonet tower located near the center of the INL (north of INTEC) and supplied by the local National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) office was used for surface wind directions and wind speeds. Surface data (i

  18. NOx Emissions from Large Point Sources: Variability in Ozone Production, Resulting Health Damages and Economic Costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauzerall, D. L.; Sultan, B.; Kim, N.; Bradford, D.

    2004-12-01

    We present a proof-of-concept analysis of the measurement of the health damage of ozone (O3) produced from nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) emitted by individual large point sources in the eastern United States. We use a regional atmospheric model of the eastern United States, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx), to quantify the variable impact that a fixed quantity of NOx emitted from individual sources can have on the downwind concentration of surface O3, depending on temperature and local biogenic hydrocarbon emissions. We also examine the dependence of resulting ozone-related health damages on the size of the exposed population. The investigation is relevant to the increasingly widely used "cap and trade" approach to NOx regulation, which presumes that shifts of emissions over time and space, holding the total fixed over the course of the summer O3 season, will have minimal effect on the environmental outcome. By contrast, we show that a shift of a unit of NOx emissions from one place or time to another could result in large changes in the health effects due to ozone formation and exposure. We indicate how the type of modeling carried out here might be used to attach externality-correcting prices to emissions. Charging emitters fees that are commensurate with the damage caused by their NOx emissions would create an incentive for emitters to reduce emissions at times and in locations where they cause the largest damage.

  19. Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.; Anderson, S.

    2007-05-01

    This paper quantifies the mobile air-conditioning fuel consumption of the typical Indian vehicle, exploring potential fuel savings and emissions reductions these systems for the next generation of vehicles.

  20. 77 FR 60341 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines'' (77 FR 33812). The June 7, 2012... Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal......

  1. 75 FR 10184 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for Paints and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ..., and binders into paints and other coatings, such as stains, varnishes, lacquers, enamels, shellacs... Standards for Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing-- Technical Amendment AGENCY: Environmental...; National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing...

  2. CAPSULE REPORT: SOURCES AND AIR EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES AT WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemicals processed during waste management operations can volatilize into the atmosphere and cause carcinogenic or other toxic effects or contribute to ozone formation. Regulations have been developed to control air emissions from these operations. The EPA has promulgated st...

  3. Dynamic evaluation of a regional air quality model: Assessing the emissions-induced weekly ozone cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Thomas; Hogrefe, Christian; Trivikrama Rao, S.; Porter, P. Steven; Ku, Jia-Yeong

    2010-09-01

    Air quality models are used to predict changes in pollutant concentrations resulting from envisioned emission control policies. Recognizing the need to assess the credibility of air quality models in a policy-relevant context, we perform a dynamic evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system for the "weekend ozone effect" to determine if observed changes in ozone due to weekday-to-weekend (WDWE) reductions in precursor emissions can be accurately simulated. The weekend ozone effect offers a unique opportunity for dynamic evaluation, as it is a widely documented phenomenon that has persisted since the 1970s. In many urban areas of the Unites States, higher ozone has been observed on weekends than weekdays, despite dramatically reduced emissions of ozone precursors (nitrogen oxides [NO x] and volatile organic compounds [VOCs]) on weekends. More recent measurements, however, suggest shifts in the spatial extent or reductions in WDWE ozone differences. Using 18 years (1988-2005) of observed and modeled ozone and temperature data across the northeastern United States, we re-examine the long-term trends in the weekend effect and confounding factors that may be complicating the interpretation of this trend and explore whether CMAQ can replicate the temporal features of the observed weekend effect. The amplitudes of the weekly ozone cycle have decreased during the 18-year period in our study domain, but the year-to-year variability in weekend minus weekday (WEWD) ozone amplitudes is quite large. Inter-annual variability in meteorology appears to influence WEWD differences in ozone, as well as WEWD differences in VOC and NO x emissions. Because of the large inter-annual variability, modeling strategies using a single episode lasting a few days or a few episodes in a given year may not capture the WEWD signal that exists over longer time periods. The CMAQ model showed skill in predicting the absolute values of ozone concentrations during the

  4. Photon and radiowave emission from peeling pressure sensitive adhesives in air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donaldson, E. E.; Shen, X. A.; Dickinson, J. T.

    1985-01-01

    During separation of an adhesive from a polymer substrate in air, intense bursts of photons ('phE', for photon emission) and long wavelength electromagnetic radiation ('RE', for radiowave emission), similar to those reported earlier by Deryagin, et al. (1978) have been observed. In this paper, careful measurements of the phE time distributions, as well as time correlations between bursts of phE and RE, are reported. These results support the view that patches of electrical charge produced by charge separation between dissimilar materials lead to microdischarges in and near the crack tip. The role of these discharges in producing sustained phE after the discharge has been extinguished is also discussed.

  5. Global Air Quality Predictions of Particulate Matter in the Middle East and Sensitivity to Future Emissions Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couzo, E. A.; Holmes, C. D.; Paltsev, S.; Alawad, A.; Selin, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    We examine the influence of natural and anthropogenic drivers of future PM in the Middle East region using two future emissions scenarios to drive the GEOS-Chem atmospheric chemistry model. The Arabian Peninsula is a major source of windblown dust as well as anthropogenic aerosols. Future emissions - driven jointly and individually by climate change and anthropogenic emissions from this rapidly growing region - will play an important role in both climate forcing and human health impacts from particulate matter. We use two scenarios to compare their climate and air quality implications. First, we use the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) for four radiative forcing cases. Second, we develop a consistent future greenhouse gas and conventional pollutant emission inventory using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, which is a general equilibrium model of the global economy that calculates how economic growth and anthropogenic emissions change as a result of policies and other stressors. With EPPA, we examine three emissions cases, a business-as-usual case and two stabilization cases leading to anthropogenic radiative forcings of 3.7 W/m2 and 4.5 W/m2. We use these scenarios to drive GEOS-Chem for present and future climate, assessing changes in chemical composition of aerosol and drivers, both natural and anthropogenic, out to 2050. We find that projected anthropogenic emissions are strong determinants of future particulate matter air quality in the Middle East region.

  6. Impact of urban emission on air-quality over central Europe: present day and future emissions perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huszar, Peter; Belda, Michal; Halenka, Tomas; Karlicky, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the study is to quantify the impact of present-day and future urban emission from central European cities on the regional air-quality (AQ), based on a modeling couple of the regional climate model RegCM4.2 and the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the present (2001-2010) decade and two future decades (2026-2035 and 2046-2055) either with all urban emissions included (base case) or without considering urban emissions. As we are interested on the impact of emission changes only, the impact of different driving meteorological conditions in the future (due to climate change) are not considered. The emissions used is the TNO MEGAPOLI European emission database that includes country/sector based scenarios for years 2030 and 2050, which were used for the encompassing decades. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with -20% emission perturbation of NOx and/or NMVOC. The model was also validated using surface measurements of key pollutants. Selected air-quality measures were used as metrics describing the cities emission impact on regional air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration occurs over cities while over rural areas further from, ozone production is modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions also significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50-70% for NOx and SO2 , and up to 55% for PM2.5), but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10-20%). Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of %) fraction of the concentration is attributable to other sources from rural areas and minor cities. The future urban emission AQ fingerprint is, in general, slightly smaller than in

  7. INVESTIGATING THE INFLUENCE OF RELATIVE HUMIDITY, AIR VELOCITY, AND AMPLIFICATION ON THE EMISSION RATES OF FUNGAL SPORES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the impact of relative humidity (RH), air velocity, and surface growth on the emission rates of fungal spores from the surface of contaminated material. Although the results show a complex interaction of factors, we have determined, for this limited data set,...

  8. Estimating the benefits of pollution reduction on agricultural yields: Taiwan's air pollution emission fees program.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tser-yieth; Li, Chun-sheng

    2003-07-01

    Taiwan's implementation of the 1997 Air Pollution Emissions Fees Program will conceivably lead to long-term reductions in pollution emissions. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the benefits to Taiwan from the expected reduction in crop losses as a direct result of such a decrease in air pollution. We employ a demand-supply framework for rice production to estimate the change in social welfare resulting from changes in the concentration of certain pollutants in the atmosphere. Our empirical results show that, in the year 1997, social welfare increments resulting from the decline in sulfur dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere ranged between US dollars 946200 and US dollars 2435800. Meanwhile, during the same period, the increase in social welfare due to the decline in the ozone concentration in the atmosphere ranged between US dollars 838100 and US dollars 1927000. The average benefit from the reduction in both sulfur dioxide and ozone concentrations is calculated to be between US dollars 2.67 and US dollars 6.86 per acre (for sulfur dioxide), and from US dollars 2.36 to US dollars 5.43 per acre (for ozone). PMID:12837257

  9. Emission inventories and modeling requirements for the development of air quality plans. Application to Madrid (Spain).

    PubMed

    Borge, Rafael; Lumbreras, Julio; Pérez, Javier; de la Paz, David; Vedrenne, Michel; de Andrés, Juan Manuel; Rodríguez, Ma Encarnación

    2014-01-01

    Modeling is an essential tool for the development of atmospheric emission abatement measures and air quality plans. Most often these plans are related to urban environments with high emission density and population exposure. However, air quality modeling in urban areas is a rather challenging task. As environmental standards become more stringent (e.g. European Directive 2008/50/EC), more reliable and sophisticated modeling tools are needed to simulate measures and plans that may effectively tackle air quality exceedances, common in large urban areas across Europe, particularly for NO₂. This also implies that emission inventories must satisfy a number of conditions such as consistency across the spatial scales involved in the analysis, consistency with the emission inventories used for regulatory purposes and versatility to match the requirements of different air quality and emission projection models. This study reports the modeling activities carried out in Madrid (Spain) highlighting the atmospheric emission inventory development and preparation as an illustrative example of the combination of models and data needed to develop a consistent air quality plan at urban level. These included a series of source apportionment studies to define contributions from the international, national, regional and local sources in order to understand to what extent local authorities can enforce meaningful abatement measures. Moreover, source apportionment studies were conducted in order to define contributions from different sectors and to understand the maximum feasible air quality improvement that can be achieved by reducing emissions from those sectors, thus targeting emission reduction policies to the most relevant activities. Finally, an emission scenario reflecting the effect of such policies was developed and the associated air quality was modeled.

  10. EMISSIONS PROCESSING FOR THE ETA/ CMAQ AIR QUALITY FORECAST SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    NOAA and EPA have created an Air Quality Forecast (AQF) system. This AQF system links an adaptation of the EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality Model with the 12 kilometer ETA model running operationally at NOAA's National Center for Environmental Predication (NCEP). One of the...

  11. Modeling Study on Air Quality Improvement due to Mobile Source Emission control Plan in Seoul Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. J.; Sunwoo, Y.; Hwang, I.; Song, S.; Sin, J.; Kim, D.

    2015-12-01

    A very high population and corresponding high number of vehicles in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) are aggravating the air quality of this region. The Korean government continues to make concerted efforts to improve air quality. One of the major policies that the Ministry of Environment of Korea enforced is "The Special Act for Improvement of Air Quality in SMA" and "The 1st Air Quality Management Plan of SMA". Mobile Source emission controls are an important part of the policy. Thus, it is timely to evaluate the air quality improvement due to the controls. Therefore, we performed a quantitative analysis of the difference in air quality using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and December, 2011 was set as the target period to capture the impact of the above control plans. We considered four fuel-type vehicle emission scenarios and compared the air quality improvement differences between them. The scenarios are as follows: no-control, gasoline vehicle control only, diesel vehicle control only, and control of both; utilizing the revised mobile source emissions from the Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS), which is the national emission inventory reflecting current policy.In order to improve the accuracy of the modeling data, we developed new temporal allocation coefficients based on traffic volume observation data and spatially reallocated the mobile source emissions using vehicle flow survey data. Furthermore, we calculated the PM10 and PM2.5 emissions of gasoline vehicles which is omitted in CAPSS.The results of the air quality modeling shows that vehicle control plans for both gasoline and diesel lead to a decrease of 0.65ppb~8.75ppb and 0.02㎍/㎥~7.09㎍/㎥ in NO2 and PM10 monthly average concentrations, respectively. The large percentage decreases mainly appear near the center of the metropolis. However, the largest NO2 decrease percentages are found in the northeast region of Gyeonggi-do, which is the province that surrounds the

  12. Compilation of air pollutant emission factors, supplement 12

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    Revised or updated data are presented for dry cleaning: surface coating, storage of organic liquids, solvent degreasing, graphic arts, consumer/commercial solvent use, sulfuric acid, beer making, ammonium sulfate, primary aluminum, secondary aluminum, gray iron foundries, steel foundries, secondary zinc, asphaltic concrete, asphalt roofing, NEDS source classification codes and emission factor listing, and table of lead emission factors.

  13. Research Spotlight: Satellites monitor air pollutant emissions in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    A new satellite study verifies that Chinese emission control efforts did reduce power plant emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), a harmful gas that causes acid rain and can form sulfate aerosols; these aerosols play an important role in the climate system by affecting clouds and precipitation patterns and altering the amount of sunlight that is reflected away from Earth.

  14. Modelled air pollution levels versus EC air quality legislation - results from high resolution simulation.

    PubMed

    Chervenkov, Hristo

    2013-12-01

    An appropriate method for evaluating the air quality of a certain area is to contrast the actual air pollution levels to the critical ones, prescribed in the legislative standards. The application of numerical simulation models for assessing the real air quality status is allowed by the legislation of the European Community (EC). This approach is preferable, especially when the area of interest is relatively big and/or the network of measurement stations is sparse, and the available observational data are scarce, respectively. Such method is very efficient for similar assessment studies due to continuous spatio-temporal coverage of the obtained results. In the study the values of the concentration of the harmful substances sulphur dioxide, (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter - coarse (PM10) and fine (PM2.5) fraction, ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO) and ammonia (NH3) in the surface layer obtained from modelling simulations with resolution 10 km on hourly bases are taken to calculate the necessary statistical quantities which are used for comparison with the corresponding critical levels, prescribed in the EC directives. For part of them (PM2.5, CO and NH3) this is done for first time with such resolution. The computational grid covers Bulgaria entirely and some surrounding territories and the calculations are made for every year in the period 1991-2000. The averaged over the whole time slice results can be treated as representative for the air quality situation of the last decade of the former century.

  15. Remote monitoring of air pollutant emissions from point sources by a mobile lidar/sodar system.

    PubMed

    Schröter, Marc; Obermeier, Andreas; Brüggemann, Dieter; Plechschmidt, Michael; Klemm, Otto

    2003-06-01

    This paper describes remote monitoring of air pollutant emissions by a mobile lidar (light detection and ranging)/ sodar (sound detection and ranging) system. First, measurements are carried out in the flue gas plume of a public power plant. The investigations focus mainly on quantifying SO2 emissions, but the uncertainties of such measurements are also emphasized. Furthermore, an example providing valuable data sets for the development and validation of plume dispersion models is outlined with measurements of the dilution of SO2 along the plume axis. Series of repeated determinations of SO2 emissions show a large variation in the obtained flux values, with moderate margins of error. Incomplete recording of the plume within the individual lidar scans, induced by strong looping movements of the flue gas plume, predominantly causes the variations of flux values. Therefore, the highest flux values determined are considered to be the most exact. This is verified by a comparison of measured fluxes with in situ measurements made by the plant operators. The results further indicate that lidar measurements illustrate the location and dimension of aerosol plumes better than the location and dimension of the plumes of gaseous compounds. The wind direction affecting the plume at any moment can be determined faster by lidar than by sodar because the latter requires much longer time intervals of signal averaging. Measurements show higher concentrations of SO2 compared with results from a Gaussian plume model for periods of less than 5 min after dispersion. The findings emphasize the suitability of remote sensing for detecting emissions and for investigating the propagation and dilution of air pollutant plumes.

  16. Estimation of monetary values of air pollutant emissions in various US areas

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.Q.; Santini, D.J.

    1994-08-17

    Two general methods of estimating monetary values of air pollutants are presented in this paper. The damage estimate method directly estimated, air pollutant by simulating air quality, identifying health and other welfare impacts damage values and valuing the identified impacts of air pollution, and valuing the identified impacts. Although the method is theoretically sound, many assumptions are involved in each of its estimation steps, and uncertainty exists in each step. The control cost estimate method estimates the marginal emission control cost, which represents the opportunity cost offset by emission reductions from some given control measures. Studies conducted to estimate emission values in US regions used either the damage estimate method or the control cost estimate method. Taking emission values estimated for some US air basins, this paper establishes regression relationships between emission values and total population and air pollutant concentrations. On the basis of the established relationships, both damage-based and control-cost-based emission values are estimated for 17 major US urban areas.

  17. Importance of transboundary transport of biomass burning emissions to regional air quality in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aouizerats, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Balasubramanian, R.; Betha, R.

    2014-05-01

    absolute values of SOA (up to 20 μg m-3) were much lower than those from POA, indicating a minor role of SOA in biomass burning plumes. Our results show that about 21% of the total mass loading of ambient PM10 during the July-October study period in Singapore was due to biomass and peat burning in Sumatra, but this contribution increased during high burning periods. In total, our model results indicated that during 35 days aerosol concentrations in Singapore were above the threshold of 50 μg m-3 day-1 indicating poor air quality. During 17 days this was due to fires, based on the difference between the simulations with and without fires. Local pollution in combination with recirculation of air masses was probably the main cause of poor air quality during the other 18 days, although fires from Sumatra and probably also from Borneo added to the enhanced PM10 concentrations. The model vs. measurement comparisons highlighted that for our study period and region the GFED3 biomass burning aerosol emissions were more in line with observations than found in other studies. This indicates that care should be taken when using AOD to constrain emissions or estimate ground-level air quality. This study also shows the need for relatively high resolution modeling to accurately reproduce the advection of air masses necessary to quantify the impacts and feedbacks on air quality.

  18. Impacts of reductions in emissions of multipollutants over 2005-2030 on regional air quality and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, H.; Yang, Y.; Chang, W.; Shindell, D. T.; Faluvegi, G.

    2011-12-01

    Many societal activities lead to emissions to the atmosphere that affect both air quality and climate. We examine how particular policies may be able to provide benefits in both these areas using three coupled global chemistry-climate models (CACTUS, GISS-PUCCINI, and NCAR-CESM). The anthropogenic emissions for years 2005 and 2030 are taken from the datasets generated by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) GAINS (Greenhouse gas-Air pollution Interactions and Synergies) model. The 2030 emissions scenarios include (1) a reference scenario, (2) a low GWP scenario, and (3) the lowest emissions scenario. The reference scenario assumes that all agreed air pollution policies are being implemented, and the other two scenarios have additional reductions in emissions based on a selected set of measures. We firstly evaluate the model predictions for 2005, and then investigate the simulated year 2030 concentrations of ozone, sulfate, black carbon, and organic carbon, aerosol optical depth, as well as year 2030 radiative forcing relative to 2005. Both direct and indirect radiative forcings of aerosols are considered. Our model results suggest that taking measures to reduce emissions in China can reduce year 2030 PM2.5 concentrations in China by 20-60% and help to mitigate near-term regional climate change.

  19. Impact of Marcellus Shale natural gas development in southwest Pennsylvania on volatile organic compound emissions and regional air quality.

    PubMed

    Swarthout, Robert F; Russo, Rachel S; Zhou, Yong; Miller, Brandon M; Mitchell, Brittney; Horsman, Emily; Lipsky, Eric; McCabe, David C; Baum, Ellen; Sive, Barkley C

    2015-03-01

    The Marcellus Shale is the largest natural gas deposit in the U.S. and rapid development of this resource has raised concerns about regional air pollution. A field campaign was conducted in the southwestern Pennsylvania region of the Marcellus Shale to investigate the impact of unconventional natural gas (UNG) production operations on regional air quality. Whole air samples were collected throughout an 8050 km(2) grid surrounding Pittsburgh and analyzed for methane, carbon dioxide, and C1-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Elevated mixing ratios of methane and C2-C8 alkanes were observed in areas with the highest density of UNG wells. Source apportionment was used to identify characteristic emission ratios for UNG sources, and results indicated that UNG emissions were responsible for the majority of mixing ratios of C2-C8 alkanes, but accounted for a small proportion of alkene and aromatic compounds. The VOC emissions from UNG operations accounted for 17 ± 19% of the regional kinetic hydroxyl radical reactivity of nonbiogenic VOCs suggesting that natural gas emissions may affect compliance with federal ozone standards. A first approximation of methane emissions from the study area of 10.0 ± 5.2 kg s(-1) provides a baseline for determining the efficacy of regulatory emission control efforts.

  20. Impact of Marcellus Shale natural gas development in southwest Pennsylvania on volatile organic compound emissions and regional air quality.

    PubMed

    Swarthout, Robert F; Russo, Rachel S; Zhou, Yong; Miller, Brandon M; Mitchell, Brittney; Horsman, Emily; Lipsky, Eric; McCabe, David C; Baum, Ellen; Sive, Barkley C

    2015-03-01

    The Marcellus Shale is the largest natural gas deposit in the U.S. and rapid development of this resource has raised concerns about regional air pollution. A field campaign was conducted in the southwestern Pennsylvania region of the Marcellus Shale to investigate the impact of unconventional natural gas (UNG) production operations on regional air quality. Whole air samples were collected throughout an 8050 km(2) grid surrounding Pittsburgh and analyzed for methane, carbon dioxide, and C1-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Elevated mixing ratios of methane and C2-C8 alkanes were observed in areas with the highest density of UNG wells. Source apportionment was used to identify characteristic emission ratios for UNG sources, and results indicated that UNG emissions were responsible for the majority of mixing ratios of C2-C8 alkanes, but accounted for a small proportion of alkene and aromatic compounds. The VOC emissions from UNG operations accounted for 17 ± 19% of the regional kinetic hydroxyl radical reactivity of nonbiogenic VOCs suggesting that natural gas emissions may affect compliance with federal ozone standards. A first approximation of methane emissions from the study area of 10.0 ± 5.2 kg s(-1) provides a baseline for determining the efficacy of regulatory emission control efforts. PMID:25594231

  1. Assessing the impact of the forthcoming decrease in diesel exhaust particulate matter emissions on air quality: implications for black carbon concentrations in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Y.; Rodríguez, S.; Cuevas, E.; Ramos, R.; Abreu-Afonso, J.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    Forthcoming regulations (e.g. EURO 5 and EURO 6) are planned to reduce particulate matter emissions (PM) in the exhaust of forthcoming vehicles. In this study we assess the impact of such reduction in the diesel PM exhaust emissions on the urban ambient air PM concentrations. This has been done by studying the relationship between black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO) in urban ambient air and in the exhaust of current and forthcoming vehicles. The slope of the BC-vs-CO linear relationship is mainly affected by the percentage (%) of diesel automobiles in the urban vehicles fleet. This slope is a better indicator of the diesel PM emissions than bulk BC concentrations in urban ambient air. BC-vs-CO slopes within the range 1-3 and 7-14 ngBC/µgCO are typically observed in urban areas with low (<25%) and high (≥50%) proportions of diesel-fuel consumption for on road transportation, respectively. The entry into force of forthcoming regulations will decrease the BC-vs-CO slope in urban ambient air from about 10 to 5 ngBC/µgCO in the next decade, according to calculations based on the current data on diesel vehicles in urban fleets in Spanish cities. However, this will not necessary prompt a significant decrease in the urban BC concentrations if road traffic volume follows the increasing trend of the last decade. The results of this study shows that the analysis of the BC-vs-CO slope trend in ambient air is an useful tool for understanding the involvement "of the changes in the vehicle exhaust emissions rates" and "of the changes in the road traffic volume" in the BC and PMx trends in urban ambient air.

  2. Air-sampling inlet contamination by aircraft emissions on the NASA CV-990 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, E. P.; Vedder, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    Results of an experimental investigation of the contamination of air sampling inlets by aircraft emissions from the NASA CV-990 research aircraft are presented. This four-engine jet aircraft is a NASA facility used for many different atmospheric and meteorological experiments, as well as for developing spacecraft instrumentation for remote measurements. Our investigations were performed to provide information on which to base the selection of sampling locations for a series of multi-instrument missions for measuring tropospheric trace gases. The major source of contamination is the exhaust from the jet engines, which generate many of the same gases that are of interest in atmospheric chemistry, as well as other gases that may interfere with sampling measurements. The engine exhaust contains these gases in mixing ratios many orders of magnitude greater than those that occur in the clean atmosphere which the missions seek to quantify. Pressurized samples of air were collected simultaneously from a scoop located forward of the engines to represent clean air and from other multiport scoops at various aft positions on the aircraft. The air samples were analyzed in the laboratory by gas chromatography for carbon monoxide, an abundant combustion by-product. Data are presented for various scoop locations under various flight conditions.

  3. Megacity and country emissions from combustion sources-Buenos Aires-Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawidowski, L.; Gomez, D.; Matranga, M.; D'Angiola, A.; Oreggioni, G.

    2010-12-01

    Historic time series (1970-2006) emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants arising from stationary and mobile combustion sources were estimated at national level for Argentina and at regional level for the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires (MABA). All emissions were estimated using a bottom-up approach following the IPCC good practice guidance. For mobile sources, national emissions include all transport categories. Regional emissions account thus far only for on-road. For national emissions, methodologies and guidance by the IPCC were employed, applying the highest possible tier and using: i)country-specific emission factors for carbon and sulphur and technology-based information for other species, ii)activity data from energy balance series (1970-2007), and iii)complementary information concerning the non-energy use of fuels. Regional emissions in 2006 were estimated in-depth using a technology-based approach for the city of Buenos Aires (CBA) and the 24 neighboring districts composing the MABA. A regional emissions factors database was developed to better characterize Latin American fleets and driving conditions employing COPERT III-IV algorithms and emission factors measured in dynamometers and circulating vehicles in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Colombia. Past emissions were back estimated from 2005 to 1970 using the best available information, which differs greatly among categories, spatial disaggregation and time periods. The time series of stationary and mobile combustion sources at the national and regional level allowed the identification of distinct patterns. National greenhouse gas emissions in 2006 amounted to ~ 150 million ton CO2-equivalent, 70% of which were contributed by stationary sources. On-road transport was the major contributor within mobile sources (28.1 %). The increasing emissions trends are dominated by on-road transport, agriculture and residential categories while the variability is largely associated with energy industries

  4. Characteristics of emissions of air pollutants from burning of incense in temples, Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wang, B; Lee, S C; Ho, K F; Kang, Y M

    2007-05-01

    Field investigations of target air pollutants at two of the most famous temples in Hong Kong were conducted. The air pollution problems in these two temples during peak and non-peak periods were characterized. The target air pollutants included particulate matters (PM(10), PM(2.5)), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbonyl compounds, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), methane (CH(4)), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and inorganic ions (Cl(-), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), Na(+), NH(4)(+), and K(+)). The pollutant levels of the two temples during peak period were shown to be significantly higher than those during non-peak period. The highest average CO level was obtained at Temple 1 during peak period, which exceeded IAQO 8-h Good Class criteria. In general, the average PM(2.5)/PM(10) ratios were approximately 82%. The results revealed that the fine particulates (PM(2.5)) constituted the majority of suspended particulates at both temples. It was noted that formaldehyde was the most abundant carbonyl compounds, followed by acetaldehyde. At Temple 1 during peak period, the average benzene concentration exceeded almost 8 times more than Indoor Air Quality Objectives for Office Buildings and Public Places (IAQO) [HKEPD, 2003. Guidance notes for the management of indoor air quality in offices and public places. Indoor air quality management group, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.] Good Class criteria. The average OC/EC ratios ranged from 2.6 to 17 in PM(10) and from 4.2 to 18 in PM(2.5) at two temples, which suggested that OC measured in these two temple areas may be due to both direct emission from incense burning and secondary formation by chemical reactions. The total mass of inorganic ions, organic carbon, and elemental carbon accounted for about 71% in PM(2.5) and 72% in PM(10).

  5. Evaluation of national emissions inventories of anthropogenic air pollutants for Brunei Darussalam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotse, Sam-Quarcoo; Dagar, Lalit; Petra, Mohammad Iskandar; De Silva, Liyanage C.

    2016-05-01

    Haze and other air pollution related problems are getting more significant in Brunei Darussalam but till date there is absence of comprehensive national emission inventory for Brunei Darussalam. Although there are few regional and global inventories available for Brunei Darussalam, large variations in the emission estimates exist in these datasets. Therefore, there is an important need for an updated inventory, based on data available from government and other sources. This study presents a sector-wise anthropogenic emission estimates and trends (2001-2012) for the pollutants CO2, CH4, N2O, NOX, NMVOC, CO, SOX, and PM10. The results suggest no significant contributions from residential sector (<1%) whilst road transport is the main contributor for most of the pollutants. CO2 is largely emitted by power plants (∼72% in 2001 and∼ 62% in 2012) and the main source of CH4 is Solid waste disposal and wastewater handling (∼92%). There were also significant contributions from industrial processes and solvent use to NMVOC and PM10 emissions (∼74% and ∼45% respectively).

  6. “Exchanges of Aggregate Air Nitrogen Emissions and Watershed Nitrogen Loads”

    EPA Science Inventory

    An approach has been developed to define transfer coefficients that can be used to convert changes in air emissions to changes in air deposition and subsequently to changes in loads delivered to the Bay. This approach uses a special CMAQ version that quantitatively attributes wa...

  7. 78 FR 59317 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Revision to Emission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... Implementation Plan (SIP). The revision pertains to revised emission limitations for the R. Paul Smith Power... section 110 of the Clean Air Act. DATES: The proposed rule published on June 18, 2010 (75 FR 34670), is... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland;...

  8. 75 FR 34670 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Revision to Emission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... Smith Power Station located in Washington County. This action is being taken under the Clean Air Act... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Revision to Emission Limitations for R. Paul Smith Power Station AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  9. EMISSIONS OF ORGANIC AIR TOXICS FROM OPEN BURNING: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    A detailed literature search was performed to collect and collate available data reporting emissions of organic air toxics from open burning sources. Availability of data varied according to the source and the class of air toxics of interest, and there were several sources for wh...

  10. 76 FR 38591 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Lead Smelting; Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Secondary Lead Smelting (76 FR 29032... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Lead Smelting, was published May 19, 2011 (76 FR 29032... current rule. DATES: Comments on the proposed rule published May 19, 2011 (76 FR 29032) must be...

  11. 40 CFR 86.166-12 - Method for calculating emissions due to air conditioning leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determine a refrigerant leakage rate in grams per year from vehicle-based air conditioning units. The... using the following equation: Grams/YRTOT = Grams/YRRP + Grams/YRSP + Grams/YRFH + Grams/YRMC + Grams/YRC Where: Grams/YRTOT = Total air conditioning system emission rate in grams per year and rounded...

  12. 40 CFR 62.14107 - Emission limits for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... incinerators. 62.14107 Section 62.14107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... 20, 1994 § 62.14107 Emission limits for air curtain incinerators. The owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator with the capacity to combust greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid...

  13. 40 CFR 62.14107 - Emission limits for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... incinerators. 62.14107 Section 62.14107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... 20, 1994 § 62.14107 Emission limits for air curtain incinerators. The owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator with the capacity to combust greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid...

  14. 40 CFR 62.14107 - Emission limits for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... incinerators. 62.14107 Section 62.14107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... 20, 1994 § 62.14107 Emission limits for air curtain incinerators. The owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator with the capacity to combust greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid...

  15. 40 CFR 62.14107 - Emission limits for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... incinerators. 62.14107 Section 62.14107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... 20, 1994 § 62.14107 Emission limits for air curtain incinerators. The owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator with the capacity to combust greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid...

  16. 40 CFR 62.14107 - Emission limits for air curtain incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... incinerators. 62.14107 Section 62.14107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... 20, 1994 § 62.14107 Emission limits for air curtain incinerators. The owner or operator of an air curtain incinerator with the capacity to combust greater than 250 tons per day of municipal solid...

  17. Air emissions due to wind and solar power.

    PubMed

    Katzenstein, Warren; Apt, Jay

    2009-01-15

    Renewables portfolio standards (RPS) encourage large-scale deployment of wind and solar electric power. Their power output varies rapidly, even when several sites are added together. In many locations, natural gas generators are the lowest cost resource available to compensate for this variability, and must ramp up and down quickly to keep the grid stable, affecting their emissions of NOx and CO2. We model a wind or solar photovoltaic plus gas system using measured 1-min time-resolved emissions and heat rate data from two types of natural gas generators, and power data from four wind plants and one solar plant. Over a wide range of renewable penetration, we find CO2 emissions achieve approximately 80% of the emissions reductions expected if the power fluctuations caused no additional emissions. Using steam injection, gas generators achieve only 30-50% of expected NOx emissions reductions, and with dry control NOx emissions increase substantially. We quantify the interaction between state RPSs and NOx constraints, finding that states with substantial RPSs could see significant upward pressure on NOx permit prices, if the gas turbines we modeled are representative of the plants used to mitigate wind and solar power variability.

  18. Emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants from commercial aircraft at international airports in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sang-Keun; Shon, Zang-Ho

    2012-12-01

    The emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air pollutants from aircraft in the boundary layer at four major international airports in Korea over a two-year period (2009-2010) were estimated using the Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS) (i.e. activity-based (Landing/Take-Off (LTO) cycle) methodology). Both domestic and international LTOs and ground support equipment at the airports were considered. The average annual emissions of GHGs (CO2, N2O, CH4 and H2O) at all four airports during the study period were 1.11 × 103, 1.76 × 10-2, -1.85 × 10-3 and 3.84 × 108 kt yr-1, respectively. The emissions of air pollutants (NOx, CO, VOCs and particulate matter) were 5.20, 4.12, 7.46 × 10-1 and 3.37 × 10-2 kt yr-1, respectively. The negative CH4 emission indicates the consumption of atmospheric CH4 in the engine. The monthly and daily emissions of GHGs and air pollutants showed no significant variations at all airports examined. The emissions of GHGs and air pollutants for each aircraft operational mode differed considerably, with the largest emission observed in taxi-out mode.

  19. 78 FR 25242 - Delegation of New Source Performance Standards and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 60 and 61 Delegation of New Source Performance Standards and National Emission... Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP... identity or contact information unless you provide it in the body of your comment. If you send...

  20. Optical emission spectroscopy of point-plane corona and back-corona discharges in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czech, T.; Sobczyk, A. T.; Jaworek, A.

    2011-12-01

    Results of spectroscopic investigations and current-voltage characteristics of corona discharge and back discharge on fly-ash layer, generated in point-plane electrode geometry in air at atmospheric pressure are presented in the paper. The characteristics of both discharges are similar but differ in the current and voltage ranges of all the discharge forms distinguished during the experiments. Three forms of back discharge, for positive and negative polarity, were investigated: glow, streamer and low-current back-arc. In order to characterize ionisation and excitation processes in back discharge, the emission spectra were measured and compared with those obtained for normal corona discharge generated in the same electrode configuration but with fly ash layer removed. The emission spectra were measured in two discharge zones: near the tip of needle electrode and near the plate. Visual forms of the discharge were recorded with digital camera and referred to current-voltage characteristics and emission spectra. The measurements have shown that spectral lines emitted by back discharge depend on the form of discharge and the discharge current. From the comparison of the spectral lines of back and normal discharges an effect of fly ash layer on the discharge morphology can be determined. The recorded emission spectra formed by ionised gas and plasma near the needle electrode and fly ash layer are different. It should be noted that in back arc emission, spectral lines of fly ash layer components can be distinguished. On the other hand, in needle zone, the emission of high intensity N2 second positive system and NO γ lines can be noticed. Regardless of these gaseous lines, also atomic lines of dust layer were present in the spectrum. The differences in spectra of back discharge for positive and negative polarities of the needle electrode have been explained by considering the kind of ions generated in the crater in fly ash layer. The aim of these studies is to better

  1. Establishment of a high-resolution emission inventory and its impact assessment on air quality modeling in Jiangsu Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Zhao, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A high-resolution emission inventory of Jiangsu Province was developed for 2012, using the bottom-up method with the best available domestic emission factors and activity data incorporated. Information of over 6,000 point sources including geographical location, fuel type, burner type and removal efficiency were investigated from various available data sources. The point sources were estimated to account for 83.9%, 71.2%, 63.7% and 54.5% of the total SO2, NOx, PM2.5 and VOCs emissions respectively. Improvement of this provincial emission inventory was assessed by comparisons with emission estimation at national level. For SO2 from power plants, NOx from transportation and PM2.5 from industry, correlation coefficients were 0.703, 0.814 and 0.335, indicated other than power plants and transportation, there was an improvement in estimation of small industrial pollution sources which were usually estimated as area sources in national emission inventory. Correlation analysis of NOx emission and tropospheric NO2 vertical column density measured by Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) were also conducted. The correlation coefficient rose from 0.52 to 0.57 after revisions on geographical locations of 20 large point sources. Such result indicated the local source information from Environmental Statistics should be carefully examined before it can be applied for emission inventory development. In order to assess the improvement in spatial distribution and emission estimation on air quality modeling, the provincial and national emission inventory were input to Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) simulations. Simulations performed better when emissions were updated from Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC) to provincial inventory, indicating the necessity of improved spatial and temporal distribution of emissions on air quality modeling, especially for gaseous pollutants. For SO2, the normalized mean bias (NMB) and normalized mean error (NME) decreased

  2. Nonlinear air-coupled emission: The signature to reveal and image microdamage in solid materials

    SciTech Connect

    Solodov, Igor; Busse, Gerd

    2007-12-17

    It is shown that low-frequency elastic vibrations of near-surface planar defects cause high-frequency ultrasonic radiation in surrounding air. The frequency conversion mechanism is concerned with contact nonlinearity of the defect vibrations and provides efficient generation of air-coupled higher-order ultraharmonics, ultrasubharmonics, and combination frequencies. The nonlinear air-coupled ultrasonic emission is applied for location and high-resolution imaging of damage-induced defects in a variety of solid materials.

  3. Results from the International Halocarbons in Air Comparison Experiment (IHALACE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, B. D.; Engel, A.; Mühle, J.; Elkins, J. W.; Artuso, F.; Atlas, E.; Aydin, M.; Blake, D.; Brunke, E.-G.; Chiavarini, S.; Fraser, P. J.; Happell, J.; Krummel, P. B.; Levin, I.; Loewenstein, M.; Maione, M.; Montzka, S. A.; O'Doherty, S.; Reimann, S.; Rhoderick, G.; Saltzman, E. S.; Scheel, H. E.; Steele, L. P.; Vollmer, M. K.; Weiss, R. F.; Worthy, D.; Yokouchi, Y.

    2014-02-01

    The International Halocarbons in Air Comparison Experiment (IHALACE) was conducted to document relationships between calibration scales among various laboratories that measure atmospheric greenhouse and ozone depleting gases. This study included trace gases such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), as well as nitrous oxide, methane, sulfur hexafluoride, very short-lived halocompounds, and carbonyl sulfide. Many of these gases are present in the unpolluted atmosphere at pmol mol-1 (parts per trillion) or nmol mol-1 (parts per billion) levels. Six stainless steel cylinders containing natural and modified natural air samples were circulated among 19 laboratories. Results from this experiment reveal relatively good agreement (within a few percent) among commonly used calibration scales. Scale relationships for some gases, such as CFC-12 and CCl4, were found to be consistent with those derived from estimates of global mean mole fractions, while others, such as halon-1211 and CH3Br, revealed discrepancies. The transfer of calibration scales among laboratories was problematic in many cases, meaning that measurements tied to a particular scale may not, in fact, be compatible. Large scale transfer errors were observed for CH3CCl3 (10-100%) and CCl4 (2-30%), while much smaller scale transfer errors (< 1%) were observed for halon-1211, HCFC-22, and HCFC-142b. These results reveal substantial improvements in calibration over previous comparisons. However, there is room for improvement in communication and coordination of calibration activities with respect to the measurement of halogenated and related trace gases.

  4. Evaluation of speciated VOC emission factors for Air Force hush houses

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, P.D.; Stevens, D.K.

    1997-12-31

    Data published in: ``Engine and Hush House Emissions from a TF30-P109 Jet Engine Tested at Cannon Air Force Base, NM`` by Radian Corporation and ``Aircraft Emissions. Characterization: TF41-A2, TF30-P103 , and TF30-P109 Engines`` by Battelle are reviewed and compared. Specifically CO, NO{sub x}, and VOC emission factors using EPA Method 19 are addressed, with comparisons between JP-4 and JP-8 jet fuels. CO and NO{sub x} emissions for JP-4 and JP-8 jet fuels were found to be essentially the same. VOC emission data exhibited high variability. Problems inherent in speciated VOC emission testing are discussed. A limiting of speciated VOC emission testing, with emission factor estimation based on fuel content is proposed.

  5. Impact of emission controls on air quality in Beijing during APEC 2014: lidar ceilometer observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, G.; Zhu, X.; Hu, B.; Xin, J.; Wang, L.; Münkel, C.; Mao, G.; Wang, Y.

    2015-11-01

    The implementation of emission reductions during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit provides a valuable opportunity to study air pollution in Beijing. From 15 October to 30 November 2014, the height of the atmospheric mixing layer and the vertical attenuated backscattering coefficient profiles were observed online using a~lidar ceilometer. Compared with fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) data, the attenuated backscattering coefficients measured by the lidar ceilometer were strongly correlated with the PM2.5 concentration and AOD (correlation coefficients of 0.89 and 0.86, respectively). This result demonstrated the reliability of the vertical distribution of particles measured by the lidar ceilometer. By classifying different degrees of air pollution based on visibility, we found that during the transition period of air pollution, which was affected by transport of southerly flows in the mixing layer, the attenuated backscattering coefficient from 0 to 1500 m was enhanced by approximately 1.4 Mm-1 sr-1 (140 %). During the polluted period, the attenuated backscattering coefficient from 0 to 300 m suddenly increased, and the coefficient near the surface peaked (approximately 14 Mm-1 sr-1); however, the attenuated backscattering coefficient from 300 to 900 m decreased gradually, and the average value from 0 to 1500 m decreased by 0.5 Mm-1sr-1 (20 %). The height of the mixing layer gradually decreased, and the ratio of CO / SO2 gradually increased, which indicate that the polluted period was dominated by local contribution. Due to the emission reductions during APEC (DAPEC), the concentration of PM2.5 decreased by 59.2 and 58.9 % and visibility improved by 70.2 and 56.0 % compared to before (BAPEC) and after APEC (AAPEC), respectively. The contribution of regional transport in DAPEC decreased by approximately 36 and 25 %, and the local contribution decreased by approximately 48 and 54 % compared to BAPEC and AAPEC

  6. Results of acoustic emission tests on Halon fire bottles

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, A.G.; Shurtleff, W.W.

    1996-10-01

    An acoustic emission tester for aircraft Halon bottles has been developed. The necessary load is applied by heating the bottles. Acoustic emission is monitored during the heating by six sensors held in position by a special fixture. This fixture was designed to fit spheres with diameters between 5 and 16 inches. A prototype has been undergoing testing in two commercial Halon bottle repair and test facilities. Results to date indicate that about 97 percent of the bottles tested show no indications of any flaws. The other three percent have had indications of flaws in non-critical areas of the bottles. All bottles tested to date have passed the hydrostatic test required by the Department of Transportation (DOT).

  7. Mercury emission trend influenced by stringent air pollutants regulation for coal-fired power plants in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudasainee, Deepak; Kim, Jeong-Hun; Seo, Yong-Chil

    2009-12-01

    Regulatory control of mercury emission from anthropogenic sources has become a global concern in the recent past. Coal-fired power plants are one of the largest sources of anthropogenic mercury emission into the atmosphere. This paper summarizes the current reducing trend of mercury emission as co-beneficial effect by more stringent regulation changes to control primary air pollutants with introducing test results from the commercial coal-fired facilities and suggesting a guideline for future regulatory development in Korea. On average, mercury emission concentrations ranged 16.3-2.7 μg Sm -3, 2.4-1.1 μg Sm -3, 3.1-0.7 μg Sm -3 from anthracite coal-fired power plants equipped with electrostatic precipitator (ESP), bituminous coal-fired power plants with ESP + flue gas desulphurization (FGD) and bituminous coal-fired power plants with selective catalytic reactor (SCR) + cold side (CS) - ESP + wet FGD, respectively. Among the existing air pollution control devices, the best configuration for mercury removal in coal-fired power plants was SCR + CS - ESP + wet FGD, which were installed due to the stringent regulation changes to control primary air pollutants emission such as SO 2, NOx and dust. It was estimated that uncontrolled and controlled mercury emission from coal-fired power plants as 10.3 ton yr -1 and 3.2 ton yr -1 respectively. After the installation of ESP, FGD and SCR system, following the enforcement of the stringent regulation, 7.1 ton yr -1 of mercury emission has been reduced (nearly 69%) from coal-fired power plants as a co-benefit control. Based on the overall study, a sample guideline including emission limits were suggested which will be applied to develop a countermeasure for controlling mercury emission from coal-fired power plants.

  8. EDGAR_v4.3: a global air pollutant emission inventory from 1970 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippa, M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Guizzardi, D.; Muntean, M.; Schaaf, E.; Olivier, J. G.; Denier Van Der Gon, H.; Dentener, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) provides consistent gridded anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, precursor gases and aerosols from 1970 to 2010. Since EDGAR's first release in 1996 (EDGARv2), a continuous improvement and upgrade of the emission data resulted in a sequence of releases. Here we present EDGAR_v4.3 (2014), which features new information on emission factors and an extension to 2009-2010 data compared to EDGAR_v4.2. EDGAR_v4.2 was used in many inverse modeling studies in EU, US, Africa and Asia yielding regional refinement of emission factors and adjustments of technology penetration (e.g. coal mining, power plants) and proxy data for geospatial distribution (e.g. passenger car transport). We focus on SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, NH3, PM10, PM2.5, BC and OC emissions for the most recent year (2010), and compare them to two global inventories used in global modeling, as well as the regional inventories included in them. HTAP_v2 is a harmonized, global, gridded, emission database for 2010, developed for global and regional model tasks within the Task Force Hemispheric Transport Air pollution. It uses officially reported, gridded national inventories, complemented with science based data, partly gap-filled with EDGAR. However, since HTAP_v2 is relying on (sub-)national statistics, it may not be as consistent across countries and regions, as a globally calculated inventory using international statistics and global geospatial distributions. Another available global inventory is MACCity, covering the years 1980-2010. We compare EDGAR_v4.3 with HTAP_v2 and MACCity in order to explain differences from national estimates and address emission inventory uncertainties, indicating weaknesses and strengths of these databases. We present the geospatial distribution of emissions at 0.1x0.1 degree resolution, comparing the contribution of developing and emerging countries with industrialized regions, both as absolute and per capita data.

  9. Assessment of air pollutant emissions from brick kilns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajarathnam, Uma; Athalye, Vasudev; Ragavan, Santhosh; Maithel, Sameer; Lalchandani, Dheeraj; Kumar, Sonal; Baum, Ellen; Weyant, Cheryl; Bond, Tami

    2014-12-01

    India has more than 100,000 brick kilns producing around 250 billion bricks annually. Indian brick industry is often a small scale industry and third largest consumer of coal in the country. With the growing demand for building materials and characterised by lack of pollution control measures the brick industry has a potential to cause adverse effects on the environment. This paper presents assessment of five brick making technologies based on the measurements carried out at seventeen individual brick kilns. Emissions of PM, SO2, CO and CO2 were measured and these emissions were used to estimate the emission factors for comparing the emissions across different fuel or operating conditions. Estimated emission from brick kilns in South Asia are about 0.94 million tonnes of PM; 3.9 million tonnes of CO and 127 million tonnes of CO2 per year. Among various technologies that are widely used in India, Zig zag and vertical shaft brick kilns showed better performance in terms of emissions over the traditional fixed chimney Bull's trench kilns. This suggests that the replacement of traditional technologies with Zig zag, vertical shaft brick kilns or other cleaner kiln technologies will contribute towards improvements in the environmental performance of brick kiln industry in the country. Zig zag kilns appear to be the logical replacement because of low capital investment, easy integration with the existing production process, and the possibility of retrofitting fixed chimney Bull's trench kilns into Zig zag firing.

  10. International trade and air pollution: estimating the economic costs of air emissions from waterborne commerce vessels in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Kevin P

    2005-10-01

    Although there is a burgeoning literature on the effects of international trade on the environment, relatively little work has been done on where trade most directly effects the environment: the transportation sector. This article shows how international trade is affecting air pollution emissions in the United States' shipping sector. Recent work has shown that cargo ships have been long overlooked regarding their contribution to air pollution. Indeed, ship emissions have recently been deemed "the last unregulated source of traditional air pollutants". Air pollution from ships has a number of significant local, national, and global environmental effects. Building on past studies, we examine the economic costs of this increasing and unregulated form of environmental damage. We find that total emissions from ships are largely increasing due to the increase in foreign commerce (or international trade). The economic costs of SO2 pollution range from dollars 697 million to dollars 3.9 billion during the period examined, or dollars 77 to dollars 435 million on an annual basis. The bulk of the cost is from foreign commerce, where the annual costs average to dollars 42 to dollars 241 million. For NOx emissions the costs are dollars 3.7 billion over the entire period or dollars 412 million per year. Because foreign trade is driving the growth in US shipping, we also estimate the effect of the Uruguay Round on emissions. Separating out the effects of global trade agreements reveals that the trade agreement-led emissions amounted to dollars 96 to dollars 542 million for SO2 between 1993 and 2001, or dollars 10 to dollars 60 million per year. For NOx they were dollars 745 million for the whole period or dollars 82 million per year. Without adequate policy responses, we predict that these trends and costs will continue into the future.

  11. How big is big? How often is often? Characterizing Texas petroleum refining upset air emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Britney J.; Fischbeck, Paul S.; Gerard, David

    2010-11-01

    This work examines the magnitude and frequency of Texas petroleum refineries upset air emissions over a 44-month period. Upset emissions occur during plant start-ups, shut-downs, maintenance, malfunctions and flaring incidents, and these emissions are typically exempt from regulation. These emissions contain a variety of chemicals, including benzene, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and butadiene. Unlike other states, Texas has detailed reporting requirements, regulations in place, and an extensive upset emissions database. A key scientific and public policy question is whether upset emissions have significant impacts on local air quality and public health. However, it is not possible to address this question without first understanding the magnitude and properties of upsets. We merge related databases to examine over 3,900 upset emission events and find that upset emissions are significant in both size and occurrence when compared to routine operation emissions. It is determined that these events are not random, being more likely to occur during the summer, in the morning, and early in the workweek. A regional analysis of Port Arthur suggests that upset emissions from co-located refineries are equivalent to having an additional refinery within the region. Because of uncertainties within the reporting process and an obvious underestimation by some refineries, there is a need for better tracking of upset emissions.

  12. Projections of mid-century summer air-quality for North America: effects of changes in climate and precursor emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, J.; Makar, P. A.; Plummer, D. A.

    2012-06-01

    Ten year simulations of North American current and future air-quality were carried out using a regional air-quality model driven by a regional climate model, in turn driven by a general circulation model. Three separate summer scenarios were performed: a scenario representing the years 1997 to 2006, and two SRES A2 climate scenarios for the years 2041 to 2050. The first future climate scenario makes use of 2002 anthropogenic precursor emissions, and the second applied emissions scaling factors derived from the IPCC Representative Concentration Pathway 6 (RCP 6) scenario to estimate emissions for 2050 from existing 2020 projections. Ten-year averages of ozone and PM2.5 at North American monitoring network stations were used to evaluate the model's current chemical climatology. The model was found to have a similar performance for ozone as when driven by an operational weather forecast model. The PM2.5 predictions had larger negative biases, likely resulting from the absence of rainwater evaporation, and from sub-regional negative biases in the surface temperature fields, in the version of the climate model used here. The differences between the two future climate simulations and the current climate simulation were used to predict the changes to air-quality that might be expected in a future warmer climate, if anthropogenic precursor emissions remain constant at their current levels, versus if the RCP 6 emissions controls were adopted. Metrics of concentration, human health, and ecosystem damage were compared for the simulations. The scenario with future climate and current anthropogenic emissions resulted in worse air-quality than for current conditions - that is, the effect of climate-change alone, all other factors being similar, would be a worsening of air-quality. These effects are spatially inhomogeneous, with the magnitude and sign of the changes varying with region. The scenario with future climate and RCP 6 emissions for 2050 resulted in an improved air

  13. Projections of mid-century summer air-quality for North America: effects of changes in climate and precursor emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, J.; Makar, P. A.; Plummer, D. A.

    2012-02-01

    Ten year simulations of North American current and future air-quality were carried out using a regional air-quality model driven by a regional climate model, in turn driven by a general circulation model. Three separate summer scenarios were performed: a scenario representing the years 1997 to 2006, and two SRES A2 climate scenarios for the years 2041 to 2050. The first future climate scenario makes use of 2002 anthropogenic precursor emissions, and the second applied emissions scaling factors derived from the IPCC Representative Concentration Pathway 6 (RCP 6) scenario to estimate emissions for 2050 from existing 2020 projections. Ten-year averages of ozone and PM2.5 at North American monitoring network stations were used to evaluate the model's current chemical climatology. The model was found to have a similar performance for ozone as when driven by an operational weather forecast model. The PM2.5 predictions had larger negative biases, likely resulting from the absence of rainwater evaporation, and from sub-regional negative biases in the surface temperature fields, in the version of the climate model used here. The differences between the two future climate simulations and the current climate simulation were used to predict the changes to air-quality that might be expected in a future warmer climate, if anthropogenic precursor emissions remain constant at their current levels, versus if the RCP 6 emissions controls were adopted. Metrics of concentration, human health, and ecosystem damage were compared for the simulations. The scenario with future climate and current anthropogenic emissions resulted in worse air-quality than for current conditions - that is, the effect of climate-change alone, all other factors being similar, would be a worsening of air-quality. These effects are spatially inhomogeneous, with the magnitude and sign of the changes varying with region. The scenario with future climate and RCP 6 emissions for 2050 resulted in an improved air

  14. Respirable Crystalline Silica (RCS) emissions from industrial plants - Results from measurement programmes in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrlich, C.; Noll, G.; Wusterhausen, E.; Kalkoff, W.-D.; Remus, R.; Lehmann, C.

    2013-04-01

    Numerous research articles dealing with Respirable Crystalline Silica (RCS) in occupational health because epidemiological studies reveal an association between RCS-dust and the development of silicosis as well as an increased probability of developing lung cancer. Research activities about RCS in ambient air are known from US-measurements. However there is a lack of knowledge regarding RCS-emissions in several industrial sectors. Industrial sources of crystalline silica include construction, foundries, glass manufacturing, abrasive blasting or any industrial or commercial use of silica sand, and mining and rock crushing operations. This paper describes a RCS-emission measurement method for stack gases and report results from the German RCS-emission measurement programmes which were used to identify installations and types of industries with the highest concentration levels of RCS in stack gases. A two-stage cascade impactor was used for the measurements which separate particles into the following size fractions: >10 μm, 10-4 μm und <4 μm of aerodynamic diameter. The measurements were carried out according to international sampling standards. The size of crystalline silica particles of most concern are those respirable particles that are smaller than four microns (millionths of a metre), also called particulate matter 4 (PM4). The analytical procedure of determining crystalline silica in emission samples (in the fraction below 4 μm) consists of using x-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy methods which are the same methods as used in the field of occupational health. A total of 37 emission measurement campaigns were assessed (112 RCS-samples in nine industrial sectors). The investigated plants are located in different German states such as Bavaria, North Rhine Westphalia, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Rhineland-Palatinate and Saxony-Anhalt. The results of the measurements show that most of the investigated plants can achieve compliance with the newly developed

  15. SWCX Emission from the Helium Focusing Cone - Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowden, S. L.; Kuntz, K. D.; Collier, M. R.

    2008-01-01

    Preliminary results from an XMM-Newton campaign to study solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission from the heliospheric focusing cone of interstellar helium are presented. The detections of enhanced O VII and O VIII emission from the cone are at the 2(sigma) and 4(sigma) levels. The solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission in the heliosphere not associated with distinct objects (e.g., comets and planets including exospheric material in and near Earth s magnetosheath) is proportional to the flux of the solar wind and the space density of neutral material. The neutral material originates in the interstellar medium (ISM) and passes through the solar system due to the relative motion of the Sun and the ISM. The flow of the neutral material through the solar system is strongly perturbed by the Sun both by gravity and by radiation pressure. Because of the relative radiative scattering cross sections and the effect of solar gravitation the density of interstellar hydrogen near the Sun is reduced while interstellar helium is gravitationally focused. This creates a helium focusing cone downstream of the Sun [e.g., 1, and references therein].

  16. Review of the efficacy of low emission zones to improve urban air quality in European cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holman, Claire; Harrison, Roy; Querol, Xavier

    2015-06-01

    Many cities still exceed the European Union (EU) air quality limit values for particulate matter (PM10, particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm) and/or nitrogen dioxide (NO2). In an attempt to reduce emissions approximately 200 low emission zones (LEZs) have been established in 12 EU countries. These restrict the entry of vehicles based on the emission standard the vehicles were originally constructed to meet, but the restrictions vary considerably. This paper reviews the evidence on the efficacy of LEZs to improve urban air quality in five EU countries (Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Italy and UK), and concludes that there have been mixed results. There is some evidence from ambient measurements that LEZs in Germany, which restrict passenger cars as well as heavy duty vehicles (HDVs), have reduced long term average PM10 and NO2 concentrations by a few percent. Elsewhere, where restrictions are limited to HDVs, the picture is much less clear. This may be due to the large number of confounding factors. On the other hand there is some, albeit limited, evidence that LEZs may result in larger reductions in concentrations of carbonaceous particles, due to traffic making a larger contribution to ambient concentrations of these particles than to PM10 and PM2.5. The effects of day to day variations in meteorology on concentrations often mask more subtle effects of a LEZ. In addition, separating the direct effects of a LEZ from the effects of other policy measures, the economy and the normal renewal of the vehicle fleet is not easy, and may give rise to false results.

  17. Measurements of air pollution emission factors for marine transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alföldy, B.; Balzani Lööv, J.; Lagler, F.; Mellqvist, J.; Berg, N.; Beecken, J.; Weststrate, H.; Duyzer, J.; Bencs, L.; Horemans, B.; Cavalli, F.; Putaud, J.-P.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Pintér Csordás, A.; Van Grieken, R.; Borowiak, A.; Hjorth, J.

    2012-12-01

    The chemical composition of the plumes of seagoing ships was investigated during a two weeks long measurement campaign in the port of Rotterdam, Hoek van Holland, The Netherlands, in September 2009. Altogether, 497 ships were monitored and a statistical evaluation of emission factors (g kg-1 fuel) was provided. The concerned main atmospheric components were SO2, NO2, NOx and the aerosol particle number. In addition, the elemental and water-soluble ionic composition of the emitted particulate matter was determined. Emission factors were expressed as a function of ship type, power and crankshaft rotational speed. The average SO2 emission factor was found to be roughly half of what is allowed in sulphur emission control areas (16 vs. 30 g kg-1 fuel), and exceedances of this limit were rarely registered. A significant linear relationship was observed between the SO2 and particle number emission factor. The intercept of the regression line, 0.5 × 1016 (kg fuel)-1, gives the average number of particles formed during the burning of 1 kg zero sulphur content fuel, while the slope, 2 × 1018, provides the average number of particles formed with 1 kg sulphur burnt with the fuel. Water-soluble ionic composition analysis of the aerosol samples from the plumes showed that ~144 g of particulate sulphate was emitted from 1 kg sulphur burnt with the fuel. The mass median diameter of sulphate particles estimated from the measurements was ~42 nm.

  18. Swozzle based burner tube premixer including inlet air conditioner for low emissions combustion

    DOEpatents

    Tuthill, Richard Sterling; Bechtel, II, William Theodore; Benoit, Jeffrey Arthur; Black, Stephen Hugh; Bland, Robert James; DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne; Meyer, Stefan Martin; Taura, Joseph Charles; Battaglioli, John Luigi

    2002-01-01

    A burner for use in a combustion system of a heavy-duty industrial gas turbine includes a fuel/air premixer having an air inlet, a fuel inlet, and an annular mixing passage. The fuel/air premixer mixes fuel and air into a uniform mixture for injection into a combustor reaction zone. The burner also includes an inlet flow conditioner disposed at the air inlet of the fuel/air premixer for controlling a radial and circumferential distribution of incoming air. The pattern of perforations in the inlet flow conditioner is designed such that a uniform air flow distribution is produced at the swirler inlet annulus in both the radial and circumference directions. The premixer includes a swozzle assembly having a series of preferably air foil shaped turning vanes that impart swirl to the airflow entering via the inlet flow conditioner. Each air foil contains internal fuel flow passages that introduce natural gas fuel into the air stream via fuel metering holes that pass through the walls of the air foil shaped turning vanes. By injecting fuel in this manner, an aerodynamically clean flow field is maintained throughout the premixer. By injecting fuel via two separate passages, the fuel/air mixture strength distribution can be controlled in the radial direction to obtain optimum radial concentration profiles for control of emissions, lean blow outs, and combustion driven dynamic pressure activity as machine and combustor load are varied.

  19. Microbial community analysis in biotrickling filters treating isopropanol air emissions.

    PubMed

    Pérez, M Carmen; Alvarez-Hornos, F Javier; San-Valero, Pau; Marzal, Paula; Gabaldón, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of the microbial community was analysed over one year in two biotrickling filters operating under intermittent feeding conditions and treating isopropanol emissions, a pollutant typically found in the flexography sector. Each reactor was packed with one media: plastic cross-flow-structured material or polypropylene rings. The communities were monitored by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the 16S rRNA region. After inoculation with activated sludge, the biotrickling filters were operated using inlet loads (ILs) from 20 to 65 g C m(-3) h(-1) and empty-bed residence times (EBRTs) from 14 to 160 s. Removal efficiencies higher than 80% were obtained with ILs up to 35 g C m(-3) h(-1) working at EBRTs as low as 24 s. There was an increase in the total percentage of the target domains of up to around 80% at the end of the experiment. Specifically, the Gammaproteobacteria domain group, which includes the well-known volatile organic compound (VOC)-degrading species such as Pseudomonas putida, showed a noticeable rise in the two biotrickling filters of 26% and 27%, respectively. DGGE pattern band analysis revealed a stable band of Pseudomonas putida in all the samples monitored, even in the lower diversity communities. In addition, at similar operational conditions, the biotrickling filter with a greater relative abundance of Pseudomonas sp. (19.2% vs. 8%) showed higher removal efficiency (90% vs. 79%). Results indicate the importance of undertaking a further in-depth study of the involved species in the biofiltration process and their specific function.

  20. Between-airport heterogeneity in air toxics emissions associated with individual cancer risk thresholds and population risks

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Airports represent a complex source type of increasing importance contributing to air toxics risks. Comprehensive atmospheric dispersion models are beyond the scope of many applications, so it would be valuable to rapidly but accurately characterize the risk-relevant exposure implications of emissions at an airport. Methods In this study, we apply a high resolution atmospheric dispersion model (AERMOD) to 32 airports across the United States, focusing on benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and benzo [a]pyrene. We estimate the emission rates required at these airports to exceed a 10-6 lifetime cancer risk for the maximally exposed individual (emission thresholds) and estimate the total population risk at these emission rates. Results The emission thresholds vary by two orders of magnitude across airports, with variability predicted by proximity of populations to the airport and mixing height (R2 = 0.74–0.75 across pollutants). At these emission thresholds, the population risk within 50 km of the airport varies by two orders of magnitude across airports, driven by substantial heterogeneity in total population exposure per unit emissions that is related to population density and uncorrelated with emission thresholds. Conclusion Our findings indicate that site characteristics can be used to accurately predict maximum individual risk and total population risk at a given level of emissions, but that optimizing on one endpoint will be non-optimal for the other. PMID:19426510

  1. Marine Sciences Laboratory Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew

    2015-05-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) has oversight and stewardship duties associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) located on Battelle Land – Sequim.This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.'' The EDE to the MSL MEI due to routine operations in 2014 was 9E-05 mrem (9E-07 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2014. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  2. Marine Sciences Laboratory Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) has oversight and stewardship duties associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) located on Battelle Land – Sequim (Sequim). This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.” The EDE to the Sequim MEI due to routine operations in 2013 was 5E-05 mrem (5E-07 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2013. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  3. Quantifying architectural painting VOC air emissions - a methodology with estimates and forecasts

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S.P.; Rubick, C.

    1996-12-31

    Architectural coatings (referred to as paints), with the thinners/reducers and cleanup solvents used during their application, contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which are precursors to ground level ozone formation. Some of these paint compounds create hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) which are toxic. The nationally recommended emission factor (EF) of 4.6 lbs/year per capita is based on data from the 1970s. This paper documents the methodologies and the National Paint & Coatings Association sets used to develop revised per capita emissions factors (e.g. 3.6 lbs/year per capita for 1993) for estimating and forecasting the VOC air emissions from the area source category of architectural coatings. Emissions estimates, forecasts, trends and reasons for these trends are presented. Future emissions inventory (EI) challenges are addressed in light of data availability, information networks and the proposed category of Architectural and Industrial Maintenance (AIM) coatings.

  4. Strategies for emission reduction of air pollutants produced from a chemical plant.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byeong-Kyu; Cho, Sung-Woong

    2003-01-01

    Various air pollution control (APC) techniques were employed in order to reduce emissions of air pollutants produced from chemical plants, which have many different chemical production facilities. For an emission reduction of acid gases, this study employed a method to improve solubility of pollutants by decreasing the operating temperature of the scrubbers, increasing the surface area for effective contact of gas and liquid, and modifying processes in the acid scrubbers. To reduce emission of both amines and acid gases, pollutant gas components were first separated, then condensation and/or acid scrubbing, depending on the chemical and physical properties of pollutant components, were used. To reduce emission of solvents, condensation and activated carbon adsorption were employed. To reduce emission of a mixture gases containing acid gases and solvents, the mixed gases were passed into the first condenser, the acid scrubber, the second condenser, and the activated carbon adsorption tower in sequence. As a strategy to reduce emission of pollutants at the source, this study also employed the simple pollution prevention concept of modification of the previously operating APC control device. Finally, air emissions of pollutants produced from the chemical plants were much more reduced by applying proper APC methods, depending upon the types (physical or chemical properties) and the specific emission situations of pollutants. PMID:12447574

  5. Radio emission from magnetic exoplanets: GMRT observations and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majid, W.; Winterhalter, D.; Kuiper, T.; Lazio, J.

    2011-10-01

    Massive extrasolar planets are expected to emit, in analogy with Jupiter and Saturn, detectable radio emission at low frequencies. We have carried out a series of observations of known extrasolar planetary systems at 150 MHz with the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) in both interferometric and phased array modes. We will describe our observing campaign, target list, and preliminary results from studies of dynamic spectra. As low frequency observations are plagued with RFI, we will focus on observing strategies and analysis techniques to minimize, identify and remove RFI effects from dynamic spectra. We will also briefly discuss prospects for similar searches with future instruments such as LOFAR, the LWA, and the SKA instruments.

  6. Assessment of the impact of emissions reductions on air quality over North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen

    2016-04-01

    The production rate of secondary pollutants was highly non-linear with the emission intensity of their precursors. In this study, the air quality modeling system RAMS-CMAQ with zero-out sensitivity test was applied to conduct source sensitivity approaches of PM2.5 for four source categories (industry, power plants, transport, and residential) over the North China Plain (NCP) in January and July of 2013. The results show that the residential and industry emission sector were the greatest contributors to domain-wide PM2.5 in January and July, respectively. The largest variation could exceed 200 μg m-3 attributed to the residential sector in January when a heavy pollution period appeared, and could reach 40-60 μg m-3 attributed to the industry sector in July in the heavy pollution area, respectively. The nonlinear relationship between the secondary pollutant formation and its precursors was reflected by this source sensitivity approaches, as the summation of the secondary pollutant variations attributed to the four sources was obviously different from the simulated baseline concentration and the mass burden of nitrate would increase upon removal of the power plants or transport emission sector in the heavy pollution regions in January. Further analysis indicated that the improvement of atmospheric oxidation capacity due to emission sector removal coupled with the sufficient precursor nitrogen oxide under severe pollution background should be the main reason of the negative variation of nitrate appeared in the sensitivity test. This feature indicates that the atmospheric oxidation capacity is an important impact factor in determining the production rate of nitrate formation, and could further influence the variation feature of PM2.5 mass burden during the pollution episode. Thus, it is suggested that the comprehensive pollution control strategies should be implemented based on the specific pollution condition. Additionally, the nonlinearity of secondary pollutants

  7. Energy-Efficiency and Air-Pollutant Emissions-Reduction Opportunities for the Ammonia Industry in China

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Ding; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Chen, Wenying

    2015-06-01

    As one of the most energy-intensive and polluting industries, ammonia production is responsible for significant carbon dioxide (CO2) and air-pollutant emissions. Although many energy-efficiency measures have been proposed by the Chinese government to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality, lack of understanding of the cost-effectiveness of such improvements has been a barrier to implementing these measures. Assessing the costs, benefits, and cost-effectiveness of different energy-efficiency measures is essential to advancing this understanding. In this study, a bottom-up energy conservation supply curve model is developed to estimate the potential for energy savings and emissions reductions from 26 energy-efficiency measures that could be applied in China’s ammonia industry. Cost-effective implementation of these measures saves a potential 271.5 petajoules/year for fuel and 5,443 gigawatt-hours/year for electricity, equal to 14% of fuel and 14% of electricity consumed in China’s ammonia industry in 2012. These reductions could mitigate 26.7 million tonnes of CO2 emissions. This study also quantifies the co-benefits of reducing air-pollutant emissions and water use that would result from saving energy in China’s ammonia industry. This quantitative analysis advances our understanding of the cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures and can be used to augment efforts to reduce energy use and environmental impacts.

  8. 40 CFR 49.138 - Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 10 § 49.138 Rule for the registration of air pollution sources and the reporting of emissions. (a... maintain a current and accurate record of air pollution sources and their emissions within the Indian... part 71 source or an air pollution source that is subject to a standard established under section...

  9. Texas refinery air pollution emissions are being severely underestimated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2014-06-01

    The Houston-Galveston-Brazoria region of southeastern Texas is home to heavy industrial investment in oil refining and petrochemical production. Pollutants emanating from the factories and refineries have repeatedly caused the region to fail national and state-level tests for air quality and ground-level ozone.

  10. NMVOCs speciated emissions from mobile sources and their effect on air quality and human health in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angiola, Ariela; Dawidowski, Laura; Gomez, Dario; Granier, Claire

    2014-05-01

    gasoline and diesel vehicles and the USEPA SPECIATE (Simon et al., 2010) profile for CNG vehicles. NMVOCs emissions were composed of 31% aromatic compounds, 29% linear alkanes, 20% olefins, 12% ramified alkanes, 7% aldehydes and negligible contributions from cycloalkanes, ketones, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other NMVOCs. Aromatic compounds dominated gasoline light-duty vehicles' emissions (~45%), while linear alkanes those of CNG light-duty vehicles (~80%). Aldehydes' contributions increased for diesel light and heavy-duty vehicles. VOCs speciation schemes for transport emissions were collected from the literature from Europe, USA, Asia, Oceania and Latin America with the aim to account for the associated uncertainty by compound for each fuel and technology type. The resulting individual NMVOCs emissions were used to calculate the corresponding tropospheric ozone formation (Carter, 1994), as well as the human toxicity potential in terms of 1.4 dichlorobenzene. Olefins and aromatic compounds in terms of species, and gasoline in terms of fuels, were found to impose the highest risk in urban environments regarding air quality and human health.

  11. Radionuclide air emissions. Annual report for calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    A description is provided of radioactive effluent releases from the Pinellas Plant. The DOE sold the Pinellas Plant in March 1995. A portion of the plant was backed by DOE until September 1997 to facilitate a safe transition to commercial ventures.The plant`s radiological processing equipment was cleaned from past DOE operations. Emissions from the cleanup activity were monitored.

  12. [A comparative study on domestic and foreign emission standards of air pollutants for cement industry].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mei; Li, Xiao-Qian; Ji, Liang; Zou, Lan; Wei, Yu-Xia; Zhao, Guo-Hua; Che, Fei; Li, Gang; Zhang, Guo-Ning

    2014-12-01

    The new National Emission Standard of Air Pollutants for Cement Industry (GB 4915-2013) becomes effective on Mar. 1st, 2014. It will play an important role in pollution prevention, total emission reduction, structure adjustment, and layout optimization for cement industry. Based on the research of emission standard in China, U. S., EU and Japan, the similarities and differences in the pollutant projects, control indicators, limits and means of implementation were discussed and advice was proposed, with the purpose to provide a reference for revision of emission standard, and to improve the level of environmental management and pollution control.

  13. Method and apparatus for reducing cold-phase emissions by utilizing oxygen-enriched intake air

    DOEpatents

    Poola, Ramesh B.; Sekar, Ramanujam R.; Stork, Kevin C.

    1997-01-01

    An oxygen-enriched air intake control system for an internal combustion engine includes air directing apparatus to control the air flow into the intake of the engine. During normal operation of the engine, ambient air flowing from an air filter of the engine flows through the air directing apparatus into the intake of the engine. In order to decrease the amount of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions that tend to be produced by the engine during a short period of time after the engine is started, the air directing apparatus diverts for a short period of time following the start up of the engine at least a portion of the ambient air from the air filter through a secondary path. The secondary path includes a selectively permeable membrane through which the diverted portion of the ambient air flows. The selectively permeable membrane separates nitrogen and oxygen from the diverted air so that oxygen enriched air containing from about 23% to 25% oxygen by volume is supplied to the intake of the engine.

  14. Modelling the emissions from ships in ports and their impact on air quality in the metropolitan area of Hamburg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramacher, Martin; Karl, Matthias; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-04-01

    photochemistry. The model was applied to the Hamburg metropolitan area with a setup of 30 x 30 grid cells of 1 km² each and 30 vertical grid levels from 10 to 8,000 m, for a time period of one year. Emission inventories for traffic, industry, households and ships in 2013 were generated. To investigate the dispersion of ship emissions to air pollution two different model runs for 2013 were performed; one model run including land-based emissions and the ship emissions and a model run just including the land-based emissions. The modelling results were evaluated with air quality data from the monitoring station network of Hamburg (luft.hamburg.de). The results are presented in form of spatial distribution maps for the Hamburg metropolitan area highlighting the pollutants (PM and NOX) originating from harbor residential ships.

  15. Future emissions and atmospheric fate of HFC-1234yf from mobile air conditioners in Europe.

    PubMed

    Henne, Stephan; Shallcross, Dudley E; Reimann, Stefan; Xiao, Ping; Brunner, Dominik; O'Doherty, Simon; Buchmann, Brigitte

    2012-02-01

    HFC-1234yf (2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene) is under discussion for replacing HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) as a cooling agent in mobile air conditioners (MACs) in the European vehicle fleet. Some HFC-1234yf will be released into the atmosphere, where it is almost completely transformed to the persistent trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). Future emissions of HFC-1234yf after a complete conversion of the European vehicle fleet were assessed. Taking current day leakage rates and predicted vehicle numbers for the year 2020 into account, European total HFC-1234yf emissions from MACs were predicted to range between 11.0 and 19.2 Gg yr(-1). Resulting TFA deposition rates and rainwater concentrations over Europe were assessed with two Lagrangian chemistry transport models. Mean European summer-time TFA mixing ratios of about 0.15 ppt (high emission scenario) will surpass previously measured levels in background air in Germany and Switzerland by more than a factor of 10. Mean deposition rates (wet + dry) of TFA were estimated to be 0.65-0.76 kg km(-2) yr(-1), with a maxium of ∼2.0 kg km(-2) yr(-1) occurring in Northern Italy. About 30-40% of the European HFC-1234yf emissions were deposited as TFA within Europe, while the remaining fraction was exported toward the Atlantic Ocean, Central Asia, Northern, and Tropical Africa. Largest annual mean TFA concentrations in rainwater were simulated over the Mediterranean and Northern Africa, reaching up to 2500 ng L(-1), while maxima over the continent of about 2000 ng L(-1) occurred in the Czech Republic and Southern Germany. These highest annual mean concentrations are at least 60 times lower than previously determined to be a safe level for the most sensitive aquatic life-forms. Rainwater concentrations during individual rain events would still be 1 order of magnitude lower than the no effect level. To verify these results future occasional sampling of TFA in the atmospheric environment should be considered. If future HFC-1234yf

  16. Air toxic emissions from the combustion of coal: Identifying and quantifying hazardous air pollutants from US coals

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1992-09-01

    This report addresses the key air toxic emissions likely to emanate from continued and expanded use of domestic coal. It identifies and quantifies those trace elements specified in the US 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, by tabulating selected characterization data on various source coals by region, state, and rank. On the basis of measurements by various researchers, this report also identifies those organic compounds likely to be derived from the coal combustion process (although their formation is highly dependent on specific boiler configurations and operating conditions).

  17. Air quality in postunification Erfurt, East Germany: associating changes in pollutant concentrations with changes in emissions.

    PubMed Central

    Ebelt, S; Brauer, M; Cyrys, J; Tuch, T; Kreyling, W G; Wichmann, H E; Heinrich, J

    2001-01-01

    The unification of East and West Germany in 1990 resulted in sharp decreases in emissions of major air pollutants. This change in air quality has provided an opportunity for a natural experiment to evaluate the health impacts of air pollution. We evaluated airborne particle size distribution and gaseous co-pollutant data collected in Erfurt, Germany, throughout the 1990s and assessed the extent to which the observed changes are associated with changes in the two major emission sources: coal burning for power production and residential heating, and motor vehicles. Continuous data for sulfur dioxide, total suspended particulates (TSP), nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and meteorologic parameters were available for 1990-1999, and size-selective particle number and mass concentration measurements were made during winters of 1991 and 1998. We used hourly profiles of pollutants and linear regression analyses, stratified by year, weekday/weekend, and hour, using NO and SO(2) as markers of traffic- and heating-related combustion sources, respectively, to study the patterns of various particle size fractions. Supplementary data on traffic and heating-related sources were gathered to support hypotheses linking these sources with observed changes in ambient air pollution levels. Substantially decreased (19-91%) concentrations were observed for all pollutants, with the exception of particles in the 0.01-0.03 microm size range (representing the smallest ultrafine particles that were measured). The number concentration for these particles increased by 115% between 1991 and 1998. The ratio of these ultrafine particles to TSP also increased by more than 500%, indicating a dramatic change in the size distribution of airborne particles. Analysis of hourly concentration patterns indicated that in 1991, concentrations of SO(2) and larger particle sizes were related to residential heating with coal. These peaks were no longer evident in 1998 due to decreases in coal consumption and

  18. Decadal trends in fossil fuel energy consumption and related air pollutant emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekar Reddy, M.; Venkataraman, C.; Boucher, O.

    2003-04-01

    The economic liberalization in the early 1990s in India fuelled the industrial production, enabled the decadal annual average rate of 5.9% in the gross domestic product (GDP) during 1990-2000. This resulted in a steady increase of fossil fuels energy consumption throughout the decade. This paper investigates the trends in the GDP growth rate, sectoral fossil fuels consumption and resultant atmospheric air pollutant emissions during the above period. The fossil fuels energy consumption in the 1990 was 6875 PJ, and increased to 10801 PJ in 2000, with a decadal annual average growth rate of 5.7%. Share of the coal and petroleum fuels are 52% and 35%, respectively during 2000. The relative share contribution of power, industrial, transport, and domestic sectors are 40%, 48%, 5% and 7%, respectively. The contribution of various sectors to fossil fuels energy consumption, and the relative distribution of the different fuels within each sector will be discussed. The annual sulfur dioxide (SO_2) and aerosols (particulate matter, black carbon, organic carbon) emissions are estimated using sector and fuel specific average emission factors (mass of pollutant per unit mass of fuel burnt). The estimates take into account the changes in the fuel characteristics and technology during the study period. The estimated SO_2 emissions are 1.7 Tg S yr-1 in 1990 and increased to 2.5 Tg S yr-1 in 2000, with an annual average increase of 5%. Majority of the SO_2 emissions are from coal consumption accounting 62%, predominantly from the power plants. Trends in fuel and sectoral contributions to SO2 emissions over the decade will be presented. In the transportation sector, diesels contribute significantly to BC. Notably, in India, two-stroke engines account for 78% of total vehicle fleet, and contribute significantly to organic carbon emissions. An analysis of available SO_2 and aerosols concentration measurements will be made to explore the possible correlations between trends in the

  19. [Impact of heavy-duty diesel vehicles on air quality and control of their emissions].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei; Wang, Bo-Guang; Tang, Da-Gang

    2011-08-01

    Through an analysis of the characteristics of diesel vehicle emissions and motor vehicle emissions inventories, this paper examines the impact of heavy-duty diesel vehicles on air quality in China as well as issues related to the control of their emissions. Heavy-duty diesel vehicles emit large amounts of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. Nitrogen oxides is one of the important precursors for the formation of secondary particles and ozone in the atmosphere, causing regional haze. Diesel particulate matter is a major toxic air pollutant with adverse effect on human health, and in particular, the ultrafine particles in 30-100 nm size range can pose great health risks because of its extremely small sizes. Motor vehicles have become a major source of air pollution in many metropolitan areas and city cluster in China, and among them the heavy-duty diesel vehicles are a dominant contributor of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter emissions. Hence, controlling heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions should be a key component of an effective air quality management plan, and a number of issues related to heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions need to be addressed.

  20. Various Perspectives of Mitigating Fossil Fuel Use and Air Pollutant Emissions in China's Megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.

    2014-12-01

    It is critical to reduce energy use and air pollutions in metropolitan areas because these areas usually serve as economic engines and have large, dense populations. Fossil fuel use and air-polluting emissions were analyzed in Beijing between 1997 and 2010 from both a bottom-up and a top-down perspective. From a bottom-up perspective, the key energy-intensive industrial sectors directly caused changes in Beijing's air pollution by means of a series of energy and economic policies. From a top-down perspective, variation in industrial production caused increases in most emissions between 2000 and 2010, however, there were decreases in PM10 and PM2.5 emissions during 2005-2010. Population growth was found to be the largest driver of energy consumption and emissions between1997 and 2010. Energy use and air pollutant emissions were also found to outsource from Beijing to other regions in China. Policies for reducing urban energy consumption and emissions should consider not only the key industrial sectors but also socioeconomic drivers.